Science.gov

Sample records for active rwh systems

  1. Establishment of sustainable water supply system in small islands through rainwater harvesting (RWH): case study of Guja-do.

    PubMed

    Han, Mooyoung; Ki, Jaehong

    2010-01-01

    Many islands in Korea have problems related to water source security and supply. In particular, the water supply condition is worse in small islands which are remote from the mainland. A couple of alternatives are developed and suggested to supply water to islands including water hauling, groundwater extraction, and desalination. However, these alternatives require much energy, cost, and concern in installation and operation. Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable option that supplies water with low energy and cost. However, lack of practical or comprehensive studies on rainwater harvesting systems in these regions hinders the promotion of the system. Therefore, this research examines defects of current RWH systems on an existing island, Guja-do, and provides technical suggestions in quantitative and qualitative aspects. A simple system design modification and expansion of system capacity using empty space such as a wharf structure can satisfy both the qualitative and the quantitative water demand of the island. Since rainwater harvesting is estimated to be a feasible water supply option under the Korean climate, which is an unfavorable condition for rainwater harvesting, implies a high potential applicability of rainwater harvesting technology to other regions over the world suffering from water shortage.

  2. Comment on “An unconfined groundwater model of the Death Valley Regional Flow System and a comparison to its confined predecessor” by R.W.H. Carroll, G.M. Pohll and R.L. Hershey [Journal of Hydrology 373/3-4, pp. 316-328

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Provost, Alden M.; Hill, Mary C.; Belcher, Wayne R.

    2011-02-01

    SummaryCarroll et al. (2009) state that the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model, which is based on MODFLOW, is "conceptually inaccurate in that it models an unconfined aquifer as a confined system and does not simulate unconfined drawdown in transient pumping simulations." Carroll et al. (2009) claim that "more realistic estimates of water availability" can be produced by a SURFACT-based model of the DVRFS that simulates unconfined groundwater flow and limits withdrawals from wells to avoid excessive drawdown. Differences in results from the original MODFLOW-based model and the SURFACT-based model stem primarily from application by Carroll et al. (2009) of head limits that can also be applied using the existing MODLOW model and not from any substantial difference in the accuracy with which the unconfined aquifer is represented in the two models. In a hypothetical 50-year predictive simulation presented by Carroll et al. (2009), large differences between the models are shown when simulating pumping from the lower clastic confining unit, where the transmissivity is nearly two orders of magnitude less than in an alluvial aquifer. Yet even for this extreme example, drawdowns and pumping rates from the MODFLOW and SURFACT models are similar when the head-limit capabilities of the MODFLOW MNW Package are applied. These similarities persist despite possible discrepancies between assigned hydraulic properties. The resulting comparison between the MODFLOW and SURFACT models of the DVRFS suggests that approximating the unconfined system in the DVRFS as a constant-saturated-thickness system (called a "confined system" by Carroll et al., 2009) performs very well.

  3. Comment on “An unconfined groundwater model of the Death Valley Regional Flow System and a comparison to its confined predecessor” by R.W.H. Carroll, G.M. Pohll and R.L. Hershey [Journal of Hydrology 373/3–4, pp. 316–328

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Provost, Alden M.; Hill, Mary C.; Belcher, Wayne R.

    2011-01-01

    Carroll et al. (2009) state that the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model, which is based on MODFLOW, is “conceptually inaccurate in that it models an unconfined aquifer as a confined system and does not simulate unconfined drawdown in transient pumping simulations.” Carroll et al. (2009) claim that “more realistic estimates of water availability” can be produced by a SURFACT-based model of the DVRFS that simulates unconfined groundwater flow and limits withdrawals from wells to avoid excessive drawdown. Differences in results from the original MODFLOW-based model and the SURFACT-based model stem primarily from application by Carroll et al. (2009) of head limits that can also be applied using the existing MODLOW model and not from any substantial difference in the accuracy with which the unconfined aquifer is represented in the two models. In a hypothetical 50-year predictive simulation presented by Carroll et al. (2009), large differences between the models are shown when simulating pumping from the lower clastic confining unit, where the transmissivity is nearly two orders of magnitude less than in an alluvial aquifer. Yet even for this extreme example, drawdowns and pumping rates from the MODFLOW and SURFACT models are similar when the head-limit capabilities of the MODFLOW MNW Package are applied. These similarities persist despite possible discrepancies between assigned hydraulic properties. The resulting comparison between the MODFLOW and SURFACT models of the DVRFS suggests that approximating the unconfined system in the DVRFS as a constant-saturated-thickness system (called a “confined system” by Carroll et al., 2009) performs very well.

  4. A GIS-based decision support system for rainwater harvesting (RHADESS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Taigbenu, A. E.; Sejamoholo, B. B. P.; Lillie, E. S. B.; Boroto, R. J.

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is an unconventional water source that is increasingly adopted in South Africa. Its implementation is promoted by non-governmental organisations and government programmes to alleviate temporal and spatial water scarcity for domestic, crop and livestock production and support the overall water resources management. Unreliable water supply is one of the elements central to the poverty level of rural population. As the potential of RWH to improve water access for drinking and other basic human needs is still untapped, the technique will spread further in the coming decades. Studies on the hydrological impacts of RWH are focused on plot scale and very little is known about its impacts at catchment scale. To integrate RWH into the development and management of water resources in South Africa, there is a need to develop tools and methodologies that not only assist planners with the identification of areas suitable but also quantify the associated hydrological impacts of its wide scale adoption. This paper presents the rainwater harvesting decision support system (RHADESS) that was built to assist decision makers and stakeholders by indicating the suitability of RWH in any selected part of South Africa and quantifying the potential impacts associated with its adoption at catchment scale. RHADESS is GIS-based and uses ArcView 3.3 as a platform to assess the RWH suitability of any given area of South Africa. Results are thereafter exported into an Excel spreadsheet that contains the hydrological impact, as runoff reduction, of different levels of adoption of RWH assessed by using the Pitman model. The decision support system guides the implementation of the following RWH categories: Infield RWH and ex-field RWH and domestic RWH. RHADESS was tested in two selected quaternary catchments C52A and V13D located in the Upper Orange water management area and the Thukela water management area, respectively.

  5. Rainwater harvesting in the United States: a survey of common system practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in the United States vary in terms of design and operation. To better understand common practices in the RWH community and motivation for collecting harvested rainwater, an electronic survey was used to poll members of the American Rainwater Cat...

  6. Design and operational parameters of a rooftop rainwater harvesting system: definition, sensitivity and verification.

    PubMed

    Mun, J S; Han, M Y

    2012-01-01

    The appropriate design and evaluation of a rainwater harvesting (RWH) system is necessary to improve system performance and the stability of the water supply. The main design parameters (DPs) of an RWH system are rainfall, catchment area, collection efficiency, tank volume and water demand. Its operational parameters (OPs) include rainwater use efficiency (RUE), water saving efficiency (WSE) and cycle number (CN). The sensitivity analysis of a rooftop RWH system's DPs to its OPs reveals that the ratio of tank volume to catchment area (V/A) for an RWH system in Seoul, South Korea is recommended between 0.03 and 0.08 in terms of rate of change in RUE. The appropriate design value of V/A is varied with D/A. The extra tank volume up to V/A of 0.15∼0.2 is also available, if necessary to secure more water. Accordingly, we should figure out suitable value or range of DPs based on the sensitivity analysis to optimize design of an RWH system or improve operation efficiency. The operational data employed in this study, which was carried out to validate the design and evaluation method of an RWH system, were obtained from the system in use at a dormitory complex at Seoul National University (SNU) in Korea. The results of these operational data are in good agreement with those used in the initial simulation. The proposed method and the results of this research will be useful in evaluating and comparing the performance of RWH systems. It is found that RUE can be increased by expanding the variety of rainwater uses, particularly in the high rainfall season.

  7. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  8. Performance of a large building rainwater harvesting system.

    PubMed

    Ward, S; Memon, F A; Butler, D

    2012-10-15

    Rainwater harvesting is increasingly becoming an integral part of the sustainable water management toolkit. Despite a plethora of studies modelling the feasibility of the utilisation of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in particular contexts, there remains a significant gap in knowledge in relation to detailed empirical assessments of performance. Domestic systems have been investigated to a limited degree in the literature, including in the UK, but there are few recent longitudinal studies of larger non-domestic systems. Additionally, there are few studies comparing estimated and actual performance. This paper presents the results of a longitudinal empirical performance assessment of a non-domestic RWH system located in an office building in the UK. Furthermore, it compares actual performance with the estimated performance based on two methods recommended by the British Standards Institute - the Intermediate (simple calculations) and Detailed (simulation-based) Approaches. Results highlight that the average measured water saving efficiency (amount of mains water saved) of the office-based RWH system was 87% across an 8-month period, due to the system being over-sized for the actual occupancy level. Consequently, a similar level of performance could have been achieved using a smaller-sized tank. Estimated cost savings resulted in capital payback periods of 11 and 6 years for the actual over-sized tank and the smaller optimised tank, respectively. However, more detailed cost data on maintenance and operation is required to perform whole life cost analyses. These findings indicate that office-scale RWH systems potentially offer significant water and cost savings. They also emphasise the importance of monitoring data and that a transition to the use of Detailed Approaches (particularly in the UK) is required to (a) minimise over-sizing of storage tanks and (b) build confidence in RWH system performance.

  9. Generalized storage-reliability-yield relationships for rainwater harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, L. S.; Vogel, R. M.

    2014-07-01

    Sizing storage for rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems is often a difficult design consideration, as the system must be designed specifically for the local rainfall pattern. We introduce a generally applicable method for estimating the required storage by using regional regression equations to account for climatic differences in the behavior of RWH systems across the entire continental United States. A series of simulations for 231 locations with continuous daily precipitation records enable the development of storage-reliability-yield (SRY) relations at four useful reliabilities, 0.8, 0.9, 0.95, and 0.98. Multivariate, log-linear regression results in storage equations that include demand, collection area and local precipitation statistics. The continental regression equations demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit (R2 0.96-0.99) using only two precipitation parameters, and fits improved when three geographic regions with more homogeneous rainfall characteristics were considered. The SRY models can be used to obtain a preliminary estimate of how large to build a storage tank almost anywhere in the United States based on desired yield and reliability, collection area, and local rainfall statistics. Our methodology could be extended to other regions of world, and the equations presented herein could be used to investigate how RWH systems would respond to changes in climatic variability. The resulting model may also prove useful in regional planning studies to evaluate the net benefits which result from the broad use of RWH to meet water supply requirements. We outline numerous other possible extensions to our work, which when taken together, illustrate the value of our initial generalized SRY model for RWH systems.

  10. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  11. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  12. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  13. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  14. European Neutron Activation System.

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  15. Physiologic activities of the contact activation system.

    PubMed

    Schmaier, Alvin H

    2014-05-01

    The plasma contact activation (CAS) and kallikrein/kinin (KKS) systems consist of 4 proteins: factor XII, prekallikrein, high molecular weight kininogen, and the bradykinin B2 receptor. Murine genetic deletion of factor XII (F12(-/-)), prekallikrein (Klkb1(-/-)), high molecular weight kininogen (Kgn1(-/-)) and the bradykinin B2 receptor (Bdkrb2(-/-)) yield animals protected from thrombosis. With possible exception of F12(-/-) and Kgn1(-/-) mice, the mechanism(s) for thrombosis protection is not reduced contact activation. Bdkrb2(-/-) mice are best characterized and they are protected from thrombosis through over expression of components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) leading to elevated prostacyclin with vascular and platelet inhibition. Alternatively, prolylcarboxypeptidase, a PK activator and degrader of angiotensin II, when deficient in the mouse leads to a prothrombotic state. Its mechanism for increased thrombosis also is mediated in part by components of the RAS. These observations suggest that thrombosis in mice of the CAS and KKS are mediated in part through the RAS and independent of reduced contact activation. PMID:24759141

  16. A rainwater harvesting system reliability model based on nonparametric stochastic rainfall generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basinger, Matt; Montalto, Franco; Lall, Upmanu

    2010-10-01

    SummaryThe reliability with which harvested rainwater can be used as a means of flushing toilets, irrigating gardens, and topping off air-conditioner serving multifamily residential buildings in New York City is assessed using a new rainwater harvesting (RWH) system reliability model. Although demonstrated with a specific case study, the model is portable because it is based on a nonparametric rainfall generation procedure utilizing a bootstrapped markov chain. Precipitation occurrence is simulated using transition probabilities derived for each day of the year based on the historical probability of wet and dry day state changes. Precipitation amounts are selected from a matrix of historical values within a moving 15 day window that is centered on the target day. RWH system reliability is determined for user-specified catchment area and tank volume ranges using precipitation ensembles generated using the described stochastic procedure. The reliability with which NYC backyard gardens can be irrigated and air conditioning units supplied with water harvested from local roofs exceeds 80% and 90%, respectively, for the entire range of catchment areas and tank volumes considered in the analysis. For RWH systems installed on the most commonly occurring rooftop catchment areas found in NYC (51-75 m 2), toilet flushing demand can be met with 7-40% reliability, with lower end of the range representing buildings with high flow toilets and no storage elements, and the upper end representing buildings that feature low flow fixtures and storage tanks of up to 5 m 3. When the reliability curves developed are used to size RWH systems to flush the low flow toilets of all multifamily buildings found a typical residential neighborhood in the Bronx, rooftop runoff inputs to the sewer system are reduced by approximately 28% over an average rainfall year, and potable water demand is reduced by approximately 53%.

  17. Economic and environmental assessment of office building rainwater harvesting systems in various U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2015-02-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems implemented in office buildings under heterogeneous urban settings in the United States, including combined and separated storm sewer systems, will result in varying environmental and economic costs and benefits across multiple water sectors. The potable water saving and stormwater abatement potentials were found to strongly correlate with the local annual precipitation totals and patterns, specifically the long-period antecedent dry weather period. Given the current water rates and stormwater fees in large U.S. cities, RWH systems implemented in office buildings may not be cost-effective compared to the municipal supplies over their lifetime, except in Seattle, which has the highest stormwater fees in the country ($77.50/1000 sf impervious surface/month). The minimum net life cycle costs range from -$1.60 (Seattle) to $11.9 (Phoenix) per m(3) of rainwater yield, resulting in a potential economic gain of over $520 (Seattle) to a net loss of $800 (Phoenix) per building annually. By preventing the rooftop runoff from entering the wastewater treatment plant, between 3 and 9 kg N eq per year could be reduced in combined sewer systems depending on local conditions. This N reduction comes at the expense 0.7-4.6 kg CO2 eq per m(3) rainwater yield. In separate sewer systems, eutrophication reduction benefits result from reducing N loading associated with stormwater runoff. The overall sustainability of implementing RWH depends on the site-specific functional, economic, and environmental benefits, impacts, and trade-offs.

  18. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  19. Rainwater harvesting in schools in Taiwan: system characteristics and water quality.

    PubMed

    Sung, M; Kan, C C; Wan, M W; Yang, C R; Wang, J C; Yu, K C; Lee, S Z

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the current status of rainwater harvesting (RWH) practices in Taiwan's schools, a study was carried out to examine the RWH system performance, water usage, and water quality in these sites. A total of 29 schools in various regions were selected for this investigation, including 7 in the northern, 7 in the central, 8 in the southern, and 7 in the eastern regions of Taiwan. Water quality indicators tested were: pH, temperature, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, suspended solid, total organic carbon, fecal coliform, and total coliform. From this study, it was found that RWH systems in these sites generally had two different designs: one that collected rainwater only, and one that collected both rainwater and grey water. From statistical analysis, it was found that water quality indicators such as suspended solids, total organic carbon, and fecal coliform were significantly affected by the water source and site location. Fecal coliforms in most of the sites we studied were high and not qualified for toilet flushing. The average water retention time of 2.4 months was long and considered to be the main reason to cause high fecal coliform counts. Finally, the benefit analysis was conducted to evaluate economic feasibility of rainwater harvesting for these schools. It turned out that 20% of them were able to gain economic benefits from using rainwater.

  20. Modeling approaches for active systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Sven; Atzrodt, Heiko; Mayer, Dirk; Thomaier, Martin

    2006-03-01

    To solve a wide range of vibration problems with the active structures technology, different simulation approaches for several models are needed. The selection of an appropriate modeling strategy is depending, amongst others, on the frequency range, the modal density and the control target. An active system consists of several components: the mechanical structure, at least one sensor and actuator, signal conditioning electronics and the controller. For each individual part of the active system the simulation approaches can be different. To integrate the several modeling approaches into an active system simulation and to ensure a highly efficient and accurate calculation, all sub models must harmonize. For this purpose, structural models considered in this article are modal state-space formulations for the lower frequency range and transfer function based models for the higher frequency range. The modal state-space formulations are derived from finite element models and/or experimental modal analyses. Consequently, the structure models which are based on transfer functions are directly derived from measurements. The transfer functions are identified with the Steiglitz-McBride iteration method. To convert them from the z-domain to the s-domain a least squares solution is implemented. An analytical approach is used to derive models of active interfaces. These models are transferred into impedance formulations. To couple mechanical and electrical sub-systems with the active materials, the concept of impedance modeling was successfully tested. The impedance models are enhanced by adapting them to adequate measurements. The controller design strongly depends on the frequency range and the number of modes to be controlled. To control systems with a small number of modes, techniques such as active damping or independent modal space control may be used, whereas in the case of systems with a large number of modes or with modes that are not well separated, other control

  1. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  2. Active thermal control system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petete, Patricia A.; Ames, Brian E.

    1991-01-01

    The 'restructured' baseline of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has eliminated many of the growth options for the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS). Modular addition of baseline technology to increase heat rejection will be extremely difficult. The system design and the available real estate no longer accommodate this type of growth. As the station matures during its thirty years of operation, a demand of up to 165 kW of heat rejection can be expected. The baseline configuration will be able to provide 82.5 kW at Eight Manned Crew Capability (EMCC). The growth paths necessary to reach 165 kW have been identified. Doubling the heat rejection capability of SSF will require either the modification of existing radiator wings or the attachment of growth structure to the baseline truss for growth radiator wing placement. Radiator performance can be improved by enlarging the surface area or by boosting the operating temperature with a heat pump. The optimal solution will require both modifications. The addition of growth structure would permit the addition of a parallel ATCS using baseline technology. This growth system would simplify integration. The feasibility of incorporating these growth options to improve the heat rejection capacity of SSF is under evaluation.

  3. What Is an Activity? Appropriating an Activity-Centric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarosh, Svetlana; Matthews, Tara; Moran, Thomas P.; Smith, Barton

    Activity-Centric Computing (ACC) systems seek to address the fragmentation of office work across tools and documents by allowing users to organize work around the computational construct of an Activity. Defining and structuring appropriate Activities within a system poses a challenge for users that must be overcome in order to benefit from ACC support. We know little about how knowledge workers appropriate the Activity construct. To address this, we studied users’ appropriation of a production-quality ACC system, Lotus Activities, for everyday work by employees in a large corporation. We contribute to a better understanding of how users articulate their individual and collaborative work in the system by providing empirical evidence of their patterns of appropriation. We conclude by discussing how our findings can inform the design of other ACC systems for the workplace.

  4. Data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Data Management System-1100 is designed to operate in conjunction with the UNIVAC 1100 Series Operating System on any 1100 Series computer. DMS-1100 is divided into the following four major software components: (1) Data Definition Languages (DDL); (2) Data Management Routine (DMR); (3) Data Manipulation Languages (DML); and (4) Data Base Utilities (DBU). These software components are described in detail.

  5. Orbiter active thermal control system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description of the Orbiter Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) including (1) major functional requirements of heat load, temperature control and heat sink utilization, (2) the overall system arrangement, and (3) detailed description of the elements of the ATCS.

  6. Modeling Cytoskeletal Active Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Robert

    Active networks of filamentous proteins and crosslinking motor proteins play a critical role in many important cellular processes. One of the most important microtubule-motor protein assemblies is the mitotic spindle, a self-organized active liquid-crystalline structure that forms during cell division and that ultimately separates chromosomes into two daughter cells. Although the spindle has been intensively studied for decades, the physical principles that govern its self-organization and function remain mysterious. To evolve a better understanding of spindle formation, structure, and dynamics, I investigate course-grained models of active liquid-crystalline networks composed of microtubules, modeled as hard spherocylinders, in diffusive equilibrium with a reservoir of active crosslinks, modeled as hookean springs that can adsorb to microtubules and and translocate at finite velocity along the microtubule axis. This model is investigated using a combination of brownian dynamics and kinetic monte carlo simulation. I have further refined this model to simulate spindle formation and kinetochore capture in the fission yeast S. pombe. I then make predictions for experimentally realizable perturbations in motor protein presence and function in S. pombe.

  7. An active tactile perception system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petriu, E.; Greenspan, M.; Gelinas, F.; McMath, W. S.; Yeung, S. K.

    System development and application aspects are described for an experimental robotic system for the tactile perception of the global geometric profile of object surfaces which are larger than the dimensions of the tactile sensor. Local cutaneous information provided by a tactile sensor is integrated with the kinesthetic position parameters of a robot arm, resulting in a 3D geometric model of the tactile sensor pose on the explored object surface. Currently available tactile sensors provide poor information on the geometric profile of 3D object surfaces. In order to maximize the information available for 3D analysis, an instrumented passive compliant wrist was used to attach a pressure measuring tactile probe to the robot arm carrier. Data was collected by a noncompliant planar sensing array in direct contact with an object surface. Information recorded includes the following: positional and orientation data on the robot arm manipulator, passive compliance kinesthetic data as measured by the kinematics of the wrist, and cutaneous tactile data represented by the binary image of the sensors pose on the object. The dimensions of the sensor array were found to be a critical factor in system performance. Use of a large array results in fewer touch poses being required to explore an object's surface, on the other hand a large planar array will touch fewer and higher peaks thus missing surface detail. To improve performance, there is a need to design tactile sensors specifically for geometric profile measuring.

  8. Centrally activated pipe snubbing system

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    An electromechanical pipe snubbing system and an electromechanical pipe snubber. In the system, each pipe snubber, in a set of pipe snubbers, has an electromechanical mechanism to lock and unlock the snubber. A sensor, such as a seismometer, measures a quantity related to making a snubber locking or unlocking decision. A control device makes an electrical connection between a power supply and each snubber's electromechanical mechanism to simultaneously lock each snubber when the sensor measurement indicates a snubber locking condition. The control device breaks the connection to simultaneously unlock each snubber when the sensor measurement indicates a snubber unlocking condition. In the snubber, one end of the shaft slides within a bore in one end of a housing. The other end of the shaft is rotatably attached to a pipe; the other end of the housing is rotatively attached to a wall. The snubber's electromechanical mechanism locks the slidable end of the shaft to the housing and unlocks that end from the housing. The electromechanical mechanism permits remote testing and lockup status indication for each snubber.

  9. Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and avalanches.

    PubMed

    Reichhardt, C; Reichhardt, C J Olson

    2015-03-01

    We examine the mobility and velocity fluctuations of a driven particle moving through an active matter bath of self-mobile disks for varied density or area coverage and varied activity. We show that the driven particle mobility can exhibit nonmonotonic behavior that is correlated with distinct changes in the spatiotemporal structures that arise in the active media. We demonstrate that the probe particle velocity distributions exhibit specific features in the different dynamic regimes and identify an activity-induced uniform crystallization that occurs for moderate activity levels and is distinct from the previously observed higher activity cluster phase. The velocity distribution in the cluster phase has telegraph noise characteristics produced when the probe particle moves alternately through high-mobility areas that are in the gas state and low-mobility areas that are in the dense phase. For higher densities and large activities, the system enters what we characterize as an active jamming regime. Here the probe particle moves in intermittent jumps or avalanches that have power-law-distributed sizes that are similar to the avalanche distributions observed for nonactive disk systems near the jamming transition.

  10. Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and avalanches.

    PubMed

    Reichhardt, C; Reichhardt, C J Olson

    2015-03-01

    We examine the mobility and velocity fluctuations of a driven particle moving through an active matter bath of self-mobile disks for varied density or area coverage and varied activity. We show that the driven particle mobility can exhibit nonmonotonic behavior that is correlated with distinct changes in the spatiotemporal structures that arise in the active media. We demonstrate that the probe particle velocity distributions exhibit specific features in the different dynamic regimes and identify an activity-induced uniform crystallization that occurs for moderate activity levels and is distinct from the previously observed higher activity cluster phase. The velocity distribution in the cluster phase has telegraph noise characteristics produced when the probe particle moves alternately through high-mobility areas that are in the gas state and low-mobility areas that are in the dense phase. For higher densities and large activities, the system enters what we characterize as an active jamming regime. Here the probe particle moves in intermittent jumps or avalanches that have power-law-distributed sizes that are similar to the avalanche distributions observed for nonactive disk systems near the jamming transition. PMID:25871116

  11. Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson

    2015-03-01

    We examine the mobility and velocity fluctuations of a driven particle moving through an active matter bath of self-mobile disks for varied density or area coverage and varied activity. We show that the driven particle mobility can exhibit nonmonotonic behavior that is correlated with distinct changes in the spatiotemporal structures that arise in the active media. We demonstrate that the probe particle velocity distributions exhibit specific features in the different dynamic regimes and identify an activity-induced uniform crystallization that occurs for moderate activity levels and is distinct from the previously observed higher activity cluster phase. The velocity distribution in the cluster phase has telegraph noise characteristics produced when the probe particle moves alternately through high-mobility areas that are in the gas state and low-mobility areas that are in the dense phase. For higher densities and large activities, the system enters what we characterize as an active jamming regime. Here the probe particle moves in intermittent jumps or avalanches that have power-law-distributed sizes that are similar to the avalanche distributions observed for nonactive disk systems near the jamming transition.

  12. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  13. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  14. Effects of catchment, first-flush, storage conditions, and time on microbial quality in rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Amin, M T; Kim, Tschung-il; Amin, M N; Han, M Y

    2013-12-01

    Rainwater collected from a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system is typically not considered suitable for potable uses, primarily because of poor microbial quality. The quality of stored rainwater, however, can be improved through basic design and maintenance practices during the construction and operation of an RWH system. This paper presents the microbial analysis of rainwater in two RWH systems installed at the Seoul National University Campus in South Korea. Rainwater samples were collected at different locations within each system and analyzed for total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Within their storage tanks, water quality improved horizontally from inlet to outlet points, and higher quality was observed at the supply point (located about 0.5 m from the base of the tank) than at the surface or bottom of the tank. First-flush rainwater was found to be highly contaminated but rainwater quality improved following about 1 mm of precipitation. The catchment surface also had a significant effect on the quality of rainwater; samples collected from a rooftop exhibited better microbial quality than from a terrace catchment. Better water quality in underground tanks (dark storage conditions) compared to open weirs/ filters (exposed to natural light) demonstrated the importance of storage conditions. Water quality also improved with longer storage, and a decrease of 70% to 90% in microbial concentrations was observed after about 1 week of storage time. The findings of this study demonstrate that the microbial quality of harvested rainwater can be improved significantly by the adoption of proper design and maintenance guidelines such as those discussed in this paper.

  15. Active imaging system with Faraday filter

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, J.J.

    1993-04-13

    An active imaging system has a low to medium powered laser transmitter and receiver wherein the receiver includes a Faraday filter with an ultranarrow optical bandpass and a bare (nonintensified) CCD camera. The laser is locked in the vicinity of the passband of the Faraday filter. The system has high sensitivity to the laser illumination while eliminating solar background.

  16. Active imaging system with Faraday filter

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, James J.

    1993-01-01

    An active imaging system has a low to medium powered laser transmitter and receiver wherein the receiver includes a Faraday filter with an ultranarrow optical bandpass and a bare (nonintensified) CCD camera. The laser is locked in the vicinity of the passband of the Faraday filter. The system has high sensitivity to the laser illumination while eliminating solar background.

  17. The VST active primary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, Pietro; Capaccioli, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Ferragina, Luigi; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco; De Paris, Giacinto; Fierro, Davide; Tomelleri, Raffaele; Rossettini, Pierfrancesco; Perina, Francesco; Recchia, Stefano; Magrin, Demetrio

    2010-07-01

    The 2.6-m primary mirror of the VST telescope is equipped with an active optics system in order to correct low-order aberrations, constantly monitoring the optical quality of the image and controlling the relative position and the shape of the optical elements. Periodically an image analyser calculates the deviation of the image from the best quality. VST is equipped with both a Shack-Hartmann in the probe system and a curvature sensor embedded in the OmegaCAM instrument. The telescope control software decomposes the deviation into single optical contributions and calculates the force correction that each active element has to perform to achieve the optimal quality. The set of correction forces, one for each axial actuator, is computed by the telescope central computer and transmitted to the local control unit of the primary mirror system for execution. The most important element of the VST active optics is the primary mirror, with its active support system located within the primary mirror cell structure. The primary mirror support system is composed by an axial and a lateral independent systems and includes an earthquake safety system. The system is described and the results of the qualification test campaign are discussed.

  18. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  19. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    SciTech Connect

    Lundie, P. |; McLeod, N.

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  20. Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting System in terms of Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. T. R.; Akib, Shatirah; Din, Nazli Bin Che; Biswas, S. K.; Shirazi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3–N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical. PMID:24701186

  1. Sustainability of rainwater harvesting system in terms of water quality.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sadia; Khan, M T R; Akib, Shatirah; Din, Nazli Bin Che; Biswas, S K; Shirazi, S M

    2014-01-01

    Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3-N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.

  2. A robust activity marking system for exploring active neuronal ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Cooper, Yonatan A; Baratta, Michael V; Weng, Feng-Ju; Zhang, Yuxiang; Ramamoorthi, Kartik; Fropf, Robin; LaVerriere, Emily; Xue, Jian; Young, Andrew; Schneider, Colleen; Gøtzsche, Casper René; Hemberg, Martin; Yin, Jerry CP; Maier, Steven F; Lin, Yingxi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the brain captures transient experience and converts it into long lasting changes in neural circuits requires the identification and investigation of the specific ensembles of neurons that are responsible for the encoding of each experience. We have developed a Robust Activity Marking (RAM) system that allows for the identification and interrogation of ensembles of neurons. The RAM system provides unprecedented high sensitivity and selectivity through the use of an optimized synthetic activity-regulated promoter that is strongly induced by neuronal activity and a modified Tet-Off system that achieves improved temporal control. Due to its compact design, RAM can be packaged into a single adeno-associated virus (AAV), providing great versatility and ease of use, including application to mice, rats, flies, and potentially many other species. Cre-dependent RAM, CRAM, allows for the study of active ensembles of a specific cell type and anatomical connectivity, further expanding the RAM system’s versatility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13918.001 PMID:27661450

  3. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  4. Active Displacement Control of Active Magnetic Bearing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Milan; Kozakovič, Radko; Magdolen, Luboš; Masaryk, Michal

    2014-12-01

    The worldwide energy production nowadays is over 3400 GW while storage systems have a capacity of only 90 GW [1]. There is a good solution for additional storage capacity in flywheel energy storage systems (FES). The main advantage of FES is its relatively high efficiency especially with using the active magnetic bearing system. Therefore there exist good reasons for appropriate simulations and for creating a suitable magneto-structural control system. The magnetic bearing, including actuation, is simulated in the ANSYS parametric design language (APDL). APDL is used to create the loops of transient simulations where boundary conditions (BC) are updated based upon a "gap sensor" which controls the nodal position values of the centroid of the shaft and the current density inputs onto the copper windings.

  5. Gamma Band Activity in the Reticular Activating System

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Francisco J.; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Hyde, James; Simon, Christen; Beck, Paige; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high-threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band activity. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this activity. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep–wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band activity demonstrates the global nature of sleep–wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem–thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep–wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band activity in the RAS follows recent reports of such activity in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band activity manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable activation state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by pre-conscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the processes of

  6. Traveling and resting crystals in active systems.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas M; Löwen, Hartmut

    2013-02-01

    A microscopic field theory for crystallization in active systems is proposed which unifies the phase-field-crystal model of freezing with the Toner-Tu theory for self-propelled particles. A wealth of different active crystalline states are predicted and characterized. In particular, for increasing strength of self-propulsion, a transition from a resting crystal to a traveling crystalline state is found where the particles migrate collectively while keeping their crystalline order. Our predictions, which are verifiable in experiments and in particle-resolved computer simulations, provide a starting point for the design of new active materials.

  7. Distributed control system for active mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ramos, Luis F.; Williams, Mark R.; Castro, Javier; Cruz, A.; Gonzalez, Juan C.; Mack, Brian; Martin, Carlos; Pescador, German; Sanchez, Vicente; Sosa, Nicolas A.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents the IAC (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canaries, Spain) proposal of a distributed control system intended for the active support of a 8 m mirror. The system incorporates a large number of compact `smart' force actuators, six force definers, and a mirror support computer (MSC) for interfacing with the telescope control system and for general housekeeping. We propose the use of a network for the interconnection of the actuators, definers and the MSC, which will minimize the physical complexity of the interface between the mirror support system and the MSC. The force actuator control electronics are described in detail, as is the system software architecture of the actuator and the MSC. As the network is a key point for the system, we also detail the evaluation of three candidates, before electing the CAN bus.

  8. Supporting Classroom Activities with the BSUL System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Saito, Nobuji A.; Paredes J., Rosa G.; San Martin, Gerardo Ayala; Yano, Yoneo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom settings, in order to provide basic support for classrooms and field activities. We have developed web application components using Java technology and configured a classroom with wireless network access and a web camera for our purposes. In this classroom, the…

  9. Computer-automated neutron activation analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. 5 references.

  10. Actively Controlled Magnetic Vibration-Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Wbomski, Joseph F.; Brown, Gerald V.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype magnetic suspension system with active control isolates object from vibrations in all six degrees of freedom at frequencies as low as 0.01 Hz. Designed specifically to protect instruments aboard spacecraft by suppressing vibrations to microgravity levels; basic control approach used for such terrestrial uses as suppression of shocks and other vibrations in trucks and railroad cars.

  11. Design of nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Manga, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A; Garcia-Usach, F

    2003-01-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model for nutrient and organic matter removal was used to describe the behavior of a nitrification denitrification enhanced biological phosphorus removal (NDEBPR) system. This model was implemented in a user-friendly software DESASS (design and simulation of activated sludge systems). A 484-L pilot plant was operated to verify the model results. The pilot plant was operated for three years over three different sludge ages. The validity of the model was confirmed with data from the pilot plant. Also, the utility of DESASS as a valuable tool for designing NDEBPR systems was confirmed.

  12. Design of nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Manga, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A; Garcia-Usach, F

    2003-01-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model for nutrient and organic matter removal was used to describe the behavior of a nitrification denitrification enhanced biological phosphorus removal (NDEBPR) system. This model was implemented in a user-friendly software DESASS (design and simulation of activated sludge systems). A 484-L pilot plant was operated to verify the model results. The pilot plant was operated for three years over three different sludge ages. The validity of the model was confirmed with data from the pilot plant. Also, the utility of DESASS as a valuable tool for designing NDEBPR systems was confirmed. PMID:12906279

  13. Green Bank Telescope active surface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasse, Richard J.

    1998-05-01

    During the design phase of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), various means of providing an accurate surface on a large aperture paraboloid, were considered. Automated jacks supporting the primary reflector were selected as the appropriate technology since they promised greater performance and potentially lower costs than a homologous or carbon fiber design, and had certain advantages over an active secondary. The design of the active surface has presented many challenges. Since the actuators are mounted on a tipping structure, it was required that they support a significant side-load. Such devices were not readily available commercially so they had to be developed. Additional actuator requirements include low backlash, repeatable positioning, and an operational life of at least 230 years. Similarly, no control system capable of controlling the 2209 actuators was commercially available. Again a prime requirement was reliability. Maintaining was also a very important consideration. The system architecture is tree-like. An active surface 'master-computer' controls interaction with the telescope control system, and controls ancillary equipment such as power supplies and temperature monitors. Two slave computers interface with the master- computer, and each closes approximately 1100 position loops. For simplicity, the servo is an 'on/off' type, yet achieves a positioning resolution of 25 microns. Each slave computer interfaces with 4 VME I/O cards, which in turn communicate with 140 control modules. The control modules read out the positions of the actuators every 0.1 sec and control the actuators' DC motors. Initial control of the active surface will be based on an elevation dependant structural model. Later, the model will be improved by holographic observations.Surface accuracy will be improved further by using laser ranging system which will actively measure the surface figure. Several tests have been conducted to assure that the system will perform as desired when

  14. Active gated imaging in driver assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we shall present the active gated imaging system (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide active gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the system parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) named BrightEye™, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.

  15. Modular System to Enable Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to perform extravehicular activity (EVA), both human and robotic, has been identified as a key component to space missions to support such operations as assembly and maintenance of space systems (e.g. construction and maintenance of the International Space Station), and unscheduled activities to repair an element of the transportation and habitation systems that can only be accessed externally and via unpressurized areas. In order to make human transportation beyond lower Earth orbit (LEO) practical, efficiencies must be incorporated into the integrated transportation systems to reduce system mass and operational complexity. Affordability is also a key aspect to be considered in space system development; this could be achieved through commonality, modularity and component reuse. Another key aspect identified for the EVA system was the ability to produce flight worthy hardware quickly to support early missions and near Earth technology demonstrations. This paper details a conceptual architecture for a modular EVA system that would meet these stated needs for EVA capability that is affordable, and that could be produced relatively quickly. Operational concepts were developed to elaborate on the defined needs, and to define the key capabilities, operational and design constraints, and general timelines. The operational concept lead to a high level design concept for a module that interfaces with various space transportation elements and contains the hardware and systems required to support human and telerobotic EVA; the module would not be self-propelled and would rely on an interfacing element for consumable resources. The conceptual architecture was then compared to EVA Systems used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter, on the International Space Station to develop high level design concepts that incorporate opportunities for cost savings through hardware reuse, and quick production through the use of existing technologies and hardware designs. An upgrade option

  16. Optically Active Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2016-05-25

    This review highlights and summarizes various optically active porphyrin and phthalocyanine molecules prepared using a wide range of structural modification methods to improve the design of novel structures and their applications. The induced chirality of some illustrative achiral bis-porphyrins with a chiral guest molecule is introduced because these systems are ideal for the identification and separation of chiral biologically active substrates. In addition, the relationship between CD signal and the absolute configuration of the molecule is analyzed through an analysis of the results of molecular modeling calculations. Possible future research directions are also discussed. PMID:27186902

  17. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  18. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study to define the requirements for advanced extravehicular activities (AEVA) was conducted. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the EVA technology requirements and to map a pathway from existing or developing technologies to an AEVA system capable of supporting long-duration missions on the lunar surface. The parameters of an AEVA system which must sustain the crewmembers and permit productive work for long periods in the lunar environment were examined. A design reference mission (DRM) was formulated and used as a tool to develop and analyze the EVA systems technology aspects. Many operational and infrastructure design issues which have a significant influence on the EVA system are identified.

  19. Active State Model for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the active state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) systems for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering systems that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI system based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI system under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the system. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a system is regarded as active when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering system, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a system may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.

  20. Peripheral neural activity recording and stimulation system.

    PubMed

    Loi, D; Carboni, C; Angius, G; Angotzi, G N; Barbaro, M; Raffo, L; Raspopovic, S; Navarro, X

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a portable, embedded, microcontroller-based system for bidirectional communication (recording and stimulation) between an electrode, implanted in the peripheral nervous system, and a host computer. The device is able to record and digitize spontaneous and/or evoked neural activities and store them in data files on a PC. In addition, the system has the capability of providing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, injecting biphasic current pulses with programmable duration, intensity, and frequency. The recording system provides a highly selective band-pass filter from 800 Hz to 3 kHz, with a gain of 56 dB. The amplification range can be further extended to 96 dB with a variable gain amplifier. The proposed acquisition/stimulation circuitry has been successfully tested through in vivo measurements, implanting a tf-LIFE electrode in the sciatic nerve of a rat. Once implanted, the device showed an input referred noise of 0.83 μVrms, was capable of recording signals below 10 μ V, and generated muscle responses to injected stimuli. The results demonstrate the capability of processing and transmitting neural signals with very low distortion and with a power consumption lower than 1 W. A graphic, user-friendly interface has been developed to facilitate the configuration of the entire system, providing the possibility to activate stimulation and monitor recordings in real time.

  1. Multipurpose active/passive motion compensation system

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.A.; Clements, R.E.; Davenport, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    A microprocessor-controlled active/passive motion compensation system has been developed for deploying a variety of geotechnical in-situ testing devices with mobile drilling rigs from low-cost service vessels. The light-weight rotary heave compensator incorporates a hydraulic motor as the compensator actuator and a servo-controlled closed loop pump to reduce the air storage and power requirements. Unique features of the system are the use of inertial sensors to measure three components of boat motion, the ability to run the system in active/passive or passive modes, and the ability to automatically lower the drillstring at a constant velocity while maintaining motion compensation. Quantitative measurements made during sea trials offshore California yielded motion compensation accuracy approaching 98 percent which is much better than the compensation achieved with passive systems. Results are presented from offshore in-situ testing with a cone penetrometer, a vane shear device, and a suspension PS logger. The system can also be used for other offshore applications.

  2. PCM Passive Cooling System Containing Active Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.

    2005-01-01

    A multistage system has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The system would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, active cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be active, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the system more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling system. The system would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.

  3. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  4. Active Aircraft Pylon Noise Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J (Inventor); Elmiligui, Alaa A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active pylon noise control system for an aircraft includes a pylon structure connecting an engine system with an airframe surface of the aircraft and having at least one aperture to supply a gas or fluid therethrough, an intake portion attached to the pylon structure to intake a gas or fluid, a regulator connected with the intake portion via a plurality of pipes, to regulate a pressure of the gas or fluid, a plenum chamber formed within the pylon structure and connected with the regulator, and configured to receive the gas or fluid as regulated by the regulator, and a plurality of injectors in communication with the plenum chamber to actively inject the gas or fluid through the plurality of apertures of the pylon structure.

  5. Voice activity detection for speaker verification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Filip

    2008-01-01

    Complex algorithm for speech activity detection was presented in this article. It is based on speech enhancement, features extraction and final detection algorithm. The first one was published in ETSI standard as a module of "Advanced front-end feature extraction algorithm" in distributed speech recognition system. It consists of two main parts, noise estimatiom and Wiener filtering. For the final detection modified linear prediction coefficients and spectral entropy features are extracted form denoised signal.

  6. Active Space Telescope Systems - A New Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Coulter, D. R.; Gallagher, D. B.; Hickey, G. S.; Laskin, R. A.; Redding, D. C.; Traub, W. A.; Werner, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    New active optics technologies are rapidly maturing that will enable outstanding scientific performance for the next generation of astronomical space telescopes, while dramatically reducing cost drivers such as mass and manufacturing time. Using these technologies, NASA can, with modest further development, field high-performance space telescopes at a cost, risk and development schedule substantially below historical norms. Many key elements of this new system architecture are currently, or soon will be, demonstrated at TRL 6 or even space qualified through previous and ongoing work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This paper describes the overall architecture, discusses the current status of the relevant active optics technologies, and proposes a technology development path to address the remaining elements for some specific NASA science mission examples. Our approach is a new paradigm for moderate-to-large space telescopes, building on the advancements incorporated into the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) including primary and secondary mirror deployment, segmented optics and a modest level of active control. The primary new ingredients of the flight system are lightweight, easily replicable, mirror segments, incorporating actuators which can control the segment figure on orbit; a robust Wavefront Sensing and Control system to establish the overall figure, phasing, and alignment; and a real time, high dynamic range, high precision control system which maintains the rigid body alignment of the segments to the required precision. This controllability makes it possible to fabricate and assemble to looser tolerances, while reducing overall mission risk. In addition, the control system can greatly simplify the lengthy and expensive integration and test process that is faced by all large telescope missions. The research described in this talk was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National

  7. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor); Bell, Joseph L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprising at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  8. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprises at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  9. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Richard

    1994-08-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprises at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  10. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system. PMID:18470821

  11. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  12. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 101: Constellation EVA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Nicole C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Why do we need space suits? 2) Protection From the Environment; 3) Primary Life Support System (PLSS); 4) Thermal Control; 5) Communications; 6) Helmet and Extravehicular Visor Assy; 7) Hard Upper Torso (HUT) and Arm Assy; 8) Display and Controls Module (DCM); 9) Gloves; 10) Lower Torso Assembly (LTA); 11) What Size Do You Need?; 12) Boot and Sizing Insert; 13) Boot Heel Clip and Foot Restraint; 14) Advanced and Crew Escape Suit; 15) Nominal & Off-Nominal Landing; 16) Gemini Program (mid-1960s); 17) Apollo EVA on Service Module; 18) A Bold Vision for Space Exploration, Authorized by Congress; 19) EVA System Missions; 20) Configurations; 21) Reduced Gravity Program; and 22) Other Opportunities.

  13. Active Thermal Control System Development for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westheimer, David

    2007-01-01

    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has been actively developing technologies that will enable future missions or will provide significant improvements over the state of the art technologies. These technologies have are targeted for application on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), or Orion, and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  14. Noninvasive ambulatory measurement system of cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban J; Chavez, Javier A P; Aqueveque, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    This work implements a noninvasive system that measures the movements caused by cardiac activity. It uses unobtrusive Electro-Mechanical Films (EMFi) on the seat and on the backrest of a regular chair. The system detects ballistocardiogram (BCG) and respiration movements. Real data was obtained from 54 volunteers. 19 of them were measured in the laboratory and 35 in a hospital waiting room. Using a BIOPAC acquisition system, the ECG was measured simultaneously to the BCG for comparison. Wavelet Transform (WT) is a better option than Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for signal extraction and produces higher effective measurement time. In the laboratory, the best results are obtained on the seat. The correlation index was 0.9800 and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement were 0.7136 ± 4.3673 [BPM]. In the hospital waiting room, the best results are also from the seat sensor. The correlation index was 0.9840, and the limits of agreement were 0.4386 ± 3.5884 [BPM]. The system is able to measure BCG in an unobtrusive way and determine the cardiac frequency with high precision. It is simple to use, which means the system can easily be used in non-standard settings: resting in a chair or couch, at the gym, schools or in a hospital waiting room, as shown. PMID:26738057

  15. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  16. Scuba diving activates vascular antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Sureda, A; Batle, J M; Ferrer, M D; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on plasma antioxidant defenses, nitric oxide production, endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. 9 male divers performed an immersion at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained before diving at rest, immediately after diving, and 3 h after the diving session. Leukocyte counts, plasma 8oxoHG, malondialdehyde and nitrite levels significantly increased after recovery. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, catalase and superoxide significantly increased immediately after diving and these activities remained high after recovery. Plasma myeloperoxidase activity and protein levels and extracellular superoxide dismutase protein levels increased after 3 h. Endothelin-1 concentration significantly decreased after diving and after recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration significantly increased after diving when compared to pre-diving values, returning to initial values after recovery. Scuba diving at great depth activated the plasma antioxidant system against the oxidative stress induced by elevated pO₂ oxygen associated with hyperbaria. The decrease in endothelin-1 levels and the increase in nitric oxide synthesis could be factors that contribute to post-diving vasodilation. Diving increases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels which can contribute to the stimulation of tissue resistance to diving-derived oxidative damage.

  17. Velocity distribution in active particles systems

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo; Gnan, Nicoletta; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Maggi, Claudio; Di Leonardo, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the distribution of velocities of multiple interacting active particles which we test by numerical simulations. In clear contrast with equilibrium we find that the velocities are coupled to positions. Our model shows that, even for two particles only, the individual velocities display a variance depending on the interparticle separation and the emergence of correlations between the velocities of the particles. When considering systems composed of many particles we find an analytic expression connecting the overall velocity variance to density, at the mean-field level, and to the pair distribution function valid in the limit of small noise correlation times. Finally we discuss the intriguing analogies and main differences between our effective free energy functional and the theoretical scenario proposed so far for phase-separating active particles. PMID:27001289

  18. Influenza virus activation of the interferon system

    PubMed Central

    Killip, Marian J.; Fodor, Ervin; Randall, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The host interferon (IFN) response represents one of the first barriers that influenza viruses must surmount in order to establish an infection. Many advances have been made in recent years in understanding the interactions between influenza viruses and the interferon system. In this review, we summarise recent work regarding activation of the type I IFN response by influenza viruses, including attempts to identify the viral RNA responsible for IFN induction, the stage of the virus life cycle at which it is generated and the role of defective viruses in this process. PMID:25678267

  19. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  20. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  1. Spontaneous Oscillations in an Active Matter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Robert; Tsang, Boyce; Granick, Steve

    Active matter (which consumes energy to move about) can organize into dynamic structures more interesting than those possible at steady-state. Here we show spontaneous periodic self-assembly in a simple three-component system of water, oil phase, and surfactant at constant room temperature, with emphasis on one model system. Benchtop experiments show that liquid crystal oil droplets spontaneously and collectively oscillate like a `beating heart' for several hours; contract, relax, and subsequently re-contract in a petri dish at a rate of a few `beats' per minute. These oscillations, emergent from the cooperative interaction of the three components, are driven by the competition between positive and negative feedback processes. This illustration of feedback in action reveals a new way to program self-assembled structures to vary with time.

  2. Analog VLSI system for active drag reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, B.; Goodman, R.; Jiang, F.; Tai, Y.C.; Tung, S.; Ho, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    In today`s cost-conscious air transportation industry, fuel costs are a substantial economic concern. Drag reduction is an important way to reduce costs. Even a 5% reduction in drag translates into estimated savings of millions of dollars in fuel costs. Drawing inspiration from the structure of shark skin, the authors are building a system to reduce drag along a surface. Our analog VLSI system interfaces with microfabricated, constant-temperature shear stress sensors. It detects regions of high shear stress and outputs a control signal to activate a microactuator. We are in the process of verifying the actual drag reduction by controlling microactuators in wind tunnel experiments. We are encouraged that an approach similar to one that biology employs provides a very useful contribution to the problem of drag reduction. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  3. Active alignment/contact verification system

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A system involving an active (i.e. electrical) technique for the verification of: 1) close tolerance mechanical alignment between two component, and 2) electrical contact between mating through an elastomeric interface. For example, the two components may be an alumina carrier and a printed circuit board, two mating parts that are extremely small, high density parts and require alignment within a fraction of a mil, as well as a specified interface point of engagement between the parts. The system comprises pairs of conductive structures defined in the surfaces layers of the alumina carrier and the printed circuit board, for example. The first pair of conductive structures relate to item (1) above and permit alignment verification between mating parts. The second pair of conductive structures relate to item (2) above and permit verification of electrical contact between mating parts.

  4. Actively controlled vibration welding system and method

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Wayne W.; Kang, Bongsu; Tan, Chin-An

    2013-04-02

    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an active material element, and anvil assembly. The assembly may include an anvil body connected to a back plate and support member. The element, e.g., a piezoelectric stack or shape memory alloy, is positioned with respect to the assembly. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction to form a weld on a work piece. The element controls any vibrations in a second direction by applying calibrated response to the anvil body in the second direction. A method for controlling undesirable vibrations in the system includes positioning the element with respect to the anvil assembly, connecting the anvil body to the support member through the back plate, vibrating the horn in a desirable first direction, and transmitting an input signal to the element to control vibration in an undesirable second direction.

  5. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  6. Next Generation Active Buffet Suppression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galea, Stephen C.; Ryall, Thomas G.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.; White, Edward V.; Zimcik, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon that is common to high performance aircraft, especially those with twin vertical tails like the F/A-18, at high angles of attack. These loads result in significant random stresses, which may cause fatigue damage leading to restricted capabilities and availability of the aircraft. This paper describes an international collaborative research activity among Australia, Canada and the United States involving the use of active structural control to alleviate the damaging structural response to these loads. The research program is being co-ordinated by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and is being conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). This truly unique collaborative program has been developed to enable each participating country to contribute resources toward a program that coalesces a broad range of technical knowledge and expertise into a single investigation. This collaborative program is directed toward a full-scale test of an F/A-18 empennage, which is an extension of an earlier initial test. The current program aims at applying advanced directional piezoactuators, the aircraft rudder, switch mode amplifiers and advanced control strategies on a full-scale structure to demonstrate the enhanced performance and capability of the advanced active BLA control system in preparation for a flight test demonstration.

  7. A new melanoma diagnosis active support system.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, R A; Dacquino, G; Laguteta, G

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the operational performance of a new MDASS (Melanoma Diagnosis Active Support System) prototype able to distil optimal knowledge from acquired data to automatically capture and reliably discriminate and quantify the stage of disease evolution. Automated classification dermatoscopical parameters can be divided into two main classes: Size Descriptor (point size, local, and global) and Intrinsic Descriptor (morphological, geometrical, chromatic, others). Usually elementary geometric shape robust and effective characterization, invariant to environment and optical geometry transformations, on a rigorous mathematical level is a key and computational intensive problem. MDASS uses GEOGINE (GEOmetrical enGINE), a state-of-the-art OMG (Ontological Model Generator) based on n-D Tensor Moment Invariants for shape/texture effective description. MDASS main results show robust disease classification procedure with distillation of minimal reference grids for pathological cases and they ultimately achieve effective early diagnosis of melanocytic lesion. System results are validated by carefully designed experiments with certified clinical reference database. Overall system operational performance is presented. Finally, MDASS error analysis and computational complexity are addressed and discussed. PMID:17270962

  8. Activity systems in the inquiry classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortham, Donald William

    Inquiry science, as called for by reform-minded organizations such as the National Research Council (1996), offers a platform with the potential for introducing all students to the practice of science while maintaining focus on key concepts and theories. This project followed two small groups as they completed an inquiry unit on genetics at a Midwestern high school. I investigated whether levels of student-to-teacher, student-to-student, student-apparatus, and student-concept connections were approximately equal across all students in each of the two groups. I found differences among students in levels of student-to-teacher, student-to-student, and student-concept connections. From a situated idiopathic perspective, these differences may indicate different levels of opportunity-to-learn. At a more abstract (nomothetic) level, these differences may be due to emergent divisions of labor (roles) within the two groups. From the perspective of Activity Theory (Leont'ev, 1978; Engestrom, 1987), roles serve as important mediators that simultaneously allow the social unit to accomplish its objectives, while shaping the development of participants. I describe three roles that capture modes of participation for students interacting in the small groups, and that may contribute to what Engestrom (2001) calls subject-producing activity systems: networked contributor, social member, and isolate. This paper also describes tools for teachers and researchers to use in identifying levels of mediation and roles as they occur in small groups.

  9. ROVER: A prototype active vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, David J.; Marsh, Brian D.

    1987-08-01

    The Roving Eyes project is an experiment in active vision. We present the design and implementation of a prototype that tracks colored balls in images from an on-line charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Rover is designed to keep up with its rapidly changing environment by handling best and average case conditions and ignoring the worst case. This allows Rover's techniques to be less sophisticated and consequently faster. Each of Rover's major functional units is relatively isolated from the others, and an executive which knows all the functional units directs the computation by deciding which jobs would be most effective to run. This organization is realized with a priority queue of jobs and their arguments. Rover's structure not only allows it to adapt its strategy to the environment, but also makes the system extensible. A capability can be added to the system by adding a functional module with a well defined interface and by modifying the executive to make use of the new module. The current implementation is discussed in the appendices.

  10. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  11. Activity Systems and Moral Reasoning: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardi, Eva; Helkama, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen social educator students were taught to analyze their work activity by means of a Vygotsky-inspired method, drawing on Engeström's notion of an activity system. The method aimed at increasing the consciousness of the students of the structure of work activity system. The participants wrote two accounts of their field-work practice…

  12. New approaches to enhance active steering system functionalities: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serarslan, Benan

    2014-09-01

    An important development of the steering systems in general is active steering systems like active front steering and steer-by-wire systems. In this paper the current functional possibilities in application of active steering systems are explored. A new approach and additional functionalities are presented that can be implemented to the active steering systems without additional hardware such as new sensors and electronic control units. Commercial active steering systems are controlling the steering angle depending on the driving situation only. This paper introduce methods for enhancing active steering system functionalities depending not only on the driving situation but also vehicle parameters like vehicle mass, tyre and road condition. In this regard, adaptation of the steering ratio as a function of above mentioned vehicle parameters is presented with examples. With some selected vehicle parameter changes, the reduction of the undesired influences on vehicle dynamics of these parameter changes has been demonstrated theoretically with simulations and with real-time driving measurements.

  13. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.

    2011-08-02

    Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least 180.degree. C. at a heating rate of from 1-20.degree./min. Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

  14. A Hybrid Activity System as Educational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamazumi, Katsuhiro

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes a hybrid after-school learning activity for children called "New School" (NS). NS is an inter-institutional, collaborative project based on a partnership between a university and local elementary schools that also involves other social actors and institutions. Using a framework of third generation activity theory, the article…

  15. Active fluidization in dense glassy systems.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rituparno; Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Rao, Madan; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-07-20

    Dense soft glasses show strong collective caging behavior at sufficiently low temperatures. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a model glass former, we show that the incorporation of activity or self-propulsion, f0, can induce cage breaking and fluidization, resulting in the disappearance of the glassy phase beyond a critical f0. The diffusion coefficient crosses over from being strongly to weakly temperature dependent as f0 is increased. In addition, we demonstrate that activity induces a crossover from a fragile to a strong glass and a tendency of active particles to cluster. Our results are of direct relevance to the collective dynamics of dense active colloidal glasses and to recent experiments on tagged particle diffusion in living cells. PMID:27380935

  16. Active vibration control of lightweight floor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baader, J.; Fontana, M.

    2016-04-01

    Wide-span and lightweight floors are often prone to structural vibrations due to their low resonance frequency and poor material damping. Their dynamic behaviour can be improved using passive, semi-active or active vibration control devices. The following article proposes a novel method for the controller synthesis for active vibration control. An existing passive TMD (tuned mass damper) is modelled and equipped with an actuator in order to provide more efficient damping. Using an iterative optimization approach under constraints, an optimal controller is found which minimizes a quadratic cost function in frequency domain. A simulation of an existing test bench shows that the active vibration control device is able to provide increased damping compared to the passive TMD.

  17. Description of data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    One of the major responsibilities of the JPL Computing and Information Services Office is to develop and maintain a JPL plan for providing computing services to the JPL management and administrative community that will lead to improved productivity. The CISO plan to accomplish this objective has been titled 'Management and Administrative Support Systems' (MASS). The MASS plan is based on the continued use of JPL's IBM 3032 Computer system for administrative computing and for the MASS functions. The current candidate administrative Data Base Management Systems required to support the MASS include ADABASE, Cullinane IDMS and TOTAL. Previous uses of administrative Data Base Systems have been applied to specific local functions rather than in a centralized manner with elements common to the many user groups. Limited capacity data base systems have been installed in microprocessor based office automation systems in a few Project and Management Offices using Ashton-Tate dBASE II. These experiences plus some other localized in house DBMS uses have provided an excellent background for developing user and system requirements for a single DBMS to support the MASS program.

  18. Acidosis activates complement system in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Emeis, M; Sonntag, J; Willam, C; Strauss, E; Walka, M M; Obladen, M

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro effect of different forms of acidosis (pH 7.0) on the formation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Metabolic acidosis due to addition of hydrochloric acid (10 micromol/ml blood) or lactic acid (5.5 micromol/ml) to heparin blood (N=12) caused significant activation of C3a and C5a compared to control (both p=0.002). Respiratory acidosis activated C3a (p=0.007) and C5a (p=0.003) compared to normocapnic controls. Making blood samples with lactic acidosis hypocapnic resulted in a median pH of 7.37. In this respiratory compensated metabolic acidosis, C3a and C5a were not increased. These experiments show that acidosis itself and not lactate trigger for activation of complement components C3 and C5. PMID:9927235

  19. Antibacterial activity of four dentin bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Herrera, M; Carrión, P; Bravo, M; Castillo, A

    2000-08-01

    The antibacterial action of bonding systems Gluma 2000, Syntac, Prisma Universal Bond 3, Scotchbond Multipurpose and Prime-Bond was tested against 32 strains of the caries-producing bacteria Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Actinomyces spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Clostridium spp. An agar plate diffusion method was used with chlorhexidine as the positive control. Assays were performed in triplicate for each component (primer and adhesive) of the bonding systems. All the adhesives were found to inhibit bacterial growth but with differences in their spectra of action. The sum action of the Scotchbond Multipurpose components were most inhibitory and Prime-Bond was found to be the least effective system.

  20. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  1. The active-passive continuous-wave terahertz imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolganova, Irina N.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Metelkina, Anna A.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2016-08-01

    Active and passive terahertz (THz) imaging have recently become essential instruments of various THz applications. In this paper the active- and passive-mode THz imaging systems are studied and the hybrid active-passive THz imaging system is suggested. The concept of image contrast was used to compare the active and passive THz imaging results. In order to achieve better image quality the hybrid system is considered to be effective. The main advantage of the proposed system is the combination of the self-emitted radiation of the object with the back scattered source radiation. The experimental results demonstrate that the active-passive modality of THz imaging system allows retrieving maximum information about the object. An approach to synthesise the active-passive THz images was proposed using the false-color representation.

  2. Electricity/Electronics Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This electricity/electronics guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 35 modules on the following topics: electrical…

  3. MiSIS (Michigan Student Information System) Activities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    The Michigan Student Information System (MiSIS) is the student flow component of the Michigan Community College Occupational Education Evaluation System (MCCOEES), a comprehensive state-wide system for evaluating occupational education. The Michigan Student Information System (MiSIS) Activities Manual was designed to help college-level personnel…

  4. Active annular-beam laser autocollimator system.

    PubMed

    Yoder, P R; Schlesinger, E R; Chickvary, J L

    1975-08-01

    An autocollimator using an axicon and a beam expander telescope to generate a 12.5-cm. o.d. annular beam of helium-neon laser light with high (25:1) diameter-to-width ratio has been developed. It is used with a two-axis, electromagnetically actuated mirror assembly to acquire automatically and maintain dynamically autocollimation from a nearby but separately mounted annular mirror. The servo system controls beam alignment even though angular vibratory motions of the annular mirror make it appear to tilt relative to the autocollimator as much as 7 mrad at frequencies below 300 Hz. This paper describes the optical system and the alignment sensing and control system.

  5. An active noise reduction system for aircrew helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, P. D.; Rawlinson, D.; Pelc, S. F.; Dorey, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    An active noise reduction system was developed for use in aircrew flying helmets in which the acoustic noise field inside the ear defender is detected using a miniature microphone and an antiphase signal is fed back to a communications telephone within the ear defender. Performance of the active noise reduction system in a laboratory trial simulating flight conditions is shown to be satisfactory.

  6. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  7. Methodology for the systems engineering process. Volume 1: System functional activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Systems engineering is examined in terms of functional activities that are performed in the conduct of a system definition/design, and system development is described in a parametric analysis that combines functions, performance, and design variables. Emphasis is placed on identification of activities performed by design organizations, design specialty groups, as well as a central systems engineering organizational element. Identification of specific roles and responsibilities for doing functions, and monitoring and controlling activities within the system development operation are also emphasized.

  8. Activity-promoting gaming systems in exercise and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew J D; McCormick, Darren; Shawis, Teshk; Impson, Rebecca; Griffin, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Commercial activity-promoting gaming systems provide a potentially attractive means to facilitate exercise and rehabilitation. The Nintendo Wii, Sony EyeToy, Dance Dance Revolution, and Xbox Kinect are examples of gaming systems that use the movement of the player to control gameplay. Activity-promoting gaming systems can be used as a tool to increase activity levels in otherwise sedentary gamers and also be an effective tool to aid rehabilitation in clinical settings. Therefore, the aim of this current work is to review the growing area of activity-promoting gaming in the context of exercise, injury, and rehabilitation.

  9. A microscopic field theoretical approach for active systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaimo, F.; Praetorius, S.; Voigt, A.

    2016-08-01

    We consider a microscopic modeling approach for active systems. The approach extends the phase field crystal (PFC) model and allows us to describe generic properties of active systems within a continuum model. The approach is validated by reproducing results obtained with corresponding agent-based and microscopic phase field models. We consider binary collisions, collective motion and vortex formation. For larger numbers of particles we analyze the coarsening process in active crystals and identify giant number fluctuation in a cluster formation process.

  10. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to a electrical and functional tests of its pyrotechic petal deployer system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers and technicians in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). In the background is the Pathfinder cruise stage, which the lander will be mated to once its functional tests are complete. The lander will remain attached to this stage during its six-to-seven-month journey to Mars. When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the Sojourner autonomous rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  11. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System.

    PubMed

    Williams, Preston T J A; Martin, John H

    2015-09-30

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. Significance statement: Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  12. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Preston T.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  13. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System.

    PubMed

    Williams, Preston T J A; Martin, John H

    2015-09-30

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. Significance statement: Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  14. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  15. Active synchronization between two different chaotic dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheri, M.; Arifin, N. Md; Ismail, F.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we investigate on the synchronization problem between two different chaotic dynamical system based on the Lyapunov stability theorem by using nonlinear control functions. Active control schemes are used for synchronization Liu system as drive and Rossler system as response. Numerical simulation by using Maple software are used to show effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  16. 49 CFR 234.225 - Activation of warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... seconds warning time for the normal operation of through trains before the grade crossing is occupied by... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS....225 Activation of warning system. A highway-rail grade crossing warning system shall be maintained...

  17. 49 CFR 234.225 - Activation of warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... seconds warning time for the normal operation of through trains before the grade crossing is occupied by... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS....225 Activation of warning system. A highway-rail grade crossing warning system shall be maintained...

  18. Active synchronization between two different chaotic dynamical system

    SciTech Connect

    Maheri, M.; Arifin, N. Md; Ismail, F.

    2015-05-15

    In this paper we investigate on the synchronization problem between two different chaotic dynamical system based on the Lyapunov stability theorem by using nonlinear control functions. Active control schemes are used for synchronization Liu system as drive and Rossler system as response. Numerical simulation by using Maple software are used to show effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  19. NASA's UAS [Unmanned Aircraft Systems] Related Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    NASA continues to operate all sizes of UAS in all classes of airspace both domestically and internationally. Missions range from highly complex operations in coordination with piloted aircraft, ground, and space systems in support of science objectives to single aircraft operations in support of aeronautics research. One such example is a scaled commercial transport aircraft being used to study recovery techniques due to large upsets. NASA's efforts to support routine UAS operations continued on several fronts last year. At the national level in the United States (U.S.), NASA continued its support of the UAS Executive Committee (ExCom) comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. Recommendations were received on how to operate both manned and unmanned aircraft in class D airspace and plans are being developed to validate and implement those recommendations. In addition the UAS ExCom has begun developing recommendations for how to achieve routine operations in remote areas as well as for small UAS operations in class G airspace. As well as supporting the UAS ExCom, NASA is a participant in the recently formed Aviation Rule Making Committee for UAS. This committee, established by the FAA, is intended to propose regulatory guidance which would enable routine civil UAS operations. As that effort matures NASA stands ready to supply the necessary technical expertise to help that committee achieve its objectives. By supporting both the UAS ExCom and UAS ARC, NASA is positioned to provide its technical expertise across the full spectrum of UAS airspace access related topic areas. The UAS NAS Access Project got underway this past year under the leadership of NASA s Aeronautics

  20. Active and intelligent packaging systems for a modern society.

    PubMed

    Realini, Carolina E; Marcos, Begonya

    2014-11-01

    Active and intelligent packaging systems are continuously evolving in response to growing challenges from a modern society. This article reviews: (1) the different categories of active and intelligent packaging concepts and currently available commercial applications, (2) latest packaging research trends and innovations, and (3) the growth perspectives of the active and intelligent packaging market. Active packaging aiming at extending shelf life or improving safety while maintaining quality is progressing towards the incorporation of natural active agents into more sustainable packaging materials. Intelligent packaging systems which monitor the condition of the packed food or its environment are progressing towards more cost-effective, convenient and integrated systems to provide innovative packaging solutions. Market growth is expected for active packaging with leading shares for moisture absorbers, oxygen scavengers, microwave susceptors and antimicrobial packaging. The market for intelligent packaging is also promising with strong gains for time-temperature indicator labels and advancements in the integration of intelligent concepts into packaging materials. PMID:25034453

  1. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  2. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, Don E.

    1988-01-01

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed.

  3. Monitoring on The Quality and Quantity of DIY Rainwater Harvesting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, H.; Bakar, N. H.; Zubir, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    Rainwater harvesting is an alternative sources of water supply and can be used for potable and non-potable uses. It could helps to store treated rainwater for more beneficial use and also for flood mitigation. Sustainable approach for flooding problem reduction in urban areas is by slowing down the rate of surface runoff flows at source by providing more storage area/tank. In order to understand the performance of a rainwater harvesting system (RWH), a preliminary monitoring on a ‘do it yourself’ (DIY) RWH model with additional first -flush strategy for water quality treatment was done. The main concept behind first flush diversion is to prevent initial polluted rainwater from entering the storage tank. Based on seven rainfall events observed in Parit Raja, both quality and quantity of the rainfalls were analysed. For rainwater quality, the samples from first flush diverter and storage tank were taken to understand their performance based on pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) parameters. While for rainwater quantity, hydrograph analysis were done based on the performance of total rainfall and runoff, peak flow of rainfall and runoff; and delayed time parameters. Based on Interim National Water Quality Standard (INWQS) and National Drinking Water Quality Standard (NDWQS), first flush diverter apparently helps on water quality improvement in storage tanks when pH, DO, TDS, TSS and turbidity were classified as Class I (INWQS) and is allowable for drinking; but BOD and COD parameters were classified as Class III (INWQS). Hence, it has potential to be used as potable usage but will need extensive treatment to reduce its poor microbial quality. Based on the maximum observed rainfall event which had total volume of 3195.5 liter, had peakflow reduction from 0.00071 m3/s to 0.00034 m3/s and delayed runoff between 5 and 10 minutes after rainfall

  4. An Active RFID Accountability System (RAS) for Constrained Wireless Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Alan M; Hanson, Gregory R; Sexton, Angela Kay; Jones Jr, J P; Freer, Eva B; Sjoreen, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an RFID Accountability System (RAS) that allows items with active RFID tags to be tracked in environments where tags may not be able to transmit their location continuously. The system uses activators that transmit a short range signal. Active RFID tags are in a sleep state until they encounter an activator. Then they transmit a signal that is picked up by the antennas installed throughout the building. This paper presents the theory of operation, application areas, lessons learned, and key features developed over the course of seven years of development and use.

  5. [Activities of System Studies and Simulation, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Launch Vehicle Interface Work Performed: a. S3 provided to KSC the new launch inclination targets needed for the April '04 launch date. 2. Prelaunch operations work performed: a. S3 updated the staffing plan for MSFC on-console personnel\\during the Final Countdown prior to launch. 3. Software Assessment Work Performed: a. S3 evaluated and recommended approval for Program Control Board (PCB) proposed change 649 for ground software changes, as well as change 650 and 650A for Stored Program Commands. 4. Education and Public Outreach Work Performed: a. S3 continues to coordinate the effort for the design and fabrication of scale models of the GP-3 for use at the launch site, education forums, and management/technical briefings. S3 also prepared a Change Request for additional funds needed for fabrication of additional scale models. S3 drafted the planned uses of these models, including the possibility of participation in the Boston, MA showings of the traveling Einstein Exhibit. 5. Program Management Support Work Performed: a. S3 prepared the input for and closed three MSFC Centerwide Action Item Tracking Systems (CAITS) actions during this period.

  6. Comparative study between two different active flutter suppression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1978-01-01

    An activated leading-edge (LE)-tailing-edge (TE) control system is applied to a drone aircraft with the objective of enabling the drone to fly subsonically at dynamic pressures which are 44% above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The control synthesis approach is based on the aerodynamic energy concept and it incorporates recent developments in this area. A comparison is made between the performance of the activated LE-TE control system and the performance of a TE control system, analyzed in a previous work. The results obtained indicate that although all the control systems achieve the flutter suppression objectives, the TE control system appears to be somewhat superior to the LE-TE control system, in this specific application. This superiority is manifested through reduced values of control surface activity over a wide range of flight conditions.

  7. [The informative mechanisms of systemic organization of psychic activity].

    PubMed

    Sudakov, K V

    2012-01-01

    In this review on the basis of functional systems theory developed by P. Anokhin theoretical approaches to informative mechanisms of systemic organization of psychic activity are presented. Author formulates the conception on discrete system quantums of psychic and behavioral activity from needs to its satisfaction and develops its informative equivalents. It was shown that informative equivalents of needs and its satisfaction are reflected in structures of action acceptors in the form of dynamic informative images. On the basis of acceptors of results of action informative systemic quantums are developed which constantly control its manifestation in behavioral systemic quantums. Informative systemic quantums are extracted in advance by predominate motivations and are associated with negative emotions of needs and positive emotions of their satisfaction. The content of this review confirms I.P. Pavlov's foresight on possible confluence of material and idealistic processes in psychic human activity.

  8. Space Activism as an Epiphanic Belief System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell

    2006-01-01

    Years of interaction with young people in the space industry and in space activists groups led to my observation that many such individuals can cite a quite specific life event that triggered a life-long interest in or commitment to creating a space future. I am particularly intrigued by parallels between such experiences and the phenomenon of epiphanic experiences among committed Christians. I see analogies between the puzzlement among space activists and among Christian groups as to the reasons for so many people being "unbelievers." At a small international meeting on lunar exploration in 2003, I heard two separate lunch speakers cite such personal experiences. At the beginning of a break in that meeting, I grabbed the microphone from the chairman and asked each person to write down on a pad by his chair whether or not he (or she) had experienced a specific event that led to their involvement in space. If the answer was positive, I asked for a brief narrative, for their age at the time, and for their current age. I received 53 submissions, 20% of which simply stated that their involvement in space exploration was happenstance. (Apollo astronaut John Young was among these.) The other 80% of the submissions had specific stories. The ages at the time of the epiphany ranged from 4 to 47; and their current ages ranged from 22 to 78. I will present a high-level characterization of these inputs. Interest in space exploration as a form of belief system is consistent with choosing NASA goals for the purpose of inspiration and with phenomena such as the "Overview Effect". More research might explore what form the transcendent experience takes and whether it might be associated with feelings of universal connection such as the noosphere or "The Force". From a pragmatic point of view, outreach strategies for exploration should focus on giving individuals access to personal, potentially transformational experiences as opposed to astronaut talks at civic clubs.

  9. Active Storage Processing in a Parallel File System

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, Evan J.; Fox, Kevin M.; Regimbal, Kevin M.; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2006-01-01

    By creating a processing system within a parallel file system one can harness the power of unused processing power on servers that have very fast access to the disks they are serving. By inserting a module the Lustre file system the Active Storage Concept is able to perform processing with the file system architecture. Results of using this technology are presented as the results of the Supercomputing StorCloud Challenge Application are reviewed.

  10. Dual-Actuator Active Vibration-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Albert F.; Kiraly, Louis J.; Montague, Gerald T.; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Manchala, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Dual-actuator active vibration-control (DAAVC) system is developmental system of type described in "Active Vibration Dampers for Rotating Machinery" (LEW-15427). System features sensors and actuators positioned and oriented at bearings to measure and counteract vibrations of shaft along either of two axes perpendicular to axis of rotation. Effective in damping vibrations of helicopter-engine test stand, making it safer to operate engine at speeds near and above first resonance of engine/test-stand system. Opens new opportunities for engine designers to draw more power from engine, and concept applicable to other rotating machines.

  11. A hybrid electromagnetic shock absorber for active vehicle suspension systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Bolandhemmat, Hamidreza; Behrad Khamesee, Mir; Golnaraghi, Farid

    2011-02-01

    The use of electromagnetic dampers (ED) in vehicle active suspension systems has drawn considerable attention in the past few years, attributed to the fact that active suspension systems have shown superior performance in improving ride comfort and road handling of terrain vehicles, compared with their passive and semi-active counterparts. Although demonstrating superb performance, active suspensions still have some shortcomings that must be overcome. They have high energy consumption, weight, and cost and are not fail-safe in case of a power breakdown. The novel hybrid ED, which is proposed in this paper, is a potential solution to the above-mentioned drawbacks of conventional active suspension systems. The proposed hybrid ED is designed to inherit the high-performance characteristics of an active ED with the reliability of a passive damper in a single package. The eddy current damping effect is utilised as a source of the passive damping. First, a prototype ED is designed and fabricated. The prototype ED is then utilised to experimentally establish the design requirements for a real-size active ED. This is accomplished by comparing its vibration isolation performance in a 1-DOF quarter-car test rig with that of a same-class semi-active damper. Then, after a real-size active ED is designed, the concept of hybrid damper is introduced to the damper design to address the drawbacks of the active ED. Finally, the finite-element method is used to accurately model and analyse the designed hybrid damper. It is demonstrated that by introducing the eddy current damping effect to the active part, a passive damping of approximately 1570 Ns/m is achieved. This amount of passive damping guarantees that the damper is fail-safe and reduces the power consumption more than 70%, compared with an active ED in an automotive active suspension system.

  12. Active support system for 1-m SONG primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Dongsheng; Wang, Guomin; Gu, Bozhong

    2012-05-01

    Chinese-node telescope of Stellar Observations Network Group (SONG) has a primary mirror 1m in diameter with flat back, which will be supported actively. The performance evaluation of the telescope's active optics system is conducted. Finite element analysis (FEA) is employed to analyze the optical surface figures of the primary mirror, and two optimizations are carried out by using ANSYS: (1) the locations and forces of axial supports are optimized with the telescope pointing to zenith; (2) the lateral support forces are calculated with the telescope pointing to horizon. Axial support force sensitivities are calculated in a case that a single axial support has a force error of 0.5N. The correction ability of the active support system is analyzed when an arbitrary axial support is failure. Several low order Zernike modes are modeled with MATLAB procedure, and active optics corrections are applied to these modes. Thermal deformation of the mirror is also corrected using active support system.

  13. Activity Theory in Information Systems Research and Practice: Theoretical Underpinnings for an Information Systems Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mursu, Anja; Luukkonen, Irmeli; Toivanen, Marika; Korpela, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of information systems is to facilitate work activities: here we consider how Activity Theory can be applied in information systems development. Method. The requirements for an analytical model for emancipatory, work-oriented information systems research and practice are specified. Previous research work in Activity…

  14. Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration-sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. A tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem, including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements, as well as a comparison or the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation is provided. The flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: suppression of transient accelerations by levitation, the microgravity vibration isolation mount, and the active rack isolation system are surveyed.

  15. Activity-Based Costing Systems for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Dennis H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines traditional costing models utilized in higher education and pinpoints shortcomings related to proper identification of costs. Describes activity-based costing systems as a superior alternative for cost identification, measurement, and allocation. (MLF)

  16. [Evaluation of systemic lupus erythematosus activity during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Olesińska, Marzena; Wiesik-Szewczyk, Ewa; Chwalińska-Sadowska, Hanna

    2007-07-01

    Pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is considered a high-risk pregnancy. It is complicated by preeclampsia, premature labour and miscarriage more frequently than in the general population. Improved prognosis depends on low disease activity during conception and on appropriate medical care (SLE activity monitoring, selection of therapy safe for the mother and the developing foetus, advances in neonatology). Because symptoms of physiological pregnancy and SLE exacerbation are similar, their correct interpretation is essential for skin lesions, arthralgias, arterial hypertension or results of laboratory tests: proteinuria, thrombocytopenia or leucopenia observed in the patient. In order to standardise the assessment of SLE activity during pregnancy, scores of this activity are used. In the past, scores validated on non-pregnant populations (including male patients) were used: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM), European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurment (ECLAM). Only recently have SLE activity scores been introduced that are specific for pregnant women: Lupus Activity Index In Pregnancy (LAI-P), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pregnancy Disease Activity Index (SLEPDAI), modified--Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (m-SLAM) and a visual three-grade score modified--Physician Global Assessment (m-PGA). So far, only scores LAI-P and m-PGA have been validated. According to the LAI-P score, clinical data are divided into 4 groups. Group 1 includes mild clinical symptoms, group 2--symptoms of involvement of internal organs, group 3 pertains to modifications of treatment and group 4 to laboratory parameters. Point values are ascribed to individual parameters depending on their intensity.

  17. Understanding Tensions: Activity Systems Analysis of Cross-Continental Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, LanHui Zhang; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Using the lens of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, activity theory, and Engeström's activity systems analysis, this qualitative study explores students' experiences in the context of a sixteen-week transpacific collaboration between seven students at Northern Illinois University (NIU) and seven students from Shandong Normal…

  18. Disorder-mediated crowd control in an active matter system

    PubMed Central

    Pinçe, Erçağ; Velu, Sabareesh K. P.; Callegari, Agnese; Elahi, Parviz; Gigan, Sylvain; Volpe, Giovanni; Volpe, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Living active matter systems such as bacterial colonies, schools of fish and human crowds, display a wealth of emerging collective and dynamic behaviours as a result of far-from-equilibrium interactions. The dynamics of these systems are better understood and controlled considering their interaction with the environment, which for realistic systems is often highly heterogeneous and disordered. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of spatial disorder can alter the long-term dynamics in a colloidal active matter system, making it switch between gathering and dispersal of individuals. At equilibrium, colloidal particles always gather at the bottom of any attractive potential; however, under non-equilibrium driving forces in a bacterial bath, the colloids disperse if disorder is added to the potential. The depth of the local roughness in the environment regulates the transition between gathering and dispersal of individuals in the active matter system, thus inspiring novel routes for controlling emerging behaviours far from equilibrium. PMID:26956085

  19. Disorder-mediated crowd control in an active matter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinçe, Erçağ; Velu, Sabareesh K. P.; Callegari, Agnese; Elahi, Parviz; Gigan, Sylvain; Volpe, Giovanni; Volpe, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    Living active matter systems such as bacterial colonies, schools of fish and human crowds, display a wealth of emerging collective and dynamic behaviours as a result of far-from-equilibrium interactions. The dynamics of these systems are better understood and controlled considering their interaction with the environment, which for realistic systems is often highly heterogeneous and disordered. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of spatial disorder can alter the long-term dynamics in a colloidal active matter system, making it switch between gathering and dispersal of individuals. At equilibrium, colloidal particles always gather at the bottom of any attractive potential; however, under non-equilibrium driving forces in a bacterial bath, the colloids disperse if disorder is added to the potential. The depth of the local roughness in the environment regulates the transition between gathering and dispersal of individuals in the active matter system, thus inspiring novel routes for controlling emerging behaviours far from equilibrium.

  20. Flow-injection-type biosensor system for salivary amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kanemaru, Masashi; Kanemori, Takahiro; Mizuno, Yasufumi

    2003-05-01

    The authors aim to establish a method that can quantitatively evaluate vital reactions to stress. We have been examining the correlation between stress and salivary amylase activity in order to verify its validity as a stress index. In order to quantify human stress, which changes over time, the relationship between stress and salivary amylase activity must be verified by fast and repeated analysis of salivary amylase activity. Standard biosensors are designed such that the enzyme immobilized on an electrode (enzyme electrode) and the substrate-dependent activity is measured. The reverse approach of measuring the alpha-amylase-dependent activity was adopted. We fabricated an amylase activity analytical system. Maltopentaose was selected as a substrate for alpha-amylase and a flow-injection-type device was used to supply maltopentaose continuously. alpha-Glucosidase, having relatively low enzyme activity, was immobilized on a pre-activated membrane so that it could be enclosed in a pre-column, Glucose oxidase, having higher enzyme activity, was immobilized on a working electrode so that it could function as an amperometric biosensor. A saliva-collecting device was fabricated to make saliva pretreatment unnecessary. As a result, an amylase activity analytical system was fabricated that enabled us to measure salivary amylase activity from 0 to 30 kU/l, with an R(2) value of 0.97. The time-course changes in the salivary amylase activities for 1 week were 5.1%, and the initial sensitivity remained nearly constant. Through this study, we were able to verify the possible development of the amylase activity analytical system.

  1. 49 CFR 234.225 - Activation of warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS...-rail grade crossing warning system shall be maintained to activate in accordance with the design of the... operation of through trains before the grade crossing is occupied by rail traffic....

  2. 49 CFR 234.225 - Activation of warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS...-rail grade crossing warning system shall be maintained to activate in accordance with the design of the... operation of through trains before the grade crossing is occupied by rail traffic....

  3. Perceiving active listening activates the reward system and improves the impression of relevant experiences.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Sugawara, Sho K; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although active listening is an influential behavior, which can affect the social responses of others, the neural correlates underlying its perception have remained unclear. Sensing active listening in social interactions is accompanied by an improvement in the recollected impressions of relevant experiences and is thought to arouse positive feelings. We therefore hypothesized that the recognition of active listening activates the reward system, and that the emotional appraisal of experiences that had been subject to active listening would be improved. To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on participants viewing assessments of their own personal experiences made by evaluators with or without active listening attitude. Subjects rated evaluators who showed active listening more positively. Furthermore, they rated episodes more positively when they were evaluated by individuals showing active listening. Neural activation in the ventral striatum was enhanced by perceiving active listening, suggesting that this was processed as rewarding. It also activated the right anterior insula, representing positive emotional reappraisal processes. Furthermore, the mentalizing network was activated when participants were being evaluated, irrespective of active listening behavior. Therefore, perceiving active listening appeared to result in positive emotional appraisal and to invoke mental state attribution to the active listener. PMID:25188354

  4. Perceiving active listening activates the reward system and improves the impression of relevant experiences

    PubMed Central

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Sugawara, Sho K.; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although active listening is an influential behavior, which can affect the social responses of others, the neural correlates underlying its perception have remained unclear. Sensing active listening in social interactions is accompanied by an improvement in the recollected impressions of relevant experiences and is thought to arouse positive feelings. We therefore hypothesized that the recognition of active listening activates the reward system, and that the emotional appraisal of experiences that had been subject to active listening would be improved. To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on participants viewing assessments of their own personal experiences made by evaluators with or without active listening attitude. Subjects rated evaluators who showed active listening more positively. Furthermore, they rated episodes more positively when they were evaluated by individuals showing active listening. Neural activation in the ventral striatum was enhanced by perceiving active listening, suggesting that this was processed as rewarding. It also activated the right anterior insula, representing positive emotional reappraisal processes. Furthermore, the mentalizing network was activated when participants were being evaluated, irrespective of active listening behavior. Therefore, perceiving active listening appeared to result in positive emotional appraisal and to invoke mental state attribution to the active listener. PMID:25188354

  5. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  6. State Public Health Laboratory System Quality Improvement Activities

    PubMed Central

    Vagnone, Paula Snippes

    2013-01-01

    The Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) and the APHL Laboratory Systems and Standards Committee manage the Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP). One component of L-SIP is an assessment that allows the members and stakeholders of a laboratory system to have an open and honest discussion about the laboratory system's strengths and weaknesses. From these facilitated discussions, gaps and opportunities for improvement are identified. In some cases, ideas for how to best address these gaps emerge, and workgroups are formed. Depending on resources, both monetary and personnel, laboratory staff will then prioritize the next component of L-SIP: which quality improvement activities to undertake. This article describes a sample of quality improvement activities initiated by several public health laboratories after they conducted L-SIP assessments. These projects can result in more robust linkages between system entities, which can translate into improvements in the way the system addresses the needs of stakeholders. PMID:23997301

  7. Active reflective components for adaptive optical zoom systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, Matthew Edward Lewis

    This dissertation presents the theoretical and experimental exploration of active reflective components specifically for large-aperture adaptive optical zoom systems. An active reflective component can change its focal length by physically deforming its reflecting surface. Adaptive optical zoom (AOZ) utilizes active components in order to change magnification and achieve optical zoom, as opposed to traditional zooming systems that move elements along the optical axis. AOZ systems are theoretically examined using a novel optical design theory that enables a full-scale tradespace analysis, where optical design begins from a broad perspective and optimizes to a particular system. The theory applies existing strategies for telescope design and aberration simulation to AOZ, culminating in the design of a Cassegrain objective with a 3.3X zoom ratio and a 375mm entrance aperture. AOZ systems are experimentally examined with the development of a large-aperture active mirror constructed of a composite material called carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). The active CFRP mirror uses a novel actuation method to change radius of curvature, where actuators press against two annular rings placed on the mirror's back. This method enables the radius of curvature to increase from 2000mm to 2010mm. Closed-loop control maintains good optical performance of 1.05 waves peak-to-valley (with respect to a HeNe laser) when the active CFRP mirror is used in conjunction with a commercial deformable mirror.

  8. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  9. Emergent Ultra-Long-Range Interactions Between Active Particles in Hybrid Active-Inactive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimel, Joshua; Aragones, Juan; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range and magnitude of such interactions has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless, immobile objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our system is a two dimensional colloidal monolayer composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids and a very small fraction of active (sinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction between active particles induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation time scale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.

  10. Accelerometer's position independent physical activity recognition system for long-term activity monitoring in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adil Mehmood; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoung; Kim, Tae-Seong

    2010-12-01

    Mobility is a good indicator of health status and thus objective mobility data could be used to assess the health status of elderly patients. Accelerometry has emerged as an effective means for long-term physical activity monitoring in the elderly. However, the output of an accelerometer varies at different positions on a subject's body, even for the same activity, resulting in high within-class variance. Existing accelerometer-based activity recognition systems thus require firm attachment of the sensor to a subject's body. This requirement makes them impractical for long-term activity monitoring during unsupervised free-living as it forces subjects into a fixed life pattern and impede their daily activities. Therefore, we introduce a novel single-triaxial-accelerometer-based activity recognition system that reduces the high within-class variance significantly and allows subjects to carry the sensor freely in any pocket without its firm attachment. We validated our system using seven activities: resting (lying/sitting/standing), walking, walking-upstairs, walking-downstairs, running, cycling, and vacuuming, recorded from five positions: chest pocket, front left trousers pocket, front right trousers pocket, rear trousers pocket, and inner jacket pocket. Its simplicity, ability to perform activities unimpeded, and an average recognition accuracy of 94% make our system a practical solution for continuous long-term activity monitoring in the elderly.

  11. Simulation of P systems with active membranes on CUDA.

    PubMed

    Cecilia, José M; García, José M; Guerrero, Ginés D; Martínez-del-Amor, Miguel A; Pérez-Hurtado, Ignacio; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J

    2010-05-01

    P systems or Membrane Systems provide a high-level computational modelling framework that combines the structure and dynamic aspects of biological systems in a relevant and understandable way. They are inherently parallel and non-deterministic computing devices. In this article, we discuss the motivation, design principles and key of the implementation of a simulator for the class of recognizer P systems with active membranes running on a (GPU). We compare our parallel simulator for GPUs to the simulator developed for a single central processing unit (CPU), showing that GPUs are better suited than CPUs to simulate P systems due to their highly parallel nature.

  12. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  13. Individual popularity and activity in online social systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haibo; Han, Dingyi; Wang, Xiaofan

    2010-03-01

    We propose a stochastic model of web user behaviors in online social systems, and study the influence of the attraction kernel on the statistical property of user or item occurrence. Combining the different growth patterns of new entities and attraction patterns of old ones, different heavy-tailed distributions for popularity and activity which have been observed in real life, can be obtained. From a broader perspective, we explore the underlying principle governing the statistical feature of individual popularity and activity in online social systems and point out the potential simple mechanism underlying the complex dynamics of the systems.

  14. Rat C-reactive protein activates the autologous complement system.

    PubMed

    Diaz Padilla, Niubel; Bleeker, Wim K; Lubbers, Yvonne; Rigter, Gemma M M; Van Mierlo, Gerard J; Daha, Mohamed R; Hack, C Erik

    2003-08-01

    Activation of complement is a biological function of human C-reactive protein (hCRP), whereas rat CRP (rCRP) has been claimed to be unable to activate complement. As important biological functions of proteins are probably conserved among species, we re-evaluated, using various ligands, the capability of rCRP to activate complement. The activation of complement by hCRP and rCRP was investigated in solid- and fluid-phase systems. In the solid-phase system, purified CRP was fixed to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates and incubated with human or rat recalcified plasma. Dose-dependent binding of human and rat C3 and C4 was observed to human and rat CRP, respectively. In the fluid-phase system, recalcified rat plasma, which contains about 500 mg/l of CRP, or human plasma supplemented with hCRP, were incubated with lyso-phosphatidylcholine. A dose-dependent activation of complement was observed upon incubation with this ligand, as reflected by the generation of activated C4 as well as of CRP-complement complexes. This activation was, in both cases, inhibited by preincubation of plasma with p-aminophosphorylcholine, a specific inhibitor of the interaction of CRP with its ligands, or by chelation of calcium ions. We conclude that rat CRP, similarly to human CRP, can activate autologous complement. These results support the notion that opsonization of ligands with complement is an important biological function of CRP.

  15. Activator-inhibitor systems on heterogeneous ecological networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, C.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2012-12-01

    The consideration of activator-inhibitor systems as complex networks has broadened our knowledge of non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion processes in heterogeneous systems. For example, the Turing mechanism represents a classical model for the formation of self-organized spatial structures in non-equilibrium activator-inhibitor systems. The study of Turing patterns in networks with heterogeneous connectivity has revealed that, contrary to other models and systems, the segregation process takes place mainly in vertices of low degree. In this paper, we study the formation of vegetation patterns in semiarid ecosystems from the perspective of a heterogeneous interacting ecological network. The structure of ecological networks yields fundamental insight into the ecosystem self-organization. Using simple rules for the short-range activation and global inhibition, we reconstruct the observed power-law distribution of vegetation patch size that has been observed in semiarid ecosystems like the Kalahari transect.

  16. Emergent ultra-long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active-inactive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimel, Joshua P.; Aragones, Juan L.; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser

    2016-04-01

    Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.

  17. Emergent ultra-long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active-inactive systems.

    PubMed

    Steimel, Joshua P; Aragones, Juan L; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2016-04-26

    Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.

  18. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  19. Turing pattern formation in fractional activator-inhibitor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, B. I.; Langlands, T. A. M.; Wearne, S. L.

    2005-08-01

    Activator-inhibitor systems of reaction-diffusion equations have been used to describe pattern formation in numerous applications in biology, chemistry, and physics. The rate of diffusion in these applications is manifest in the single parameter of the diffusion constant, and stationary Turing patterns occur above a critical value of d representing the ratio of the diffusion constants of the inhibitor to the activator. Here we consider activator-inhibitor systems in which the diffusion is anomalous subdiffusion; the diffusion rates are manifest in both a diffusion constant and a diffusion exponent. A consideration of this problem in terms of continuous-time random walks with sources and sinks leads to a reaction-diffusion system with fractional order temporal derivatives operating on the spatial Laplacian. We have carried out an algebraic stability analysis of the homogeneous steady-state solution in fractional activator-inhibitor systems, with Gierer-Meinhardt reaction kinetics and with Brusselator reaction kinetics. For each class of reaction kinetics we identify a Turing instability bifurcation curve in the two-dimensional diffusion parameter space. The critical value of d , for Turing instabilities, decreases monotonically with the anomalous diffusion exponent between unity (standard diffusion) and zero (extreme subdiffusion). We have also carried out numerical simulations of the governing fractional activator-inhibitor equations and we show that the Turing instability precipitates the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns. If the diffusion of the activator and inhibitor have the same anomalous scaling properties, then the surface profiles of these patterns for values of d slightly above the critical value varies from smooth stationary patterns to increasingly rough and nonstationary patterns as the anomalous diffusion exponent varies from unity towards zero. If the diffusion of the activator is anomalous subdiffusion but the diffusion of the inhibitor

  20. Turing pattern formation in fractional activator-inhibitor systems.

    PubMed

    Henry, B I; Langlands, T A M; Wearne, S L

    2005-08-01

    Activator-inhibitor systems of reaction-diffusion equations have been used to describe pattern formation in numerous applications in biology, chemistry, and physics. The rate of diffusion in these applications is manifest in the single parameter of the diffusion constant, and stationary Turing patterns occur above a critical value of d representing the ratio of the diffusion constants of the inhibitor to the activator. Here we consider activator-inhibitor systems in which the diffusion is anomalous subdiffusion; the diffusion rates are manifest in both a diffusion constant and a diffusion exponent. A consideration of this problem in terms of continuous-time random walks with sources and sinks leads to a reaction-diffusion system with fractional order temporal derivatives operating on the spatial Laplacian. We have carried out an algebraic stability analysis of the homogeneous steady-state solution in fractional activator-inhibitor systems, with Gierer-Meinhardt reaction kinetics and with Brusselator reaction kinetics. For each class of reaction kinetics we identify a Turing instability bifurcation curve in the two-dimensional diffusion parameter space. The critical value of d , for Turing instabilities, decreases monotonically with the anomalous diffusion exponent between unity (standard diffusion) and zero (extreme subdiffusion). We have also carried out numerical simulations of the governing fractional activator-inhibitor equations and we show that the Turing instability precipitates the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns. If the diffusion of the activator and inhibitor have the same anomalous scaling properties, then the surface profiles of these patterns for values of d slightly above the critical value varies from smooth stationary patterns to increasingly rough and nonstationary patterns as the anomalous diffusion exponent varies from unity towards zero. If the diffusion of the activator is anomalous subdiffusion but the diffusion of the inhibitor

  1. Modanifil activates the histaminergic system through the orexinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Murotani, Tomotaka; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2010-10-15

    Modafinil is a drug used to treat hypersomnolence of narcolepsy. We previously reported that modafinil increases hypothalamic histamine release in rats but did not increase locomotor activity in histamine-depleted mice, suggesting that modafinil-induced locomotor activity involves the histaminergic system. Modafinil is also thought to express its effect through the orexinergic neurons, and orexin increases hypothalamic histamine release. These findings led us to investigate whether modafinil activates the histaminergic system via the orexinergic system. In the present study, we performed in vivo microdialysis and c-Fos immunohistochemistry to investigate whether the orexinergic system mediates the activation of the histaminergic system by modafinil using orexin neuron-deficient mice. Two hours after the injection, modafinil (150 mg/kg) caused a significant increase of histamine release compared to the basal release in wild type mice. However, modafinil had no effect on the histamine release in orexin neuron-deficient mice. By immunohistochemical study, we found that there was no neuronal activation in the tuberomammillary nucleus where the cell bodies of the histaminergic neurons exclusively exist in orexin neuron-deficient mice. These findings indicate that modafinil-induced increment of histamine release requires intact orexinergic neurons.

  2. The hydro nuclear services dry active waste processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    There is a real need for a dry active waste processing system that can separate clean trash and recoverable items from radwaste safely and efficiently. This paper reports that Hydro Nuclear Services has produced just such a system and is marketing it as a DAW Segregation/Volume Reduction Process. The system is a unique, semi-automated package of sensitive monitoring instruments of volume reduction equipment that separates clean trash from contaminated and recoverable items in the waste stream and prepares the clean trash for unrestricted release. What makes the HNS system truly unique is its end product - clean trash.

  3. Application considerations and compensation characteristics of shunt active and series active filters in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    This paper characterizes typical nonlinear loads into two types of harmonic sources -harmonic current source and harmonic voltage source, which produce highly distorted currents and voltages, respectively. The conventional approach of active harmonic compensation has been the parallel type or `shunt active filter.` It is shown in this paper that the shunt active filter is effective only to harmonic current sources but not to harmonic voltage sources. On the other hand, the active filter connected in series with the system or `series active filter` is very effective in suppression of the harmonic voltage sources. General compensation characteristics of shunt active filters and series active filters are given analytically. The features, required operation conditions, and application considerations of both filters are described analytically and demonstrated experimentally.

  4. Bioorthogonal Chemical Activation of Kinases in Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Selective manipulation of protein kinases under living conditions is highly desirable yet extremely challenging, particularly in a gain-of-function fashion. Here we employ our recently developed bioorthogonal cleavage reaction as a general strategy for intracellular activation of individual kinases. Site-specific incorporation of trans-cyclooctene-caged lysine in place of the conserved catalytic lysine, in conjunction with the cleavage partner dimethyl-tetrazine, allowed efficient lysine decaging with the kinase activity chemically rescued in living systems. PMID:27280167

  5. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; Taylor, Shawn; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance ( 0.001 in. error).

  6. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance (0.001 in. error).

  7. A comparison of active adverse event surveillance systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lin; Moon, Jinhee; Segal, Jodi B

    2014-08-01

    Post-marketing drug surveillance for adverse drug events (ADEs) has typically relied on spontaneous reporting. Recently, regulatory agencies have turned their attention to more preemptive approaches that use existing data for surveillance. We conducted an environmental scan to identify active surveillance systems worldwide that use existing data for the detection of ADEs. We extracted data about the systems' structures, data, and functions. We synthesized the information across systems to identify common features of these systems. We identified nine active surveillance systems. Two systems are US based-the FDA Sentinel Initiative (including both the Mini-Sentinel Initiative and the Federal Partner Collaboration) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD); two are Canadian-the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) and the Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION); and two are European-the Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by Integrative Mining of Clinical Records and Biomedical Knowledge (EU-ADR) Alliance and the Vaccine Adverse Event Surveillance and Communication (VAESCO). Additionally, there is the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network (AsPEN) and the Shanghai Drug Monitoring and Evaluative System (SDMES). We identified two systems in the UK-the Vigilance and Risk Management of Medicines (VRMM) Division and the Drug Safety Research Unit (DSRU), an independent academic unit. These surveillance systems mostly use administrative claims or electronic medical records; most conduct pharmacovigilance on behalf of a regulatory agency. Either a common data model or a centralized model is used to access existing data. The systems have been built using national data alone or via partnership with other countries. However, active surveillance systems using existing data remain rare. North America and Europe have the most population coverage; with Asian countries making good advances. PMID:25022829

  8. Virial pressure in systems of spherical active Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Roland G; Wysocki, Adam; Gompper, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    The pressure of suspensions of self-propelled objects is studied theoretically and by simulation of spherical active Brownian particles (ABPs). We show that for certain geometries, the mechanical pressure as force/area of confined systems can be equally expressed by bulk properties, which implies the existence of a nonequilibrium equation of state. Exploiting the virial theorem, we derive expressions for the pressure of ABPs confined by solid walls or exposed to periodic boundary conditions. In both cases, the pressure comprises three contributions: the ideal-gas pressure due to white-noise random forces, an activity-induced pressure ("swim pressure"), which can be expressed in terms of a product of the bare and a mean effective particle velocity, and the contribution by interparticle forces. We find that the pressure of spherical ABPs in confined systems explicitly depends on the presence of the confining walls and the particle-wall interactions, which has no correspondence in systems with periodic boundary conditions. Our simulations of three-dimensional ABPs in systems with periodic boundary conditions reveal a pressure-concentration dependence that becomes increasingly nonmonotonic with increasing activity. Above a critical activity and ABP concentration, a phase transition occurs, which is reflected in a rapid and steep change of the pressure. We present and discuss the pressure for various activities and analyse the contributions of the individual pressure components.

  9. Virial pressure in systems of spherical active Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Roland G; Wysocki, Adam; Gompper, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    The pressure of suspensions of self-propelled objects is studied theoretically and by simulation of spherical active Brownian particles (ABPs). We show that for certain geometries, the mechanical pressure as force/area of confined systems can be equally expressed by bulk properties, which implies the existence of a nonequilibrium equation of state. Exploiting the virial theorem, we derive expressions for the pressure of ABPs confined by solid walls or exposed to periodic boundary conditions. In both cases, the pressure comprises three contributions: the ideal-gas pressure due to white-noise random forces, an activity-induced pressure ("swim pressure"), which can be expressed in terms of a product of the bare and a mean effective particle velocity, and the contribution by interparticle forces. We find that the pressure of spherical ABPs in confined systems explicitly depends on the presence of the confining walls and the particle-wall interactions, which has no correspondence in systems with periodic boundary conditions. Our simulations of three-dimensional ABPs in systems with periodic boundary conditions reveal a pressure-concentration dependence that becomes increasingly nonmonotonic with increasing activity. Above a critical activity and ABP concentration, a phase transition occurs, which is reflected in a rapid and steep change of the pressure. We present and discuss the pressure for various activities and analyse the contributions of the individual pressure components. PMID:26221908

  10. Game-Based Virtual Worlds as Decentralized Virtual Activity Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scacchi, Walt

    There is widespread interest in the development and use of decentralized systems and virtual world environments as possible new places for engaging in collaborative work activities. Similarly, there is widespread interest in stimulating new technological innovations that enable people to come together through social networking, file/media sharing, and networked multi-player computer game play. A decentralized virtual activity system (DVAS) is a networked computer supported work/play system whose elements and social activities can be both virtual and decentralized (Scacchi et al. 2008b). Massively multi-player online games (MMOGs) such as World of Warcraft and online virtual worlds such as Second Life are each popular examples of a DVAS. Furthermore, these systems are beginning to be used for research, deve-lopment, and education activities in different science, technology, and engineering domains (Bainbridge 2007, Bohannon et al. 2009; Rieber 2005; Scacchi and Adams 2007; Shaffer 2006), which are also of interest here. This chapter explores two case studies of DVASs developed at the University of California at Irvine that employ game-based virtual worlds to support collaborative work/play activities in different settings. The settings include those that model and simulate practical or imaginative physical worlds in different domains of science, technology, or engineering through alternative virtual worlds where players/workers engage in different kinds of quests or quest-like workflows (Jakobsson 2006).

  11. Manned spaceflight activity planning with knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogilensky, J.; Dalton, R. E.; Scarl, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    An on-board expert system, capable of assisting with crew-activity planning and platform-status monitoring, could provide unprecedented autonomy to the crew of a permanently manned space station. To demonstrate this concept's feasibility, an existing knowledge-based system is adapted to support Space Shuttle crew-activity timeline planning. Proposed timeline changes are to be checked for compliance with crew capabilities and mission operating guidelines, so that a nonexpert can be guided through a successful plan modification. Early lessons that have been learned about the scope of the adaptation needed to achieve this objective are presented.

  12. Implementation study of wearable sensors for activity recognition systems

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemian, Mona

    2015-01-01

    This Letter investigates and reports on a number of activity recognition methods for a wearable sensor system. The authors apply three methods for data transmission, namely ‘stream-based’, ‘feature-based’ and ‘threshold-based’ scenarios to study the accuracy against energy efficiency of transmission and processing power that affects the mote's battery lifetime. They also report on the impact of variation of sampling frequency and data transmission rate on energy consumption of motes for each method. This study leads us to propose a cross-layer optimisation of an activity recognition system for provisioning acceptable levels of accuracy and energy efficiency. PMID:26609413

  13. Retrofitting activated sludge systems to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, O; Artan, N; Orhon, D

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides the basis and the conceptual approach of applying process kinetics and modelling to the design of alternating activated sludge systems for retrofitting existing activated sludge plants to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal. It shows the significant role of the two specific parameters, namely, the aerated fraction and the cycle time ratio on process performance through model simulations and proposes a way to incorporate them into a design procedure using process stoichiometry and mass balance. It illustrates the effect of these parameters, together with the sludge age, in establishing the balance between the denitrification potential and the available nitrogen created in the anoxic/aerobic sequences of system operation.

  14. Implementation study of wearable sensors for activity recognition systems.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Hamed; Ghassemian, Mona

    2015-08-01

    This Letter investigates and reports on a number of activity recognition methods for a wearable sensor system. The authors apply three methods for data transmission, namely 'stream-based', 'feature-based' and 'threshold-based' scenarios to study the accuracy against energy efficiency of transmission and processing power that affects the mote's battery lifetime. They also report on the impact of variation of sampling frequency and data transmission rate on energy consumption of motes for each method. This study leads us to propose a cross-layer optimisation of an activity recognition system for provisioning acceptable levels of accuracy and energy efficiency.

  15. Retrofitting activated sludge systems to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, O; Artan, N; Orhon, D

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides the basis and the conceptual approach of applying process kinetics and modelling to the design of alternating activated sludge systems for retrofitting existing activated sludge plants to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal. It shows the significant role of the two specific parameters, namely, the aerated fraction and the cycle time ratio on process performance through model simulations and proposes a way to incorporate them into a design procedure using process stoichiometry and mass balance. It illustrates the effect of these parameters, together with the sludge age, in establishing the balance between the denitrification potential and the available nitrogen created in the anoxic/aerobic sequences of system operation. PMID:12420968

  16. Activity-based costing for integrated delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Baker, J J

    1995-01-01

    The paradigm shift toward managed care is fueling new cost-finding demands. More sophisticated methods are emerging to meet these demands. Foremost among the new methods is activity-based costing (ABC). ABC is designed to eliminate cross-subsidies between products or services. Because costs are traced by activities across departments and cost centers, costs can also be traced by activities across integrated delivery systems (IDSs). The methodology makes ABC very applicable to combinations of providers including chains, affiliated groups, and IDS participants. PMID:8820298

  17. Activity-based costing for integrated delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Baker, J J

    1995-01-01

    The paradigm shift toward managed care is fueling new cost-finding demands. More sophisticated methods are emerging to meet these demands. Foremost among the new methods is activity-based costing (ABC). ABC is designed to eliminate cross-subsidies between products or services. Because costs are traced by activities across departments and cost centers, costs can also be traced by activities across integrated delivery systems (IDSs). The methodology makes ABC very applicable to combinations of providers including chains, affiliated groups, and IDS participants.

  18. Characterizing wind turbine system response to lightning activity

    SciTech Connect

    McNiff, B.; LaWhite, N.; Muljadi, E.

    1998-07-01

    A lightning protection research program was instituted by National Renewable Energy Laboratory to minimize lightning damage to wind turbines and to further the understanding of effective damage mitigation techniques. To that end, a test program is under way to observe lightning activity, protection system response, and damage at a wind power plant in the Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Turbine Verification Program. The authors installed Lightning activated surveillance cameras along with a special storm tracking device to observe the activity in the wind plant area. They instrumented the turbines with lightning and ground current detection devices to log direct and indirect strike activity at each unit. They installed a surge monitor on the utility interface to track incoming activity from the transmission lines. Maintenance logs are used to verify damage and determine downtime and repair costs. Actual strikes to turbines were recorded on video and ancillary devices. The test setup and some results are discussed in this paper.

  19. Benfotiamine upregulates antioxidative system in activated BV-2 microglia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Ivana; Pekovic, Sanja; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Chronic microglial activation and resulting sustained neuroinflammatory reaction are generally associated with neurodegeneration. Activated microglia acquires proinflammatory cellular profile that generates oxidative burst. Their persistent activation exacerbates inflammation, which damages healthy neurons via cytotoxic mediators, such as superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide. In our recent study, we have shown that benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of benfotiamine on the pro-oxidative component of activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were investigated. The activation of microglia was accompanied by upregulation of intracellular antioxidative defense, which was further promoted in the presence of benfotiamine. Namely, activated microglia exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of benfotiamine showed increased levels and activities of hydrogen peroxide- and superoxide-removing enzymes—catalase and glutathione system, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, benfotiamine showed the capacity to directly scavenge superoxide radical anion. As a consequence, benfotiamine suppressed the activation of microglia and provoked a decrease in NO and ·O−2 production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, benfotiamine might silence pro-oxidative activity of microglia to alleviate/prevent oxidative damage of neighboring CNS cells. PMID:26388737

  20. Low-dose effect of ethanol on locomotor activity induced by activation of the mesolimbic system.

    PubMed

    Milton, G V; Randall, P K; Erickson, C K

    1995-06-01

    Four experiments were designed to study the ability of 0.5 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) intraperitoneally to modify locomotor activity induced by drugs that interact with different sites in the mesolimbic system (MLS) of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Locomotor activity was measured in a doughnut-shaped circular arena after various treatments. EtOH alone did not alter locomotor activity in any of the experiments. Amphetamine (AMP, intraperitoneally or intraaccumbens) increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, and the presence of EtOH attenuated AMP-induced locomotor activity. Bilateral infusion of GABAA antagonist picrotoxin (PIC) into the ventral tegmental area also increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, and the presence of EtOH attenuated PIC-induced locomotor activity. On the other hand, the interaction between bilateral infusion of mu-receptor agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-NMe-Phe-Gly-ol (DAGO) and EtOH on locomotor activity is complex. The highest dose of DAGO that significantly increased locomotor activity was not affected by the presence of EtOH. But, with lower doses of DAGO that either had no effect or a small increase in locomotor activity, the combination of EtOH and DAGO increased and attenuated locomotor activity, respectively. Results from this study support our hypothesis that a low dose of EtOH that does not modify behavior can interact with neurotransmitter systems in the brain and modify drug-induced locomotor activity. Modification of this drug-induced locomotor activity by a low dose of EtOH is dependent on the rate of ongoing locomotor behavior induced by drug and the neurotransmitter substrate that the drug modified to induce locomotor behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Automated Activation and Deactivation of a System Under Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poff, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The MPLM Automated Activation/Deactivation application (MPLM means Multi-Purpose Logistic Module) was created with a three-fold purpose in mind: 1. To reduce the possibility of human error in issuing commands to, or interpreting telemetry from, the MPLM power, computer, and environmental control systems; 2. To reduce the amount of test time required for the repetitive activation/deactivation processes; and 3. To reduce the number of on-console personnel required for activation/ deactivation. All of these have been demonstrated with the release of the software. While some degree of automated end-item commanding had previously been performed for space-station hardware in the test environment, none approached the functionality and flexibility of this application. For MPLM activation, it provides mouse-click selection of the hardware complement to be activated, activates the desired hardware and verifies proper feedbacks, and alerts the user when telemetry indicates an error condition or manual intervention is required. For MPLM deactivation, the product senses which end items are active and deactivates them in the proper sequence. For historical purposes, an on-line log is maintained of commands issued and telemetry points monitored. The benefits of the MPLM Automated Activation/ Deactivation application were demonstrated with its first use in December 2002, when it flawlessly performed MPLM activation in 8 minutes (versus as much as 2.4 hours for previous manual activations), and performed MPLM deactivation in 3 minutes (versus 66 minutes for previous manual deactivations). The number of test team members required has dropped from eight to four, and in actuality the software can be operated by a sole (knowledgeable) system engineer.

  2. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. The Solar System Ballet: A Kinesthetic Spatial Astronomy Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; Astronomy, Center; Education ResearchCAPER, Physics

    2011-05-01

    The Solar System Ballet was developed in order for students of all ages to learn about the planets, their motions, their distances, and their individual characteristics. To teach people about the structure of our Solar System can be revealing and rewarding, for students and teachers. Little ones (and some bigger ones, too) often cannot yet grasp theoretical and spatial ideas purely with their minds. Showing a video is better, but being able to learn with their bodies, essentially being what they learn about, will help them understand and remember difficult concepts much more easily. There are three segments to this activity, which can be done together or separately, depending on time limits and age of the students. Part one involves a short introductory discussion about what students know about the planets. Then students will act out the orbital motions of the planets (and also moons for the older ones) while holding a physical model. During the second phase we look at the structure of the Solar System as well as the relative distances of the planets from the Sun, first by sketching it on paper, then by recreating a scaled version in the class room. Again the students act out the parts of the Solar System bodies with their models. The third segment concentrates on recreating historical measurements of Earth-Moon-Sun system. The Solar System Ballet activity is suitable for grades K-12+ as well as general public informal learning activities.

  4. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0–60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems. PMID:26538293

  5. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-11-05

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.

  6. Two generations of Canadian active imaging systems: ALBEDOS and ELVISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larochelle, Vincent; Mathieu, Pierre; Simard, Jean-Robert

    1999-07-01

    Search and rescue and general surveillance mission pose a serious challenge to conventional imaging systems used by actual aircraft crews. These systems must often work in low- light and low-visibility conditions to find the identify targets. A new airborne imaging technology has been developed to overcome several deficiencies encountered with common CCD cameras, image intensified system and thermal imaging sensors. The recent developments in laser diode arrays, laser diode beam collimation and gatable micro- channel plate intensifier have made possible the construction of a compact active imagin system, called the Airborne Laser-Based Enhanced Detection and Observation Systems (ALBEDOS). This system proved particularly efficient at night and in degraded weather conditions. In addition, it was demonstrated that range gating, besides eliminating most of the light backscattered by aerosols, provided to some extent immunity to blooming effects specific to highly sensitive cameras. The system was installed on a helicopter and tested in various scenarios in October 1995 to demonstrate its potential. To enhance the surveillance capability over large areas of coverage, to optimize detection of humans and small objects and to improve the effectiveness of the search aircraft, a second-generation payload is presently developed and combines the benefits of two complementary imaging sensors. The Enhanced Low-Light level Visible and IR Surveillance System (ELVISS) consists of an improved range-gated active imager and a high-quality thermal imager, installed in two separate airborne platforms slaved together and controlled by a single user interface. It is expected that such a sensor systems will have a direct impact on improving the response time in finding those in need of assistance or simply in increasing the performance, reliability and efficiency of crews involved in general surveillance operations. This paper explains the concept of range gating, details a preliminary

  7. Diet Modifies the Neuroimmune System by Influencing Macrophage Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Christina Lynn

    2009-01-01

    It has long been appreciated that adequate nutrition is required for proper immune function and it is now recognized that dietary components contribute to modulation of immune cells, subsequently impacting the whole body's response during an immune challenge. Macrophage activation plays a critical role in the immune system and directs the…

  8. Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, J. L., III

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

  9. Detection system ensures positive alarm activation in digital message loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokros, P.; Burstein, A.; Hewitt, E. D.

    1966-01-01

    Lost Word Detection System /LOWDS/ provides special identification for each error detection message transmitted from receiver to transmitter. The message is identified as an original message or an n-times retransmitted message so the receiver can detect where a retransmission request was not fulfilled and activate an alarm.

  10. Moodog: Tracking Student Activity in Online Course Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hangjin; Almeroth, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Many universities are currently using Course Management Systems (CMSes) to conduct online learning, for example, by distributing course materials or submitting homework assignments. However, most CMSes do not include comprehensive activity tracking and analysis capabilities. This paper describes a method to track students' online learning…

  11. Active damping control for electrodynamic suspension systems without mechanical transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Brunelli, B.; Casadei, D.; Serra, G.; Tani, A.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper an electrodynamic suspension system for maglev vehicles is analyzed, in which the active damping of the vertical oscillations is obtained without position, velocity and acceleration transducers. The damping effect is accomplished controlling the supply voltage of the damping coil to respond to current changes due to vertical oscillations. The stability of the suspension system is investigated by a linearized analysis of the model equations, emphasizing the influence of the voltage regulator parameters. The performance of the damping system, in terms of step response and ride quality, is also discussed.

  12. Multi-carrier mobile TDMA system with active array antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, Ryutaro; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Hamamoto, Naokazu

    1990-01-01

    A multi-carrier time division multiple access (TDMA) is proposed for the future mobile satellite communications systems that include a multi-satellite system. This TDMA system employs the active array antenna in which the digital beam forming technique is adopted to control the antenna beam direction. The antenna beam forming is carried out at the base band frequency by using the digital signal processing technique. The time division duplex technique is applied for the TDM/TDMA burst format, in order not to overlap transmit and receive timing.

  13. Dynamic positioning system based on active disturbance rejection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhengling; Guo, Chen; Fan, Yunsheng

    2015-08-01

    A dynamically positioned vessel, by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the certifying class societies (DNV, ABS, LR, etc.), is defined as a vessel that maintains its position and heading (fixed location or pre-determined track) exclusively by means of active thrusters. The development of control technology promotes the upgrading of dynamic positioning (DP) systems. Today there are two different DP systems solutions available on the market: DP system based on PID regulator and that based on model-based control. Both systems have limited disturbance rejection capability due to their design principle. In this paper, a new DP system solution is proposed based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) technology. This technology is composed of Tracking-Differentiator (TD), Extended State Observer (ESO) and Nonlinear Feedback Combination. On one hand, both TD and ESO can act as filters and can be used in place of conventional filters; on the other hand, the total disturbance of the system can be estimated and compensated by ESO, which therefore enhances the system's disturbance rejection capability. This technology's advantages over other methods lie in two aspects: 1) This method itself can not only achieve control objectives but also filter noisy measurements without other specialized filters; 2) This method offers a new useful approach to suppress the ocean disturbance. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Parameter identification for active mass damper controlled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. C.; Wang, J. F.; Lin, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    Active control systems have already been installed in real structures and are able to decrease the wind- and earthquake-induced responses, while the active mass damper (AMD) is one of the most popular types of such systems. In practice, an AMD is generally assembled in- situ along with the construction of a building. In such a case, the AMD and the building is coupled as an entire system. After the construction is completed, the dynamic properties of the AMD subsystem and the primary building itself are unknown and cannot be identified individually to verify their design demands. For this purpose, a methodology is developed to obtain the feedback gain of the AMD controller and the dynamic properties of the primary building based on the complex eigen-parameters of the coupled building-AMD system. By means of the theoretical derivation in state-space, the non-classical damping feature of the system is characterized. This methodology can be combined with any state-space based system identification technique as a procedure to achieve the goal on the basis of the acceleration measurements of the building-AMD system. Results from numerical verifications show that the procedure is capable of extracting parameters and is applicable for AMD implementation practices.

  15. Monoclonal antibody against the active site of caeruloplasmin and the ELISA system detecting active caeruloplasmin.

    PubMed

    Hiyamuta, S; Ito, K

    1994-04-01

    Serum caeruloplasmin deficiency is a characteristic biochemical abnormality found in patients with Wilson's disease, but the mechanism of this disease is unknown. Although the phenylenediamine oxidase activity of serum caeruloplasmin is markedly low in patients with Wilson's disease, mRNA of caeruloplasmin exists to some extent. To investigate the deficiency of caeruloplasmin oxidase activity in Wilson's disease, we generated 14 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and selected ID1, which had the strongest reactivity, and ID2, which had neutralizing ability. We also established a system to measure active caeruloplasmin specifically using these MAbs. These MAbs and the system will be useful tools in analyzing the active site of caeruloplasmin in patients with Wilson's disease.

  16. Active control technique of fractional-order chaotic complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Ahmed, Mansour E.; Abed-Elhameed, Tarek M.

    2016-06-01

    Several kinds of synchronization of fractional-order chaotic complex systems are challenging research topics of current interest since they appear in many applications in applied sciences. Our main goal in this paper is to introduce the definition of modified projective combination-combination synchronization (MPCCS) of some fractional-order chaotic complex systems. We show that our systems are chaotic by calculating their Lyapunov exponents. The fractional Lyapunov dimension of the chaotic solutions of these systems is computed. A scheme is introduced to calculate MPCCS of four different (or identical) chaotic complex systems using the active control technique. Special cases of this type, which are projective and anti C-C synchronization, are discussed. Some figures are plotted to show that MPCCS is achieved and its errors approach zero.

  17. Active and passive calcium transport systems in plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, H.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to change cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} levels ((Ca{sup 2+})) by cells has made this cation a key regulator of many biological processes. Cytoplasmic (Ca{sup 2+}) is determined by the coordination of passive Ca{sup 2+} fluxes which increase cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}) and active Ca{sup 2+} transport systems that lower cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}). The mechanisms by which plant cells achieve this is poorly understood. We have initially used isolated vesicles from the plasma membrane or organellar membranes to study Ca{sup 2+} transport systems in oat roots (a monocot) and carrot suspension cells (a dicot). The objectives of the proposal were to identify and characterize active (energy-dependent) and passive calcium transport systems that work together to regulate calcium levels in the cytoplasm of plant cells. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Automated system for analyzing the activity of individual neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankman, Isaac N.; Johnson, Kenneth O.; Menkes, Alex M.; Diamond, Steve D.; Oshaughnessy, David M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a signal processing system that: (1) provides an efficient and reliable instrument for investigating the activity of neuronal assemblies in the brain; and (2) demonstrates the feasibility of generating the command signals of prostheses using the activity of relevant neurons in disabled subjects. The system operates online, in a fully automated manner and can recognize the transient waveforms of several neurons in extracellular neurophysiological recordings. Optimal algorithms for detection, classification, and resolution of overlapping waveforms are developed and evaluated. Full automation is made possible by an algorithm that can set appropriate decision thresholds and an algorithm that can generate templates on-line. The system is implemented with a fast IBM PC compatible processor board that allows on-line operation.

  19. Active and passive calcium transport systems in plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, H.

    1991-01-01

    The ability to change cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} levels ((Ca{sup 2+})) by cells has made this cation a key regulator of many biological processes. Cytoplasmic (Ca{sup 2+}) is determined by the coordination of passive Ca{sup 2+} fluxes which increase cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}) and active Ca{sup 2+} transport systems that lower cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}). The mechanisms by which plant cells achieve this is poorly understood. We have initially used isolated vesicles from the plasma membrane or organellar membranes to study Ca{sup 2+} transport systems in oat roots (a monocot) and carrot suspension cells (a dicot). The objectives of the proposal were to identify and characterize active (energy-dependent) and passive calcium transport systems that work together to regulate calcium levels in the cytoplasm of plant cells.

  20. Toxin activity assays, devices, methods and systems therefor

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory Jon

    2016-04-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, system and method for conducting toxin activity assay using sedimentation. The toxin activity assay may include generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample. The complexes may include a target toxin and a labeling agent, or may be generated due to presence of active target toxin and/or labeling agent designed to be incorporated into complexes responsive to the presence of target active toxin. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a lower density than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  1. Active stabilization to prevent surge in centrifugal compression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, Alan H.; Greitzer, Edward M.; Simon, Jon S.; Valavani, Lena

    1993-01-01

    This report documents an experimental and analytical study of the active stabilization of surge in a centrifugal engine. The aims of the research were to extend the operating range of a compressor as far as possible and to establish the theoretical framework for the active stabilization of surge from both an aerodynamic stability and a control theoretic perspective. In particular, much attention was paid to understanding the physical limitations of active stabilization and how they are influenced by control system design parameters. Previously developed linear models of actively stabilized compressors were extended to include such nonlinear phenomena as bounded actuation, bandwidth limits, and robustness criteria. This model was then used to systematically quantify the influence of sensor-actuator selection on system performance. Five different actuation schemes were considered along with four different sensors. Sensor-actuator choice was shown to have a profound effect on the performance of the stabilized compressor. The optimum choice was not unique, but rather shown to be a strong function of some of the non-dimensional parameters which characterize the compression system dynamics. Specifically, the utility of the concepts were shown to depend on the system compliance to inertia ratio ('B' parameter) and the local slope of the compressor speedline. In general, the most effective arrangements are ones in which the actuator is most closely coupled to the compressor, such as a close-coupled bleed valve inlet jet, rather than elsewhere in the flow train, such as a fuel flow modulator. The analytical model was used to explore the influence of control system bandwidth on control effectiveness. The relevant reference frequency was shown to be the compression system's Helmholtz frequency rather than the surge frequency. The analysis shows that control bandwidths of three to ten times the Helmholtz frequency are required for larger increases in the compressor flow range

  2. Symmetric Active/Active Metadata Service for High Availability Parallel File Systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ou, Li; Engelmann, Christian; Chen, Xin; Scott, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    High availability data storage systems are critical for many applications as research and business become more data-driven. Since metadata management is essential to system availability, multiple metadata services are used to improve the availability of distributed storage systems. Past research focused on the active/standby model, where each active service has at least one redundant idle backup. However, interruption of service and even some loss of service state may occur during a fail-over depending on the used replication technique. In addition, the replication overhead for multiple metadata services can be very high. The research in this paper targets the symmetric active/active replication model, which uses multiple redundant service nodes running in virtual synchrony. In this model, service node failures do not cause a fail-over to a backup and there is no disruption of service or loss of service state. We further discuss a fast delivery protocol to reduce the latency of the needed total order broadcast. Our prototype implementation shows that metadata service high availability can be achieved with an acceptable performance trade-off using our symmetric active/active metadata service solution.

  3. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  4. Augmented reality to enhance an active telepresence system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Alison; Pretlove, John R. G.; Parker, Graham A.

    1996-12-01

    Tasks carried out remotely via a telerobotic system are typically complex, occur in hazardous environments and require fine control of the robot's movements. Telepresence systems provide the teleoperator with a feeling of being physically present at the remote site. Stereoscopic video has been successfully applied to telepresence vision systems to increase the operator's perception of depth in the remote scene and this sense of presence can be further enhanced using computer generated stereo graphics to augment the visual information presented to the operator. The Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research Group have over seven years developed a number of high performance active stereo vision systems culminating in the latest, a four degree-of-freedom stereohead. This carries two miniature color cameras and is controlled in real time by the motion of the operator's head, who views the stereoscopic video images on an immersive head mounted display or stereo monitor. The stereohead is mounted on a mobile robot, the movement of which is controlled by a joystick interface. This paper describes the active telepresence system and the development of a prototype augmented reality (AR) application to enhance the operator's sense of presence at the remote site. The initial enhancements are a virtual map and compass to aid navigation in degraded visual conditions and a virtual cursor that provides a means for the operator to interact with the remote environment. The results of preliminary experiments using the initial enhancements are presented.

  5. Extracellular enzyme activity in a willow sewage treatment system.

    PubMed

    Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Lalke-Porczyk, Elżbieta; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the activity of extra-cellular enzymes in soil-willow vegetation filter soil which is used in the post-treatment of household sewage in an onsite wastewater treatment system located in central Poland. Wastewater is discharged from the detached house by gravity into the onsite wastewater treatment system. It flows through a connecting pipe into a single-chamber septic tank and is directed by the connecting pipe to a control well to be further channelled in the soil-willow filter by means of a subsurface leaching system. Soil samples for the studies were collected from two depths of 5 cm and 1 m from three plots: close to the wastewater inflow, at mid-length of the plot and close to its terminal part. Soil samples were collected from May to October 2009. The activity of the extra-cellular enzymes was assayed by the fluorometric method using 4-methylumbelliferyl and 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate. The ranking of potential activity of the assayed enzymes was the same at 5 cm and 1 m soil depths, i.e. esterase > phosphmomoesterase > leucine-aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase. The highest values of enzymatic activity were recorded in the surface layer of the soil at the wastewater inflow and decreased with increasing distance from that point.

  6. Active system area networks for data intensive computations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    The goal of the Active System Area Networks (ASAN) project is to develop hardware and software technologies for the implementation of active system area networks (ASANs). The use of the term ''active'' refers to the ability of the network interfaces to perform application-specific as well as system level computations in addition to their traditional role of data transfer. This project adopts the view that the network infrastructure should be an active computational entity capable of supporting certain classes of computations that would otherwise be performed on the host CPUs. The result is a unique network-wide programming model where computations are dynamically placed within the host CPUs or the NIs depending upon the quality of service demands and network/CPU resource availability. The projects seeks to demonstrate that such an approach is a better match for data intensive network-based applications and that the advent of low-cost powerful embedded processors and configurable hardware makes such an approach economically viable and desirable.

  7. Optically powered active sensing system for Internet Of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chen; Wang, Jin; Yin, Long; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Jian; Wan, Hongdan

    2014-10-01

    Internet Of Things (IOT) drives a significant increase in the extent and type of sensing technology and equipment. Sensors, instrumentation, control electronics, data logging and transmission units comprising such sensing systems will all require to be powered. Conventionally, electrical powering is supplied by batteries or/and electric power cables. The power supply by batteries usually has a limited lifetime, while the electric power cables are susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In fact, the electromagnetic interference is the key issue limiting the power supply in the strong electromagnetic radiation area and other extreme environments. The novel alternative method of power supply is power over fiber (PoF) technique. As fibers are used as power supply lines instead, the delivery of the power is inherently immune to electromagnetic radiation, and avoids cumbersome shielding of power lines. Such a safer power supply mode would be a promising candidate for applications in IOT. In this work, we built up optically powered active sensing system, supplying uninterrupted power for the remote active sensors and communication modules. Also, we proposed a novel maximum power point tracking technique for photovoltaic power convertors. In our system, the actual output efficiency greater than 40% within 1W laser power. After 1km fiber transmission and opto-electric power conversion, a stable electric power of 210mW was obtained, which is sufficient for operating an active sensing system.

  8. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Polak, Agnieszka; Harasim, Ewa; Chabowski, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described. PMID:27333924

  9. Active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; Noethe, Lothar; Magrin, Demetrio; Kuijken, Konrad; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Capaccioli, Massimo; Dall'Ora, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Farinato, Jacopo; Fierro, Davide; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Savarese, Salvatore; Rakich, Andrew; Umbriaco, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope, the 2.6-m survey telescope designed for visible wavelengths of the European Southern Observatory at Cerro Paranal, in the Atacama desert. The telescope is characterized by a wide field of view (1.42 deg diameter), leading to tighter active optics than in conventional telescopes, in particular for the alignment requirements. We discuss the effects of typical error sources on the image quality and present the specific solutions adopted for wavefront sensing and correction of the aberrations, which are based on the shaping of a monolithic primary mirror and the positioning of the secondary in five degrees of freedom.

  10. Active other worlds in the Solar System and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, François

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, space exploration has moved planetology from the field of astronomy to the disciplines of geosciences. A fleet of spacecrafts have discovered and study tens of worlds in our solar system and beyond. Everywhere, we have been surprised by the diversity and the vigour of the geophysical activity, from volcanic eruptions to plasma waves... Every scientists present at EGU could -and should- be interested in the extraterrestrial processes that are discovered and analyzed elsewhere. In our solar system, a variety of clouds and fluid dynamical phenomena can be studied in six terrestrial atmospheres and on four giant planets. Active glaciers are found on Mars and Pluto. Rivers and lakes have sculpted the surface of Titan and Mars. Sometime, we can even study geophysical activity with no equivalent on our planet: ice caps made of frozen atmosphere that erupt in geysers, hazes formed by organic polymers which can completely shroud a moon, etc. We study these active worlds because we are curious and wish to understand our universe and our origins. However, more than ever, two specific motivations drive solar system geosciences in 2016: Firstly, as we become more and more familiar with the other worlds around us, we can use them to better understand our own planet. Throughout the solar system, we can access to data that are simply not available on the Earth, or study active processes that are subtle on Earth but of greater importance elsewhere, so that we can better understand them. Many geophysical concepts and tools developed for the Earth can also be tested on other planets. For instance the numerical Climate Models used to assess Earth's future climate change are applied to other planets. Much is learned from such experiments. Secondly, the time has come to generalize the fundamental lessons that we have learned from the examples in the solar system (including the Earth) to address the countless scientific questions that are -and will be- raised by

  11. Bilateral Activity-Dependent Interactions in the Developing Corticospinal System

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Kathleen M.; Martin, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Activity-dependent competition between the corticospinal (CS) systems in each hemisphere drives postnatal development of motor skills and stable CS tract connections with contralateral spinal motor circuits. Unilateral restriction of motor cortex (M1) activity during an early postnatal critical period impairs contralateral visually guided movements later in development and in maturity. Silenced M1 develops aberrant connections with the contralateral spinal cord whereas the initially active M1, in the other hemisphere, develops bilateral connections. In this study, we determined whether the aberrant pattern of CS tract terminations and motor impairments produced by early postnatal M1 activity restriction could be abrogated by reducing activity-dependent synaptic competition from the initially active M1 later in development. We first inactivated M1 unilaterally between postnatal weeks 5–7. We next inactivated M1 on the other side from weeks 7–11 (alternate inactivation), to reduce the competitive advantage that this side may have over the initially inactivated side. Alternate inactivation redirected aberrant contralateral CS tract terminations from the initially silenced M1 to their normal spinal territories and reduced the density of aberrant ipsilateral terminations from the initially active side. Normal movement endpoint control during visually guided locomotion was fully restored. This reorganization of CS terminals reveals an unsuspected late plasticity after the critical period for establishing the pattern of CS terminations in the spinal cord. Our findings show that robust bilateral interactions between the developing CS systems on each side are important for achieving balance between contralateral and ipsilateral CS tract connections and visuomotor control. PMID:17928450

  12. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Control Model Development Roadmap and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Le, Dzu K.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Hypersonic project is directed towards fundamental research for two classes of hypersonic vehicles: highly reliable reusable launch systems (HRRLS) and high-mass Mars entry systems (HMMES). The objective of the hypersonic guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) discipline team is to develop advanced guidance and control algorithms to enable efficient and effective operation of these challenging vehicles. The ongoing work at the NASA Glenn Research Center supports the hypersonic GN&C effort in developing tools to aid the design of advanced control algorithms that specifically address the propulsion system of the HRRLSclass vehicles. These tools are being developed in conjunction with complementary research and development activities in hypersonic propulsion at Glenn and elsewhere. This report is focused on obtaining control-relevant dynamic models of an HRRLS-type hypersonic vehicle propulsion system.

  13. An active vision system for multitarget surveillance in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Bakhtari, Ardevan; Benhabib, Beno

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a novel agent-based method for the dynamic coordinated selection and positioning of active-vision cameras for the simultaneous surveillance of multiple objects-of-interest as they travel through a cluttered environment with a-priori unknown trajectories. The proposed system dynamically adjusts not only the orientation but also the position of the cameras in order to maximize the system's performance by avoiding occlusions and acquiring images with preferred viewing angles. Sensor selection and positioning are accomplished through an agent-based approach. The proposed sensing-system reconfiguration strategy has been verified via simulations and implemented on an experimental prototype setup for automated facial recognition. Both simulations and experimental analyses have shown that the use of dynamic sensors along with an effective online dispatching strategy may tangibly improve the surveillance performance of a sensing system.

  14. System design for active vibration control of aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, V.; Nagaraja, B. V.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Shree S, Amrutha; Muthaiah, Skanda N.

    2003-10-01

    Instrumentation, electronics, digital signal processing and related software form the basic building blocks of a system for implementation of Active Vibration Control (AVC) for smart aerospace structures. This paper essentially deals with the design, development and implementation of a 4 channel analog input sub-system essentially consisting of charge amplifiers, filters, gain amplifiers & Analog to Digital Converters (ADC), the subsequent Digital Signal Processor (DSP) hardware for implementation of the controller and finally a 4 Channel analog output subsystem consisting of Digital to Analog Converters (DAC), reconstruction filters & high voltage amplifiers. This system essentially interfaces to a structure with piezo-ceramic sensors and actuators for implementation of real time AVC on a smart beam. The paper also highlights some of the new ideas that have been incorporated into the system design.

  15. Blogs and Social Network Sites as Activity Systems: Exploring Adult Informal Learning Process through Activity Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Gyeong Mi; Lee, Romee

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to explore adult user activities and informal learning processes as reflected in their blogs and social network sites (SNS). Using the assumption that a web-based space is an activity system in which learning occurs, typical features of the components were investigated and each activity system then…

  16. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  17. Coherence and frequency in the reticular activating system (RAS).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Hyde, James; Simon, Christen; Beck, Paige; Urbano, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit (1) electrical coupling mainly in GABAergic cells, and (2) gamma band activity in virtually all of the cells. Specifically, cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) (1) show electrical coupling, and (2) all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanism behind electrical coupling is important because the stimulant modafinil was shown to increase electrical coupling. We also provide recent findings demonstrating that all cells in the PPN and Pf have high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential to gamma band activity. On the other hand, all SubCD, and some PPN, cells manifested sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. We speculate that continuous sensory input will modulate coupling and induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions.

  18. Exploring creative activity: a software environment for multimedia systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrett, Peter W.; Jardine, David A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper examines various issues related to the theory, design, and implementation of a system that supports creative activity for a multimedia environment. The system incorporates artificial intelligence notions to acquire concepts of the problem domain. This paper investigates this environment by considering a model that is a basis for a system, which supports a history of user interaction. A multimedia system that supports creative activity is problematic. It must function as a tool allowing users to experiment dynamically with their own creative reasoning process--a very nebulous task environment. It should also support the acquisition of domain knowledge so that empirical observation can be further evaluated. This paper aims to illustrate that via the reuse of domain-specific knowledge, closely related ideas can be quickly developed. This approach is useful in the following sense: Multimedia navigational systems hardcode referential links with respect to a web or network. Although users can access or control navigation in a nonlinear (static) manner, these referential links are 'frozen' and can not capture their creative actions, which are essential in tutoring or learning applications. This paper describes a multimedia assistant based on the notion of knowledge- links, which allows users to navigate through creative information in a nonlinear (dynamic) fashion. A selection of prototype code based on object-oriented techniques and logic programming partially demonstrates this.

  19. Flight test and performance of a nongated active television system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John L.; Kelly, John M.; Ehlen, Jon

    1999-07-01

    A series of helicopter flight tests were conducted to test the feasibility and assess the performance of a gimbaled active television system and co-located IR system. The laser light was provided to the gimbal via a fiber optic cable from a remote semiconductor laser. A high power, divergent beam was used to illuminate a scene providing enhanced performance in poor weather, the recording of registry and augmentation to existing night vision devices. The flight tests were conducted in clear-weather conditions over land and water. Additionally, a series of ground test were conducted.

  20. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing

    PubMed Central

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Ávila, César

    2010-01-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze how individual differences in BAS functioning were associated with brain activation during erotic and aversive picture processing while subjects were involved in a simple goal-directed task. Forty-five male participants took part in this study. The task activation results confirm the activation of the reward and punishment brain-related structures while viewing erotic and aversive pictures, respectively. The SR scores show a positive correlation with activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex and the right occipital cortex while viewing erotic pictures, and a negative correlation with the right lateral prefrontal cortex and the left occipital cortex while viewing aversive pictures. In summary, the SR scores modulate the activity of the cortical areas in the prefrontal and the occipital cortices that are proposed to modulate the BAS and the BIS-FFFS. PMID:20147458

  1. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing.

    PubMed

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Avila, César

    2010-03-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze how individual differences in BAS functioning were associated with brain activation during erotic and aversive picture processing while subjects were involved in a simple goal-directed task. Forty-five male participants took part in this study. The task activation results confirm the activation of the reward and punishment brain-related structures while viewing erotic and aversive pictures, respectively. The SR scores show a positive correlation with activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex and the right occipital cortex while viewing erotic pictures, and a negative correlation with the right lateral prefrontal cortex and the left occipital cortex while viewing aversive pictures. In summary, the SR scores modulate the activity of the cortical areas in the prefrontal and the occipital cortices that are proposed to modulate the BAS and the BIS-FFFS.

  2. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing.

    PubMed

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Avila, César

    2010-03-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze how individual differences in BAS functioning were associated with brain activation during erotic and aversive picture processing while subjects were involved in a simple goal-directed task. Forty-five male participants took part in this study. The task activation results confirm the activation of the reward and punishment brain-related structures while viewing erotic and aversive pictures, respectively. The SR scores show a positive correlation with activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex and the right occipital cortex while viewing erotic pictures, and a negative correlation with the right lateral prefrontal cortex and the left occipital cortex while viewing aversive pictures. In summary, the SR scores modulate the activity of the cortical areas in the prefrontal and the occipital cortices that are proposed to modulate the BAS and the BIS-FFFS. PMID:20147458

  3. Neurobehavioral Evidence for Changes in Dopamine System Activity During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wahlstrom, Dustin; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Human adolescence has been characterized by increases in risk-taking, emotional lability, and deficient patterns of behavioral regulation. These behaviors have often been attributed to changes in brain structure that occur during this developmental period, notably alterations in gray and white matter that impact synaptic architecture in frontal, limbic, and striatal regions. In this review, we provide a rationale for considering that these behaviors may be due to changes in dopamine system activity, particularly overactivity, during adolescence relative to either childhood or adulthood. This rationale relies on animal data due to limitations in assessing neurochemical activity more directly in juveniles. Accordingly, we also present a strategy that incorporates molecular genetic techniques to infer the status of the underlying tone of the dopamine system across developmental groups. Implications for the understanding of adolescent behavioral development are discussed. PMID:20026110

  4. Active Rack Isolation System Program and Technical Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Glenn; Fialho, Ian; Allen, James; Quraishi, Naveed

    2000-01-01

    The Boeing Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) is one of the means used to isolate acceleration-sensitive scientific experiments from structurally transmitted disturbances aboard the International Space Station. The presentation provides an overview of ARIS and technical issues associated with the development of the active control system. An overview of ARIS analytical models is presented along with recent isolation performance predictions made using these models. Issues associated with commanding and capturing ARIS data are discussed and possible future options based on the ARIS ISS Characterization Experiment (ICE) Payload On-orbit Processor (POP) are outlined. An overview of the ARIS-ICE experiment scheduled to fly on ISS Flight 6A is presented. The presentation concludes with a discussion of recent- developmental work that includes passive rack damping, umbilical redesigns and advanced multivariable control design methods.

  5. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies.

    PubMed

    Washburn, S A; Blattnig, S R; Singleterry, R C; Westover, S C

    2015-01-01

    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited. PMID:26177618

  6. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  7. Activated protein C anticoagulant system dysfunction and thrombophilia in Asia.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Naotaka; Kuma, Hiroyuki; Tsuda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Thrombophilia that is common among Caucasians is caused by genetic polymorphisms of coagulation factor V Leiden (R506Q) and prothrombin G20210A. Unlike that in Caucasians, thrombophilia that is common in the Japanese and Chinese involve dysfunction of the activated protein C (APC) anticoagulant system caused by abnormal protein S and protein C molecules. Approximately 50% of Japanese and Chinese individuals who develop venous thrombosis have reduced activities of protein S. The abnormal sites causing the protein S molecule abnormalities are distributed throughout the protein S gene, PROS1. One of the most common abnormalities is protein S Tokushima (K155E), which accounts for about 30% of the protein S molecule abnormalities in the Japanese. Whether APC dysfunction occurs in other Asian countries is an important aspect of mapping thrombophilia among Asians. International surveys using an accurate assay system are needed to determine this.

  8. Reliable and Affordable Control Systems Active Combustor Pattern Factor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, Bob; Tomondi, Chris; McGinley, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Active, closed-loop control of combustor pattern factor is a cooperative effort between Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal) Engines and Systems and the NASA Glenn Research Center to reduce emissions and turbine-stator vane temperature variations, thereby enhancing engine performance and life, and reducing direct operating costs. Total fuel flow supplied to the engine is established by the speed/power control, but the distribution to individual atomizers will be controlled by the Active Combustor Pattern Factor Control (ACPFC). This system consist of three major components: multiple, thin-film sensors located on the turbine-stator vanes; fuel-flow modulators for individual atomizers; and control logic and algorithms within the electronic control.

  9. Active damping performance of the KAGRA seismic attenuation system prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yoshinori; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Aso, Yoichi; Barton, Mark; Erasmo Peña Arellano, Fabián; Shoda, Ayaka; Akutsu, Tomotada; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kamiizumi, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Hirata, Naoatsu; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Okutomi, Koki; Miyamoto, Takahiro; Ishizuka, Hideki; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Flaminio, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    The Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (formerly LCGT now KAGRA) is presently under construction in Japan. This May we assembled a prototype of the seismic attenuation system (SAS) for the beam splitter and the signal recycling mirrors of KAGRA, which we call Type-B SAS, and evaluated its performance at NAOJ (Mitaka, Toyko). We investigated its frequency response, active damping performance, vibration isolation performance and long-term stability both in and out of vacuum. From the frequency response test and the active damping performance test, we confirmed that the SAS worked as we designed and that all mechanical resonances which could disturb lock acquisition and observation are damped within 1 minute, which is required for KAGRA, by the active controls.

  10. OCT detection of neural activity in American cockroach nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorczyńska, Iwona; Wyszkowska, Joanna; Bukowska, Danuta; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2013-03-01

    We show results of a project which focuses on detection of activity in neural tissue with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) methods. Experiments were performed in neural cords dissected from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.). Functional OCT imaging was performed with ultrahigh resolution spectral / Fourier domain OCT system (axial resolution 2.5 μm). Electrical stimulation (voltage pulses) was applied to the sensory cercal nerve of the neural cord. Optical detection of functional activation of the sample was performed in the connective between the terminal abdominal ganglion and the fifth abdominal ganglion. Functional OCT data were collected over time with the OCT beam illuminating selected single point in the connectives (i.e. OCT M-scans were acquired). Phase changes of the OCT signal were analyzed to visualize occurrence of activation in the neural cord. Electrophysiology recordings (microelectrode method) were also performed as a reference method to demonstrate electrical response of the sample to stimulation.

  11. Assay of nitrogenase activity in intact plant systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, M K; Vlassak, K

    1975-01-01

    Nitrogenase activity was assayed in intact system of Cichorium intybus, a non-leguminous commercially cultivated crop, Dahlia pinnata and Helianthus annus, and Taraxacum officinale, a common weed plant. The assay was made in fabricated cylinders which could accomodate pot with plants. In such kind of assay along with rhizosphere microflora, the nitrogen fixed by phyllosphere nitrogen fixing microflora could also be accounted, which otherwise was difficult to be accounted for. PMID:1211718

  12. Indoor Chemistry: Materials, Ventilation Systems, and Occupant Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.C.; Corsi, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Wells, J.R.

    2006-05-01

    Chemical processes taking place in indoor environments can significantly alter the nature and concentrations of pollutants. Exposure to secondary contaminants generated in these reactions needs to be evaluated in association with many aspects of buildings to minimize their impact on occupant health and well-being. Focusing on indoor ozone chemistry, we describe alternatives for improving indoor air quality by controlling chemical changes related to building materials, ventilation systems, and occupant activities.

  13. Ionospheric effects in active retrodirective array and mitigating system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandi, A. K.; Tomita, C. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of an active retrodirective array (ARA) in an ionospheric environment (that is either stationary or slowly-varying) was examined. The restrictions imposed on the pilot signal structure as a result of such operation were analyzed. A 3 tone pilot beam system was defined which first estimates the total electron content along paths of interest and then utilizes this information to aid the phase conjugator so that correct beam pointing can be achieved.

  14. Outburst Activity of the Symbiotic System AG Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gális, R.; Hric, L.; Leedjärv, L.; Kundra, E.

    2015-07-01

    AG Dra is one of the best studied symbiotic systems. A period analysis of new and historical photometric data, as well as radial velocities, confirmed the presence of the two periods — about 550 days, caused by orbital motion, and around 350 days, related to pulsations of the cool component of AG Dra. In addition, the active stages change distinctively, but the outbursts recur with periods from 359 to 375 days.

  15. Tissue plasminogen activator in central nervous system physiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Melchor, Jerry P.; Strickland, Sidney

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although conventionally associated with fibrin clot degradation, recent work has uncovered new functions for the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasminogen cascade in central nervous system physiology and pathology. This extracellular proteolytic cascade has been shown to have roles in learning and memory, stress, neuronal degeneration, addiction and Alzheimer’s disease. The current review considers the different ways tPA functions in the brain. PMID:15841309

  16. Terrestrial Reference Systems and Frames. A review of current activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial Reference Systems (TRS) refer to an important domain of Geodesy, involving both theoretical and applied aspects, as well as deep connections with Astronomy, Earth Sciences and Geo-information. The concept of TRS implies several visions : - An astronomical vision, using TRS to study translational and rotational motion of the Earth in inertial space - An Earth Science vision, using TRS to build physical models of the Earth system, and its various components (solid earth, oceans, atmosphere, hydrosphere) - A metrological vision, using TRS together with suitable coordinate systems (geographical coordinates, map projections…) to define geographical position of objects in the Earth’s vicinity A survey of current activities in this area is presented, referring to works done by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and more specifically its Commission 1, GGOS and IERS. A focus is done on concepts and terminology, as well as progresses to get a wide acceptance on the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) and its system of realizations through global, regional and national frames, as well as through specific systems such as satellite navigation systems.

  17. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhakar; Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD). Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH) and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP). Results show that curcumin significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP) of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects. PMID:26904287

  18. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prabhakar; Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD). Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH) and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP). Results show that curcumin significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b 5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP) of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects. PMID:26904287

  19. Vector disparity sensor with vergence control for active vision systems.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Francisco; Diaz, Javier; Gibaldi, Agostino; Sabatini, Silvio P; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system.

  20. Wireless design of a multisensor system for physical activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mo, Lingfei; Liu, Shaopeng; Gao, Robert X; John, Dinesh; Staudenmayer, John W; Freedson, Patty S

    2012-11-01

    Real-time monitoring of human physical activity (PA) is important for assessing the intensity of activity and exposure to environmental pollutions. A wireless wearable multisenor integrated measurement system (WIMS) has been designed for real-time measurement of the energy expenditure and breathing volume of human subjects under free-living conditions. To address challenges posted by the limited battery life and data synchronization requirement among multiple sensors in the system, the ZigBee communication platform has been explored for energy-efficient design. Two algorithms have been developed (multiData packaging and slot-data-synchronization) and coded into a microcontroller (MCU)-based sensor circuitry for real-time control of wireless data communication. Experiments have shown that the design enables continued operation of the wearable system for up to 68 h, with the maximum error for data synchronization among the various sensor nodes (SNs) being less than 24 ms. Experiment under free-living conditions have shown that the WIMS is able to correctly recognize the activity intensity level 86% of the time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the energy-efficient wireless design for human PA monitoring.

  1. GT-CATS: Tracking Operator Activities in Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Palmer, Everett A.

    1999-01-01

    Human operators of complex dynamic systems can experience difficulties supervising advanced control automation. One remedy is to develop intelligent aiding systems that can provide operators with context-sensitive advice and reminders. The research reported herein proposes, implements, and evaluates a methodology for activity tracking, a form of intent inferencing that can supply the knowledge required for an intelligent aid by constructing and maintaining a representation of operator activities in real time. The methodology was implemented in the Georgia Tech Crew Activity Tracking System (GT-CATS), which predicts and interprets the actions performed by Boeing 757/767 pilots navigating using autopilot flight modes. This report first describes research on intent inferencing and complex modes of automation. It then provides a detailed description of the GT-CATS methodology, knowledge structures, and processing scheme. The results of an experimental evaluation using airline pilots are given. The results show that GT-CATS was effective in predicting and interpreting pilot actions in real time.

  2. Vector Disparity Sensor with Vergence Control for Active Vision Systems

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Francisco; Diaz, Javier; Gibaldi, Agostino; Sabatini, Silvio P.; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system. PMID:22438737

  3. Seal Investigations of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Taylor, Shawn; Oswald, Jay; DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to improve upon current thermal active clearance control methods, a first generation, fast-acting mechanically actuated, active clearance control system has been designed and installed into a non-rotating test rig. In order to harvest the benefit of tighter blade tip clearances, low-leakage seals are required for the actuated carrier segments of the seal shroud to prevent excessive leakage of compressor discharge (P3) cooling air. The test rig was designed and fabricated to facilitate the evaluation of these types of seals, identify seal leakage sources, and test other active clearance control system concepts. The objective of this paper is to present both experimental and analytical investigations into the nature of the face-seal to seal-carrier interface. Finite element analyses were used to examine face seal contact pressures and edge-loading under multiple loading conditions, varied E-seal positions and two new face seal heights. The analyses indicated that moving the E-seal inward radially and reducing face seal height would lead to more uniform contact conditions between the face seal and the carriers. Lab testing confirmed that moving the balance diameter inward radially caused a decrease in overall system leakage.

  4. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  5. Automated system for magnetic monitoring of active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Negro, Ciro; Napoli, Rosalba; Sicali, Antonino

    2002-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for short-term decision-making in the forecasting and monitoring of volcanic activity, we developed an entirely automated system of data acquisition and reduction for magnetic data. The system (Mag-Net) is designed to provide monitoring and analysis of magnetic data on Etna volcano at large distances from the central observatory. The Mag-Net system uses data from an array of continuously recording remote stations spread over the volcanic area and linked by mobile phone to the control center at the local observatory. At this location a computer receives the data and performs data sorting and reduction as well as limited evaluation to detect abnormal behavior or breakdown of remote sensors. Communication software, called MagTalk, is also designed to provide data to distant users. With a view to using continuous magnetic observations in advanced analysis techniques for volcano monitoring, the Mag-Net system also delivers two graphical user interface based applications to provide an interpretation capability. The former, called MADAP, speeds up all the data reduction processes in order to evaluate the reliability of magnetic signals. The latter, called VMM, is a procedure for modeling magnetic fields associated with tectonic and volcanic activity to facilitate the identification and interpretation of the sources of a wide spectrum of magnetic signals.

  6. Active Learning for Directed Exploration of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael C.; Wang, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Physics-based simulation codes are widely used in science and engineering to model complex systems that would be infeasible to study otherwise. Such codes provide the highest-fidelity representation of system behavior, but are often so slow to run that insight into the system is limited. For example, conducting an exhaustive sweep over a d-dimensional input parameter space with k-steps along each dimension requires k(sup d) simulation trials (translating into k(sup d) CPU-days for one of our current simulations). An alternative is directed exploration in which the next simulation trials are cleverly chosen at each step. Given the results of previous trials, supervised learning techniques (SVM, KDE, GP) are applied to build up simplified predictive models of system behavior. These models are then used within an active learning framework to identify the most valuable trials to run next. Several active learning strategies are examined including a recently-proposed information-theoretic approach. Performance is evaluated on a set of thirteen synthetic oracles, which serve as surrogates for the more expensive simulations and enable the experiments to be replicated by other researchers.

  7. Scene interpretation module for an active vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remagnino, P.; Matas, J.; Illingworth, John; Kittler, Josef

    1993-08-01

    In this paper an implementation of a high level symbolic scene interpreter for an active vision system is considered. The scene interpretation module uses low level image processing and feature extraction results to achieve object recognition and to build up a 3D environment map. The module is structured to exploit spatio-temporal context provided by existing partial world interpretations and has spatial reasoning to direct gaze control and thereby achieve efficient and robust processing using spatial focus of attention. The system builds and maintains an awareness of an environment which is far larger than a single camera view. Experiments on image sequences have shown that the system can: establish its position and orientation in a partially known environment, track simple moving objects such as cups and boxes, temporally integrate recognition results to establish or forget object presence, and utilize spatial focus of attention to achieve efficient and robust object recognition. The system has been extensively tested using images from a single steerable camera viewing a simple table top scene containing box and cylinder-like objects. Work is currently progressing to further develop its competences and interface it with the Surrey active stereo vision head, GETAFIX.

  8. Engineering intracellular active transport systems as in vivo biomolecular tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, George David; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2006-11-01

    Active transport systems provide essential functions in terms of cell physiology and metastasis. These systems, however, are also co-opted by invading viruses, enabling directed transport of the virus to and from the cell's nucleus (i.e., the site of virus replication). Based on this concept, fundamentally new approaches for interrogating and manipulating the inner workings of living cells may be achievable by co-opting Nature's active transport systems as an in vivo biomolecular tool. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the ability to engineer kinesin-based transport systems for in vivo applications, specifically the collection of effector proteins (e.g., transcriptional regulators) within single cells. In the first part of this project, a chimeric fusion protein consisting of kinesin and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody was successfully produced through a recombinant expression system. The kinesin-scFv retained both catalytic and antigenic functionality, enabling selective capture and transport of target antigens. The incorporation of a rabbit IgG-specific scFv into the kinesin established a generalized system for functionalizing kinesin with a wide range of target-selective antibodies raised in rabbits. The second objective was to develop methods of isolating the intact microtubule network from live cells as a platform for evaluating kinesin-based transport within the cytoskeletal architecture of a cell. Successful isolation of intact microtubule networks from two distinct cell types was demonstrated using glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation methods. This work provides a platform for inferring the ability of kinesin-scFv to function in vivo, and may also serve as a three-dimensional scaffold for evaluating and exploiting kinesin-based transport for nanotechnological applications. Overall, the technology developed in this project represents a first-step in engineering active transport system for in vivo applications. Further

  9. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  10. Effect of Water on High Pressure Olivine Slip Systems Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J.; Chen, J.; Raterron, P. C.; Holyoke, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    Seismologic studies of the Earth's shallow (Z<220 km) upper mantle have observed seismic anisotropy parallel to the direction of plate movement and have related this observation to alignment of olivine [100] due to shearing related to convection. These observations have been reinforced by field-based and experimental investigations which observe evidence that [100] slip is dominant at low pressures and water contents. However, direct evidence of the dominant slip system in the deep upper mantle (Z>220 km) is limited to a few studies of xenoliths which have LPOs consistent with [001] slip. Experimental studies of dry single crystals and polycrystals indicate that [001] slip becomes dominant at pressures > 8 GPa. However, water contents in the mantle are significant (~1000 H/106 Si) and we do not know how the slip systems of olivine are affected by higher water contents at high pressures. In order to investigate the effect of pressure on slip systems activities in olivine deformed in wet conditions, deformation experiments were carried out on single crystals, at pressure ranging from 4 to 8 GPa and temperature between 1373 and 1473 K in the Deformation-DIA apparatus (D-DIA) of the X17B2 beamline of the NSLS (NY, USA). Specimen were deformed in uniaxial compression along [110]c, [011]c and [101]c crystallographic directions, promoting the activation of, respectively, [100](010), [001](010) slip systems, and simultaneously [100](001) and [001](100) slip systems. Talc sleeves about the annulus of the single crystals were used as source of water during deformation. In addition, run products investigation using a micro-focused IR beam at the U2 beamline enables accurate mapping of the water content across the deformed single crystals using FTIR spectroscopy, while specimen deformation microstructures were investigated by TEM. We observe a slip-system transition in wet specimen occurring at lower pressure than that observed by Raterron et al. (2007) in dry specimens. For

  11. Modified active disturbance rejection control for time-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shen; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Industrial processes are typically nonlinear, time-varying and uncertain, to which active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has been shown to be an effective solution. The control design becomes even more challenging in the presence of time delay. In this paper, a novel modification of ADRC is proposed so that good disturbance rejection is achieved while maintaining system stability. The proposed design is shown to be more effective than the standard ADRC design for time-delay systems and is also a unified solution for stable, critical stable and unstable systems with time delay. Simulation and test results show the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed design. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) based stability analysis is provided as well.

  12. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity.

  13. Microfluidic on-chip fluorescence-activated interface control system

    PubMed Central

    Haiwang, Li; Nguyen, N. T.; Wong, T. N.; Ng, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    A microfluidic dynamic fluorescence-activated interface control system was developed for lab-on-a-chip applications. The system consists of a straight rectangular microchannel, a fluorescence excitation source, a detection sensor, a signal conversion circuit, and a high-voltage feedback system. Aqueous NaCl as conducting fluid and aqueous glycerol as nonconducting fluid were introduced to flow side by side into the straight rectangular microchannel. Fluorescent dye was added to the aqueous NaCl to work as a signal representing the interface position. Automatic control of the liquid interface was achieved by controlling the electroosmotic effect that exists only in the conducting fluid using a high-voltage feedback system. A LABVIEW program was developed to control the output of high-voltage power supply according the actual interface position, and then the interface position is modified as the output of high-voltage power supply. At last, the interface can be moved to the desired position automatically using this feedback system. The results show that the system presented in this paper can control an arbitrary interface location in real time. The effects of viscosity ratio, flow rates, and polarity of electric field were discussed. This technique can be extended to switch the sample flow and droplets automatically. PMID:21173886

  14. Vehicle active suspension system using skyhook adaptive neuro active force control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyandoko, G.; Mailah, M.; Jamaluddin, H.

    2009-04-01

    This paper aims to highlight the practical viability of a new and novel hybrid control technique applied to a vehicle active suspension system of a quarter car model using skyhook and adaptive neuro active force control (SANAFC). The overall control system essentially comprises four feedback control loops, namely the innermost proportional-integral (PI) control loop for the force tracking of the pneumatic actuator, the intermediate skyhook and active force control (AFC) control loops for the compensation of the disturbances and the outermost proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control loop for the computation of the optimum target/commanded force. A neural network (NN) with a modified adaptive Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm was used to approximate the estimated mass and inverse dynamics of the pneumatic actuator in the AFC loop. A number of experiments were carried out on a physical test rig using a hardware-in-the-loop configuration that fully incorporates the theoretical elements. The performance of the proposed control method was evaluated and compared to examine the effectiveness of the system in suppressing the vibration effect on the suspension system. It was found that the simulation and experimental results were in good agreement, particularly for the sprung mass displacement and acceleration behaviours in which the proposed SANAFC scheme is found to outperform the PID and passive counterparts.

  15. A Robotic System for Actively Stiffening Flexible Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Loschak, Paul M.; Burke, Stephen F.; Zumbro, Emiko; Forelli, Alexandra R.; Howe, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    A system for actively changing the stiffness of a long, thin, flexible robotic manipulator has been designed for cardiologists to use in a range of diagnosis and treatment procedures. Low-stiffness manipulators, such as catheters, are ideal for steering through vasculature with low risk of tissue injury. However, such instruments are not well-suited for applying force to tissue. The proposed system solves this problem by using a series of bead-shaped vertebrae containing pull wires to actively change the stiffness of the catheter, similar to gooseneck surgical retractors. Individual wires steer the catheter to a desired location. All wires are then tensioned to create friction between each vertebra and prevent sliding, therefore resisting motion. While this design concept has been implemented manually in various settings for decades, fine robotic control of the friction and stiffness of the system relies on a thorough understanding of the friction properties between vertebral segments. We have developed an analytical model to understand the interactions between vertebrae and determine the relationships between system parameters and the overall stiffness of the catheter. Experiments validated the calculations from the model and the functionality of the system by applying known loads to the tip of the catheter and measuring the catheter displacement. The catheter stiffness was measured to range from 100 N/m to 800 N/m, which is sufficient for performing many surgical tasks on tissue. This system can be useful in minimally invasive procedures involving direct instrument contact with tissue by improving accuracy, safety, and work flow. PMID:26709364

  16. Structure-activity relationships for antioxidant activities of a series of flavonoids in a liposomal system.

    PubMed

    Arora, A; Nair, M G; Strasburg, G M

    1998-06-01

    Structurally diverse plant phenolics were examined for their abilities to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced either by Fe(II) and Fe(III) metal ions or by azo-derived peroxyl radicals in a liposomal membrane system. The antioxidant abilities of flavonoids were compared with those of coumarin and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). The antioxidant efficacies of these compounds were evaluated on the basis of their abilities to inhibit the fluorescence intensity decay of an extrinsic probe, 3-(p-(6-phenyl)-I,3,5-hexatrienyl)phenylpropionic acid (DPH-PA), caused by the free radicals generated during lipid peroxidation. All the flavonoids tested exhibited higher antioxidant efficacies against metal-ion-induced peroxidations than peroxyl-radical-induced peroxidation, suggesting that metal chelation may play a larger role in determining the antioxidant activities of these compounds than has previously been believed. Distinct structure-activity relationships were also revealed for the antioxidant abilities of the flavonoids. Presence of hydroxyl substituents on the flavonoid nucleus enhanced activity, whereas substitution by methoxy groups diminished antioxidant activity. Substitution patterns on the B-ring especially affected antioxidant potencies of the flavonoids. In cases where the B-ring could not contribute to the antioxidant activities of flavonoids, hydroxyl substituents in an catechol structure on the A-ring were able to compensate and become a larger determinant of flavonoid antioxidant activity. PMID:9641252

  17. Mucosal and systemic adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicon particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Joseph M.; Whitmore, Alan C.; Konopka, Jennifer L.; Collier, Martha L.; Richmond, Erin M. B.; Davis, Nancy L.; Staats, Herman F.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2006-03-01

    Vaccination represents the most effective control measure in the fight against infectious diseases. Local mucosal immune responses are critical for protection from, and resolution of, infection by numerous mucosal pathogens. Antigen processing across mucosal surfaces is the natural route by which mucosal immunity is generated, as peripheral antigen delivery typically fails to induce mucosal immune responses. However, we demonstrate in this article that mucosal immune responses are evident at multiple mucosal surfaces after parenteral delivery of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP). Moreover, coinoculation of null VRP (not expressing any transgene) with inactivated influenza virions, or ovalbumin, resulted in a significant increase in antigen-specific systemic IgG and fecal IgA antibodies, compared with antigen alone. Pretreatment of VRP with UV light largely abrogated this adjuvant effect. These results demonstrate that alphavirus replicon particles possess intrinsic systemic and mucosal adjuvant activity and suggest that VRP RNA replication is the trigger for this activity. We feel that these observations and the continued experimentation they stimulate will ultimately define the specific components of an alternative pathway for the induction of mucosal immunity, and if the activity is evident in humans, will enable new possibilities for safe and inexpensive subunit and inactivated vaccines. vaccine vector | Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus | viral immunology | RNA virus

  18. Photo-active collagen systems with controlled triple helix architecture

    PubMed Central

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Russell, Stephen J.; Wood, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The design of photo-active collagen systems is presented as a basis for establishing biomimetic materials with varied network architecture and programmable macroscopic properties. Following in-house isolation of type I collagen, reaction with vinyl-bearing compounds of varied backbone rigidity, i.e. 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (4VBC) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), was carried out. TNBS colorimetric assay, 1H-NMR and ATR-FTIR confirmed covalent and tunable functionalization of collagen lysines. Depending on the type and extent of functionalization, controlled stability and thermal denaturation of triple helices were observed via circular dichroism (CD), whereby the hydrogen-bonding capability of introduced moieties was shown to play a major role. Full gel formation was observed following photo-activation of functionalized collagen solutions. The presence of a covalent network only slightly affected collagen triple helix conformation (as observed by WAXS and ATR-FTIR), confirming the structural organization of functionalized collagen precursors. Photo-activated hydrogels demonstrated an increased denaturation temperature (DSC) with respect to native collagen, suggesting that the formation of the covalent network successfully stabilized collagen triple helices. Moreover, biocompatibility and mechanical competence of obtained hydrogels were successfully demonstrated under physiologically-relevant conditions. These results demonstrate that this novel synthetic approach enabled the formation of biocompatible collagen systems with defined network architecture and programmable macroscopic properties, which can only partially be obtained with current synthetic methods. PMID:27398214

  19. Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Hiroya; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2010-07-01

    Turing instability in activator-inhibitor systems provides a paradigm of non-equilibrium self-organization; it has been extensively investigated for biological and chemical processes. Turing instability should also be possible in networks, and general mathematical methods for its treatment have been formulated previously. However, only examples of regular lattices and small networks were explicitly considered. Here we study Turing patterns in large random networks, which reveal striking differences from the classical behaviour. The initial linear instability leads to spontaneous differentiation of the network nodes into activator-rich and activator-poor groups. The emerging Turing patterns become furthermore strongly reshaped at the subsequent nonlinear stage. Multiple coexisting stationary states and hysteresis effects are observed. This peculiar behaviour can be understood in the framework of a mean-field theory. Our results offer a new perspective on self-organization phenomena in systems organized as complex networks. Potential applications include ecological metapopulations, synthetic ecosystems, cellular networks of early biological morphogenesis, and networks of coupled chemical nanoreactors.

  20. Minimum Detectable Activity for Tomographic Gamma Scanning System

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, Ram; Smith, Susan; Kirkpatrick, J. M.; Croft, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    For any radiation measurement system, it is useful to explore and establish the detection limits and a minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the radionuclides of interest, even if the system is to be used at far higher values. The MDA serves as an important figure of merit, and often a system is optimized and configured so that it can meet the MDA requirements of a measurement campaign. The non-destructive assay (NDA) systems based on gamma ray analysis are no exception and well established conventions, such the Currie method, exist for estimating the detection limits and the MDA. However, the Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) technique poses some challenges for the estimation of detection limits and MDAs. The TGS combines high resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) with low spatial resolution image reconstruction techniques. In non-imaging gamma ray based NDA techniques measured counts in a full energy peak can be used to estimate the activity of a radionuclide, independently of other counting trials. However, in the case of the TGS each “view” is a full spectral grab (each a counting trial), and each scan consists of 150 spectral grabs in the transmission and emission scans per vertical layer of the item. The set of views in a complete scan are then used to solve for the radionuclide activities on a voxel by voxel basis, over 16 layers of a 10x10 voxel grid. Thus, the raw count data are not independent trials any more, but rather constitute input to a matrix solution for the emission image values at the various locations inside the item volume used in the reconstruction. So, the validity of the methods used to estimate MDA for an imaging technique such as TGS warrant a close scrutiny, because the pair-counting concept of Currie is not directly applicable. One can also raise questions as to whether the TGS, along with other image reconstruction techniques which heavily intertwine data, is a suitable method if one expects to measure samples whose activities

  1. Development of the prototype pneumatic transfer system for ITER neutron activation system.

    PubMed

    Cheon, M S; Seon, C R; Pak, S; Lee, H G; Bertalot, L

    2012-10-01

    The neutron activation system (NAS) measures neutron fluence at the first wall and the total neutron flux from the ITER plasma, providing evaluation of the fusion power for all operational phases. The pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the key components of the NAS for the proper operation of the system, playing a role of transferring encapsulated samples between the capsule loading machine, irradiation stations, counting stations, and disposal bin. For the validation and the optimization of the design, a prototype of the PTS was developed and capsule transfer tests were performed with the developed system.

  2. Modelling carbon oxidation in pulp mill activated sludge systems: calibration of Activated Sludge Model No 3.

    PubMed

    Barañao, P A; Hall, E R

    2004-01-01

    Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was chosen to model an activated sludge system treating effluents from a mechanical pulp and paper mill. The high COD concentration and the high content of readily biodegradable substrates of the wastewater make this model appropriate for this system. ASM3 was calibrated based on batch respirometric tests using fresh wastewater and sludge from the treatment plant, and on analytical measurements of COD, TSS and VSS. The model, developed for municipal wastewater, was found suitable for fitting a variety of respirometric batch tests, performed at different temperatures and food to microorganism ratios (F/M). Therefore, a set of calibrated parameters, as well as the wastewater COD fractions, was estimated for this industrial wastewater. The majority of the calibrated parameters were in the range of those found in the literature.

  3. Modelling carbon oxidation in pulp mill activated sludge systems: calibration of Activated Sludge Model No 3.

    PubMed

    Barañao, P A; Hall, E R

    2004-01-01

    Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was chosen to model an activated sludge system treating effluents from a mechanical pulp and paper mill. The high COD concentration and the high content of readily biodegradable substrates of the wastewater make this model appropriate for this system. ASM3 was calibrated based on batch respirometric tests using fresh wastewater and sludge from the treatment plant, and on analytical measurements of COD, TSS and VSS. The model, developed for municipal wastewater, was found suitable for fitting a variety of respirometric batch tests, performed at different temperatures and food to microorganism ratios (F/M). Therefore, a set of calibrated parameters, as well as the wastewater COD fractions, was estimated for this industrial wastewater. The majority of the calibrated parameters were in the range of those found in the literature. PMID:15461393

  4. One active debris removal control system design and error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weilin; Chen, Lei; Li, Kebo; Lei, Yongjun

    2016-11-01

    The increasing expansion of debris presents a significant challenge to space safety and sustainability. To address it, active debris removal, usually involving a chaser performing autonomous rendezvous with targeted debris to be removed is a feasible solution. In this paper, we explore a mid-range autonomous rendezvous control system based on augmented proportional navigation (APN), establishing a three-dimensional kinematic equation set constructed in a rotating coordinate system. In APN, feedback control is applied in the direction of line of sight (LOS), thus analytical solutions of LOS rate and relative motion are expectedly obtained. To evaluate the effectiveness of the control system, we adopt Zero-Effort-Miss (ZEM) in this research as the index, the uncertainty of which is directly determined by that of LOS rate. Accordingly, we apply covariance analysis (CA) method to analyze the propagation of LOS rate uncertainty. Consequently, we find that the accuracy of the control system can be verified even with uncertainty and the CA method is drastically more computationally efficient compared with nonlinear Monte-Carlo method. Additionally, to justify the superiority of the system, we further discuss more simulation cases to show the robustness and feasibility of APN proposed in the paper.

  5. Active phase compensation system for fiber optic holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Beheim, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Fiber optic delivery systems promise to extend the application of holography to severe environments by simplifying test configurations and permitting the laser to be remotely placed in a more benign location. However, the introduction of optical fiber leads to phase stability problems. Environmental effects cause the pathlengths of the fibers to change randomly, preventing the formation of stationary interference patterns which are required for holography. An active phase control system has been designed and used with an all-fiber optical system to stabilize the phase difference between light emitted from two fibers, and to step the phase difference by 90 deg without applying any constraints on the placement of the fibers. The accuracy of the phase steps is shown to be better than 0.02 deg., and a stable phase difference can be maintained for 30 min. This system can be applied to both conventional and electro-optic holography, as well as to any system where the maintenance of an accurate phase difference between two coherent beams is required.

  6. Performance of coarse pore filtration activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Satoh, H; Mino, T

    2002-01-01

    A coarse pore filter can be applied inside the aeration tank to facilitate the separation of sludge from liquid instead of sedimentation. This filter has pores, which are irregular in shape, and the pore size is bigger than those of MF. The objectives of the study were to maintain as much as MLSS in the activated sludge process with coarse pore filter and to investigate the performance under high MLSS condition. Small-scale reactor results so far show good quality of effluent specially after starting the sludge bulking in the system in terms of SS, TOC, DOC and turbidity. The average carbon removal for 62 days operation of this system was about 94% (based on effluent DOC) and 87% (based on effluent TOC). The average sludge yield in this system is about 0.44 kg MLSS/kg TOC which is about 0.24 kg MLSS/kg BOD. This amount is less than those of conventional activated sludge and trickling filter.

  7. Combining Users' Activity Survey and Simulators to Evaluate Human Activity Recognition Systems

    PubMed Central

    Azkune, Gorka; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant. PMID:25856329

  8. Activation-induced necroptosis contributes to B-cell lymphopenia in active systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Fan, H; Liu, F; Dong, G; Ren, D; Xu, Y; Dou, J; Wang, T; Sun, L; Hou, Y

    2014-01-01

    B-cell abnormality including excessive activation and lymphopenia is a central feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although activation threshold, auto-reaction and death of B cells can be affected by intrinsical and/or external signaling, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that co-activation of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and B-cell receptor (BCR) pathways is a core event for the survival/dead states of B cells in SLE. We found that the mortalities of CD19+CD27- and CD19+IgM+ B-cell subsets were increased in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients. The gene microarray analysis of CD19+ B cells from active SLE patients showed that the differentially expressed genes were closely correlated to TLR7, BCR, apoptosis, necroptosis and immune pathways. We also found that co-activation of TLR7 and BCR could trigger normal B cells to take on SLE-like B-cell characters including the elevated viability, activation and proliferation in the first 3 days and necroptosis in the later days. Moreover, the necroptotic B cells exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and hypoxia, along with the elevated expression of necroptosis-related genes, consistent with that in both SLE B-cell microarray and real-time PCR verification. Expectedly, pretreatment with the receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) inhibitor Necrostatin-1, and not the apoptosis inhibitor zVAD, suppressed B-cell death. Importantly, B cells from additional SLE patients also significantly displayed high expression levels of necroptosis-related genes compared with those from healthy donors. These data indicate that co-activation of TLR7 and BCR pathways can promote B cells to hyperactivation and ultimately necroptosis. Our finding provides a new explanation on B-cell lymphopenia in active SLE patients. These data suggest that extrinsic factors may increase the intrinsical abnormality of B cells in SLE patients. PMID:25210799

  9. Maternal Immune Activation Disrupts Dopamine System in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Luchicchi, Antonio; Lecca, Salvatore; Melis, Miriam; De Felice, Marta; Cadeddu, Francesca; Frau, Roberto; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Fadda, Paola; Devoto, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure to maternal viral infections is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders with a supposed neurodevelopmental origin, including schizophrenia. Hence, immune response factors exert a negative impact on brain maturation that predisposes the offspring to the emergence of pathological phenotypes later in life. Although ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and their target regions play essential roles in the pathophysiology of psychoses, it remains to be fully elucidated how dopamine activity and functionality are disrupted in maternal immune activation models of schizophrenia. Methods: Here, we used an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disruption model based on prenatal administration of the polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid in rats, which mimics a viral infection and recapitulates behavioral abnormalities relevant to psychiatric disorders in the offspring. Extracellular dopamine levels were measured by brain microdialysis in both the nucleus accumbens shell and the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas dopamine neurons in ventral tegmental area were studied by in vivo electrophysiology. Results: Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid-treated animals, at adulthood, displayed deficits in sensorimotor gating, memory, and social interaction and increased baseline extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the prefrontal cortex. In polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid rats, dopamine neurons showed reduced spontaneously firing rate and population activity. Conclusions: These results confirm that maternal immune activation severely impairs dopamine system and that the polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid model can be considered a proper animal model of a psychiatric condition that fulfills a multidimensional set of validity criteria predictive of a human pathology. PMID:26819283

  10. A "Kane's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Beech, G. S.; Rao, N. N. S.; Rupert, J. K.; Kim, Y. K.

    2001-01-01

    Many microgravity space science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR)) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires: (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop a state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  11. Active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; Noethe, Lothar; Magrin, Demetrio; Kuijken, Konrad; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Capaccioli, Massimo; Dall'Ora, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Farinato, Jacopo; Fierro, Davide; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Savarese, Salvatore; Rakich, Andrew; Umbriaco, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope, the 2.6-m survey telescope designed for visible wavelengths of the European Southern Observatory at Cerro Paranal, in the Atacama desert. The telescope is characterized by a wide field of view (1.42 deg diameter), leading to tighter active optics than in conventional telescopes, in particular for the alignment requirements. We discuss the effects of typical error sources on the image quality and present the specific solutions adopted for wavefront sensing and correction of the aberrations, which are based on the shaping of a monolithic primary mirror and the positioning of the secondary in five degrees of freedom. PMID:26974616

  12. Comprehensive Design Reliability Activities for Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, R. L.; Whitley, M. R.; Knight, K. C.

    2000-01-01

    This technical publication describes the methodology, model, software tool, input data, and analysis result that support aerospace design reliability studies. The focus of these activities is on propulsion systems mechanical design reliability. The goal of these activities is to support design from a reliability perspective. Paralleling performance analyses in schedule and method, this requires the proper use of metrics in a validated reliability model useful for design, sensitivity, and trade studies. Design reliability analysis in this view is one of several critical design functions. A design reliability method is detailed and two example analyses are provided-one qualitative and the other quantitative. The use of aerospace and commercial data sources for quantification is discussed and sources listed. A tool that was developed to support both types of analyses is presented. Finally, special topics discussed include the development of design criteria, issues of reliability quantification, quality control, and reliability verification.

  13. A "Kanes's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Beech, Geoffrey

    1999-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages, to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (international Standard Payload Rack, or ISPR) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state-space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop an state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  14. The contact activation and kallikrein/kinin systems: pathophysiologic and physiologic activities.

    PubMed

    Schmaier, A H

    2016-01-01

    The contact activation system (CAS) and kallikrein/kinin system (KKS) are older recognized biochemical pathways that include several proteins that skirt the fringes of the blood coagulation, fibrinolytic, complement and renin-angiotensin fields. These proteins initially were proposed as part of the hemostatic pathways because their deficiencies are associated with prolonged clinical assays. However, the absence of bleeding states with deficiencies of factor XII (FXII), prekallikrein (PK) and high-molecular-weight kininogen indicates that the CAS and KKS do not contribute to hemostasis. Since the discovery of the Hageman factor 60 years ago much has been learned about the biochemistry, cell biology and animal physiology of these proteins. The CAS is a pathophysiologic surface defense mechanism against foreign proteins, organisms and artificial materials. The KKS is an inflammatory response mechanism. Targeting their activation through FXIIa or plasma kallikrein inhibition when blood interacts with the artificial surfaces of modern interventional medicine or in acute attacks of hereditary angioedema restores vascular homeostasis. FXII/FXIIa and products that arise with PK deficiency also offer novel ways to reduce arterial and venous thrombosis without an effect on hemostasis. In summary, there is revived interest in the CAS and KKS due to better understanding of their activities. The new appreciation of these systems will lead to several new therapies for a variety of medical disorders. PMID:26565070

  15. Boswellia carterii liquisolid systems with promoted anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Dina Mahmoud; Ammar, Nagwa Mohammed; Abd El-Alim, Sameh Hosam; Kassem, Ahmed Alaa; Hussein, Rehab Ali; Awad, Gamal; El-Awdan, Sally Abdul-Wanees

    2015-01-01

    Boswellia carterii (BC) Birdwood oleogum resin is an ancient remedy of inflammation processes known since Ancient Egyptian time. Of boswellic acids, 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) is the most potent anti-inflammatory active principle. Liquisolid systems of the biologically active fraction of BC oleogum resin were prepared for improving dissolution properties using low dose oral delivery to achieve enhanced anti-inflammatory activity, in comparison with the standard oral anti-inflammatory; Indomethacin. AKBA was assayed, employing an accurate and sensitive HPLC method. Detection was carried out at 210 nm using UV/Vis detector. A solubility study for the bioactive fraction was conducted. Microcrystalline cellulose and Aeroperl®300 Pharma were used as carrier and coating materials. Angle of slide, liquid load factor and Carr's flow index were estimated. Six systems were prepared using polyethylene glycol 400, solvent and two drug loading concentrations; 20 and 40 %. For each concentration, three carrier: coat ratios were dispensed; 20:1, 10:1, and 5:1. Dissolution study was performed and two systems were selected for characterization and in vivo evaluation by investigating upper GIT ulcerogenic effect and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Results indicate absence of ulcers and significantly higher and prolonged anti-inflammatory efficacy for formulations F1 and F2, with carrier: coat ratio, 5:1 and drug loads of 20 and 40 %, respectively, compared with standard oral indomethacin. We conclude higher efficacy of BC bioactive fraction liquisolids compared with Indomethacin with greater safety on GIT, longer duration of action and hence better patient compliance. PMID:25895614

  16. Placebo-Activated Neural Systems are Linked to Antidepressant Responses

    PubMed Central

    Peciña, Marta; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Sikora, Magdalena; Avery, Erich T.; Langenecker, Scott A.; Mickey, Brian J.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2016-01-01

    Importance High placebo responses have been observed across a wide range of pathologies, severely impacting drug development. Objective Here we examined neurochemical mechanisms underlying the formation of placebo effects in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Participants Thirty-five medication-free MDD patients. Design and Intervention We performed a single-blinded two-week cross-over randomized controlled trial of two identical oral placebos (described as having either “active” or “inactive” fast-acting antidepressant-like effects) followed by a 10-week open-label treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or in some cases, another agent as clinically indicated. The volunteers were studied with PET and the μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-selective radiotracer [11C]carfentanil after each 1-week “inactive” and “active” oral placebo treatment. In addition, 1 mL of isotonic saline was administered intravenously (i.v.) within sight of the volunteer during PET scanning every 4 min over 20 min only after the 1-week active placebo treatment, with instructions that the compound may be associated with the activation of brain systems involved in mood improvement. This challenge stimulus was utilized to test the individual capacity to acutely activate endogenous opioid neurotransmision under expectations of antidepressant effect. Setting A University Health System. Main Outcomes and Measures Changes in depressive symptoms in response to “active” placebo and antidepressant. Baseline and activation measures of MOR binding. Results Higher baseline MOR binding in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was associated with better response to antidepressant treatment (r=0.48; p=0.02). Reductions in depressive symptoms after 1-week of “active” placebo treatment, compared to the “inactive”, were associated with increased placebo-induced μ-opioid neurotransmission in a network of regions implicated in emotion, stress regulation, and the

  17. Active and Passive RF Components for High-Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Nantista, Christopher D.

    2002-08-01

    In recent years, R&D for pulse compression and power distribution systems for the Next Linear Collider has led to the invention of many novel rf components, some of which must handle up to 600 MW of pulsed power at X-band. These include passive waveguide components, active switch designs, and non-reciprocal devices. Among the former is a class of multi-moded, highly efficient rf components based on planar geometries with overmoded rectangular ports. Multi-moding allows us, by means of input phasing, to direct power to different locations through the same waveguide. Planar symmetry allows the height to be increased to improve power handling capacity. Features that invite breakdown, such as coupling slots, irises and H-plane septa, are avoided. This class includes hybrids, directional couplers, an eight-port superhybrid/dual-mode launcher, a mode-selective extractor, mode-preserving bends, a rectangular mode converter, and mode-mixers. We are able to utilize such rectangular waveguide components in systems incorporating low-loss, circular waveguide delay lines by means of specially designed tapers that efficiently transform multiple rectangular waveguide modes into their corresponding circular waveguide modes, specifically TE10 and TE20 into circular TE11 and TE01. These extremely compact tapers can replace well-known mode converters such as the Marie type. Another component, a reflective TE01-TE02 mode converter in circular waveguide, allows us to double the delay in reflective or resonant delay lines. Ideas for multi-megawatt active components, such as switches, have also been pursued. Power-handling capacity for these is increased by making them also highly overmoded. We present a design methodology for active rf magnetic components which are suitable for pulse compression systems of future X-band linear colliders. We also present an active switch based on a PIN diode array. This component comprises an array of active elements arranged so that the electric fields

  18. New design deforming controlling system of the active stressed lap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Li; Wang, Daxing

    2008-07-01

    A 450mm diameter active stressed lap has been developed in NIAOT by 2003. We design a new lap in 2007. This paper puts on emphases on introducing the new deforming control system of the lap. Aiming at the control characteristic of the lap, a new kind of digital deforming controller is designed. The controller consists of 3 parts: computer signal disposing, motor driving and force sensor signal disposing. Intelligent numeral PID method is applied in the controller instead of traditional PID. In the end, the result of new deformation are given.

  19. Analysis of active volcanoes from the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Rowland, Scott; Crisp, Joy; Glaze, Lori; Jones, Kenneth; Kahle, Anne; Pieri, David; Zebker, Howard; Krueger, Arlin; Walter, Lou

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) scheduled for launch in 1997 and 1999 is briefly described, and the EOS volcanology investigation objectives are discussed. The volcanology investigation will include long- and short-term monitoring of selected volcanoes, the detection of precursor activity associated with unanticipated eruptions, and a detailed study of on-going eruptions. A variety of instruments on the EOS platforms will enable the study of local- and regional-scale thermal and deformational features of volcanoes, and the chemical and structural features of volcanic eruption plumes and aerosols.

  20. Active Laser Guide Star refocusing system for EAGLE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Madec, Fabrice; Vives, Sébastien; Chardin, Elodie; Ferrari, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Gimenez, Jean Luc; Mazzanti, Silvio; Vola, Pascal; Cuby, Jean Gabriel

    We detail the study of a laser guide star (LGS) refocusing system based on an variable curvature mirror (VCM) of high dynamic, in the frame of the EAGLE instrument for the E-ELT. From the top level requirements, an on axis optical design based on an active component is optimised to ensure maximal performance in terms of encircled energy. The refocusing is operated by the VCM, which shape varies with the distance of the sodium layer to the telescope. The VCM system concept is based on an embedded metrology. We detail the finite element analysis (FEA) of the VCM, allowing an optimization of the thickness profile to get an optical quality better than λ/5 RMS at each curvature. Mechanical design and manufacturing of prototypes are also presented.

  1. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  2. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Bo; Huang, Jing; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan; Du, Zhanwei

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  3. Design of active orthoses for a robotic gait rehabilitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Parra, A. C.; Broche, L.; Delisle-Rodríguez, D.; Sagaró, R.; Bastos, T.; Frizera-Neto, A.

    2015-09-01

    An active orthosis (AO) is a robotic device that assists both human gait and rehabilitation therapy. This work proposes portable AOs, one for the knee joint and another for the ankle joint. Both AOs will be used to complete a robotic system that improves gait rehabilitation. The requirements for actuator selection, the biomechanical considerations during the AO design, the finite element method, and a control approach based on electroencephalographic and surface electromyographic signals are reviewed. This work contributes to the design of AOs for users with foot drop and knee flexion impairment. However, the potential of the proposed AOs to be part of a robotic gait rehabilitation system that improves the quality of life of stroke survivors requires further investigation.

  4. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA`s, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  5. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA's, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  6. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  7. Active Wireless Temperature Sensors for Aerospace Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Karunaratne, K.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles in order to reduce life-cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to advance inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and Korteks to develop active wireless sensors that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor sub-surface temperature histories. These devices are thermocouples integrated with radio-frequency identification circuitry to enable acquisition and non-contact communication of temperature data through aerospace thermal protection materials. Two generations of prototype sensors are discussed. The advanced prototype collects data from three type-k thermocouples attached to a 2.54-cm square integrated circuit.

  8. Spiral and never-settling patterns in active systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Marenduzzo, D.; Marchetti, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a combined numerical and analytical study of pattern formation in an active system where particles align, possess a density-dependent motility, and are subject to a logistic reaction. The model can describe suspensions of reproducing bacteria, as well as polymerizing actomyosin gels in vitro or in vivo. In the disordered phase, we find that motility suppression and growth compete to yield stable or blinking patterns, which, when dense enough, acquire internal orientational ordering to give asters or spirals. We predict these may be observed within chemotactic aggregates in bacterial fluids. In the ordered phase, the reaction term leads to previously unobserved never-settling patterns which can provide a simple framework to understand the formation of motile and spiral patterns in intracellular actin systems.

  9. Active scale changer for anamorphic, distortion free, telecentric zoom system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Hugot, Emmanuel; Bernard, Anaïs.; Madec, Fabrice; Lemared, Sabri

    2014-07-01

    We present the conception of an anamorphic and telecentric scale changer with no distortion, able to provide magnifications in the range of 2 to 30 without any interchangeable optics, dedicated to ground or space applications. Several optical designs are investigated and the final configuration is based on off-axis five mirrors system with no moving elements. Four active mirrors are adapted to four different zoom configurations. A specific mechanical profile with variable thickness distribution is simulated and optimized on each mirror to allow using a minimal number of actuators. An opto-mechanical design will be presented, showing the implementation of actuators on the system. This work is done in the frame of the ANR project OASIX and will produce a lab prototype in 2015.

  10. Relaxation in crystal plasticity with three active slip systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Sergio; Dolzmann, Georg

    2016-09-01

    We study a variational model for finite crystal plasticity in the limit of rigid elasticity. We focus on the case of three distinct slip systems whose slip directions lie in one plane and are rotated by 120° with respect to each other, with linear self-hardening and infinite latent hardening, in the sense that each material point has to deform in single slip. Under these conditions, plastic deformation is accompanied by the formation of fine-scale structures, in which activity along the different slip systems localizes in different areas. The quasiconvex envelope of the energy density, which describes the macroscopic material behavior, is determined in a regime from small up to intermediate strains, and upper and lower bounds are provided for large strains. Finally sufficient conditions are given under which the lamination convex envelope of an extended-valued energy density is an upper bound for its quasiconvex envelope.

  11. An Overview of Research Activity at the Launch Systems Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Kandula, Max

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the acoustic testing and analysis activities at the Launch System Testbed (LST) of Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal is to develop passive methods of mitigation of sound from rocket exhaust jets with ducted systems devoid of traditional water injection. Current testing efforts are concerned with the launch-induced vibroacoustic behavior of scaled exhaust jets. Numerical simulations are also developed to study the sound propagation from supersonic jets in free air and through enclosed ducts. Scaling laws accounting for the effects of important parameters such as jet Mach number, jet velocity, and jet temperature on the far-field noise are investigated in order to deduce full-scale environment from small-scale tests.

  12. Active vibration and balance system for closed cycle thermodynamic machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass. A method is also provided.

  13. Application of electrical propulsion for an active debris removal system: a system engineering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covello, Fabio

    2012-10-01

    One of the main challenge in the design of an active removal system for space debris is the high ΔV required both to approach space debris lying in different orbits and to de-orbit/re-orbit them. Indeed if the system does not target a number of objects during its lifetime the cost of the removal will be far too high to be considered as the basis of an economically viable business case. Using a classical chemical propulsion (CP) system, the ΔV is limited by the mass of propellant that the system can carry. This limitation is greatly reduced if electrical propulsion is considered. Electrical propulsion (EP) systems are indeed characterized by low propellant mass requirements, however this comes at the cost of higher electrical power and, typically, higher complexity and mass of the power supply system. Because of this, the use of EP systems has been, therefore, primarily limited to station keeping maneuvers. However in the recent past, the success of missions using EP as primary propulsion (e.g. GOCE, SMART-1, Artemis, Deep Spcae1, Hayabusa) makes this technology a suitable candidate for providing propulsion for an active debris removal system. This study case will provide the analysis of the possible application of electrical propulsion systems in such a context, presenting a number of possible mission profiles. This paper will start with the description of possible mission concepts and the assessment of the EP technology, comparing near-term propulsion options, that best fits the mission. A more detailed analysis follows with the relevant trade-off to define the characteristics of the final system and its size in terms of mass and power required. A survey of available space qualified EP systems will be performed with the selection of the best candidates to be used and/or developed for an active debris removal system. The results of a similar analysis performed for a classical CP system are then presented and the two options are compared in terms of total cost of

  14. Measuring Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Geus, Eco J.

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls mainly automatic bodily functions that are engaged in homeostasis, like heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration and renal function. The ANS has two main branches: the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the human body for action in times of danger and stress, and the parasympathetic nervous system, which regulates the resting state of the body. ANS activity can be measured invasively, for instance by radiotracer techniques or microelectrode recording from superficial nerves, or it can be measured non-invasively by using changes in an organ's response as a proxy for changes in ANS activity, for instance of the sweat glands or the heart. Invasive measurements have the highest validity but are very poorly feasible in large scale samples where non-invasive measures are the preferred approach. Autonomic effects on the heart can be reliably quantified by the recording of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in combination with the impedance cardiogram (ICG), which reflects the changes in thorax impedance in response to respiration and the ejection of blood from the ventricle into the aorta. From the respiration and ECG signals, respiratory sinus arrhythmia can be extracted as a measure of cardiac parasympathetic control. From the ECG and the left ventricular ejection signals, the preejection period can be extracted as a measure of cardiac sympathetic control. ECG and ICG recording is mostly done in laboratory settings. However, having the subjects report to a laboratory greatly reduces ecological validity, is not always doable in large scale epidemiological studies, and can be intimidating for young children. An ambulatory device for ECG and ICG simultaneously resolves these three problems. Here, we present a study design for a minimally invasive and rapid assessment of cardiac autonomic control in children, using a validated ambulatory device 1-5, the VU University Ambulatory Monitoring System (VU

  15. Active Disaster Response System for a Smart Building

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Yen; Chu, Edward T.-H; Ku, Lun-Wei; Liu, Jane W. S.

    2014-01-01

    Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS), which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m. PMID:25237897

  16. Active transmission isolation/rotor loads measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Defelice, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications were incorporated into a helicopter active transmission isolation system to provide the capability of utilizing the system as a rotor force measuring device. These included; (1) isolator redesign to improve operation and minimize friction, (2) installation of pressure transducers in each isolator, and (3) load cells in series with each torque restraint link. Full scale vibration tests performed during this study on a CH-53A helicopter airframe verified that these modifications do not degrade the systems wide band isolation characteristics. Bench tests performed on each isolator unit indicated that steady and transient loads can be measured to within 1 percent of applied load. Individual isolator vibratory load measurement accuracy was determined to be 4 percent. Load measurement accuracy was found to be independent of variations in all basic isolator operating characteristics. Full scale system load calibration tests on the CH-53A airframe established the feasibility of simultaneously providing wide band vibration isolation and accurate measurement of rotor loads. Principal rotor loads (lift, propulsive force, and torque) were measured to within 2 percent of applied load.

  17. Active smart material system for buffet load alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, Kenneth B.; Saarmaa, Erik; Agnes, Gregory S.

    1995-05-01

    This paper addressed the feasibility of using an active piezoelectric buffet suppression system to reduce buffet vibrations in vertical tail aircraft. During the assessment, functional requirements were defined, models were developed, and full-scale piezoelectric buffet suppression systems were designed and evaluated. A variety of actuator distributions, sensor locations and controller architectures were examined and it was found that significant performance improvements could be achieved (greater than 70 percent) with minimal weight penalties (less than 8 percent). This work enabled the evaluation of issues such as system performance versus added weight and piezoelectric actuator control authority and power requirements. The study showed that the added performance benefit (in terms of vibration reduction and fatigue life) are far greater than the weight penalty, and that piezoelectric actuators have the control authority required to suppress high energy buffet forces within aircraft geometry, weight, and power constraints. Further, the high performance achieved (much greater than that defined in the functional requirements) suggests that systems can be designed with a much lower weight penalty (1/2 to 1/4) than that assumed in this study.

  18. Active disaster response system for a smart building.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Yen; Chu, Edward T-H; Ku, Lun-Wei; Liu, Jane W S

    2014-01-01

    Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS), which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m. PMID:25237897

  19. A new assay system for guinea pig interferon biological activity.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiko; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ohishi, Kazue; Nojima, Yasuhiro; Umemori, Kiyoko; Yamamoto, Saburo; McMurray, David N

    2002-07-01

    We have developed an assay system for guinea pig interferon (IFN) based on reduction of viral cytopathic effect (CPE) in various cell lines. CPE inhibition was detected optimally in the guinea pig fibroblast cell line 104C1 infected with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The amount of biologically active guinea pig IFN was quantified by estimating viable cell numbers colorimetrically by means of a tetrazolium compound, 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (WST-1) and 1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methylsulfate (PMS). WST-1 color developed until stopped by the addition of sulfuric acid. This had no effect on the colorimetric assay, and the color was stable for at least 24 h. The acid also inactivated the EMCV and, thus, eliminated the viral hazard. Inhibition of CPE activity was highly correlated with the concentration of culture supernatants from BCG-vaccinated guinea pig splenocytes stimulated in vitro with tuberculin or an immunostimulatory oligoDNA. This assay detected guinea pig IFN and human IFN-alpha, but not IFN-gamma from human, mouse, rat, pig, or dog. This assay system has proved useful for the titration of guinea pig IFN, being easy to perform, free from viral hazard, relatively species specific, highly reproducible, and inexpensive.

  20. Dielectric elastomer vibrissal system for active tactile sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, Andrew T.; Pearson, Martin J.; Pipe, Anthony G.; Welsby, Jason; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Rodents are able to dexterously navigate confined and unlit environments by extracting spatial and textural information with their whiskers (or vibrissae). Vibrissal-based active touch is suited to a variety of applications where vision is occluded, such as search-and-rescue operations in collapsed buildings. In this paper, a compact dielectric elastomer vibrissal system (DEVS) is described that mimics the vibrissal follicle-sinus complex (FSC) found in rodents. Like the vibrissal FSC, the DEVS encapsulates all sensitive mechanoreceptors at the root of a passive whisker within an antagonistic muscular system. Typically, rats actively whisk arrays of macro-vibrissae with amplitudes of up to +/-25°. It is demonstrated that these properties can be replicated by exploiting the characteristic large actuation strains and passive compliance of dielectric elastomers. A prototype DEVS is developed using VHB 4905 and embedded strain gauges bonded to the root of a tapered whisker. The DEVS is demonstrated to produce a maximum rotational output of +/-22.8°. An electro-mechanical model of the DEVS is derived, which incorporates a hyperelastic material model and Euler- Bernoulli beam equations. The model is shown to predict experimental measurements of whisking stroke amplitude and whisker deflection.

  1. Sparse matrix approximation method for an active optical control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Timothy P.; Lyon, Richard G.; Dorband, John E.; Hollis, Jan M.

    2001-12-01

    We develop a sparse matrix approximation method to decompose a wave front into a basis set of actuator influence functions for an active optical system consisting of a deformable mirror and a segmented primary mirror. The wave front used is constructed by Zernike polynomials to simulate the output of a phase-retrieval algorithm. Results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the optical control loop are compared with the standard, nonsparse approach in terms of accuracy and precision, as well as computational speed and memory. The sparse matrix approximation method can yield more than a 50-fold increase in the speed and a 20-fold-reduction in matrix size and a commensurate decrease in required memory, with less than 10% degradation in solution accuracy. Our method is also shown to be better than when elements are selected for the sparse matrix on a magnitude basis alone. We show that the method developed is a viable alternative to use of the full control matrix in a phase-retrieval-based active optical control system.

  2. Sparse matrix approximation method for an active optical control system.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T P; Lyon, R G; Dorband, J E; Hollis, J M

    2001-12-10

    We develop a sparse matrix approximation method to decompose a wave front into a basis set of actuator influence functions for an active optical system consisting of a deformable mirror and a segmented primary mirror. The wave front used is constructed by Zernike polynomials to simulate the output of a phase-retrieval algorithm. Results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the optical control loop are compared with the standard, nonsparse approach in terms of accuracy and precision, as well as computational speed and memory. The sparse matrix approximation method can yield more than a 50-fold increase in the speed and a 20-fold reduction in matrix size and a commensurate decrease in required memory, with less than 10% degradation in solution accuracy. Our method is also shown to be better than when elements are selected for the sparse matrix on a magnitude basis alone. We show that the method developed is a viable alternative to use of the full control matrix in a phase-retrieval-based active optical control system. PMID:18364958

  3. Sensor fusion methods for high performance active vibration isolation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, C.; Matichard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Sensor noise often limits the performance of active vibration isolation systems. Inertial sensors used in such systems can be selected through a wide variety of instrument noise and size characteristics. However, the most sensitive instruments are often the biggest and the heaviest. Consequently, high-performance active isolators sometimes embed many tens of kilograms in instrumentation. The weight and size of instrumentation can add unwanted constraint on the design. It tends to lower the structures natural frequencies and reduces the collocation between sensors and actuators. Both effects tend to reduce feedback control performance and stability. This paper discusses sensor fusion techniques that can be used in order to increase the control bandwidth (and/or the stability). For this, the low noise inertial instrument signal dominates the fusion at low frequency to provide vibration isolation. Other types of sensors (relative motion, smaller but noisier inertial, or force sensors) are used at higher frequencies to increase stability. Several sensor fusion configurations are studied. The paper shows the improvement that can be expected for several case studies including a rigid equipment, a flexible equipment, and a flexible equipment mounted on a flexible support structure.

  4. Optical sensor based system to monitor caries activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A.; Tahir, R.; Kishen, A.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the ability of a visible light based spectroscopic sensor system to monitor caries activity in saliva. In this study an optical sensor is utilized to monitor the bacterial-mediated acidogenic profile of stimulated saliva using a photosensitive pH indicator. Microbiological assessment of the saliva samples were carried out using the conventional culture methods. In addition, the shifts in the pH of saliva-sucrose samples were recorded using a pH meter. The absorption spectra obtained from the optical sensor showed peak maxima at 595nm, which decreased as a function of time. The microbiological assessment showed increase in the bacterial count as a function of time. A strong positive correlation was also observed between the rates of decrease in the absorption intensity measured using the optical sensor and the decrease in pH measured using the pH meter. This study highlights the potential advantages of using the optical sensor as a sensitive and rapid chairside system for monitoring caries activity by quantification of the acidogenic profile of saliva.

  5. Multifunctional antimicrobial proteins and peptides: natural activators of immune systems.

    PubMed

    Niyonsaba, François; Nagaoka, Isao; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the physical barrier of the stratum corneum, cutaneous innate immunity also includes the release of various humoral mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, recruitment and activation of phagocytes, and the production of antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs). AMPs form an innate epithelial chemical shield, which provides a front-line component in innate immunity to inhibit microbial invasion; however, this might be an oversimplification of the diverse functions of these molecules. In fact, apart from exhibiting a broad spectrum of microbicidal properties, it is increasingly evident that AMPs display additional activities that are related to the stimulation and modulation of the cutaneous immune system. These diverse functions include chemoattraction and activation of immune and/or inflammatory cells, the production and release of cytokines and chemokines, acceleration of angiogenesis, promotion of wound healing, neutralization of harmful microbial products, and bridging of both innate and adaptive immunity. Thus, better understanding of the functions of AMPs in skin and identification of their signaling mechanisms may offer new strategies for the development of potential therapeutics for the treatment of infection- and/or inflammation-related skin diseases. Here, we briefly outline the structure, regulation of expression, and multifunctional roles of principal skin-derived AMPs.

  6. Active smart material control system for buffet alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheta, Essam F.; Moses, Robert W.; Huttsell, Lawrence J.

    2006-05-01

    Vertical tail buffeting is a serious multidisciplinary problem that limits the performance and maneuverability of twin-tail fighter aircraft. The buffet problem occurs at high angles of attack when the vortical flow breaks down ahead of the vertical tails resulting in unsteady and unbalanced loads on the tails leading to their premature fatigue failure. An active smart material control system, using distributed piezoelectric (PZT) actuators, is developed for buffet alleviation and is presented. The surfaces of the vertical tail are equipped with PZT actuators to control the buffet responses in the first bending and torsion modes. The electrodynamics of the PZT actuators are modeled using a finite-element model. A single-input/single-output controller is designed to drive the active PZT actuators. High-fidelity analysis modules for the fluid dynamics, structural dynamics, electrodynamics of the PZT actuators, control law, fluid-structure interfacing, and grid motion are integrated into a multidisciplinary computing environment that controls the temporal synchronization of the analysis modules. The results of this study indicate that the actively controlled PZT actuators are an effective tool for buffet alleviation over wide range of angels of attack. Peak values of power spectral density of tail-tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 22% in the first bending mode and by as much as 82% in the first torsion mode. The root mean square values of tail-tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 12%.

  7. Active control of multi-input hydraulic journal bearing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Jen-Chen; Chen, Chi-Yin; Tu, Jia-Ying

    2016-09-01

    Because of the advantages of high accuracy, high capacity, and low friction, the development of hydrostatic bearing for machine tool receives significant attention in the last decades. The mechanics and mechanical design of hydrostatic journal bearing with capillary restrictors has been discussed in literature. However, pragmatically, the undesired loading effects of cutting force tend to result in resonance and instability of the rotor and damage the shaft during operation. Therefore, multi-input, active flow control using state feedback design is proposed in this paper. To this purpose, the proportional pressure valves are added to the hydraulic system as active control devices, and the linearised models of the bearing and valve are discussed and identified. Simulation and experimental work is conducted to verify the proposed active control and parameter identification techniques. The results show that the unbalance responses of the rotor are reduced by the proposed state feedback controller, which is able to regulate the flow pressure effectively, thus enhancing the stability and accuracy of the hydraulic journal bearing.

  8. Development of active and sensitive material systems based on composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes new concepts proposed by the author to realize active and sensitive structural material systems. Two examples of multifunctional composites were fabricated and evaluated in this study as follows: (1) An active laminate of aluminum plate (works as muscle), epoxy film (as insulator), unidirectional CFRP prepreg (as bone and blood vessel) and copper foil electrode (to apply voltage on CFRP) was made with an embedded optical fiber multiply fractured in the CFRP layer (works as nerve), of which curvature change could be effectively monitored with the fractured optical fiber. (2) A stainless steel fiber/aluminum active composite with embedded Ti oxide/Ti composite fiber was fabricated. The Ti oxide/Ti fiber could work as a sensor for temperature by removing a part of the oxide before embedment to make a metallic contact between the embedded titanium fiber and aluminum matrix to be able to generate thermal electromotive force, and also could work as a sensor for strain and as a heater for actuation. In the both cases, the outputs from their embedded sensors can be used to control their actuations.

  9. Confinement of active systems: trapping, swim pressure, and explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatori, Sho; de Dier, Raf; Vermant, Jan; Brady, John

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the run-and-tumble dynamics and motion of living bacteria and self-propelled Janus motors confined in an acoustic trap. Since standard optical tweezers are far too weak, we developed an acoustic trap strong enough to confine swimmers over distances large compared to the swimmers' size and run length. The external trap behaves as an ``osmotic barrier'' that confines the swimmers inside the trapping region, analogous to semipermeable membranes that confine passive Brownian particles inside a boundary. From the swimmers' restricted motion inside the trap, we calculate the unique swim pressure generated by active systems originating from the force required to confine them by boundaries. We apply a strong trap to collect the swimmers into a close-packed active crystal and then turn off the trap which causes the crystal to ``explode'' due to an imbalance of the active pressure. We corroborate all experimental results with Brownian dynamics simulations and analytical theory. ST is supported by a Gates Millennium Scholars fellowship and a NSF Fellowship No. DGE-1144469. RDD is supported by a doctoral fellowship of the fund for scientific research (FWO-Vlaanderen). This work is also supported by NSF Grant CBET 1437570.

  10. Field-Testing of an Active Laser Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, V.; Khiznyak, A.; Woll, D.; Liu, S.

    Comprehensive space surveillance demands a more accurate technique in tracking multi-dimensional state vector (3D coordinate, velocity, vibration, etc.) of the space objects. RF radiometric techniques typically can not provide the needed accuracy, while passive optical (and laser) tracking systems can provide distance to the object and its angular position, but not a direct reading of velocity, the parameter of primary importance for space object tracking and characterization. Addressing this problem with active optical tracking techniques is challenging because of the great distances involved, the high velocity of the satellites, and the optical aberrations induced by the atmosphere. We have proposed a phase conjugation based laser tracking concept, and accomplished the first version of design and engineering of a prototype for an Active Laser Tracking System (ALTS). In its current state the ALTS is capable to demonstrate the very basics operational principles of the proposed active tracking technique. We then performed a number of experiments to prove operational capabilities of this prototype both at MetroLaser's lab environment and at Edwards AFB Test Range. In its current architecture the ALTS is comprised of two laser cavities, Master and Slave that are coupled through a Phase Conjugate Mirror (PCM) formed in a non-linear medium (NLM) set at Master laser cavity. By pumping NLM and forming PCM, Master laser establishes the cavities coupling mode and injects the photons in the slave cavity. It is essential that the specific features of the PCM not only serve to couple ALTS cavities, but also serves to compensate optical aberrations of the ALTS (gain media and optical elements of the laser resonator). Due to its ability to compensate optical aberrations, phase conjugate resonators are capable of sustaining oscillation with a remote target as an output coupler. The entire system comprises of several modules, including a laser, emitting/receiving telescope, gimbal

  11. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table computer program NASA Advanced Docking System (NADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.; Jantz, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program was developed to describe the three-dimensional motion of the Dynamic Docking Test System active table. The input consists of inertia and geometry data, actuator structural data, forcing function data, hydraulics data, servo electronics data, and integration control data. The output consists of table responses, actuator bending responses, and actuator responses.

  12. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Cooling System, Learning Activity Packages 34-40; Maintaining and Servicing Hydraulic Systems, Learning Activity Packages 41-48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on two areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the cooling system and (2) maintaining and servicing hydraulic systems. Each of the fifteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  13. Xylazine Activates Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway in the Central Nervous System of Rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xing-Xing; Yin, Bai-Shuang; Yang, Peng; Chen, Hao; Li, Xin; Su, Li-Xue; Fan, Hong-Gang; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Xylazine is a potent analgesic extensively used in veterinary and animal experimentation. Evidence exists that the analgesic effect can be inhibited using adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors. Considering this idea, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the AMPK signaling pathway is involved in the central analgesic mechanism of xylazine in the rat. Xylazine was administrated via the intraperitoneal route. Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and brainstem were collected for determination of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and AMPKα mRNA expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα levels using western blot. The results of our study showed that compared with the control group, xylazine induced significant increases in AMPK activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum after rats received xylazine (P < 0.01). Increased AMPK activities were accompanied with increased phosphorylation levels of LKB1 in corresponding regions of rats. The protein levels of phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα in these regions returned or tended to return to control group levels. However, in the brainstem, phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα protein levels were decreased by xylazine compared with the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicates that xylazine alters the activities of LKB1 and AMPK in the central nervous system of rats, which suggests that xylazine affects the regulatory signaling pathway of the analgesic mechanism in the rat brain. PMID:27049320

  14. Activation of the Peripheral Endocannabinoid System in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Engeli, Stefan; Böhnke, Jana; Feldpausch, Mareike; Gorzelniak, Kerstin; Janke, Jürgen; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Harvey-White, Judy; Luft, Friedrich C.; Sharma, Arya M.; Jordan, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is the main risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Activation of the central endocannabinoid system increases food intake and promotes weight gain. Blockade of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB-1) receptor reduces body weight in animals by central and peripheral actions; the role of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity is now being extensively investigated. We measured circulating endocannabinoid concentrations and studied the expression of CB-1 and the main degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), in adipose tissue of lean (n = 20) and obese (n = 20) women and after a 5% weight loss in a second group of women (n = 17). Circulating levels of anandamide and 1/2-arachidonoylglycerol were increased by 35 and 52% in obese compared with lean women (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue mRNA levels were reduced by −34% for CB-1 and −59% for FAAH in obese subjects (P < 0.05). A strong negative correlation was found between FAAH expression in adipose tissue and circulating endocannabinoids. Circulating endocannabinoids and CB-1 or FAAH expression were not affected by 5% weight loss. The expression of CB-1 and FAAH was increased in mature human adipocytes compared with in preadipocytes and was found in several human tissues. Our findings support the presence of a peripheral endocannabinoid system that is upregulated in human obesity. PMID:16186383

  15. Activation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Engeli, Stefan; Böhnke, Jana; Feldpausch, Mareike; Gorzelniak, Kerstin; Janke, Jürgen; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Harvey-White, Judy; Luft, Friedrich C; Sharma, Arya M; Jordan, Jens

    2005-10-01

    Obesity is the main risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Activation of the central endocannabinoid system increases food intake and promotes weight gain. Blockade of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB-1) receptor reduces body weight in animals by central and peripheral actions; the role of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity is now being extensively investigated. We measured circulating endocannabinoid concentrations and studied the expression of CB-1 and the main degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), in adipose tissue of lean (n = 20) and obese (n = 20) women and after a 5% weight loss in a second group of women (n = 17). Circulating levels of anandamide and 1/2-arachidonoylglycerol were increased by 35 and 52% in obese compared with lean women (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue mRNA levels were reduced by -34% for CB-1 and -59% for FAAH in obese subjects (P < 0.05). A strong negative correlation was found between FAAH expression in adipose tissue and circulating endocannabinoids. Circulating endocannabinoids and CB-1 or FAAH expression were not affected by 5% weight loss. The expression of CB-1 and FAAH was increased in mature human adipocytes compared with in preadipocytes and was found in several human tissues. Our findings support the presence of a peripheral endocannabinoid system that is upregulated in human obesity. PMID:16186383

  16. Lymphatic system: an active pathway for immune protection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shan; von der Weid, P Y

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic vessels are well known to participate in the immune response by providing the structural and functional support for the delivery of antigens and antigen presenting cells to draining lymph nodes. Recent advances have improved our understanding of how the lymphatic system works and how it participates to the development of immune responses. New findings suggest that the lymphatic system may control the ultimate immune response through a number of ways which may include guiding antigen/dendritic cells (DC) entry into initial lymphatics at the periphery; promoting antigen/DC trafficking through afferent lymphatic vessels by actively facilitating lymph and cell movement; enabling antigen presentation in lymph nodes via a network of lymphatic endothelial cells and lymph node stroma cell and finally by direct lymphocytes exit from lymph nodes. The same mechanisms are likely also important to maintain peripheral tolerance. In this review we will discuss how the morphology and gene expression profile of the lymphatic endothelial cells in lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes provides a highly efficient pathway to initiate immune responses. The fundamental understanding of how lymphatic system participates in immune regulation will guide the research on lymphatic function in various diseases.

  17. A distributed architecture for activating the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Andreu, David; Guiraud, David; Souquet, Guillaume

    2009-04-01

    We present a new system for functional electrical stimulation (FES) applications based on networked stimulation units. They embed an advanced analog circuit, which provides multipolar and multiphasic stimulation profiles, and digital circuits, which ensure safety, locally executed programmed profiles, and communication with the master controller. This architecture is thus based on distributed stimulation units (DSU) that need only a two-wire bus to communicate, regardless of the number of poles of each DSU-driven electrode. This structure minimizes the required bandwidth between master and distributed units, increases the safety and stimulation features and decreases the complexity of the surgical approach. We have successfully tested this network-based stimulation architecture on benchtop stimulators. This original approach allows broad exploration of all possible methods to stimulate peripheral nerves, particularly in the goal of restoring the motor function. It provides a powerful research device to determine the optimal, least aggressive and the most efficient way to activate the peripheral nervous system using an implanted FES system that is less invasive than other existing devices.

  18. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  19. A distributed architecture for activating the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Andreu, David; Guiraud, David; Souquet, Guillaume

    2009-04-01

    We present a new system for functional electrical stimulation (FES) applications based on networked stimulation units. They embed an advanced analog circuit, which provides multipolar and multiphasic stimulation profiles, and digital circuits, which ensure safety, locally executed programmed profiles, and communication with the master controller. This architecture is thus based on distributed stimulation units (DSU) that need only a two-wire bus to communicate, regardless of the number of poles of each DSU-driven electrode. This structure minimizes the required bandwidth between master and distributed units, increases the safety and stimulation features and decreases the complexity of the surgical approach. We have successfully tested this network-based stimulation architecture on benchtop stimulators. This original approach allows broad exploration of all possible methods to stimulate peripheral nerves, particularly in the goal of restoring the motor function. It provides a powerful research device to determine the optimal, least aggressive and the most efficient way to activate the peripheral nervous system using an implanted FES system that is less invasive than other existing devices. PMID:19213992

  20. Gold enrichment in active geothermal systems by accumulating colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannington, Mark; Harðardóttir, Vigdis; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Brown, Kevin L.

    2016-04-01

    The origins of high-grade hydrothermal ore deposits are debated, but active geothermal systems provide important clues to their formation. The highest concentrations of gold are found in geothermal systems with direct links to island arc magmatism. Yet, similar concentrations have also been found in the absence of any input from arc magmas, for example, in the Reykjanes geothermal field, Iceland. Here we analyse brine samples taken from deep wells at Reykjanes and find that gold concentrations in the reservoir zone have increased over the past seven years from an average of 3 ppb to 14 ppb. The metal concentrations greatly exceed the maximum solubility of gold in the reservoir under saturated conditions and are now nearly two orders of magnitude higher than in mid-ocean ridge black smoker fluids--the direct analogues of Reykjanes deep liquids. We suggest that ongoing extraction of brine, the resulting pressure drop, and increased boiling have caused gold to drop out of solution and become trapped in the reservoir as a colloidal suspension. This process may explain how the stock of metal in the reservoirs of fossil geothermal systems could have increased over time and thus become available for the formation of gold-rich ore deposits.

  1. Active Storage with Analytics Capabilities and I/O Runtime System for Petascale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Alok

    2015-03-18

    Computational scientists must understand results from experimental, observational and computational simulation generated data to gain insights and perform knowledge discovery. As systems approach the petascale range, problems that were unimaginable a few years ago are within reach. With the increasing volume and complexity of data produced by ultra-scale simulations and high-throughput experiments, understanding the science is largely hampered by the lack of comprehensive I/O, storage, acceleration of data manipulation, analysis, and mining tools. Scientists require techniques, tools and infrastructure to facilitate better understanding of their data, in particular the ability to effectively perform complex data analysis, statistical analysis and knowledge discovery. The goal of this work is to enable more effective analysis of scientific datasets through the integration of enhancements in the I/O stack, from active storage support at the file system layer to MPI-IO and high-level I/O library layers. We propose to provide software components to accelerate data analytics, mining, I/O, and knowledge discovery for large-scale scientific applications, thereby increasing productivity of both scientists and the systems. Our approaches include 1) design the interfaces in high-level I/O libraries, such as parallel netCDF, for applications to activate data mining operations at the lower I/O layers; 2) Enhance MPI-IO runtime systems to incorporate the functionality developed as a part of the runtime system design; 3) Develop parallel data mining programs as part of runtime library for server-side file system in PVFS file system; and 4) Prototype an active storage cluster, which will utilize multicore CPUs, GPUs, and FPGAs to carry out the data mining workload.

  2. Active System for Electromagnetic Perturbation Monitoring in Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoi, Adrian Marian; Helerea, Elena

    Nowadays electromagnetic environment is rapidly expanding in frequency domain and wireless services extend in terms of covered area. European electromagnetic compatibility regulations refer to limit values regarding emissions, as well as procedures for determining susceptibility of the vehicle. Approval procedure for a series of cars is based on determining emissions/immunity level for a few vehicles picked randomly from the entire series, supposing that entire vehicle series is compliant. During immunity assessment, the vehicle is not subjected to real perturbation sources, but exposed to electric/magnetic fields generated by laboratory equipment. Since current approach takes into account only partially real situation regarding perturbation sources, this paper proposes an active system for determining electromagnetic parameters of vehicle's environment, that implements a logical diagram for measurement, satisfying the imposed requirements. This new and original solution is useful for EMC assessment of hybrid and electrical vehicles.

  3. Effectiveness of classroom response systems within an active learning environment.

    PubMed

    Welch, Susan

    2013-11-01

    In nursing education, the inclusion of pedagogical tools is necessary to transform Millennial classrooms. One such pedagogical tool currently offered is classroom response systems (CRS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CRS as a pedagogical tool in improving nursing students' examination performance within an active learning environment. A pretest-posttest design was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the use of CRS (independent variable) and nursing students' examination performance in a first-year Professional Practice course (dependent variable). Paired t tests revealed no greater improvement in posttest scores. Therefore, the use of CRS technology was not effective in increasing nursing students' examination scores in the Professional Practice course. Additional research is needed to provide adequate understanding of the effectiveness of CRS within the nursing education classroom.

  4. Optical ordnance system for use in explosive ordnance disposal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merson, J. A.; Salas, F. J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable hand-held solid state rod laser system and an optically-ignited detonator have been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Laser prototypes from Whittaker Ordnance and Universal Propulsion have been tested and evaluated. The optical detonator contains 2-(5 cyanotetrazolato) pentaamine cobalt(III) perchlorate (CP) as the DDT column and the explosive Octahydro- 1,3,5,7 - tetrazocine (HMX) as the output charge. The laser is designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse. This output allows firing through 2000 meters of optical fiber. The detonator can also be ignited with a portable laser diode source through a shorter length of fiber.

  5. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  6. SMART: a system supporting medical activities in real-time.

    PubMed

    Pisanelli, D M; Consorti, F; Merialdo, P

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the system SMART whose goal is real-time assistance to physicians who execute diagnostic or therapeutic protocols in a clinical context. SMART is able to retrieve a protocol from its knowledge base and to monitor its execution step by step for a single patient. Different protocols for different patients can be followed at the same time in a health care structure. The prototype realized supports the execution of protocols for evaluating surgical risks. It has been implemented according to the specifications given by the 4th Surgical Clinic of "Policlinico Umberto I" and reflects the activities actually performed in that hospital. However, the protocol model defined is general purpose and we envisage an easy application to other contexts and therefore to the informatization of other protocols.

  7. Optical ordance system for use in explosive ordnance disposal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable hand-held solid state rod laser system and an optically-ignited detonator have been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Laser prototypes from Whittaker Ordnance and Universal Propulsion have been tested and evaluated. The optical detonator contains 2-(5 cyanotetrazolato) pentaamine cobalt III perchlorate (CP) as the DDT column and the explosive Octahydro 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetranitro -- 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetrazocine (HMX) as the output charge. The laser is designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse. This output allows firing through 2000 meters of optical fiber. The detonator can also be ignited with a portable laser diode source through a shorter length of fiber.

  8. Effectiveness of classroom response systems within an active learning environment.

    PubMed

    Welch, Susan

    2013-11-01

    In nursing education, the inclusion of pedagogical tools is necessary to transform Millennial classrooms. One such pedagogical tool currently offered is classroom response systems (CRS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CRS as a pedagogical tool in improving nursing students' examination performance within an active learning environment. A pretest-posttest design was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the use of CRS (independent variable) and nursing students' examination performance in a first-year Professional Practice course (dependent variable). Paired t tests revealed no greater improvement in posttest scores. Therefore, the use of CRS technology was not effective in increasing nursing students' examination scores in the Professional Practice course. Additional research is needed to provide adequate understanding of the effectiveness of CRS within the nursing education classroom. PMID:24127175

  9. An active UHF RFID localization system for fawn saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, M.; Lehner, M.; Ascher, A.; Allwang, M.; Biebl, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    We present a localization concept for active UHF RFID transponders which enables mowing machine drivers to detect and localize marked fawns. The whole system design and experimental results with transponders located near the ground in random orientations in a meadow area are shown. The communication flow between reader and transponders is realized as a dynamic master-slave concept. Multiple marked fawns will be localized by processing detected transponders sequentially. With an eight-channel-receiver with integrated calibration method one can estimate the direction-of-arrival by measuring the phases of the transponder signals up to a range of 50 m in all directions. For further troubleshooting array manifolds have been measured. An additional hand-held receiver with a two-channel receiver allows a guided approaching search without endangering the fawn by the mowing machine.

  10. Efficient active depth sensing by laser speckle projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xuanwu; Wang, Guijin; Shi, Chenbo; Liao, Qingmin

    2014-01-01

    An active depth sensing approach by laser speckle projection system is proposed. After capturing the speckle pattern with an infrared digital camera, we extract the pure speckle pattern using a direct-global separation method. Then the pure speckles are represented by Census binary features. By evaluating the matching cost and uniqueness between the real-time image and the reference image, robust correspondences are selected as support points. After that, we build a disparity grid and propose a generative graphical model to compute disparities. An iterative approach is designed to propagate the messages between blocks and update the model. Finally, a dense depth map can be obtained by subpixel interpolation and transformation. The experimental evaluations demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach.

  11. Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System Promotes Colitis Development

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yongyan; Liu, Tianjing; He, Lei; Dougherty, Urszula; Chen, Li; Adhikari, Sarbani; Alpert, Lindsay; Zhou, Guolin; Liu, Weicheng; Wang, Jiaolong; Deb, Dilip K.; Hart, John; Liu, Shu Q.; Kwon, John; Pekow, Joel; Rubin, David T.; Zhao, Qun; Bissonnette, Marc; Li, Yan Chun

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays pathogenic roles in renal and cardiovascular disorders, but whether it is involved in colitis is unclear. Here we show that RenTgMK mice that overexpress active renin from the liver developed more severe colitis than wild-type controls. More than 50% RenTgMK mice died whereas all wild-type mice recovered. RenTgMK mice exhibited more robust mucosal TH17 and TH1/TH17 responses and more profound colonic epithelial cell apoptosis compared to wild-type controls. Treatment with aliskiren (a renin inhibitor), but not hydralazine (a smooth muscle relaxant), ameliorated colitis in RenTgMK mice, although both drugs normalized blood pressure. Chronic infusion of angiotensin II into wild-type mice mimicked the severe colitic phenotype of RenTgMK mice, and treatment with losartan [an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB)] ameliorated colitis in wild-type mice, confirming a colitogenic role for the endogenous RAS. In human biopsies, pro-inflammatory cytokines were suppressed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were on ARB therapy compared to patients not receiving ARB therapy. These observations demonstrate that activation of the RAS promotes colitis in a blood pressure independent manner. Angiotensin II appears to drive colonic mucosal inflammation by promoting intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal TH17 responses in colitis development. PMID:27271344

  12. A latchable thermally activated phase change actuator for microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Christiane; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2016-03-01

    Complex microfluidic systems often require a high number of individually controllable active components like valves and pumps. In this paper we present the development and optimization of a latchable thermally controlled phase change actuator which uses a solid/liquid phase transition of a phase change medium and the displacement of the liquid phase change medium to change and stabilize the two states of the actuator. Because the phase change is triggered by heat produced with ohmic resistors the used control signal is an electrical signal. In contrast to pneumatically activated membrane valves this concept allows the individual control of several dozen actuators with only two external pressure lines. Within this paper we show the general working principle of the actuator and demonstrate its general function and the scalability of the concept at an example of four actuators. Additionally we present the complete results of our studies to optimize the response behavior of the actuator - the influence of the heating power as well as the used phase change medium on melting and solidifying times.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Bishop-Bailey, David

    2000-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)s are a family of three nuclear hormone receptors, PPARα, -δ, and -γ, which are members of the steriod receptor superfamily. The first member of the family (PPARα) was originally discovered as the mediator by which a number of xenobiotic drugs cause peroxisome proliferation in the liver. Defined functions for all these receptors, until recently, mainly concerned their ability to regulate energy balance, with PPARα being involved in β-oxidation pathways, and PPARγ in the differentiation of adipocytes. Little is known about the functions of PPARδ, though it is the most ubiquitously expressed. Since their discovery, PPARs have been shown to be expressed in monocytes/macrophages, the heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, PPARs can be activated by a vast number of compounds including synthetic drugs, of the clofibrate, and anti-diabetic thiazoldinedione classes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a number of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, lipoxygenase products, and oxidized low density lipoprotein. This review will aim to introduce the field of PPAR nuclear hormone receptors, and discuss the discovery and actions of PPARs in the cardiovascular system, as well as the source of potential ligands. PMID:10696077

  14. Calibrating a novel multi-sensor physical activity measurement system

    PubMed Central

    John, D; Liu, S; Sasaki, J E; Howe, C A; Staudenmayer, J; Gao, R X; Freedson, P S

    2011-01-01

    Advancing the field of physical activity (PA) monitoring requires the development of innovative multi-sensor measurement systems that are feasible in the free-living environment. The use of novel analytical techniques to combine and process these multiple sensor signals is equally important. This paper, describes a novel multi-sensor ‘Integrated PA Measurement System’ (IMS), the lab-based methodology used to calibrate the IMS, techniques used to predict multiple variables from the sensor signals, and proposes design changes to improve the feasibility of deploying the IMS in the free-living environment. The IMS consists of hip and wrist acceleration sensors, two piezoelectric respiration sensors on the torso, and an ultraviolet radiation sensor to obtain contextual information (indoors vs. outdoors) of PA. During lab-based calibration of the IMS, data were collected on participants performing a PA routine consisting of seven different ambulatory and free-living activities while wearing a portable metabolic unit (criterion measure) and the IMS. Data analyses on the first 50 adult participants are presented. These analyses were used to determine if the IMS can be used to predict the variables of interest. Finally, physical modifications for the IMS that could enhance feasibility of free-living use are proposed and refinement of the prediction techniques is discussed. PMID:21813941

  15. Anxiety, not anger, induces inflammatory activity: An avoidance/approach model of immune system activation.

    PubMed

    Moons, Wesley G; Shields, Grant S

    2015-08-01

    Psychological stressors reliably trigger systemic inflammatory activity as indexed by levels of proinflammatory cytokines. This experiment demonstrates that one's specific emotional reaction to a stressor may be a significant determinant of whether an inflammatory reaction occurs in response to that stressor. Based on extant correlational evidence and theory, a causal approach was used to determine whether an avoidant emotion (anxiety) triggers more inflammatory activity than an approach emotion (anger). In an experimental design (N = 40), a 3-way Emotion Condition × Time × Analyte interaction revealed that a writing-based anxiety induction, but not a writing-based anger induction, increased mean levels of interferon-γ (IFN- γ) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but not interleukin-6 (IL-6) in oral mucous, F(2, 54) = 4.64, p = .01, ηp(²) = .15. Further, self-reported state anxiety predicted elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, all ΔR(²) >.06, ps <.04, but self-reported state anger did not. These results constitute the first evidence to our knowledge that specific negative emotions can differentially cause inflammatory activity and support a theoretical model explaining these effects based on the avoidance or approach motivations associated with emotions. PMID:26053247

  16. Anxiety, not anger, induces inflammatory activity: An avoidance/approach model of immune system activation.

    PubMed

    Moons, Wesley G; Shields, Grant S

    2015-08-01

    Psychological stressors reliably trigger systemic inflammatory activity as indexed by levels of proinflammatory cytokines. This experiment demonstrates that one's specific emotional reaction to a stressor may be a significant determinant of whether an inflammatory reaction occurs in response to that stressor. Based on extant correlational evidence and theory, a causal approach was used to determine whether an avoidant emotion (anxiety) triggers more inflammatory activity than an approach emotion (anger). In an experimental design (N = 40), a 3-way Emotion Condition × Time × Analyte interaction revealed that a writing-based anxiety induction, but not a writing-based anger induction, increased mean levels of interferon-γ (IFN- γ) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but not interleukin-6 (IL-6) in oral mucous, F(2, 54) = 4.64, p = .01, ηp(²) = .15. Further, self-reported state anxiety predicted elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, all ΔR(²) >.06, ps <.04, but self-reported state anger did not. These results constitute the first evidence to our knowledge that specific negative emotions can differentially cause inflammatory activity and support a theoretical model explaining these effects based on the avoidance or approach motivations associated with emotions.

  17. Development of actively cooled panels for advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, Brett K.

    1998-01-01

    Development of actively cooled flowpath panels for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) propulsion system was a critical task in the development plan of the air vehicle system. This task encompassed development of design requirements and loads, and component design and testing. In the early 90's the effort focused on six cooled panel designs based in five different materials (NARloy-Z, Haynes 188, MoRe, IN909, C/C and C/SiC), each satisfying requirements in a different area of the propulsion flowpath. Eventually, three of these designs were fabricated and tested. For these tests, two primary facilities were used. The first was a radiant heating facility at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), and the second, a vitiated air heater at General Applied Science Laboratories (GASL) Inc. In these facilities, tests were run to validate thermal and mechanical models and to demonstrate coating durability and effectiveness. Additional tests to assess the damage tolerance of these designs were planned but never run. These tests ultimately exposed strengths and weaknesses in the designs and the analysis methods.

  18. A simple wavelength division multiplexing system for active learning teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zghal, Mourad; Ghalila, Hassen; Ben Lakhdar, Zohra

    2009-06-01

    The active learning project consists in a series of workshops for educators, researchers and students and promotes an innovative method of teaching physics using simple, inexpensive materials that can be fabricated locally. The objective of the project is to train trainers and inspire students to learn physics. The workshops are based on the use of laboratory work and hands-on activities in the classroom. The interpretation of these experiments is challenging for some students, and the experiments can lead to a significant amount of discussion. The workshops are organized within the framework of the project ``Active Learning in Optics and Photonics" (ALOP) mainly funded by UNESCO, with the support of ICTP (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics) and SPIE. ALOP workshops offer high school, college or university physics teachers the opportunity to improve their conceptual understanding of optics. These workshops usually run for five days and cover several of the topics usually found in any introductory university physics program. Optics and photonics are used as subject matter because it is relevant as well as adaptable to research and educational conditions in many developing countries [1]. In this paper, we will mainly focus on a specific topic of the ALOP workshops, namely optical communications and Wavelength Division Multiplexing technology (WDM). This activity was originally developed by Mazzolini et al [2]. WDM is a technology used in fibre-optic communications for transmitting two or more separate signals over a single fibre optic cable by using a separate wavelength for each signal. Multiple signals are carried together as separate wavelengths of light in a multiplexed signal. Simple and inexpensive WDM system was implemented in our laboratory using light emitting diodes or diode lasers, plastic optical fibres, a set of optical filters and lenses, prism or grating, and photodiodes. Transmission of audio signals using home-made, simple

  19. Active fault database of Japan: Its construction and search system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, T.; Miyamoto, F.

    2011-12-01

    The Active fault database of Japan was constructed by the Active Fault and Earthquake Research Center, GSJ/AIST and opened to the public on the Internet from 2005 to make a probabilistic evaluation of the future faulting event and earthquake occurrence on major active faults in Japan. The database consists of three sub-database, 1) sub-database on individual site, which includes long-term slip data and paleoseismicity data with error range and reliability, 2) sub-database on details of paleoseismicity, which includes the excavated geological units and faulting event horizons with age-control, 3) sub-database on characteristics of behavioral segments, which includes the fault-length, long-term slip-rate, recurrence intervals, most-recent-event, slip per event and best-estimate of cascade earthquake. Major seismogenic faults, those are approximately the best-estimate segments of cascade earthquake, each has a length of 20 km or longer and slip-rate of 0.1m/ky or larger and is composed from about two behavioral segments in average, are included in the database. This database contains information of active faults in Japan, sorted by the concept of "behavioral segments" (McCalpin, 1996). Each fault is subdivided into 550 behavioral segments based on surface trace geometry and rupture history revealed by paleoseismic studies. Behavioral segments can be searched on the Google Maps. You can select one behavioral segment directly or search segments in a rectangle area on the map. The result of search is shown on a fixed map or the Google Maps with information of geologic and paleoseismic parameters including slip rate, slip per event, recurrence interval, and calculated rupture probability in the future. Behavioral segments can be searched also by name or combination of fault parameters. All those data are compiled from journal articles, theses, and other documents. We are currently developing a revised edition, which is based on an improved database system. More than ten

  20. Xylazine Activates Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway in the Central Nervous System of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xing-Xing; Yin, Bai-Shuang; Yang, Peng; Chen, Hao; Li, Xin; Su, Li-Xue; Fan, Hong-Gang; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Xylazine is a potent analgesic extensively used in veterinary and animal experimentation. Evidence exists that the analgesic effect can be inhibited using adenosine 5’-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors. Considering this idea, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the AMPK signaling pathway is involved in the central analgesic mechanism of xylazine in the rat. Xylazine was administrated via the intraperitoneal route. Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and brainstem were collected for determination of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and AMPKα mRNA expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα levels using western blot. The results of our study showed that compared with the control group, xylazine induced significant increases in AMPK activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum after rats received xylazine (P < 0.01). Increased AMPK activities were accompanied with increased phosphorylation levels of LKB1 in corresponding regions of rats. The protein levels of phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα in these regions returned or tended to return to control group levels. However, in the brainstem, phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα protein levels were decreased by xylazine compared with the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicates that xylazine alters the activities of LKB1 and AMPK in the central nervous system of rats, which suggests that xylazine affects the regulatory signaling pathway of the analgesic mechanism in the rat brain. PMID:27049320

  1. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  2. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  3. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  4. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  5. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  6. Two systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) global disease activity indexes--the SLE Disease Activity Index and the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure--demonstrate different correlations with activation of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Daca, Agnieszka; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Smoleńska, Zaneta; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew; Witkowski, Jacek M; Bryl, Ewa

    2011-12-01

    Global disease activity measurement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is important for the clinical estimation and adjustment of therapy. By contrast, immune system activation plays a significant role in disease pathogenesis, with CD4+ lymphocytes acting as central cells in the immune response. We investigated which scale better correlates with immunologic changes in the blood of SLE patients, the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) or the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) scale. Samples of peripheral blood were obtained from 45 SLE patients with different disease activity as assessed by the SLEDAI and the SLAM scales on the same day. We assessed the percentage of CD4+ T cells with activation-associated receptors: CD69, CD25int, CD95, HLA-DR, and CD4+ T cells with killing properties containing perforin and granzyme B. Our results indicated that the percentage of CD4+CD69+ and CD4+CD25(int) cells did not correlate with either the SLEDAI or the SLAM scale. Significant and positive correlations were observed between percentages of CD4+CD95+ and CD4+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes and SLE activity, but only when activity was measured using the SLAM scale, not with the SLEDAI scale. The percentage of CD4+perforin+ and CD4+granzyme B+ cells also strongly correlated with disease activity measured only with the SLAM scale. We conclude that the SLAM scale better reflects changes of immune system activity in SLE patients compared with the SLEDAI scale.

  7. The gaze control system: reflector of cognitive activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirevaag, Erik J.; Stern, John A.

    2005-05-01

    A hybrid sustained attention task was developed in order to examine the relationships between manual response times and the timing and morphology of horizontal saccades involved in shifting gaze to a source of task relevant visual information. Twelve subjects performed this task for 60 min with no breaks. Performance and gaze control measures were aggregated across 20 min intervals comprising early, middle and late segments of the task. Response time variability was significantly increased during later task segments (p<0.05). These segments were also associated with increased variability in the amplitude of saccades (p<0.05). Saccade durations during the late task segments were also longer and more variable (p<0.05). Correlations between response times and measure of saccadic activity were also computed across consecutive 5 min intervals for each individual subject. The obtained correlations between saccade latency and response times exceeded 0.70 for six of the twelve subjects. Additional analyses examined the relationship between trials characterized by extreme values on either the performance or the gaze control measures. Trials characterized by extremely long response times were also associated with increased saccade amplitudes, durations and latencies (p<0.01). Conversely, response times were abnormally long on trials categorized as extreme on the basis of the saccade morphology and timing measures (p<0.01). These results confirm the utility of the sustained attention task as a laboratory platform for the development of real-time systems for alertness monitoring. The data also support the contention that measures of gaze control behavior can reflect aspects of cognitive activity and, therefore, should be seriously considered for inclusion in any physiologically-based alertness assessment battery.

  8. Acoustic challenges of the A400M for active systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbach, Harald; Sachau, Delf; Böhme, Sten

    2006-03-01

    In some types of aircraft tonal interior noise with high sound pressure level (up to 110 dB(A)) occurs at low frequencies (f < 500 Hz). Typical examples are propeller driven aircraft, for which the excitation frequencies are given by the blade passage frequency (BPF) and its higher harmonics. The high tonal noise levels at these frequencies can occur due to the fact that the blades' profiles are only optimized in terms of aerodynamics. The acoustic properties are usually not taken into account. In order to obtain an acceptable interior noise level, and to guarantee both work-safety and comfort in the aircraft interiors, passive methods are commonly used - e.g. adding material with high damping or vibration absorbing qualities. Especially when low frequency noise has to be reduced, adding material results in a lot of unwanted additional weight. In order to avoid this extra weight, the concept of active noise reduction (ANR) and tunable vibration absorber systems (TVA), which focus on the unwanted tonal noise, are a good compromise of treating noise and the amount of additional weight in aircraft design. This paper briefly discusses two different possible methods to reduce the low frequency noise. The noise reduction of tuned vibration absorbers (TVA) mounted on the airframe are nowadays commonly used in propeller driven aircraft and can be predicted by vibroacoustic finite element calculations, which is described in this paper. In order to abide to industrial safety regulations, the noise level inside the semi closed loadmaster area (LMA) must be reduced down to a noise level, which is even 8 dB(A) below the specified cargo hold noise level. The paper describes also the phases of development of an ANR system that could be used to control the sound pressure level inside the LMA. The concept is verified by experimental investigations within a mock up of the LMA.

  9. Depressive behavior and activation of the orexin/hypocretin system.

    PubMed

    Arendt, David H; Ronan, Patrick J; Oliver, Kevin D; Callahan, Leah B; Summers, Tangi R; Summers, Cliff H

    2013-02-01

    The orexin/hypocretin peptide signaling system plays a neuromodulatory role in motivation and stress; two critical components of depression. Although work has been done to identify links between orexin and depression, few specific neuroanatomical associations have been made. These studies have not investigated the relationship between orexin and orexin receptor expression in specific brain regions associated with this disorder. To address this, we examined immobility during the forced swim test (FST) in mice, a commonly used measure of depressive behavior. We analyzed the variation in FST immobility with the distribution of orexin and its receptor mRNA. We found that animals that exhibited more robust depressive behavior had greater or lesser orexin system expression that depended on the limbic brain region analyzed. In the hippocampus there was a negative correlation between orexin expression and FST immobility. Animals that displayed relatively more depressive behavior had lower hippocampal expression of Orexin A (OrxA). In the amygdala, there was a curvilinear relationship between OrxA and FST performance. In addition there was a positive correlation with amygdalar Type I orexin receptor (Orx1) mRNA and depressive behavior. Despite the differences in limbic orexin expression, there was no correlation between immobility and hypothalamic orexin neuron activation as measured by c-Fos. Overall, more severe depressive behavior was associated with reduced hippocampal orexin expression, contrasted with increased orexin plus Orx1 receptor mRNA expression in the amygdala. This divergent pattern between the hippocampus and amygdala mirrors a neurobiological theme seen in depression resulting from reduced hippocampal, but increased amygdalar, size and function.

  10. Peripheral Endocannabinoid System Activity in Patients Treated With Sibutramine

    PubMed Central

    Engeli, Stefan; Heusser, Karsten; Janke, Jürgen; Gorzelniak, Kerstin; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Harvey-White, Judith; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Objective The endocannabinoid system (ECS) promotes weight gain and obesity-associated metabolic changes. Weight loss interventions may influence obesity-associated risk indirectly through modulation of the peripheral ECS. We investigated the effect of acute and chronic treatment with sibutramine on components of the peripheral ECS. Methods and Procedures Twenty obese otherwise healthy patients received randomized, double-blind, crossover treatment with placebo and 15 mg/day sibutramine for 5 days each, followed by 12 weeks open-label sibutramine treatment. We determined circulating anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol and expression levels of endocannabinoid genes in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies. Results Body weight was stable during the acute treatment period and decreased by 6.0 ± 0.8 kg in those patients completing 3 months of sibutramine treatment (P < 0.05). Circulating endocannabinoids and the expression of ECS genes did not change with acute or chronic sibutramine treatment. Discussion The ECS is activated in obesity. We did not find any influence of 5% body weight loss induced by sibutramine on circulating levels of endocannabinoids and adipose-tissue expression of endocannabinoid genes in obese subjects. These data confirm our previous findings on dietary weight loss and suggest that the dysregulation of the ECS may be a cause rather than a consequence of obesity. PMID:18356837

  11. Development of a Practical Broadband Active Vibration Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Perey, Daniel F.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop robust, lightweight, and low-power control units that can be used to suppress structural vibration in flexible aerospace structures. In particular, this paper focuses on active damping, which is implemented using compact decentralized control units distributed over the structure. Each control unit consists of a diamond-shaped piezoelectric patch actuator, three miniature accelerometers, and analog electronics. The responses from the accelerometers are added together and then integrated to give a signal proportional to velocity. The signal is then inverted, amplified, and applied to the actuator, which generates a control force that is out of phase with the measured velocity. This paper describes the development of the control system, including a detailed description of the control and power electronics. The paper also presents experimental results acquired on a Plexiglas window blank. Five identical control units installed around the perimeter of the window achieved 10 dB peak reductions and a 2.4 dB integrated reduction of the spatially averaged velocity of the window between 500 and 3000 Hz.

  12. Cooperative wireless network control based health and activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Prakash, R; Ganesh, A Balaji; Girish, Siva V

    2016-10-01

    A real-time cooperative communication based wireless network is presented for monitoring health and activity of an end-user in their environment. The cooperative communication offers better energy consumption and also an opportunity to aware the current location of a user non-intrusively. The link between mobile sensor node and relay node is dynamically established by using Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Link Quality Indicator (LQI) based on adaptive relay selection scheme. The study proposes a Linear Acceleration based Transmission Power Decision Control (LA-TPDC) algorithm to further enhance the energy efficiency of cooperative communication. Further, the occurrences of false alarms are carefully prevented by introducing three stages of sequential warning system. The real-time experiments are carried-out by using the nodes, namely mobile sensor node, relay nodes and a destination node which are indigenously developed by using a CC430 microcontroller integrated with an in-built transceiver at 868 MHz. The wireless node performance characteristics, such as energy consumption, Signal-Noise ratio (SNR), Bit Error Rate (BER), Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and transmission offset are evaluated for all the participated nodes. The experimental results observed that the proposed linear acceleration based transmission power decision control algorithm almost doubles the battery life time than energy efficient conventional cooperative communication. PMID:27562484

  13. Toward high-dynamic active mirrors for LGS refocusing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Madec, Fabrice; Vives, Sébastien; Ferrari, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Cuby, Jean Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    In the frame of the E-ELT-EAGLE instrument phase A studies, we designed a convex VCM able to compensate for the focus variation on the Laser Guide Star (LGS) wavefront sensor, due to the elevation of the telescope and the fixed sodium layer altitude. We present an original optical design including this active convex mirror, providing a large sag variation on a spherical surface with a 120mm clear aperture, with an optical quality better than lambda/5 RMS up to 820μm of sag and better than lambda/4 RMS up to 1000μm of sag. Finite element analysis (FEA) allowed an optimisation of the mirror's variable thickness distribution to compensate for geometrical and material non linearity. Preliminary study of the pre-stressing has also been performed by FEA, showing that a permanent deformation remains after removal of the loads. Results and comparison with the FEA are presented in the article of F.Madec et al (AS10-7736-119, this conference), with an emphasis on the system approach.

  14. Cooperative wireless network control based health and activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Prakash, R; Ganesh, A Balaji; Girish, Siva V

    2016-10-01

    A real-time cooperative communication based wireless network is presented for monitoring health and activity of an end-user in their environment. The cooperative communication offers better energy consumption and also an opportunity to aware the current location of a user non-intrusively. The link between mobile sensor node and relay node is dynamically established by using Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Link Quality Indicator (LQI) based on adaptive relay selection scheme. The study proposes a Linear Acceleration based Transmission Power Decision Control (LA-TPDC) algorithm to further enhance the energy efficiency of cooperative communication. Further, the occurrences of false alarms are carefully prevented by introducing three stages of sequential warning system. The real-time experiments are carried-out by using the nodes, namely mobile sensor node, relay nodes and a destination node which are indigenously developed by using a CC430 microcontroller integrated with an in-built transceiver at 868 MHz. The wireless node performance characteristics, such as energy consumption, Signal-Noise ratio (SNR), Bit Error Rate (BER), Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and transmission offset are evaluated for all the participated nodes. The experimental results observed that the proposed linear acceleration based transmission power decision control algorithm almost doubles the battery life time than energy efficient conventional cooperative communication.

  15. Active Vision in Marmosets: A Model System for Visual Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John H.; Miller, Cory T.

    2014-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small-bodied New World primate, offers several advantages to complement vision research in larger primates. Studies in the anesthetized marmoset have detailed the anatomy and physiology of their visual system (Rosa et al., 2009) while studies of auditory and vocal processing have established their utility for awake and behaving neurophysiological investigations (Lu et al., 2001a,b; Eliades and Wang, 2008a,b; Osmanski and Wang, 2011; Remington et al., 2012). However, a critical unknown is whether marmosets can perform visual tasks under head restraint. This has been essential for studies in macaques, enabling both accurate eye tracking and head stabilization for neurophysiology. In one set of experiments we compared the free viewing behavior of head-fixed marmosets to that of macaques, and found that their saccadic behavior is comparable across a number of saccade metrics and that saccades target similar regions of interest including faces. In a second set of experiments we applied behavioral conditioning techniques to determine whether the marmoset could control fixation for liquid reward. Two marmosets could fixate a central point and ignore peripheral flashing stimuli, as needed for receptive field mapping. Both marmosets also performed an orientation discrimination task, exhibiting a saturating psychometric function with reliable performance and shorter reaction times for easier discriminations. These data suggest that the marmoset is a viable model for studies of active vision and its underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:24453311

  16. Active Spatial Perception in the Vibrissa Scanning Sensorimotor System

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Samar B; Whitmer, Diane; Figueroa, Rodolfo; Williams, Ben A; Kleinfeld, David

    2007-01-01

    Haptic perception is an active process that provides an awareness of objects that are encountered as an organism scans its environment. In contrast to the sensation of touch produced by contact with an object, the perception of object location arises from the interpretation of tactile signals in the context of the changing configuration of the body. A discrete sensory representation and a low number of degrees of freedom in the motor plant make the ethologically prominent rat vibrissa system an ideal model for the study of the neuronal computations that underlie this perception. We found that rats with only a single vibrissa can combine touch and movement to distinguish the location of objects that vary in angle along the sweep of vibrissa motion. The patterns of this motion and of the corresponding behavioral responses show that rats can scan potential locations and decide which location contains a stimulus within 150 ms. This interval is consistent with just one to two whisk cycles and provides constraints on the underlying perceptual computation. Our data argue against strategies that do not require the integration of sensory and motor modalities. The ability to judge angular position with a single vibrissa thus connects previously described, motion-sensitive neurophysiological signals to perception in the behaving animal. PMID:17227143

  17. Evaluation of an Active Humidification System for Inspired Gas

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Nicolás G.; Villalba, Darío S.; Gogniat, Emiliano; Feld, Vivivana; Ribero Vairo, Noelia; Sartore, Marisa; Bosso, Mauro; Scapellato, José L.; Intile, Dante; Planells, Fernando; Noval, Diego; Buñirigo, Pablo; Jofré, Ricardo; Díaz Nielsen, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The effectiveness of the active humidification systems (AHS) in patients already weaned from mechanical ventilation and with an artificial airway has not been very well described. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an AHS in chronically tracheostomized and spontaneously breathing patients. Methods Measurements were quantified at three levels of temperature (T°) of the AHS: level I, low; level II, middle; and level III, high and at different flow levels (20 to 60 L/minute). Statistical analysis of repeated measurements was performed using analysis of variance and significance was set at a P<0.05. Results While the lowest temperature setting (level I) did not condition gas to the minimum recommended values for any of the flows that were used, the medium temperature setting (level II) only conditioned gas with flows of 20 and 30 L/minute. Finally, at the highest temperature setting (level III), every flow reached the minimum absolute humidity (AH) recommended of 30 mg/L. Conclusion According to our results, to obtain appropiate relative humidity, AH and T° of gas one should have a device that maintains water T° at least at 53℃ for flows between 20 and 30 L/m, or at T° of 61℃ at any flow rate. PMID:25729499

  18. Radiochemical microassay for aspartate aminotransferase activity in the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, D.; Beattie, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.

    1988-07-01

    A radiochemical procedure for measuring aspartate aminotransferase activity in the nervous system is described. The method is based on the exchange of tritium atoms at positions 2 and 3 of L-2,3-(/sup 3/H)aspartate with water when this amino acid is transaminated in the presence of alpha-ketoglutarate to form oxaloacetate. The tritiated water is separated from the radiolabeled aspartate by passing the reaction mixture over a cation exchange column. Confirmation that the radioactivity in the product is associated with water was obtained by separating it by anion exchange HPLC and by evaporation. The product formation is linear with time up to 120 min and with tissue in the 0.05- to 10-micrograms range. The apparent Km for aspartate in the rat brain homogenate is found to be 0.83 mM and that for alpha-ketoglutarate to be 0.12 mM. Methods that further improve the sensitivity of the assay are also discussed.

  19. Non-linear dynamics of the complement system activation.

    PubMed

    Korotaevskiy, Andrey A; Hanin, Leonid G; Khanin, Mikhail A

    2009-12-01

    The complement system (CS) plays a prominent role in the immune defense. The goal of this work is to study the dynamics of activation of the classic and alternative CS pathways based on the method of mathematical modeling. The principal difficulty that hinders modeling effort is the absence of the measured values of kinetic constants of many biochemical reactions forming the CS. To surmount this difficulty, an optimization procedure consisting of constrained minimization of the total protein consumption by the CS was designed. The constraints made use of published data on the in vitro kinetics of elimination of the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria by the CS. Special features of the problem at hand called for a significant modification of the general constrained optimization procedure to include a mathematical model of the bactericidal effect of the CS in the iterative setting. Determination of the unknown kinetic constants of biochemical reactions forming the CS led to a fully specified mathematical model of the dynamics of cell killing induced by the CS. On the basis of the model, effects of the initial concentrations of complements and their inhibitors on the bactericidal action of the CS were studied. Proteins playing a critical role in the regulation of the bactericidal action of the CS were identified. Results obtained in this work serve as an important stepping stone for the study of functioning of the CS as a whole as well as for developing methods for control of pathogenic processes. PMID:19854207

  20. Neutron Activation Analysis PRognosis and Optimization Code System.

    2004-08-20

    Version 00 NAAPRO predicts the results and main characteristics (detection limits, determination limits, measurement limits and relative precision of the analysis) of neutron activation analysis (instrumental and radiochemical). Gamma-ray dose rates for different points of time after sample irradiation and input count rate of the spectrometry system are also predicted. The code uses standard Windows user interface and extensive graphical tools for the visualization of the spectrometer characteristics (efficiency, response and background) and simulated spectrum.more » Optimization part is not included in the current version of the code. This release is designated NAAPRO, Version 01.beta. The MCNP code was used for generating detector responses. PREPRO-2000 and FCONV programs were used at the preparation of the program nuclear databases. A special program was developed for viewing, editing and updating of the program databases (not included into the present program package). The MCNP, PREPRO-2000 and FCONV software packages are not included in the NAAPRO package.« less

  1. An active attitude control system for a drag sail satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, Willem Herman; Jordaan, Hendrik Willem

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes the development and simulation results of a full ADCS subsystem for the deOrbitSail drag sail mission. The deOrbitSail satellite was developed as part of an European FP7 collaboration research project. The satellite was launched and commissioning started on 10th July 2015. Various new actuators and sensors designed for this mission will be presented. The deOrbitSail satellite is a 3U CubeSat to deploy a 4 by 4 m drag sail from an initial 650 km circular polar low earth orbit. With an active attitude control system it will be shown that by maximising the drag force, the expected de-orbiting period from the initial altitude will be less than 50 days. A future application of this technology will be the use of small drag sails as low-cost devices to de-orbit LEO satellites, when they have reached their end of life, without having to use expensive propulsion systems. Simulation and Hardware-in-Loop experiments proved the feasibility of the proposed attitude control system. A magnetic-only control approach using a Y-Thomson spin, is used to detumble the 3U Cubesat with stowed sail and subsequently to 3-axis stabilise the satellite to be ready for the final deployment phase. Minituarised torquer rods, a nano-sized momentum wheel, attitude sensor hardware (magnetometer, sun, earth) developed for this phase will be presented. The final phase will be to deploy and 3-axis stabilise the drag sail normal to the satellite's velocity vector, using a combined Y-momentum wheel and magnetic controller. The design and performance improvements when using a 2-axis translation stage to adjust the sail centre-of-pressure to satellite centre-of-mass offset, will also be discussed, although for launch risk reasons this stage was not included in the final flight configuration. To accurately determine the drag sail's attitude during the sunlit part of the orbit, an accurate wide field of view dual sensor to measure both the sun and nadir vector direction was developed for

  2. Contact system dependent fibrinolytic activity in vivo: observations in healthy subjects and factor XII deficient patients.

    PubMed

    Levi, M; Hack, C E; de Boer, J P; Brandjes, D P; Büller, H R; ten Cate, J W

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of activation of the contact system to activation of the fibrinolytic system in vivo was investigated in healthy volunteers and in factor XII deficient patients. The plasminogen activating activity in normal plasma was only partially blocked (for 77%) with specific antibodies to tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). The residual activity could be quenched by a monoclonal antibody that inhibits factor XII activity and was not present in patients with a factor XII deficiency. The formation of plasmin upon the DDAVP stimulus as reflected by circulating plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin (PAP) complexes was lower in factor XII deficient patients than in healthy volunteers. These results indicate that in vivo the plasminogen activating activity is partially dependent on activation of the contact system. This fibrinolytic activity is impaired in factor XII deficient patients which may explain the occurrence of thromboembolic complications in these patients.

  3. Source characterization of nervous system active pharmaceutical ingredients in healthcare wastewaters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nervous system active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), including anti-depressants and opioids, are important clinically administered pharmaceuticals within healthcare facilities. Concentrations and mass loadings of ten nervous system APIs and three nervous system API metaboli...

  4. Teacher's Psycho-Diagnostic Activities in School Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minakhmetova, Albina Z.; Pyanova, Ekaterina N.; Akhmetshina, Enze M.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the problem stated in the article stems from the fact that in modern conditions the study of the psycho-diagnostic component of the teacher's activities is relevant in practical terms, since the functions of these activities affect the efficiency of pedagogical activity and the educational process itself, including the effectiveness…

  5. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  6. Tsunamigenic potential of Mediterranean fault systems and active subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petricca, Patrizio; Babeyko, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Since the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) is under development by the European scientific community, it becomes necessary to define guidelines for the characterization of the numerous parameters must be taken into account in a fair assessment of the risk. Definition of possible tectonic sources and evaluation of their potential is one of the principal issues. In this study we systematically evaluate tsunamigenic potential of up-to-now known real fault systems and active subduction interfaces in the NEAMTWS region. The task is accomplished by means of numerical modeling of tsunami generation and propagation. We have simulated all possible uniform-slip ruptures populating fault and subduction interfaces with magnitudes ranging from 6.5 up to expected Mmax. A total of 15810 individual ruptures were processed. For each rupture, a tsunami propagation scenario was computed in linear shallow-water approximation on 1-arc minute bathymetric grid (Gebco_08) implying normal reflection boundary conditions. Maximum wave heights at coastal positions (totally - 23236 points of interest) were recorded for four hours of simulation and then classified according to currently adopted warning level thresholds. The resulting dataset allowed us to classify the sources in terms of their tsunamigenic potential as well as to estimate their minimum tsunamigenic magnitude. Our analysis shows that almost every source in the Mediterranean Sea is capable to produce local tsunami at the advisory level (i.e., wave height > 20 cm) starting from magnitude values of Mw=6.6. In respect to the watch level (wave height > 50 cm), the picture is less homogeneous: crustal sources in south-west Mediterranean as well as East-Hellenic arc need larger magnitudes (around Mw=7.0) to trigger watch levels even at the nearby coasts. In the context of the regional warning (i.e., source-to-coast distance > 100 km) faults also behave more heterogeneously in respect to the minimum

  7. Effect of the active damper coil system on the lateral displacement of the magnetically levitated bogie

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, S.; Ohsaki, H.; Masada, E.

    1999-09-01

    Numerical simulation of the superconducting magnetically levitated bogie (JR Maglev) has been studied. The active damper coil system is introduced. In this levitation system, the interaction between levitation and guidance is strong. This active damper coil system is designed for reducing the vertical vibration of the bogie. Using the numerical simulation, its effect on the lateral displacement of the bogie is assessed. The active damper coil system for the vertical vibration is shown to works as a passive damper for the lateral vibration.

  8. Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System on Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenbo; Pletser, Vladimir; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System (MAIS) aims at reducing on-orbit vibrations, providing a better controlled lower gravity environment for microgravity physical science experiments. The MAIS will be launched on Tianzhou-1, the first cargo ship of the China Manned Space Program. The principle of the MAIS is to suspend with electro-magnetic actuators a scientific payload, isolating it from the vibrating stator. The MAIS's vibration isolation capability is frequency-dependent and a decrease of vibration of about 40dB can be attained. The MAIS can accommodate 20kg of scientific payload or sample unit, and provide 30W of power and 1Mbps of data transmission. The MAIS is developed to support microgravity scientific experiments on manned platforms in low earth orbit, in order to meet the scientific requirements for fluid physics, materials science, and fundamental physics investigations, which usually need a very quiet environment, increasing their chances of success and their scientific outcomes. The results of scientific experiments and technology tests obtained with the MAIS will be used to improve future space based research. As the suspension force acting on the payload is very small, the MAIS can only be operative and tested in a weightless environment. The 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, German Aerospace Centre) granted a flight opportunity to the MAIS experiment to be tested during its 27th parabolic flight campaign of September 2015 performed on the A310 ZERO-G aircraft managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency). The experiment results confirmed that the 6 degrees of freedom motion control technique was effective, and that the vibration isolation performance fulfilled perfectly the expectations based on theoretical analyses and simulations. This paper will present the design of the MAIS and the experiment results obtained during the

  9. Physical activity promotion in the health care system.

    PubMed

    Vuori, Ilkka M; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) have great potential in the prevention, management, and rehabilitation of a variety of diseases, but this potential has not been fully realized in clinical practice. The health care system (HCS) could do much more to support patients in increasing their PA and ET. However, counseling on ET is not used widely by the HCS owing partly to attitudes but mainly to practical obstacles. Extensive searches of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and ScienceDirect for literature published between January 1, 2000, and January 31, 2013, provided data to assess the critical characteristics of ET counseling. The evidence reveals that especially brief ET counseling is an efficient, effective, and cost-effective means to increase PA and ET and to bring considerable clinical benefits to various patient groups. Furthermore, it can be practiced as part of the routine work of the HCS. However, there is a need and feasible means to increase the use and improve the quality of ET counseling. To include PA and ET promotion as important means of comprehensive health care and disease management, a fundamental change is needed. Because exercise is medicine, it should be seen and dealt with in the same ways as pharmaceuticals and other medical interventions regarding the basic and continuing education and training of health care personnel and processes to assess its needs and to prescribe and deliver it, to reimburse the services related to it, and to fund research on its efficacy, effectiveness, feasibility, and interactions and comparability with other preventive, therapeutic, and rehabilitative modalities. This change requires credible, strong, and skillful advocacy inside the medical community and the HCS.

  10. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Morton G; Mangelsdorf, Brenda L; Stranks, Stephen N; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m², 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L) underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02) independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002) independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54). Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001) but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12). We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies. PMID:27649235

  11. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Morton G.; Mangelsdorf, Brenda L.; Stranks, Stephen N.; Mangoni, Arduino A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L) underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02) independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002) independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54). Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001) but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12). We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies. PMID:27649235

  12. Activities of pork muscle proteases in model cured meat systems.

    PubMed

    Toldrá, F; Rico, E; Flores, J

    1992-03-01

    The effect of curing agents (salt, nitrate, ascorbic acid and glucose) and processing parameters (pH, water activity and drying and cooking temperatures) on pork muscle cathepsins B, D, H and L as well as leucyl, arginyl and tyrosyl hydrolysing activities is reported. Salt (60 g/l) showed a powerful inhibitory effect, especially on cathepsin D and aminopeptidase activities where less than 13% of the original activity was recovered. Cathepsin H was also affected (38% of the original activity) while cathepsins B and B+L recovered 72.5 and 63.0%, respectively. Nitrate (0.2-0.25 g/l) and ascorbic acid (0.2-0.4 g/l) did not significantly affect the enzyme activities. On the other hand, 0.5-2 g/l of glucose activated both cathepsins B and D with an increase of 39.5 and 28.5% and also leucyl and arginyl hydrolysing activities which were 75.0 and 24.0%, respectively. No aminopeptidase activity was detected when assayed in 100 mM sodium citrate buffer, pH 5.1. Cathepsin H was also very affected at that pH and only 12.0% of activity was recovered. A decrease in water activity, especially below 0.84, also affected the enzyme activities which were found below 50%. Temperatures in the usual range of the drying process (22 and 30 degrees C) gave substantial enzyme activities (around 40-50 and 80%, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Microbial Community Dynamics and Activity Link to Indigo Production from Indole in Bioaugmented Activated Sludge Systems

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jie; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Qin, Yujia; Zhou, Jiti; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the popular dyestuff indigo from indole has been comprehensively studied using pure cultures, but less has been done to characterize the indigo production by microbial communities. In our previous studies, a wild strain Comamonas sp. MQ was isolated from activated sludge and the recombinant Escherichia coli nagAc carrying the naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nag) from strain MQ was constructed, both of which were capable of producing indigo from indole. Herein, three activated sludge systems, G1 (non-augmented control), G2 (augmented with Comamonas sp. MQ), and G3 (augmented with recombinant E. coli nagAc), were constructed to investigate indigo production. After 132-day operation, G3 produced the highest yields of indigo (99.5 ± 3.0 mg/l), followed by G2 (27.3 ± 1.3 mg/l) and G1 (19.2 ± 1.2 mg/l). The microbial community dynamics and activities associated with indigo production were analyzed by Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The inoculated strain MQ survived for at least 30 days, whereas E. coli nagAc was undetectable shortly after inoculation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis suggested the abundance of naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nagAc) from both inoculated strains was strongly correlated with indigo yields in early stages (0–30 days) (P < 0.001) but not in later stages (30–132 days) (P > 0.10) of operation. Based on detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity test results, the communities underwent a noticeable shift during the operation. Among the four major genera (> 1% on average), the commonly reported indigo-producing populations Comamonas and Pseudomonas showed no positive relationship with indigo yields (P > 0.05) based on Pearson correlation test, while Alcaligenes and Aquamicrobium, rarely reported for indigo production, were positively correlated with indigo yields (P < 0.05). This study should provide new insights into our understanding of indigo bio-production by microbial communities

  14. Life cycle assessment of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Santosh R; Johnston, John M; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Hawkins, Troy R

    2014-04-01

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricultural rainwater harvesting (ARWH) systems. We also summarize the design aspects of DRWH and ARWH systems adapted to the Back Creek watershed, Virginia. The baseline design reveals that the pump and pumping electricity are the main components of DRWH and ARWH impacts. For nonpotable uses, the minimal design of DRWH (with shortened distribution distance and no pump) outperforms municipal drinking water in all environmental impact categories except ecotoxicity. The minimal design of ARWH outperforms well water in all impact categories. In terms of watershed sustainability, the two minimal designs reduced environmental impacts, from 58% to 78% energy use and 67% to 88% human health criteria pollutants, as well as avoiding up to 20% blue water (surface/groundwater) losses, compared to municipal drinking water and well water. We address potential environmental and human health impacts of urban and rural RWH systems in the region. The Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) model-based life cycle inventory data were used for this study.

  15. Rainwater harvesting as an alternative water resource in rural sites in central northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, M.; Zimmermann, M.; Schütz, K.; Urban, W.; Hartung, H.

    In this paper, results of the investigations on rainwater harvesting (RWH) in central northern Namibia are described, which are part of the transdisciplinary research project CuveWaters. On the basis of hydrological and technical as well as social and cultural conditions, appropriate solutions for RWH are developed, discussed, and evaluated. The main objective is to analyse their technical and economical feasibility as well as their affordability for future users. In detail, two small-scale RWH systems are examined: roof catchments using corrugated iron roofs as rain collection areas and ground catchments using treated ground surfaces. The current status of local water supply and water use was investigated in the village of Epyeshona. Concepts and techniques of RWH were discussed with the population. Based on the results of these investigations and on the physical conditions, the appropriate RWH design and the required storage capacities could be identified. Local material and labour costs were determined and a dynamic cost analysis was carried out to compare the technological options in terms of amortisation times and prime costs. The feasibility of the RWH systems was assessed in relation to local socio-economic conditions. The calculations reveal that it is economically feasible to apply decentral techniques of RWH in terms of the roof catchment systems. Moreover, the proposed technologies provide comparable benefits to the public water supply. The ground catchment system, however, needs moderate subsidies to obtain the same benchmark.

  16. The Systemic-Structural Theory of Activity: Applications to the Study of Human Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedny, Gregory Z.; Harris, Steven Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article offers an introduction to the central concepts and principles of the Systemic-Structural Theory of Activity (SSTA), an activity-theoretical approach specifically tailored to the analysis and design of human work. In activity theory, cognition is understood both as a process and as a structured system of actions. Building on the…

  17. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) Version. Method: This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students…

  18. Injury causation in the great outdoors: A systems analysis of led outdoor activity injury incidents.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Goode, Natassia; Lenné, Michael G; Finch, Caroline F; Cassell, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Despite calls for a systems approach to assessing and preventing injurious incidents within the led outdoor activity domain, applications of systems analysis frameworks to the analysis of incident data have been sparse. This article presents an analysis of 1014 led outdoor activity injury and near miss incidents whereby a systems-based risk management framework was used to classify the contributing factors involved across six levels of the led outdoor activity 'system'. The analysis identified causal factors across all levels of the led outdoor activity system, demonstrating the framework's utility for accident analysis efforts in the led outdoor activity injury domain. In addition, issues associated with the current data collection framework that potentially limited the identification of contributing factors outside of the individuals, equipment, and environment involved were identified. In closing, the requirement for new and improved data systems to be underpinned by the systems philosophy and new models of led outdoor activity accident causation is discussed.

  19. Continued Development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) System for Advanced Extravehicular Activity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papale, William; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer; Jeng, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Development activities related to the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Humidity control system have progressed to the point of integrating the RCA into an advanced Primary Life Support System (PLSS 2.0) to evaluate the interaction of the RCA among other PLSS components in a ground test environment. The RCA 2.0 assembly (integrated into PLSS 2.0) consists of a valve assembly with commercial actuator motor, a sorbent canister, and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based process node controller. Continued design and development activities for RCA 3.0 have been aimed at optimizing the canister size and incorporating greater fidelity in the valve actuator motor and valve position feedback design. Further, the RCA process node controller is envisioned to incorporate a higher degree of functionality to support a distributed PLSS control architecture. This paper will describe the progression of technology readiness levels of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 along with a review of the design and manufacturing successes and challenges for 2.0 and 3.0 units. The anticipated interfaces and interactions with the PLSS 2.0/2.5/3.0 assemblies will also be discussed.

  20. From Concept-to-Flight: An Active Active Fluid Loop Based Thermal Control System for Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gajanana C.; Bhandari, Pradeep; Bame, David; Karlmann, Paul; Mastropietro, A. J.; Liu, Yuanming; Miller, Jennifer; Pauken, Michael; Lyra, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, which was launched on November 26, 2011, incorporates a novel active thermal control system to keep the sensitive electronics and science instruments at safe operating and survival temperatures. While the diurnal temperature variations on the Mars surface range from -120 C to +30 C, the sensitive equipment are kept within -40 C to +50 C. The active thermal control system is based on a single-phase mechanically pumped fluid loop (MPFL) system which removes or recovers excess waste heat and manages it to maintain the sensitive equipment inside the rover at safe temperatures. This paper will describe the entire process of developing this active thermal control system for the MSL rover from concept to flight implementation. The development of the rover thermal control system during its architecture, design, fabrication, integration, testing, and launch is described.

  1. Design and Implementation of an Object Oriented Learning Activity System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huan-Yu; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng; Su, Jun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With the development of e-learning technology, many specifications of instructional design have been proposed to make learning activity sharable and reusable. With the specifications and sufficient learning resources, the researches further focus on how to provide learners more appropriate learning activities to improve their learning performance.…

  2. Effect of Knowledge Integration Activities on Students' Perception of the Earth's Crust as a Cyclic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    2003-01-01

    Characterizes students' understanding of the rock cycle system. Examines effects of a knowledge integration activity on their system thinking. Interprets answers to an open-ended test using a systems thinking continuum ranging from a completely static view of the system to an understanding of the system's cyclic nature. Reports meaningful…

  3. Teaching Tip: Using Activity Diagrams to Model Systems Analysis Techniques: Teaching What We Preach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lending, Diane; May, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Activity diagrams are used in Systems Analysis and Design classes as a visual tool to model the business processes of "as-is" and "to-be" systems. This paper presents the idea of using these same activity diagrams in the classroom to model the actual processes (practices and techniques) of Systems Analysis and Design. This tip…

  4. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain...

  5. Geomorphological analysis of the drainage system on the active convergent system in Azerbaijan, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveh Firouz, Amaneh; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Giachetta, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    profiles are related to active fault systems.

  6. Geomorphological analysis of the drainage system on the active convergent system in Azerbaijan, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveh Firouz, Amaneh; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Giachetta, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    are related to active fault systems.

  7. Assessment of active solar systems in the residential sector of North Carolina, 1974 - 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; St. John, K.

    1981-02-01

    An evaluation is presented of the contribution active solar systems can make in North Carolina's residential sector over the next 15 years. The report is divided into 5 parts: introduction; current solar industry status; projected use of active solar systems to 1995; maximum potential for active solar systems to 1995; recommendations for state solar incentives. Information in the appendices includes: conversion methodology; square feet of collector to Btu; economic analysis of solar systems based on life costs; methodology for percentage breakdowns on projected solar system sales; North Carolina solar manufacturers/distributors and national manufacturers; solar legislation; economic analysis of solar systems; and data sources.

  8. [Perfluorocarbon emulsions and other corpuscular systems influence on neutrophil activity].

    PubMed

    Shekhtman, D G; Safronova, V G; Sklifas, A N; Alovskaia, A A; Gapeev, A B; Obraztsov, V V; Chemeris, N K

    1997-01-01

    Influence of perfluorodecalin, perfluoromethilcyclohexylpiperidine, perfluorotributylamine emulsions on active oxygen form (AOF) generation by neutrophils has been studied. All investigated emulsions stabilized both proxanol 268 and egg yolk phospholipids inhibited PMA-stimulated neutrophil activity. Castor oil emulsion also inhibited the neutrophil activity. Neutrophil response for chemotactic peptide, was unchanged in the presence of all tested emulsions. We suppose that fast hydrophobic attachment of inert submicrone emulsion particles to cell surface provokes alteration of neutrophil plasma membrane function resulting in a decrease of AOF generation. PMID:9490112

  9. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  10. System and method for collisional activation of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Ibrahim, Yehia M; Belov, Mikhail E; Prior, David C

    2013-09-24

    A collision cell is disclosed that provides ion activation in various selective modes. Ion activation is performed inside selected segments of a segmented quadrupole that provides maximum optimum capture and collection of fragmentation products. The invention provides collisional cooling of precursor ions as well as product fragments and further allows effective transmission of ions through a high pressure interface into a coupled mass analysis instrument.

  11. Recent advancements in passive and active vibration control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiland, K. P.

    1992-02-01

    The control of environmental vibration is a prime consideration in designing sensitive electro- optical equipment. Pneumatic isolation systems with low natural frequencies are commonly used to shield the payload from random seismic vibration. In order to further optimize the isolation characteristics, it is desirable to decrease natural frequencies in all translational axes to well below 0.5 Hz, while at the same time achieving maximum damping at resonance. The limitations of conventional systems, however, are such that the lowest natural frequency achievable is 1 Hz. Typical resonance amplification is measured at approximately 10 to 20 dB. The use of low-frequency pneumatic isolators in precision machinery with built-in XY-stages (i.e., microlithography, submicron inspection systems (highlights an additional problem. Low natural frequencies are equivalent to low spring stiffnesses. Inertial forces applied to mass- spring systems with low spring stiffnesses results in large dynamic deflections. This kind of motion has an impact on the stability and settling time of XY-stages mounted on the mass spring system. The positioning controller of the XY-stage must overcome these disturbances which are induced by the reacting mass-spring system. The softer the isolation system, the large the dynamic deflection of the mass-spring system will be. It would be ideal to have a system that would act like a perfectly soft suspension system for all floor induced motion, while simultaneously creating an infinitely stiff system for all payload-induced forces. This can only be accomplished by using servo-control mechanisms with feedback and feed forward capabilities. This technology is introduced and analyzed in the body of this paper.

  12. MSFC Skylab airlock module, volume 2. [systems design and performance, systems support activity, and reliability and safety programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    System design and performance of the Skylab Airlock Module and Payload Shroud are presented for the communication and caution and warning systems. Crew station and storage, crew trainers, experiments, ground support equipment, and system support activities are also reviewed. Other areas documented include the reliability and safety programs, test philosophy, engineering project management, and mission operations support.

  13. Towards Next Generation Activity-Based Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G.; Karampiperis, Pythagoras

    2006-01-01

    The need for e-learning systems that support a diverse set of pedagogical requirements has been identified as an important issue in web-based education. Until now, significant research and development effort has been devoted to aiming towards web-based educational systems tailored to specific pedagogical approaches. The most advanced of them are…

  14. Phase segregation in a system of active dumbbells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnella, Giuseppe; Lamura, Antonio; Suma, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    A systems of self-propelled dumbbells interacting by a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson potential is considered. At sufficiently low temperatures the system phase separates into a dense phase and a gas-like phase. The kinetics of the cluster formation and the growth law for the average cluster size are analyzed.

  15. E-Learning Activity-Based Material Recommendation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng-jung; Shih, Bai-jiun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Computer based systems have great potential for delivering learning material. However, problems are encountered, such as: difficulty of Learning resource sharing, high redundancy of learning material, and deficiency of the course brief. In order to solve these problems, this paper aims to propose an automatic inquiring system for learning…

  16. Outline of the Solar System: Activities for elementary students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartsfield, J.; Sellers, M.

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to the solar system for the elementary school student is given. The introduction contains historical background, facts, and pertinent symbols concerning the sun, the nine major planets and their moons, and information about comets and asteroids. Aids to teaching are given, including a solar system crossword puzzle with answers.

  17. A mobile system for active otpical pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunesson, A.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.; Uneus, L.; Wendt, W.; Fredriksson, K.

    1986-01-01

    The remote monitoring of atmospheric pollutants can now be performed in several ways. Laser radar techniques have proven their ability to reveal the spatial distribution of different species or particles. Classical optical techniques can also be used, but yield the average concentration over a given path and hence no range resolution. One such technique is Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy, DOAS. Such schemes can be used to monitor paths that a preliminary lidar investigation has shown to be of interest. Having previously had access to a mobile lidar system, a new system has been completed. The construction builds on experience from using the other system and it is meant to be more of a mobile optical laboratory than just a lidar system. A complete system description is given along with some preliminary usage. Future uses are contemplated.

  18. NIRS-based neurofeedback learning systems for controlling activity of the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Kaoru; Takemoto, N; Tsujii, T; Yanagisawa, K; Tsunashima, H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a NIRS-based neurofeedback system to modulate activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in terms of separability of changes in oxy-Hb and its derivative. Training with neurofeedback resulted in higher separability than training without neurofeedback or no training, suggesting that the neurofeedback system could enhance self-control of PFC activity. Interestingly, the dorsolateral PFC exhibited enhanced activity and high separability after neurofeedback training. These observations suggest that the neurofeedback system might be useful for training subjects to regulate emotions by self-control of dorsolateral PFC activity.

  19. The importance of active efflux systems in the quinolone resistance of clinical isolates of Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Isabel; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Cebrian, Laura; Royo, Gloria

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the active elimination of antibiotics by active efflux systems, in the decrease in fluoroquinolone sensitivity of clinical isolates of Salmonella spp. as well as the intrinsic antibiotic activity of certain active efflux system inhibitors. The effect of the active efflux system on the decrease in sensitivity to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and sparfloxacin was studied by investigating the variation in the in vitro activity of these compounds when assayed in association with reserpine and MC 207.110. The active efflux systems inhibited by reserpine displayed low activity in the elimination of these compounds, whereas those inhibited by MC 207.110 showed high activity in the elimination of nalidixic acid and sparfloxacin, but were less effective in the elimination of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. These two compounds did not exhibit intrinsic inhibitory activity against Salmonella spp. at the concentrations assayed. These mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics are complex and vary depending on the chemical composition of the antibiotics used, and perhaps the inhibitors of these systems, although they do not exhibit any intrinsic antibiotic activity, may be used as adjuvants to increase the activity of certain antibiotics. These mechanisms complement the mutations in the gyrA gene and this supports the thesis that it is necessary to lower the breakpoint established by the NCCLS for ciprofloxacin, since the strains studied have resistance mechanisms that reduce the activity of this drug and may favour the emergence of resistant mutants during treatment.

  20. Engineering Translational Activators with CRISPR-Cas System.

    PubMed

    Du, Pei; Miao, Chensi; Lou, Qiuli; Wang, Zefeng; Lou, Chunbo

    2016-01-15

    RNA parts often serve as critical components in genetic engineering. Here we report a design of translational activators which is composed of an RNA endoribonuclease (Csy4) and two exchangeable RNA modules. Csy4, a member of Cas endoribonuclease, cleaves at a specific recognition site; this cleavage releases a cis-repressive RNA module (crRNA) from the masked ribosome binding site (RBS), which subsequently allows the downstream translation initiation. Unlike small RNA as a translational activator, the endoribonuclease-based activator is able to efficiently unfold the perfect RBS-crRNA pairing. As an exchangeable module, the crRNA-RBS duplex was forwardly and reversely engineered to modulate the dynamic range of translational activity. We further showed that Csy4 and its recognition site, together as a module, can also be replaced by orthogonal endoribonuclease-recognition site homologues. These modularly structured, high-performance translational activators would endow the programming of gene expression in the translation level with higher feasibility. PMID:26414660

  1. Availability and activity of preservatives in emulsified systems.

    PubMed

    Kurup, T R; Wan, L S; Chan, L W

    1991-01-01

    Availability and activity of methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, phenoxyethanol and chlorocresol in emulsions were studied by equilibrium dialysis and microbiological methods. Equation proposed by Bean and coworkers for calculating the availability of free preservatives in the aqueous phase of simple emulsion was also found to be applicable to modern emulsions composed of more than one oil and surfactant. The antimicrobial activity varied with the type of preservative and microorganism. Among the four test organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were more resistant to the various preservatives than Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The concentration of free preservative in the aqueous phase of the emulsion required to reduce the microbial population to the level specified in BP was found to be less than the concentration needed in distilled water indicating that the antimicrobial activity of the preservatives in emulsions is not entirely dependent on the concentration of their free form in the aqueous phase of emulsions.

  2. A Methodology to Assess and Evaluate Rainwater Harvesting Techniques in (Semi-)Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ammar; Riksen, Michel; Ouessar, Mohamed; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions around the world are generally facing water scarcity problems due to lack of precipitation and unpredictable rainfall patterns. For thousands of years rainwater harvesting (RWH) techniques have been applied to cope with water scarcity. Many researchers have presented and applied different methodologies for determining suitable sites and techniques for RWH. However, there is still little attention given to evaluation of the performance of RWH structures. The aim of this research was to design a scientifically-based and generally applicable methodology to evaluate and assess the performance of existing RWH techniques in (semi-) arid regions. The methodology takes engineering, biophysical, and socio-economic criteria into account to assess the performance of RWH using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) supported by Geographic Information System (GIS). The Oum Zessar watershed in south-eastern Tunisia is used as a case study site to test this evaluation tool. The performance of 58 RWH locations (14 jessour and 44 tabias) in three main sub-catchments of Oum Zessar watershed were assessed and evaluated. Based on the criteria selected, 60performance, 36received good performance scores. The results very accurately represent the real performance of each site. This integrated methodology, which is highly flexible, saves time and costs, and is easy to adapt in different regions, provides a scientifically based analytical tool to support designers and decision makers aiming to improve the performance of existing and new RWH sites.

  3. Critical assessment of the Boltzmann approach to active systems.

    PubMed

    Thüroff, Florian; Weber, Christoph A; Frey, Erwin

    2013-11-01

    Generic models of propelled particle systems posit that the emergence of polar order is driven by the competition between local alignment and noise. Although this notion has been confirmed employing the Boltzmann equation, the range of applicability of this equation remains elusive. We introduce a broad class of mesoscopic collision rules and analyze the prerequisites for the emergence of polar order in the framework of kinetic theory. Our findings suggest that a Boltzmann approach is appropriate for weakly aligning systems but is incompatible with experiments on cluster forming systems.

  4. Application of active controls technology to aircraft bide smoothing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, M.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of past efforts in the design and testing of ride smoothing and gust alleviation systems is presented. Design trade offs involving sensor types, choice of feedback loops, human comfort, and aircraft handling-qualities criteria are discussed. Synthesis of a system designed to employ direct-lift and side-force producing surfaces is reported. Two STOL aircraft and an executive transport are considered. Theoretically predicted system performance is compared with hybrid simulation and flight test data. Pilot opinion rating, pilot workload, and passenger comfort rating data for the basic and augmented aircraft are included.

  5. Application of Active Controls Technology to Aircraft Ride Smoothing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, Maris; Jacobson, Ira D.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of past efforts in the design and testing of ride smoothing and gust alleviation systems is presented. Design trade-offs involving sensor types, choice of feedback loops, human comfort and aircraft handling-qualities criteria are discussed. Synthesis of a system designed to employ direct-lift and side-force producing surfaces is reported. Two STOL-class aircraft and an executive transport are considered. Theoretically-predicted system performance is compared with hybrid simulation and flight test data. Pilot opinion rating, pilot workload, and passenger comfort rating data for the basic and augmented aircraft are included.

  6. [The holographic principle of the systemic organization of vital activity processes].

    PubMed

    Sudakov, K V

    1997-01-01

    Holographic properties of vital activities are considered. The holographic properties are shown to reveal itselves in functional systems of different levels of organization. Separate elements from different functional systems reflect the condition of final useful results in their rhythmical activities. The interaction of leading motivation and reinforcement proceeds according to holographic principle. Holographic homology is revealed in systemic interactions of individuals with environments and in systemic populations' organizations with environment.

  7. Coronal temperatures of unusually active K-dwarf binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a ROSAT pointed study of 4 BY Dra systems. Good quality pulse-height spectra are available from all four systems. Except for a required interstellar absorption component in HD 319139, the four systems have remarkably similar x-ray spectra; the two systems BD +22deg.669 and BD +23deg.635 look virtually identical in x rays. Analysis of the 4 x-ray spectra reveals that, in all cases, a single-temperature hot plasma (RS or Mewe) spectra is inadequate to fit the data, and two temperatures are required. We present examples of fitted pulse-height spectra and chi squared contours in kT(sub 1)-kT(sub 2) space.

  8. Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; McDowell, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed study of calc-silicate mineral zones and coexisting phase relations in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system were used as examples for thermodynamic evaluation of phase relations among minerals of variable composition and to calculate the chemical characteristics of hydrothermal solutions compatible with the observed calc-silicate assemblages. In general there is a close correlation between calculated and observed fluid compositions. Calculated fugacities of O{sub 2} at about 320{degrees}C in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system are about five orders of magnitude less than that at the nearby Salton Sea geothermal system. This observation is consistent with the occurrence of Fe{sup 3+} rich epidotes in the latter system and the presence of prehnite at Cerro Prieto.

  9. 40 CFR 60.759 - Specifications for active collection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pressure gradient applied by the blower or compressor approaches zero). If field testing has not been... planned overburden or traffic loads. The collection system shall extend as necessary to comply...

  10. 40 CFR 60.759 - Specifications for active collection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pressure gradient applied by the blower or compressor approaches zero). If field testing has not been... planned overburden or traffic loads. The collection system shall extend as necessary to comply...

  11. 40 CFR 60.759 - Specifications for active collection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pressure gradient applied by the blower or compressor approaches zero). If field testing has not been... planned overburden or traffic loads. The collection system shall extend as necessary to comply...

  12. 40 CFR 60.759 - Specifications for active collection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pressure gradient applied by the blower or compressor approaches zero). If field testing has not been... planned overburden or traffic loads. The collection system shall extend as necessary to comply...

  13. 40 CFR 60.759 - Specifications for active collection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pressure gradient applied by the blower or compressor approaches zero). If field testing has not been... planned overburden or traffic loads. The collection system shall extend as necessary to comply...

  14. The crew activity planning system bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The hardware and software designs used to implement a high speed parallel communications interface to the MITRE 307.2 kilobit/second serial bus communications system are described. The primary topic is the development of the bus interface unit.

  15. Hybrid architecture active wavefront sensing and control system, and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D. (Inventor); Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor); Hyde, Tristram T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    According to various embodiments, provided herein is an optical system and method that can be configured to perform image analysis. The optical system can comprise a telescope assembly and one or more hybrid instruments. The one or more hybrid instruments can be configured to receive image data from the telescope assembly and perform a fine guidance operation and a wavefront sensing operation, simultaneously, on the image data received from the telescope assembly.

  16. Education on antibiotic use. Education systems and activities that work.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Cobo, Javier; San Juan, Rafael; Montejo, Miguel; Fariñas, M Carmen

    2013-09-01

    Education is a cornerstone of antimicrobial stewardships programs, because 50% of inappropriate antimicrobial prescriptions are a consequence of an imbalance between the high levels of knowledge required for the appropriate use of antibiotics and the scarce training offered to medical specialists. For this reason, programs optimizing antimicrobial (PROA) are essentially based on support and educational activities for prescribers. The educational activities are difficult to evaluate. In our country, the application of educational activities in antimicrobial training programs is very heterogeneous, although it has improved in recent years. We recommend the following educational measures, which are prioritized in order of effectiveness. Interactive educational interventions are the most effective. These are non-compulsory interventions based on real prescriptions in clinical practice and include educational outreach visits, audits and counseling interviews with feedback and multifaceted interventions. Passive educational strategies, with posters, newsletters, and dissemination of guidelines, are only marginally effective in changing antimicrobial prescribing practices and have not shown a sustained effect. These measures need extensive professional involvement and should be combined with more active approaches. Currently, interventions can be enhanced with some teaching tools in electronic format. Both interactive and passive educational measures should be integrated into the PROA and should have institutional support. Finally, we recommend including antimicrobials in the training plans of all clinical specialties.

  17. Reinforcement active learning in the vibrissae system: optimal object localization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Goren; Dorfman, Nimrod; Ahissar, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Rats move their whiskers to acquire information about their environment. It has been observed that they palpate novel objects and objects they are required to localize in space. We analyze whisker-based object localization using two complementary paradigms, namely, active learning and intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning. Active learning algorithms select the next training samples according to the hypothesized solution in order to better discriminate between correct and incorrect labels. Intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning uses prediction errors as the reward to an actor-critic design, such that behavior converges to the one that optimizes the learning process. We show that in the context of object localization, the two paradigms result in palpation whisking as their respective optimal solution. These results suggest that rats may employ principles of active learning and/or intrinsic reward in tactile exploration and can guide future research to seek the underlying neuronal mechanisms that implement them. Furthermore, these paradigms are easily transferable to biomimetic whisker-based artificial sensors and can improve the active exploration of their environment. PMID:22789551

  18. Hybrid Active/Passive Jet Engine Noise Suppression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parente, C. A.; Arcas, N.; Walker, B. E.; Hersh, A. S.; Rice, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    A novel adaptive segmented liner concept has been developed that employs active control elements to modify the in-duct sound field to enhance the tone-suppressing performance of passive liner elements. This could potentially allow engine designs that inherently produce more tone noise but less broadband noise, or could allow passive liner designs to more optimally address high frequency broadband noise. A proof-of-concept validation program was undertaken, consisting of the development of an adaptive segmented liner that would maximize attenuation of two radial modes in a circular or annular duct. The liner consisted of a leading active segment with dual annuli of axially spaced active Helmholtz resonators, followed by an optimized passive liner and then an array of sensing microphones. Three successively complex versions of the adaptive liner were constructed and their performances tested relative to the performance of optimized uniform passive and segmented passive liners. The salient results of the tests were: The adaptive segmented liner performed well in a high flow speed model fan inlet environment, was successfully scaled to a high sound frequency and successfully attenuated three radial modes using sensor and active resonator arrays that were designed for a two mode, lower frequency environment.

  19. Reinforcement active learning in the vibrissae system: optimal object localization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Goren; Dorfman, Nimrod; Ahissar, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Rats move their whiskers to acquire information about their environment. It has been observed that they palpate novel objects and objects they are required to localize in space. We analyze whisker-based object localization using two complementary paradigms, namely, active learning and intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning. Active learning algorithms select the next training samples according to the hypothesized solution in order to better discriminate between correct and incorrect labels. Intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning uses prediction errors as the reward to an actor-critic design, such that behavior converges to the one that optimizes the learning process. We show that in the context of object localization, the two paradigms result in palpation whisking as their respective optimal solution. These results suggest that rats may employ principles of active learning and/or intrinsic reward in tactile exploration and can guide future research to seek the underlying neuronal mechanisms that implement them. Furthermore, these paradigms are easily transferable to biomimetic whisker-based artificial sensors and can improve the active exploration of their environment.

  20. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for fluoroelastomer/chlorofluorocarbon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Paciorek, K.J.L.; Masuda, S.R.; Nakahara, J.H. ); Snyder, C.E. Jr.; Warner, W.M. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on swell, tensile, and modulus data that were determined for a fluoroelastomer after exposure to a series of chlorofluorocarbon model fluids. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) were developed for the swell as a function of the number of carbons and chlorines and for tensile strength as a function of carbon number and chlorine positions in the chlorofluorocarbons.

  1. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  2. Nitroxide delivery system for Nrf2 activation and skin protection.

    PubMed

    Ben Yehuda Greenwald, Maya; Frušić-Zlotkin, Marina; Soroka, Yoram; Sasson, Shmuel Ben; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet; Bitton, Ronit; Kohen, Ron

    2015-08-01

    Cyclic nitroxides are a large group of compounds composed of diverse stable radicals also known as synthetic antioxidants. Although nitroxides are valuable for use in several skin conditions, in in vivo conditions they have several drawbacks, such as nonspecific dispersion in normal tissue, preferential renal clearance and rapid reduction of the nitroxide to the corresponding hydroxylamine. However, these drawbacks can be easily addressed by encapsulating the nitroxides within microemulsions. This approach would allow nitroxide activity and therefore their valuable effects (e.g. activation of the Keap1-Nrf2-EpRE pathway) to continue. In this work, nitroxides were encapsulated in a microemulsion composed of biocompatible ingredients. The nanometric size and shape of the vehicle microemulsion and nitroxide microemulsion displayed high similarity, indicating that the stability of the microemulsions was preserved. Our studies demonstrated that nitroxide microemulsions were more potent inducers of the Keap1-Nrf2-EpRE pathway than the free nitroxides, causing the activation of phase II enzymes. Moreover, microemulsions containing nitroxides significantly reduced UVB-induced cytotoxicity in the skin. Understanding the mechanism of this improved activity may expand the usage of many other Nrf2 modulating molecules in encapsulated form, as a skin protection strategy against oxidative stress-related conditions.

  3. Active multispectral imaging system for photodiagnosis and personalized phototherapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte, M. F.; Chávarri, L.; Briz, S.; Padrón, V. M.; García-Cuesta, E.

    2014-10-01

    The proposed system has been designed to identify dermatopathologies or to apply personalized phototherapy treatments. The system emits electromagnetic waves in different spectral bands in the range of visible and near infrared to irradiate the target (skin or any other object) to be spectrally characterized. Then, an imaging sensor measures the target response to the stimulus at each spectral band and, after processing, the system displays in real time two images. In one of them the value of each pixel corresponds to the more reflected wavenumber whereas in the other image the pixel value represents the energy absorbed at each band. The diagnosis capability of this system lies in its multispectral design, and the phototherapy treatments are adapted to the patient and his lesion by measuring his absorption capability. This "in situ" absorption measurement allows us to determine the more appropriate duration of the treatment according to the wavelength and recommended dose. The main advantages of this system are its low cost, it does not have moving parts or complex mechanisms, it works in real time, and it is easy to handle. For these reasons its widespread use in dermatologist consultation would facilitate the work of the dermatologist and would improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment. In fact the prototype has already been successfully applied to pathologies such as carcinomas, melanomas, keratosis, and nevi.

  4. Active multispectral imaging system for photodiagnosis and personalized phototherapies

    SciTech Connect

    Ugarte, M. F. E-mail: sbriz@fis.uc3m.es; Chávarri, L.; Padrón, V. M.; García-Cuesta, E.

    2014-10-15

    The proposed system has been designed to identify dermatopathologies or to apply personalized phototherapy treatments. The system emits electromagnetic waves in different spectral bands in the range of visible and near infrared to irradiate the target (skin or any other object) to be spectrally characterized. Then, an imaging sensor measures the target response to the stimulus at each spectral band and, after processing, the system displays in real time two images. In one of them the value of each pixel corresponds to the more reflected wavenumber whereas in the other image the pixel value represents the energy absorbed at each band. The diagnosis capability of this system lies in its multispectral design, and the phototherapy treatments are adapted to the patient and his lesion by measuring his absorption capability. This “in situ” absorption measurement allows us to determine the more appropriate duration of the treatment according to the wavelength and recommended dose. The main advantages of this system are its low cost, it does not have moving parts or complex mechanisms, it works in real time, and it is easy to handle. For these reasons its widespread use in dermatologist consultation would facilitate the work of the dermatologist and would improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment. In fact the prototype has already been successfully applied to pathologies such as carcinomas, melanomas, keratosis, and nevi.

  5. The Adipose Renin-Angiotensin System Modulates Systemic Markers of Insulin Sensitivity and Activates the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Suyeon; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; Massiera, Florence; Teboul, Michele; Ailhaud, Gerard; Kim, Jung Han; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima; Voy, Brynn H.

    2006-01-01

    Background . The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to regulation of fat mass and may also impact systemic functions such as blood pressure and metabolism. Methods and results . A panel of mouse models including mice lacking angiotensinogen, Agt ( Agt -KO), mice expressing Agt solely in adipose tissue (aP2- Agt/Agt -KO), and mice overexpressing Agt in adipose tissue (aP2- Agt ) was studied. Total body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, and circulating levels of leptin, insulin, and resistin were significantly decreased in Agt -KO mice, while plasma adiponectin levels were increased. aP2- Agt mice exhibited increased adipositymore » and plasma leptin and insulin levels compared to wild type (WT) controls. Angiotensinogen and type I Ang II receptor protein levels were also elevated in kidney of aP2- Agt mice. Conclusion . These findings demonstrate that alterations in adipose RAS activity significantly impact both local and systemic physiology in a way that may contribute to the detrimental health effects of obesity.« less

  6. Broken detailed balance at mesoscopic scales in active biological systems.

    PubMed

    Battle, Christopher; Broedersz, Chase P; Fakhri, Nikta; Geyer, Veikko F; Howard, Jonathon; Schmidt, Christoph F; MacKintosh, Fred C

    2016-04-29

    Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are not only characterized by time-independent macroscopic properties, but also satisfy the principle of detailed balance in the transitions between microscopic configurations. Living systems function out of equilibrium and are characterized by directed fluxes through chemical states, which violate detailed balance at the molecular scale. Here we introduce a method to probe for broken detailed balance and demonstrate how such nonequilibrium dynamics are manifest at the mesosopic scale. The periodic beating of an isolated flagellum from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits probability flux in the phase space of shapes. With a model, we show how the breaking of detailed balance can also be quantified in stationary, nonequilibrium stochastic systems in the absence of periodic motion. We further demonstrate such broken detailed balance in the nonperiodic fluctuations of primary cilia of epithelial cells. Our analysis provides a general tool to identify nonequilibrium dynamics in cells and tissues. PMID:27126047

  7. Aerosol identification using a hybrid active/passive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Francis M.; Moon, Raphael P.; Davidson, Charles E.

    2005-08-01

    Recent experimental work has shown that passive systems such as hyperspectral FTIR and frequency-tunable IR cameras have application in detection of biological aerosols. This provided the motivation for a new detection technique, which we call Aerosol Ranging Spectroscopy (ARS), whereby a scattering LIDAR is used to augment passive spectrometer data to determine the location and optical depth of the aerosol plume. When the two systems are co-aligned or boresighted, the hybrid data product provides valuable enhancements for signal exploitation of the passive spectral data. This paper presents the motivation and theoretical basis for the ARS technique. A prototype implementation of an ARS system will also be described, along with preliminary results from recent outdoor field experiments.

  8. Image change detection using a SWIR active imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Armin L.; Monnin, David; Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank

    2013-10-01

    We are currently developing a system consisting of a GPS receiver, a three-axis magnetic compass as well as a digital video camera in order to visualize changes occuring along a regularily used itinerary. This is done by comparing actual images with images from the same scene, which have been acquired during a previous measurement. The luminosity of images from two different passages however can be quite different (due to different meteorological conditions). Whereas the global luminosity can be adjusted using non-linear luminosity correction, the treatment of shadows is more di cult. Since meteorological conditions cannot be controlled, we are investigating the possibility of using a Laser Gated Viewing system in the SWIR domain to illuminate the scene. Using appropriate filters for the camera, we are completely independent of natural illumination and in addition, the system can also be used at night.

  9. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a 3He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%-0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  10. Characterization of selected waste tanks from the active LLLW system

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1996-08-01

    From September 1989 through January of 1990, there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid-Low Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The purpose of this report is to summarize additional analytical data collected from some of the active waste tanks from November 1993 through February 1996. The analytical data for this report was collected for several unrelated projects which had different data requirements. The overall analyte list was similar for these projects and the level of quality assurance was the same for all work reported. the new data includes isotopic ratios for uranium and plutonium and an evaluation of the denature ratios to address criticality concerns. Also, radionuclides not previously measured in these waste tanks, including 99Tc and 237Np, are provided in this report.

  11. Antitussive activity and respiratory system effects of levodropropizine in man.

    PubMed

    Bossi, R; Braga, P C; Centanni, S; Legnani, D; Moavero, N E; Allegra, L

    1988-08-01

    Antitussive activity of the new antitussive drug, levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526), was evaluated in healthy volunteers by the classical method of citric acid-induced coughing. Levodropropizine dose-dependently reduced cough frequency. Maximal inhibition was observed at 6 h after administration. Cough intensity was also reduced, as shown by the analysis of cough noise. Levodropropizine, at the dosage of 60 mg t.i.d., had no adverse effects on respiratory function nor on airway clearance mechanisms: in fact, it did not affect spirometric parameters. Levodropropizine had no effects on the rheological properties of mucus nor on ciliary activity of airway epithelium.

  12. Antitussive activity and respiratory system effects of levodropropizine in man.

    PubMed

    Bossi, R; Braga, P C; Centanni, S; Legnani, D; Moavero, N E; Allegra, L

    1988-08-01

    Antitussive activity of the new antitussive drug, levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526), was evaluated in healthy volunteers by the classical method of citric acid-induced coughing. Levodropropizine dose-dependently reduced cough frequency. Maximal inhibition was observed at 6 h after administration. Cough intensity was also reduced, as shown by the analysis of cough noise. Levodropropizine, at the dosage of 60 mg t.i.d., had no adverse effects on respiratory function nor on airway clearance mechanisms: in fact, it did not affect spirometric parameters. Levodropropizine had no effects on the rheological properties of mucus nor on ciliary activity of airway epithelium. PMID:3196411

  13. Active flutter suppression - Control system design and experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Srinathkumar, S.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis and experimental validation of an active flutter suppression controller for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design is accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach uses a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple controller structure to meet stringent design specifications. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in flutter dynamic pressure and flutter frequency in the mathematical model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a roll maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

  14. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation summarized in the report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjunction with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Excessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed ...

  15. Active geothermal systems as natural analogs of HLW repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Cohen, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    Geologic analogs of long-lived processes in high-level waste (HLW) repositories have been much studied in recent years. However, most of these occurrences either involve natural processes going on today at 25{degree}C, or, if they are concerned with behavior at temperatures similar to the peak temperatures anticipated near HLW canisters, have long since ended. This paper points out the usefulness of studying modern geothermal systems as natural analogs, and to illustrate the concept with a dramatic example, the Salton Sea geothermal system (SSGS).

  16. Active targeting schemes for nanoparticle systems in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Byrne, James D; Betancourt, Tania; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa

    2008-12-14

    The objective of this review is to outline current major cancer targets for nanoparticle systems and give insight into the direction of the field. The major targeting strategies that have been used for the delivery of therapeutic or imaging agents to cancer have been broken into three sections. These sections are angiogenesis-associated targeting, targeting to uncontrolled cell proliferation markers, and tumor cell targeting. The targeting schemes explored for many of the reported nanoparticle systems suggest the great potential of targeted delivery to revolutionize cancer treatment.

  17. Ultraviolet imaging spectroscopy shows an active saturnian system.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Larry W; Colwell, Joshua E; Larsen, Kristopher; McClintock, William E; Stewart, A Ian F; Hallett, Janet Tew; Shemansky, Donald E; Ajello, Joseph M; Hansen, Candice J; Hendrix, Amanda R; West, Robert A; Keller, H Uwe; Korth, Axel; Pryor, Wayne R; Reulke, Ralf; Yung, Yuk L

    2005-02-25

    Neutral oxygen in the saturnian system shows variability, and the total number of oxygen atoms peaks at 4 x 10(34). Saturn's aurora brightens in response to solar-wind forcing, and the auroral spectrum resembles Jupiter's. Phoebe's surface shows variable water-ice content, and the data indicate it originated in the outer solar system. Saturn's rings also show variable water abundance, with the purest ice in the outermost A ring. This radial variation is consistent with initially pure water ice bombarded by meteors, but smaller radial structures may indicate collisional transport and recent renewal events in the past 10(7) to 10(8) years.

  18. Layered shielding design for an active neutron interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, Zachary D.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2016-08-01

    The use of source and detector shields in active neutron interrogation can improve detector signal. In simulations, a shielded detector with a source rotated π/3 rad relative to the opening decreased neutron flux roughly three orders of magnitude. Several realistic source and detector shield configurations were simulated. A layered design reduced neutron and secondary photon flux in the detector by approximately one order of magnitude for a deuterium-tritium source. The shield arrangement can be adapted for a portable, modular design.

  19. Central nervous system activity of Leucas inflata Benth. in mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Yousuf, M H; Ali, B H; Bashir, A K; Tanira, M O M; Blunden, G

    2002-09-01

    The analgesic activity of the methanol and acetone extracts of Leucas inflata L. (family Labiatae) was evaluated in mice using different experimental models. The effect of the two extracts on pentobarbitone-sleeping time, motor activity, sensorimotor coordination, carrageen induced inflammation, and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia has also been investigated. The two crude extracts have been phytochemically analyzed and some constituents isolated and characterized. These included stigmasterols, a chromone and coumarins. Extracts of L. inflata L., given at single oral doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg, significantly and dose-dependently, reduced formalin-induced pain, acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions and increased the reaction time in the hot-plate test. Both extracts caused significant and dose-related impairment in the sensorimotor control and ambulatory and total motor activity of treated mice. Both extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory action by reducing paw edema of treated mice. The extracts did not significantly affect the rectal temperature of normothermic mice. However, they were effective in preventing Brewers yeast induced pyrexia. It is concluded that the crude methanol and acetone extract of L. inflata has CNS depressant properties, manifested as antinociception and sedation. Both extracts have anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions.

  20. Activating Transcription Factor 3 and the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, David; Raivich, Gennadij; Anderson, Patrick Norval

    2012-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) belongs to the ATF/cyclic AMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors and is often described as an adaptive response gene whose activity is usually regulated by stressful stimuli. Although expressed in a number of splice variants and generally recognized as a transcriptional repressor, ATF3 has the ability to interact with a number of other transcription factors including c-Jun to form complexes which not only repress, but can also activate various genes. ATF3 expression is modulated mainly at the transcriptional level and has markedly different effects in different types of cell. The levels of ATF3 mRNA and protein are normally very low in neurons and glia but their expression is rapidly upregulated in response to injury. ATF3 expression in neurons is closely linked to their survival and the regeneration of their axons following axotomy, and that in peripheral nerves correlates with the generation of a Schwann cell phenotype that is conducive to axonal regeneration. ATF3 is also induced by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands but acts as a negative regulator of TLR signaling, suppressing the innate immune response which is involved in immuno-surveillance and can enhance or reduce the survival of injured neurons and promote the regeneration of their axons. PMID:22347845

  1. Proteomics reliability for micropollutants degradation insight into activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Collado, Neus; Casas, Nuria; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on pharmaceutical trace compounds degradation pathways in wastewater. The potential of the proteomics approach has been evaluated to extract information on activated sludge microbial metabolism in degrading a trace concentration of a pharmaceutical compound (ibuprofen). Ibuprofen is one of the most consumed pharmaceuticals, measured in wastewater at very high concentrations and, despite its high removal rates, found in different environmental compartments. Aerated and completely mixed activated sludge batch tests were spiked with ibuprofen at 10 and 1,000 μg L(-1). Ibuprofen concentrations were determined in the liquid phase: 100% removal was observed and the kinetics were estimated. The solid phase was sampled for proteomics purposes. The first objective was to apply proteomics to evaluate protein profile variations in a complex matrix such as activated sludge. The second objective was to determine, at different ibuprofen concentrations, which proteins followed pre-defined trends. No newly expressed proteins were found. Nonetheless, the obtained results suggest that proteomics itself is a promising methodology to be applied in this field. Statistical and comparative studies analyses provided, in fact, useful information on biological reproducibility and permitted us to detect 62 proteins following coherent and plausible expected trends in terms of presence and intensity change. PMID:26360747

  2. Proteomics reliability for micropollutants degradation insight into activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Collado, Neus; Casas, Nuria; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on pharmaceutical trace compounds degradation pathways in wastewater. The potential of the proteomics approach has been evaluated to extract information on activated sludge microbial metabolism in degrading a trace concentration of a pharmaceutical compound (ibuprofen). Ibuprofen is one of the most consumed pharmaceuticals, measured in wastewater at very high concentrations and, despite its high removal rates, found in different environmental compartments. Aerated and completely mixed activated sludge batch tests were spiked with ibuprofen at 10 and 1,000 μg L(-1). Ibuprofen concentrations were determined in the liquid phase: 100% removal was observed and the kinetics were estimated. The solid phase was sampled for proteomics purposes. The first objective was to apply proteomics to evaluate protein profile variations in a complex matrix such as activated sludge. The second objective was to determine, at different ibuprofen concentrations, which proteins followed pre-defined trends. No newly expressed proteins were found. Nonetheless, the obtained results suggest that proteomics itself is a promising methodology to be applied in this field. Statistical and comparative studies analyses provided, in fact, useful information on biological reproducibility and permitted us to detect 62 proteins following coherent and plausible expected trends in terms of presence and intensity change.

  3. The effect of different inter-pad distances on the determination of active drag using the Measuring Active Drag system.

    PubMed

    Schreven, S; Toussaint, H M; Smeets, J B J; Beek, P J

    2013-07-26

    The Measuring Active Drag (MAD) system was developed to determine active drag in swimming by measuring the push-off force exerted at fixed pads placed below the waterline. The imposed inter-pad distance, which to date has been kept constant while using the MAD system, could affect the active drag because it requires the use of different stroke frequencies. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the effect of inter-pad distance on active drag at a given speed. In particular, drag-velocity curves at three different inter-pad distances (1.25m, 1.35m and 1.45m) were determined using the MAD system for eleven competitive swimmers. Variation of 16% in inter-pad distance (14% change in stroke frequency) revealed no significant difference in calculated active drag between different inter-pad distances and a low (<5%) average coefficient of variation over different inter-pad distances was found. In addition, inter-test reliability, which was determined for the two 1.35m conditions only, was high (ICC>0.90) for measurements on two consecutive days. The results suggest that it may not be necessary to adapt the inter-pad distance of the MAD system based on anthropometric characteristics of the subject or the velocity-related stroke length in free swimming. PMID:23791187

  4. The effect of different inter-pad distances on the determination of active drag using the Measuring Active Drag system.

    PubMed

    Schreven, S; Toussaint, H M; Smeets, J B J; Beek, P J

    2013-07-26

    The Measuring Active Drag (MAD) system was developed to determine active drag in swimming by measuring the push-off force exerted at fixed pads placed below the waterline. The imposed inter-pad distance, which to date has been kept constant while using the MAD system, could affect the active drag because it requires the use of different stroke frequencies. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the effect of inter-pad distance on active drag at a given speed. In particular, drag-velocity curves at three different inter-pad distances (1.25m, 1.35m and 1.45m) were determined using the MAD system for eleven competitive swimmers. Variation of 16% in inter-pad distance (14% change in stroke frequency) revealed no significant difference in calculated active drag between different inter-pad distances and a low (<5%) average coefficient of variation over different inter-pad distances was found. In addition, inter-test reliability, which was determined for the two 1.35m conditions only, was high (ICC>0.90) for measurements on two consecutive days. The results suggest that it may not be necessary to adapt the inter-pad distance of the MAD system based on anthropometric characteristics of the subject or the velocity-related stroke length in free swimming.

  5. BEACHES: An Observational System for Assessing Children's Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors and Associated Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System (BEACHES) codes direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors and associated environmental events, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. The system's reliability and validity was assessed in a study of 42 children (ages…

  6. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  7. The Activity System of School-Teaching Mathematics and Mathematical Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julie, Cyril

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the activity system of school-teaching mathematics and the impact of mathematical modeling. Describes the Applications of and Modeling in School Mathematics Project (AMSMAP) which investigates teachers' mathematical modeling and its relationship to a hypothesized school mathematical modeling activity system. Discusses the notion of an…

  8. 3D active stabilization system with sub-micrometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Kursu, Olli; Tuukkanen, Tuomas; Rahkonen, Timo; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Stable positioning between a measurement probe and its target from sub- to few micrometer scales has become a prerequisite in precision metrology and in cellular level measurements from biological tissues. Here we present a 3D stabilization system based on an optoelectronic displacement sensor and custom piezo-actuators driven by a feedback control loop that constantly aims to zero the relative movement between the sensor and the target. We used simulations and prototyping to characterize the developed system. Our results show that 95% attenuation of movement artifacts is achieved at 1 Hz with stabilization performance declining to ca. 70% attenuation at 10 Hz. Stabilization bandwidth is limited by mechanical resonances within the displacement sensor that occur at relatively low frequencies, and are attributable to the sensor's high force sensitivity. We successfully used brain derived micromotion trajectories as a demonstration of complex movement stabilization. The micromotion was reduced to a level of ∼1 µm with nearly 100 fold attenuation at the lower frequencies that are typically associated with physiological processes. These results, and possible improvements of the system, are discussed with a focus on possible ways to increase the sensor's force sensitivity without compromising overall system bandwidth. PMID:22900045

  9. Teaching Systems Biology: An Active-Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Anuj

    2005-01-01

    With genomics well established in modern molecular biology, recent studies have sought to further the discipline by integrating complementary methodologies into a holistic depiction of the molecular mechanisms underpinning cell function. This genomic subdiscipline, loosely termed "systems biology," presents the biology educator with both…

  10. A Critical Analysis of Active Learning and an Alternative Pedagogical Framework for Introductory Information Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning has been championed in academic circles as the pedagogical fix to boring lectures typically found in introduction to information systems courses. However, the literature on active learning is mixed. In this paper, we critically examine active learning research and discover a misplaced emphasis leading to paradoxical findings in…

  11. An Activity Theory Approach to Analyze Barriers to a Virtual Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Suhair; Qablan, Ahmad; Barham, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the activity theory is used as a framework to analyze the barriers to a virtual Management Information Stream (MIS) Curriculum in Jordanian schools, from both the sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. Taking the activity system as a unit of analysis, this study documents the processes by which activities shape and are…

  12. Use of an open-loop system to increase physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an open-loop system that reinforces physical activity with TV watching to increase children’s physical activity. Non-overweight, sedentary boys and girls (8-12 y) were randomized to a group that received feedback of activity counts + reinforcement for physic...

  13. A study of amplitude information-frequency characteristics for underwater active electrolocation system.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiegang

    2015-12-01

    Weakly electric fish sense their surroundings in complete darkness by their active electrolocation system. For biologists, the active electrolocation system has been investigated for near 60 years. And for engineers, bio-inspired active electrolocation sensor has been investigated for about 20 years. But how the amplitude information response will be affected by frequencies of detecting electric fields in the active electrolocation system was rarely investigated. In this paper, an electrolocation experiment system has been built. The amplitude information-frequency characteristics (AIFC) of the electrolocation system for sinusoidal electric fields of varying frequencies have been investigated. We find that AIFC of the electrolocation system have relevance to the material properties and geometric features of the probed object and conductivity of surrounding water. Detect frequency dead zone (DFDZ) and frequency inflection point (FIP) of AIFC for the electrolocation system were found. The analysis model of the electrolocation system has been investigated for many years, but DFDZ and FIP of AIFC can be difficult to explain by those models. In order to explain those AIFC phenomena for the electrolocation system, a simple relaxation model based on Cole-Cole model which is not only a mathematical explanation but it is a physical one for the electrolocation system was advanced. We also advance a hypothesis for physical mechanism of weakly electrical fish electrolocation system. It may have reference value for physical mechanism of weakly electrical fish active electrolocation system. PMID:26531142

  14. A study of amplitude information-frequency characteristics for underwater active electrolocation system.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiegang

    2015-11-04

    Weakly electric fish sense their surroundings in complete darkness by their active electrolocation system. For biologists, the active electrolocation system has been investigated for near 60 years. And for engineers, bio-inspired active electrolocation sensor has been investigated for about 20 years. But how the amplitude information response will be affected by frequencies of detecting electric fields in the active electrolocation system was rarely investigated. In this paper, an electrolocation experiment system has been built. The amplitude information-frequency characteristics (AIFC) of the electrolocation system for sinusoidal electric fields of varying frequencies have been investigated. We find that AIFC of the electrolocation system have relevance to the material properties and geometric features of the probed object and conductivity of surrounding water. Detect frequency dead zone (DFDZ) and frequency inflection point (FIP) of AIFC for the electrolocation system were found. The analysis model of the electrolocation system has been investigated for many years, but DFDZ and FIP of AIFC can be difficult to explain by those models. In order to explain those AIFC phenomena for the electrolocation system, a simple relaxation model based on Cole-Cole model which is not only a mathematical explanation but it is a physical one for the electrolocation system was advanced. We also advance a hypothesis for physical mechanism of weakly electrical fish electrolocation system. It may have reference value for physical mechanism of weakly electrical fish active electrolocation system.

  15. Nongenomic effects of mineralocorticoid receptor activation in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Mihailidou, Anastasia S; Funder, John W

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen years ago Wehling and colleagues showed unequivocal rapid effects of aldosterone, neither mimicked by cortisol nor blocked by spironolactone, and postulated that these nongenomic effects are mediated via a membrane receptor distinct from the classical mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Several recent studies have challenged this view. Alzamora et al. showed 11beta-hydroxysteroid denydrogenase 1 and 2 (11betaHSD1, 11betaHSD2) expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells, and that aldosterone rapidly raises intracellular pH via sodium-hydrogen exchange; cortisol is without effect and spironolactone does not block the aldosterone response. When, however, 11betaHSD activity is blocked by carbenoxolone, cortisol shows agonist effects indistinguishable from aldosterone; in addition, the effect of both aldosterone and cortisol is blocked by the open E-ring, water soluble MR antagonist RU28318. In rabbit cardiomyocytes, aldosterone increases intracellular [Na+] by activating Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport, with secondary effects on Na+/K+ pump activity. Pump current rises approximately 10-fold within 15', is unaffected by actinomycin D or the MR antagonist canrenone, and not elevated by cortisol. Pump current is, however, completely blocked by the open E-ring, water soluble MR antagonist K+ canrenoate and stoichometrically by cortisol. PKCepsilon agonist peptides (but not PKCalpha, PKCdelta or scrambled PKCepsilon peptides) mimic the effect of aldosterone, and PKCepsilon antagonist peptides block the effect. Very recently, cortisol has been shown to mimic the effect of aldosterone when cardiomyocyte redox state is altered by the installation of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) via the pipet, paralleling the effect of carbenoxolone on vascular smooth cells and suggesting possible pathophysiologic roles for an always glucocorticoid occupied MR. PMID:15862816

  16. Impact on quality activities of measurement systems meeting an L:1 rule

    DOE PAGES

    Hamada, M. S.; Burkhardt, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    This study considers the impact of a measurement system that meets an L:1 rule on various quality activities. These activities include inspection, acceptance sampling, and control charting. A measurement system that meets a 10:1 rule performs much better than one that meets a 4:1 rule. R code is provided so that the practitioner is able to evaluate these activities to his or her particular situation.

  17. Impact on quality activities of measurement systems meeting an L:1 rule

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, M. S.; Burkhardt, J. H.

    2015-04-30

    This study considers the impact of a measurement system that meets an L:1 rule on various quality activities. These activities include inspection, acceptance sampling, and control charting. A measurement system that meets a 10:1 rule performs much better than one that meets a 4:1 rule. R code is provided so that the practitioner is able to evaluate these activities to his or her particular situation.

  18. Simulating ensembles of nonlinear continuous time dynamical systems via active ultra wideband wireless network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Alexander S.; Yemelyanov, Ruslan Yu.; Gerasimov, Mark Yu.; Itskov, Vadim V.

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with a new multi-element processor platform assigned for modelling the behaviour of interacting dynamical systems, i.e., active wireless network. Experimentally, this ensemble is implemented in an active network, the active nodes of which include direct chaotic transceivers and special actuator boards containing microcontrollers for modelling the dynamical systems and an information display unit (colored LEDs). The modelling technique and experimental results are described and analyzed.

  19. Occurrence and activity of sulphate reducing bacteria in aerobic activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-03-01

    In the sewage or wastewater treatment plant, biological sulphate reduction can occur spontaneously or be applied beneficially for its treatment. The results of this study can be applied to control SRB in the sewage and WWTP. Therefore, population diversity analyses of SRB for nine activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Netherlands and the effect of long-term (months) oxygen exposures on the SRB activity were carried out. T-RFLP and clone sequencing analyses of winter and summer samples revealed that (1) all WWTP have a similar SRB population, (2) there is no seasonal impact (10-20 °C) on the SRB population present in the WWTP and (3) Desulfobacter postgatei, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfovibrio intestinalis were the most common and dominant SRB species observed in these samples, and origin from the sewage. Short term activity tests demonstrated that SRB were not active in the aerobic WWTP, but while flushed with N2-gas SRB became slightly active after 3 h. In a laboratory reactor at a dissolved oxygen concentration of <2 %, sulphate reduction occurred and 89 % COD removal was achieved. SRB grew in granules, in order to protect themselves for oxygen exposures. SRB are naturally present in aerobic WWTP, which is due to the formation of granules. PMID:25649202

  20. Using ILP to Identify Pathway Activation Patterns in Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Neaves, Samuel R; Millard, Louise A C; Tsoka, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We show a logical aggregation method that, combined with propositionalization methods, can construct novel structured biological features from gene expression data. We do this to gain understanding of pathway mechanisms, for instance, those associated with a particular disease. We illustrate this method on the task of distinguishing between two types of lung cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and Adenocarcinoma (AC). We identify pathway activation patterns in pathways previously implicated in the development of cancers. Our method identified a model with comparable predictive performance to the winning algorithm of a recent challenge, while providing biologically relevant explanations that may be useful to a biologist. PMID:27478883

  1. Low-cost active optical system for fire surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, A. B.; Lavrov, A. V.; Vilar, R. M.

    2009-06-01

    Detection of smoke plumes using active optical sensors provides many advantages with respect to passive methods of fire surveillance. However, the price of these sensors is often too high as compared to passive fire detection instruments, such as infrared and video cameras. This article describes robust and cost effective diode-laser optical sensor for automatic fire surveillance in industrial environment. Physical aspects of the sensing process allowing to simplify the hardware and software design, eventually leading to significant reduction of manufacturing and maintenance costs, are discussed.

  2. Neutron Activation Analysis and Product Isotope Inventory Code System.

    1990-10-31

    Version 00 NAC was designed to predict the neutron-induced gamma-ray radioactivity for a wide variety of composite materials. The NAC output includes the input data, a list of all reactions for each constituent element, and the end-of-irradiation disintegration rates for each reaction. NAC also compiles a product isotope inventory containing the isotope name, the disintegration rate, the gamma-ray source strength, and the absorbed dose rate at 1 meter from an unshielded point source. The inducedmore » activity is calculated as a function of irradiation and decay times; the effect of cyclic irradiation can also be calculated.« less

  3. Information systems as a tool to improve legal metrology activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Filho, B. A.; Soratto, A. N. R.; Gonçalves, R. F.

    2016-07-01

    This study explores the importance of information systems applied to legal metrology as a tool to improve the control of measuring instruments used in trade. The information system implanted in Brazil has also helped to understand and appraise the control of the measurements due to the behavior of the errors and deviations of instruments used in trade, allowing the allocation of resources wisely, leading to a more effective planning and control on the legal metrology field. A study case analyzing the fuel sector is carried out in order to show the conformity of fuel dispersers according to maximum permissible errors. The statistics of measurement errors of 167,310 fuel dispensers of gasoline, ethanol and diesel used in the field were analyzed demonstrating the accordance of the fuel market in Brazil to the legal requirements.

  4. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production.

  5. Alkali Activated Systems: Understanding the Influence of Curing Conditions and Activator Type/Chemistry on the Mechanical Strength and Chemical Structure of Fly Ash/Slag Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ussala

    The alkali activation of aluminosilicate materials as binder systems derived from industrial byproducts have been extensively studied due to the advantages they offer in terms enhanced material properties, while increasing sustainability by the reuse of industrial waste and byproducts and reducing the adverse impacts of OPC production. Fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag are commonly used for their content of soluble silica and aluminate species that can undergo dissolution, polymerization with the alkali, condensation on particle surfaces and solidification. The following topics are the focus of this thesis: (i) the use of microwave assisted thermal processing, in addition to heat-curing as a means of alkali activation and (ii) the relative effects of alkali cations (K or Na) in the activator (powder activators) on the mechanical properties and chemical structure of these systems. Unsuitable curing conditions instigate carbonation, which in turn lowers the pH of the system causing significant reductions in the rate of fly ash activation and mechanical strength development. This study explores the effects of sealing the samples during the curing process, which effectively traps the free water in the system, and allows for increased aluminosilicate activation. The use of microwave-curing in lieu of thermal-curing is also studied in order to reduce energy consumption and for its ability to provide fast volumetric heating. Potassium-based powder activators dry blended into the slag binder system is shown to be effective in obtaining very high compressive strengths under moist curing conditions (greater than 70 MPa), whereas sodium-based powder activation is much weaker (around 25 MPa). Compressive strength decreases when fly ash is introduced into the system. Isothermal calorimetry is used to evaluate the early hydration process, and to understand the reaction kinetics of the alkali powder activated systems. A qualitative evidence of the alkali

  6. Range gated active night vision system for automobiles.

    PubMed

    David, Ofer; Kopeika, Norman S; Weizer, Boaz

    2006-10-01

    Night vision for automobiles is an emerging safety feature that is being introduced for automotive safety. We develop what we believe is an innovative new night vision system using gated imaging principles. The concept of gated imaging is described and its basic advantages, including the backscatter reduction mechanism for improved vision through fog, rain, and snow. Evaluation of performance is presented by analyzing bar pattern modulation and comparing Johnson chart predictions.

  7. Central-station applications: System and subsystem research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a number of photovoltaic central power-station studies are summarized. Analysis based upon vendor quotes and construction contractor bids indicate that $50/m2 for area related costs for flat-plate arrays is achievable. Electrical design tradeoffs for multimegawatt systems are considered. The values of photovoltaic central-station plants for various regions are determined from an energy scenario effects study.

  8. Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Ruth, Ronald D.; Zolotorev, Max

    1998-01-01

    A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

  9. Recent activities for long duration flight systems in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, J.

    For the feasibility studies of the long duration balloon systems in recent times in Japan, the forces was on following items. • An analysis to utilize the Pumpkin Balloons for the over pressurized balloons, and to develop the simple automatic gas pressure control systems for the long duration flights. • Test flights by the balloon group of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) to see the performance of the balloons of new films of EVAL (Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol) having strong absorption bands of the infra-red between 7-14 microns. We expect that this absorption prevents the cooling of the lifting gas after the sun-sets, and thus save the ballast consumption. • A sea recovery system beyond 100-200 km from the Pacific coast by using helicopters with ARGOS/GPS. The situation would be applicable to the sea recovery of payloads after the long duration flights at the turn-around period launched from Sanriku Balloon Center. The flight performances have already been proved in the 1975 and 77 achieving the duration of 55, 65, 80 hrs keeping the locations of payloads within 200 km from the sea coast. • Studies on the high altitude balloons with thin polyethylene films are also reported in this paper.

  10. Study of an Active Control System for a Spinning Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.

    1961-01-01

    The mission requirements for some satellites require that they spin continuously and at the same time maintain a precise direction of the spin axis. An analog-computer study has been made of an attitude control system which is suitable for such a satellite. The control system provides the necessary attitude control through the use of a spinning wheel, which will provide precession torques, commanded by an automatic closed-loop servomechanism system. The sensors used in the control loop are rate gyroscopes for damping of any wobble motion and a sun seeker for attitude control. The results of the study show that the controller can eliminate the wobble motion of the satellite resulting from a rectangular pulse moment disturbance and then return the spin axis to the reference space axis. The motion is damped to half amplitude in less than one cycle of the wobble motion. The controller can also reduce the motion resulting from a step change in product of inertia both by causing the new principal axis to be steadily alined with the spin vector and by reducing the cone angle generated by the reference body axis. These methods will reduce the motion whether the satellite is a disk, sphere, or rod configuration.

  11. Structural integrated sensor and actuator systems for active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Christian; Schwerter, Martin; Leester-Schädel, Monika; Wierach, Peter; Dietzel, Andreas; Sinapius, Michael

    2016-04-01

    An adaptive flow separation control system is designed and implemented as an essential part of a novel high-lift device for future aircraft. The system consists of MEMS pressure sensors to determine the flow conditions and adaptive lips to regulate the mass flow and the velocity of a wall near stream over the internally blown Coanda flap. By the oscillating lip the mass flow in the blowing slot changes dynamically, consequently the momentum exchange of the boundary layer over a high lift flap required mass flow can be reduced. These new compact and highly integrated systems provide a real-time monitoring and manipulation of the flow conditions. In this context the integration of pressure sensors into flow sensing airfoils of composite material is investigated. Mechanical and electrical properties of the integrated sensors are investigated under mechanical loads during tensile tests. The sensors contain a reference pressure chamber isolated to the ambient by a deformable membrane with integrated piezoresistors connected as a Wheatstone bridge, which outputs voltage signals depending on the ambient pressure. The composite material in which the sensors are embedded consists of 22 individual layers of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) prepreg. The results of the experiments are used for adapting the design of the sensors and the layout of the laminate to ensure an optimized flux of force in highly loaded structures primarily for future aeronautical applications. It can be shown that the pressure sensor withstands the embedding process into fiber composites with full functional capability and predictable behavior under stress.

  12. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  13. The Use of Central Nervous System Active Drugs During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Källén, Bengt; Borg, Natalia; Reis, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    CNS-active drugs are used relatively often during pregnancy. Use during early pregnancy may increase the risk of a congenital malformation; use during the later part of pregnancy may be associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth disturbances and neonatal morbidity. There is also a possibility that drug exposure can affect brain development with long-term neuropsychological harm as a result. This paper summarizes the literature on such drugs used during pregnancy: opioids, anticonvulsants, drugs used for Parkinson’s disease, neuroleptics, sedatives and hypnotics, antidepressants, psychostimulants, and some other CNS-active drugs. In addition to an overview of the literature, data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (1996–2011) are presented. The exposure data are either based on midwife interviews towards the end of the first trimester or on linkage with a prescribed drug register. An association between malformations and maternal use of anticonvulsants and notably valproic acid is well known from the literature and also demonstrated in the present study. Some other associations between drug exposure and outcome were found. PMID:24275849

  14. Active transport in dense diffusive single-file systems.

    PubMed

    Illien, P; Bénichou, O; Mejía-Monasterio, C; Oshanin, G; Voituriez, R

    2013-07-19

    We study a minimal model of active transport in crowded single-file environments which generalizes the emblematic model of single-file diffusion to the case when the tracer particle (TP) performs either an autonomous directed motion or is biased by an external force, while all other particles of the environment (bath) perform unbiased diffusions. We derive explicit expressions, valid in the limit of high density of bath particles, of the full distribution P((n))(X) of the TP position and of all its cumulants, for arbitrary values of the bias f and for any time n. Our analysis reveals striking features, such as the anomalous scaling [proportionality] √[n] of all cumulants, the equality of cumulants of the same parity characteristic of a Skellam distribution and a convergence to a Gaussian distribution in spite of asymmetric density profiles of bath particles. Altogether, our results provide the full statistics of the TP position and set the basis for a refined analysis of real trajectories of active particles in crowded single-file environments.

  15. Design of a high-performance telepresence system incorporating an active vision system for enhanced visual perception of remote environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretlove, John R. G.; Asbery, Richard

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the design, development and implementation of a telepresence system for hazardous environment applications. Its primary feature is a high performance active stereo vision system slaved to the motion of the operators head. To simulate the presence of an operator in a remote, hazardous environment, it is necessary to provide sufficient visual information about the remote environment. The operator must be able to interact with the environment so that he can carry out manipulative tasks. To achieve an enhanced sense of visual perception we have developed a tightly integrated pan and tilt stereo vision system with a head-mounted display. The motion of the operators head is monitored by a six DOF sensor which provides the demand signals to servocontrol the active vision system. The system we have developed is a compact yet high performance system employing mechatronic principles to deliver a system that can be mounted on a small mobile platform. We have also developed an open architecture controller to implement the dynamic, active vision system which exhibits dynamic performance characteristics of the human head-eye system so as to form a natural and intuitive interface. A series of tests have been conducted to establish the system latency and to explore the effectiveness of remote 3D human perception, particularly with regard to manipulation tasks and navigation. The results of these tests are presented.

  16. Pattern formation in a (2 + 1)-species activator-inhibitor-immobilizer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John E.

    1992-09-01

    The necessary and sufficient conditions for a Turing instability in a (2 + 1)-component reaction-diffusion system are derived. The 2-component subsystem consists of an arbitrary activator-inhibitor system in which the activator and the inhibitor diffuse at identical rates. The activator reacts with an immobile substrate to form an immobile complex which does not diffuse. It is found that the critical wavenumber and the location of the instability in parameter space are independent of the initial substrate concentration. As a special case, the (2 + 1)-variable activator-inhibitor-immobilizer system can be reduced to an activator-inhibitor system in which the activator diffuses more slowly than the inhibitor. This occurs when the time scales in the system satisfy certain constraints. The general results are applied to a (2 + 1)-variable model of the chlorite-iodide-starch reaction recently proposed by Epstein and Lengyel to explain the experimental observation of Turing patterns in a related system. I find an intrinsic wavelength which is within a factor of two of the experimentally observed wavelength, but the necessary conditions for the (2 + 1)-variable system to reduce to a two-variable activator-inhibitor system with rescaled diffusion coefficients are not satisfied.

  17. The Serum Complement System: A Simplified Laboratory Exercise to Measure the Activity of an Important Component of the Immune System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Jordan E.; Radziwon, Kimberly A.; Maniero, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    The immune system is a vital physiological component that affords animals protection from disease and is composed of innate and adaptive mechanisms that rely on cellular and dissolved components. The serum complement system is a series of dissolved proteins that protect against a variety of pathogens. The activity of complement in serum can be…

  18. Effect of knowledge integration activities on students' perception of the earth's crust as a cyclic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    2003-08-01

    Systems thinking is regarded as a high-order thinking skill required in scientific, technological, and everyday domains. However, little is known about systems thinking in the context of science education. In the current research, students' understanding of the rock cycle system after a learning program was characterized, and the effect of a concluding knowledge integration activity on their systems thinking was studied. Answers to an open-ended test were interpreted using a systems thinking continuum, ranging from a completely static view of the system to an understanding of the system's cyclic nature. A meaningful improvement in students' views of the rock cycle toward the higher side of the systems thinking continuum was found after the knowledge integration activity. Students became more aware of the dynamic and cyclic nature of the rock cycle, and their ability to construct sequences of processes representing material transformation in relatively large chunks significantly improved. Success of the knowledge integration activity stresses the importance of postknowledge acquisition activities, which engage students in a dual process of differentiation of their knowledge and reintegration in a systems context. We suggest including such activities in curricula involving systems-based contents, particularly in earth science, in which systems thinking can bring about environmental literacy.

  19. Our Bodies, Our Cells: Children's Activities in Body Systems. Children's Activity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Marilyn

    The supplemental teaching resources provided in this book offer a variety of concrete, visual activities designed to help classroom and daycare center teachers introduce children to the human body and the way it is organized. An analogy comparing human body parts to house parts is used throughout the book to make lessons clear and age-appropriate.…

  20. Activity Theory and the New Literacy Studies: Modelling the Literacy Learning Activity System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostogriz, Alexander

    This paper explores a number of implications arising from the combination of the New Literacy Studies and cultural-historical psychology--in particular, the concept of literacy as social practice and the psychological category of activity. Placing "social" at the center of literacy and psychological studies, these two perspectives are fruitfully…

  1. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  2. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  3. High Temperature Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanically actuated blade tip clearance control concept was evaluated in a nonrotating test rig to quantify secondary seal leakage at elevated temperatures. These tests were conducted to further investigate the feasibility of actively controlling the clearance between the rotor blade tips and the surrounding shroud seal in the high pressure turbine (HPT) section of a turbine engine. The test environment simulates the state of the back side of the HPT shroud seal with pressure differentials as high as 120 psig and temperatures up to 1000 F. As expected, static secondary seal leakage decreased with increasing temperature. At 1000 F, the test rig's calculated effective clearance (at 120 psig test pressure) was 0.0003 in., well within the industry specified effective clearance goal.

  4. Denitrification kinetics in anoxic/aerobic activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, G.M.

    1998-12-11

    Nitrogen removal needs at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have increased due to greater concerns about eutrophication and increased interest in reuse of treated municipal effluents. Biological processes are the most cost-effective method for nitrogen removal. Biological nitrogen removal is accomplished in two distinctly different processes by the conversion of nitrogen in the wastewater from organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate, followed by reduction of the nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrate production occurs in an aerobic activated sludge treatment zone during a process called nitrification. The nitrate is then converted through a series of intermediate steps to nitrogen gas in an anoxic zone (an anaerobic condition with nitrate present) during a process called denitrification, effectively removing the nitrogen from the wastewater. Many different WWTP designs have been developed to incorporate these two conditions for nitrogen removal.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH ACTIVITY, CATALYTIC SYSTEMS FOR NOx REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    This project was directed at an investigation of catalytic NO{sub x} reduction on carbonaceous supports at low temperatures. The experimental work was conducted primarily in a packed bed reactor/gas flow system that was constructed for this work. The analytical techniques employed were mass spectrometry, NO{sub x} chemiluminescence, and gas chromatography. The experimental plan was focused on steady-state reactivity experiments, followed by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of surface intermediates, and also selected temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) experiments. Both uncatalyzed and catalyzed (potassium-promoted) phenolic resin char, were investigated as well as the catalytic effect of additional CO in the gas phase.

  6. Analytical formulation of selected activities of the remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, K. J.

    1977-01-01

    Existing analysis of Orbiter-RMS-Payload kinematics were surveyed, including equations dealing with the two body kinematics in the presence of a massless RMS and compares analytical explicit solutions with numerical solutions. For the following operational phases of the RMS numerical demonstration, problems are provided: (1) payload capture; (2) payload stowage and removal from cargo bay; and (3) payload deployment. The equation of motion provided accounted for RMS control forces and torque moments and could be extended to RMS flexibility and control loop simulation without increasing the degrees of freedom of the two body system.

  7. Mastering tricyclic ring systems for desirable functional cannabinoid activity

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Ravil R.; Knight, Lindsay; Chen, Shao-Rui; Wager-Miller, Jim; McDaniel, Steven W.; Diaz, Fanny; Barth, Francis; Pan, Hui-Lin; Mackie, Ken; Cavasotto, Claudio N.; Diaz, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in using cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists for the treatment of neuropathic pain and other indications. In continuation of our ongoing program aiming for the development of new small molecule cannabinoid ligands, we have synthesized a novel series of carbazole and γ-carboline derivatives. The affinities of the newly synthesized compounds were determined by a competitive radioligand displacement assay for human CB2 cannabinoid receptor and rat CB1 cannabinoid receptor. Functional activity and selectivity at human CB1 and CB2 receptors were characterized using receptor internalization and [35S]GTP-γ-S assays. The structure-activity relationship and optimization studies of the carbazole series have led to the discovery of a non-selective CB1 and CB2 agonist, compound 4. Our subsequent research efforts to increase CB2 selectivity of this lead compound have led to the discovery of CB2 selective compound 64, which robustly internalized CB2 receptors. Compound 64 had potent inhibitory effects on pain hypersensitivity in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Other potent and CB2 receptor–selective compounds, including compounds 63 and 68, and a selective CB1 agonist, compound 74 were also discovered. In addition, we identified the CB2 ligand 35 which failed to promote CB2 receptor internalization and inhibited compound CP55,940-induced CB2 internalization despite a high CB2 receptor affinity. The present study provides novel tricyclic series as a starting point for further investigations of CB2 pharmacology and pain treatment. PMID:24125850

  8. A compact muon tracking system for didactic and outreach activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, R.; Candela, A.; Conicella, V.; De Deo, M.; D` Incecco, M.; Sablone, D.; Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Pazos Clemens, L.; Franchi, G.; d`Inzeo, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present a cosmic ray telescope based on the use of plastic scintillator bars coupled to ASD-RGB1S-M Advansid Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) through wavelength shifter fibers. The system is comprised of 200 electronic channels organized into 10 couples of orthogonal planes allowing the 3D reconstruction of crossing muons. Two monolithic PCB boards have been designed to bias, readout all the SiPMs enclosed in the system, to monitor the working parameters and to remotely connect the detector. To make easier the display of muon tracks to non-expert users, two LED matrices, triggered by particle interactions, have been implemented. To improve the usability of the muon telescope, a controller board unit permits to select different levels of trigger and allows data acquisition for refined analyses for the more proficient user. A first prototype, funded by INFN and deployed in collaboration with NYUAD, is operating at the Toledo Metro station of Naples, while two further detectors will be developed and installed in Abu Dhabi in the next few months.

  9. Controlling Spatiotemporal Chaos in Active Dissipative-Dispersive Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Susana; Pradas, Marc; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Pavliotis, Grigorios

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel generic methodology for the stabilization and control of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems exhibiting low-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. The methodology is exemplified with the generalized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, the simplest possible prototype that retains that fundamental elements of any nonlinear process involving wave evolution. The equation is applicable on a wide variety of systems including falling liquid films and plasma waves with dispersion due to finite banana width. We show that applying the appropriate choice of time-dependent feedback controls via blowing and suction, we are able to stabilize and/or control all stable or unstable solutions, including steady solutions, travelling waves and spatiotemporal chaos, but also use the controls obtained to stabilize the solutions to more general long wave models. We acknowledge financial support from Imperial College through a Roth PhD studentship, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK through Grants No. EP/H034587, EP/J009636, EP/K041134, EP/L020564 and EP/L024926 and European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  10. Operation Safety Activities for JEM System and Payload Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Satomi; Iwata, Yoshihiro; Kato, Mitsuyasu

    2010-09-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module(JEM), "KIBO", which is a part of the International Space Station(ISS) is the first Japanese manned space experimental facility. JEM system and payloads have made the birth of an era of operation. The JAXA Human Space S&MA(JAXA S&MA) assures safety of JEM module and JAXA payloads not only during assembly phase but also operation phase. During the safety critical operation for JEM system and payloads, JAXA S&MA is on ESR S&MA console to monitor the operation related to safety. Safety check list is made for each safety critical task to identify the useful information such as hazard control, operational constraints and flight rules, and so on. It is a support tool for JAXA S&MA to monitor the operation overall. JAXA S&MA has the responsibility of assessing the safety related updates or changes of operational documents. JAXA S&MA will continue to support the JEM operation as long as the operation is continued.

  11. Detection of lowland flooding using active microwave systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsby, J. P.; Blanchard, B.J.; Blanchard, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    The development of radar systems with longer wavelenths (greater than 3 cm) has provided new possibilities regarding the utilization of radar. Thus, it has been found that the interpretation of data from radar images can be a valuable classification aid for applications related to water resources. In the case of an interpreter accustomed to photographic or visible/infrared images, an evaluation of radar images presents some problems, because the radar is sensing a set of surface characteristics which have little influence on visible/infrared systems. Detectable features in radar images caused by differences in dielectric properties are usually associated with the water content of either soils or vegetation. The present paper is concerned with studies which were initiated in 1976. The studies had the objective to define the magnitude of the effects on radar data caused by flood waters under vegetation. The obtained results indicate the feasibility to detect flood conditions beneath a forest canopy, and to obtain an improved definition of the land-water boundary.

  12. Verification of static rotor-load measurement capabilities of the RSRA helicopter active-isolator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft helicopter technology demonstration test bed incorporates an active isolator system which reduces the rotor vibrations that are transmitted to the airframe and allows the simultaneous measurement of all six forces and moments generated by the rotor. The first full system calibration was performed in 1983 to verify the system's static load measurement capabilities; the analysis of the data encompassed multiple linear regressions to determine calibration matrices for different data sets, and a hysteresis removal algorithm for the estimation of in-flight measurement errors. The results obtained indicate that the active isolator system meets most performance predictions.

  13. A Bioluminescence Assay System for Imaging Metal Cationic Activities in Urban Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Murata, Shingo; Nakayama, Takayoshi; Miller, Simon; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A bioluminescence-based assay system was fabricated for an efficient determination of the activities of air pollutants. The following four components were integrated into this assay system: (1) an 8-channel assay platform uniquely designed for simultaneously sensing multiple optical samples, (2) single-chain probes illuminating toxic chemicals or heavy metal cations from air pollutants, (3) a microfluidic system for circulating medium mimicking the human body, and (4) the software manimulating the above system. In the protocol, we briefly introduce how to integrate the components into the system and the application to the illumination of the metal cationic activities in air pollutants. PMID:27424913

  14. A Bioluminescence Assay System for Imaging Metal Cationic Activities in Urban Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Murata, Shingo; Nakayama, Takayoshi; Miller, Simon; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A bioluminescence-based assay system was fabricated for an efficient determination of the activities of air pollutants. The following four components were integrated into this assay system: (1) an 8-channel assay platform uniquely designed for simultaneously sensing multiple optical samples, (2) single-chain probes illuminating toxic chemicals or heavy metal cations from air pollutants, (3) a microfluidic system for circulating medium mimicking the human body, and (4) the software manimulating the above system. In the protocol, we briefly introduce how to integrate the components into the system and the application to the illumination of the metal cationic activities in air pollutants.

  15. Current Research Activities in Drive System Technology in Support of the NASA Rotorcraft Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Drive system technology is a key area for improving rotorcraft performance, noise/vibration reduction, and reducing operational and manufacturing costs. An overview of current research areas that support the NASA Rotorcraft Program will be provided. Work in drive system technology is mainly focused within three research areas: advanced components, thermal behavior/emergency lubrication system operation, and diagnostics/prognostics (also known as Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS)). Current research activities in each of these activities will be presented. Also, an overview of the conceptual drive system requirements and possible arrangements for the Heavy Lift Rotorcraft program will be reviewed.

  16. Active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system for precision measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kang; Li, Gang; Hu, Hua; Wang, Lijun

    2016-06-01

    Low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play important roles in precision measurements to reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise. Several types of active vibration isolation systems have been developed. However, few researches focus on how to optimize the test mass install position in order to improve the vibration transmissibility. An active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system based on an earlier instrument, the Super Spring, is designed and implemented. The system, which is simple and compact, consists of two stages: a parallelogram-shaped linkage to ensure vertical motion, and a simple spring-mass system. The theoretical analysis of the vibration isolation system is presented, including terms erroneously ignored before. By carefully choosing the mechanical parameters according to the above analysis and using feedback control, the resonance frequency of the system is reduced from 2.3 to 0.03 Hz, a reduction by a factor of more than 75. The vibration isolation system is installed as an inertial reference in an absolute gravimeter, where it improved the scatter of the absolute gravity values by a factor of 5. The experimental results verifies the improved performance of the isolation system, making it particularly suitable for precision experiments. The improved vertical vibration isolation system can be used as a prototype for designing high-performance active vertical isolation systems. An improved theoretical model of this active vibration isolation system with beam-pivot configuration is proposed, providing fundamental guidelines for vibration isolator design and assembling.

  17. 78 FR 6081 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS... U.S. Department of Education will collect data through the National Student Loan Data System...

  18. The Development of Strategic Thinking: Learning to Impact Human Systems in a Youth Activism Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed; Hansen, David

    2005-01-01

    Human systems, including institutional systems and informal social networks, are a major arena of modern life. We argue that distinct forms of pragmatic reasoning or "strategic thinking" are required to exercise agency within such systems. This article explores the development of strategic thinking in a youth activism program in which young people…

  19. Passive and Active Vibrations Allow Self-Organization in Large-Scale Electromechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Carlo Famoso Luigi; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the role of passive and active vibrations for the control of nonlinear large-scale electromechanical systems is investigated. The mathematical model of the system is discussed and detailed experimental results are shown in order to prove that coupling the effects of feedback and vibrations elicited by proper control signals makes possible to regularize imperfect uncertain large-scale systems.

  20. [Research progress of thermal control system for extravehicular activity space suit].

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Q; Shen, L P; Yuan, X G

    1999-08-01

    New research progress of thermal control system for oversea Extravehicular Activity (EVA) space suit is presented. Characteristics of several thermal control systems are analyzed in detail. Some research tendencies and problems are discussed, which are worthwhile to be specially noted. Finally, author's opinion about thermal control system in the future is put forward.