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Sample records for active san jacinto

  1. 76 FR 53695 - Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory Committee; CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Act of 2000 and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of... Agriculture, Forest Service (Forest Service) Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument...

  2. 75 FR 57496 - Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory Committee; California AGENCIES: Bureau of Land... the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Act of 2000 and the Federal Advisory.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Forest Service) Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains...

  3. Mud transport in the Microtidal San Jacinto Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The overall objective of this research is to better understand the sediment transport processes in the microtidal San Jacinto Estuary (near Houston, TX) under variable hydrologic conditions. A numerical modeling approach is selected to answer the main question of; how will changes in freshwater input change the sedimentation pattern of the region? In this computational work, no new numerical method or code is developed, but rather an existing technology (MIKE 3D developed by DHI) is used to build a virtual San Jacinto Estuary laboratory where boundary conditions could be applied and altered to the domain to observe the general functional response of the system. Two synthetic freshwater inflows, simulating dry and wet conditions, were used in the numerical modeling experiments. Simulations showed that change in freshwater inflow has major impact on the salinity magnitude within the estuary. In dry conditions, the 5 ppt isohaline traveled all the way upstream of Morgans Point, almost to the confluence of San Jacinto River with Buffalo Bayou. During the extreme wet weather conditions, the 5 ppt isohaline of the surface water was pushed almost as far as Galveston Island. Overall erosion and deposition pattern showed little change between extreme dry and wet years. In general, part of the shallow areas experienced erosion whereas deeper parts of the estuary were under deposition. High freshwater inflow caused around 30% higher deposition in some parts of the channel compared with the low freshwater. Furthermore, examining the mass balance within the whole San Jacinto Estuary showed that around 28% of the input sediment was flushed out during the wet season. But in dry season, not only no sediment left the domain but also it received around 17% of the total available sediment within the estuary from the shelf.

  4. Mud transport in the Microtidal San Jacinto Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, M.; Strom, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of this research is to better understand the sediment transport processes in the microtidal San Jacinto Estuary (near Houston, TX) under variable hydrologic conditions. A numerical modeling approach is selected to answer the main question of; how will changes in freshwater input change the sedimentation pattern of the region? In this computational work, no new numerical method or code is developed, but rather an existing technology (MIKE 3D developed by DHI) is used to build a virtual San Jacinto Estuary laboratory where boundary conditions could be applied and altered to the domain to observe the general functional response of the system. Two synthetic freshwater inflows, simulating dry and wet conditions, were used in the numerical modeling experiments. Simulations showed that change in freshwater inflow has major impact on the salinity magnitude within the estuary. In dry conditions, the 5 ppt isohaline traveled all the way upstream of Morgans Point, almost to the confluence of San Jacinto River with Buffalo Bayou. During the extreme wet weather conditions, the 5 ppt isohaline of the surface water was pushed almost as far as Galveston Island. Overall erosion and deposition pattern showed little change between extreme dry and wet years. In general, part of the shallow areas experienced erosion whereas deeper parts of the estuary were under deposition. High freshwater inflow caused around 30% higher deposition in some parts of the channel compared with the low freshwater. Furthermore, examining the mass balance within the whole San Jacinto Estuary showed that around 28% of the input sediment was flushed out during the wet season. But in dry season, not only no sediment left the domain but also it received around 17% of the total available sediment within the estuary from the shelf.

  5. Recording Plate Boundary Deformation Processes Around The San Jacinto Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K.; Mencin, D.; Borsa, A.; Fox, O.; Walls, C.; Van Boskirk, E.

    2012-04-01

    The San Jacinto Fault is one of the major faults which form the San Andreas Fault System in southern California. The fault, which lies to the west of the San Andreas, is one of the most active in the region. While strain rates are higher along the San Andreas, 23-37 mm/yr compared to 12-22 mm/yr along the San Jacinto, there have been 11 earthquakes of M6 and greater along the San Jacinto in the past 150 years while there have been none of this magnitude on the San Andreas in this region. UNAVCO has installed an array of geodetic and seismic instruments along the San Jacinto as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). The network includes 25 GPS stations within 20 km of the surface trace with a concentration of borehole instrumentation in the Anza region where there are nine boreholes sites. Most of the borehole sites contain a GTSM21 4-component strainmeter, a Sonde-2 seismometer, a MEMS accelerometer and a pore pressure sensor. Thus, the array has the capability to capture plate boundary deformation processes with periods of milliseconds (seismic) to decades (GPS). On July 7th 2010 a M5.4 earthquake occurred on the Coyote Creek segment of the fault. The event was preceded by a M4.9 earthquake in the same area four weeks earlier and four earthquakes of M5 and greater within a 20 km radius of the epicenter in the past 50 years. In this study we will present the signals recorded by the different instrument types for the July 7th 2010 event and will compare the coseismic displacements recorded by the GPS and strainmeters with the displacement field predicted by Okada [1992]. All data recorded as part of the PBO observatory are publically available from the UNAVCO, the IRIS Data Management Center and the Northern California Earthquake Data Center.

  6. 75 FR 34481 - Notice of Reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National...) have reestablished the charter of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...). Certification Statement I hereby certify that the reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto...

  7. A case for historic joint rupture of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults

    PubMed Central

    Lozos, Julian C.

    2016-01-01

    The San Andreas fault is considered to be the primary plate boundary fault in southern California and the most likely fault to produce a major earthquake. I use dynamic rupture modeling to show that the San Jacinto fault is capable of rupturing along with the San Andreas in a single earthquake, and interpret these results along with existing paleoseismic data and historic damage reports to suggest that this has likely occurred in the historic past. In particular, I find that paleoseismic data and historic observations for the ~M7.5 earthquake of 8 December 1812 are best explained by a rupture that begins on the San Jacinto fault and propagates onto the San Andreas fault. This precedent carries the implications that similar joint ruptures are possible in the future and that the San Jacinto fault plays a more significant role in seismic hazard in southern California than previously considered. My work also shows how physics-based modeling can be used for interpreting paleoseismic data sets and understanding prehistoric fault behavior. PMID:27034977

  8. A case for historic joint rupture of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults.

    PubMed

    Lozos, Julian C

    2016-03-01

    The San Andreas fault is considered to be the primary plate boundary fault in southern California and the most likely fault to produce a major earthquake. I use dynamic rupture modeling to show that the San Jacinto fault is capable of rupturing along with the San Andreas in a single earthquake, and interpret these results along with existing paleoseismic data and historic damage reports to suggest that this has likely occurred in the historic past. In particular, I find that paleoseismic data and historic observations for the ~M7.5 earthquake of 8 December 1812 are best explained by a rupture that begins on the San Jacinto fault and propagates onto the San Andreas fault. This precedent carries the implications that similar joint ruptures are possible in the future and that the San Jacinto fault plays a more significant role in seismic hazard in southern California than previously considered. My work also shows how physics-based modeling can be used for interpreting paleoseismic data sets and understanding prehistoric fault behavior. PMID:27034977

  9. A Case for Historic Joint Rupture of the San Andreas and San Jacinto Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozos, J.

    2015-12-01

    The ~M7.5 southern California earthquake of 8 December 1812 ruptured the San Andreas Fault from Cajon Pass to at least as far north as Pallet Creek (Biasi et al., 2002). The 1812 rupture has also been identified in trenches at Burro Flats to the south (Yule and Howland, 2001). However, the lack of a record of 1812 at Plunge Creek, between Cajon Pass and Burro Flats (McGill et al., 2002), complicates the interpretation of this event as a straightforward San Andreas rupture. Paleoseismic records of a large early 19th century rupture on the northern San Jacinto Fault (Onderdonk et al., 2013; Kendrick and Fumal, 2005) allow for alternate interpretations of the 1812 earthquake. I use dynamic rupture modeling on the San Andreas-San Jacinto junction to determine which rupture behaviors produce slip patterns consistent with observations of the 1812 event. My models implement realistic fault geometry, a realistic velocity structure, and stress orientations based on seismicity literature. Under these simple assumptions, joint rupture of the two faults is the most common behavior. My modeling rules out a San Andreas-only rupture that is consistent with the data from the 1812 earthquake, and also shows that single fault events are unable to match the average slip per event for either fault. The choice of nucleation point affects the details of rupture directivity and slip distribution, but not the first order result that multi-fault rupture is the preferred behavior. While it cannot be definitively said that joint San Andreas-San Jacinto rupture occurred in 1812, these results are consistent with paleoseismic and historic data. This has implications for the possibility of future multi-fault rupture within the San Andreas system, as well as for interpretation of other paleoseismic events in regions of complex fault interactions.

  10. Tomographic investigation of the wear along the San Jacinto fault, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Menke, William

    2006-05-01

    The seismic properties of the wear along the San Jacinto fault are investigated using local seismic records for clustered fault-zone earthquakes. Spatial reciprocity allows us to use the seismicity along fault plane to mimic the situation where receiver arrays are placed at depth on the fault plane. A seismic record at the event location is constructed by stacking the original station records. Waveform cross-correlations is then used to calculate the traveltimes of shear waves traveling between the pair of events. We analyze 157 small earthquakes occurring between 1998 and 2004 on the San Jacinto and Elsinore fault zones. Low shear velocities in the San Jacinto fault zone related to wear and gouge are persistently observed up to the depth of brittle-ductile transition zone (˜16 km). On the other hand, low velocities in the Elsinore fault zone are only visible in the northwestern portion at shallow depth. The wear structures in the San Jacinto fault zone display lower shear velocities by 6-8% than those of the wall-rock.

  11. Synchronous Late Quaternary slip rate variability on two strands of the San Jacinto fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, K. N.; Oskin, M.

    2007-12-01

    We present new results that show slip rates varied synchronously by a factor of two over the past 35 kyr along two parallel strands of the San Jacinto fault. Our results combine high-resolution LiDAR digital topography, field mapping and 10Be exposure-age dating from two of the most active strands of the southern San Jacinto fault: the Clark fault (CLF) and Coyote Creek fault (CCF). These faults form numerous NW-striking scarps that offset three generations of Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces, Q2b, Q3a, and Q3b. We dated alluvial fans along both the CCF and CLF using 10Be sampling methods adapted for available material and degradation of the surface. For younger surfaces with well-preserved bar and swale morphology, we used a new sampling method where 12 to 20 chips from quartz-bearing boulders lodged within a bar were amalgamated into a single sample. For older surfaces we either sampled individual meter-sized boulders or collected samples from a 2 m-deep depth profile. Surface ages are consistent between CCF and CLF sites: 40 ± 12 ka and 31 ± 6 ka for Q2b, 7.1 ± 1.6 ka and 4.6 ± 1.6 ka for Q3a, respectively. Samples from Q3b near the CLF yielded ages of 1.0 ± 0.2 ka and 2.1 ± 0.3 ka. CCF samples have not yet been corrected 10Be inheritance, thus we use the CLF ages to calculate preliminary slip rates. Late Pleistocene to present rates are CLF: 2.2 ± 0.5 mm/yr, CCF: 3.4 ± 0.9 mm/yr, and 5.6 ± 1.4 mm/yr combined. Mid-Holocene to present rates are CLF: 4.1 ± 1.5 mm/yr, CCF: 6.7 ± 2.8 mm/yr, and 10.9 ± 4.3 mm/yr combined. Latest Holocene CLF slip rate exceeds 3 mm/yr. The combined Late Pleistocene to present slip rate for the southern San Jacinto fault is less than one third the rate deduced from the onset of faulting ca. 1 Ma. Mid-Holocene to present slip rates for both the CLF and CCF are about double their ca. 35 kyr rates, but are less than the 16 - 20 mm/yr geodetic loading rates and the >16 mm/yr slip rate since 1 ka at Hog Lake. We conclude that (1

  12. Spatial and temporal deformation along the northern San Jacinto fault, southern California: Implications for slip rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendrick, K.J.; Morton, D.M.; Wells, S.G.; Simpson, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The San Timoteo badlands is an area of uplift and erosional dissection that has formed as a result of late Quaternary uplift along a restraining bend in the San Jacinto fault, of the San Andreas fault system in southern California. This bend currently is located in a region where late Quaternary deposits and associated surfaces have formed in lower San Timoteo Canyon. We have used morphometric analysis of these surfaces, in conjunction with computer modeling of deformational patterns along the San Jacinto fault, to reconstruct spatial and temporal variations in uplift along the bend. Morphometric techniques used include envelope/subenvelope mapping, a gradient-length index along channels, and denudation values. Age control is determined using a combination of thermoluminescence (TL) and near infrared optical simulation luminescence dating (IROSL) and correlation of soil-development indices. These approaches are combined with an elastic half-space model used to determine the deformation associated with the fault bend. The region of modeled uplift has a similar distribution as that determined by morphometric techniques. Luminescence dates and soil-correlation age estimates generally agree. Based on soil development, surfaces within the study area were stabilized at approximately 300-700 ka for Q3, 43-67 ka for Q2, and 27.5-67 ka for Q1. Luminescence ages (both TL and IROSL) for the formation of the younger two surfaces are 58 to 94 ka for Q2 and 37 to 62 ka for Q1 (ages reported to 1?? uncertainty). Periods of uplift were determined for the surfaces in the study area, resulting in approximate uplift rates of 0.34 to 0.84 m/ka for the past 100 ka and 0.13 to 1.00 m/ka for the past 66 ka. Comparison of these rates of uplift to those generated by the model support a higher rate of lateral slip along the San Jacinto fault than commonly assumed (greater than 20 mm/yr, as compared to 8-12 mm/yr commonly cited). This higher slip rate supports the proposal that a greater

  13. Temporal and spatial late Quaternary slip rate variability on the southern San Jacinto fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, K.; Oskin, M.; Rockwell, T.; Owen, L.

    2008-12-01

    The history of the San Jacinto fault in accommodating Pacific-North America plate motion illustrates how deformation is partitioned in time and space across transform fault systems. We present new slip rate results from alluvial fans displaced by two parallel strands of the southern San Jacinto fault zone: the Clark and Coyote Creek faults. Alluvial fans were mapped in the field with 'B4' LiDAR imagery and dated using cosmogenic 10Be. We find that slip rates 1) varied synchronously by a factor of two over the past ~35 kyr and 2) change significantly along strike as slip is transferred southwestward from the Clark fault to the Coyote Creek fault. 35 ka to present average dextral slip rates for the Clark fault are 5.4 ± 2.2 mm/yr at the Rockhouse Canyon and 1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr farther southeast, near the southern Santa Rosa Mountains. Over the same time period, the slip rate for the Coyote Creek fault is 2.9 ± 1.0 mm/yr. This yields a combined average slip-rate of 8.3 ± 2.2 mm/yr for the San Jacinto fault zone over the past ~35 kyr. Mid-Holocene to present rates are significantly faster along both fault strands. Displaced ~3-4 ka alluvial fans show that the Clark fault slips at a rate of 7.3 ± 1.8 mm/yr at Rockhouse Canyon and 3.9 ± 1.4 mm/yr at the southern Santa Rosa Mountians. Along the Coyote Creek fault the slip rate is 8.6 ± 2.9 mm/yr over the past ~3 ka. The combined Holocene rate of 15.9 ± 4.7 mm/yr is consistent with geodetic slip-rate estimates of 15 to 21 mm/yr for the San Jacinto fault zone. The apparently synchronous variation of slip-rate along both strands of the San Jacinto fault suggests that the rate of loading across the fault zone has varied significantly over the past ~35 kyr.

  14. A seismic refraction and reflection study across the central San Jacinto Basin, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, T.-C.; Biehler, S.; Park, S.K.; Stephenson, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The San Jacinto Basin is a northwest-trending, pullapart basin in the San Jacinto fault zone of the San Andreas fault system in southern California. About 24 km long and 2 to 4 km wide, the basin sits on a graben bounded by two strands of the San Jacinto fault zone: the Claremont Fault on the northeast and the Casa Loma Fault on the southwest. We present a case study of shallow structure (less than 1 km) in the central basin. A 2.75-km refraction line running from the northeast to southwest across the regional structural trend reveals a groundwater barrier (Offset I). Another line, bent southward and continued for 1.65-km, shows a crystalline basement offset (Offset III) near an inferred trace of the Casa Loma Fault. Although a basement refractor was not observed along the 2.75-km line, a mismatch between the estimate of its minimum depth and the basement depth determined for the 1.65-km line suggests that an offset in the basement (greater than 260 m) exists around the junction of the two refraction lines (Offset II). By revealing more faults and subtle sedimentary structures, the reflection stack sections confirm the two refraction offsets as faults. Offsets I and III each separate sediments of contrasting structures and, in addition. Offset III disrupts an unconformity. However, the sense and amount of the offset across Offset III contradict what may be expected across the Casa Loma Fault, which has its basinward basement down-thrown to about 2.5 km in the better defined southeastern part of the graben. The Casa Loma Fault trace has been mislinked in the existing geological maps and the trace should be remapped to Offset II where the reflector disruptions spread over a 400-m wide zone. Our Offset III is an unnamed, concealed fault.

  15. Seismic Imaging of the San Jacinto Fault Zone Area From Seismogenic Depth to the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-12-01

    I review multi-scale multi-signal seismological results on structural properties within and around the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ). The results are based on data of the regional southern California and ANZA networks, additional near-fault seismometers and linear arrays with instrument spacing 25-50 m that cross the SJFZ at several locations, and a spatially-dense rectangular array with 1108 vertical-component sensors separated by 10-30 m centered on the fault. The studies utilize earthquake data to derive Vp and Vs velocity models with horizontal resolution of 1-2 km over the depth section 2-15 km, ambient noise with frequencies up to 1 Hz to image with similar horizontal resolution the depth section 0.5-7 km, and high-frequency seismic noise from the linear and rectangular arrays for high-resolution imaging of the top 0.5 km. Pronounced damage regions with low seismic velocities and anomalous Vp/Vs ratios are observed around the SJFZ, as well as the San Andreas and Elsinore faults. The damage zones follow generally a flower-shape with depth. The section of the SJFZ from Cajon pass to the San Jacinto basin has a faster SW side, while the section farther to the SE has an opposite velocity contrast with faster NE side. The damage zones and velocity contrasts produce at various locations fault zone trapped and head waves that are utilized to obtain high-resolution information on inner fault zone components (bimaterial interfaces, trapping structures). Analyses of high-frequency noise recorded by the fault zone arrays reveal complex shallow material with very low seismic velocities and strong lateral and vertical variations.

  16. Pleistocene Brawley and Ocotillo Formations: Evidence for initial strike-slip deformation along the San Felipe and San Jacinto fault zonez, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.M.; Janecke, S.U.; Dorsey, R.J.; Housen, B.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; McDougall, K.A.; Steeley, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the Pleistocene tectonic reorganization of the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the Salton Trough of southern California with an integrated approach that includes basin analysis, magnetostratigraphy, and geologic mapping of upper Pliocene to Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the San Felipe Hills. These deposits preserve the earliest sedimentary record of movement on the San Felipe and San Jacinto fault zones that replaced and deactivated the late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault. Sandstone and mudstone of the Brawley Formation accumulated between ???1.1 and ???0.6-0.5 Ma in a delta on the margin of an arid Pleistocene lake, which received sediment from alluvial fans of the Ocotillo Formation to the west-southwest. Our analysis indicates that the Ocotillo and Brawley formations prograded abruptly to the east-northeast across a former mud-dominated perennial lake (Borrego Formation) at ???1.1 Ma in response to initiation of the dextral-oblique San Felipe fault zone. The ???25-km-long San Felipe anticline initiated at about the same time and produced an intrabasinal basement-cored high within the San Felipe-Borrego basin that is recorded by progressive unconformities on its north and south limbs. A disconformity at the base of the Brawley Formation in the eastern San Felipe Hills probably records initiation and early blind slip at the southeast tip of the Clark strand of the San Jacinto fault zone. Our data are consistent with abrupt and nearly synchronous inception of the San Jacinto and San Felipe fault zones southwest of the southern San Andreas fault in the early Pleistocene during a pronounced southwestward broadening of the San Andreas fault zone. The current contractional geometry of the San Jacinto fault zone developed after ???0.5-0.6 Ma during a second, less significant change in structural style. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Precariously Balanced Rocks, Historic Records And Paleoseismology To Constrain Rupture Patterns And Rupture Potential Of The San Andreas And San Jacinto Faults In The Los Angeles Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant Ludwig, L.; Brune, J. N.

    2010-12-01

    The San Andreas fault (SAF) has been identified as the likely source of a future damaging earthquake that could threaten millions of California residents, and the southern half of the fault has been identified as a likely candidate for rupture because it appears to be loaded with accumulated strain. Forecasts of future large earthquakes on the southern SAF and estimates of co-seismic slip depend critically on the slip rate and date of last rupture. The earliest historically documented rupture of the southern SAF occurred on December 8th and/or 21st, 1812 A.D., as recorded by early California missionaries, and confirmed by tree ring studies at Wrightwood, California. Prior to the tree ring study, the sequence of earthquakes in December 1812 was attributed to the Newport-Inglewood fault and/or another fault offshore of southern California, to explain the collapse of a church at Mission San Juan Capistrano and a tsunami near Mission Santa Barbara. Competing rupture models have been proposed to fit the sparse historic accounts of shaking recorded at the Missions, and sparse paleoseismic data from trenches excavated across the San Andreas and other southern California faults. Confirmation of proposed rupture patterns has been elusive because dates of surface ruptures observed in trenches at several locations along the SAF either cannot be resolved to 1812 due to uncertainty in radiocarbon dating, or preclude rupture. One possibility is that the 1812 earthquake ruptured both the SAF in Wrightwood and the northern San Jacinto fault in the Cajon Pass and San Bernardino Valley. Active traces of the faults are less than 2 km apart in Cajon Pass and it is well documented that ruptures can propagate between fault strands up to several kilometers apart. Here we propose that the distribution of fragile semi-precarious and precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) in the western San Bernardino Mountains is inconsistent with accepted rupture models for the 1812 earthquake. To better fit

  18. A reservoir engineering assessment of the San Jacinto-Tizate Geothermal Field, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Ostapenko, S.; Spektor, S.; Davila, H.; Porras, E.; Perez, M.

    1996-01-24

    More than twenty yews have passed since geothermal research and drilling took place at the geothermal fields in Nicaragua- Tbe well horn Momotombo Geothermal Field (70 We) has been generating electricity since 1983, and now a new geothermal field is under exploration. the San Jacinto-Tizate. Two reservoirs hydraulic connected were found. The shallow reservoir (270°C) at the depth of 550 - 1200 meters, and the deep one at > 1600 meters. Both of theme are water dominated reservoirs, although a two phase condition exist in the upper part of the shallow one. Different transient tests and a multi-well interference test have been carried out, very high transmissivity value were estimated around the well SJ-4 and average values for the others. A preliminar conceptual model of the geothermal system is given in this paper, as the result of the geology, geophysics, hydrology studies, drilling and reservoir evaluation.

  19. Variable rates of late Quaternary strike slip on the San Jacinto fault zone, southern California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    3 strike slip displacements of strata with known approximate ages have been measured at 2 locations on the San Jacinto fault zone. Minimum horizontal offset between 5.7 and 8.6km in no more than 0.73Myr NE of Anza indicates 8-12 mm/yr average slip rate since late Pleistocene time. Horizontal slip of 1.7m has been calculated for the youngest sediment of Lake Cahuilla since its deposition 271- 510 yr BP. The corresponding slip rate is 2.8-5.0 mm/yr. Right lateral offset of 10.9m measured on a buried stream channel older than 5060 yr BP but younger than 6820 yr BP yields average slip rates for the intermediate time periods, 400 to 6000 yr BP of 1-2 mm/yr. The rates of slip suggest a relatively quiescent period from about 4000 BC to about 1600 AD.-from Author

  20. Shallow seismic trapping structure in the San Jacinto fault zone near Anza, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, M. A.; Peng, Z.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Vernon, F. L.

    2005-09-01

    We analyse fault zone trapped waves, generated by ~500 small earthquakes, for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface structure of the Coyote Creek, Clark Valley and Buck Ridge branches of the San Jacinto fault zone near Anza, California. Based on a small number of selected trapped waves within this data set, a previous study concluded on the existence of a low-velocity waveguide that is continuous to a depth of 15-20 km. In contrast, our systematic analysis of the larger data set indicates a shallow trapping structure that extends only to a depth of 3-5 km. This is based on the following lines of evidence. (1) Earthquakes clearly outside these fault branches generate fault zone trapped waves that are recorded by stations within the fault zones. (2) A traveltime analysis of the difference between the direct S arrivals and trapped wave groups shows no systematic increase (moveout) with increasing hypocentral distance or event depth. Estimates based on the observed average moveout values indicate that the propagation distances within the low-velocity fault zone layers are 3-5 km. (3) Quantitative waveform inversions of trapped wave data indicate similar short propagation distances within the low-velocity fault zone layers. The results are compatible with recent inferences on shallow trapping structures along several other faults and rupture zones. The waveform inversions also indicate that the shallow trapping structures are offset to the northeast from the surface trace of each fault branch. This may result from a preferred propagation direction of large earthquake ruptures on the San Jacinto fault.

  1. Modeling spatio-temporal variations of seismicity in the San Jacinto Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zöller, G.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate spatio-temporal properties of earthquake patterns in the San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ), California, between Cajon Pass and the Superstition Hill Fault, using long records of simulated seismicity constrained by available data. The model provides an effective realization (e.g. Ben-Zion 1996; Zöller et al. 2007) of a large segmented strike-slip fault zone in 3D elastic half space, with heterogeneous distributions of static/kinetic friction and creep properties, and boundary conditions consisting of constant velocity motion around the fault. The computational section of the fault contains small brittle slip patches which fail during earthquakes and may undergo some creep deformation between events. The creep rates increase to the end points of the computational section and with depth. Two significant offsets of the SJFZ at San Jacinto Valley and Coyote Ridge are modeled by strength heterogeneities. The simulated catalogs are compared to the seismicity recorded at the SJFZ since 1932 and to recently reported results on paleoearthquakes at sites along the SJFZ at Hog Lake (HL) and Mystic Lake (ML) in the last 1500 years (e.g. Onderdonk et al., 2012; Rockwell et al., 2012). We address several questions including the following intriguing issue raised by the available paleoseismological data: are large earthquakes with signatures in ML and HL typically correlated? In particular: is a typical paleoevent in HL an incomplete rupture that is continued later in ML, and vice versa? The simulation results provide insights on the statistical significance of these and other patterns, and the ability of the SJFZ to produce large earthquakes which have not been observed in recent decades.

  2. Waveform cross-correlation and relocations for seismic events in the San Jacinto Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galipchak, E.; Kurzon, I.; Vernon, F.; Pavlis, G. L.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a new approach for the relocation of local seismic events using waveform cross-correlation and automatic detection algorithm. This approach is developed and implemented for the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ), where recent cross-correlation and double-difference relocation methods (e.g., Hauksson et al. 2011) account up to ~75% of the seismic events, due to the complex nature of the SJFZ. The fault zone complexity features include a mismatch between the fault traces and seismicity clusters and strong heterogeneity of focal mechanisms. Our goal is to develop an efficient relocation method in which ~90% of the seismic events would be considered. The 'dbxcor' tool of the Antelope software package (e.g., Pavlis & Vernon 2010) is a graphic cross-correlation method involving an active reviewing of the cross-correlation process by a seismic analyst. The method is adjusted here for the analysis of local events from the original algorithm developed mainly for the processing of teleseismic events. The advantage of this approach is that the analyst may keep many of the waveforms that would have been dropped out due to the cross-correlation threshold, thereby increasing the percentage of events considered in the process. Moreover, the method allows an interactive demonstration and identification of different nearby source mechanisms, thus helping to examine the heterogeneity of the fault zone. A pre-request of the cross-correlation algorithm is the existence of arrivals for each waveform in the process. This required tuning a set of efficient automated detectors for grasping the specific nature of seismicity in the SJFZ. Applying such detectors we manage to increase the catalogue by up to 40% of additional events not reviewed previously by analysts. This improvement allows incorporating not only more events into the relocation process, but also additional stations, which were missed by previous automatic or manual picking of P and S arrivals. The relocated events

  3. Damage asymmetry from hydro-geomorphic signals along the trifurcation area of the San- Jacinto Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wechsler, N.; Rockwell, T. K.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2007-12-01

    An important earthquake research topic is the question of whether there are geological controls on rupture propagation direction. A persistent preferred propagation direction should produce asymmetric damage structure that is recorded in the volume of rock surrounding a fault, and there may be geomorphic manifestations on active faults that can be recognized and analyzed in a quantitative fashion. The San-Jacinto Fault (SJF) is one of the most active faults in southern California, with well expressed geomorphology, a fast geologic slip rate, and a strong GPS strain signal. We use standard morphometric analysis to detect the damage asymmetry across a part of the SJF in the trifurcation area where the Clark, Coyote-Creek and Buck-Ridge segments meet. The analysis is done at two scales: 1. Small scale DEM with 30m per pixel resolution derived from SRTM data. 2. Large scale DEM with 1m per pixel resolution derived from LIDAR data, covering the fault at ~1 km width. The geomorphic analysis is done using the GIS software ArcMap and the TauDEM tool box. We compare several morphometric parameters (drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, bifurcation ratio, ruggedness number, hypsometric integral) for drainages on both sides of the fault. North of the trifurcation point, the north-east side of the fault is more damaged, in agreement with Dor el at (2006) and Lewis et al (2005), but south of the trifurcation the situation is reversed. A number of factors can affect the results of the morphometric analysis, including the proximity of several fault strands, a restraining bend on the main strand, and different lithologies on the two sides of the fault. The current results are not conclusive since the morphometric analysis depends on various additional factors, such as different slopes, rates of erosion, vegetation, etc., that were only partially accounted for. Nevertheless, these preliminary results on reversed damage asymmetry suggest that large earthquakes on the

  4. Does the slip rate of the San Jacinto fault vary along strike? Constraints from campaign GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, J. P.; Funning, G.

    2013-12-01

    Does the slip rate of the San Jacinto fault vary along strike? Constraints from campaign GPS data Conrad, JP Jconr003@ucr.edu Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA Funning, G J gareth@ucr.edu Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA The historically active San Jacinto fault (SJF) is major component of the plate boundary fault system in southern California. In close proximity to large population centers in California's Inland Empire, the loss of life and property damage that from a large earthquake along the SJF is potentially great. As the SJF is a relatively young fault, morphologically, it is made up of numerous discontinuous strands and segments, leading to disparate geologic slip rates and complicating their estimation. In the most recent Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, the modeled slip rates for the northern SJF are variable, from 6.0 mm/yr on the San Bernardino section to 14.8 mm/yr in Anza [Field et al., 2009]. Since fault slip rates control the accumulation of moment deficit on a fault, such a reduction should correspond with a proportional reduction in seismic hazard. The San Bernardino segment slip rate was lowered from the previous UCERF forecast and is a factor of 1/3 less than the segment immediately south of it, yet no new data was introduced to substantiate this change. With velocity fields modeled from GPS data collected over 25 years we will validate whether GPS velocities are consistent with the UCERF 2 slip rates. To accomplish this, we process data from over 100 continuous and survey GPS sites with epochs from 1995 to 2013 within the Western United States. Data sources include locally collected data from previous and current UC Riverside campaigns, as well as campaign data archived at the Southern California Earthquake Center, UNAVCO, and SOPAC and continuous data from the IGS and Plate Boundary Observatory. Site positions are estimated using GAMIT 10.5 in the ITRF 2008

  5. Strike-slip fault propagation and linkage via work optimization with application to the San Jacinto fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, E. H.; McBeck, J.; Cooke, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Over multiple earthquake cycles, strike-slip faults link to form through-going structures, as demonstrated by the continuous nature of the mature San Andreas fault system in California relative to the younger and more segmented San Jacinto fault system nearby. Despite its immaturity, the San Jacinto system accommodates between one third and one half of the slip along the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. It therefore poses a significant seismic threat to southern California. Better understanding of how the San Jacinto system has evolved over geologic time and of current interactions between faults within the system is critical to assessing this seismic hazard accurately. Numerical models are well suited to simulating kilometer-scale processes, but models of fault system development are challenged by the multiple physical mechanisms involved. For example, laboratory experiments on brittle materials show that faults propagate and eventually join (hard-linkage) by both opening-mode and shear failure. In addition, faults interact prior to linkage through stress transfer (soft-linkage). The new algorithm GROW (GRowth by Optimization of Work) accounts for this complex array of behaviors by taking a global approach to fault propagation while adhering to the principals of linear elastic fracture mechanics. This makes GROW a powerful tool for studying fault interactions and fault system development over geologic time. In GROW, faults evolve to minimize the work (or energy) expended during deformation, thereby maximizing the mechanical efficiency of the entire system. Furthermore, the incorporation of both static and dynamic friction allows GROW models to capture fault slip and fault propagation in single earthquakes as well as over consecutive earthquake cycles. GROW models with idealized faults reveal that the initial fault spacing and the applied stress orientation control fault linkage propensity and linkage patterns. These models allow the gains in

  6. Geophysical and isotopic mapping of preexisting crustal structures that influenced the location and development of the San Jacinto fault zone, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; Morton, D.M.; Kistler, R.W.; Matti, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the role of preexisting crustal structure within the Peninsular Ranges batholith on determining the location of the San Jacinto fault zone by analysis of geophysical anomalies and initial strontium ratio data. A 1000-km-long boundary within the Peninsular Ranges batholith, separating relatively mafic, dense, and magnetic rocks of the western Peninsular Ranges batholith from the more felsic, less dense, and weakly magnetic rocks of the eastern Peninsular Ranges batholith, strikes north-northwest toward the San Jacinto fault zone. Modeling of the gravity and magnetic field anomalies caused by this boundary indicates that it extends to depths of at least 20 km. The anomalies do not cross the San Jacinto fault zone, but instead trend northwesterly and coincide with the fault zone. A 75-km-long gradient in initial strontium ratios (Sri) in the eastern Peninsular Ranges batholith coincides with the San Jacinto fault zone. Here rocks east of the fault are characterized by Sri greater than 0.706, indicating a source of largely continental crust, sedimentary materials, or different lithosphere. We argue that the physical property contrast produced by the Peninsular Ranges batholith boundary provided a mechanically favorable path for the San Jacinto fault zone, bypassing the San Gorgonio structural knot as slip was transferred from the San Andreas fault 1.0-1.5 Ma. Two historical M6.7 earthquakes may have nucleated along the Peninsular Ranges batholith discontinuity in San Jacinto Valley, suggesting that Peninsular Ranges batholith crustal structure may continue to affect how strain is accommodated along the San Jacinto fault zone. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  7. UCERF3 and Rupture Behavior of the San Jacinto Fault in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, T. K.; Biasi, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The UCERF3 model predicts that most San Jacinto fault (SJF) earthquakes are larger than M7.5. In contrast, both the historical record of moderate earthquakes, along with the rich paleoseismic record, argues that most of the moment release on the SJF is accommodated by earthquakes in the Mw6.5-7.3 range. Over the past 4000 years at Hog Lake, large ruptures are exemplified by the M7.3 event in November 1800, with 1918-type earthquakes filling in the section of low slip to the NW. Limits on the range of rupture sizes can also be inferred by comparing the Hog Lake record to the Mystic Lake site to the NW. Less than half of Hog Lake events have plausible matches at Mystic Lake, implying that the mode in earthquake magnitude is unlikely to be in the M>7.5 range as reported in the UCERF3 model. In addition, moderate earthquakes occurred along the northern SJF in 1899 (2 events), 1918, and 1923, and ~M6.5 events with surface rupture occurred on the southern San Jacinto fault in 1968 and 1987. Several M6-sized earthquakes (1937, 1954, 1890?, 1892?) have also occurred along the southern SJF. Paleoseismic observations to the south, although less extensive, also argue that M7.3 events that rupture the entire Superstition Mountain-Coyote Creek fault are less frequent than ruptures with smaller magnitudes. The CoV at Hog Lake is resolved to be about 0.63 for the entire record, decreasing for the subset of largest interpreted events. The complete record thus suggests quasi-periodic behavior of large earthquakes with superposed more randomly occurring moderate events. The shorter southern SJF record can be interpreted in the same way, with occasional larger earthquakes superposed with moderate, 1968-type events. Both records lend geological support to the recent model-based UCERF3 conclusion that the CoV for ground rupturing earthquakes must depend on magnitude in order to match site-specific observations of CoV in the range of 0.6. A picture emerges of more regular large events

  8. Seasonal variations of seismic velocities in the San Jacinto fault area observed with ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, G.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Campillo, M.; Zigone, D.

    2015-08-01

    We observe seasonal seismic wave speed changes (dv/v) in the San Jacinto fault area and investigate several likely source mechanisms. Velocity variations are obtained from analysis of 6 yr data of vertical component seismic noise recorded by 10 surface and six borehole stations. We study the interrelation between dv/v records, frequency-dependent seismic noise properties, and nearby environmental data of wind speed, rain, ground water level, barometric pressure and atmospheric temperature. The results indicate peak-to-peak seasonal velocity variations of ˜0.2 per cent in the 0.5-2 Hz frequency range, likely associated with genuine changes of rock properties rather than changes in the noise field. Phase measurements between dv/v and the various environmental data imply that the dominant source mechanism in the arid study area is thermoelastic strain induced by atmospheric temperature variations. The other considered environmental effects produce secondary variations that are superimposed on the thermal-based changes. More detailed work with longer data on the response of rocks to various known external loadings can help tracking the evolving stress and effective rheology at depth.

  9. Shallow low-velocity zone of the San Jacinto fault from local earthquake waveform modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongfeng; Zhu, Lupei

    2010-10-01

    We developed a method to determine the depth extent of low-velocity zone (LVZ) associated with a fault zone (FZ) using S-wave precursors from local earthquakes. The precursors are diffracted S waves around the edges of LVZ and their relative amplitudes to the direct S waves are sensitive to the LVZ depth. We applied the method to data recorded by three temporary arrays across three branches of the San Jacinto FZ. The FZ dip was constrained by differential traveltimes of P waves between stations at two side of the FZ. Other FZ parameters (width and velocity contrast) were determined by modelling waveforms of direct and FZ-reflected P and S waves. We found that the LVZ of the Buck Ridge fault branch has a width of ~150 m with a 30-40 per cent reduction in Vp and a 50-60 per cent reduction in Vs. The fault dips 70 +/- 5° to southwest and its LVZ extends only to 2 +/- 1 km in depth. The LVZ of the Clark Valley fault branch has a width of ~200 m with 40 per cent reduction in Vp and 50 per cent reduction in Vs. The Coyote Creek branch is nearly vertical and has a LVZ of ~150 m in width and of 25 per cent reduction in Vp and 50 per cent reduction in Vs. The LVZs of these three branches are not centred at the surface fault trace but are located to their northeast, indicating asymmetric damage during earthquakes.

  10. Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry of the Centennial Re-survey of the San Jacinto Mountains, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, M. L.; Swarth, E.; Swarth, C.; Smith-Herman, N.; Tremor, S.; Unitt, P.

    2009-12-01

    In 1908, the San Jacinto Mountains were first surveyed for their animal and plant diversity by Joseph Grinnell and Harry Swarth, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, UC Berkeley. In 2008, continuing until 2011, the ecology and stable isotope biogeochemistry of the plants, insects, birds, and mammals is being re-surveyed. Results of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotopes in organic matter show the variation in regional climate and trophic structure. For example, δ15N of plants at more arid stations are more positive by 3-5‰. Plants on westward facing slopes have more negative δ15N (to -6‰) possibly indicating N sources from atmospheric N deposition originating from urban Los Angeles. Isotopic analyses of recent collections will be compared with historic, museum archived specimens of plants and resident birds species. Our initial results show that the carbon isotopic compositions of plants collected in 1908 and during the early part of the 20th century are 1.6‰ enriched in δ13C, as predicted with the rise in industrially influenced atmospheric CO2. Isotopic data will be augmented by species diversity to test the hypothesis that 100 years of human influence has affected the ecosystem in this area and in what manner.

  11. Is there a "blind" strike-slip fault at the southern end of the San Jacinto Fault system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymofyeyeva, E.; Fialko, Y. A.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the interseismic deformation at the southern end of the San Jacinto fault system using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) data. To complement the continuous GPS measurements from the PBO network, we have conducted campaign-style GPS surveys of 19 benchmarks along Highway 78 in the years 2012, 2013, and 2014. We processed the campaign GPS data using GAMIT to obtain horizontal velocities. The data show high velocity gradients East of the surface trace of the Coyote Creek Fault. We also processed InSAR data from the ascending and descending tracks of the ENVISAT mission between the years 2003 and 2010. The InSAR data were corrected for atmospheric artifacts using an iterative common point stacking method. We combined average velocities from different look angles to isolate the fault-parallel velocity field, and used fault-parallel velocities to compute strain rate. We filtered the data over a range of wavelengths prior to numerical differentiation, to reduce the effects of noise and to investigate both shallow and deep sources of deformation. At spatial wavelengths less than 2km the strain rate data show prominent anomalies along the San Andreas and Superstition Hills faults, where shallow creep has been documented by previous studies. Similar anomalies are also observed along parts of the Coyote Creek Fault, San Felipe Fault, and an unmapped southern continuation of the Clark strand of the San Jacinto Fault. At wavelengths on the order of 20km, we observe elevated strain rates concentrated east of the Coyote Creek Fault. The long-wavelength strain anomaly east of the Coyote Creek Fault, and the localized shallow creep observed in the short-wavelength strain rate data over the same area suggest that there may be a "blind" segment of the Clark Fault that accommodates a significant portion of the deformation on the southern end of the San Jacinto Fault.

  12. Spatial variability of time-constant slip rates on the San Jacinto fault zone, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blisniuk, K.; Oskin, M. E.; Sharp, W. D.; Meriaux, A. B.; Rockwell, T. K.; Fletcher, K.; Owen, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    In southern California, the San Andreas (SAF) and San Jacinto fault (SJF) zones account for 70-80% of the relative dextral motion between the Pacific and North American plates, with some studies suggesting that the SJF zone may be the dominant structure. However, few slip rate measurements are available for the SJF zone, making it difficult to evaluate the partitioning of deformation across the plate boundary. To more reliably constrain the late Quaternary slip history of the SJF zone, we measured the displacement of well-preserved alluvial fans along the Clark and Coyote Creek fault strands of the SJF zone using field mapping and high-resolution LiDAR topographic data, and dated the fans using U-series on pedogenic carbonate clast-coatings and in situ cosmogenic 10Be. Our results from four sites along the Clark fault strand and two sites along the Coyote Creek fault strand indicate that late Quaternary slip rates have fluctuated along their length but have remained constant since the late Pleistocene. Slip rates along the Clark fault strand over the past 50-30 kyr decrease southward over a distance of ~60 km from ~13 mm/yr at Anza, to 8.9 ± 2.0 mm/yr at Rockhouse Canyon, and 1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr near the SE end of the Santa Rosa Mountains, probably due to transfer of slip from the Clark fault strand to the Coyote Creek fault strand and nearby zones of distributed deformation. Slip rates of up to ~14 to 18 mm/yr summed across the southern SJF zone suggest that since the latest Pleistocene, the SJF zone may rival the southern SAF zone in accommodating deformation across the Pacific-North America Plate boundary.

  13. Geologic and hydrologic features of the San Bernardino area, California - with special reference to underflow across the San Jacinto fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Garrett, Arthur A.

    1963-01-01

    This is the second in a series of interpretive reports on subsurface outflow from the ground-water basins of San Bernardino County, Calif., prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino County Flood Control District. One principal purpose of the study was to estimate the ground-water outflow from the Bunker Hill basin to the Rialto-Colton basin across the San Jacinto fault, which, except locally, forms a nearly impermeable boundary between the two basins. In addition, the report deals qualitatively with the geology, the fault barriers that divide the area into several ground-water basins, the physical nature and degree of imperviousness of the barriers, the occurrence and movement of ground water and fluctuations of water level in the basins, and the chemical quality of surface and ground waters in the San Bernardino area. The report includes a geologic map and sections, water-level-contour maps and profiles, and hydrographs of selected well. The Santa Ana River, the principal stream, flows generally westward across the area. Channels of the river and its tributaries overlie a large irregular structural depression filled with alluvial deposits ranging in age from late Tertiary to Recent and forming a valley bounded on the north by the San Gabriel Mountains, on the east by the San Bernardino Mountains, and on the south by an irregular group of hills. Large alluvial fans underlie most of the area, but its landforms also include alluvial benches and terraces near the mountains, stream channels, and elongate hills, ridges, and scarps along the trace of the San Jacinto fault, which strikes northwestward across the valley about in the center of the area. This fault and others divide the area into ground-water basins, which include the Bunker Hill, Rialto-Colton, upper and lower Lytle and Chino basins. The water-bearing deposits include the following units: the younger alluvium. of Recent age, which occupies principally the backfilled

  14. A new method to identify earthquake swarms applied to seismicity near the San Jacinto Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shearer, Peter M.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding earthquake clustering in space and time is important but also challenging because of complexities in earthquake patterns and the large and diverse nature of earthquake catalogues. Swarms are of particular interest because they likely result from physical changes in the crust, such as slow slip or fluid flow. Both swarms and clusters resulting from aftershock sequences can span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Here we test and implement a new method to identify seismicity clusters of varying sizes and discriminate them from randomly occurring background seismicity. Our method searches for the closest neighbouring earthquakes in space and time and compares the number of neighbours to the background events in larger space/time windows. Applying our method to California's San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ), we find a total of 89 swarm-like groups. These groups range in size from 0.14 to 7.23 km and last from 15 min to 22 d. The most striking spatial pattern is the larger fraction of swarms at the northern and southern ends of the SJFZ than its central segment, which may be related to more normal-faulting events at the two ends. In order to explore possible driving mechanisms, we study the spatial migration of events in swarms containing at least 20 events by fitting with both linear and diffusion migration models. Our results suggest that SJFZ swarms are better explained by fluid flow because their estimated linear migration velocities are far smaller than those of typical creep events while large values of best-fitting hydraulic diffusivity are found.

  15. Climate contributes to zonal forest mortality in Southern California's San Jacinto Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellows, A.; Goulden, M.

    2010-12-01

    An estimated 4.6 million trees died over ~375,000 acres of Southern California forest in 2002-2004. This mortality punctuated a decline in forest health that has been attributed to air pollution, stem densification, or drought. Bark beetles were the proximate cause of most tree death but the underlying cause of this extensive mortality is arguably poor forest health. We investigated the contributions that climate, particularly drought, played in tree mortality and how physiological drought stress may have structured the observed patterns of mortality. Field surveys showed that conifer mortality was zonal in the San Jacinto Mountains of Southern California. The proportion of conifer mortality increased with decreasing elevation (p=0.01). Mid-elevation conifers (White Fir, Incense Cedar, Coulter Pine, Sugar Pine, Ponderosa and Jeffrey Pine) died in the lower portions of their respective ranges, which resulted in an upslope lean in species’ distribution and an upslope shift in species’ mean elevation. Long-term precipitation (P) is consistent with elevation over the conifer elevation range (p=0.43). Potential evapotranspiration (ET) estimated by Penman Monteith declines with elevation by nearly half over the same range. These trends suggest that ET, more than P, is critical in structuring the elevational trend in drought stress and may have contributed to the patterns of mortality that occurred in 2002-04. Physiological measurements in a mild drought year (2009) showed late summer declines in plant water availability with decreasing elevation (p < 0.01) and concomitant reductions in carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance with decreasing elevation. We tie these observations together with a simple water balance model.

  16. Paleoseismic Investigations of the Walnut Site on the San Jacinto Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fumal, T.E.; Kendrick, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Walnut paleoseismic site is located along the northern San Jacinto fault about 3 km southeast of the San Bernardino, California city center (Figures 1, 2). More than 340 meters of trenches were excavated across the fault zone at this site as part of an Alquist-Priolo fault study (Figure 3). We photographed and logged the SE wall and most of the NE wall of trench 1, both walls of trenches 2 and 7, the NW walls of trenches 3 and 4 and the SE wall of trench 6. After carefully cleaning the trench walls we put up a 1m by 0.5m string and nail grid. For trenches 1, 2, 6, and 7, we photographed each 1m by 0.5m panel individually and photologged on these unrectified photos. These large-scale photos were later rectified to remove the distortion due to irregularities in the trench walls and slight distortion introduced by the camera lens. Field linework was then transferred to the rectified photomosaics. We also took a set of overview photographs for each trench taken from the top of the trench towards the opposite wall. We spliced together these overview photos to make photomosaics of all of the trenches. Because the photos were taken at a downward angle, there is significant distortion. Some of this distortion has been corrected: an attempt was made to keep horizontal grid lines horizontal and there has been some horizontal scaling to align vertical lines between benches. Although the string and nail grid spacing is 1 meter by 0.5 meter, because of the distortion in the photos and subsequent adjustments, the scale is variable along the benches, from bench to bench and from trench to trench for these overview mosaics. This report serves principally as a repository for the overview photomosaics. Sheet 1 shows the overview mosaics for both walls of trenches 1 and 2 along with some linework including most of the fault traces, a prominent unconformity within the fluvial deposits and the larger bodies of liquefied sand. Sheet 2 shows the overview mosaics for the SE wall of

  17. Southern San Andreas-San Jacinto fault system slip rates estimated from earthquake cycle models constrained by GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Paul; Hetland, Eric A.; Liu, Zhen; Fielding, Eric J.

    2009-02-01

    We use ground geodetic and interferometric synthetic aperture radar satellite observations across the southern San Andreas (SAF)-San Jacinto (SJF) fault systems to constrain their slip rates and the viscosity structure of the lower crust and upper mantle on the basis of periodic earthquake cycle, Maxwell viscoelastic, finite element models. Key questions for this system are the SAF and SJF slip rates, the slip partitioning between the two main branches of the SJF, and the dip of the SAF. The best-fitting models generally have a high-viscosity lower crust (η = 1021 Pa s) overlying a lower-viscosity upper mantle (η = 1019 Pa s). We find considerable trade-offs between the relative time into the current earthquake cycle of the San Jacinto fault and the upper mantle viscosity. With reasonable assumptions for the relative time in the earthquake cycle, the partition of slip is fairly robust at around 24-26 mm/a for the San Jacinto fault system and 16-18 mm/a for the San Andreas fault. Models for two subprofiles across the SAF-SJF systems suggest that slip may transfer from the western (Coyote Creek) branch to the eastern (Clark-Superstition hills) branch of the SJF from NW to SE. Across the entire system our best-fitting model gives slip rates of 2 ± 3, 12 ± 9, 12 ± 9, and 17 ± 3 mm/a for the Elsinore, Coyote Creek, Clark, and San Andreas faults, respectively, where the large uncertainties in the slip rates for the SJF branches reflect the large uncertainty in the slip rate partitioning within the SJF system.

  18. Infrequent triggering of tremor along the San Jacinto Fault near Anza, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Tien-Huei; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Agnew, Duncan Carr; Oglesby, David D.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the conditions necessary to trigger tremor along the San Jacinto fault (SJF) near Anza, California, where previous studies suggest triggered tremor occurs, but observations are sparse. We investigate the stress required to trigger tremor using continuous broadband seismograms from 11 stations located near Anza, California. We examine 44 Mw≥7.4 teleseismic events between 2001 and 2011; these events occur at a wide range of back azimuths and hypocentral distances. In addition, we included one smaller‐magnitude, regional event, the 2009 Mw 6.5 Gulf of California earthquake, because it induced extremely high strains at Anza. We find the only episode of triggered tremor occurred during the 3 November 2002 Mw 7.8 Denali earthquake. The tremor episode lasted 300 s, was composed of 12 tremor bursts, and was located along SJF at the northwestern edge of the Anza gap at approximately 13 km depth. The tremor episode started at the Love‐wave arrival, when surface‐wave particle motions are primarily in the transverse direction. We find that the Denali earthquake induced the second highest stress (~35  kPa) among the 44 teleseismic events and 1 regional event. The dominant period of the Denali surface wave was 22.8 s, at the lower end of the range observed for all events (20–40 s), similar to periods shown to trigger tremor in other locations. The surface waves from the 2009 Mw 6.5 Gulf of California earthquake had the highest observed strain, yet a much shorter dominant period of 10 s and did not trigger tremor. This result suggests that not only the amplitude of the induced strain, but also the period of the incoming surface wave, may control triggering of tremors near Anza. In addition, we find that the transient‐shear stress (17–35 kPa) required to trigger tremor along the SJF at Anza is distinctly higher than what has been reported for the well‐studied San Andreas fault.

  19. Review of the chronostratigraphic charts in the Sinú-San Jacinto basin based on new seismic stratigraphic interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Esteban; Holz, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Disperse and punctual studies; absence of integration of data ranging from local to regional focus; interpretations based only on lithostratigraphic features; and interpretation of data premised on an allochthonous origin of the Caribbean plate, are some of factors that increase the confusion and uncertainty in understanding the Sinú-San Jacinto Basin. The sedimentary record of Upper Cretaceous to Eocene has been traditionally interpreted as the record of deep-water settings. However, recently these sediments have been related to shallow marine and deltaic settings. Second problematic point is about the deposition environment of the Oligocene to Late Miocene succession. Some studies suggest canyons, turbidites and sediments deposited in deep-water settings. However, recent studies propose deltaic and shallow marine settings. The last stratigraphic problem is related to the controversial fluvial vs. shallow marine interpretations of the Pliocene sediments. Based upon seismic stratigraphic analysis in recent and reprocessed 2D seismic data, integrated with well data, we propose chronostratigraphic charts for the northern, central and southern zones of the Sinú-San Jacinto Basin. Twenty seismic facies based on amplitude, continuity, frequency and geometry of seismic reflectors and twelve seismic sequences were recognized. The seismic stratigraphic analysis in this study suggests that the sediments of Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene/Eocene were associated to continental to shallow marine settings. Lagoons, coastal plain and carbonate platform dominated during this period. The Oligocene to Middle Miocene record was characterized by deep-water deposition, whereas the Late Miocene to recent sedimentation was characterized by falling base level, characterized by deltaic and fluvial deposits. Five syn-rift sequences with wedge-shaped geometry were identified in this study. Three Triassic to Jurassic syn-rift sequences were characterized by seismic facies typical of fluvial

  20. Geophysical Field Work for Educators: Teachers Use Ground-Penetrating Radar to Study San Jacinto Battlefield Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, A. T.; Sawyer, D. S.; Milliken, K.

    2008-12-01

    In July 2008, a group of Houston area K-12 teachers investigated San Jacinto Battlefield Park in La Porte, Texas, utilizing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to image the subsurface and global positioning system (GPS) units to map surface features. Participants were in-service K-12 teachers from urban Houston school districts where the majority of students are members of historically underrepresented minority groups. Over a period of two weeks, participants acquired and interpreted GPR profiles in the park, mapped surface features using hand-held GPS units, and analyzed the data using ArcGIS software. This summer experience was followed by a content-intensive academic year course in Earth Science. The Battle of San Jacinto took place on April 21, 1836, and was the decisive battle in the Texas Revolution. The site is thought to contain numerous in-situ artifacts dropped by the Texan and Mexican armies, as well as unmarked burials from the early 1800's. Two stratigraphic units were identified from the GPR profiles and matched to strata exposed through archaeological excavations. The stratigraphic units are interpreted as recent flood/storm deposits with soil formation on Pleistocene deltaic deposits of a previous sea-level highstand. In addition to the stratigraphy, a number of isolated subsurface anomalies (possibly artifacts) were identified. Participants also interpreted past shoreline positions using vintage aerial photographs and acquired several transects of GPS positions along the shoreline. Participants confirmed that the area is in fact subsiding, rather than being eroded. Participants not only experienced the scientific process but also utilized geophysics for community service (i.e. contributing educational material to the park). Through background research, they derived a rich historical context for their investigation and learned to appreciate the multi-disciplinary aspect of solving real- world scientific problems.

  1. Late Quaternary slip rate gradient defined using high-resolution topography and 10Be dating of offset landforms on the southern San Jacinto Fault zone, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blisniuk, Kimberly; Rockwell, Thomas; Owen, Lewis A.; Oskin, Michael; Lippincott, Caitlin; Caffee, Marc W.; Dortch, Jason

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies suggest the San Jacinto fault zone may be the dominant structure accommodating PA-NA relative plate motion. However, because the late Quaternary slip history of the southern San Andreas fault system is insufficiently understood, it is difficult to evaluate the partitioning of deformation across the plate boundary and its evolution. Landforms displaced by the Clark fault of the southern San Jacinto fault zone were mapped using high-resolution airborne laser-swath topography and selected offset landforms were dated using cosmogenic 10Be. Beheaded channels at Rockhouse Canyon, displaced by 500 ± 70 m and 220 ± 70 m, have been dated to 47 ± 8 ka and 28 ± 9 ka, respectively. Farther south, near the southern Santa Rosa Mountains, an alluvial deposit displaced by 51 ± 9 m has been dated to 35 ± 7 ka. From these sites, the slip rate of the Clark fault is determined to diminish southward from 8.9 ± 2.0 to 1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr. This implies a slip-rate decrease along the Clark fault from Anza southeastward to its surface termination near the Salton Trough, where slip is transferred to the Coyote Creek fault, and additional deformation is compensated by folding and thrusting in the basin. These data suggest that since ˜30 to 50 ka, the slip rate along the southern San Jacinto fault zone has been lower than, or equivalent to, the rate along the southernmost San Andreas fault. Accordingly, either the slip rate of the San Jacinto fault has substantially decreased since fault initiation, or fault slip began earlier than previously suggested.

  2. Application of high resolution DEM data to detect rock damage from geomorphic signals along the central San Jacinto Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wechsler, Neta; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2009-12-01

    We analyze geomorphic properties extracted from LiDAR and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data to test whether the damage zone along the central San Jacinto Fault (SJF) zone can be resolved with remotely-sensed data in a quantitative fashion. The SJF is one of the most active faults in southern California, with well expressed geomorphology and a fast slip rate, as seen in the geology and by GPS. We use ArcMap and the TauDEM toolbox to compare several morphometric parameters, including drainage density (Dd), on both sides of the fault, using a 1 km and a 5 km buffer for the LiDAR and SRTM data, respectively. We also analyze the spatial patterns of Dd near the fault, using two different definitions of spatial Dd. The high resolution of the LiDAR data allows us to focus on a single fault, eliminating the effects of parallel nearby faults. From the LiDAR data we find that the highest Dd values occur in areas between two fault strands, followed generally by rocks on the northeast side of the fault, with the lowest Dd values occurring on the southwest side of the fault. The SRTM data shows a band of high Dd values centered on the main fault trace with ~ 1 km width. Our results indicate that there is a strong correlation between drainage density and proximity to the fault, with zones of structural complexity along the fault displaying the highest Dd. We interpret this to largely be an effect of degree of rock damage, as these are areas that are expected to be more damaged, and field observations support this contention. If we are correct, then it appears that the northeast side of the SJF is generally more damaged. South of the trifurcation area there is evidence that the signal is reversed on the larger scale, with more damage on the southwest side of the fault inferred from the SRTM data, possibly caused by extension between the Coyote Creek and Clark faults. The implications of the observed asymmetry could be geological evidence for rupture propagation

  3. Observations at a San Jacinto Fault Zone site (Sage Brush Flat) Using a Nodal Seismic High Frequency Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, F.; Reyes, J. C.; White, M. C. A.; Davis, G. A.; Meyer, J. C.; Sahakian, V. J.; Mancinelli, N. J.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Zigone, D.; Harris, C.; Liu, X.; Qiu, H.; Share, P. E.; Ozakin, Y.; Hollis, D.; Barklage, M.

    2014-12-01

    Between 7 May 2014 and 13 June 2014 we deployed a tight 1108 element array of 10 Hz vertical geophones in a two-dimensional array with 700 meter aperture centered on the Clark Fault of the San Jacinto Fault Zone. The array was designed to make detailed observations of the shallow damage zone, local failure processes and noise properties of the Clark Fault near the Anza seismic gap. The core of the array consisted of a grid organized with 20 rows perpendicular to and centered on the fault trace, each row with 50 sensors at a nominal 10 meter interstation spacing. The spacing between rows was nominally 30 meters. The remaining 108 sensors were deployed as extensions to multiple rows providing a maximum 700 meter aperture. Each sensor was surveyed using a Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS system to an accuracy of approximately 30 cm. The RTK survey was enabled via ad-hoc networking using HPWREN. We will present observations of earthquakes with magnitudes -1 < M < 4 with hypocentral distances ranging from right below the array out to 100 kilometers, along with prosperities of local structures and noise characteristics.

  4. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on palynofacies analyses of the Cansona Formation (Late Cretaceous), Sinú-San Jacinto Basin, northwest Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliao-Lemus, Tatiana; Carvalho, Marcelo de Araujo; Torres, Diego; Plata, Angelo; Parra, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    To reconstruct the paleoenvironments of the Cansona Formation, a Cretaceous succession in Colombia that has controversial paleoenvironmental interpretation, occasionally deep marine and occasionally shallow marine, palynofacies analyses were conducted on 93 samples from four sections of the Sinú San Jacinto Basin in the north, midwest, and southwest sectors. For the palynofacies analyses, the kerogen categories were counted and subjected to cluster analyses. Four palynofacies associations were revealed for the four sections: Palynofacies Association I (PA I), which consisted of microforaminiferal linings, scolecodonts, dinoflagellate cysts, pollen grains, and fungi hyphae; PA II, which consisted of phytoclast translucent non-biostructured and biostructured, opaque phytoclasts (equidimensional and lath shaped); PA III, which consisted of pseudoamorphous particles, cuticles, resin, and fungal spores; and PA IV, which consisted of fluorescent and non-fluorescent amorphous organic matter and the fresh-water algae Botryococcus. In contrast to early studies that suggested a generalization of the depositional environment for the Cansona Formation (deep or shallow conditions), this study suggests that the formation reflects conspicuous stratigraphic and lateral changes and hence different depositional environments. The Cerro Cansona (CC4 section) and Chalán (AP section) areas are a more marine proximal settings (Early Campanian-Maastrichtian), and there is an intermediate setting for the Lorica area (SC section) and deeper conditions for the Montería area (CP2 section).

  5. Summary of Geologic Data and Development of A Priori Rupture Models for the Elsinore, San Jacinto, and Garlock Faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Timothy E.; Rockwell, Tom K.; Weldon, Ray J.; Wills, Chris J.

    2008-01-01

    This appendix to the WGCEP Earthquake Rate Model 2 summarizes geologic data and documents the development of the rupture models for the Elsinore, San Jacinto, and Garlock faults. For the summary of available geologic data, the documentation is organized by fault and fault segment and includes a summary of slip rates, event timing and recurrence, slip-per-event, and historical seismicity for each segment. This information is compiled from the published literature as well as newer studies that have not yet been published. For the unpublished data, we either are familiar, having visited the paleoseismic sites, or participated in the data collection, or we have solicited the principal investigators at each site for their latest results. While these unpublished results are preliminary, we have chosen to include them because the results were considered in development of the rupture models and it is unlikely that the sites will be formally published before the WGCEP Earthquake Rate Model is finalized. The second part of this document describes the construction of the rupture models used in the WGCEP Earthquake Rate Model 2, and the rationale that went into the construction of these models, with a summary of what types of data were considered when the rupture models were created.

  6. Seismicity rate changes in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field and the San Jacinto Fault Zone after the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Peng, Zhigang

    2014-06-01

    Whether static or dynamic stress changes play the most important role in triggering earthquakes in the near field is still in debate. Here, we examine the seismicity rate changes in southern California following the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. We focus on the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) and the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) because of high-sensitivity continuous borehole recordings and ample background seismicity. A significant increase in seismic activity is found in both study regions immediately following the main shock. However, near the SSGF where the static Coulomb stress decreased, the seismicity rate dropped below the pre-main-shock rate after ˜1 month. In comparison, along the SJFZ with an increase in the static Coulomb stress, the seismicity rate remained higher than the background rate with several moderate-size earthquakes occurring in the subsequent months. While we cannot completely rule out other mechanisms, these observations are best consistent with a widespread increase in seismicity from dynamic stress changes immediately after the main shock, and longer term seismicity rate changes from static stress changes. Our observation, together with other recent studies, suggests that both static and dynamic stress changes are important in triggering near-field earthquakes, but their affected regions and timescales are different.

  7. Rainfall-runoff characteristics and effects of increased urban density on streamflow and infiltration in the eastern part of the San Jacinto River basin, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, Joel R.

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the rainfall-runoff characteristics of the eastern part of the San Jacinto River Basin and to estimate the effects of increased urbanization on streamflow, channel infiltration, and land-surface infiltration, a long-term (1950?98) time series of monthly flows in and out of the channels and land surfaces were simulated using the Hydrologic Simulation Program- FORTRAN (HSPF) rainfall-runoff model. Channel and land-surface infiltration includes rainfall or runoff that infiltrates past the zone of evapotranspiration and may become ground-water recharge. The study area encompasses about 256 square miles of the San Jacinto River drainage basin in Riverside County, California. Daily streamflow (for periods with available data between 1950 and 1998), and daily rainfall and evaporation (1950?98) data; monthly reservoir storage data (1961?98); and estimated mean annual reservoir inflow data (for 1974 conditions) were used to calibrate the rainfall-runoff model. Measured and simulated mean annual streamflows for the San Jacinto River near San Jacinto streamflow-gaging station (North-South Fork subbasin) for 1950?91 and 1997?98 were 14,000 and 14,200 acre-feet, respectively, a difference of 1.4 percent. The standard error of the mean for measured and simulated annual streamflow in the North-South Fork subbasin was 3,520 and 3,160 acre-feet, respectively. Measured and simulated mean annual streamflows for the Bautista Creek streamflow-gaging station (Bautista Creek subbasin) for 1950?98 were 980 acre-feet and 991 acre-feet, respectively, a difference of 1.1 percent. The standard error of the mean for measured and simulated annual streamflow in the Bautista Creek subbasin was 299 and 217 acre-feet, respectively. Measured and simulated annual streamflows for the San Jacinto River above State Street near San Jacinto streamflow-gaging station (Poppet subbasin) for 1998 were 23,400 and 23,500 acre-feet, respectively, a difference of 0.4 percent. The simulated

  8. Seismic and Aseismic Slip on the San-Jacinto Fault Near Anza, CA, from Joint Analysis of Strain and Aftershock Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbal, A.; Avouac, J. P.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The San-Jacinto Fault (SJF) is the most active fault in southern California, which together with the southern San-Andreas Fault accommodates a large fraction of the motion across the plate boundary. Seismicity along the SJF is distributed over several fault segments with distinct spatio-temporal characteristics. One of these segments, known as the Anza seismic gap, is a 25 km long strand almost devoid of seismicity. In recent years, four M4-5 events occurred SE of the gap. Despite their moderate magnitudes, these earthquakes triggered rich aftershock sequences and pronounced afterslip that lasted for several weeks, and was well captured by nearby PBO borehole strain meters. A similar transient was remotely triggered by the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. Geodetic and seismic observations following a local M5.4 mainshock indicate that afterslip propagated unilaterally towards the NW at speed of about 5 km/day. We infer the distribution of slip via a joint inversion of the aftershock and strain data. Our approach is based on Dieterich's (1994) model relating the evolution of seismicity rate to applied stresses, within the framework of rate-and-state friction. This approach provides resolution power at depths inaccessible to the surface geodetic network. Moreover, it allows us to gain important insights onto the fault mechanical properties. We apply this inversion scheme to episodes that occurred during 2010. Remarkably, we find that the cumulative moment released post-seismically during the locally triggered transient is 5-10 times larger than the moment of the mainshock. We show that the data favour a model in which deep slip transients, which may develop due to local or remote earthquakes, occur on a weak, close-to-velocity-neutral fault. The transients increase the stress along the Anza gap, and trigger earthquakes outside it through static stress transfer.

  9. Long paleoseismic records on the San Jacinto fault: what they tell us about earthquake cycles and cumulative strain release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, T. K.; Onderdonk, N.; McGill, S. F.; Buga, M.; Salisbury, B.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoseismic studies along the length of the San Jacinto fault zone demonstrate that earthquake production in the past 2-4 ka, averaged over at least eight or more earthquake cycles, is consistent with the long-term slip rate of 12-15 mm/yr. However, ages of past large earthquakes at Mystic Lake and Hog Lake suggest that some events may rupture both the Clark and Claremont segments together, and some Hog Lake events are recognized at Clark Lake in the southern third of this segment. These possible correlations are consistent with geomorphic observations along the Clark strand that indicate rupture of the entire segment in Mw7.3 earthquakes, as likely occurred on Nov. 22, 1800. Smaller Mw6.9 earthquakes, as in 1918, rupture only part of the northern Clark segment. The surface rupture for 1918 has now been identified by geomorphology and trenching, with an average of 1.25 m of displacement over at least 20 km. The northern Coyote Creek fault last failed with up to 1.5m of displacement in the past few hundred years, with the 1968 earthquake apparently filling in a section of fault that experienced lower slip south of Borrego Mountain. Observations at most sites show some degree of clustering of past events, although some of the events in a cluster may represent rupture overlap. All of these observations support the idea that perceived segment boundaries are soft, even for a segmented fault such as the SJF. Our data also suggest that slip during ruptures along the SJF may behave in a bimodal fashion, with large earthquakes (M7+) that involve entire segments, or multiple segments, and smaller events (M6.2-6.9) that fill in areas of lower displacement.

  10. Fish and Invertebrate Assemblages along Hydraulic and Land Use Gradients in the San Jacinto River - Coastal Perspectives on Instream Flow and Habitat Protection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelwick, F.; Herbert, M.; Healy, B.; Peterson, D.; Webb, M.

    2005-05-01

    The San Jacinto River system lies just east of Houston, Texas in the Coastal Plains. The watershed is bounded on the north primarily by rural and agricultural land, on the east by the Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF), and on the west by the city of Houston. The SHNF is made up of fragmented forest imbedded in a matrix of rural farm land and oil and gas development that leads to increased nutrient supplies and unexpected brine spills into streams of the East Fork San Jacinto. Two major impoundments, Lake Conroe on the upper West Fork of the San Jacinto, and Lake Houston on the main river below the East Fork, were constructed primarily to supply water to the Houston Metropolitan area. A valuable fishery exists in Lake Conroe, however off-channel gravel dredging upstream of Lake Houston appears to have increased erosion and led to turbid river conditions. This has a major influence on the ecosystem, such that the fishery in Lake Houston is less productive than that of Conroe, and the level of chemical treatment to flocculate suspended silt and provide potable water is unattainable without exceeding permitted limits for flocculants. This has repercussions to other watersheds. Coastal reservoirs are being built to capture presently unallocated water during high-flow events, and water transfer projects from other drainages are being built or planned in order to provide water to Houston. Solutions to such problems will require cooperation among stakeholders from a range of disciplines. We present this small coastal system as a model for the complex direct and indirect effects on coastal river systems that have not only ecological but major economic and human health impacts.

  11. Seismic velocity structure in the Hot Springs and Trifurcation areas of the San Jacinto fault zone, California, from double-difference tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, A. A.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Kurzon, I.; Vernon, F.

    2014-08-01

    We present tomographic images of crustal velocity structures in the complex Hot Springs and Trifurcation areas of the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) based on double-difference inversions of earthquake arrival times. We invert for VP, VS and hypocentre location within 50 × 50 × 20 km3 volumes, using 266 969 P and 148 249 S arrival times. We obtain high-fidelity images of seismic velocities with resolution on the order of a few kilometres from 2 to 12 km depth and validate the results using checkerboard tests. Due to the relatively large proportion of S-wave arrival times, we also obtain stable maps of VP/VS ratios in both regions. The velocity of the Trifurcation Area as a whole is lower than adjacent unfaulted material. We interpret a 4-km-wide low velocity zone with high VP/VS ratio in the trifurcation itself as related to fault zone damage. We also observe clear velocity contrasts across the Buck Ridge, Clark and Coyote Creek segments of the SJFZ. The Anza segment of the SJFZ, to the NW of the trifurcation area, displays a strong (up to 27 per cent) contrast of VS from 2 to 9 km depth. In the Hot Springs area, a low velocity zone between the Claremont and Casa Loma Strands narrows with depth, with clear velocity contrasts observed across both segments. A roughly 10-km-wide zone of low velocity and low VP/VS ratio at the NW tip of the Hot Springs fault is indicative of either unconsolidated sediments associated with the San Jacinto basin, or fluid-filled cracks within a broad deformation zone. High VP/VS ratios along the Anza segment could indicate a preferred nucleation location for future large earthquakes, while the across-fault velocity contrast suggests a preferred northwest rupture propagation direction for such events.

  12. A methodological approach towards high-resolution surface wave imaging of the San Jacinto Fault Zone using ambient-noise recordings at a spatially dense array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Philippe; Moreau, Ludovic; Lecointre, Albanne; Hillers, Gregor; Campillo, Michel; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Zigone, Dimitri; Vernon, Frank

    2016-08-01

    We present a new technique for deriving detailed information on seismic velocities of the subsurface material from continuous ambient noise recorded by spatially dense seismic arrays. This method uses iterative double beamforming between various subarrays to extract surface wave contributions from the ambient-noise data in complex environments with unfavourable noise-source distributions. The iterative double beamforming extraction makes it possible to retrieve large amounts of Rayleigh wave traveltime information in a wide frequency band. The method is applied to data recorded by a highly dense Nodal array with 1108 vertical geophones, centred on the damage zone of the Clark branch of the San Jacinto Fault Zone south of Anza, California. The array covers a region of ˜650 × 700 m2, with instrument spacing of 10-30 m, and continuous recording at 500 samples s-1 over 30 d in 2014. Using this iterative double beamforming on subarrays of 25 sensors and cross-correlations between all of the station pairs, we separate surface waves from body waves that are abundant in the raw cross-correlation data. Focusing solely on surface waves, maps of traveltimes are obtained at different frequencies with unprecedented accuracy at each point of a 15-m-spacing grid. Group velocity inversions at 2-4 Hz reveal depth and lateral variations in the structural properties within and around the San Jacinto Fault Zone in the study area. This method can be used over wider frequency ranges and can be combined with other imaging techniques, such as eikonal tomography, to provide unprecedented detailed structural images of the subsurface material.

  13. Fault zone architecture, San Jacinto fault zone, southern California: evidence for focused fluid flow and heat transfer in the shallow crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, N.; Girty, G. H.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2011-12-01

    We report results of a new study of the San Jacinto fault zone architecture in Horse Canyon, SW of Anza, California, where stream incision has exposed a near-continuous outcrop of the fault zone at ~0.4 km depth. The fault zone at this location consists of a fault core, transition zone, damage zone, and lithologically similar wall rocks. We collected and analyzed samples for their bulk and grain density, geochemical data, clay mineralogy, and textural and modal mineralogy. Progressive deformation within the fault zone is characterized by mode I cracking, subsequent shearing of already fractured rock, and cataclastic flow. Grain comminution advances towards the strongly indurated cataclasite fault core. Damage progression towards the core is accompanied by a decrease in bulk and grain density, and an increase in porosity and dilational volumetric strain. Palygorskite and mixed-layer illite/smectite clay minerals are present in the damage and transition zones and are the result of hydrolysis reactions. The estimated percentage of illite in illite/smectite increases towards the fault core where the illite/smectite to illite conversion is complete, suggesting elevated temperatures that may have reached 150°C. Chemical alteration and elemental mass changes are observed throughout the fault zone and are most pronounced in the fault core. We conclude that the observed chemical and mineralogical changes can only be produced by the interaction of fractured wall rocks and chemically active fluids that are mobilized through the fault zone by thermo-pressurization during and after seismic events. Based on the high element mobility and absence of illite/smectite in the fault core, we expect that greatest water/rock ratios occur within the fault core. These results indicate that hot pore fluids circulate upwards through the fractured fault core and into the surrounding damage zone. Though difficult to constrain, the site studied during this investigation may represent the top

  14. Seismic velocity structure in the Hemet Stepover and Trifurcation Areas of the San Jacinto Fault Zone from double-difference earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, A. A.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Vernon, F.; Kurzon, I.

    2013-12-01

    We present tomographic images of crustal velocity structures in the Hemet Stepover and Trifurcation areas of the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) based on double-difference inversions of earthquake arrival times. We discretize both regions with a horizontal 250m grid spacing and a vertical 500m spacing within 50km by 50km by 20km volumes. We invert for VP, VS, and hypocenter location using data from 16064 earthquakes recorded at 136 stations. In total, we use 266,969 P and 148,249 S arrivals to constrain the seismic velocity structures in the two regions. With large numbers of both arrivals, we are able to obtain images of VP and VS at similar resolutions, enabling us to make spatial maps of and interpret the VP/VS ratios. Though ray coverage is limited at shallow depths, we obtain high-fidelity images of seismic velocities from 2 to 12 km, and validate the results using checkerboard tests. The tomographic images indicate that the velocity of the trifurcation area as a whole is lower than adjacent unfaulted material. We interpret a 4km-wide low velocity zone in the trifurcation itself as fault zone damage related due to high VP/VS ratio. We also observe clear velocity contrasts across the Buck Ridge, Clark, and Coyote Creek segments of the SJFZ. The Anza segment of the SJFZ, to the NW of the trifurcation area, displays a strong (up to 27%) contrast of VS from 2km to 9km. In the Hemet Stepover, a low velocity zone between the Claremont and Casa Loma Strands narrows with depth, with clear velocity contrasts observed across both segments. A roughly 10km-wide zone of low velocity and low VP/VS ratio at the NW tip of the Hot Springs fault is indicative of either unconsolidated sediments associated with the San Jacinto basin, or fluid-filled cracks within a broad deformation zone. Relocated seismicity tends to align with the surface traces of the various fault strands, though it is offset to the northeast of the Casa Loma-Clark strand and to the southwest of the Hot Springs

  15. Streamflow and water-quality properties in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin and regression models to estimate real-time suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids concentrations and loads in the West Fork San Jacinto River in the vicinity of Conroe, Texas, July 2008-August 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, Lee J.; Oden, Jeannette H.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the hydrology (streamflow and water quality) of the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas, including spatial and temporal variation in suspended-sediment (SS) and total suspended-solids (TSS) concentrations and loads, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, measured streamflow and collected continuous and discrete water-quality data during July 2008-August 2009 in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe. During July 2008-August 2009, discrete samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made over the range of flow conditions at two streamflow-gaging stations on the West Fork San Jacinto River: West Fork San Jacinto River below Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas (station 08067650) and West Fork San Jacinto River near Conroe, Texas (station 08068000). In addition to samples collected at these two main monitoring sites, discrete sediment samples were also collected at five additional monitoring sites to help characterize water quality in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin. Discrete samples were collected semimonthly, regardless of flow conditions, and during periods of high flow resulting from storms or releases from Lake Conroe. Because the period of data collection was relatively short (14 months) and low flow was prevalent during much of the study, relatively few samples collected were representative of the middle and upper ranges of historical daily mean streamflows. The largest streamflows tended to occur in response to large rainfall events and generally were associated with the largest SS and TSS concentrations. The maximum SS and TSS concentrations at station 08067650 (180 and 133 milligrams per liter [mg/L], respectively) were on April 19, 2009, when the instantaneous streamflow was the third largest associated with a discrete sample at the station. SS concentrations

  16. Increasing lengths of aftershock zones with depths of moderate-size earthquakes on the San Jacinto Fault suggests triggering of deep creep in the middle crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Peng, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Recent geodetic studies along the San Jacinto Fault (SJF) in southern California revealed a shallower locking depth than the seismogenic depth outlined by microseismicity. This disagreement leads to speculations that creeping episodes drive seismicity in the lower part of the seismogenic zone. Whether deep creep occurs along the SJF holds key information on how fault slips during earthquake cycle and potential seismic hazard imposed to southern California. Here we apply a matched filter technique to 10 M > 4 earthquake sequences along the SJF since 2000 and obtain more complete earthquake catalogues. We then systematic investigate spatio-temporal evolutions of these aftershock sequences. We find anomalously large aftershock zones for earthquakes occurred below the geodetically inferred locking depth (i.e. 11-12 km), while aftershock zones of shallower main shocks are close to expectations from standard scaling relationships. Although we do not observe clear migration of aftershocks, most aftershock zones do expand systematically with logarithmic time since the main shock. All the evidences suggest that aftershocks near or below the locking depth are likely driven by deep creep following the main shock. The presence of a creeping zone below 11-12 km may have significant implications on the maximum sizes of events in this region.

  17. Full source tensor inversions of San Jacinto fault zone earthquakes using 3D Green's functions with the gCAP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Z.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Zhu, L.; Graves, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    We perform a full source tensor inversion of several M > 4 earthquakes that occurred in the San Jacinto fault zone in southern California, with an emphasis on resolving signatures of volumetric source changes. A previous study on these events with Green's functions based on a 1D velocity model identified statistically significant explosive isotropic components (Ross et al. 2015). Here we use the SCEC 3D Community Velocity Model to derive Green's functions with source-receiver reciprocity and finite-difference calculations based on the code of Graves (1996). About 50 stations are used at epicentral distances of up to 55 km. The inversions are performed using the 'generalized Cut and Paste' method, which includes CLVD and isotropic components (Zhu and Ben-Zion 2013). The derived source tensors are compared to the results of the previous study based on the simplified 1D velocity model. The results are analyzed with bootstrap analysis to estimate uncertainties involved. Additional tests are performed using synthetic waveforms to study the effects of neglecting various features on the source inversions.

  18. Estimating Attenuation Coefficients and P-Wave Velocities of the Shallow San Jacinto Fault Zone from Betsy Gunshots Data Recorded by a Spatially Dense Array with 1108 Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozakin, Yaman; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2016-04-01

    We estimate values of P wave velocity and P attenuation coefficients (QP) for the subsurface material at the Sage Brush Flat site along the Clark branch of the San Jacinto Fault Zone. The data are generated by 33 Betsy gunshots and recorded by a spatially dense array of 1108 vertical component geophones deployed in a rectangular grid that is approximately 600 m x 600 m. We automatically pick the arrival times of the seismic body waves from each explosion arriving at stations within 200 m. These measurements are used to derive an average velocity map with velocity values ranging from 500 m/s to 1250 m/s. We estimate the energy of the early P waves by squaring the amplitudes in a short window relative to the automatic picks. These energies are fitted to a decay function representing the geometrical spreading and intrinsic attenuation. By separating the stations into spatial bins and calculating attenuation values for each by linear regression, we construct a QP values map. Most of the QP values are in 5-20 range, which is consistent with other studies of shallow fault zone regions.

  19. Detailed Shallow Structure and Seismic Catalog Based on Data of a Spatially-Dense Array on the San Jacinto Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-12-01

    I review results on imaging the shallow structure of San Jacinto fault zone and detection/location of seismic energy sources using data of a spatially-dense Nodal array centered on the Clark branch of the fault. The array operated at the Sage Brush site south of Anza for about 4 weeks in 2014 with 1108 vertical (10 Hz) geophones in about 650 m x 700 m box configuration. Continuous waveforms with signals generated by the ambient seismic noise, earthquakes, and Betsy gunshots were recorded with useable frequencies up to 200 Hz. Imaging the shallow structure is done with surface and body waves extracted from the ambient noise, arrivals from local and teleseismic earthquakes, and waves generated by the gunshots. The results reveal shallow material with very low seismic velocities and attenuation coefficients, strong lateral and vertical variations, seismic trapping structure, local sedimentary basin, and overall lithology contrast across the fault. The detection/location techniques include stacking, beamforming, matched field processing, and templates generated by these methods. The analysis uncovers many hundred of daily earthquakes not detected by the regional networks and several different types of surface noise sources.

  20. Fault-Bounded Late Neogene Sedimentary Deposits in the Santa Rosa Mountains, Southern CA: Constraints on the Evolution of the San Jacinto Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matti, J. C.; Morton, D. M.; Cox, B. F.; Landis, G. P.; Langenheim, V. E.; Premo, W. R.; Kistler, R.; Budahn, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    In the Santa Rosa Mountains (SRM) on the W side of the Salton Trough, a late Neogene sedimentary sequence (Zosel sequence, ZS) in the hanging wall of the E-dipping Zosel normal fault (ZFHW) has implications for the geologic history of the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF) system. The upper conglomeratic part of the ZS records the culmination of slip on the ZF, which preceded strike-slip faulting on the right-lateral San Jacinto Fault (SJF) a few km to the W. The conglomerate is an alluvial-fan complex of fluvial, debris-flow, and rock-avalanche deposits that prograded NE over underlying paralic and marine deposits. Clasts are ?10m, and fluvial imbrications indicate mean streamflow trending ~N30E; paleocurrent indicators and clast compositions suggest sediment was derived mainly from granitoid terrains SW of the SRM. Deposition appears to have ceased by early Quaternary time: cosmogenic analysis of boulders from the eroded upper surface of the ZS indicates min and max exposure ages of 500Ka and 1.3Ma (Ne in qtz), 514Ka to 1.17Ma (Ne in hbl), and 647Ka to 1.158Ma (He). Granitoid clasts include distinctive texturally massive hbl- bio tonalite unlike any basement rock exposed in the SRM or in other footwall crystalline terranes directly to the W. The tonalite clasts are similar to bedrock in the White Wash (WW) area 24 km to the NW on the W side of the Clark strand of the SJF (SJFC). Initial Sr ratios for WW samples range from 0.70622 to 0.70631; ZS clasts range from 0.70615 to 0.70638. One sample from ZS and WW have identical light REE patterns that appear to be unique in the Peninsular Ranges batholith. U/Pb zircon ages for WW samples range from 96.6 to 98.2Ma while ZS clasts range from 95.8 to 98.7Ma. Based on these data, tonalite clasts in the ZS match tonalite now exposed in the WW area. We propose the following reconstruction: (1) From 6Ma to 1.2Ma, Zosel sediment is deposited near sea level as an alluvial-fan and fan-delta complex interfingering NE-ward with

  1. A Large Scale Automatic Earthquake Location Catalog in the San Jacinto Fault Zone Area Using An Improved Shear-Wave Detection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. C. A.; Ross, Z.; Vernon, F.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-12-01

    UC San Diego's ANZA network began archiving event-triggered data in 1982. As a result of improved recording technology, continuous waveform data archives are available starting in 1998. This continuous dataset, from 1998-present, represents a wealth of potential insight into spatio-temporal seismicity patterns, earthquake physics and mechanics of the San Jacinto Fault Zone. However, the volume of data renders manual analysis costly. In order to investigate the characteristics of the data in space and time, an automatic earthquake location catalog is needed. To this end, we apply standard earthquake signal processing techniques to the continuous data to detect first-arriving P-waves in combination with a recently developed S-wave detection algorithm. The resulting dataset of arrival time observations are processed using a grid association algorithm to produce initial absolute locations which are refined using a location inversion method that accounts for 3-D velocity heterogeneities. Precise relative locations are then derived from the refined absolute locations using the HypoDD double-difference algorithm. Moment magnitudes for the events are estimated from multi-taper spectral analysis. A >650% increase in the S:P pick ratio is achieved using the updated S-wave detection algorithm, when compared to the currently available catalog for the ANZA network. The increased number of S-wave observations leads to improved earthquake location accuracy and reliability (ie. less false event detections). Various aspects of spatio-temporal seismicity patterns and size distributions are investigated. Updated results will be presented at the meeting.

  2. Characterization of the San Jacinto Fault Zone Northwest of the Trifurcation Area from Earthquake Data Recorded by a Dense Linear Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Share, P. E.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Ross, Z.; Qiu, H.; Vernon, F.

    2015-12-01

    Data generated by earthquakes and recorded by a linear seismic array at Blackburn saddle NW of the trifurcation area, crossing the Clark branch of the San Jacinto Fault Zone, are used to study the internal fault zone structure in the area. The linear array (BB) is 180 m long and comprises 7 broadband three-component 1-Hz seismometers. Automatic algorithms are used to detect P and S body waves and fault zone head and trapped waves. Statistical analyses of P body wave travel times of 765 events, occurring during 2012-2014 within a 110 by 20 km window centered along the length of the Clark fault, show a 0.6-0.8 % gradual increase in slowness from the SW most (BB01) to the NE most (BB07) station. The results suggest the NE most stations overlie a zone of greater damage. Sharp velocity contrasts across the fault are imaged using fault zone head waves. In total, 72 events (within the same 110 by 20 km window) are found to produce phases with clear head wave characteristics. Further analysis of the candidate events leads to the characterization of two separate groups. The first, consisting of 51 events within approximately 11 km epicentral distance from the array, shows a clear increase of head to P body wave differential times with increasing along fault distance. Based on this moveout, an average velocity contrast across of the fault of 4 % (SW block is slower) is calculated for the portion of the Clark Fault beneath the array. Differential times for the second group show no moveout with along fault distance, suggesting a local secondary bimaterial interface with limited along-strike and/or depth extent. Events located in a broad region that also includes the San Andreas and Elsinore Faults produce candidate trapped waves that are most clear at stations BB05, BB06 and BB07 (the three NE most stations). Waveform modeling results will be presented in the meeting.

  3. Further Resolution of Past Earthquake Surface Ruptures at the Carrizo Wash Site, Superstition Mountain Strand of the San Jacinto Fault, Imperial Valley, Southern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, D.; Ragona, D. E.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2005-12-01

    We present results from new trench exposures in Carrizo Wash along the northernmost part of the Superstition Mountain strand (SMF) of the San Jacinto Fault, southern California. Prior paleoseismic work by Ragona (2003) recovered evidence for 7 earthquake events, 3 of which occurred in the past 1000 years. The most recent event produced only 15 cm of slip and is only recognized along the Coyote Creek Fault (CCF). The other two recognized events cumulatively produced nearly 6 m of slip. However, an erosional unconformity in the initial excavations removed evidence for at least one event, based on problematic correlations to nearby sites resulting from mismatches in both the number of recognized lake units as well as the relative stratigraphic position of events with respect to the lakes. The new trenches, south of the effects of the erosional channel, contain evidence for an additional event and an additional delta-lake sequence not present in the original exposures. The new event likely correlates to the penultimate event at the Northern Shoreline site (Gurrola and Rockwell, 1996). Thus, the observed 6 m of slip was mostly accommodated by three events, suggesting about 2 m of slip per event for large SMF ruptures. Our new observations also agree well with data from four other nearby trench sites along the CCF and SMF, and suggest that 1) the SMF has ruptured in only three large events in the past 1100 years, 2) at least two of these events are likely recognized along the CCF, indicating that the step-over between SMF and CCF is soft in large events, 3) most CCF ruptures do not propagate onto the SMF, indicating that the step-over is hard for small displacements, such as 1968-type events (30-50 cm of slip). These observations support the concept of segmentation but indicate that a perceived segment boundary may be transparent if slip exceeds a threshold value.

  4. LiDAR and field observations of slip distribution for the most recent surface ruptures along the central San Jacinto fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    J.B. Salisbury,; T.K. Rockwell,; T.J. Middleton,; Hudnut, Kenneth W.

    2012-01-01

    We measured offsets on tectonically displaced geomorphic features along 80 km of the Clark strand of the San Jacinto fault (SJF) to estimate slip‐per‐event for the past several surface ruptures. We identify 168 offset features from which we make over 490 measurements using B4 light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery and field observations. Our results suggest that LiDAR technology is an exemplary supplement to traditional field methods in slip‐per‐event studies. Displacement estimates indicate that the most recent surface‐rupturing event (MRE) produced an average of 2.5–2.9 m of right‐lateral slip with maximum slip of nearly 4 m at Anza, a Mw 7.2–7.5 earthquake. Average multiple‐event offsets for the same 80 kms are ∼5.5  m, with maximum values of 3 m at Anza for the penultimate event. Cumulative displacements of 9–10 m through Anza suggest the third event was also similar in size. Paleoseismic work at Hog Lake dates the most recent surface rupture event at ca. 1790. A poorly located, large earthquake occurred in southern California on 22 November 1800; we relocate this event to the Clark fault based on the MRE at Hog Lake. We also recognize the occurrence of a younger rupture along ∼15–20  km of the fault in Blackburn Canyon with ∼1.25  m of average displacement. We attribute these offsets to the 21 April 1918 Mw 6.9 event. These data argue that much or all of the Clark fault, and possibly also the Casa Loma fault, fail together in large earthquakes, but that shorter sections may fail in smaller events.

  5. 10Be and U-series dating of late Quaternary landforms along the southern San Jacinto fault: Implications for temporal slip rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blisniuk, K.; Oskin, M. E.; Fletcher, K.; Sharp, W. D.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2009-12-01

    Robust age control on faulted landforms with well-constrained offsets is essential to documenting the heterogeneous behavior of a fault zone over time. However, showing late Quaternary temporal slip rate variation is often challenging due to the difficultly of obtaining reliable ages for Quaternary deposits. Exposure ages from cosmogenic isotopes can be significantly affected by surface processes, and U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate provides only minimum ages because carbonate accumulation occurs after deposition. Fortunately, the controlling factors for the resulting age uncertainties of each method are relatively independent from each other, so a combination of cosmogenic isotope and U-series dating may significantly improve the reliability of landform dating and yield more robust slip rate estimates. We present preliminary results of this dual-dating approach at 4 sites along the southern San Jacinto fault zone in California: 2 sites along the Coyote Creek fault, and 2 sites along the Clark fault. These results show age agreement between the two dating methods. Along the southern Clark fault, a 10Be depth profile model age of 34.5 ±6.6 ka and a U-series age of 33.2 ±1.1 ka were obtained for an offset Q2b fan surface, and a Q3b surface yielded a weighted mean 10Be surface exposure age of 5.9 ±1.5 ka, similar to an U-series age of 6.3 ±0.4 ka. Along the northern Coyote Creek fault, preliminary data indicate a 10Be surface exposure age of 11.3 ±3.4 ka and a U-series age of 11.7 ±1.8 ka for an offset Q3a surface, and a 10Be surface exposure age of 6.9 ±1.0 ka and a U-series age of 7.8 ± 0.9 ka for an offset Q3b surface. The remarkable consistency among ages from the two dating methods suggest that: (1) U-series ages of pedogenic carbonate clast rinds closely approach depositional ages of the host alluvium; (2) erosion may be negligible at the sampled sites; and (3) inherited 10Be has been accurately quantified (via depth profile) for the late

  6. Fault zone architecture of the San Jacinto fault zone in Horse Canyon, southern California: A model for focused post-seismic fluid flow and heat transfer in the shallow crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Nissa; Girty, Gary H.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    2012-05-01

    We report results of a new study of the architecture of the San Jacinto fault zone in Horse Canyon, California, where stream incision has exposed a nearly continuous outcrop of the fault zone at ~ 0.4 km depth. The fault zone at this location consists of a fault core, transition zone, damage zone, and tonalitic wall rocks. We collected and analyzed samples for their bulk and grain density, geochemical data, clay mineralogy, and textural and modal mineralogy. Progressive deformation within the fault zone is characterized by mode I cracking, subsequent shearing of already fractured rock, and cataclastic flow. Grain comminution advances towards the strongly indurated cataclasite fault core. Damage progression towards the core is accompanied by a decrease in bulk and grain density, and an increase in porosity and dilational volumetric strain. Palygorskite and mixed-layer illite/smectite clay minerals are present in the damage and transition zones and are the result of hydrolysis reactions. The estimated percentage of illite in illite/smectite increases towards the fault core where the illite/smectite to illite conversion is complete, suggesting elevated temperatures that may have reached 150 °C. Chemical alteration and elemental mass changes are observed throughout the fault zone and are most pronounced in the fault core. We conclude that the observed chemical and mineralogical changes can only be produced by the interaction of fractured wall rocks and chemically active fluids that are mobilized through the fault zone by thermo-pressurization during and after seismic events. Based on the high element mobility and absence of illite/smectite in the fault core, we expect that the greatest water/rock ratios occur within the fault core. These results indicate that hot pore fluids circulate upwards through the fractured fault core and into the surrounding damage zone. Though difficult to constrain, we speculate that the site studied during this investigation may represent

  7. Response of deformation patterns to reorganizations of the southern San Andreas fault system since ca. 1.5 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, M. L.; Fattaruso, L.; Dorsey, R. J.; Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Between ~1.5 and 1.1 Ma, the southern San Andreas fault system underwent a major reorganization that included initiation of the San Jacinto fault and termination of slip on the extensional West Salton detachment fault. The southern San Andreas fault itself has also evolved since this time, with several shifts in activity among fault strands within San Gorgonio Pass. We use three-dimensional mechanical Boundary Element Method models to investigate the impact of these changes to the fault network on deformation patterns. A series of snapshot models of the succession of active fault geometries explore the role of fault interaction and tectonic loading in abandonment of the West Salton detachment fault, initiation of the San Jacinto fault, and shifts in activity of the San Andreas fault. Interpreted changes to uplift patterns are well matched by model results. These results support the idea that growth of the San Jacinto fault led to increased uplift rates in the San Gabriel Mountains and decreased uplift rates in the San Bernardino Mountains. Comparison of model results for vertical axis rotation to data from paleomagnetic studies reveals a good match to local rotation patterns in the Mecca Hills and Borrego Badlands. We explore the mechanical efficiency at each step in the evolution, and find an overall trend toward increased efficiency through time. Strain energy density patterns are used to identify regions of off-fault deformation and potential incipient faulting. These patterns support the notion of north-to-south propagation of the San Jacinto fault during its initiation. The results of the present-day model are compared with microseismicity focal mechanisms to provide additional insight into the patterns of off-fault deformation within the southern San Andreas fault system.

  8. San Diego Gas and Electric Company Imperial Valley geothermal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric and its wholly owned subsidiary New Albion Resources Co. have been affiliated with Magma Power Company, Magma Energy Inc. and Chevron Oil Company for the last 2-1/2 years in carrying out geothermal research and development in the private lands of the Imperial Valley. The steps undertaken in the program are reviewed and the sequence that must be considered by companies considering geothermal research and development is emphasized. Activities at the south end of the Salton Sea and in the Heber area of Imperial Valley are leading toward development of demonstration facilities within the near future. The current status of the project is reported.

  9. Delineation of faulting and basin geometry along a seismic reflection transect in urbanized San Bernardino Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.; Williams, R.A.; Anderson, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen kilometers of continuous, shallow seismic reflection data acquired through the urbanized San Bernardino Valley, California, have revealed numerous faults between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults as well as a complex pattern of downdropped and uplifted blocks. These data also indicate that the Loma Linda fault continues northeastward at least 4.5 km beyond its last mapped location on the southern edge of the valley and to within at least 2 km of downtown San Bernardino. Previously undetected faults within the valley northeast of the San Jacinto fault are also imaged, including the inferred western extension of the Banning fault and several unnamed faults. The Rialto-Colton fault is interpreted southwest of the San Jacinto fault. The seismic data image the top of the crystalline basement complex across 70% of the profile length and show that the basement has an overall dip of roughly 10?? southwest between Perris Hill and the San Jacinto fault. Gravity and aeromagnetic data corroborate the interpreted location of the San Jacinto fault and better constrain the basin depth along the seismic profile to be as deep as 1.7 km. These data also corroborate other fault locations and the general dip of the basement surface. At least 1.2 km of apparent vertical displacement on the basement is observed across the San Jacinto fault at the profile location. The basin geometry delineated by these data was used to generate modeled ground motions that show peak horizontal amplifications of 2-3.5 above bedrock response in the 0.05- to 1.0-Hz frequency band, which is consistent with recorded earthquake data in the valley.

  10. Activism in Concrete: Student Union, San Francisco State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The San Francisco State University Student Union is a futurist design of two steel space-frame pyramids. Each contains a stairway leading to four partial floors that diminish in size as the pyramid tapers. (Author/MLF)

  11. Salton Seismic Imaging Project Line 6: San Andreas Fault and Northern Coachella Valley Structure, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchings, R. D.; Fuis, G.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Tarnowski, J. M.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Matti, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) is a large-scale, active- and passive-source seismic project designed to image the San Andreas fault (SAF) and adjacent basins (Imperial and Coachella Valleys) in southernmost California. Data and preliminary results from many of the seismic profiles are reported elsewhere (including Fuis et al., Rymer et al., Goldman et al., Langenheim et al., this meeting). Here, we focus on SSIP Line 6, one of four 2-D seismic profiles that were acquired across the Coachella Valley. The 44-km-long, SSIP-Line-6 seismic profile extended from the east flank of Mt. San Jacinto northwest of Palm Springs to the Little San Bernardino Mountains and crossed the SAF (Mission Creek (MCF), Banning (BF), and Garnet Hill (GHF) strands) roughly normal to strike. Data were generated by 10 downhole explosive sources (most spaced about 3 to 5 km apart) and were recorded by approximately 347 Texan seismographs (average spacing 126 m). We used first-arrival refractions to develop a P-wave refraction tomography velocity image of the upper crust along the seismic profile. The seismic data were also stacked and migrated to develop low-fold reflection images of the crust. From the surface to about 7 km depth, P-wave velocities range from about 2.5 km/s to about 7.2 km/s, with the lowest velocities within an ~2-km-deep, ~20-km-wide basin, and the highest velocities below the transition zone from the Coachella Valley to Mt. San Jacinto and within the Little San Bernardino Mountains. The BF and GHF strands bound a shallow sub-basin on the southwestern side of the Coachella Valley, but the underlying shallow-depth (~4 km) basement rocks are P-wave high in velocity (~7.2 km/s). The lack of a low-velocity zone beneath BF and GHF suggests that both faults dip northeastward. In a similar manner, high-velocity basement rocks beneath the Little San Bernardino Mountains suggest that the MCF dips vertically or southwestward. However, there is a pronounced low-velocity zone

  12. Seismic activity of the San Francisco Bay region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Moment magnitude M with objective confidence-level uncertainties are estimated for felt San Francisco Bay region earthquakes using Bakun and Wentworth's (1997) analysis strategy for seismic intensity observations. The frequency-magnitude distribution is well described for M ???5.5 events since 1850 by a Gutenberg-Richter relation with a b-value of 0.90. The seismic moment rate ??M0/yr since 1836 is 2.68 X 1018 N-m/yr (95% confidence range = 1.29 X 1018 N-m/yr to 4.07 X 1018 N-m/yr); the seismic moment rate since 1850 is nearly the same. ??M0/yr in the 56 years before 1906 is about 10 times that in the 70 years after 1906. In contrast, ??M0/yr since 1977 is about equal that in the 56 years before 1906. 80% (1?? = 14%) of the plate-motion moment accumulation rate is available for release in earthquakes. The historical ??M0/yr and the portion of the plate-motion moment accumulation rate available for release in earthquakes are used in a seismic cycle model to estimate the rate of seismic activity in the twenty-first century. High and low rates of future seismic activity are both permissible given the range of possible seismic-cycle recurrence times T and the uncertainties in the historical ??M0 and in the percentage of plate motion available for release in earthquakes. If the historical seismic moment rate is not greater than the estimated 2.68 X 1018 N-m/yr and the percentage of the plate-motion moment accumulation available for release in earthquakes is not less than the estimated 80%, then for all T, the rate of seismic moment release from now until the next 1906-sized shock will be comparable to the rate from 1836 to 1905 when M 6 1/2 shocks occurred every 15 to 20 years.

  13. Late Cenozoic geology of Cajon Pass: implications for tectonics and sedimentation along the San Andreas fault

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, R.J. II

    1986-01-01

    The geology in Cajon Pass, southern California, provides a detailed history of strike-slip activity on the San Andreas fault, compressional deformation associated with the uplift of the central Transverse Ranges and an excellent Cenozoic record of syntectonic sedimentation. Age control was established in all of the sediments deposited since the Early Miocene, using biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, fission-track dating of volcanic ashes, radiocarbon dating, soil development, and the relative stratigraphic and geomorphic position of the units. Detailed mapping revealed that tectonic deformation and sedimentation styles varied through time, reflecting the evolution of the San Andreas fault zone within the Pacific-North American plate boundary and climatic changes. Three distinct phases of the uplift of the San Bernardino Mountains have been recognized, suggesting a long-term interaction between the strike-slip activity on the San Andreas system and the compressional tectonics of the Transverse Ranges. Uplift began in the late Miocene, paused during the Pliocene, recommenced in the earliest Pleistocene and culminated in the late Pleistocene. The average slip rate across the combined San Andreas and San Jacinto faults was 37.5 +/- 2 mm/yr during the Quaternary Period. The Holocene slip rate on the San Andreas fault in Cajon Pass was determined to be 24.5 +/- 3.5 mm/yr. This investigation indicates that the last earthquake associated wit rupture on the San Andreas fault in Cajon Pass occurred around 1700 AD and that the average recurrence interval between earthquakes is between 150 and 200 years. A kinematic model was constructed from the structural and slip rate data developed here that produces internally consistent motions for all of the fault-bounded blocks in southern California.

  14. Change in failure stress on the southern San Andreas fault system caused by the 1992 magnitude = 7.4 Landers earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; King, G.C.P.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The 28 June Landers earthquake brought the San Andreas fault significantly closer to failure near San Bernardino, a site that has not sustained a large shock since 1812. Stress also increased on the San Jacinto fault near San Bernardino and on the San Andreas fault southeast of Palm Springs. Unless creep or moderate earthquakes relieve these stress changes, the next great earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault is likely to be advanced by one to two decades. In contrast, stress on the San Andreas north of Los Angeles dropped, potentially delaying the next great earthquake there by 2 to 10 years.

  15. SNAC: San Mateo Nutrition Activity Curriculum. "Swing Into Nutrition" (Kindergarten - Fifth Grade).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo City Elementary School District, CA.

    The primary goal of the San Mateo Nutrition Activity Curriculum (SNAC) is to assist the development and improvement of healthful food habits among kindergarten through fifth grade students. The curriculum is based on five concepts: food choices and health; factors influencing food choices; food related careers; consumer competencies; and food…

  16. Detecting areas disturbed by mining activities through Landsat images, San Luis Potosi City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Vera, M.-A.

    2009-04-01

    Mining history in San Luis Potosí (Mexico) goes back to more than four centuries, and the accumulation of mining waste poses an important problem to ecological risk prevention. Epithermal deposits are the most common in this region and the impact of mining exploitation must be evaluated to propose sustainable development of the natural resources, which have a strong contribution of the national economy. The state San Luis Potosi is situated in the central part of Mexico between parallels 21°11' and 24°34' of north latitude and 98°23' and 102°14' of west longitude, 424 km northeast from Mexico City. Today is a sprawling city with more than half a million residents. The aim of this study was to analyse land cover and vegetation changes between 1972 and 2000 in San Luis Potosi Valley, using satellite image data. Since large changes in land cover and vegetation are taking place in the Valley and there is a lack of good data, such as maps, statistics and aerial photographs, it was appropriate to use satellite data for assessment of land cover and vegetation to estimate the environmental impact of the mining industry. Field data samples were used to evaluate the change results obtained with the multispectral satellite images. The results show that land cover change in the San Luis Potosi Valley has occurred in the past decade as a result of both natural forces and human activities, which have in turn impacted on the regional sustainable development of the mining resources.

  17. Provenance of the Pendales Fm in the Sinu-San Jacinto Basin of Colombia's Caribbean margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, A.; Schonwalder, D.; Jaramillo, J.; Martens, U.

    2009-12-01

    Petrography of the Pendales Formation at Arroyo Henequén (Atlantico) revealed that conglomeratic lithoarenites and polymictic conglomerates contain detrital quartz, potassium feldspars, plagioclase, serpentinite, chert, epidote, tourmaline, actinolite and volcanic rock fragments. This composition indicates provenance from two sources, one mainly composed of ocean floor materials, and another composed of granites. Twenty U-Pb ages of detrital zircon form a single population ranging 80-65 Ma. This age is interpreted to reflect the time of magmatism of the granitic source. Taking into account paleogeographic reconstructions, the most likely source was the Leeward Antilles Arc. We propose that Pendales Formation was derived from a recycled orogen uplifted by the Pre-Andean orogeny during the Middle Eocene.

  18. The impact of human activities on sediments of San Francisco Bay, California: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Geen, Alexander; Luoma, Samuel N.

    1999-01-01

    This note introduces a set of eight papers devoted to a detailed study of two sediment cores from San Francisco Bay with an overview of the region and a chronology of human activities. Data used in this study to constrain the range of sediment ages at different depths include , and  concentrations in the sediment and the  age of shell fragments. In order of first detectable appearance in the record, the indicators of contamination that were analyzed include PAHs>Hg>Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn>DDT, PCB>foraminiferal Cd/Ca. This study also documents a large memory effect for estuarine contamination caused by sediment mixing and resuspension. Once an estuary such as San Francisco Bay has been contaminated, decades must pass before contaminant levels in surface sediment will return to background levels, even if external contaminant inputs have been entirely eliminated.

  19. Modelling large scale human activity in San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Marta

    2010-03-01

    Diverse group of people with a wide variety of schedules, activities and travel needs compose our cities nowadays. This represents a big challenge for modeling travel behaviors in urban environments; those models are of crucial interest for a wide variety of applications such as traffic forecasting, spreading of viruses, or measuring human exposure to air pollutants. The traditional means to obtain knowledge about travel behavior is limited to surveys on travel journeys. The obtained information is based in questionnaires that are usually costly to implement and with intrinsic limitations to cover large number of individuals and some problems of reliability. Using mobile phone data, we explore the basic characteristics of a model of human travel: The distribution of agents is proportional to the population density of a given region, and each agent has a characteristic trajectory size contain information on frequency of visits to different locations. Additionally we use a complementary data set given by smart subway fare cards offering us information about the exact time of each passenger getting in or getting out of the subway station and the coordinates of it. This allows us to uncover the temporal aspects of the mobility. Since we have the actual time and place of individual's origin and destination we can understand the temporal patterns in each visited location with further details. Integrating two described data set we provide a dynamical model of human travels that incorporates different aspects observed empirically.

  20. Structural model of the San Bernardino basin, California, from analysis of gravity, aeromagnetic, and seismicity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, M.; Matti, J.; Jachens, R.

    2004-01-01

    The San Bernardino basin is an area of Quaternary extension between the San Jacinto and San Andreas Fault zones in southern California. New gravity data are combined with aeromagnetic data to produce two- and three-dimensional models of the basin floor. These models are used to identify specific faults that have normal displacements. In addition, aeromagnetic maps of the basin constrain strike-slip offset on many faults. Relocated seismicity, focal mechanisms, and a seismic reflection profile for the basin area support interpretations of the gravity and magnetic anomalies. The shape of the basin revealed by our interpretations is different from past interpretations, broadening its areal extent while confining the deepest parts to an area along the modern San Jacinto fault, west of the city of San Bernardino. Through these geophysical observations and related geologic information, we propose a model for the development of the basin. The San Jacinto fault-related strike-slip displacements started on fault strands in the basin having a stepping geometry thus forming a pull-apart graben, and finally cut through the graben in a simpler, bending geometry. In this model, the San Bernardino strand of the San Andreas Fault has little influence on the formation of the basin. The deep, central part of the basin resembles classic pull-apart structures and our model describes a high level of detail for this structure that can be compared to other pull-apart structures as well as analog and numerical models in order to better understand timing and kinematics of pull-apart basin formation. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Sequence stratigraphy of a Pliocene delta complex deposited in an active margin setting, Etchegoin and San Joaquin gas sands, San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    Prolific gas sands of the Pliocene Etchegoin and San Joaquin formations of the southern San Joaquin basin, California, are part of a 1300-m thick succession of deltaic sediments that record the final regression of the Pacific Ocean from a tectonically active, restricted basin associated with the California transform margin. Individual field studies, lacking a regional framework and based primarily on electric log data, correlate these gas sands to the extent that individual sands maintain the same stratigraphic level within the succession. However, a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework, constructed from recent 3D-seismic data and detailed well log correlations on the Bakersfield Arch area of the basin, indicates that the Pliocene succession is part of a south/southwest prograding delta complex. Therefore, sands climb up-section in the landward direction and grade laterally from deep-water to shallow-water facies. Because lithofacies boundaries cross chronostratigraphic surfaces, previous interpretations of the reservoir architecture are inaccurate. This model increases predictability of reservoir facies by constraining lithofacies mapping and enables interpretation of the effects on deposition of the integrated and inter-related controls of tectonics, eustatic sea-level change, and sediment supply. With this understanding, a well-defined model of the stratal architecture of the Pliocene succession of the southern San Joaquin basin is now possible.

  2. Sequence stratigraphy of a Pliocene delta complex deposited in an active margin setting, Etchegoin and San Joaquin gas sands, San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.C. )

    1996-01-01

    Prolific gas sands of the Pliocene Etchegoin and San Joaquin formations of the southern San Joaquin basin, California, are part of a 1300-m thick succession of deltaic sediments that record the final regression of the Pacific Ocean from a tectonically active, restricted basin associated with the California transform margin. Individual field studies, lacking a regional framework and based primarily on electric log data, correlate these gas sands to the extent that individual sands maintain the same stratigraphic level within the succession. However, a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework, constructed from recent 3D-seismic data and detailed well log correlations on the Bakersfield Arch area of the basin, indicates that the Pliocene succession is part of a south/southwest prograding delta complex. Therefore, sands climb up-section in the landward direction and grade laterally from deep-water to shallow-water facies. Because lithofacies boundaries cross chronostratigraphic surfaces, previous interpretations of the reservoir architecture are inaccurate. This model increases predictability of reservoir facies by constraining lithofacies mapping and enables interpretation of the effects on deposition of the integrated and inter-related controls of tectonics, eustatic sea-level change, and sediment supply. With this understanding, a well-defined model of the stratal architecture of the Pliocene succession of the southern San Joaquin basin is now possible.

  3. Preliminary geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino 30' x 60' quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Miller, Fred K.

    2003-01-01

    The San Bernardino 30'x60' quadrangle, southern California, is diagonally bisected by the San Andreas Fault Zone, separating the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains, major elements of California's east-oriented Transverse Ranges Province. Included in the southern part of the quadrangle is the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Province and the northeastern part of the oil-producing Los Angeles basin. The northern part of the quadrangle includes the southern part of the Mojave Desert Province. Pre-Quaternary rocks within the San Bernardino quadrangle consist of three extensive, well-defined basement rock assemblages, the San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, and the Peninsular Ranges assemblages, and a fourth assemblage restricted to a narrow block bounded by the active San Andreas Fault and the Mill Creek Fault. Each of these basement rock assemblages is characterized by a relatively unique suite of rocks that was amalgamated by the end of the Cretaceous and (or) early Cenozoic. Some Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks are unique to specific assemblages, and some overlap adjacent assemblages. A few Miocene and Pliocene units cross the boundaries of adjacent assemblages, but are dominant in only one. Tectonic events directly and indirectly related to the San Andreas Fault system have partly dismembered the basement rocks during the Neogene, forming the modern-day physiographic provinces. Rocks of the four basement rock assemblages are divisible into an older suite of Late Cretaceous and older rocks and a younger suite of post-Late Cretaceous rocks. The age span of the older suite varies considerably from assemblage to assemblage, and the point in time that separates the two suites varies slightly. In the Peninsular Ranges, the older rocks were formed from the Paleozoic to the end of Late Cretaceous plutonism, and in the Transverse Ranges over a longer period of time extending from the Proterozoic to metamorphism at the end of the Cretaceous

  4. Virucidal activity of essential oils from aromatic plants of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    García, C C; Talarico, L; Almeida, N; Colombres, S; Duschatzky, C; Damonte, E B

    2003-11-01

    Essential oils obtained from eight aromatic plants of San Luis Province, Argentina, were screened for virucidal activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Junin virus (JUNV) and dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2). The most potent inhibition was observed with the essential oil of Lippia junelliana and Lippia turbinata against JUNV with virucidal concentration 50% (VC(50)) values in the range 14-20 ppm, whereas Aloysia gratissima, Heterotheca latifolia and Tessaria absinthioides inhibited JUNV in the range 52-90 ppm. The virucidal activity was time- and temperature-dependent. The essential oils of A. gratissima, Artemisia douglasiana, Eupatorium patens and T. absinthioides inactivated HSV-1 at 65-125 ppm. However, only A. douglasiana and E. patens had any discernible effect on DEN-2 infectivity with VC(50) values of 60 and 150 ppm, respectively. PMID:14595590

  5. San Marino.

    PubMed

    1985-02-01

    San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to

  6. Geomorphic evidence of active tectonics in the San Gorgonio Pass region of the San Andreas Fault system: an example of discovery-based research in undergraduate teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinen, L. A.; Yule, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Student-conducted research in courses during the first two undergraduate years can increase learning and improve student self-confidence in scientific study, and is recommended for engaging and retaining students in STEM fields (PCAST, 2012). At Pomona College, incorporating student research throughout the geology curriculum tripled the number of students conducting research prior to their senior year that culminated in a professional conference presentation (Reinen et al., 2006). Here we present an example of discovery-based research in Neotectonics, a second-tier course predominantly enrolling first-and second-year students; describe the steps involved in the four week project; and discuss early outcomes of student confidence, engagement and retention. In the San Gorgonio Pass region (SGPR) in southern California, the San Andreas fault undergoes a transition from predominantly strike-slip to a complex system of faults with significant dip-slip, resulting in diffuse deformation and raising the question of whether a large earthquake on the San Andreas could propagate through the region (Yule, 2009). In spring 2014, seven students in the Neotectonics course conducted original research investigating quantifiable geomorphic evidence of tectonic activity in the SGPR. Students addressed questions of [1] unequal uplift in the San Bernardino Mountains, [2] fault activity indicated by stream knick points, [3] the role of fault style on mountain front sinuosity, and [4] characteristic earthquake slip determined via fault scarp degradation models. Students developed and revised individual projects, collaborated with each other on methods, and presented results in a public forum. A final class day was spent reviewing the projects and planning future research directions. Pre- and post-course surveys show increases in students' self-confidence in the design, implementation, and presentation of original scientific inquiries. 5 of 6 eligible students participated in research the

  7. Geometry of the southern San Andreas fault and its implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenheim, V. E.; Dorsey, R. J.; Fuis, G. S.; Cooke, M. L.; Fattaruso, L.; Barak, S.

    2015-12-01

    The southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) provides rich opportunities for studying the geometry and connectivity of fault stepovers and intersections, including recently recognized NE tilting of the Salton block between the SSAF and San Jacinto fault (SJF) that likely results from slight obliquity of relative plate motion to the strike of the SSAF. Fault geometry and predictions of whether the SSAF will rupture through the restraining bend in San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) are controversial, with significant implications for seismic hazard. The evolution of faulting in SGP has led to various models of strain accommodation, including clockwise rotation of fault-bounded blocks east of the restraining bend, and generation of faults that siphon strike slip away from the restraining bend onto the SJF (also parallel to the SSAF). Complex deformation is not restricted to the upper crust but extends to mid- and lower-crustal depths according to magnetic data and ambient-noise surface-wave tomography. Initiation of the SJF ~1.2 Ma led to formation of the relatively intact Salton block, and end of extension on the West Salton detachment fault on the west side of Coachella Valley. Geologic and geomorphic data show asymmetry of the southern Santa Rosa Mountains, with a steep fault-bounded SW flank produced by active uplift, and gentler topographic gradients on the NE flank with tilted, inactive late Pleistocene fans that are incised by modern upper fan channels. Gravity data indicate the basin floor beneath Coachella Valley is also asymmetric, with a gently NE-dipping basin floor bound by a steep SSAF; seismic-reflection data suggest that NE tilting took place during Quaternary time. 3D numerical modeling predicts gentle NE dips in the Salton block that result from the slight clockwise orientation of relative motion across a NE-dipping SSAF. A NE dip of the SSAF, supported by various geophysical datasets, would reduce shaking in Coachella Valley compared to a vertical fault.

  8. Walking for Transportation Among Latino Adults in San Diego County: Who Meets Physical Activity Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Roesch, Scott; Patrick, Kevin; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Elder, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Background U.S. Latinos engage in non-leisure-time walking (NLTW) more than other ethno-racial groups. Studies are needed to explore factors associated with NLTW to inform interventions for effective physical activity promotion. Purpose To examine the social-ecological correlates of NLTW among Mexican-origin Latinos. Methods Individual, social, and environmental level factors and PA were assessed in a telephone survey completed by 672 Mexican-origin adults randomly sampled in San Diego County. Data were collected in 2006 and analyzed in 2009. Results Participants were mostly female (71%), with an average age of 39 years. Less than one third met PA guidelines for NLTW (29%). Structural equation modeling showed that NLTW was positively associated with being female, but negatively associated with living in the U.S. ≥12 years, and being U.S.-born. Conclusions In this sample NLTW differed by various indicators of acculturation and gender. These findings might help inform the development of interventions to promote NLTW and thus physical activity in Mexican-origin adults. PMID:21885880

  9. San Cristobal Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A white plume of smoke, from San Cristobal Volcano (13.0N, 87.5W) on the western coast of Nicaragua, blows westward along the Nicaraguan coast just south of the Gulf of Fonseca and the Honduran border. San Csistobal is a strato volcano some 1,745 meters high and is frequently active.

  10. Holocene activity of the Rose Canyon fault zone in San Diego, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindvall, Scott C.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    1995-12-01

    The Rose Canyon fault zone in San Diego, California, has many well-expressed geomorphic characteristics of an active strike-slip fault, including scarps, offset and deflected drainages and channel walls, pressure ridges, a closed depression, and vegetation lineaments. Geomorphic expression of the fault zone from Mount Soledad south to Mission Bay indicates that the Mount Soledad strand is the most active. A network of trenches excavated across the Mount Soledad strand in Rose Creek demonstrate a minimum of 8.7 m of dextral slip in a distinctive early to middle Holocene gravel-filled channel that crosses the fault zone. The gravel-filled channel was preserved within and east of the fault but was removed west of the fault zone by erosion or possibly grading during development. Consequently, the actual displacement of the channel could be greater than 8.7 m. Radiocarbon dates on detrital charcoal recovered from the sediments beneath the channel yield a maximum calibrated age of about 8.1±0.2 kyr. The minimum amount of slip along with the maximum age yield a minimum slip rate of 1.07±0.03 mm/yr on this strand of the Rose Canyon fault zone for much of Holocene time. Other strands of the Rose Canyon fault zone, which are east and west of our site, may also have Holocene activity. Based on an analysis of the geomorphology of fault traces within the Rose Canyon fault zone, along with the results of our trenching study, we estimate the maximum likely slip rate at about 2 mm/yr and a best estimate of about 1.5 mm/yr. Stratigraphie evidence of at least three events is present during the past 8.1 kyr. The most recent surface rupture displaces the modern A horizon (topsoil), suggesting that this event probably occurred within the past 500 years. Stratigraphie and structural relationships also indicate the occurrence of a scarp-forming event at about 8.1 kyr, prior to deposition of the gravel-filled channel that was used as a piercing line. A third event is indicated by the

  11. Local versus regional active stress field in 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well (southern Apennines, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, S.; Montone, P.; Mariucci, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the local stress field in a peculiar sector of the southern Apennines by analyzing borehole breakouts, fractures and logging data along the San Gregorio Magno 1 deep well, and to compare the achieved stress field with the regional one. The study area is characterized by diffuse low-Magnitude seismicity, although in historical times it has been repeatedly struck by moderate to large earthquakes. We have analyzed in detail the 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well drilled in 1996-97 by ENI S.p.A. and located very close (1.3 km away) to the Irpinia Fault. This fault was responsible of the strongest earthquake happened in this area, the 23rd November 1980 M6.9 earthquake that produced the first unequivocal historical surface faulting ever documented in Italy. The mainshock enucleated on a fault 38 km-long with a strike of 308° and 60-70° northeast-dipping, consistent with a NE-SW T-axis and a normal faulting tectonic regime. Borehole breakouts, active faults and focal mechanism solutions have allowed to define the present-day stress along and around the San Gregorio Magno 1 well and other analysis (logging data) to discriminate the presence of fracture zones and/or faults at depth. We have considered data from 1200m to the bottom of San Gregorio Magno 1 well. Our analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts shows an inhomogeneous direction of minimum horizontal stress (N359+-31°) orientation along the well. This direction is moderately consistent with the Shmin-trend determined from breakouts in other wells in this region and also with the regional active stress field inferred from active faults and earthquake focal plane solutions (N44 Shmin oriented). For this reason we have computed for each breakout zone the difference between the local trend and the regional one; comparing these breakout rotations with the spikes or changing trend of logs we have identified possible fractures or faults at different depths. We have correlated

  12. Quaternary landscape development, alluvial fan chronology and erosion of the Mecca Hills at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Harrison J.; Owen, Lewis A.; Dietsch, Craig; Beck, Richard A.; Caffee, Marc A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Mahan, Shannon A.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative geomorphic analysis combined with cosmogenic nuclide 10Be-based geochronology and denudation rates have been used to further the understanding of the Quaternary landscape development of the Mecca Hills, a zone of transpressional uplift along the southern end of the San Andreas Fault, in southern California. The similar timing of convergent uplifts along the San Andreas Fault with the initiation of the sub-parallel San Jacinto Fault suggest a possible link between the two tectonic events. The ages of alluvial fans and the rates of catchment-wide denudation have been integrated to assess the relative influence of climate and tectonic uplift on the development of catchments within the Mecca Hills. Ages for major geomorphic surfaces based on 10Be surface exposure dating of boulders and 10Be depth profiles define the timing of surface stabilization to 2.6 +5.6/-1.3 ka (Qyf1 surface), 67.2 ± 5.3 ka (Qvof2 surface), and 280 ± 24 ka (Qvof1 surface). Comparison of 10Be measurements from active channel deposits (Qac) and fluvial terraces (Qt) illustrate a complex history of erosion, sediment storage, and sediment transport in this environment. Beryllium-10 catchment-wide denudation rates range from 19.9 ± 3.2 to 149 ± 22.5 m/Ma and demonstrate strong correlations with mean catchment slope and with total active fault length normalized by catchment area. The lack of strong correlation with other geomorphic variables suggests that tectonic uplift and rock weakening have the greatest control. The currently measured topography and denudation rates across the Mecca Hills may be most consistent with a model of radial topographic growth in contrast to a model based on the rapid uplift and advection of crust.

  13. Quaternary landscape development, alluvial fan chronology and erosion of the Mecca Hills at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Harrison J.; Owen, Lewis; Dietsch, Craig; Beck, Richard A.; Caffee, Marc A.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative geomorphic analysis combined with cosmogenic nuclide 10Be-based geochronology and denudation rates have been used to further the understanding of the Quaternary landscape development of the Mecca Hills, a zone of transpressional uplift along the southern end of the San Andreas Fault, in southern California. The similar timing of convergent uplifts along the San Andreas Fault with the initiation of the sub-parallel San Jacinto Fault suggest a possible link between the two tectonic events. The ages of alluvial fans and the rates of catchment-wide denudation have been integrated to assess the relative influence of climate and tectonic uplift on the development of catchments within the Mecca Hills. Ages for major geomorphic surfaces based on 10Be surface exposure dating of boulders and 10Be depth profiles define the timing of surface stabilization to 2.6 +5.6/–1.3 ka (Qyf1 surface), 67.2 ± 5.3 ka (Qvof2 surface), and 280 ± 24 ka (Qvof1 surface). Comparison of 10Be measurements from active channel deposits (Qac) and fluvial terraces (Qt) illustrate a complex history of erosion, sediment storage, and sediment transport in this environment. Beryllium-10 catchment-wide denudation rates range from 19.9 ± 3.2 to 149 ± 22.5 m/Ma and demonstrate strong correlations with mean catchment slope and with total active fault length normalized by catchment area. The lack of strong correlation with other geomorphic variables suggests that tectonic uplift and rock weakening have the greatest control. The currently measured topography and denudation rates across the Mecca Hills may be most consistent with a model of radial topographic growth in contrast to a model based on the rapid uplift and advection of crust.

  14. Pore-pressure sensitivities to dynamic strains: observations in active tectonic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbour, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Triggered seismicity arising from dynamic stresses is often explained by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, where elevated pore pressures reduce the effective strength of faults in fluid-saturated rock. The seismic response of a fluid-rock system naturally depends on its hydro-mechanical properties, but accurately assessing how pore-fluid pressure responds to applied stress over large scales in situ remains a challenging task; hence, spatial variations in response are not well understood, especially around active faults. Here I analyze previously unutilized records of dynamic strain and pore-pressure from regional and teleseismic earthquakes at Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) stations from 2006 through 2012 to investigate variations in response along the Pacific/North American tectonic plate boundary. I find robust scaling-response coefficients between excess pore pressure and dynamic strain at each station that are spatially correlated: around the San Andreas and San Jacinto fault systems, the response is lowest in regions of the crust undergoing the highest rates of secular shear strain. PBO stations in the Parkfield instrument cluster are at comparable distances to the San Andreas fault (SAF), and spatial variations there follow patterns in dextral creep rates along the fault, with the highest response in the actively creeping section, which is consistent with a narrowing zone of strain accumulation seen in geodetic velocity profiles. At stations in the San Juan Bautista (SJB) and Anza instrument clusters, the response depends non-linearly on the inverse fault-perpendicular distance, with the response decreasing towards the fault; the SJB cluster is at the northern transition from creeping-to-locked behavior along the SAF, where creep rates are at moderate to low levels, and the Anza cluster is around the San Jacinto fault, where to date there have been no statistically significant creep rates observed at the surface. These results suggest that the strength

  15. Ground-water outflow, San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area, upper Santa Ana Valley, Southern California, 1927 through 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Fenzel, F.W.

    1972-01-01

    The San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area is in the upper Santa Ana Valley, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, Calif., where the Yucaipa and San Timoteo-Beaumont ground-water basins border Bunker .Hill basin on the south between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The area is broken by numerous faults, the topography is rough, and in a large part of the area few wells had been drilled prior to 196S. The alluvial deposits, which constitute the aquifers in the area, range in thickness from 0 where they lap onto exposed bedrock hills to about 1,000 feet. Beneath the southern part of the area near the San Jacinto fault the total thickness of alluvial and lacustrine deposits may be as much as 6,000 feet. The purpose of this study was to estimate ground-water outflow by an indirect method not involving balancing of the hydrologic budget. For this purpose it was necessary to estimate the permeability of the aquifer materials, the average annual hydraulic gradient, and the cross-sectional area through which the flow occurs; these values were estimated for five segments along a line of section between the San Jacinto fault and Crafton Hills. To provide data for the outflow estimates, several miles of reflection and refraction seismic traverses were made along and across the outflow section. Nineteen deep and shallow test holes were drilled; one of the deep test holes and several existing wells were pumped to obtain data on aquifer permeability. The estimated average permeabilities of the aquifer materials range from 5 gallons per day per square foot for the lower part of the San Timoteo beds of Frick (1921) and 40 gallons per day per square foot for the older alluvium to 220 gallons per day per square foot for the upper part of the San Timoteo beds. The estimated outflow in 1927 was 8,150 acre-feet. By 1967 the estimated total outflow was 5,350 acre-feet, a reduction of approximately 34 percent. During the 12-year period 1956 through 1967, however, the annual outflow

  16. Map showing recently active breaks along the San Andreas Fault between Pt. Delgada and Bolinas Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Robert D.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    1970-01-01

    This strip map is one of a series of maps showing recently active fault breaks along the San Andreas and other active faults in California. It is designed to inform persons who are concerned with land use near the fault of the location of those fault breaks that have moved recently. The lines on the map are lines of rupture and creep that can be identified by field evidence and that clearly affect the present surface of the land. Map users should keep in mind that these lines are intended primarily as guides to help locate the fault; the mapped lines are not necessarily shown with the precision demanded by some engineering or land utilization needs.

  17. The Eastern California Shear Zone as the northward extension of the southern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, W.; Savage, J. C.; Simpson, R. W.

    2016-04-01

    Cluster analysis offers an agnostic way to organize and explore features of the current GPS velocity field without reference to geologic information or physical models using information only contained in the velocity field itself. We have used cluster analysis of the Southern California Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field to determine the partitioning of Pacific-North America relative motion onto major regional faults. Our results indicate the large-scale kinematics of the region is best described with two boundaries of high velocity gradient, one centered on the Coachella section of the San Andreas Fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone and the other defined by the San Jacinto Fault south of Cajon Pass and the San Andreas Fault farther north. The ~120 km long strand of the San Andreas between Cajon Pass and Coachella Valley (often termed the San Bernardino and San Gorgonio sections) is thus currently of secondary importance and carries lesser amounts of slip over most or all of its length. We show these first order results are present in maps of the smoothed GPS velocity field itself. They are also generally consistent with currently available, loosely bounded geologic and geodetic fault slip rate estimates that alone do not provide useful constraints on the large-scale partitioning we show here. Our analysis does not preclude the existence of smaller blocks and more block boundaries in Southern California. However, attempts to identify smaller blocks along and adjacent to the San Gorgonio section were not successful.

  18. The Eastern California Shear Zone as the northward extension of the southern San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Wayne R.; Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Cluster analysis offers an agnostic way to organize and explore features of the current GPS velocity field without reference to geologic information or physical models using information only contained in the velocity field itself. We have used cluster analysis of the Southern California Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field to determine the partitioning of Pacific-North America relative motion onto major regional faults. Our results indicate the large-scale kinematics of the region is best described with two boundaries of high velocity gradient, one centered on the Coachella section of the San Andreas Fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone and the other defined by the San Jacinto Fault south of Cajon Pass and the San Andreas Fault farther north. The ~120 km long strand of the San Andreas between Cajon Pass and Coachella Valley (often termed the San Bernardino and San Gorgonio sections) is thus currently of secondary importance and carries lesser amounts of slip over most or all of its length. We show these first order results are present in maps of the smoothed GPS velocity field itself. They are also generally consistent with currently available, loosely bounded geologic and geodetic fault slip rate estimates that alone do not provide useful constraints on the large-scale partitioning we show here. Our analysis does not preclude the existence of smaller blocks and more block boundaries in Southern California. However, attempts to identify smaller blocks along and adjacent to the San Gorgonio section were not successful.

  19. Uranium concentrations and /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios in fault-associated groundwater as possible earthquake precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Finkel, R.C.

    1981-05-01

    In order to assess the utility of uranium isotopes as fluid phase earthquake precursors, uranium concentrations and /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios have been monitored on a monthly or bimonthly basis in water from 24 wells and springs associated with Southern California fault zones. Uranium concentrations vary from 0.002 ppb at Indian Canyon Springs on the San Jacinto fault to 8.3 ppb at Lake Hughes well on the San Andreas fault in the Palmdale area. /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios vary from 0.88 at Agua Caliente Springs on the Elsinore fault to 5.4 at Niland Slab well on the San Andreas fault in the Imperial Valley. There was one large earthquake in the study area during 1979, the 15 October 1979 M = 6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake. Correlated with this event, uranium concentrations varied by a factor of more than 60 and activity ratios by a factor of 3 at the Niland Slab site, about 70 km from the epicenter. At the other sites monitored, uranium concentrations varied in time, but with no apparent pattern, while uranium activity ratios remained essentially constant throughout the monitoring period.

  20. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 3. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 84 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 32 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 25 gaging stations; and data for 43 partial-record stations comprised of 18 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, 14 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  1. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 3. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 78 gaging stations; stage only at 7 gaging stations; stage and contents at 28 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 27 gaging stations; and data for 48 partial-record stations comprised of 19 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, and 17 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  2. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 2. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 74 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 21 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 32 gaging stations; and data for 73 partial-record stations comprised of 43 flood-hydrograph, 9 low-flow, and 16 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  3. Evidence and dating of mid-Cretaceous tectonic activity in the San Rafael Swell, Emery County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, J.G. ); Kirkland, J.I. ); Kauffman, E.G. )

    1990-04-01

    Evidence of tectonic activity in the form of recycled conglomerates has been found in middle Cretaceous deposits on the western flank of the San Rafael Swell. These conglomerates, present in the upper part of the Dakota Formation and in the overlying basal Mancos Shale (Tununk Member), are separated by an earliest Turonian unconformity. The conglomerates appear to be derived from the Lower Cretaceous Buckhorn Conglomerate, or similar conglomerates, which were re-exposed by latest Cenomanian uplift. Coarse clastics provided to the nearshore facies of the Dakota Formation by coastal rivers are preserved as a coarsening upward sequence. Continued uplift eventually caused a local marine regression by temporarily inhibiting the initial (latest Cenomanian) transgression of the Greenhorn Sea. In subaerially exposed environments pebbles and cobbles from the Buckhorn were distributed across the coastal floodplain by rivers. These clasts were reworked into a basal lag deposit when renewed transgression of the Greenhorn Sea occurred during the late early Turonian.

  4. Biological assessment of the effects of activities conducted at Camp Roberts Army National Guard training site, Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties, California, on the endangered san joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 imposes several requirements on federal agencies concerning listed threatened and endangered species and their designated critical habitat. Camp Roberts is operated by the California Army National Guard (CA ARNG) with funding from the National Guard Bureau (NGB). Its primary mission to provide a site where military training requirements of the western United States can be met. The presence of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) was confirmed in 1960 and the distribution and abundance of the species increased over the next two decades. The Secretary of Interior has not designated any critical habitat for San Joaquin kit fox. The major objective of this Biological Assessment is to provide FWS with sufficient information concerning the possible impacts that routine military training, maintenance and repair activities, and proposed construction projects may have on the San Joaquin kit fox and its essential habitat at Camp Roberts so that formal consultation with NGB and CA ARNG can begin. FWS will use this information as part of the basis for issuing a Biological Opinion which will include an incidental take provision. 45 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Monooxygenase activity and contaminant burdens of pipping heron embryos in Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nvcticorax nvcticorax) pipping embryos were studied from undisturbed (Chincoteague National Wildl ife Refuge, VA) and industrialized (Cat Island, Green Bay WI, and Bair and W. Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA) locations. Hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) , ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, (EROD), benzyloxyROD (BROD), pentoxyROD (PROD) and ethoxycoumarinOD (ECOD) activities and burdens of organochlorines (embryo + yolk sac - liver) were quantified. AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD were induced up to 100-fold (P<.O5) in embryos from Cat Island compared to the other sites. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p?DDE were detected in Cat Island embryos. Monooxygenase activities (AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD) and PCB concentrations were significantly correlated (r=O.50 to 0.72). These and other data indicate that monooxygenases may be rapid and inexpensive biomarkers of exposure to some PCB congeners. Current efforts include determination of PCB congeners and other contaminants in these embryos, additional characterization of the induced P-450 isozymes, and expanding the study to include heron embryos and nestlings at other estuaries.

  6. Monooxygenase activity of black-crowned night-heron (BCNH) nestlings in Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate cytochrome P-450 related parameters as biomarkers of pollutant exposure, rates of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), benzyloxyROD (BROD), pentoxyROD (PROD) and ethoxycoumarinOD (ECOD) were studied in 10-day-old BCNHs (Nycticorax nycticorax). Nestlings were collected from Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA ('controls') and from polluted sites including. Cat Island, Green Bay, WI, and Bair and West Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA. Livers were frozen (-70.C) for monooxygenase assays and SDS-PAGE. Microsomal AHH and BROD activities were greater (P2 standard deviations from the control mean (induced up to 3-fold). EROD, PROD and ECOD did not differ among sites. Absence of an EROD response with AHH and BROD induction in BCNHs is different than responses in other species. The association of pollutant burdens with P-450 parameters is being studied. These biomarkers may serve as a rapid screen of exposure in a national contaminant biomonitoring program and other assessment activities.

  7. SAN-RL: combining spreading activation networks and reinforcement learning to learn configurable behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J.; Gaines, D. M.; Wilkes, M.; Kusumalnukool, K.; Thongchai, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2001-01-01

    This approach provides the agent with a causal structure, the spreading activation network, relating goals to the actions that can achieve those goals. This enables the agent to select actions relative to the goal priorities.

  8. Fo Shou San, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction, Protects Endothelial Function through Increasing Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Cathy W. C.; Xu, Li; Tian, Xiao Yu; Liu, Jian; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Lau, Chi Wai; Lau, David T. W.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Huang, Yu; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui) in a ratio of 2∶3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, isolated from rats. Like radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol, FSS attenuated homocysteine-stimulated ROS generation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and it also stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) as measured by fluorescence dye and biochemical assay. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of both Akt kinase and endothelial NO synthases (eNOS) were markedly increased by FSS treatment, which was abolished by an Akt inhibitor triciribine. Likewise, triciribine reversed FSS-induced NO production in HUVECs. Finally, FSS elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels in HUVECs, and the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM inhibited the FSS-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. The present results show that this ancient herbal decoction benefits endothelial function through increased activity of Akt kinase and eNOS; this effect is causally via a rise of intracellular Ca2+ and a reduction of ROS. PMID:23284736

  9. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, Leslie G.

    1982-07-01

    The California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) selected the San Bernardino area for detailed geothermal resource investigation because the area was known to contain promising geothermal resource sites, the area contained a large population center, and the City of San Bernardino had expressed serious interest in developing the area's geothermal resource. Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs, South San Bernardino, and Harlem Hot Springs--in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the South San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142 C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the South San Bernardino geothermal area was 56 C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal areas was 49.5 C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well.

  10. Southern San Andreas Fault evaluation field activity: approaches to measuring small geomorphic offsets--challenges and recommendations for active fault studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scharer, Katherine M.; Salisbury, J. Barrett; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    In southern California, where fast slip rates and sparse vegetation contribute to crisp expression of faults and microtopography, field and high‐resolution topographic data (<1  m/pixel) increasingly are used to investigate the mark left by large earthquakes on the landscape (e.g., Zielke et al., 2010; Zielke et al., 2012; Salisbury, Rockwell, et al., 2012, Madden et al., 2013). These studies measure offset streams or other geomorphic features along a stretch of a fault, analyze the offset values for concentrations or trends along strike, and infer that the common magnitudes reflect successive surface‐rupturing earthquakes along that fault section. Wallace (1968) introduced the use of such offsets, and the challenges in interpreting their “unique complex history” with offsets on the Carrizo section of the San Andreas fault; these were more fully mapped by Sieh (1978) and followed by similar field studies along other faults (e.g., Lindvall et al., 1989; McGill and Sieh, 1991). Results from such compilations spurred the development of classic fault behavior models, notably the characteristic earthquake and slip‐patch models, and thus constitute an important component of the long‐standing contrast between magnitude–frequency models (Schwartz and Coppersmith, 1984; Sieh, 1996; Hecker et al., 2013). The proliferation of offset datasets has led earthquake geologists to examine the methods and approaches for measuring these offsets, uncertainties associated with measurement of such features, and quality ranking schemes (Arrowsmith and Rockwell, 2012; Salisbury, Arrowsmith, et al., 2012; Gold et al., 2013; Madden et al., 2013). In light of this, the Southern San Andreas Fault Evaluation (SoSAFE) project at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) organized a combined field activity and workshop (the “Fieldshop”) to measure offsets, compare techniques, and explore differences in interpretation. A thorough analysis of the measurements from the

  11. Study on the antiviral activity of San Huang Yi Gan Capsule against hepatitis B virus with seropharmacological method

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Seropharmacology arising recently is a novel method of in vitro pharmacological study on Chinese herb using drug-containing animal serum. As seropharmacology possesses the advantages of experiments in vitro and in vivo, it is increasingly applied in pharmacological research on Chinese medicine. However, some issues of seropharmacology remain controversial and need to be clearly defined. San Huang Yi Gan Capsule (SHYGC) is a Chinese herbal formula with antiviral property against hepatitis B virus (HBV), but little is known about the mechanism underlying its anti-HBV activity. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the action mechanism of SHYGC using seropharmacological method and systematically address the methodology of preparing drug-containing serum. Methods New Zealand rabbits were orally administrated SHYGC with various regimens, followed by preparation of SHYGC-containing rabbit sera with a variety of methods. After HBV-producing HepG2 2.2.15 cells were treated with SHYGC-containing sera or entecavir for 9 days, the levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA and the activity of DNA Polymerase were determined in HepG2 2.2.15 cells-conditioned media. Results An optimally standardized method of preparing drug-containing serum was raised for seropharmacology, with which SHYGC was demonstrated to suppress HBsAg expression, HBV DNA replication and DNA Polymerase activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions This seropharmacological study shows SHYGC is a potentially powerful anti-HBV agent. Additionally, seropharmacology is a promising pharmacological method with a broad range of advantages, and it can be widely used in biomedical research, if combined with pharmacokinetics. PMID:24073917

  12. SNAC: San Mateo Nutrition Activity Curriculum. "Swing Into Nutrition" (Parent/Community In-Service Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo City Elementary School District, CA.

    This inservice guide for elementary school teachers provides a competency based nutrition course to be used to increase parent/community participation in nutrition education activities and to lead parents toward providing better nutrition for themselves and their children. The curriculum is presented in six lessons which cover the following…

  13. Somali Perspectives on Physical Activity: Photovoice to Address Barriers and Resources in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kate; Mohamed, Amina Sheik; Dawson, Darius B.; Syme, Maggie; Abdi, Sahra; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background Though many immigrants enter the U.S. with a healthy body weight, this health advantage disappears the longer they reside in the U.S. To better understand the complexities of obesity change within a cultural framework, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, Photovoice, was utilized focusing on physical activity among Muslim Somali women. Objectives The CBPR partnership was formed to identify barriers and resources to engaging in physical activity with goals of advocacy and program development. Methods Muslim Somali women (n = 8) were recruited to participate, trained and provided cameras, and engaged in group discussions about the scenes they photographed. Results Participants identified several barriers, including safety concerns, minimal culturally appropriate resources, and financial constraints. Strengths included public resources and a community support system. The CBPR process identified opportunities and challenges to collaboration and dissemination processes. Conclusions The findings laid the framework for subsequent program development and community engagement. PMID:25981428

  14. Effect of Mining Activities in Biotic Communities of Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; González-Mille, Donaji J.; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César A.; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Cilia-López, V. Gabriela; Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities worldwide. During its different stages numerous impacts are generated to the environment. The activities in the region have generated a great amount of mining residues, which have caused severe pollution and health effects in both human population and biotic components. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of mining activities on biotic communities within the district of Villa de la Paz. The results showed that the concentrations of As and Pb in soil were higher than the national regulations for urban or agricultural areas. The bioavailability of these metals was certified by the presence of them in the roots of species of plants and in kidneys and livers of wild rodents. In regard to the community analysis, the sites that were located close to the mining district of Villa de la Paz registered a lower biological diversity, in both plants and wild rodents, aside from showing a change in the species composition of plant communities. The results of this study are evidence of the impact of mining on biotic communities, and the need to take into account the wildlife in the assessment of contaminated sites. PMID:24592381

  15. Effect of mining activities in biotic communities of Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; González-Mille, Donaji J; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César A; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Cilia-López, V Gabriela; Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities worldwide. During its different stages numerous impacts are generated to the environment. The activities in the region have generated a great amount of mining residues, which have caused severe pollution and health effects in both human population and biotic components. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of mining activities on biotic communities within the district of Villa de la Paz. The results showed that the concentrations of As and Pb in soil were higher than the national regulations for urban or agricultural areas. The bioavailability of these metals was certified by the presence of them in the roots of species of plants and in kidneys and livers of wild rodents. In regard to the community analysis, the sites that were located close to the mining district of Villa de la Paz registered a lower biological diversity, in both plants and wild rodents, aside from showing a change in the species composition of plant communities. The results of this study are evidence of the impact of mining on biotic communities, and the need to take into account the wildlife in the assessment of contaminated sites.

  16. Observed and simulated ground motions in the San Bernardino basin region for the Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, R.W.; Wald, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the MW 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake, peak ground velocities recorded at sites in the central San Bernardino basin region were up to 2 times larger and had significantly longer durations of strong shaking than sites just outside the basin. To better understand the effects of 3D structure on the long-period ground-motion response in this region, we have performed finite-difference simulations for this earthquake. The simulations are numerically accurate for periods of 2 sec and longer and incorporate the detailed spatial and temporal heterogeneity of source rupture, as well as complex 3D basin structure. Here, we analyze three models of the San Bernardino basin: model A (with structural constraints from gravity and seismic reflection data), model F (water well and seismic refraction data), and the Southern California Earthquake Center version 3 model (hydrologic and seismic refraction data). Models A and F are characterized by a gradual increase in sediment thickness toward the south with an abrupt step-up in the basement surface across the San Jacinto fault. The basin structure in the SCEC version 3 model has a nearly uniform sediment thickness of 1 km with little basement topography along the San Jacinto fault. In models A and F, we impose a layered velocity structure within the sediments based on the seismic refraction data and an assumed depth-dependent Vp/Vs ratio. Sediment velocities within the SCEC version 3 model are given by a smoothly varying rule-based function that is calibrated to the seismic refraction measurements. Due to computational limitations, the minimum shear-wave velocity is fixed at 600 m/sec in all of the models. Ground-motion simulations for both models A and F provide a reasonably good match to the amplitude and waveform characteristics of the recorded motions. In these models, surface waves are generated as energy enters the basin through the gradually sloping northern margin. Due to the basement step along the San Jacinto fault, the

  17. Cell-Based Screening Identifies the Active Ingredients from Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula Shixiao San as the Inhibitors of Atherosclerotic Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofan; Zhang, Ruowen; Gu, Liqiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we performed a phenotypic screening in human endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low density lipoprotein (an in vitro model of atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction) to identify the effective compounds in Shixiao San. After investigating the suitability and reliability of the cell-based screening method using atorvastatin as the positive control drug, this method was applied in screening Shixiao San and its extracts. The treatment of n-butanol fraction on endothelial cells exhibited stronger healing effects against oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced insult when compared with other fractions. Cell viability, the level of nitric oxide, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1 were measured, respectively. The assays revealed n-butanol fraction significantly elevated the survival ratio of impaired cells in culture. In parallel, n-butanol fraction exhibited the highest inhibition of inflammation. The generation of prostaglandin-2 and adhesion molecule (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1) was obviously declined. Furthermore, n-butanol fraction suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and restored the activity of superoxide dismutase. Compounds identification of the n-butanol fraction was carried out by ultra high liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The active ingredients including quercetin-3-O-(2G-α-l-rhamnosyl)-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-neohesperidoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside revealed the ability of anti-atherosclerosis after exposing on endothelial cells. The current work illustrated the pharmacology effect of Shixiao San and clearly indicated the major active components in Shixiao San. More importantly, the proposed cell-based screening method might be particularly suitable for fast evaluating the anti-atherosclerosis efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicines and screening out the interesting

  18. Cell-based screening identifies the active ingredients from Traditional Chinese Medicine formula Shixiao San as the inhibitors of atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofan; Zhang, Ruowen; Gu, Liqiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we performed a phenotypic screening in human endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low density lipoprotein (an in vitro model of atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction) to identify the effective compounds in Shixiao San. After investigating the suitability and reliability of the cell-based screening method using atorvastatin as the positive control drug, this method was applied in screening Shixiao San and its extracts. The treatment of n-butanol fraction on endothelial cells exhibited stronger healing effects against oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced insult when compared with other fractions. Cell viability, the level of nitric oxide, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1 were measured, respectively. The assays revealed n-butanol fraction significantly elevated the survival ratio of impaired cells in culture. In parallel, n-butanol fraction exhibited the highest inhibition of inflammation. The generation of prostaglandin-2 and adhesion molecule (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1) was obviously declined. Furthermore, n-butanol fraction suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and restored the activity of superoxide dismutase. Compounds identification of the n-butanol fraction was carried out by ultra high liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The active ingredients including quercetin-3-O-(2G-α-l-rhamnosyl)-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-neohesperidoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside revealed the ability of anti-atherosclerosis after exposing on endothelial cells. The current work illustrated the pharmacology effect of Shixiao San and clearly indicated the major active components in Shixiao San. More importantly, the proposed cell-based screening method might be particularly suitable for fast evaluating the anti-atherosclerosis efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicines and screening out the interesting

  19. Tracking on non-active collaborative objects from San Fernando Laser station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Manuel; Quijano, Manuel; Cortina, Luis M.; Pazos, Antonio A.; Martín-Davila, José

    2016-04-01

    The Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy (ROA) works on satellite geodesy from the early days of the space age, when the first artificial satellite tracking telescope was installed in 1958: the Baker-Nunn camera. In 1975 a French satellite Laser ranging (SLR) station was installed and operated at ROA . Since 1980, ROA has been operating this instrument which was upgraded to a third generation and it is still keep into a continuous update to reach the highest level of operability. Since then ROA has participated in different space geodesy campaigns through the International Laser Service Stations (ILRS) or its European regional organization (EUROLAS), tracking a number of artificial satellites types : ERS, ENVISAT, LAGEOS, TOPEX- POSEIDON to name but a few. Recently we opened a new field of research: space debris tracking, which is receiving increasing importance and attention from international space agencies. The main problem is the relatively low accuracy of common used methods. It is clear that improving the predicted orbit accuracy is necessary to fulfill our aims (avoiding unnecessary anti-collision maneuvers,..). Following results obtained by other colleagues (Austria, China, USA,...) we proposed to share our time-schedule using our satellite ranging station to obtain data which will make orbital elements predictions far more accurate (sub-meter accuracy), while we still keep our tracking routines over active satellites. In this communication we report the actions fulfill until nowadays.

  20. Roughness of Frictional Sliding Surfaces in Actively Creeping Gouge of the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadizadeh, J.; Candela, T.; Renard, F.

    2012-12-01

    We studied microstructure and morphology of sliding surfaces in SAFOD gouge from 3197.2m MD within the actively creeping interval SDZ. The gouge is composed of Mg-rich-smectite clays interspersed with rounded lithic fragments and serpentinite porphyroclasts. At core scale, the gouge has a granular texture with anastomosing slickenside surfaces. Microscopically, the gouge shows lozenge-shaped fabric defined by microlithons separated along highly striated surfaces. We describe as first order (S1) the surfaces that crosscut the gouge fabric, and as the second order (S2) the surfaces bounding the microlithons. Some S1 surfaces were lined with 1-5 micron thick film of ultracataclasite isochemical with the underlying gouge. We ask whether the roughness properties of the gouge sliding surfaces are comparable to outcrop-scale fault surfaces studied by others, and how these properties might relate to mechanism of the deformation. Digital elevation model (DEM) of several typical S1 and S2 surface samples were produced using high resolution white light interferometry microscope. Scanning noise and sampling artifacts were removed from the raw DEMs. Profiles parallel and perpendicular to sliding were derived from the clean DEMs and the surface roughness, represented by Hurst exponent H, was estimated for all samples from the slope of the profile Fourier Power Spectrum each for parallel (HL) and perpendicular (HA) to sliding. Results: 1. the roughness spectra were characterized by two rather than one scaling regime with a crossover length-scale range of 5-25 micron. 2. both S1 and S2 surfaces were anisotropic (HL-HA)<0 above the crossover, and roughly isotropic below the crossover length scale. HL=0.6+/-0.1 and HA=0.8+/-0.1 for the anisotropic regime and HL=HA=0.3+/-0.1 for the isotropic regime. 3. S2 surfaces are smoother compared to S1 surfaces. The Hurst exponent values for the gouge surfaces in the anisotropic regime are similar to those found for a number of outcrop

  1. The Rhizosphere Zone: A Hot Spot of Microbial Activity and Methylmercury Production in Saltmarsh Sediments of San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Marvin-Dipasquale, M.; Voytek, M.; Kirshtein, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Agee, J. L.; Cox, M.; Kakouros, E.; Collins, J. N.; Yee, D.

    2008-12-01

    Tidal marshes of varying hydrology and salinity have been shown to have high rates of microbial methylmercury (MeHg) production, especially the periodically flooded, higher elevations which are densely vegetated with shallowly rooted plants. The specific influence of emergent wetland plants and their active rhizosphere (root zone) on mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry, however, is poorly understood. Seasonal and spatial patterns of Hg biogeochemistry were examined in 2005 and 2006 at three marshes along a salinity gradient of the Petaluma River, in Northern San Francisco Bay, California. In addition, to directly examine the influence of rhizosphere activity on MeHg production, a suite of devegetation experiments was conducted in 2006 within each marsh using paired vegetated and devegetated plots in two marsh subhabitats: poorly- drained interior sites and well-drained "edge" sites near slough channels. Surface sediment (0-2cm) was sampled in both April and August from these plots, as well as from 1st and 3rd order slough channels that were naturally free of vegetation. Vegetated marsh sites produced 3- to19-fold more MeHg than did slough sites, and MeHg production rates were greater in marsh interior sites compared to more oxic marsh "edge" sites. Microbial biomass (ng DNA gdrysed) was greater in vegetated marsh settings, compared to slough channels, and increased significantly between April and August at all marsh sites. Despite this seasonal increase in microbial biomass, MeHg concentrations and production rates decreased from April to August in vegetated surface sediments. Microbial indicators of methylation also decreased from April to August, including rates of microbial sulfate reduction and the abundance of iron- and sulfate- reducing bacterial DNA. Results from the devegetated plots suggest that root exudation of fermentative labile carbon to surface soils is responsible for the higher microbial biomass, and the higher relative abundance of iron- and sulfate

  2. Development and use of a mathematical model of the San Bernardino Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardt, William F.; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    Part of the San Bernardino urbanized area in California overlies formerly swampy lands with a history of flowing wells. This area , upgradient from and adjacent to the San Jacinto fault, contains a zone in an alluvial ground-water basin that is under artesian pressure. Since 1945, withdrawals have exceeded recharge and caused head declines of more than 100 feet. Artificial recharge of imported water in the upgradient areas may cause ground-water levels to rise, which could cause abandoned but unplugged wells to resume flowing. If so, structures could be damaged. A two-layer Galerkin finite-element digital model was used for predicting the rate and extent of the rise in water levels from 1975 to 2000. Six hydrologic conditions were modeled for the basin. Artificial recharge of one-half entitlement and full entitlement from the California Aqueduct were each coupled with low, average, and high natural recharge to the basin. According to model predictions, the greatest water level rises will be along the San Bernardino front. This area encompasses the artificial recharge sites and also has a thick section of unsaturated sediments for storing ground water. The formerly swampy lands between Warm Creek and the Santa Ana River adjacent to the San Jacinto fault have little additional storage capacity, and water levels could rise to the land surface as early as 1983 under maximum recharge conditions and 1970-74 average pumping conditions. If pumping rates are reduced in the Warm Creek area, water levels may rise to land surface prior to the dates predicted by the model, regardless of the artificial-recharge program. (USGS)

  3. From Activism to Academics: The Evolution of American Indian Studies at San Francisco State, 1968-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Torre, Joely

    2001-01-01

    The founding of the American Indian Studies program at San Francisco State University took place against a backdrop of the Indian occupation of Alcatraz Island and the demands of Indian students for more relevant coursework. Today the program connects students to the urban Indian community through service learning projects and is committed to…

  4. Development and recent activity of the San Andrés landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeš, Jan; Yepes, Jorge; Becerril, Laura; Kusák, Michal; Galindo, Inés; Blahut, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out (also known as megalandslides) on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands. Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over 2011-2012. Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions (e.g. lava intrusions, eruptive vents, magma chamber collapses). Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards. Therefore, this approach for studying the San Andrés landslide (SAL) on El Hierro (Canary Islands) has been developed applying a detailed morphological field mapping, an interpretation of digital elevation models, structural measurements, kinematic testing, and a precise movement monitoring system. The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement. Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February 2013 and July 2014, using an automated optical

  5. Geometry, Timing, and Rates of Active Northeast Tilting Across the Southern Coachella Valley and Santa Rosa Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Langenheim, V. E.; McNabb, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Coachella Valley occupies an important transition along the San Andreas fault (SAF) from strong transpression in the north to transtension and lithospheric rupture in the south. The deformation processes and crustal architecture that accommodate this transition are not well understood. Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and gravity data support a hypothesis for northeast tilting of a large tilt block in the southern Coachella Valley and Santa Rosa Mountains, between the San Jacinto fault zone on the SW (dated in other studies at ~1.2 Ma) and the SAF on the NE. The Santa Rosa fault (SRF) is a strand of the San Jacinto fault zone that marks the steep SW flank of the Santa Rosa Mts and merges with the Clark fault beneath Clark Valley. The SRF is an active normal fault with well developed triangular facets, steeply SW-dipping fault zone with brittle gouge and microfaults, and narrow footwall canyons that feed steep alluvial fans in the hanging wall (east side of Clark Valley). Pliocene marine deposits have been raised by Quaternary uplift in the footwall of the SRF to ~625 m elevation in the Santa Rosa Mts (King et al., 2002). The subsurface Clark basin is ~4 km deep, and the pre-SRF West Salton detachment fault projects ~1.5 km above the valley floor in the Santa Rosa Mts. A steep linear gravity gradient reveals combined vertical separation of ~5.5 km across the SRF and Clark fault, for an average slip rate of ~4.5 mm/yr across the two faults. The NE side of the Santa Rosa Mts has a gentler surface gradient and no large-offset active faults. The ratio of alluvial fan area to catchment area is 0.5-0.6 for fan-catchment pairs along the SRF, compared to an average of ~1.1-1.2 on the NE slope of the Santa Rosa Mts. The different ratios suggest rapid subsidence in the hanging wall of the SRF and relatively slow subsidence in the NE-tilting footwall (cf. Allen and Hovius, 1998). The depth of the southern Coachella Valley increases from the SW side, where sediments onlap

  6. Transverse drainage development along a tectonically active transform plate boundary (San Lorenzo River and Pancho Rico Creek, Monterey County, California)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A. F.; Stokes, M.

    2003-12-01

    Transverse drainage is often assumed to form as a result of either antecedence or superposition. Drainage-basin geomorphology in the Diablo Range of central California suggests that Pancho Rico Creek established transverse drainage as result of headward erosion, and drainage diversion caused by a landslide. Stream piracy may have also played a significant role. Mesoscale stream catchments within the Diablo Range of central California are elongate parallel to the NW trending San Andreas Fault zone (SAFZ). Principal streams draining these catchments ultimately flow to the west and form transverse drainages across the western ridges of the Diablo Range. Examples include the San Lorenzo River (SLR), which flows into the Salinas Valley at King City, and Pancho Rico Creek (PRC), which flows into the Salinas Valley at San Ardo. Incision patterns, fluvial stratigraphy, wind gaps, and beheaded, SW-flowing piedmont streams suggest that southeastward expansion of the SLR catchment occurred via headward erosion parallel to the SAFZ. Expansion occurred at the expense of SW-flowing piedmont streams, which were separated from the upland parts of their catchment by headward expansion of the SLR catchment. Preliminary results suggest that the upper PRC catchment was captured by the SLR after Qf2 time, but before Qt3 time. PRC recaptured its upper catchment when a Quaternary landslide (Qls) diverted both PRC and the SLR, an event that probably occurred after Qt3 time. Upper PRC drainage basin morphology also suggests recent stream capture. Thus, since Qls time, PRC has been a southeastward expanding transverse drainage.

  7. Youth Advocacy as a Tool for Environmental and Policy Changes That Support Physical Activity and Nutrition: An Evaluation Study in San Diego County

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christine C.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Millstein, Rachel A.; Moder, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Background As evidence grows about the benefits of policy and environmental changes to support active living and healthy eating, effective tools for implementing change must be developed. Youth advocacy, a successful strategy in the field of tobacco control, should be evaluated for its potential in the field of obesity prevention. Community Context San Diego State University collaborated with the San Diego County Childhood Obesity Initiative to evaluate Youth Engagement and Action for Health! (YEAH!), a youth advocacy project to engage youth and adult mentors in advocating for neighborhood improvements in physical activity and healthy eating opportunities. Study objectives included documenting group process and success of groups in engaging in community advocacy with decision makers. Methods In 2011 and 2012, YEAH! group leaders were recruited from the San Diego County Childhood Obesity Initiative’s half-day train-the-trainer seminars for adult leaders. Evaluators collected baseline and postproject survey data from youth participants and adult group leaders and interviewed decision makers. Outcomes Of the 21 groups formed, 20 completed the evaluation, conducted community assessments, and advocated with decision makers. Various types of decision makers were engaged, including school principals, food service personnel, city council members, and parks and recreation officials. Eleven groups reported change(s) implemented as a result of their advocacy, 4 groups reported changes pending, and 5 groups reported no change as a result of their efforts. Interpretation Even a brief training session, paired with a practical manual, technical assistance, and commitment of adult leaders and youth may successfully engage decision makers and, ultimately, bring about change. PMID:24674636

  8. Response of mating activity of the plainfin midshipman to inflow into San Francisco Bay from a summer storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    The plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus) is a small fish which nests in estuarine waters during summer months. The male makes a loud continuous droning call to attract females to a nest, where eggs and newborn young are guarded by the male. Midshipman calls have been recorded continuously with a fixed hydrophone near a pier in San Francisco Bay, over two successive mating seasons. A dramatic increase in calling followed a very unusual intense rainstorm in mid-October 2009. This suggests a response to biochemical stimuli from the runoff water. Further study may make it possible to isolate the contaminants producing this alteration of sexual behavior.

  9. Emplacement, offset history, and recent uplift of basement within the San Andreas Fault System, northeast San Gabriel Mountains, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Miles Douglas

    1999-11-01

    Mapping, petrography, cross-sections, structure contours, earthquake locations, and focal mechanism analogues of summed moment tensors have provided insights into the reconstruction and deformation associated with the San Andreas Fault System in the San Gabriel and Western San Bernardino Mountains (WSBM) of the Central Transverse Ranges. The San Gabriel Mountains (SGM) represent a Quaternary 'arch' that extends across the northwest trending San Andreas Fault (SAF). Mechanisms to explain the relatively large magnitudes of uplift on both sides of this relatively straight strike slip fault have been problematical. The uplift results from the interactions between the right lateral San Jacinto Fault (SJF) and SAF, and the thrust Cucamonga-Sierra Madre Faults (CF-SMF). Uplift south of the SAF occurs as the SGM Block propagates through the restraining bend at the intersection of the SJF and SAF at the surface, which has produced an antiform in the topography of the range and in the Vincent Thrust. Uplift is also due to motion on the CF-SMF. Uplift north of the SAF is attributed to an upper-crustal north-dipping subsurface restraining bend in the SAF due to the projected intersection of the CF-SMF and SJF, with the SAF. Northwest migration of the restraining bend in the Quaternary has produced a ˜1.5 km high, northeast dipping monocline in crystalline basement which is adjacent and parallel to the SAF. Reverse faults and deformation of alluvial terraces document a northwest migrating locus of compression and uplift. Toward the southeast, the subsurface restraining bend becomes a subsurface lateral ramp where the SJF intersects the SAF at depth. Crystalline basement of the Holcomb Ridge-Table Mountain 'slice' consists of a syntectonically emplaced, intercalated, north-dipping, igneous and metamorphic suite. Cretaceous igneous rocks were emplaced as tabular bodies, which now strike eastwest, and are concordant with a relatively older metasedimentary screen and para

  10. Fragmented Landscapes in the San Gorgonio Pass Region: Insights into Quaternary Strain History of the Southern San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, K. J.; Matti, J. C.; Landis, G. P.; Alvarez, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) region is a zone of structural complexity within the southern San Andreas Fault system that is characterized by (1) multiple strands of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), (2) intense and diverse microseismicity, (3) contraction within the SGP fault zone (SGPfz), and (4) complex and diverse landforms - all a consequence of structural complications in the vicinity of the southeastern San Bernardino Mountains (SBM). Multiple strands of the SAF zone in the SGP region partition the landscape into discrete geomorphic/geologic domains, including: San Gorgonio Mountain (SGM), Yucaipa Ridge (YR), Kitching Peak (KP), Pisgah Peak (PP), and Coachella Valley (CV) domains. The morphology of each domain reflects the tectonic history unique to that region. Development of the SGP knot in the Mission Creek strand of the SAF (SAFmi) led to westward deflection of the SAFmi, juxtaposition of the KP, PP, and SGM domains, initiation of uplift of YR domain along thrust faults in headwaters of San Gorgonio River, and development of the San Jacinto Fault. Slip on the SAF diminished as a result, thereby allowing integrated drainage systems to develop in the greater SGP region. San Gorgonio River, Whitewater River, and Mission Creek are discrete drainages that transport sediment across the SGM, YR, PP, KP, and CV domains into alluvial systems peripheral to the SGP region. There, depositional units (San Timoteo Formation, upper member, deformed gravels of Whitewater River) all contain clasts of SBM-type and San Gabriel Mountain-type basement, thus constraining slip on the SAF in the SGP region. Middle and late Pleistocene slip on the Mill Creek strand of the SAF (SAFm) in the SGP region has attempted to bypass the SGP knot, and has disrupted landscapes established during SAFmi quiescence. Restoration of right-slip on the SAFm is key to deciphering landscape history. Matti and others (1985, 1992) proposed that a bi-lobed alluvial deposit in the Raywood Flats area has been

  11. 409. Delineator Unknown October 25, 1933 (SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE); SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    409. Delineator Unknown October 25, 1933 (SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE); SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; DRAWING NO.33 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. A specialized boundary element algorithm developed to calculate the state of stress in the Anza Gap, San Jacinto Fault Zone, Southern, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Aster, R.; Flores, R.; Fehler, M.

    1995-06-01

    The widely-used algorithm of Crouch and Starfield is unstable when used to solve our mixed boundary equation problem of interest. Altering the boundary conditions and correspondingly rearranging the system of equations to utilize double-sided boundary elements overcomes this drawback. The new algorithm described here is more physically realistic as in that it allows for rotation of the fault segments in the strain field resulting from satisfying the fault static shear strength condition. Preliminary test results indicate that a fault trifurcation gap model may describe the non-strike slip components to some of the seismicity.

  13. Caribbean affinities of mafic crust from northern Colombia: preliminary geochemical results from basaltic rocks of the Sinu-San Jacinto belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, C.; Cardona, A.; Valencia, V.; Weber, M.; Guzman, G.; Montes, C.; Ibañez, M.; Lara, M.; Toro, M.

    2009-12-01

    The petrotectonic characterization of accreted mafic remnants within the northern Andes and the Caribbean yield major insights on the growth and evolution of oceanic plates, as well as in the identification of the role of terrane accretion within the northern Andes orogeny. Within the northern termination of the Andes, in northern Colombia, several exposures of mafic and ultramafic rocks have been identified. However, extensive sedimentary cover and difficulties in field access have left the petogenetic analysis and tectonic implications of this rocks scarcely studied. Preliminary geochemical constrains from volcanic rocks obtained in outcrops and as clasts from a Paleocene-Eocene conglomerate indicate that the mafic rocks are mainly andesitic in composition, with well defined enrichment in Th and Ce and depletion in Nb and flat to weakly enriched LREE. These features suggest a relatively immature intra-oceanic volcanic arc setting for the formation of these rocks. Hornblende-dioritic dikes in peridotites also attest to the role of water in the magmatic evolution, and the affinity to a subduction related setting. The tectonic implications of this arc remnants and the relation between these rocks and other oceanic domains in the northern Andes suggest that the compositional and tectonic setting on the different accreted margins of the Caribbean plate are heterogeneous.

  14. Treatment of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) effluent by an activated sludge system: the role of sulphide and thiosulphate in the process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ramírez, J E; Seco, A; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; García-Usach, F

    2015-01-01

    This work studies the use of a well-known and spread activated sludge system (UCT configuration) to treat the effluent of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) treating domestic wastewater. Ammonia, phosphate, dissolved methane and sulphide concentrations in the SAnMBR effluent were around 55 mg NH4-N L(-1), 7 mg PO4-P L(-1), 30 mg non-methane biodegradable COD L(-1), and 105 mg S(2-) L(-1) respectively. The results showed a nitrification inhibition caused by the presence of sulphur compounds at any of the solids retention time (SRT) studied (15, 20 and 25 days). This inhibition could be overcome increasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 13 to 26 h. Among the sulphur compounds, sulphide was identified as the substance which caused the nitrification inhibition. When the nitrification was well established, removal rates of nitrogen and phosphorus of 56% and 45% were reached respectively. The sulphide present in the influent was completely oxidised to sulphate, contributing this oxidation to the denitrification process. Moreover, the presence of methanotrophic bacteria, detected by FISH technique, could also contribute to the denitrification.

  15. Wastewater and Saltwater: Studying the Biogeochemistry and Microbial Activity Associated with Wastewater Inputs to San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challenor, T.; Menendez, A. D.; Damashek, J.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrification is the process of converting ammonium (NH­­4+) into nitrate (NO3-), and is a crucial step in removing nitrogen (N) from aquatic ecosystems. This process is governed by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) that utilize the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). Studying the rates of nitrification and the abundances of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in south San Francisco Bay's Artesian Slough, which receives treated effluent from the massive San Jose-Santa Clara Regional Wastewater Facility, are important for understanding the cycling of nutrients in this small but complex estuary. Wastewater inputs can have negative environmental impacts, such as the release of nitrous oxide, a byproduct of nitrification and a powerful greenhouse gas. Nutrient inputs can also increase productivity and sometimes lead to oxygen depletion. Assessing the relative abundance and diversity of AOA and AOB, along with measuring nitrification rates gives vital information about the biology and biogeochemistry of this important N-cycling process. To calculate nitrification rates, water samples were spiked with 15N-labeled ammonium and incubated in triplicate for 24 hours. Four time-points were extracted across the incubation and the "denitrifier" method was used to measure the isotopic ratio of nitrate in the samples over time. In order to determine relative ratios of AOB to AOA, DNA was extracted from water samples and used in clade-specific amoA PCR assays. Nitrification rates were detectable in all locations sampled and were higher than in other regions of the bay, as were concentrations of nitrate and ammonium. Rates were highest in the regions of Artesian Slough most directly affected by wastewater effluent. AOB vastly outnumbered AOA, which is consistent with other studies showing that AOB prefer high nutrient environments. AOB diversity includes clades of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas prevalent in estuarine settings. Many of the sequenced genes are related

  16. High Resolution Interseismic Velocity Model of the San Andreas Fault System From a Joint Inversion of GPS and InSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.; Smith-Konter, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic observations along the plate boundary have been used to constrain moment accumulation rate and stressing rate of active faults during the interseismic period. We compared 4 of these interseismic velocity models of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) based on GPS observations [Mccaffrey, 2005; Meade and Hager, 2005; Smith-Konter and Sandwell, 2009; Zeng and Shen, 2010]. The standard deviations of these 4 models are larger north of the Bay Area, near the Creeping segment in Central California, and along the San Jacinto fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone in Southern California. A coherence spectrum analysis indicates relatively high correlation among the 4 models at longer wavelengths (>15-40 km), with lower correlation at shorter wavelengths. To improve the short-wavelength accuracy of our GPS-derived interseismic velocity model, we integrated InSAR observations, initially from ALOS ascending data (spanning from the middle of 2006 to the end of 2010, totaling more than 1100 interferograms), using a Sum/Remove/Filter/Restore (SURF) approach. The final InSAR line-of-site (LOS) data match the point GPS observations with a mean absolute deviation of 1.3 mm/yr. These new LOS data were subsampled according to the magnitude of the strain rate and are available at ftp://topex.ucsd.edu/pub/SAF_models/insar/sample.tar We use this high-resolution InSAR LOS data, combined with geological slip rate constraints and secular GPS vectors to invert for the fault slip rate of 50 active fault segments in California using a 3-D viscoelastic earthquake cycle model. This model simulates interseismic deformation resulting from deep slip on faults extending from a prescribed locking depth to the bottom of an elastic plate which overlies the viscoelastic half-space [Smith-Konter and Sandwell, 2009]. The linear least squares problem is solved by Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and the uncertainties are estimated using covariance matrix of the solution parameters. In this

  17. High-resolution interseismic velocity data along the San Andreas Fault from GPS and InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.; Smith-Konter, B.

    2013-01-01

    We compared four interseismic velocity models of the San Andreas Fault based on GPS observations. The standard deviations of the predicted secular velocity from the four models are larger north of the San Francisco Bay area, near the creeping segment in Central California, and along the San Jacinto Fault and the East California Shear Zone in Southern California. A coherence spectrum analysis of the secular velocity fields indicates relatively high correlation among the four models at longer wavelengths (>15-40 km), with lower correlation at shorter wavelengths. To improve the short-wavelength accuracy of the interseismic velocity model, we integrated interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations, initially from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) ascending data (spanning from the middle of 2006 to the end of 2010, totaling more than 1100 interferograms), with GPS observations using a Sum/Remove/Filter/Restore approach. The final InSAR line of sight data match the point GPS observations with a mean absolute deviation of 1.5 mm/yr. We systematically evaluated the fault creep rates along major faults of the San Andreas Fault and compared them with creepmeters and alignment array data compiled in Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF2). Moreover, this InSAR line of sight dataset can constrain rapid velocity gradients near the faults, which are critical for understanding the along-strike variations in stress accumulation rate and associated earthquake hazard.

  18. Nuclear Protein Quality Is Regulated by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System through the Activity of Ubc4 and San1 in Fission Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuzy; Kishimoto, Hayafumi; Tanae, Katsuhiro; Kitamura, Kenji; Katayama, Satoshi; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells monitor and maintain protein quality through a set of protein quality control (PQC) systems whose role is to minimize the harmful effects of the accumulation of aberrant proteins. Although these PQC systems have been extensively studied in the cytoplasm, nuclear PQC systems are not well understood. The present work shows the existence of a nuclear PQC system mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Asf1-30, a mutant form of the histone chaperone Asf1, was used as a model substrate for the study of the nuclear PQC. A temperature-sensitive Asf1-30 protein localized to the nucleus was selectively degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The Asf1-30 mutant protein was highly ubiquitinated at higher temperatures, and it remained stable in an mts2-1 mutant, which lacks proteasome activity. The E2 enzyme Ubc4 was identified among 11 candidate proteins as the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in this system, and San1 was selected among 100 candidates as the ubiquitin ligase (E3) targeting Asf1-30 for degradation. San1, but not other nuclear E3s, showed specificity for the mutant nuclear Asf1-30, but did not show activity against wild-type Asf1. These data clearly showed that the aberrant nuclear protein was degraded by a defined set of E1-E2-E3 enzymes through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The data also show, for the first time, the presence of a nuclear PQC system in fission yeast. PMID:21324894

  19. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California. Part of the third year report, 1980-81, of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bezore, S.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.

    1981-08-01

    Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs; South San Bernardino; and Harlem Hot Springs - in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the south San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142/sup 0/C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the south San Bernardino geothermal area was 56/sup 0/C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area was 49.5/sup 0/C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well. The geophysical and geological surveys delineated fault traces in association with all three of the designated geothermal areas.

  20. Gene expression and enzyme activity of lipoprotein lipase correlate with intramuscular fat content in Guangxi san-huang and Arbor Acres chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y N; Wang, J; Chen, B J; Jiang, Q Y; Guo, Y F; Lan, G Q; Jiang, H S

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. This study investigated LPL gene expression, LPL enzyme activity, and the correlation of each with intramuscular fat (IMF) in Chinese Guangxi san-huang (GXSH) and Arbor Acres (AA) chickens. The results showed that age and breed had significant effects on LPL expression and enzyme activity. Correlation analyses showed significant positive correlations between LPL expression levels and IMF contents in the breast and thigh tissues of both GXSH (r = 0.712, P = 0.001; r = 0.792, P < 0.001, respectively) and AA (r = 0.644, P < 0.001; r = 0.545, P < 0.001, respectively) chickens. The results also indicated a significant positive correlation between LPL enzyme activity and IMF contents in the breast and thigh tissues of both GXSH (r = 0.615, P = 0.001; r = 0.685, P < 0.001, respectively) and AA (r = 0.600, P = 0.001; r = 0.528, P = 0.003, respectively) chickens. The results indicated that the LPL gene was significantly correlated with IMF in these two breeds. The results presented here could contribute to knowledge of LPL mRNA developmental expression patterns and enzyme activity, and it could facilitate further research on the molecular mechanisms underlying IMF deposition in chickens.

  1. A Comparison of Single Particle Composition and CCN Activity during the 2007 and 2008 San Diego Wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. J.; Sullivan, R. C.; Wang, Y.; Zauscher, M. D.; Roberts, G.; Prather, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfires occur on an annual basis in Southern California during the late summer and fall when hot and dry inland winds (Santa Anas) lead to optimum fire conditions. Individual particle size and composition along with condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations were measured in real-time at the University of California San Diego (UCSD) main campus and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Pier (2007 only) during the fire periods in 2007 and 2008 in La Jolla, CA. Aerosol hygroscopicity was estimated from the CCN measurements and compared to simultaneous aerosol chemistry and size distribution measurements. Between 10/21/07 and 11/1/07, wildfires in San Diego County burned over 300,000 acres of land. Between 10/14/08 and 11/21/08, over 4,000 acres of land were burned. Near the beginning of the 2007 wildfires, CCN and CN concentrations were 10x higher than normal and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) made up more than 80% of the total particles <300 nm on the main campus. For 2008, CCN concentrations were slightly above normal background conditions with CN concentrations also up to 10x normal background and the BBA made up more than 60% of the total particles < 1 micron. During 2007, the sampling sites were directly in the fire plume whereas, in 2008, the plumes were not being directly measured and the fires were 30 to 60 miles away. For both 2007 and 2008, the BBA produced by the wildfires were a dominant contribution to the CCN populations observed. The low hygroscopicity parameter (κ) range observed in 2007 (κ = 0.004-0.3) and 2008 (κ = 0.01-0.2) indicates that most of the particulate mass is associated with non-hygroscopic or insoluble compounds present in the BBA. The biomass emissions measured during these wildfires were on the lower end the range of previously determined BBA hygroscopicities from both controlled burns and ambient measurements reported previously. During 2007, concurrent with changes in particle chemistry from

  2. Chemistry and isotopic composition of ground water along a section near the Newmark area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Danskin, Wesley R.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses and flow-meter measurements in pumped wells were used to determine the source, movement, and age of ground water along a section of the valley-fill aquifer from the San Jacinto Fault to the base of the San Bernardino Mountains near the Newmark area in the Bunker Hill Basin of southern California. Water samples were collected from four multiple-depth well sites, from different depths within three production wells, and from two nearby streams; these samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (delta oxygen-18 and delta deuterium), tritium, and carbon-14. Within the production wells, variations in vertical flowrate with depth were recorded during pumped conditions using a standard spinner tool. Where saturated, the upper 200 feet of unconsolidated deposits contributed as much as 60 percent of the well discharge; deposits at depths greater than 700 feet contributed less than 10 percent. Chemical analyses indicate that three general zones of ground-water quality are present along a north-south section--an oxygenated zone near the base of the San Bernardino Mountains, an oxygen-depleted zone near the San Jacinto Fault, and a deeper zone characterized by concentrations of fluoride greater than 1 mg/L and by a general water-quality composition similar to that of base flow in East Twin Creek. The presence of tritium in water from wells along the section indicates that post-1952 recharge has moved rapidly through the valley-fill aquifer to depths as great as 800 feet. Carbon-14 data indicate that the maximum age of ground water, sampled at depths ranging from 600 to 1,000 feet, is less than 5,000 years before present. Ground water along the study section is much younger than ground water from similar depths in other nearby basins. Delta oxygen-18 and delta deuterium data indicate that as much as 25 percent of the discharge from some wells near the base of the San Bernardino Mountains is

  3. Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study).

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R

    2003-03-01

    Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed. PMID:12612103

  4. Rapid HPLC Quantification Approach for Detection of Active Constituents in Modern Combinatorial Formula, San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tung-Ying; Chang, Fang-Rong; Liou, Jing-Ru; Lo, I-Wen; Chung, Tang-Chia; Lee, Li-Yao; Chi, Chun-Chen; Du, Ying-Chi; Wong, Man-Hon; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Lee, Chun-Chen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal formulas, is comprised by three herbal medicines, the rhizome of Rheum officinale [or Rheum tanguticum (Polygonaceae) (Dahuang in Chinese)], the root of Scutellaria baicalensis (Labiatae) (Huangqin in Chinese), and the rhizome of Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae) (Huanglian in Chinese) in the ratios of 2:1:1 or 1:1:1. This study is aimed to quantitate and qualify of SHXXT, by a rapid, convenient, and effective HPLC-PDA approach associated with LC-MS technique. Of which method, nine chosen major bioactive components in SHXXT, including aloe-emodin (Ale), baicalin (Ba), berberine (Be), coptisine (Co), palmatine (Pa), resveratroloside (Res), rhein (Rh), sennoside A (Se-A), and wogonin (Wo), were evaluated within 30 min. The nine chemical markers were monitored in a high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.01−0.55 μg/mL and the correlation coefficient of the regression curve revealed a good linearity with R2 > 0.99. Moreover, the extraction solution system and the HPLC elution conditions were also optimized in the present study. This present developed protocol was then successfully applied to quantify nine chemical markers of 10 SHXXT products from eight Taiwanese TCM pharmaceutical companies. In quantitative results, Res was found as the major compound in SHXXT-1~5 and 8 with significantly higher amounts than those in other products, indicating the products SHXXT-1~5 and 8 may use R. tanguticum as the raw material, which possessed a higher concentration of the bioactive composition Res, instead of R. officinale. Simultaneously, Ale, Rh, and Wo were < 2% in these 10 products. Different chemical profiles of commercial products indicated that, probably, each product with the same named formula might be regarded as a sole medicine and need to be investigated individually. Importantly, it is never too much to emphasize the importance of quality control in TCM development. PMID

  5. Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study).

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R

    2003-03-01

    Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed.

  6. 40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San Francisco, California March 24, 1924 VIEW OF HIGH ALTAR - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  7. Effects of military-authorized activities on the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-10-01

    The effects of military-authorized activities on San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site from 1988 to 1991. Military-authorized activities included military training exercises, facilities maintenance, new construction, controlled burning, livestock grazing, and public-access hunting. Positive effects of the military included habitat preservation, preactivity surveys, and natural resources management practices designed to conserve kit foxes and their habitat. Perceived negative effects such as entrapment in dens, shootings during military exercises, and accidental poisoning were not observed. Foxes were observed in areas being used simultaneously by military units. Authorized activities were known to have caused the deaths of three of 52 radiocollared foxes recovered dead: one became entangled in concertina wire, one was believed shot by a hunter, and one was struck by a vehicle. Entanglement in communication wire may have contributed to the death of another radiocollared fox that was killed by a predator. Approximately 10% of kit fox dens encountered showed evidence of vehicle traffic, but denning sites did not appear to be a limiting factor for kit foxes.

  8. Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activity of Pseudopterosins and seco-Pseudopterosins Isolated from the Octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae of San Andrés and Providencia Islands (Southwest Caribbean Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Hebelin; Aristizabal, Fabio; Duque, Carmenza; Kerr, Russell

    2011-01-01

    To expand the potential of pseudopterosins and seco-pseudopterosins isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae of San Andrés and Providencia islands (southwest Caribbean Sea), we report the anti-microbial profile against four pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) and report a more complete cytotoxic profile against five human cells lines (HeLa, PC-3, HCT116, MCF-7 and BJ) for the compounds PsG, PsP, PsQ, PsS, PsT, PsU, 3-O-acetyl-PsU, seco-PsJ, seco-PsK and IMNGD. For the cytotoxic profiles, all compounds evaluated showed moderate and non-selective activity against both tumor and normal cell lines, where PsQ and PsG were the most active compounds (GI50 values between 5.8 μM to 12.0 μM). With respect to their anti-microbial activity the compounds showed good and selective activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, while they did not show activity against the Gram-negative bacterium or yeast. PsU, PsQ, PsS, seco-PsK and PsG were the most active compounds (IC50 2.9–4.5 μM) against S. aureus and PsG, PsU and seco-PsK showed good activity (IC50 3.1–3.8 μM) against E. faecalis, comparable to the reference drug vancomycin (4.2 μM). PMID:21556163

  9. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of pseudopterosins and seco-pseudopterosins isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae of San Andrés and Providencia Islands (Southwest Caribbean Sea).

    PubMed

    Correa, Hebelin; Aristizabal, Fabio; Duque, Carmenza; Kerr, Russell

    2011-03-04

    To expand the potential of pseudopterosins and seco-pseudopterosins isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae of San Andrés and Providencia islands (southwest Caribbean Sea), we report the anti-microbial profile against four pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) and report a more complete cytotoxic profile against five human cells lines (HeLa, PC-3, HCT116, MCF-7 and BJ) for the compounds PsG, PsP, PsQ, PsS, PsT, PsU, 3-O-acetyl-PsU, seco-PsJ, seco-PsK and IMNGD. For the cytotoxic profiles, all compounds evaluated showed moderate and non-selective activity against both tumor and normal cell lines, where PsQ and PsG were the most active compounds (GI₅₀ values between 5.8 μM to 12.0 μM). With respect to their anti-microbial activity the compounds showed good and selective activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, while they did not show activity against the Gram-negative bacterium or yeast. PsU, PsQ, PsS, seco-PsK and PsG were the most active compounds (IC₅₀ 2.9-4.5 μM) against S. aureus and PsG, PsU and seco-PsK showed good activity (IC₅₀ 3.1-3.8 μM) against E. faecalis, comparable to the reference drug vancomycin (4.2 μM).

  10. 78 FR 53243 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego... temporary safety zone upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA, in support of...

  11. 77 FR 54811 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego... safety zone upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA, in support of a bay swim...

  12. 77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity, Pfizer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... comment (77 FR 36997, 6/20/2012). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of the activity is... Activity, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, LLC (Subzone 61A), (Ibuprofen Pharmaceutical Products), Guayama,...

  13. Anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the traditional herbal formula Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san via enhancement of heme oxygenase‑1 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Yeji; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-05-01

    Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san (GHJGS) is a mixture of herbal plants, including Agastache rugosa, Perilla frutescens, Angelica dahurica, Areca catechu, Poria cocos, Magnolia officinalis, Atractylodes macrocephala, Citrus reticulata, Pinellia ternata, Platycodon grandiflorum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba and Zingiber officinale. GHJGS has been used for treating diarrhea‑predominant irritable bowel syndrome in traditional Korean medicine. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GHJGS were investigated using the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. GHJGS significantly reduced production of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin‑6 and prostaglandin E2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated macrophages. GHJGS markedly suppressed LPS‑induced phosphorylation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases, whereas it had no effect on nuclear factor‑κB activation. Furthermore, GHJGS enhanced expression of heme oxygenase‑1 and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species in RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate that GHJGS is a viable therapeutic agent against inflammation and oxidative stress‑associated disorders. PMID:27052497

  14. SAN CARLOS APACHE PAPERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR.

    THE FIRST SECTION OF THIS BOOK COVERS THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE INDIANS, AS WELL AS AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THE SECOND SECTION IS DEVOTED TO THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHERS OF THE INDIAN CHILDREN IN GLOBE AND SAN CARLOS, ARIZONA. IT IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1)…

  15. California: San Joaquin Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley   ... is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected ... as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, ...

  16. Fault depth and seismic moment rate estimates of the San Andreas Fault System: Observations from seismology and geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.; Sandwell, D. T.; Shearer, P. M.

    2010-12-01

    The depth of the seismogenic zone is a critical parameter for earthquake hazard models of the San Andreas Fault System. Independent observations from both seismology and geodesy can provide insight into the depths of faulting, however these depths do not always agree. Here we inspect variations in fault depths of 12 segments of the southern San Andreas Fault System derived from over 1000 GPS velocities and 66,000 relocated earthquake hypocenters. Geodetically-determined locking depths range from 6-22 km, while seismogenic thicknesses are largely limited to depths of 11-20 km. Seismogenic depths best match the geodetic locking depths when estimated at the 95% cutoff depth in seismicity and most fault segment depths agree to within 2 km. However, we identify 3 outliers (Imperial, Coyote Creek, and Borrego segments) with significant discrepancies. In these cases the geodetically-inferred locking depths are much shallower than the seismogenic depths. We also inspect seismic moment accumulation rates per unit fault length, with the highest rates estimated for the Mojave and Carrizo segments (~1.8 x 1013 Nm/yr/km) and the lowest rates (~0.2 x 1013 Nm/yr/km) found along several San Jacinto segments. The largest variation in seismic moment is calculated for the Imperial segment, where the moment rate from seismic depths is nearly a factor of 2.5 larger than that from geodetic depths. Such variability has important implications for the accuracy to which the magnitude of future major earthquakes can be estimated.

  17. 78 FR 30270 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ...-counter pharmaceutical products, including: Anti-cancer; anti-diabetic and immunosuppressive medicaments... Production Activity, Janssen Ortho LLC (Pharmaceutical Products Production), Gurabo, Puerto Rico The Puerto Rico Trade and Export Company, grantee of FTZ 61, submitted a notification of proposed...

  18. San Andres Rift, Nicaraguan Shelf: A 346-Km-Long, North-South Rift Zone Actively Extending the Interior of the "Stable" Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, L. C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The San Andres rift (SAR) is an active, 015°-trending, bathymetric and structural rift basin that extends for 346 km across the Nicaraguan platform and varies in bathymetric width from 11-27 km and in water depth from 1,250 to 2,500 m. We used four 2D regional seismic lines tied to two offshore, industry wells located west of the SAR on the Nicaraguan platform to map normal faults, transfer faults, and possibly volcanic features with the rift. The Colombian islands of San Andres (26 km2) and Providencia (17 km2) are footwall uplifts along west-dipping, normal fault bounding the eastern margin of the rift. Mapping indicates the pre-rift section is Late Cretaceous to Oligocene in age and that the onset of rifting began in the early to middle Miocene as shown by wedging of the Miocene and younger sedimentary fill controlled by north-south-striking normal faults. Structural restorations at two locations across the rift shows that the basin opened mainly by dip-slip fault motions producing a total, east-west extension of 18 km in the north and 15 km in the south. Structural restoration shows the rift formed on a 37-km-wide, elongate basement high - possibly of late Cretaceous, volcanic origin and related to the Caribbean large igneous province. Previous workers have noted that the SAR is associated with province of Pliocene to Quaternary seamounts and volcanoes which range from non-alkaline to mildly alkaline, including volcanic rocks on Providencia described as andesites and rhyolites. The SAR forms one of the few recognizable belts of recorded seismicity within the Caribbean plate. The origin of the SAR is related to Miocene and younger left-lateral displacement along the Pedro Banks fault to the north and the southwestern Hess fault to the south. We propose that the amount of left-lateral displacement that created the rift is equivalent to the amount of extension that formed it: 18-20 km.

  19. Insight into the upper mantle beneath an active extensional zone: the spinel-peridotite xenoliths from San Quintin (Baja California, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanes, N.; Mercier, J.-C. C.

    1988-11-01

    Many of the peridotite xenoliths included in the San Quintin (Baja California Norte, Mexico) quaternary alkali-basalts have undergone a very intense shear deformation (deviatoric stresses up to 0.1 GPa), hence a first-order classification into coarse-grained lherzolites and deformed peridotites (porphyroclastic and mosaic textures) has been applied. All of these rocks show a very limited compositional variability in the Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) ratios (olivine: 0.894 0.905±0.005; orthopyroxene: 0.899 0.9105±0.005), and the observed trends in the Cr/(Cr+Al) spinel ratios (from 0.1 to 0.6) can be interpreted as resulting from gradual partial melting followed by homogenization of the bulk phases. A later and less accentuated melting event is also evidenced by internal core-rim variations in the spinels from a few samples and ascribed to the thermal effect of the host lava. Simultaneous application of exchange geothermometers which give the latest equilibrium temperatures (i.e. at the time of eruption: Fe-Mg exchange between olivine and spinel) and of pyroxene transfer thermobarometers yields two distinct behaviours: the porphyroclastic and mosaic peridotites record an event of deformation and recrystallization and were equilibrated at 800° 950° C and P≲-1 GPa at the time of eruption, but have also retained evidence of higher temperatures (1000° 1050° C) and pressures; the coarsegrained lherzolites, which yield conditions of 1000° 1050° C and P<-2 GPa at the time of eruption, were originally equilibrated at higher temperature and pressure conditions and were subsequently re-equilibrated to 1000° 1050° C by solid-state bulk diffusion, without exsolution. Clinopyroxenite veins provide evidence of magma injection into the host-peridotite, before deformation but after the major melting event. To explain the simultaneous sampling of both groups of peridotites by the San Quintin alkali basalts, we suggest that the ascending magma reached the critical limit for hydraulic

  20. Vertical-axis rotations and deformation along the active strike-slip El Tigre Fault (Precordillera of San Juan, Argentina) assessed through palaeomagnetism and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Cortés, José M.; Terrizzano, Carla M.

    2016-05-01

    Palaeomagnetic data from poorly consolidated to non-consolidated late Cenozoic sediments along the central segment of the active El Tigre Fault (Central-Western Precordillera of the San Juan Province, Argentina) demonstrate broad cumulative deformation up to ~450 m from the fault trace and reveal clockwise and anticlockwise vertical-axis rotations of variable magnitude. This deformation has affected in different amounts Miocene to late Pleistocene samples and indicates a complex kinematic pattern. Several inherited linear structures in the shear zone that are oblique to the El Tigre Fault may have acted as block boundary faults. Displacement along these faults may have resulted in a complex pattern of rotations. The maximum magnitude of rotation is a function of the age of the sediments sampled, with largest values corresponding to middle Miocene-lower Pliocene deposits and minimum values obtained from late Pleistocene deposits. The kinematic study is complemented by low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data to show that the local strain regime suggests a N-S stretching direction, subparallel to the strike of the main fault.

  1. Associated pathways between neighborhood environment, community resource factors and leisure-time physical activity among Mexican-American adults in San Diego, CA

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Patrick, Kevin; Arredondo, Elva M.; Roesch, Scott; Elder, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine pathways between individual, social, and environmental factors associated with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among Mexican-American adults. Design Cross-sectional design using random digit dialing to administer a structured telephone interview. Setting Mexican-American adults living in a U.S./Mexican border community in San Diego, CA (N=672). Measures Data were collected on LTPA, demographic characteristics, acculturation, and other psychosocial and environmental factors associated with LTPA. Analysis Structural equation modeling to test an a priori model of LTPA. Results Participants were mostly female (71%) with a mean age of 39 years (SD = 13). Only 32% of participants met PA guidelines in their leisure time, with men (39%) meeting the guidelines more than women (29%). Using structural equation modeling, neighborhood factors, both social and environmental, showed indirect relationships with meeting PA guidelines through community resource factors. Significant covariates included marital status and age. Conclusion Individual, social and environmental factors were associated with LTPA in this sample of Mexican-American adults. These findings can inform intervention studies that aim to increase LTPA in this population. PMID:22548422

  2. Tectonic activity as a significant source of crustal tetrafluoromethane emissions to the atmosphere: Observations in groundwaters along the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeds, Daniel A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Mühle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-02-01

    Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) concentrations were measured in 14 groundwater samples from the Cuyama Valley, Mil Potrero and Cuddy Valley aquifers along the Big Bend section of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) in California to assess whether tectonic activity in this region is a significant source of crustal CF4 to the atmosphere. Dissolved CF4 concentrations in all groundwater samples but one were elevated with respect to estimated recharge concentrations including entrainment of excess air during recharge (Cre; ∼30 fmol kg-1 H2O), indicating subsurface addition of CF4 to these groundwaters. Groundwaters in the Cuyama Valley contain small CF4 excesses (0.1-9 times Cre), which may be attributed to an in situ release from weathering and a minor addition of deep crustal CF4 introduced to the shallow groundwater through nearby faults. CF4 excesses in groundwaters within 200 m of the SAFS are larger (10-980 times Cre) and indicate the presence of a deep crustal flux of CF4 that is likely associated with the physical alteration of silicate minerals in the shear zone of the SAFS. Extrapolating CF4 flux rates observed in this study to the full extent of the SAFS (1300 km × 20-100 km) suggests that the SAFS potentially emits (0.3- 1) ×10-1 kg CF4 yr-1 to the Earth's surface. For comparison, the chemical weathering of ∼ 7.5 ×104km2 of granitic rock in California is estimated to release (0.019- 3.2) ×10-1 kg CF4 yr-1. Tectonic activity is likely an important, and potentially the dominant, driver of natural emissions of CF4 to the atmosphere. Variations in preindustrial atmospheric CF4 as observed in paleo-archives such as ice cores may therefore represent changes in both continental weathering and tectonic activity, including changes driven by variations in continental ice cover during glacial-interglacial transitions.

  3. Long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault, from 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating of an offset alluvial fan

    SciTech Connect

    der Woerd, J v; Klinger, Y; Sieh, K; Tapponnier, P; Ryerson, F; M?riaux, A

    2006-01-13

    We determine the long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault in the southeastern Indio Hills using {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al isotopes to date an offset alluvial fan surface. Field mapping complemented with topographic data, air photos and satellite images allow to precisely determine piercing points across the fault zone that are used to measure an offset of 565 {+-} 80 m. A total of twenty-six quartz-rich cobbles from three different fan surfaces were collected and dated. The tight cluster of nuclide concentrations from 19 samples out of 20 from the offset fan surface implies a simple exposure history, negligible prior exposure and erosion, and yield an age of 35.5 {+-} 2.5 ka. The long-term slip rate of the San Andreas Fault south of Biskra Palms is thus 15.9 {+-} 3.4 mm/yr. This rate is about 10 mm/yr slower than geological (0-14 ka) and short-term geodetic estimates for this part of the San Andreas Fault implying changes in slip rate or in faulting behavior. This result puts new constraints on the slip rate of the San Jacinto and on the Eastern California Shear Zone for the last 35 ka. Our study shows that more sites along the major faults of southern California need to be targeted to better constrain the slip-rates over different time scales.

  4. SNAC: San Mateo Nutrition Activity Curriculum. "Swing Into Nutrition" (Staff In-Service Guide and Staff Workbook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo City Elementary School District, CA.

    This inservice training guide on nutrition activities for preschool and elementary school teachers consists of 14 lesson plans for two workshops and more than 20 related instructional handouts that can be copied for teachers. The first workshop for teachers provides a rationale for nutrition education ine elementary curriculum as well as…

  5. Dangkwisoo-san, an herbal medicinal formula, ameliorates acute lung inflammation via activation of Nrf2 and suppression of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Ji Hyo; Kim, Kyun Ha; Kim, Hyung Woo; Cho, Su-In; Ha, Ki-Tae; Choi, Jun-Yong; Han, Chang Woo; Jeong, Han-Sol; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Sadikot, Ruxana T.; Christman, John W.; Joo, Myungsoo

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Dangkwisoo-san (DS), an herbal medicinal formula, has long been used in Korea for the treatment of inflammatory complications caused by physical trauma. Although the therapeutic effect of DS is likely associated with anti-inflammatory activity, the precise underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we sought to elucidate the possible mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of DS. Materials and Methods The water extract of DS was orally fed to C57BL/6 mice for 14 days prior to LPS intranasal instillation for lung inflammation. The effects of DS on lung inflammation were determined by differential cell counting, lung histology, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR of lung sections. The effects of DS on the activities of Nrf2 and NF-κB were assessed by western blotting, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and luciferase reporter assays in RAW 264.7, an NF-κB reporter cell line, and HEK 293 transfected with an NF-κB reporter construct. Results Mice that were treated with a water extract of DS showed significant attenuation of lung inflammation induced by intranasal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared to control mice treated with vehicle. In vitro experiments show that DS activated Nrf2, an anti-oxidant transcription factor that protects from various inflammatory diseases, and inducedNrf2-regulated genes including GCLC, NQO-1 and HO-1. In addition, DS suppressed NF-κB activity and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Transfection experiment indicates that inhibition of NF-κB likely occurred upstream of IKK complex. Furthermore, DS enhanced the expression of HO-1 and suppressed that of IL-1β and TNF-α in inflamed mouse lungs. Conclusions These results suggest that the therapeutic effects of DS are related with suppression of inflammation, which is, at least in part, mediated by activation of anti-inflammatory factor Nrf2 and inhibition of pro-inflammatory factor NF-κB. PMID:22230470

  6. Essential oil of Azorella cryptantha collected in two different locations from San Juan Province, Argentina: chemical variability and anti-insect and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    López, Sandra; Lima, Beatriz; Aragón, Liliana; Espinar, Luis Ariza; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; López, María Liza

    2012-08-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of two populations of Azorella cryptantha (Clos) Reiche, a native species from San Juan Province, were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The compounds identified amounted to 92.3 and 88.7% of the total oil composition for A. cryptantha from Bauchaceta (Ac-BAU) and Agua Negra (Ac-AN), respectively. The EO composition for the two populations was similar, although with differences in the identity and content of the main compounds and also in the identity of minor components. The main compounds of the Ac-BAU EO were α-pinene, α-thujene, sabinene, δ-cadinene, δ-cadinol, trans-β-guaiene, and τ-muurolol, while α-pinene, α-thujene, β-pinene, γ-cadinene, τ-cadinol, δ-cadinene, τ-muurolol, and a not identified compound were the main constituents of the Ac-AN EO, which also contained 3.0% of oxygenated monoterpenes. The repellent activity on Triatoma infestans nymphs was 100 and 92% for the Ac-AN and Ac-BAU EOs, respectively. Regarding the toxic effects on Ceratitis capitata, the EOs were very active with LD(50) values lower than 11 μg/fly. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, and T. mentagrophytes and the bacterial strains Escherichia coli LM(1), E. coli LM(2), and Yersinia enterocolitica PI were more sensitive toward the Ac-AN EO (MIC 125 μg/ml) than toward the Ac-BAU EO. This is the first report on the composition of A. cryptantha EO and its anti-insect and antimicrobial properties.

  7. Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Church, Stanley E.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Wirt, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    During 1996 to 2000, the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Environmental Protection Agency, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a coordinated strategy to (1) study the environmental effects of historical mining on Federal lands, and (2) remediate contaminated sites that have the greatest impact on water quality and ecosystem health. This dataset provides information that contributes to these overall objectives and is part of the USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative. Data presented here represent ferricrete occurrences and selected iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed in San Juan County near Silverton, Colorado. Ferricretes (stratified iron and manganese oxyhydroxide-cemented sedimentary deposits) are one indicator of the geochemical baseline conditions as well as the effect that weathering of mineralized rocks had on water quality in the Animas River watershed prior to mining. Logs and wood fragments preserved in several ferricretes in the upper Animas River watershed, collected primarily along streams, yield radiocarbon ages of modern to 9,580 years B.P. (P.L. Verplanck, D.B. Yager, and S.E. Church, work in progress). The presence of ferricrete deposits along the current stream courses indicates that climate and physiography of the Animas River watershed have been relatively constant throughout the Holocene and that weathering processes have been ongoing for thousands of years prior to historical mining activities. Thus, by knowing where ferricrete is preserved in the watershed today, land-management agencies have an indication of (1) where metal precipitation from weathering of altered rocks has occurred in the past, and (2) where this process is ongoing and may confound remediation efforts. These data are included as two coverages-a ferricrete coverage and a bogs and springs coverage. The coverages are included in ArcInfo shapefile and Arc

  8. Roughness of Grain-scale Frictional Sliding Surfaces in the Actively Creeping Clay Gouge of the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadizadeh, J.; Candela, T.; Renard, F.; Williams, R.

    2011-12-01

    The gouge from 3197.2m measured depth within the active creep interval in the SAFOD borehole is unconsolidated and mainly composed of illite-smectite and Mg-rich-smectite clays interspersed with rounded lithic fragments and serpentinite porphyroclasts. We find evidence of deformation by frictional grain boundary sliding (FGBS) including a hierarchy of finely striated and slickenside surfaces. At the scale of the core sample, first order slip surfaces appear as mode II and III fractures cutting across a second set of slip surfaces that bound sliding grains in an anastomosing or lozenge-shape fabric. To characterize the different sliding orders and establish possible roughness scaling between the FGBS and outcrop-scale slip surfaces, we profiled the first and second order slip surfaces using white light interferometry (WLI) technique. Sample surfaces (10 samples; 20-140 mm2/sample) were differentiated on the basis of morphology and directly extracted from the core sample. Data was collected along 240 profiles using a Zygo NV7300 WLI scanning microscope at 1-2 points/micrometer distance. The 2-D roughness as represented by Hurst exponent (H) was determined via Fourier Power Spectrum, Root Mean Square and Wavelet methods for multiple profiles/surface, parallel (L) and perpendicular (A) to slip striations. The scanned surfaces were mostly strongly self-affine, definable by two Hurst exponents HL and HA. The difference in mean H values (HL-HA) for all measurements were 0.244 and 0.018 for the first and second order surfaces respectively suggesting that the first order surfaces were about 13 times more anisotropic than the second order surfaces. Based on this and previously published results we assume that the higher anisotropy of the first order surfaces is due to greater cumulative slip. The possible explanations are argued as follows. 1. The second order surfaces with larger total surface areas could be preferentially subject to resurfacing by processes such as

  9. Tectonic activity as a significant source of crustal tetrafluoromethane emissions to the atmosphere: observations in groundwaters along the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deeds, Daniel A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Muhle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) concentrations were measured in 14 groundwater samples from the Cuyama Valley, Mil Potrero and Cuddy Valley aquifers along the Big Bend section of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) in California to assess whether tectonic activity in this region is a significant source of crustal CF4 to the atmosphere. Dissolved CF4 concentrations in all groundwater samples but one were elevated with respect to estimated recharge concentrations including entrainment of excess air during recharge (CreCre; ∼30 fmol kg−1 H2O), indicating subsurface addition of CF4 to these groundwaters. Groundwaters in the Cuyama Valley contain small CF4 excesses (0.1–9 times CreCre), which may be attributed to an in situ release from weathering and a minor addition of deep crustal CF4 introduced to the shallow groundwater through nearby faults. CF4 excesses in groundwaters within 200 m of the SAFS are larger (10–980 times CreCre) and indicate the presence of a deep crustal flux of CF4 that is likely associated with the physical alteration of silicate minerals in the shear zone of the SAFS. Extrapolating CF4 flux rates observed in this study to the full extent of the SAFS (1300 km × 20–100 km) suggests that the SAFS potentially emits (0.3–1)×10−1 kg(0.3–1)×10−1 kg CF4 yr−1 to the Earth's surface. For comparison, the chemical weathering of ∼7.5×104 km2∼7.5×104 km2 of granitic rock in California is estimated to release (0.019–3.2)×10−1 kg(0.019–3.2)×10−1 kg CF4 yr−1. Tectonic activity is likely an important, and potentially the dominant, driver of natural emissions of CF4 to the atmosphere. Variations in preindustrial atmospheric CF4 as observed in paleo-archives such as ice cores may therefore represent changes in both continental weathering and tectonic activity, including changes driven by variations in continental ice cover during glacial–interglacial transitions.

  10. Modelling the activation of a confined debris slide in Northern Calabria: the 28 January 2009 slope movement at San Benedetto Ullano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capparelli, G.; Iaquinta, P.; Iovine, G.; Terranova, O.; Versace, P.

    2009-09-01

    Southern Italy was severely stricken by abundant rains during Autumn-Winter 2008/2009, with widespread geomorphic effects such as slope movements and erosive processes, floods, inundations of cultivated fields and urbanised sectors, and coastal instabilities. A large number of superficial landslides were triggered in Calabria up to the middle of January, damaging life lines, roads, urbanised areas and lands, mainly in the NW sector of the region. Further persistent rainfalls were recorded until the end of March, and several deeper phenomena also activated along the slopes threatening villages and main lifelines. More specifically, a large rainfall-induced debris slide started mobilizing on 28 January along the Eastern slope of the Coastal Chain, in the vicinity of San Benedetto Ullano (Cosenza province). The slope movement threatened the southern suburbs of the village, damaging the road to the cemetery and the provincial road to Marri. Thanks to a prompt detailed geomorphologic field survey (protracted for the entire period of activity), to recurrent hand-made measures of superficial displacements performed at a set of datum points by a team of volunteers, and a real-time control system of meteoric conditions and superficial displacements at a set of precision-extensometers, the evolution of the phenomenon was mapped up to the last days of April, when the movement practically stopped at the end of the rainy period. Based on the results of the above-mentioned control activities, a basic empirical reference framework of procedures could be defined, which allowed the Authorities concerned to better manage the phases of geo-hydrological crisis, by adopting suitable emergency measures. The preliminary geological model of the landslide and of the affected slope, which had to be defined in the first stages of mobilization based on the few available data, was progressively refined thanks to the results of a couple of explorative drillings, driven down to 40 meters below

  11. History of the Italian San Marco equatorial mobile range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, H. N.

    1971-01-01

    Events leading to the development of the San Marco Equatorial Range are presented. Included are background information leading to the cooperative space program between the United States and Italy, conceptual planning, training activities, equipment design and fabrication, and range utilization. The technical support provided the San Marco Program by Scout Project Office, and other NASA installations is described.

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Library San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Library San Francisco, California Year Built: 1834 Photo Taken: About 1925 VIEW FROM EAST - General Sherman Quarters, 464 Calle Principal, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  13. Linking Nitrogen-Cycling Microbial Communities to Environmental Fluctuations and Biogeochemical Activity in a Large, Urban Estuary: the San Francisco Bay-Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability is an important factor controlling productivity and thus carbon cycling in estuaries. The fate of N in estuaries depends on the activities of the microbes that carry out the N-cycle, which in turn depend on factors such as organic matter availability, dissolved inorganic N, salinity, oxygen, and temperature. Key microbial N transformations include nitrification (the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate) and denitrification (the anaerobic reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen gas). While denitrification leads to N loss, nitrification is the only link between reduced N (produced by decomposition) and oxidized N (substrates for N loss processes), and both processes are known to produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Understanding controls of N-cycling in the San Francisco Bay-Delta (SFBD)—the largest estuary on the west coast of North America—is particularly important, as this urban estuary is massively polluted with N, even compared to classic "eutrophic" systems. Interestingly, the SFBD has been spared the detrimental consequences of nutrient enrichment, largely due to high suspended sediment concentrations (and thus low light penetration) throughout the water column, combined with high grazing pressure. However, the recent "clearing" of SFBD waters due to a sharp decrease in suspended sediments may significantly alter the ecology of the estuary, by increasing phytoplankton growth. Thus, the SFBD may be losing its historical resilience to eutrophication, and may soon be "high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll" no more. Elucidating the environmental factors affecting the community structure, activity, and functioning of N-cycling microbes in SFBD is crucial for determining how changes in turbidity and productivity will be propagated throughout the ecosystem. While substantial ecological research in the SFBD has focused on phytoplankton and food webs, bacterial and archaeal communities have received far less attention

  14. Locking depths estimated from geodesy and seismology along the San Andreas Fault System: Implications for seismic moment release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Konter, Bridget R.; Sandwell, David T.; Shearer, Peter

    2011-06-01

    The depth of the seismogenic zone is a critical parameter for earthquake hazard models. Independent observations from seismology and geodesy can provide insight into the depths of faulting, but these depths do not always agree. Here we inspect variations in fault depths of 12 segments of the southern San Andreas Fault System derived from over 1000 GPS velocities and 66,000 relocated earthquake hypocenters. Geodetically determined locking depths range from 6 to 22 km, while seismogenic thicknesses are largely limited to depths of 11-20 km. These seismogenic depths best match the geodetic locking depths when estimated at the 95% cutoff depth in seismicity, and most fault segment depths agree to within 2 km. However, the Imperial, Coyote Creek, and Borrego segments have significant discrepancies. In these cases the geodetically inferred locking depths are much shallower than the seismogenic depths. We also examine variations in seismic moment accumulation rate per unit fault length as suggested by seismicity and geodesy and find that both approaches yield high rates (1.5-1.8 × 1013 Nm/yr/km) along the Mojave and Carrizo segments and low rates (˜0.2 × 1013 Nm/yr/km) along several San Jacinto segments. The largest difference in seismic moment between models is calculated for the Imperial segment, where the moment rate from seismic depths is a factor of ˜2.5 larger than that from geodetic depths. Such variability has important implications for the accuracy to which future major earthquake magnitudes can be estimated.

  15. History of San Marco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporale, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

  16. The San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Priest, S.S.; Duffield, W.A.; Malis-Clark, Karen; Hendley, J. W.; Stauffer, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    Northern Arizona's San Francisco Volcanic Field, much of which lies within Coconino and Kaibab National Forests, is an area of young volcanoes along the southern margin of the Colorado Plateau. During its 6-million-year history, this field has produced more than 600 volcanoes. Their activity has created a topographically varied landscape with forests that extend from the Pi?on-Juniper up to the Bristlecone Pine life zones. The most prominent landmark is San Francisco Mountain, a stratovolcano that rises to 12,633 feet and serves as a scenic backdrop to the city of Flagstaff.

  17. 76 FR 38679 - Notice of Call for Nominations for Appointment of Primary and Alternate Representatives, Santa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Appointment of Primary and Alternate Representatives, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument... applications for positions on the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory Committee..., 2011. ADDRESSES: Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Office, Attn: National...

  18. SAN PEDRO GEODATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Pedro Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV). The goal of the Landscape Sciences Program is to improve decision-making relative to natural and human resource management through the development...

  19. SAN PEDRO WATERSHED DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Pedro River Geo-Data Browser was jointly developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Tucson, AZ). Since 1995, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A) and U...

  20. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  1. Structure of the San Bernardino Basin Along Two Seismic Transects: Rialto-Colton Fault to the San Andreas Fault and Along the I-215 Freeway (I-10 to SR30)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.; Steedman, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    show internal consistency and consistency with other existing geophysical data. Collectively, the data suggest that the I-215 freeway trends along the faulted edge of a pull-apart basin, within a zone where the principal slip of the San Jacinto Fault is transferred to the San Andreas Fault. Because the I-215 freeway trends at low angles to these flower-structure faults, both primary and numerous secondary faults are apparent between the I-10 exchange and State Road-30, suggesting that much of the 8-km-long segment of the I-215 freeway could experience movement along primary or secondary faults.

  2. 410. Delineator Unknown Revised November 2, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    410. Delineator Unknown Revised November 2, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; "A" - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. SAN JOAQUIN ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Capstick, Donald O.

    1984-01-01

    The San Joaquin Roadless Area is composed of three noncontiguous areas on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada in Madera County, California. The results of geologic, geochemical, and mining-activity and production surveys in the central part of the area indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic-mineral or energy resources in the area. Sand, gravel, and pumice exist in the area but occurrences are small and isolated and farther from major markets than similar deposits outside the roadless area. Rocks in the area are exhibited in exposures of unaltered and nonmineralized granitic and metavolcanic rock along the steep western wall of the glacially carved valley of the Middle Fork of the San Joaquin River. Drainage in the area consists of seeps along fractures in the cliff or small cascading streams, a hydraulic setting not favorable for the development of placer deposits. No mines or prospect workings were found in the roadless area. Alteration zones within the granitic and metamorphic rock that crop out within the area are small, isolated, and consist only of limonitic staining and bleached quartzose rock.

  4. San Antonio, Texas, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This sharp, cloud free view of San Antonio, Texas (29.5N, 98.5W) illustrates the classic pattern of western cities. The city has a late nineteenth century Anglo grid pattern overlaid onto an earlier, less regular Hispanic settlement. A well marked central business district having streets laid out north/south and east/west is surrounded by blocks of suburban homes and small businesses set between the older colonial radial transportation routes.

  5. 75 FR 55975 - Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego... Shark Fest Swim, consisting of 600 swimmers swimming a predetermined course. The sponsor will provide 26...; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is...

  6. 77 FR 34988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: San Diego State University Archeology Collections... associated funerary objects may contact San Diego State University Archeology Collections Management...

  7. Structure and mechanics of the San Andreas-San Gregorio fault junction, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Bruns, Terry R.; Sliter, Ray

    2005-01-01

    The right-lateral San Gregorio and San Andreas faults meet west of the Golden Gate near San Francisco. Coincident seismic reflection and refraction profiling across the San Gregorio and San Andreas faults south of their junction shows the crust between them to have formed shallow extensional basins that are dissected by parallel strike-slip faults. We employ a regional finite element model to investigate the long-term consequences of the fault geometry. Over the course of 2-3 m.y. of slip on the San Andreas-San Gregorio fault system, elongated extensional basins are predicted to form between the two faults. An additional consequence of the fault geometry is that the San Andreas fault is expected to have migrated eastward relative to the San Gregorio fault. We thus propose a model of eastward stepping right-lateral fault formation to explain the observed multiple fault strands and depositional basins. The current manifestation of this process might be the observed transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault east to the Golden Gate fault.

  8. Arsenic in benthic bivalves of San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johns, C.; Luoma, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations were determined in fine-grained, oxidized, surface sediments and in two benthic bivalves, Corbicula sp. and Macoma balthica, within San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta, and selected rivers not influenced by urban or industrial activity. Arsenic concentrations in all samples were characteristic of values reported for uncontaminated estuaries. Small temporal fluctuations and low arsenic concentrations in bivalves and sediments suggest that most inputs of arsenic are likely to be minor and arsenic contamination is not widespread in the Bay.

  9. Lahar-hazard zonation for San Miguel volcano, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Chesner, C.A.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. The volcano, located in the eastern part of the country, rises to an altitude of about 2130 meters and towers above the communities of San Miguel, El Transito, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and the PanAmerican and coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The population density around San Miguel volcano coupled with the proximity of major transportation routes increases the risk that even small volcano-related events, like landslides or eruptions, may have significant impact on people and infrastructure. San Miguel volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in El Salvador; it has erupted at least 29 times since 1699. Historical eruptions of the volcano consisted mainly of relatively quiescent emplacement of lava flows or minor explosions that generated modest tephra falls (erupted fragments of microscopic ash to meter sized blocks that are dispersed into the atmosphere and fall to the ground). Little is known, however, about prehistoric eruptions of the volcano. Chemical analyses of prehistoric lava flows and thin tephra falls from San Miguel volcano indicate that the volcano is composed dominantly of basalt (rock having silica content

  10. Potential of public lands in California's central valley as habitat for the endangered San Joaquin kit fox. [Vulpes macrotis mutica

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; McCue, P.; Sauls, M.L.; Kato, T.

    1982-01-01

    As part of an assessment of the impacts of their activities on the endangered San Joaquin kit fox and its essential habitat, the Department of Energy and Bureau of Land Management investigated the potential of public lands in the San Joaquin Valley as suitable habitat for the San Joaquin kit fox. (ACR)

  11. San Diego's Capital Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytton, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article describes San Diego's capital planning process. As part of its capital planning process, the San Diego Unified School District has developed a systematic analysis of functional quality at each of its school sites. The advantage of this approach is that it seeks to develop and apply quantifiable metrics and standards for the more…

  12. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  13. 78 FR 58878 - Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay... Diego Shark Fest Swim. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants,...

  14. Active Crustal Deformation in the Area of San Carlos, Baja California Sur, Mexico as Shown by Data of Local Earthquake Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munguía, Luis; González-Escobar, Mario; Navarro, Miguel; Valdez, Tito; Mayer, Sergio; Aguirre, Alfredo; Wong, Victor; Luna, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed earthquakes of sequences that occurred at different times near San Carlos, a town of approximately 5000 inhabitants. The seismic sequences happened during March-April 1989, October 2000-June 2001, and 5-15 February 2004 at about 200 km west of the Pacific-North America plate boundary. The strong shaking from initial earthquakes of the first two sequences prompted the installation of temporary seismic stations in the area. With data recorded by these stations, we found an earthquake distribution that is consistent with the northwest segment of the Santa Margarita fault. Both the focal depth, that seemed to increase in E-NE direction, and a composite fault-plane solution, obtained from polarity data of the small earthquakes, were also consistent with the main characteristics of that fault. We also found that our normal-faulting mechanism (east side down) was quite similar to centroid moment tensor solutions for earthquakes with M w 5.4 and 5.3 that occurred in the area in February 2004. It is likely, then, that these larger earthquakes also occurred along the Santa Margarita Fault. To get some insight into the regional stress pattern, we compared the above mechanisms with mechanisms reported for other earthquakes of the Pacific margin of Baja California Sur and the Gulf of California regions. We observed that focal mechanisms of the two regions have T axes of stress that plunge sub horizontally in E-NE average direction. The corresponding P axes have N-NW average trend, but for the Pacific earthquakes these axes plunge at angles that are ~35° larger than those for the Gulf earthquakes. These more vertically inclined P axes of compressive stress mean substantial oblique fault motions. The mixture of oblique and strike-slip components of fault motions, as the focal mechanisms show, confirms a transtensional stress regime for the region. Before this research, we knew little about the seismicity and styles of faulting in the area. Now we know that

  15. Active Crustal Deformation in the Area of San Carlos, Baja California Sur, Mexico as Shown by Data of Local Earthquake Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munguía, Luis; González-Escobar, Mario; Navarro, Miguel; Valdez, Tito; Mayer, Sergio; Aguirre, Alfredo; Wong, Victor; Luna, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed earthquakes of sequences that occurred at different times near San Carlos, a town of approximately 5000 inhabitants. The seismic sequences happened during March-April 1989, October 2000-June 2001, and 5-15 February 2004 at about 200 km west of the Pacific-North America plate boundary. The strong shaking from initial earthquakes of the first two sequences prompted the installation of temporary seismic stations in the area. With data recorded by these stations, we found an earthquake distribution that is consistent with the northwest segment of the Santa Margarita fault. Both the focal depth, that seemed to increase in E-NE direction, and a composite fault-plane solution, obtained from polarity data of the small earthquakes, were also consistent with the main characteristics of that fault. We also found that our normal-faulting mechanism (east side down) was quite similar to centroid moment tensor solutions for earthquakes with M w 5.4 and 5.3 that occurred in the area in February 2004. It is likely, then, that these larger earthquakes also occurred along the Santa Margarita Fault. To get some insight into the regional stress pattern, we compared the above mechanisms with mechanisms reported for other earthquakes of the Pacific margin of Baja California Sur and the Gulf of California regions. We observed that focal mechanisms of the two regions have T axes of stress that plunge sub horizontally in E-NE average direction. The corresponding P axes have N-NW average trend, but for the Pacific earthquakes these axes plunge at angles that are ~35° larger than those for the Gulf earthquakes. These more vertically inclined P axes of compressive stress mean substantial oblique fault motions. The mixture of oblique and strike-slip components of fault motions, as the focal mechanisms show, confirms a transtensional stress regime for the region. Before this research, we knew little about the seismicity and styles of faulting in the area. Now we know that

  16. 78 FR 34895 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zones for the San Francisco Independence Day...

  17. A network pharmacology approach to discover active compounds and action mechanisms of San-Cao Granule for treatment of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shizhang; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jiabo; Su, Haibin; Luo, Shengqiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Guo, Yanlei; Liu, Liping; Liu, Fengqun; Zhao, Qingguo; Chen, Hongge; Xiao, Xiaohe; Zhao, Pan; Zhao, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance San-Cao Granule (SCG) has been used in patients with liver fibrosis for many years and has shown good effect. However, its mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear because of its complex chemical system. The purpose of our study is to establish a comprehensive and systemic method that can predict the mechanism of action of SCG in antihepatic fibrosis. Materials and methods In this study, a “compound–target–disease” network was constructed by combining the SCG-specific and liver fibrosis–specific target proteins with protein–protein interactions, and network pharmacology was used to screen out the underlying targets and mechanisms of SCG for treatment of liver fibrosis. Then, some key molecules of the enriched pathway were chosen to verify the effects of SCG on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA). Results This systematic approach had successfully revealed that 16 targets related to 11 SCG compounds were closely associated with liver fibrosis therapy. The pathway-enrichment analysis of them showed that the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway is relatively important. Animal experiments also proved that SCG could significantly ameliorate liver fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Conclusion SCG could alleviate liver fibrosis through the molecular mechanisms predicted by network pharmacology. Furthermore, network pharmacology could provide deep insight into the pharmacological mechanisms of Chinese herbal formulas. PMID:26929602

  18. The Relation Between Topography and Millennial Erosion Rates in the San Gabriel Mountains, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, K. X.; Heimsath, A. M.; Ouimet, W. B.; Crosby, B. T.; Wobus, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    prominent knickpoints recording a transient channel response to an increase in rock uplift rate that is expressed in channels throughout the San Gabriel Mountains. This interpretation of stream profile form is supported by our preliminary CRN-based estimates of basin-average erosion rates that document a factor of ~3 increase in erosion rate downstream of knickpoints in the Big Tujunga drainage. The amount of uplift recorded in the channel profiles suggests this increase in rate occurred ca. 1.5Ma, approximately coinciding with the initiation of the San Jacinto and Cucamonga faults.

  19. The San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region, California: Structure and kinematics of a Young plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachens, R.C.; Zoback, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recently acquired high-resolution aeromagnetic data delineate offset and/or truncated magnetic rock bodies of the Franciscan Complex that define the location and structure of, and total offset across, the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region. Two distinctive magnetic anomalies caused by ultramafic rocks and metabasalts east of, and truncated at, the San Andreas fault have clear counterparts west of the fault that indicate a total right-lateral offset of only 22 km on the Peninsula segment, the active strand that ruptured in 1906. The location of the Peninsula segment is well defined magnetically on the northern peninsula where it goes offshore, and can be traced along strike an additional ~6 km to the northwest. Just offshore from Lake Merced, the inferred fault trace steps right (northeast) 3 km onto a nearly parallel strand that can be traced magnetically northwest more than 20 km as the linear northeast edge of a magnetic block bounded by the San Andreas fault, the Pilarcitos fault, and the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault zone. This right-stepping strand, the Golden Gate segment, joins the eastern mapped trace of the San Andreas fault at Bolinas Lagoon and projects back onshore to the southeast near Lake Merced. Inversion of detailed gravity data on the San Francisco Peninsula reveals a 3 km wide basin situated between the two strands of the San Andreas fault, floored by Franciscan basement and filled with Plio-Quaternary sedimentary deposits of the Merced and Colma formations. The basin, ~1 km deep at the coast, narrows and becomes thinner to the southeast along the fault over a distance of ~12 km. The length, width, and location of the basin between the two strands are consistent with a pull-apart basin formed behind the right step in the right-lateral strike-slip San Andreas fault system and currently moving southeast with the North American plate. Slight nonparallelism of the two strands bounding the basin (implying a small component of convergence

  20. The stress shadow effect: a mechanical analysis of the evenly-spaced parallel strike-slip faults in the San Andreas fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, A. V.; Yin, A.; Lin, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Parallel evenly-spaced strike-slip faults are prominent in the southern San Andreas fault system, as well as other settings along plate boundaries (e.g., the Alpine fault) and within continental interiors (e.g., the North Anatolian, central Asian, and northern Tibetan faults). In southern California, the parallel San Jacinto, Elsinore, Rose Canyon, and San Clemente faults to the west of the San Andreas are regularly spaced at ~40 km. In the Eastern California Shear Zone, east of the San Andreas, faults are spaced at ~15 km. These characteristic spacings provide unique mechanical constraints on how the faults interact. Despite the common occurrence of parallel strike-slip faults, the fundamental questions of how and why these fault systems form remain unanswered. We address this issue by using the stress shadow concept of Lachenbruch (1961)—developed to explain extensional joints by using the stress-free condition on the crack surface—to present a mechanical analysis of the formation of parallel strike-slip faults that relates fault spacing and brittle-crust thickness to fault strength, crustal strength, and the crustal stress state. We discuss three independent models: (1) a fracture mechanics model, (2) an empirical stress-rise function model embedded in a plastic medium, and (3) an elastic-plate model. The assumptions and predictions of these models are quantitatively tested using scaled analogue sandbox experiments that show that strike-slip fault spacing is linearly related to the brittle-crust thickness. We derive constraints on the mechanical properties of the southern San Andreas strike-slip faults and fault-bounded crust (e.g., local fault strength and crustal/regional stress) given the observed fault spacing and brittle-crust thickness, which is obtained by defining the base of the seismogenic zone with high-resolution earthquake data. Our models allow direct comparison of the parallel faults in the southern San Andreas system with other similar strike

  1. 78 FR 20792 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA... enforce the safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San... Grade William Hawn, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Francisco; telephone (415) 399-7442 or email at...

  2. 77 FR 15260 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA AGENCY... safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area... Sector San Francisco; telephone (415) 399-7442 or email at D11-PF-MarineEvents@uscg.mil ....

  3. 76 FR 14051 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA... inventory of human remains in the control of San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA. The human.... A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by San Francisco State University...

  4. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San... Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. (a) Regulated area. A moving safety zone is established in the following area: (1) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships entering San Juan Harbor in an area...

  5. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San... Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. (a) Regulated area. A moving safety zone is established in the following area: (1) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships entering San Juan Harbor in an area...

  6. 76 FR 55796 - Safety Zone; TriRock Triathlon, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock Triathlon, San Diego Bay, San Diego... safety zone upon the specified navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, California, in support of a bay swim in San Diego Harbor. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of...

  7. 75 FR 38412 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA... zone on the ] navigable waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego POPS Fireworks. This safety.... Coast Guard Sector San Diego, CA; telephone 619-278- 7262, e-mail Shane.E.Jackson@uscg.mil . If you...

  8. 77 FR 28771 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA... enforce the safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San... Sector San Francisco; telephone (415) 399-7442 or email at D11-PF-MarineEvents@uscg.mil ....

  9. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is California's famous San Andreas Fault. The image, created with data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, Calif., about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. Another fault, the Garlock Fault lies at the base of the Tehachapis; the San Andreas and the Garlock Faults meet in the center distance near the town of Gorman. In the distance, over the Tehachapi Mountains is California's Central Valley. Along the foothills in the right hand part of the image is the Antelope Valley, including the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve. The data used to create this image were acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  10. Diel activity patterns of juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon with implications for operation of a gated water diversion in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, John M.; Adams, Noah S.; Perry, Russell W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Romine, Jason G.; Blake, Aaron R.; Burau, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    In the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, tidal forces that reverse river flows increase the proportion of water and juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon diverted into a network of channels that were constructed to support agriculture and human consumption. This area is known as the interior delta, and it has been associated with poor fish survival. Under the rationale that the fish will be diverted in proportion to the amount of water that is diverted, the Delta Cross Channel (DCC) has been prescriptively closed during the winter out-migration to reduce fish entrainment and mortality into the interior delta. The fish are thought to migrate mostly at night, and so daytime operation of the DCC may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment and mortality. To assess this, the DCC gate was experimentally opened and closed while we released 2983 of the fish with acoustic transmitters upstream of the DCC to monitor their arrival and entrainment into the DCC. We used logistic regression to model night-time arrival and entrainment probabilities with covariates that included the proportion of each diel period with upstream flow, flow, rate of change in flow and water temperature. The proportion of time with upstream flow was the most important driver of night-time arrival probability, yet river flow had the largest effect on fish entrainment into the DCC. Modelling results suggest opening the DCC during daytime while keeping the DCC closed during night-time may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment into the interior delta.

  11. 41. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco CallBulletin Library San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Call-Bulletin Library San Francisco, California INTERIOR VIEW OF CHURCH BEFORE RESTORATION - 1934 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  12. New evidence on the state of stress of the san andreas fault system.

    PubMed

    Zoback, M D; Zoback, M L; Mount, V S; Suppe, J; Eaton, J P; Healy, J H; Oppenheimer, D; Reasenberg, P; Jones, L; Raleigh, C B; Wong, I G; Scotti, O; Wentworth, C

    1987-11-20

    Contemporary in situ tectonic stress indicators along the San Andreas fault system in central California show northeast-directed horizontal compression that is nearly perpendicular to the strike of the fault. Such compression explains recent uplift of the Coast Ranges and the numerous active reverse faults and folds that trend nearly parallel to the San Andreas and that are otherwise unexplainable in terms of strike-slip deformation. Fault-normal crustal compression in central California is proposed to result from the extremely low shear strength of the San Andreas and the slightly convergent relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates. Preliminary in situ stress data from the Cajon Pass scientific drill hole (located 3.6 kilometers northeast of the San Andreas in southern California near San Bernardino, California) are also consistent with a weak fault, as they show no right-lateral shear stress at approximately 2-kilometer depth on planes parallel to the San Andreas fault. PMID:17839366

  13. Yu Ping Feng San, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction, Regulates the Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Cyclooxygenase-2 and the Activity of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase in Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Du, Crystal Y. Q.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), a Chinese herbal decoction comprising Astragali Radix (AR; Huangqi), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR; Baizhu), and Saposhnikoviae Radix (SR; Fangfeng), has been used clinically to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Previously, we demonstrated a dual role of YPFS in regulating cytokine release in cultured macrophages. In this study, we elucidated the anti-inflammatory effect of YPFS that is mediated through modulating the expression of three key enzymes involved in IBD: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IALP). In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic-inflammation model of cultured murine macrophages, YPFS treatment suppressed the activation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, application of YPFS in cultured small intestinal enterocytes markedly induced the expression of IALP in a time-dependent manner, which might strengthen the intestinal detoxification system. A duality of YPFS in modulating the expression of iNOS and COX-2 was determined here. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 in macrophages was induced by YPFS, and this activation was partially blocked by the NF-κB-specific inhibitor BAY 11-7082, indicating a role of NF-κB signaling. These YPFS-induced changes in gene regulation strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of YPFS are mediated through the regulation of inflammatory enzymes. PMID:24967898

  14. Geologic map and digital database of the Redlands 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Morton, Douglas M.; Cox, Brett F.; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Digital preparation by Cossette, P.M.; Jones, B.; Kennedy, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    This geologic database of the Redlands 7.5' quadrangle was prepared by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), a regional geologic-mapping project sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Geological Survey. The database was developed as a contribution to the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program's National Geologic Map Database, and is intended to provide a general geologic setting of the Redlands quadrangle. The database and map provide information about earth materials and geologic structures, including faults and folds that have developed in the quadrangle due to complexities in the San Andreas Fault system. The Redlands 7.5' quadrangle contains earth materials and structures that provide insight into the late Cenozoic geologic evolution of the southern California Inland Empire region. Important stratigraphic and structural elements include (1) the modern trace of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults and (2) late Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary materials and geologic structures that formed during the last million years or so and that record complex geologic interactions within the San Andreas Fault system. These materials and the structures that deform them provide the geologic framework for investigations of earthquake hazards and ground-water recharge and subsurface flow. Geologic information contained in the Redlands database is general-purpose data that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. The term "general-purpose" means that all geologic-feature classes have minimal information content adequate to characterize their general geologic characteristics and to interpret their general geologic history. However, no single feature class has enough information to definitively characterize its properties and origin. For this reason the database cannot be used for site-specific geologic evaluations, although it can be used to plan and guide investigations at the site

  15. Environmental setting of the San Joaquin-Tulare basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gronberg, JoAnn A.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Kratzer, Charles R.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Brown, Larry R.; Burow, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the San Joaquin- Tulare Basins began in 1991 to study the effects of natural and anthropogenic influences on the quality of ground water, surface water, biology, and ecology. The San Joaquin-Tulare Basins study unit, which covers approximately 31,200 square miles in central California, is made up of the San Joaquin Valley, the eastern slope of the Coast Ranges to the west, and the western slope of the Sierra Nevada to the east. The sediments of the San Joaquin Valley can be divided into alluvial fans and basin deposits. The San Joaquin River receives water from tributaries draining the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges, and except for streams discharging directly to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, is the only surface- water outlet from the study unit. The surface-water hydrology of the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins study unit has been significantly modified by development of water resources. Almost every major river entering the valley from the Sierra Nevada has one or more reservoirs. Almost every tributary and drainage into the San Joaquin River has been altered by a network of canals, drains, and wasteways. The Sierra Nevada is predominantly forested, and the Coast Ranges and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada are predominately rangeland. The San Joaquin Valley is dominated by agriculture, which utilized approximately 14.7 million acre-feet of water and 597 million pounds active ingredient of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in 1990, and 88 million pounds active ingredient of pesticides in 1991. In addition, the livestock industry contributed 318 million pounds active ingredient of nitrogen and phosphorus from manure in 1987. This report provides the background information to assess the influence of these and other factors on water quality and to provide the foundation for the design and interpretation of all spatial data. These characterizations provide a basis for comparing the influences of human activities

  16. Institutional Effectiveness and the Transfer Function in the San Diego Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, William B.; Takahata, Gail

    Designed to update the San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) Board of Trustees and Chancellor on district transfer activities, this report offers information on the number and characteristics of SDCCD students who transferred to San Diego State University (SDSU) in fall 1989, and outlines broader issues concerning transfer. Introductory…

  17. Maps showing estimated sediment yield from coastal landslides and active slope distribution along the Big Sur coast, Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Green, Krystal R.; Dallas, Kate

    2004-01-01

    The 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Ni?os brought very high precipitation to California?s central coast; this precipitation resulted in raised groundwater levels, coastal flooding, and destabilized slopes throughout the region. Large landslides in the coastal mountains of Big Sur in Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties blocked sections of California State Route 1, closing the road for months at a time. Large landslides such as these occur frequently in the winter months along the Big Sur coast due to the steep topography and weak bedrock. A large landslide in 1983 resulted in the closure of Highway 1 for over a year to repair the road and stabilize the slope. Resulting work from the 1983 landslide cost over $7 million and generated 30 million cubic yards of debris from landslide removal and excavations to re-establish the highway along the Big Sur coast. Before establishment of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) in 1992, typical road opening measures involved disposal of some landslide material and excess material generated from slope stabilization onto the seaward side of the highway. It is likely that some or most of this disposed material, either directly or indirectly through subsequent erosion, was eventually transported downslope into the ocean. In addition to the landslides that initiate above the road, natural slope failures sometimes occur on the steep slopes below the road and thus deliver material to the base of the coastal mountains where it is eroded and dispersed by waves and nearshore currents. Any coastal-slope landslide, generated through natural or anthropogenic processes, can result in sediment entering the nearshore zone. The waters offshore of the Big Sur coast are part of the MBNMS. Since it was established in 1992, landslide-disposal practices came under question for two reasons. The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 15, Section 922.132 prohibits discharging or depositing, from beyond the boundary of the Sanctuary, any material

  18. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of San Francisco, California, taken on October 3,1994. The image is about 40 kilometers by 55 kilometers (25 miles by 34 miles) with north toward the upper right. Downtown San Francisco is visible in the center of the image with the city of Oakland east (to the right) across San Francisco Bay. Also visible in the image is the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) and the Bay Bridge connecting San Francisco and Oakland. North of the Bay Bridge is Treasure Island. Alcatraz Island appears as a small dot northwest of Treasure Island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 56. The image is centered at 37 degrees north latitude, 122degrees west longitude. This single-frequency SIR-C image was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) radar channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this image appear very dark as do other smooth surfaces such as airport runways. Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of San Francisco, appear as lighter gray. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as those seen in the downtown areas, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the radar flight track. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes

  19. Geohydrology and water chemistry in the Rialto-Colton Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Kadhim, Dina

    1997-01-01

    The 40-square-mile Rialto-Colton ground- water basin is in western San Bernardino County, California, about 60 miles east of Los Angeles.This basin was chosen for storage of imported water because of the good quality of native ground water, the known capacity for additional ground-water storage in the basin, and the availability of imported water. Because the movement and mixing of imported water needed to be determined, the San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District entered into a cooperative program with the U.S.Geological Survey in 1991 to study the geohydrology and water chemistry in the Rialto- Colton basin. Ground-water flow and chemistry were investigated using existing data, borehole- geophysical and lithologic logs from newly drilled test holes, measurement of water levels, and chemical analyses of water samples. The Rialto-Colton basin is bounded on the northwest and southeast by the San Gabriel Mountains and the Badlands, respectively. The San Jacinto Fault and Barrier E form the northeastern boundary, and the Rialto-Colton Fault forms the southwestern boundary. Except in the southeastern part of the basin, the San Jacinto and Rialto-Colton Faults act as groundwater barriers that impede ground- water flow into and out of the basin.Barrier E generally does not impede ground- water flow into the basin. The ground-water system consists primarily of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The maximum thickness is greater than 1,000 feet. The ground- water system is divided into four water-bearing units: river-channel deposits, and upper, middle, and lower water-bearing units. Relatively impermeable consolidated deposits underlie the lower water- bearing unit and form the lower boundary of the ground- water system. Ground water moves from east to west in the river-channel deposits and upper water-bearing unit in the southeastern part of the basin, and from northwest to southeast in the middle and lower water-bearing units. Two major internal faults, Barrier J and

  20. Tectonic history of the north portion of the San Andreas fault system, California, inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griscom, A.; Jachens, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Geologic and geophysical data for the San Andreas fault system north of San Francisco suggest that the eastern boundary of the Pacific plate migrated eastward from its presumed original position at the base of the continental slope to its present position along the San Andreas transform fault by means of a series of eastward jumps of the Mendocino triple junction. These eastward jumps total a distance of about 150 km since 29 Ma. Correlation of right-laterally displaced gravity and magnetic anomalies that now have components at San Francisco and on the shelf north of Point Arena indicates that the presently active strand of the San Andreas fault north of the San Francisco peninsula formed recently at about 5 Ma when the triple junction jumped eastward a minimum of 100 km to its present location at the north end of the San Andreas fault. -from Authors

  1. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF FRONT OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF FRONT OF SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE FIREHOUSE, FACING SOUTHWEST - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge Firehouse, Adjacent to north side of bridge on Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 22. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Collection) Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Collection) Photographer unknown, Date unknown SIDE VIEW OF CHURCH - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  3. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT TURNOUT ON SAN TAN FLOODWATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT TURNOUT ON SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Flood Water Canal, North Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  4. Holocene slip rates along the San Andreas Fault System in the San Gorgonio Pass and implications for large earthquakes in southern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heermance, R. V., III; Yule, D.

    2015-12-01

    onto the Eastern California Shear Zone or San Jacinto Fault, or accommodated by off-fault deformation through the SGP. Nonetheless, the slip at Millard Canyon, combined with evidence for sporadic slip events from nearby fault trenches, suggests that displacement on these faults occurs synchronously with some, but not all, outside-of-the-pass SAF earthquakes.

  5. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is the San Andreas Fault in an image created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, California, about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. This area is at the junction of two large mountain ranges, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains on the right. Quail Lake Reservoir sits in the topographic depression created by past movement along the fault. Interstate 5 is the prominent linear feature starting at the left edge of the image and continuing into the fault zone, passing eventually over Tejon Pass into the Central Valley, visible at the upper left.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994

  6. San Language Development for Education in South Africa: The South African San Institute and the San Language Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamo, Billies

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the 3 San communities in South Africa: the !Xun, the Khwe, and the [image omitted]Khomani San. The !Xun and Khwe communities are living in Platfontein, near Kimberley in the Northern Cape. The [image omitted]Khomani San community is living in Upington and in the southern Kalahari, which are also in the Northern Cape. This…

  7. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  8. Update: San Andreas Fault experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging techniques are used to monitor the broad motion of the tectonic plates comprising the San Andreas Fault System. The San Andreas Fault Experiment, (SAFE), has progressed through the upgrades made to laser system hardware and an improvement in the modeling capabilities of the spaceborne laser targets. Of special note is the launch of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite, LAGEOS spacecraft, NASA's only completely dedicated laser satellite in 1976. The results of plate motion projected into this 896 km measured line over the past eleven years are summarized and intercompared.

  9. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game... Bay off San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion. This safety... Giants will sponsor the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion on July 16, 2010, on the...

  10. 75 FR 77756 - Safety Zone; San Diego Parade of Lights Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Parade of Lights Fireworks, San... San Diego Parade of Lights Fireworks Displays on December 12 and December 19, 2010. This safety zone... San Diego Parade of Lights Fireworks Displays, which will include two fireworks...

  11. 78 FR 18238 - Safety Zone; SFPD Training Safety Zone; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register SFPD San Francisco Police Department NPRM Notice of Proposed... Hunters Point in San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Police Department's maritime....C sections 1221 et seq.). San Francisco Police Department will host the SFPD Training Safety Zone...

  12. 77 FR 46115 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The San Diego Museum of Man has completed an... contact the San Diego Museum of Man. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe stated...

  13. 76 FR 38305 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Chronicle Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Chronicle Fireworks Display, San Francisco... will enforce the safety zones for the annual San Francisco Chronicle Fireworks Display (Independence Day Celebration for the City of San Francisco Fireworks). This action is necessary to control...

  14. 76 FR 45693 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA... temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego POPS Fireworks... rule, call or e-mail Petty Officer Shane Jackson, Waterways Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector...

  15. 77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco... will enforce the safety zone for the Fleet Week Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... William Hawn, U.S. ] Coast Guard Sector San Francisco; telephone (415) 399-7442 or email at...

  16. 77 FR 42647 - Safety Zone: San Diego Symphony POPS Fireworks; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: San Diego Symphony POPS Fireworks; San... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego Symphony...

  17. 76 FR 75908 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of California, San Diego, San Diego... California on behalf of the University of California, San Diego, have completed an inventory of human remains... contact the University of California, San Diego. Disposition of the human remains and associated...

  18. 76 FR 46352 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for San Diego International, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for San Diego International, San... Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility program submitted by San Diego Regional... maps submitted by San Diego Regional Airport Authority under Part 150 were in compliance...

  19. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of San Francisco, San... of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action... Ensign William Hawn, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Francisco; ] telephone (415) 399-7442 or email at...

  20. 75 FR 35651 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Chronicle Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Chronicle Fireworks Display, San Francisco... will enforce the Independence Day Celebration for the City of San Francisco Fireworks safety zone from... Independence Day Celebration for the City of San Francisco Fireworks safety zone from 11 a.m. through 10...

  1. 77 FR 37603 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San... Guard will enforce the safety zones for the San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below....

  2. 77 FR 59648 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The San Francisco State... associated funerary objects may contact the San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program. Repatriation...

  3. Involvement & Participation. National Conference on Physical Activity for the Exceptional Individual (11th, San Diego, California, November 19-20, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Edward R.; Richmond, Alan

    This publication contains papers, presented at a conference about physical activities for the exceptional individual, concerning: (1) student interest/motivation; (2) swimming; (3) games; (4) wheelchairs; (5) movement education; (6) physical stress and bone growth; (7) parent involvement; (8) meningomyelocele; (9) blind athletes; (10) Project…

  4. 408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET NO. 26 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET 12 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; SHEET 23 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. A Spanish Borderlands Community: San Antonio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teja, Jesus F. de la

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the founding of San Antonio, originally San Antonio de Bexar, which, in 1718, came into being as a military settlement involved in Spanish imperial defensive measures. Focuses on the development and continued growth of San Antonio, Texas's most populous city in the 19th century. (CMK)

  8. 27 CFR 9.171 - San Bernabe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Bernabe. 9.171 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.171 San Bernabe. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San Bernabe”....

  9. 27 CFR 9.110 - San Benito.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Benito. 9.110 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.110 San Benito. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San Benito.”...

  10. 27 CFR 9.110 - San Benito.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false San Benito. 9.110 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.110 San Benito. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San Benito.”...

  11. 27 CFR 9.56 - San Lucas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Lucas. 9.56 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.56 San Lucas. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San Lucas.” (b) Approved...

  12. 27 CFR 9.56 - San Lucas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false San Lucas. 9.56 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.56 San Lucas. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San Lucas.” (b) Approved...

  13. 27 CFR 9.171 - San Bernabe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false San Bernabe. 9.171 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.171 San Bernabe. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San Bernabe”....

  14. Pulitzer Prize Speakers Enhance Credibility of San Antonio Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aradillas, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Describes a mass communications program at Texas's San Antonio College that invites Pulitzer Prize recipients to give guest lectures. Includes a list of the speakers who have lectured since the program's inception in 1978, a description of the speakers' accomplishments, and a description of program activities. (MAB)

  15. San Diego Met High School: Personalization as a Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of San Diego Met High School is to prepare students for college and the workforce through active learning, academic rigor, and community involvement in a small school setting. Because personalization is a key component of the school culture, advisories of 20-25 students work with the same teachers for all four years. Advisers, parents,…

  16. Courtney and I Teach San Diego County History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Kay

    1982-01-01

    Describes how a koala hand puppet was used to teach county history as well as reading and writing skills, multicultural awareness, music, art, and self-esteem to third graders in San Diego, California. Activities that involved the puppet are described. (AM)

  17. Rotavirus epidemiology in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Noyola, Daniel E; Herrera, Ismael F

    2005-07-01

    The epidemiology of rotavirus infections was investigated in San Luis Potosí, Mexico during a 6-year period. In each of the study years, the epidemic period started in October or November; peak activity was detected between December and February, and the end of the epidemic occurred in March or April. Rotavirus infections show a consistent temporal pattern in our community.

  18. Foraminifera and paleoenvironments in the Etchegoin and lower San Joaquin Formations, west-central San Joaquin valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lagoe, M.B.; Tenison, J.A.; Buehring, R. )

    1991-02-01

    The Etchegoin and San Joaquin formations preserve a rich stratigraphic record of paleoenvironments, deposition, and tectonics during the late Miocene-Pliocene development of the San Joaquin basin. The distribution of foraminifera within these formations can help constrain this record, which includes final filling of the basin, facies responses to sea level changes, and active movement on the San Andreas fault system. The distribution of foraminifera in core samples is analyzed from seven wells along the west-central San joaquin basin - four from Buena Vista oil field, one from western Elk Hills oil field, and two from an area just south of South Belridge oil field. A model of modern, shallow- to marginal-marine foraminiferal biofacies is used to interpret the Etchegoin-San Joaquin faunal distributions. This modern model distinguishes marsh, tidal channel, intertidal, lagoonal, littoral, and shallow sublittoral environments. Ongoing work calibrating this foraminiferal record to the lithologic and macrofossil records in addition to interpreted depositional systems within these formations will further define relationships between paleoenvironments, relative sea level, and tectonics.

  19. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  20. Seeking Justice in San Francisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life of Carlos A. Garcia, superintendent at the San Francisco Unified School District. Garcia was born in Chicago, but his parents shortly thereafter moved back to their homeland of Mexico for a few years. When Garcia was almost 5, his family moved to Los Angeles, where his parents worked in factories and Garcia was…

  1. Building the San Francisco Beacons.

    PubMed

    Eldredge, Sue; Piha, Sam; Levin, Fodi

    2002-01-01

    San Francisco's Beacon Initiative is designed to foster youth development on a large scale. Its intermediary, Community Network for Youth Development, used a theory of change process to forge consensus and create a road map to guide this large collaborative toward its long-term goals.

  2. Landslide oil field, San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.P.; March, K.A.; Caballero, J.S.; Stolle, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The Landslide field, located at the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 by a partnership headed by Channel Exploration Company, on a farm out from Tenneco Oil Company. Initial production from the Tenneco San Emidio 63X-30 was 2064 BOPD, making landslide one of the largest onshore discoveries in California during the past decade. Current production is 7100 BOPD from a sandstone reservoir at 12,500 ft. Fifteen wells have been drilled in the field, six of which are water injectors. Production from the Landslide field occurs from a series of upper Miocene Stevens turbidite sandstones that lie obliquely across an east-plunging structural nose. These turbidite sandstones were deposited as channel-fill sequences within a narrowly bounded levied channel complex. Both the Landslide field and the larger Yowlumne field, located 3 mi to the northwest, comprise a single channel-fan depositional system that developed in the restricted deep-water portion of the San Joaquin basin. Information from the open-hole logs, three-dimensional surveys, vertical seismic profiles, repeat formation tester data, cores, and pressure buildup tests allowed continuous drilling from the initial discovery to the final waterflood injector, without a single dry hole. In addition, the successful application of three-dimensional seismic data in the Landslide development program has helped correctly image channel-fan anomalies in the southern Maricopa basin, where data quality and severe velocity problems have hampered previous efforts. New exploration targets are currently being evaluated on the acreage surrounding the Landslide discovery and should lead to an interesting new round of drilling activity in the Maricopa basin.

  3. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  4. Neogene contraction between the San Andreas fault and the Santa Clara Valley, San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Schmidt, K.M.; Jachens, R.C.; Stanley, R.G.; Jayko, A.S.; McDougall, K.A.; Tinsley, J.C.; Valin, Z.C.

    1999-01-01

    In the southern San Francisco Bay region of California, oblique dextral reverse faults that verge northeastward from the San Andreas fault experienced triggered slip during the 1989 M7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. The role of these range-front thrusts in the evolution of the San Andreas fault system and the future seismic hazard that they may pose to the urban Santa Clara Valley are poorly understood. Based on recent geologic mapping and geophysical investigations, we propose that the range-front thrust system evolved in conjunction with development of the San Andreas fault system. In the early Miocene, the region was dominated by a system of northwestwardly propagating, basin-bounding, transtensional faults. Beginning as early as middle Miocene time, however, the transtensional faulting was superseded by transpressional NE-stepping thrust and reverse faults of the range-front thrust system. Age constraints on the thrust faults indicate that the locus of contraction has focused on the Monte Vista, Shannon, and Berrocal faults since about 4.8 Ma. Fault slip and fold reconstructions suggest that crustal shortening between the San Andreas fault and the Santa Clara Valley within this time frame is ~21%, amounting to as much as 3.2 km at a rate of 0.6 mm/yr. Rates probably have not remained constant; average rates appear to have been much lower in the past few 100 ka. The distribution of coseismic surface contraction during the Loma Prieta earthquake, active seismicity, late Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terrace warping, and geodetic data further suggest that the active range-front thrust system includes blind thrusts. Critical unresolved issues include information on the near-surface locations of buried thrusts, the timing of recent thrust earthquake events, and their recurrence in relation to earthquakes on the San Andreas fault.

  5. Individual, social, and environmental barriers to and facilitators of physical activity among Latinas living in San Diego County: focus group results.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Arredondo, Elva M; Perez, Gabriela; Baquero, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the barriers to and facilitators of physical activity (PA) relevant to a faith-based community living in a border region. Two focus groups were conducted with 25 Latina churchgoers. Latinas identified barriers to PA that included individual (eg, lack of motivation and time, language, economics, social support, family/household responsibilities), sociocultural (eg, fear of border patrol, machismo, and neighborhood safety), and environmental barriers (eg, traffic-related and dogs). Facilitators of PA were PA knowledge, child care, time management, and advocacy skills. The authors concluded that a church-based multilevel intervention targeting Latinas may be ideal for promoting PA and facilitating environmental changes.

  6. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 1: Kinematics of Basin-Range intraplate extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddington, P. K.; Smith, R. B.; Renggli, C.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to estimates of paleo-strain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin part of the Basin-Range, western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced from the past few million years to the present. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions for sub-regions of homogeneous strain. Contemporary deformation in the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The integrated opening rate across the entire Great Basin is accommodated by E-E extension at 8 to 10 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum lithospheric extension correspond to belts of thin crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through mechanism of extension such as a stress relaxation, allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  7. The San Luis Project: An Attempt to Decentralize Physics in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, T. A.; Valladares, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a project being conducted by the Physics Institute of the University of San Luis Potori, Mexico, in order to avoid concentrating physics education and research activities in Mexico City. (SL)

  8. Intestinal parasitism in San Cayetano, Corrientes, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Borda, C E; Rea, M J; Rosa, J R; Maidana, C

    1996-09-01

    An epidemiologic study was conducted in San Cayetano, a village in the province of Corrientes, Argentina, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses in children. Eighty-eight households were randomly selected. Stool samples were collected from 207 children (72% of the school-age population and 12% of the total village population) over a period of six consecutive days, and were subjected to microscopic examination. Of the samples examined, 170 (83%) contained one or more parasites, of which the most frequently found was Blastocystis hominis (in 43% of the samples). Other parasites and commensals detected included Giardia lamblia (29%), hookworms (27%), Entamoeba coli (27%), Enterobius vermicularis (4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (2%), and Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia saginata, Isospora belli, Iodamoeba bütschlii, and Balantidium coli (each 0.5%). The high observed prevalence of intestinal parasitoses indicates active parasite transmission in San Cayetano as a result of poor environmental hygiene-ascribable largely to a lack of public water supply, sewerage, and waste removal services. PMID:8897723

  9. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  10. Potential and limits of InSAR to characterize interseismic deformation independently of GPS data: Application to the southern San Andreas Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, E.; Johnson, C. W.; Fattahi, H.; Bürgmann, R.

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of long-wavelength deformation associated with interseismic strain accumulation traditionally relies on spatially sparse GPS measurements, or on high spatial-resolution InSAR velocity fields aligned to a GPS-based model. In this approach the InSAR contributes only short-wavelength deformation and the two data sets are dependent, thereby challenging the evaluation of the InSAR uncertainties and the justification of atmospheric corrections. Here we present an analysis using 7 years of Envisat InSAR data to characterize interseismic deformation along the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF) and the San Jacinto Fault (SJF) in southern California, where the SAF bifurcates onto the Mission Creek (MCF) and the Banning (BF) fault strands. We outline the processing steps for using InSAR alone to characterize both the short- and long-wavelength deformation, and evaluate the velocity field uncertainties with independent continuous GPS data. InSAR line-of-sight (LOS) and continuous GPS velocities agree within ˜1-2 mm/yr in the study area, suggesting that multiyear InSAR time series can be used to characterize interseismic deformation with a higher spatial resolution than GPS. We investigate with dislocation models the ability of this mean LOS velocity field to constrain fault slip rates and show that a single viewing geometry can help distinguish between different slip-rate scenarios on the SAF and SJF (˜35 km apart) but multiple viewing geometries are needed to differentiate slip on the MCF and BF (<12 km apart). Our results demonstrate that interseismic models of strain accumulation used for seismic hazards assessment would benefit from the consideration of InSAR mean velocity maps.

  11. Origin and characteristics of discharge at San Marcos Springs, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Crow, Cassi L.

    2013-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas is one of the most productive aquifers in the Nation and is the primary source of water for the rapidly growing San Antonio area. Springs issuing from the Edwards aquifer provide habitat for several threatened and endangered species, serve as locations for recreational activities, and supply downstream users. Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are major discharge points for the Edwards aquifer, and their discharges are used as thresholds in groundwater management strategies. Regional flow paths originating in the western part of the aquifer are generally understood to supply discharge at Comal Springs. In contrast, the hydrologic connection of San Marcos Springs with the regional Edwards aquifer flow system is less understood. During November 2008–December 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, collected and analyzed hydrologic and geochemical data from springs, groundwater wells, and streams to gain a better understanding of the origin and characteristics of discharge at San Marcos Springs. During the study, climatic and hydrologic conditions transitioned from exceptional drought to wetter than normal. The wide range of hydrologic conditions that occurred during this study—and corresponding changes in surface-water, groundwater and spring discharge, and in physicochemical properties and geochemistry—provides insight into the origin of the water discharging from San Marcos Springs. Three orifices at San Marcos Springs (Deep, Diversion, and Weissmuller Springs) were selected to be representative of larger springs at the spring complex. Key findings include that discharge at San Marcos Springs was dominated by regional recharge sources and groundwater flow paths and that different orifices of San Marcos Springs respond differently to changes in hydrologic conditions; Deep Spring was less responsive to changes in hydrologic conditions than were Diversion Spring and

  12. Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 9, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Includes chemistry and botany departments. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 2, job no. 311. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Detailed drawings of tile work, wrought iron, and art stone, Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 6, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 112. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT (RIGHT), UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP (LEFT), AND LOWER DECK ON-RAMP FROM TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 36. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco. Plot Plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco. Plot Plan, Letterman Army Hospital, San Francisco, Calif. 1958. SHOWING LOCATION OF BUILDINGS 1006 AND 1049 IN LETTERMAN HOSPITAL COMPLEX IN 1958. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. San Francisco protest against meeting disruptions.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1995-04-01

    Twenty-five leading AIDS activists and organizations in San Francisco have published a letter asking ACT UP San Francisco to stop disrupting meetings. ACT UP San Francisco has targeted public forums to protest the pharmaceutical companies' prolonged trials, claiming that it is unethical to use sick people to test the effectiveness of drugs. Their staged protests often result in HIV-positive persons not getting the treatment information they need.

  18. Capteur Tridimensionnel Sans Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnant, D.

    1986-07-01

    Three-dimensionnal measurements on human body using a scanning laser beam. The active optical apparatus principle and the image data processing giving three dimensional informations of complex forms is presented. The output is given in terms of one or several files of real coordinates. The basic components of this system are : A light-sheet which is generated by a laser source and, the optical sensors (cameras) with corresponding hard-soft extractor; This 3D sensorial system is especially adapted to partial or total acquisitions of body coordinates. The main advantages are : - Vision and measurement capability of complete accessible contours without shadow areas. - The real time data acquisition and scanning of the object in a few seconds. - The access to distance measurements between significant points. - The presently obtained accuracy is better than 1/1000 in relatives units and lower than one MM absolute. - Physically stuck markers on body are not necessary. - The monochromaticity of the laser light source allows the use of a color filter over the detector (camera) for ambient light rejection. - The fully programmable capability for any use, allows the adaptation to a large variety of particular cases. - The hardware open system offers many options. - The hard-soft tool is designed for auto-calibration operation. - The system offers easy connection to a host computer or a production robot.

  19. Resistance Management for San Jose Scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Buzzetti, K; Chorbadjian, R A; Nauen, R

    2015-12-01

    The San Jose scale Diaspidiotus perniciosus Comstock is one of the most important pests of deciduous fruit trees. The major cause of recent outbreaks in apple orchards is thought to be the development of insecticide resistance, specifically organophosphates. The first report was given in North America, and now, in Chile. In the present study, San Jose scale populations collected from two central regions of Chile were checked for their susceptibility to different mode of action insecticides in order to establish alternatives to manage this pest. No evidence of cross resistance between organophosphates insecticides and acetamiprid, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor, or thiacloprid was found. Baselines of LC50-LC95 for different life stages of San Jose scale are given, as reference to future studies of resistance monitoring. The systemic activity of acetamiprid, spirotetramat, and thiacloprid was higher than the contact residue effect of these compounds. For sulfoxaflor, both values were similar. Program treatments including one or more of these compounds are compared in efficacy and impact on resistance ratio values. In order to preserve new insecticides as an important tool to control San Jose scale, resistance management programs should be implemented, considering insecticide mode of action classes alternated or mixed.

  20. Resistance Management for San Jose Scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Buzzetti, K; Chorbadjian, R A; Nauen, R

    2015-12-01

    The San Jose scale Diaspidiotus perniciosus Comstock is one of the most important pests of deciduous fruit trees. The major cause of recent outbreaks in apple orchards is thought to be the development of insecticide resistance, specifically organophosphates. The first report was given in North America, and now, in Chile. In the present study, San Jose scale populations collected from two central regions of Chile were checked for their susceptibility to different mode of action insecticides in order to establish alternatives to manage this pest. No evidence of cross resistance between organophosphates insecticides and acetamiprid, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor, or thiacloprid was found. Baselines of LC50-LC95 for different life stages of San Jose scale are given, as reference to future studies of resistance monitoring. The systemic activity of acetamiprid, spirotetramat, and thiacloprid was higher than the contact residue effect of these compounds. For sulfoxaflor, both values were similar. Program treatments including one or more of these compounds are compared in efficacy and impact on resistance ratio values. In order to preserve new insecticides as an important tool to control San Jose scale, resistance management programs should be implemented, considering insecticide mode of action classes alternated or mixed. PMID:26470382

  1. Metals in sediments of San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, F.G.; Aguilera, L.G. ); Sharma, V.K. )

    1994-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution in water is generally associated with industrial and municipal discharges into rivers, estuaries and lagoons. Once metals are in the water column, they may be taken up by organisms, deposited in the sediments or remain for some period in the water itself. The deposition rate in sediments depends on, among other factors, metal concentration in surface sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of coastal, estuarine and lagoon environments have been determined by many workers. For the past several years, we have been interested in determining trace and heavy metal concentrations in the lagoons in Mexico to establish the levels of metal pollution. The work reported here is the completion of our ongoing study in San Andres lagoon. San Andres lagoon is located north of two industrial ports, Tampico and Altamira. In this industrial zone, the basins of the Panuco and Tamesi Rivers are localized and have industrial effluent throughout the year. All these activities and the input of the Tigre River, which runs through an agricultural and cattle-raising region, may affect the biogeochemistry of the San Andres lagoon. In the present work, we report concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb in sediments of San Andres lagoon. The measurements were made in different seasons; Rain-84 (August-September 1984); North (October-December 1984); Dry (April 1985); and Rain-85 (April-June 1985). 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. 77 FR 36041 - San Antonio Central Railroad, L.L.C.-Lease Exemption-Port Authority of San Antonio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board San Antonio Central Railroad, L.L.C.--Lease Exemption--Port Authority of San Antonio San Antonio Central Railroad, L.L.C. (SAC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption... Authority of San Antonio (the Port), in San Antonio, Tex. This transaction is related to a...

  3. 78 FR 77597 - Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Giacomo Terrizzi, Waterways Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego, Coast Guard; telephone...

  4. 76 FR 81371 - Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, San... Guard will enforce the safety zone for the annual San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display in the... Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display in 33 CFR 165.1191. Under the provisions of 33 CFR...

  5. 78 FR 34123 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The San Francisco State... control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the...

  6. 75 FR 15611 - Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in support of...

  7. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX (drawing from History of San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX (drawing from History of San Diego County, California, published 1883. Photocopy 1975 by Bert Shankland, San Diego). - Johnson-Taylor Ranch House, Black Mountain Road vicinity, Rancho Penasquitos, San Diego County, CA

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Photo by Muybridge, Gleason Collection San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Photo by Muybridge, Gleason Collection San Francisco College for Women Ca. 1870 CONSTRUCTION VIEW FROM SOUTH - U. S. Branch Mint, Mission & Fifth Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 2. COURTYARD, 1890 (photograph from Title Insurance Collection, San Diego ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURTYARD, 1890 (photograph from Title Insurance Collection, San Diego Historical Society. Photocopy 1975 by Bert Shankland, San Diego). - Johnson-Taylor Ranch House, Black Mountain Road vicinity, Rancho Penasquitos, San Diego County, CA

  10. 8. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST (Title Insurance Co. collection, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST (Title Insurance Co. collection, San Diego Historical Society). Historical view, no date, photocopied for HABS, 1975 - Long-Waterman House, 2408 First Avenue, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  11. Metamorphism of San Antonio Terrane metapelites, San Gabriel Mountains, California

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, L.; Ishimatsu, J.; Schneiderman, J.S. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Pelitic schists and gneisses from the San Antonio terrane in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains consist of garnet, biotite, plagioclase, quartz, sillimanite, cordierite, hercynite [+-] alkali feldspar. Large garnet porphyroblasts contain quartz, plagioclase and sillimanite inclusions. Cordierite occurs as haloes around garnet porphyroblasts and as small subgrains always associated with hercynite and together replacing sillimanite blades. Hercynite additionally appears to have nucleated on the edges of sillimanite blades. Contrary to previous investigations, hercynite appears to be a late mineral phase. Reaction textures described above have been used to calculate a set of net-transfer reactions that can be used (1) to characterize all possible exchanges of matter between minerals in the system and (2) to construct a reaction space for the system. Fourteen thin sections with large garnet porphyroblasts and abundant biotite were used for microprobe analysis. Detailed probe analyses show well-developed zoning in the plagioclase and alkali feldspar whose character varies depending on location in the thin section relative to neighboring minerals. Generally, large plagioclase porphyroblasts display normal zoning and are not as calcium-rich as plagioclase inclusions in the garnet. Garnet porphyroblasts have flat zoning profiles due to high temperatures of metamorphism. Pressures and temperatures of metamorphism have been calculated from these assemblages using garnet-biotite geothermometry and quartz-garnet-aluminosilicate-plagioclase geobarometry.

  12. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century - A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, K.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would require measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. San Francisco floating STOLport study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The operational, economic, environmental, social and engineering feasibility of utilizing deactivated maritime vessels as a waterfront quiet short takeoff and landing facility to be located near the central business district of San Francisco was investigated. Criteria were developed to evaluate each site, and minimum standards were established for each criterion. Predicted conditions at the two sites were compared to the requirements for each of the 11 criteria as a means of evaluating site performance. Criteria include land use, community structure, economic impact, access, visual character, noise, air pollution, natural environment, weather, air traffic, and terminal design.

  14. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image of San Francisco, California shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market, called the SOMA district in San Francisco, appear bright red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. Various bridges in the area are also visible including the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) at the opening of San Francisco Bay, the Bay Bridge (right center) connecting San Francisco and Oakland, and the San Mateo Bridge (bottom center). All the dark areas on the image are relatively smooth water: the Pacific Ocean to the left, San Francisco Bay in the center, and various reservoirs. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen in the lower left of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east. The image is about 42 kilometers by 58 kilometers (26 miles by 36 miles) with north toward the upper right. This area is centered at 37.83 degrees north latitude, 122.38 degrees east longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  15. Explosive and Phreatomagmatic Activity from San Salvador Volcanic Complex (El Salvador) and Their Effects on El Cambio Archaeological Site: a Review of the Last 3000 yrs. Based on Volcanic Stratigraphy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado, H.; Pullinger, C.; Castillo, R.; Chávez, H. I.

    2007-05-01

    El Cambio archeological site (ECAS; Zapotitán Valley), 4 km NW from the San Salvador Volcanic Complex comprises 3000 yrs. of pyroclastic record. Sheets (1983) identified different levels rich in cultural remains intercalated within the volcanic deposits, indicating that different prehistoric settings were affected by San Salvador volcano eruptions, and giving information on the reoccupation frequency in the area. Accordingly, ECAS was occupied since the Late Pre-Classic period until before the last plinian eruption of Ilopango Caldera (425AD) reference, that originated the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ), pyroclastic deposits generally used as key-layer in stratigraphic reconstructions. Within the next two centuries, there is no evidence of human occupation at ECAS until the end of Late Classic which was a period of maximum splendor in the valley. During this time the area was affected by at least 3 eruptions from the San Salvador volcanic complex that produced the: Laguna Caldera volcanic fall deposits (which affected Joya de Cerén archeological site in 625AD), "Talpetate" surge deposits or Toba de San Andrés (600-900AD), and fall deposits of El Playón volcano (1658). We report new data on volcanic stratigraphy and archeological history including the following: a) the phreatomagmatic nature of eruptions that affected the area, the new excavations allowed the detailed study of surge deposits indicating magma-water interaction at Laguna Caldera and El Playón, previously considered strombolian eruptions; b)document the occupation of ECAS during Middle Pre-Classic period, new surge deposits below TBJ have been identified (with Middle Pre-Classic artifacts and pottery), that had not been documented before, extending the historic record up to 3000 yrs. BP. and c) detailed study of the "Talpetate" deposits, this sequence consists of fall, pyroclastic flow and surge deposits, present in the rim and slopes of San Salvador Volcano, which can be correlated with surge deposits

  16. MAPP in action in San Antonio, Texas.

    PubMed

    Shields, Kathleen M; Pruski, Charles E

    2005-01-01

    San Antonio was selected as an official Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) demonstration site by National Association of County and City Officials in 2000. The San Antonio Metropolitan Health District, under the leadership of Dr Fernando A. Guerra, agreed to facilitate the process. The MAPP process provided the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District, the local public health authority, a defined process for community health improvement, as well as a mechanism to help bridge the gap between public health and the community. The San Antonio Metropolitan Health District organized a Core Planning Team to lead the MAPP process in April 2001. By October 2002, the Core Planning Team was expanded to a full community working group named the Alliance for Community Health in San Antonio and Bexar County (Alliance). The Alliance identified six strategic issues, which eventually became the basis of the San Antonio Community Health Improvement Plan. The strategic issues are Public Policy, Data Tracking, Healthy Lifestyles, Promoting a Sense of Community, Access to Care, and Safe Environment. San Antonio's MAPP experience has been successful in bringing together the public health system partners, and establishing public health priorities collectively. The MAPP process has resulted in the development of many new initiatives, and, most important, has opened the door to many partnership opportunities in the future. The work of the Alliance, through the MAPP process, has helped to leverage resources for public health improvement in San Antonio, and has the potential to effect positive change in public health in the future. PMID:16103814

  17. Public Library Service for San Benito County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Gail

    A sparsely populated, agricultural area, San Benito County (California) provides library services in conjunction with the Hollister city library and in cooperation with the San Juan Bautista city library. Financing comes from the county general fund. There are no written goals or policy statements and no professionally trained librarians. As…

  18. Trouble Brewing in San Francisco. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The city of San Francisco will face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that San Francisco faces an aggregate $22.4 billion liability for pensions and retiree health benefits that are underfunded--including $14.1 billion for the city…

  19. San Diego's High School Dropout Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James C.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights San Diego's dropout problem and how much it's costing the city and the state. Most San Diegans do not realize the enormous impact high school dropouts on their city. The California Dropout Research Project, located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has estimated the lifetime cost of one class or cohort of…

  20. 27 CFR 9.56 - San Lucas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in section 11, T. 22 S., R. 9 E.; (19) Then west southwesterly in a straight line approximately 0.58... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false San Lucas. 9.56 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.56 San Lucas....

  1. 27 CFR 9.56 - San Lucas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in section 11, T. 22 S., R. 9 E.; (19) Then west southwesterly in a straight line approximately 0.58... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false San Lucas. 9.56 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.56 San Lucas....

  2. 27 CFR 9.56 - San Lucas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in section 11, T. 22 S., R. 9 E.; (19) Then west southwesterly in a straight line approximately 0.58... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false San Lucas. 9.56 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.56 San Lucas....

  3. Geomorphological expression of a complex structural region: San Andreas Fault through the San Gorgonio Pass, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, K. J.; Matti, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) region of southern California is a locus of extensive Quaternary deformation surrounding a complex section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) zone. The geomorphology of the SGP region reflects the complicated history of geologic events in the formation of this structural 'knot'. Critical questions remain in assessing earthquake hazard for this region: What is the likelihood that rupture will propagate through the SGP? If rupture is able to propagate, what pathway will connect the various fault strands? To address these questions, we focus on the geology and geomorphology of the SGP region. We have identified fault-bounded blocks, and focus on three that are developed within crystalline bedrock: the Yucaipa Ridge block (YRB) block, the Kitching Peak block (KPB), and the Pisgah Peak block (PPB). The latter two blocks are positioned south of the YRB, and partially separated from each other by the San Bernardino strand; this strand cannot be mapped at the surface as an active connection between fault strands. Both KPB and PPB are bounded to the south by the San Gorgonio Pass Fault Zone. Morphometric analyses consistently demonstrate distinctions between KPB and PPB, though the bedrock lithologies are the same. Geologic mapping of the region highlights the differences in Quaternary units within the blocks. These geomorphic and geologic distinctions lead to our interpretation that KPB and PPB have experienced markedly different uplift histories that constrain the history of dextral slip on the SAF through SGP. Specifically, although the latest Quaternary geologic setting of SGP raises questions about modern slip transfer through the Pass, the contrasting uplift histories of KPB and PPB strongly suggest that earlier in Quaternary time SGP was not a barrier to slip transfer between the Coachella Valley to the SE and the San Bernardino Basin to the NW.

  4. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation. San Anselmo School, San Jose, California, April 1981-March 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakkala, P. A.

    The San Anselmo School is a one story brick elementary school building in San Jose, California. The active solar energy system is designed to supply 70% of the space heating and 72% of the cooling load. It is equipped with 3740 square feet of evacuated tube collectors, a 2175 gallon tank for heat storage, a solar supplied absorption chiller, and four auxiliary gas fired absorption chillers/heaters. The measured solar fraction of 19% is far below the expected values and is attributed to severe system control and HVAC problems. Other performance data given for the year include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Also tabulated are monthly performance data for the overall solar energy system, collector subsystem, space heating and cooling subsystems. Typical hourly operation data for a day are tabulated, including hourly isolation, collector array temperatures (inlet and outlet), and storage fluid temperatures. The solar energy use and percentage of losses are also graphed.

  5. Mineralogy from Cores in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Johnson, Raymond H.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, San Juan County, Colorado, was the center of a metal mining boom in the San Juan Mountains. Although most mining activity ceased by the 1990s, the effects of historical mining continue to contribute metals to ground water and surface water. Previous research by the U.S. Geological Survey identified ground-water discharge as a significant pathway for the loading of metals to surface water from both acid-mine drainage and acid-rock drainage. In an effort to understand the ground-water flow system in the upper Animas River watershed, Prospect Gulch was selected for further study because of the amount of previous data provided in and around that particular watershed. In support of this ground-water research effort, data was collected from drill core, which included: (1) detailed descriptions of the subsurface geology and hydrothermal alteration patterns, (2) depth of sulfide oxidation, and (3) quantitative mineralogy.

  6. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Theroux, Susanna; Hartman, Wyatt; He, Shaomei; Tringe, Susannah

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  7. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Hemet 7.5' Quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Matti, Jon C.

    2005-01-01

    The Hemet 7.5' quadrangle is located near the eastern edge of the Perris block of the Peninsular Ranges batholith. The northeastern corner of the quadrangle extends across the San Jacinto Fault Zone onto the edge of the San Jacinto Mountains block. The Perris block is a relatively stable area located between the Elsinore Fault Zone on the west and the San Jacinto Fault Zone on the east. Both of the fault zones are active; the San Jacinto being the seismically most active in southern California. The fault zone is obscured by very young alluvial deposits. The concealed location of the San Jacinto Fault Zone shown on this quadrangle is after Sharp, 1967. The geology of the quadrangle is dominated by Cretaceous tonalite formerly included in the Coahuila Valley pluton of Sharp (1967). The northern part of Sharp's Coahuila Valley pluton is separated out as the Hemet pluton. Tonalite of the Hemet pluton is more heterogeneous than the tonalite of the Coahuila Valley pluton and has a different sturctural pattern. The Coahuila Valley pluton consists of relatively homogeneous hornblende-biotite tonalite, commonly with readily visible large euhedral honey-colored sphene crystals. Only the tip of the adjacent Tucalota Valley pluton, another large tonalite pluton, extends into the quadrangle. Tonalite of the Tucalota Valley pluton is very similar to the tonalite of the Coahuila Valley pluton except it generally lacks readily visible sphene. In the western part of the quadrangle a variety of amphibolite grade metasedimentary rocks are informally referred to as the rocks of Menifee Valley; named for exposures around Menifee Valley west of the Hemet quadrangle. In the southwestern corner of the quadrangle a mixture of schist and gneiss marks a suture that separated low metamorphic grade metasedimentary rocks to the west from high metamorphic grade rocks to the east. The age of these rocks is interpreted to be Triassic and the age of the suturing is about 100 Ma, essentially the

  8. Diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads in the San Joaquin River basin, California, January and February 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Zamora, Celia; Knifong, Donna L.

    2002-01-01

    The application of diazinon and chlorpyrifos on dormant orchards in 2000 in the San Joaquin River Basin was less than 21 percent of application in 1993 and 1994. A total of 13 sites were sampled weekly during nonstorm periods and more frequently during two storm periods. The sites included five major river and eight minor tributary sites. The highest concentrations of diazinon and chlorpyrifos occurred during the storm periods. Four samples from major river sites (Tuolumne River and two San Joaquin River sites) had diazinon concentrations greater than 0.08 microgram per liter, the concentration being considered by the state of California as its criterion maximum concentration for the protection of aquatic habitat. One sample from a major river site (San Joaquin River) exceeded the equivalent State guideline of 0.02 microgram per liter for chlorpyrifos. At the eight minor tributary sites, 24 samples exceeded the diazinon guideline and four samples exceeded the chlorpyrifos guideline. The total diazinon load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2000 was 19.6 pounds active ingredient; of this, 8.17 pounds active ingredient was transported during two storms. In 1994, 27.4 pounds active ingredient was transported during two storms. The total chlorpyrifos load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2000 was 5.68 pounds active ingredient; of this, 2.17 pounds active ingredient was transported during the two storms. During the frequently sampled February 2000 storm, the main sources of diazinon in the San Joaquin River Basin were the San Joaquin River near Stevinson Basin (25 percent), Tuolumne River Basin (14 percent), and the Stanislaus River Basin (10 percent). The main sources of chlorpyrifos in the San Joaquin River Basin were the San Joaquin River near Stevinson Basin (17 percent), Tuolumne River Basin (13 percent), and the Merced River Basin (11 percent). The total January and February diazinon load in the

  9. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This cloud free color infrared view of San Francisco and Bay Area, CA (38.0N, 122.5W) is unusual because the city is normally concealed from view by clouds and fog. Gray tones represent urban areas and the red toned areas are vegetated. Within the city, parks easily stand out from the well-developed parts of the city as enclaves of color. The trace of the San Andreas fault shows as a straight valley running across the San Francisco peninsula.

  10. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  11. SANS studies of micellar and magnetic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B,

    1985-08-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has proved to be an excellent technique for the study of complex fluids. This article introduces SANS from the viewpoint of such studies. The use of SANS to determine the structures of concentrated micellar fluids is then discussed within the framework of current one-component macrofluid (OCM) models, and experimental examples are taken from several contemporary studies. Finally, the discussion is extended to magnetic fluids (ferrofluids) in which the neutron magnetic interaction plays an important experimental role. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Inventory of San Joaquin kit fox on BLM lands in southern and southwestern San Joaquin Valley. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.; McCue, P.; Sauls, M.L.

    1980-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide the Bureau of Land Management, Bakersfield District, with information on the distribution of the San Joaquin kit fox, an endangered species, on public lands in the southern and southwestern San Joaquin Valley of California, and to develop information essential for designating kit fox critical habitats on lands under their jurisdiction as outlined by the Endangered Species Act and its amendments. A total of 31,860 acres of BLM lands were surveyed using line transects at a density of 8 per linear mile. Observations were recorded on: (1) kit fox dens, tracks, scats, and remains of their prey; (2) vegetation associations; (3) topography; (4) evidence of human activities; (5) species composition and abundance of wildlife seen, especially lagomorphs; (6) presence of Eriogonum gossypinum, a plant of special interest; and (7) presence of the blunt-nosed leopard lizard, another endangered species.

  13. 19. REGIONAL MAP, SALINAS RIVER PROJECT, CAMP SAN LUIS OBISPO, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REGIONAL MAP, SALINAS RIVER PROJECT, CAMP SAN LUIS OBISPO, IN CENTRAL PORTION OF SAN LUIS OBISPO, CALIFORNIA. Leeds Hill Barnard & Jewett - Consulting Engineers, February 1942. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  14. 22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # 1049 Letterman General Hospital. Alterations to EKG Cardiology Clinic. November 1963. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital. EKG Cardiology Clinic, Building 1049. December 1955. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 27. June 1945. SHOWING EASTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 27. June 1945. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF AREA B, BUILDINGS 901-919 AND WESTERN PORTION OF CRISSY FIELD - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital, X-Ray Department and Second Floor Plan, X-Ray Department Plan, Building 1006. no date. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  19. 33 CFR 110.90 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif. 110.90... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.90 San Diego Harbor, Calif. (a) Area A-1. In North San...) Area A-1a. In North San Diego Bay, the Shelter Island Roadstead Anchorage east of Shelter Island,...

  20. 33 CFR 110.90 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif. 110.90... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.90 San Diego Harbor, Calif. (a) Area A-1. In North San...) Area A-1a. In North San Diego Bay, the Shelter Island Roadstead Anchorage east of Shelter Island,...

  1. 11. Photocopy of Painting (Original in De Young Museum, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of Painting (Original in De Young Museum, San Francisco, Oriana Day Paintings 1861-1865) Photographer unknown, February 1940 PAINTING OF MISSION COMPLEX SHOWING EXTERIOR PRIOR TO 1835 - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  2. Vertical tectonic deformation associated with the San Andreas fault zone offshore of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, H.F.; Parsons, T.; Sliter, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    A new fault map of the shelf offshore of San Francisco, California shows that faulting occurs as a distributed shear zone that involves many fault strands with the principal displacement taken up by the San Andreas fault and the eastern strand of the San Gregorio fault zone. Structures associated with the offshore faulting show compressive deformation near where the San Andreas fault goes offshore, but deformation becomes extensional several km to the north off of the Golden Gate. Our new fault map serves as the basis for a 3-D finite element model that shows that the block between the San Andreas and San Gregorio fault zone is subsiding at a long-term rate of about 0.2-0.3??mm/yr, with the maximum subsidence occurring northwest of the Golden Gate in the area of a mapped transtensional basin. Although the long-term rates of vertical displacement primarily show subsidence, the model of coseismic deformation associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake indicates that uplift on the order of 10-15??cm occurred in the block northeast of the San Andreas fault. Since 1906, 5-6??cm of regional subsidence has occurred in that block. One implication of our model is that the transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault to a fault 5??km to the east, the Golden Gate fault, is not required for the area offshore of San Francisco to be in extension. This has implications for both the deposition of thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments (the Merced Formation) observed east of the San Andreas fault, and the age of the Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault.

  3. Vertical tectonic deformation associated with the San Andreas fault zone offshore of San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, H. F.; Parsons, T.; Sliter, R. W.

    2008-10-01

    A new fault map of the shelf offshore of San Francisco, California shows that faulting occurs as a distributed shear zone that involves many fault strands with the principal displacement taken up by the San Andreas fault and the eastern strand of the San Gregorio fault zone. Structures associated with the offshore faulting show compressive deformation near where the San Andreas fault goes offshore, but deformation becomes extensional several km to the north off of the Golden Gate. Our new fault map serves as the basis for a 3-D finite element model that shows that the block between the San Andreas and San Gregorio fault zone is subsiding at a long-term rate of about 0.2-0.3 mm/yr, with the maximum subsidence occurring northwest of the Golden Gate in the area of a mapped transtensional basin. Although the long-term rates of vertical displacement primarily show subsidence, the model of coseismic deformation associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake indicates that uplift on the order of 10-15 cm occurred in the block northeast of the San Andreas fault. Since 1906, 5-6 cm of regional subsidence has occurred in that block. One implication of our model is that the transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault to a fault 5 km to the east, the Golden Gate fault, is not required for the area offshore of San Francisco to be in extension. This has implications for both the deposition of thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments (the Merced Formation) observed east of the San Andreas fault, and the age of the Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault.

  4. 76 FR 9709 - Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... chinook salmon and steelhead, that spend at least some of their life cycle in salt water. Usually, these... AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I RIN-2009-ZA00 Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San... water quality conditions affecting aquatic resources in the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San...

  5. 78 FR 13890 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The San... contact the San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California. 165.1197 Section 165.1197 Navigation and... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1197 Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo...

  7. 76 FR 10945 - San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, CA; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, CA; Notice of Appointment of... Corporation as sole Receiver for San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, California, (OTS No. 15051)...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1102 - Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations governing security zones found in 33 CFR 165.33 apply to... Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. 165.1102 Section 165.1102 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1102 Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA....

  9. 33 CFR 165.1102 - Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations governing security zones found in 33 CFR 165.33 apply to... Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. 165.1102 Section 165.1102 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1102 Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA....

  10. 77 FR 34984 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The San Diego Museum of Man, in... with the cultural item may contact the San Diego Museum of Man. DATES: Representatives of any...

  11. 75 FR 55270 - Safety Zone; NASSCO Launching of USNS Washington Chambers, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Chambers, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in... the Port (COTP) San Diego or his designated representative. DATES: This rule is effective from 9:15...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California. 165.1197 Section 165.1197 Navigation and... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1197 Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo...

  13. 77 FR 15799 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The San Francisco State... affiliated with the cultural item may contact the San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program....

  14. Sediment conditions in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, 2000-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Banta, J. Ryan; Crow, Cassi L.; Opsahl, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment plays an important role in the ecological health of rivers and estuaries and consequently is an important issue for water-resource managers. To better understand sediment characteristics in the San Antonio River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, completed a two-part study in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, to (1) collect and analyze sediment data to characterize sediment conditions and (2) develop and calibrate a watershed model to simulate hydrologic conditions and suspended-sediment loads during 2000–12.

  15. North elevation and second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation and second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Includes physics, geology, and zoology departments shelving. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, job no. 311. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 1/2 inch to the foot (shelving). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. 11. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. Location of Water Lines, Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 31. November 1943. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF AREA A; BUILDINGS 274, 275, AND 277; AND POST ENGINEER'S SHOP AND YARDS INCLUDING BUILDINGS 280, 282-285, AND 288. - Presidio of San Francisco, Storehouse & Administration, Crissy Field North cantonment, Allen Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes elevations and sections of chemistry department shelving. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 311. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 1/2 inch t other foot (shelving). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes miscellaneous full size details. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Section AA through main entrance gates & west stairs. San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section AA through main entrance gates & west stairs. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes plans and sections of boys' and girls' toilets. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 5, job no. 311. Scales 1/4 inch to the foot (section AA) and 1/2 inch to the foot (toilet rooms). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes sections A through MM. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 1, job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan) and 1/2 inch to the foot (sections). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes plan of entrance, section EE showing tiling and typical transom design, and a full size detail of a door jamb for inside concrete walls. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Also includes sections AA-KK (except DD). Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 1, job no. 312. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan) and 1/2 inch to the foot (sections). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Plot plan & miscellaneous details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plot plan & miscellaneous details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Includes map drawers, surveying equipment lockers, counters, platforms, etc. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 8, job no. 312. Scales 1/2 inch to the foot (details) and 1/64 inch to the foot (plot plan). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes sections II and SS of entrance hall; and a stress diagram of steel truss. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 315. Scale 1/2 inch to the foot. No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Computerized Bus Routing in San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Peter J.; Jungherr, J. Anton

    1979-01-01

    A computerized routing and scheduling system for the San Francisco Public Schools includes the batch processing of bus route assignments and schedules for all schools and the online terminal processing of daily changes. (Author/MLF)

  6. 27 CFR 9.171 - San Bernabe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... San Bernabe viticultural area is located in central Monterey County, south of King City, California... benchmark 304, located one-half mile southwest of King City, along the Salinas River, in Township 20...

  7. Danggui-Shaoyao-San: New Hope for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xin; Wang, QiuHong; Wang, ZhiBin; Kuang, HaiXue; Jiang, Pinghui

    2016-08-01

    Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), also called Toki-shakuyaku-san (TJ-23) or Dangguijakyak-san (DJS), is a well-known herbal formula (Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Paeonia lactiflora pall., Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep., Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.), which has been widely used in oriental countries for the treatment of various gynecological diseases. Recent studies show that DSS has an effect on free radical-mediated neurological diseases and exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and reduces cell apoptosis in the hippocampus. In addition, DSS mediates the modulation of central monoamine neurotransmitter systems and ameliorates dysfunction of the central cholinergic nervous system and scopolamine-induced decrease in ACh levels. DSS improves the function of the dopaminergic, adrenergic, and serotonergic nervous systems. Interestingly, DSS can alleviate cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, suggesting that it is a useful therapeutic agent for AD. This paper reviews the mechanism of DSS for the treatment of AD. PMID:27493835

  8. Earthquakes and fault creep on the northern San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nason, R.

    1979-01-01

    At present there is an absence of both fault creep and small earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault, which had a magnitude 8 earthquake with 5 m of slip in 1906. The fault has apparently been dormant after the 1906 earthquake. One possibility is that the fault is 'locked' in some way and only produces great earthquakes. An alternative possibility, presented here, is that the lack of current activity on the northern San Andreas fault is because of a lack of sufficient elastic strain after the 1906 earthquake. This is indicated by geodetic measurements at Fort Ross in 1874, 1906 (post-earthquake), and 1969, which show that the strain accumulation in 1969 (69 ?? 10-6 engineering strain) was only about one-third of the strain release (rebound) in the 1906 earthquake (200 ?? 10-6 engineering strain). The large difference in seismicity before and after 1906, with many strong local earthquakes from 1836 to 1906, but only a few strong earthquakes from 1906 to 1976, also indicates a difference of elastic strain. The geologic characteristics (serpentine, fault straightness) of most of the northern San Andreas fault are very similar to the characteristics of the fault south of Hollister, where fault creep is occurring. Thus, the current absence of fault creep on the northern fault segment is probably due to a lack of sufficient elastic strain at the present time. ?? 1979.

  9. Ecological Impact of LAN: San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric Richard; Craine, Brian L.

    2015-08-01

    The San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona is home to nearly 45% of the 900 total species of birds in the United States; millions of songbirds migrate though this unique flyway every year. As the last undammed river in the Southwest, it has been called one of the “last great places” in the US. Human activity has had striking and highly visible impacts on the San Pedro River. As a result, and to help preserve and conserve the area, much of the region has been designated the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA). Attention has been directed to impacts of population, water depletion, and border fence barriers on the riparian environment. To date, there has been little recognition that light at night (LAN), evolving with the increased local population, could have moderating influences on the area. STEM Laboratory has pioneered techniques of coordinated airborne and ground based measurements of light at night, and has undertaken a program of characterizing LAN in this region. We conducted the first aerial baseline surveys of sky brightness in 2012. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) shapefiles allow comparison and correlation of various biological databases with the LAN data. The goal is to better understand how increased dissemination of night time lighting impacts the distributions, behavior, and life cycles of biota on this ecosystem. We discuss the baseline measurements, current data collection programs, and some of the implications for specific biological systems.

  10. Danggui-Shaoyao-San: New Hope for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xin; Wang, QiuHong; Wang, ZhiBin; Kuang, HaiXue; Jiang, Pinghui

    2016-01-01

    Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), also called Toki-shakuyaku-san (TJ-23) or Dangguijakyak-san (DJS), is a well-known herbal formula (Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Paeonia lactiflora pall., Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep., Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.), which has been widely used in oriental countries for the treatment of various gynecological diseases. Recent studies show that DSS has an effect on free radical-mediated neurological diseases and exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and reduces cell apoptosis in the hippocampus. In addition, DSS mediates the modulation of central monoamine neurotransmitter systems and ameliorates dysfunction of the central cholinergic nervous system and scopolamine-induced decrease in ACh levels. DSS improves the function of the dopaminergic, adrenergic, and serotonergic nervous systems. Interestingly, DSS can alleviate cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, suggesting that it is a useful therapeutic agent for AD. This paper reviews the mechanism of DSS for the treatment of AD. PMID:27493835

  11. Children and the San Fernando earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    Before dawn, on February 9, 1971, a magnitude 6.4 earthquake occurred in the San Fernando Valley of California. On the following day, theSan Fernando Valley Child Guidance Clinic, through radio and newspapers, offered mental health crises services to children frightened by the earthquake. Response to this invitation was immediate and almost overwhelming. During the first 2 weeks, the Clinic's staff counseled hundreds of children who were experiencing various degrees of anxiety. 

  12. Trouble Brewing in San Diego. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The city of San Diego will face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that San Diego faces total of $45.4 billion, including $7.95 billion for the county pension system, $5.4 billion for the city pension system, and an estimated $30.7…

  13. Toxic phytoplankton in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodgers, Kristine M.; Garrison, David L.; Cloern, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) was conceived and designed to document the changing distribution and effects of trace substances in San Francisco Bay, with focus on toxic contaminants that have become enriched by human inputs. However, coastal ecosystems like San Francisco Bay also have potential sources of naturally-produced toxic substances that can disrupt food webs and, under extreme circumstances, become threats to public health. The most prevalent source of natural toxins is from blooms of algal species that can synthesize metabolites that are toxic to invertebrates or vertebrates. Although San Francisco Bay is nutrient-rich, it has so far apparently been immune from the epidemic of harmful algal blooms in the world’s nutrient-enriched coastal waters. This absence of acute harmful blooms does not imply that San Francisco Bay has unique features that preclude toxic blooms. No sampling program has been implemented to document the occurrence of toxin-producing algae in San Francisco Bay, so it is difficult to judge the likelihood of such events in the future. This issue is directly relevant to the goals of RMP because harmful species of phytoplankton have the potential to disrupt ecosystem processes that support animal populations, cause severe illness or death in humans, and confound the outcomes of toxicity bioassays such as those included in the RMP. Our purpose here is to utilize existing data on the phytoplankton community of San Francisco Bay to provide a provisional statement about the occurrence, distribution, and potential threats of harmful algae in this Estuary.

  14. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.

    Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.

    Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.

    Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is

  15. Teaching Geology at San Quentin State Prison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, M. A.; Pehl, J.; Ferrier, K. L.; Pehl, C. W.

    2004-12-01

    The students enrolled in our Geology 215 class are about as on-traditional as it gets. They range in age from about 20 - 50 years old, they are all male, all from under-represented ethnic groups, and they are all serving time in one of the country's most notorious prisons. We teach in a degree-granting community college program inside California's San Quentin State Prison. The program is run entirely by volunteers, and students who participate in educational programs like ours are about 5 times less likely to return to prison than the general inmate population in California. The prison population of California is ethnically diverse, though minorities are present in higher proportion than in the general population. Last semester, our geology class happened to be composed entirely of minorities even though the college program serves the full spectrum of the prison population. While some trends in geoscience education encourage the use of technology in the classroom, security restrictions prevent us from using even some of the simplest visual aids. Faced with these challenges, we have developed an inquiry-based syllabus for an introductory Geology class at the community college level. We find that kinaesthetic learning activities such as urban geologic mapping and acting out plate tectonic motions from ridge to trench (complete with magnetic pole polarity shifts) are not only possible in restricted learning environments, but they promote student learning in unexpected ways.

  16. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Location. All waters extending... Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, in San Francisco Bay, California....

  17. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Location. All waters extending... Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, in San Francisco Bay, California....

  18. Abrupt along-strike change in tectonic style: San Andreas Fault zone, San Francisco Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Jachens, Robert C.; Olson, Jean A.

    1999-05-01

    Seismicity and high-resolution aeromagnetic data are used to define an abrupt change from compressional to extensional tectonism within a 10- to 15-km-wide zone along the San Andreas fault on the San Francisco Peninsula and offshore from the Golden Gate. This 100-km-long section of the San Andreas fault includes the hypocenter of the Mw = 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake as well as the highest level of persistent microseismicity along that ˜470-km-long rupture. We define two distinct zones of deformation along this stretch of the fault using well-constrained relocations of all post-1969 earthquakes based a joint one-dimensional velocity/hypocenter inversion and a redetermination of focal mechanisms. The southern zone is characterized by thrust- and reverse-faulting focal mechanisms with NE trending P axes that indicate "fault-normal" compression in 7- to 10-km-wide zones of deformation on both sides of the San Andreas fault. A 1- to 2-km-wide vertical zone beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas is characterized by its almost complete lack of seismicity. The compressional deformation is consistent with the young, high topography of the Santa Cruz Mountains/Coast Ranges as the San Andreas fault makes a broad restraining left bend (˜10°) through the southernmost peninsula. A zone of seismic quiescence ˜15 km long separates this compressional zone to the south from a zone of combined normal-faulting and strike-slip-faulting focal mechanisms (including a ML = 5.3 earthquake in 1957) on the northernmost peninsula and offshore on the Golden Gate platform. Both linear pseudogravity gradients, calculated from the aeromagnetic data, and seismic reflection data indicate that the San Andreas fault makes an abrupt ˜3-km right step less than 5 km offshore in this northern zone. A similar right-stepping (dilatational) geometry is also observed for the subparallel San Gregorio fault offshore. Persistent seismicity and extensional tectonism occur within the San Andreas

  19. Abrupt along-strike change in tectonic style: San Andreas fault zone, San Francisco Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, M.L.; Jachens, R.C.; Olson, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Seismicity and high-resolution aeromagnetic data are used to define an abrupt change from compressional to extensional tectonism within a 10- to 15-km-wide zone along the San Andreas fault on the San Francisco Peninsula and offshore from the Golden Gate. This 100-km-long section of the San Andreas fault includes the hypocenter of the Mw = 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake as well as the highest level of persistent microseismicity along that ???470-km-long rupture. We define two distinct zones of deformation along this stretch of the fault using well-constrained relocations of all post-1969 earthquakes based a joint one-dimensional velocity/hypocenter inversion and a redetermination of focal mechanisms. The southern zone is characterized by thrust- and reverse-faulting focal mechanisms with NE trending P axes that indicate "fault-normal" compression in 7- to 10-km-wide zones of deformation on both sides of the San Andreas fault. A 1- to 2-km-wide vertical zone beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas is characterized by its almost complete lack of seismicity. The compressional deformation is consistent with the young, high topography of the Santa Cruz Mountains/Coast Ranges as the San Andreas fault makes a broad restraining left bend (???10??) through the southernmost peninsula. A zone of seismic quiescence ???15 km long separates this compressional zone to the south from a zone of combined normal-faulting and strike-slip-faulting focal mechanisms (including a ML = 5.3 earthquake in 1957) on the northernmost peninsula and offshore on the Golden Gate platform. Both linear pseudo-gravity gradients, calculated from the aeromagnetic data, and seismic reflection data indicate that the San Andreas fault makes an abrupt ???3-km right step less than 5 km offshore in this northern zone. A similar right-stepping (dilatational) geometry is also observed for the subparallel San Gregorio fault offshore. Persistent seismicity and extensional tectonism occur within the San

  20. Volcano hazards in the San Salvador region, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Sofield, D.J.; Escobar, C.D.; Pullinger, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    communities. Another concern is a landslide and an associated debris flow (a watery flow of mud, rock, and debris--also known as a lahar) that could occur during periods of no volcanic activity. An event of this type occurred in 1998 at Casita volcano in Nicaragua when extremely heavy rainfall from Hurricane Mitch triggered a landslide that moved down slope and transformed into a rapidly moving debris flow that destroyed two villages and killed more than 2000 people. Historical landslides up to a few hundred thousand cubic meters in volume have been triggered on San Salvador volcano by torrential rainstorms and earthquakes, and some have transformed into debris flows that have inundated populated areas down stream. Destructive rainfall- and earthquake-triggered landslides and debris flows on or near San Salvador volcano in September 1982 and January 2001 demonstrate that such mass movements in El Salvador have also been lethal. This report describes the kinds of hazardous events that occur at volcanoes in general and the kinds of hazardous geologic events that have occurred at San Salvador volcano in the past. The accompanying volcano-hazards-zonation maps show areas that are likely to be at risk when hazardous events occur again.

  1. Deep permeability of the San Andreas Fault from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) core samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, Carolyn A.; Lockner, David A.; Moore, Diane E.; Hickman, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) scientific borehole near Parkfield, California crosses two actively creeping shear zones at a depth of 2.7 km. Core samples retrieved from these active strands consist of a foliated, Mg-clay-rich gouge containing porphyroclasts of serpentinite and sedimentary rock. The adjacent damage zone and country rocks are comprised of variably deformed, fine-grained sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones. We conducted laboratory tests to measure the permeability of representative samples from each structural unit at effective confining pressures, Pe up to the maximum estimated in situ Pe of 120 MPa. Permeability values of intact samples adjacent to the creeping strands ranged from 10−18 to 10−21 m2 at Pe = 10 MPa and decreased with applied confining pressure to 10−20–10−22 m2 at 120 MPa. Values for intact foliated gouge samples (10−21–6 × 10−23 m2 over the same pressure range) were distinctly lower than those for the surrounding rocks due to their fine-grained, clay-rich character. Permeability of both intact and crushed-and-sieved foliated gouge measured during shearing at Pe ≥ 70 MPa ranged from 2 to 4 × 10−22 m2 in the direction perpendicular to shearing and was largely insensitive to shear displacement out to a maximum displacement of 10 mm. The weak, actively-deforming foliated gouge zones have ultra-low permeability, making the active strands of the San Andreas Fault effective barriers to cross-fault fluid flow. The low matrix permeability of the San Andreas Fault creeping zones and adjacent rock combined with observations of abundant fractures in the core over a range of scales suggests that fluid flow outside of the actively-deforming gouge zones is probably fracture dominated.

  2. Evidence for Late Oligocene-Early Miocene episode of transtension along San Andreas Fault system in central California

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, R.G.

    1986-04-01

    The San Andreas is one of the most intensely studied fault systems in the world, but many aspects of its kinematic history remain controversial. For example, the period from the late Eocene to early Miocene is widely believed to have been a time of negligible strike-slip movement along the San Andreas fault proper, based on the rough similarity of offset of the Eocene Butano-Point of rocks Submarine Fan, the early Miocene Pinnacles-Neenach volcanic center, and an early Miocene shoreline in the northern Gabilan Range and San Emigdio Mountains. Nonetheless, evidence indicates that a late Oligocene-early Miocene episode of transtension, or strike-slip motion with a component of extension, occurred within the San Andreas fault system. The evidence includes: (1) about 22-24 Ma, widespread, synchronous volcanic activity occurred at about 12 volcanic centers along a 400-km long segment of the central California coast; (2) most of these volcanic centers are located along faults of the San Andreas system, including the San Andreas fault proper, the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault, and the Zayante-Vergeles fault, suggesting that these and other faults were active and served as conduits for magmas rising from below; (3) during the late Oligocene and early Miocene, a pull-apart basin developed adjacent to the San Andreas fault proper in the La Honda basin near Santa Cruz; and (4) during the late Oligocene and early Miocene, active faulting, rapid subsidence, and marine transgression occurred in the La Honda and other sedimentary basins in central California. The amount of right-lateral displacement along the San Andreas fault proper during this transtentional episode is unknown but was probably about 7.5-35 km, based on model studies of pull-apart basin formation. This small amount of movement is well within the range of error in published estimates of the offset of the Eocene to early Miocene geologic features noted.

  3. Marine terrace deformation, san diego county, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrory, P.A.; Lajoie, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The NW-SE trending southern California coastline between the Palos Verdes Peninsula and San Diego roughly parallels the southern part and off-shore extension of the dominantly right-lateral, strike-slip, Newport-Inglewood fault zone. Emergent marine terraces between Newport Bay and San Diego record general uplift and gentle warping on the northeast side of the fault zone throughout Pleistocene time. Marine terraces on Soledad Mt. and Point Loma record local differential uplift (maximum 0.17 m/ka) during middle to late Pleistocene time on the southwest side of the fault (Rose Canyon fault) near San Diego. The broad Linda Vista Mesa (elev. 70-120 m) in the central part of coastal San Diego County, previously thought to be a single, relatively undeformed marine terrace of Plio-Pleistocene age, is a series of marine terraces and associated beach ridges most likely formed during sea-level highstands throughout Pleistocene time. The elevations of the terraces in this sequence gradually increase northwestward to the vicinity of San Onofre, indicating minor differential uplift along the central and northern San Diego coast during Pleistocene time. The highest, oldest terraces in the sequence are obliterated by erosional dissection to the northwest where uplift is greatest. Broad, closely spaced (vertically) terraces with extensive beach ridges were the dominant Pleistocene coastal landforms in central San Diego County where the coastal slope is less than 1% and uplift is lowest. The beach ridges die out to the northwest as the broad low terraces grade laterally into narrower, higher, and more widely spaced (vertically) terraces on the high bluffs above San Onofre where the coastal slope is 20-30% and uplift is greatest. At San Onofre the terraces slope progressively more steeply toward the ocean with increasing elevation, indicating continuous southwest tilt accompanying uplift from middle to late Pleistocene time. This southwest tilt is also recorded in the asymmetrical

  4. Anthropogenic influence on sedimentation and intertidal mudflat change in San Pablo Bay, California: 1856-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, B.E.; Smith, R.E.; Foxgrover, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric surveys has revealed large changes in morphology and sedimentation from 1856 to 1983 in San Pablo Bay, California. In 1856, the morphology of the bay was complex, with a broad main channel, a major side channel connecting to the Petaluma River, and an ebb-tidal delta crossing shallow parts of the bay. In 1983, its morphology was simpler because all channels except the main channel had filled with sediment and erosion had planed the shallows creating a uniform gently sloping surface. The timing and patterns of geomorphic change and deposition and erosion of sediment were influenced by human activities that altered sediment delivery from rivers. From 1856 to 1887, high sediment delivery (14.1 ?? 106 m3/yr) to San Francisco Bay during the hydraulic gold-mining period in the Sierra Nevada resulted in net deposition of 259 ?? 14 ?? 106 m3 in San Pablo Bay. This rapid deposition filled channels and increased intertidal mudflat area by 60% (37.4 ?? 3.4 to 60.6 ?? 6.2 km2). From 1951 to 1983, 23 ?? 3 ?? 106 m3 of sediment was eroded from San Pablo Bay as sediment delivery from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers decreased to 2.8 ?? 106 m3/yr because of damming of rivers, riverbank protection, and altered land use. Intertidal mudflat area in 1983 was 31.8 ?? 3.9 km2, similar to that in 1856. Intertidal mudflat distribution in 1983, however, was fairly uniform whereas most of the intertidal mudflats were in the western part of San Pablo Bay in 1856. Sediment delivery, through its affect on shallow parts of the bay, was determined to be a primary control on intertidal mudflat area. San Pablo Bay has been greatly affected by human activities and will likely continue to erode in the near term in response to a diminished sediment delivery from rivers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Una Visita al Viejo San Juan (A Visit to Old San Juan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabello, Victor; And Others

    Written in Spanish, this black and white illustrated booklet provides a tour of Old San Juan, Puerto Rico's oldest and most historic city. Brief historical information is provided on the Perro de San Jeronimo, a statue of a barking dog found in front of the Castillo; Plaza de Colon, a small plaza dedicated to Christopher Columbus; the Catedral de…

  6. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following area: (1) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships entering San Juan Harbor in an area one... referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships departing San Juan Harbor... Petroleum Gas vessels via a marine broadcast Notice to Mariners. (5) Should the actual time of entry of...

  7. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following area: (1) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships entering San Juan Harbor in an area one... referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships departing San Juan Harbor... Petroleum Gas vessels via a marine broadcast Notice to Mariners. (5) Should the actual time of entry of...

  8. 77 FR 60899 - Safety Zone; Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Mission Bay in support of the Sea World San...

  9. 78 FR 29025 - Sea World San Diego Fireworks 2013 Season; Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Sea World San Diego Fireworks 2013 Season; Mission Bay... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Mission Bay in support of the Sea World San...

  10. 77 FR 42638 - Safety Zone: Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Mission Bay in support of the Sea World San...

  11. 78 FR 39610 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The...) on May 20, 2013 (78 FR 29289). The Coast Guard received no comments on that NPRM and as such, no... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego,...

  12. 78 FR 42027 - Safety Zone; San Diego Bayfair; Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Bayfair; Mission Bay, San...

  13. 78 FR 53245 - Safety Zone; San Diego Bayfair; Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on July 15, 2013 (78 FR 42027). The Coast Guard received no comments on the NPRM... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Bayfair; Mission Bay, San...

  14. 77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  15. 76 FR 1386 - Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY:...

  16. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public... Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego,...

  17. 78 FR 38584 - Safety Zone; San Diego Symphony Summer POPS Fireworks 2013 Season, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Symphony Summer POPS Fireworks 2013 Season, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  18. 78 FR 10062 - Safety Zone; Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay; San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  19. The San Andreas Fault 'Supersite' (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    An expanded and permanent Supersite has been proposed to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) for the San Andreas Fault system, based upon the successful initial Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Geohazard Supersite for the Los Angeles region from 2009-2013. As justification for the comprehensive San Andreas Supersite, consider the earthquake history of California, in particular the devastating M 7.8 San Francisco earthquake of 1906, which occurred along the San Andreas Fault, as did an earthquake of similar magnitude in 1857 in southern California. Los Angeles was only a small town then, but now the risk exposure has increased for both of California's megacities. Between the San Francisco and Los Angeles urban areas lies a section of the San Andreas Fault known to creep continually, so it has relatively less earthquake hazard. It used to be thought of as capable of stopping earthquakes entering it from either direction. Transitional behavior at either end of the creeping section is known to display a full range of seismic to aseismic slip events and accompanying seismicity and strain transient events. Because the occurrence of creep events is well documented by instrumental networks such as CISN and PBO, the San Andreas Supersite can be expected to be especially effective. A good baseline level of geodetic data regarding past events and strain accumulation and release exists. Many prior publications regarding the occurrence of geophysical phenomena along the San Andreas Fault system mean that in order to make novel contributions, state-of-the-art science will be required within this Supersite region. In more recent years, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake struck adjacent to the San Andreas Fault and caused the most damage along the western side of the San Francisco Bay Area. More recently, the concern has focused on the potential for future events along the Hayward Fault along the eastern side of San Francisco Bay. In Southern California, earthquakes

  20. 78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final...

  1. California coastal processes study: Skylab. [San Pablo and San Francisco Bays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In San Pablo Bay, the patterns of dredged sediment discharges were plotted over a three month period. It was found that lithogenous particles, kept in suspension by the fresh water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin, were transported downstream to the estuarine area at varying rates depending on the river discharge level. Skylab collected California coastal imagery at limited times and not at constant intervals. Resolution, however, helped compensate for lack of coverage. Increased spatial and spectral resolution provided details not possible utilizing Landsat imagery. The S-192 data was reformatted; band by band image density stretching was utilized to enhance sediment discharge patterns entrainment, boundaries, and eddys. The 26 January 1974 Skylab 4 imagery of San Francisco Bay was taken during an exceptionally high fresh water and suspended sediment discharge period. A three pronged surface sediment pattern was visible where the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers entered San Pablo Bay through Carquinez Strait.

  2. Dual-system Tectonics of the San Luis Range and Vicinity, Coastal Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    The M 6.5 "San Simeon" earthquake of December 22, 2003, occurred beneath the Santa Lucia Range in coastal central California, and resulted in around $250,000,000 property damage and two deaths from collapse of an historic building in the town of Paso Robles, located 40 km from the epicenter. The earthquake and more than 10,000 aftershocks were well recorded by nearby seismographs, which permitted detailed analysis of the event (eg: McLaren et al., 2008). This analysis facilitated evaluation of the hazard of the occurrence of a similar event in the nearby San Luis Range, located along the coast west of the city of San Luis Obispo some 55 km south of the San Simeon epicenter. The future occurrence of earthquakes analogous to the 2003 event in this area had been proposed in the late 1960’s (eg: Benioff and Smith, 1967; Richter, 1969) but the apparent hazard of such occurrences came to be overshadowed by the discovery of the “Hosgri” strike slip fault passing close to the area in the offshore. However data accumulated since the early 1970’s clearly demonstrate the hazard as being partitioned between nearby earthquakes of strike slip origin, and underlying earthquakes of thrust origin analogous to that of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake. And for the onshore San Luis Range area, an underlying actively seismogenic thrust wedge appears to provide the maximum potential seismic ground motion; exceeding that potentially resulting from large events on nearby strike slip faults of the San Simeon-Hosgri system, for onshore sites. Understanding and documentation of the geology, geomorphology, tectonics and seismogenesis of the San Luis Range and vicinity has recently experienced a quantum improvement as both new and accumulated data have been analysed. An integrated interpretation of all available data now clearly shows that a dual “side by side” system of active tectonics exists in the region. Essentially the most obvious evidence for this is seen simply in the

  3. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (< 1-34 ng/g). PCBs are first detected in sediment deposited during the 1930's in Richardson Bay, about a decade earlier than the onset of detectable levels of DDTs. PCB inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  4. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Locations. The following areas are security zones: (1)...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Locations. The following areas are security zones: (1)...

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey deYoung Museum, San Francisco MISSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey deYoung Museum, San Francisco MISSION BEFORE 1835 (ORIANA DAY PAINTINGS - (1861 - 1885) - Mission San Francisco de Asis, Mission & Sixteenth Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. SAAF: SANS data Analysis using Analytical Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jinkui

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed Extended Q-Range Small Angle Scattering Diffractometer (EQ-SANS) has put the focus on its software needs with renewed urgency. In a series of efforts, we aim at providing a complete set of software solutions on the EQ-SANS instrument. These programs include initial data processing, data correction and reduction, analytical model fitting to the scattering data, Monte Carlo simulation for structure determination, and virtual instrument simulation for experiment planning. SAAF is one such program for analytical data modeling. It takes the reduced EQ-SANS data and allows users to fit the data to analytical models. These models are easy to write. They can either be user written, or from the pre-supplied model library.

  8. Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec.

    PubMed

    Powis, Terry G; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong

    2011-05-24

    Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use--spanning more than 34 centuries--as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BCE, and documents assorted vessels forms used in its preparation and consumption. One elite context reveals cacao use as part of a mortuary ritual for sacrificial victims, an event that occurred during the height of San Lorenzo's power.

  9. Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec

    PubMed Central

    Powis, Terry G.; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong

    2011-01-01

    Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use—spanning more than 34 centuries—as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BCE, and documents assorted vessels forms used in its preparation and consumption. One elite context reveals cacao use as part of a mortuary ritual for sacrificial victims, an event that occurred during the height of San Lorenzo's power. PMID:21555564

  10. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  11. Location and Shallow Structure of the Frijoles Strand of the San Gregorio Fault Zone, Pescadero, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Lent, C.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M. R.; Steedman, C. E.; Prentice, C. S.

    2003-12-01

    The San Gregorio fault is one of the principal faults of the San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay area. Located west of the active trace of the San Andreas fault and near the coast, the San Gregorio fault zone consists of at least two northwest-southeast-trending strands, the Coastways and Frijoles faults. Little is known about the slip history on the San Gregorio, and information for the Frijoles fault is especially scarce, as it lies mostly offshore. To better understand the contribution of the San Gregorio fault zone to slip along the San Andreas fault system, we conducted a high-resolution, seismic imaging investigation of the Frijoles fault to locate near-surface, onshore, branches of the fault that may be suitable for paleoseismic trenching. Our seismic survey consisted of a 590-meter-long, east-west-trending, combined seismic reflection and refraction profile across Butano Creek Valley, in Pescadero, California. The profile included 107 shot points and 120 geophones spaced at 5-m increments. Seismic sources were generated by a Betsy Seisgun in 0.3-m-deep holes. Data were recorded on two Geometrics Strataview RX-60 seismographs at a sampling rate of 0.5 ms. Seismic p-wave velocities, determined by inverting first-arrival refractions using tomographic methods, ranged from 900 m/s in the shallow subsurface to 5000 m/s at 200 m depth, with higher velocities in the western half of the profile. Migrated seismic reflection images show clear, planar layering in the top 100-200 meters on the eastern and western ends of the seismic profile. However, to within the shallow subsurface, a 200-m-long zone near the center of the profile shows disturbed stratigraphic layers with several apparent fault strands approaching within a few meters of the surface. The near-surface locations of the imaged strands suggest that the Frijoles fault has been active in the recent past, although further paleoseismic study is needed to detail the slip history of the San Gregorio

  12. Stratigraphic relationships of Cretaceous and early Tertiary rocks of a part of northwestern San Juan basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baltz, Elmer Harold

    1953-01-01

    The Bridge Timber Mountain area in south-central La Plata County, southwestern Colorado lies mostly in the northwestern part of the Central San Juan Basin but contains a segment of the bounding Hogback 'monocline' and Four-Corners platform. The area contains rocks of late Cretaceous through early Eocene age, as well as Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Recent terrace and pediment gravels. The Pictured Cliffs sandstone of late Montana age is the latest marine formation present. Retreat of the Cretaceous seas from the area marked the beginning of Laramide orogenic activity and the earliest stages of deformation which produced the modern San Juan Basin. The Fruitland formation and Kirtland shale were deposited in brackish water and on coastal plains left by the retreating Cretaceous sea. Beds of the Farmington sandstone member and upper shale member of the Kirtland shale show evidence of a new source of sediments to the north or northeast distinct from the southwestern source area of older Cretaceous rocks. The McDermott 'formation', composed mainly of volcanic debris, is considered to be a local lower member of the Animas formation. Beds of the upper member of the Animas formation of Cretaceous and Paleocene age are considered to extend entirely across the area and into New Mexico. Overstep of higher sandstone and shale beds of the upper member across lower conglomeratic beds shows that folding on the Hogback 'monocline' began during deposition of the upper member. Beds of the upper member of the Animas formation grade laterally southward into Paleocene beds of the Nacimiento formation, but upper Nacimiento beds overstep folded beds of the Animas formation on the Hogback 'monocline' at the north end of Bridge Timber Mountain. The San Jose formation of Paleocene and Eocene age is conformable with the Nacimiento formation except at the north end of Bridge Timber Mountain where upper San Jose beds overstep all older tilted beds down to the Fruitland formation. The heavy

  13. 17. View of Park Avenue to north across the San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of Park Avenue to north across the San Francisco River. AZ-195 (Arizona Copper Company Manager's House) at right - Clifton Townsite, Confluence of Chase Creek & San Francisco River, Clifton, Greenlee County, AZ

  14. 98. Street view, East San Antonio Ave., looking west northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. Street view, East San Antonio Ave., looking west northwest, Guarantee Shoe Co. is 211 East San Antonio Ave. - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  15. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park San Francisco, California Original: Ante 1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTH - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  16. 6. Photocopy of painting (from California Historical Society, San Francisco, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of painting (from California Historical Society, San Francisco, California, Oriana Day, artist, 1879) EXTERIOR, VIEW FROM AN ANGLE OF MISSION AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey From the Collection: San Mateo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey From the Collection: San Mateo Co. Historical Society Painting - 1865? 1885? Photocopy - August 1958 VIEW FROM NORTHWEST - Francisco Sanchez Adobe, Linda Mar Boulevard & Adobe Drive, Pacifica, San Mateo County, CA

  18. 5. Photocopy of painting (from De Young Museum, San Francisco, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of painting (from De Young Museum, San Francisco, California, Oriana Day, artist, c. 1861-1885) EXTERIOR VIEW OF MISSION BEFORE 1835 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  19. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  20. San Marcos Astronomical Project and Doctoral Prospectus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M. L.

    2009-05-01

    The Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM, in Lima, Perú, is the only Peruvian institution working for the peruvian astronomical development as a career since 1970. We are conforming a network with international friend astronomers to invite them as Visiting Lectures to assure the academic level for the future doctoral studies in the UNMSM. The Chancellor of UNMSM has decided that the Astronomical Project is a UNMSM Project, to encourage and advance in this scientific and strategical area, to impulse the modernity of Peru, the major effort will be the building of the San Marcos Astronomical Observatory, with a telescope of 1 meter aperture.

  1. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century : a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Opening of the Oakland tidal channel and removal of 97% of the marshlands formerly surrounding the Bay have decreased tidal velocities and volumes. Marshland removal has decreased the tidal prism by about 25%. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would required measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1 ,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Basement plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 2, Job no. 692. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Rose windows and other details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rose windows and other details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Rose window; front windows; drinking fountain alcove; proscenium arch; stage door. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 12, job no. 692. Various scales. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Sections. Ceiling plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sections. Ceiling plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 9, job no. 692. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Detail of proscenium opening. San bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of proscenium opening. San bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Details of corbels and soffit; lettering detail for frieze. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet W.P.A. 2, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. May 18, 1937. (no state stamp. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Tower details, sheet 16. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Tower details, sheet 16. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Clock and finial details; tower roof plan. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 16, job no. 692. Various scales. July 15, 1937. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, July 24, 1937. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 4, job no. 692. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Plot plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plot plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 1, job no. 692. Scale 1 inch to forty feet. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  10. San Diego County Adopt-A-School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Dept. of Education, CA.

    The San Diego County (California) Adopt-A-School program, established in the spring of 1982, is a partnership program that has paired San Diego schools at all grade levels with local businesses, military commands, and service organizations. The purpose of Adopt-A-School is to foster better understanding of public schools in San Diego, strengthen…

  11. 75 FR 71179 - Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared ] for a proposed highway project in San Diego County... Community Center, 2258 Island Avenue, San Diego, California 92102. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  12. 33 CFR 110.210 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 110.210... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.210 San Diego Harbor, CA. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1... Commander, Naval Base, San Diego, CA. The administration of these anchorages is exercised by the...

  13. 76 FR 27304 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at 2840...

  14. 76 FR 2331 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at...

  15. 27 CFR 9.25 - San Pasqual Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Pasqual Valley. 9.25... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.25 San Pasqual Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San...

  16. 27 CFR 9.25 - San Pasqual Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false San Pasqual Valley. 9.25... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.25 San Pasqual Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San...

  17. 75 FR 78675 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at...

  18. 78 FR 48646 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... at the Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche...

  19. 33 CFR 110.210 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 110.210... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.210 San Diego Harbor, CA. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1... Commander, Naval Base, San Diego, CA. The administration of these anchorages is exercised by the...

  20. 27 CFR 9.194 - San Antonio Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false San Antonio Valley. 9.194... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.194 San Antonio Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1107 - San Diego Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Diego Bay, California. 165... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1107 San Diego Bay, California... docking/undocking operations at the U.S. Naval Submarine Base on Ballast Point, San Diego Bay,...

  2. 27 CFR 9.130 - San Ysidro District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Ysidro District. 9.130... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.130 San Ysidro District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San...

  3. 76 FR 30903 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at...

  4. 33 CFR 110.120 - San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.120 San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. (a) Area A-1. Area A-1 is the water area bounded by the San Luis Obispo County wharf, the shoreline, a line...

  5. 76 FR 9540 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at...

  6. 75 FR 51749 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at 2840...

  7. 33 CFR 110.120 - San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.120 San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. (a) Area A-1. Area A-1 is the water area bounded by the San Luis Obispo County wharf, the shoreline, a line...

  8. 27 CFR 9.130 - San Ysidro District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false San Ysidro District. 9.130... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.130 San Ysidro District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San...

  9. 77 FR 47358 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in...: The meeting will be held at the San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett Court, Durango, Colorado...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1107 - San Diego Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Bay, California. 165... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1107 San Diego Bay, California... docking/undocking operations at the U.S. Naval Submarine Base on Ballast Point, San Diego Bay,...

  11. 75 FR 65609 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Supervior's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National...

  12. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The VTS area consists of all the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay Region south of the Mare Island...

  13. 77 FR 66910 - Environmental Impact Statement, San Diego County, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... San Diego County, California (Federal Register Vol. 72, No 10; FR Doc E7-491) will be withdrawn. FOR... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement, San Diego County, California AGENCY... Highway Administration--California Division, 401 B Street, Suite 800, San Diego, CA 92101, Regular...

  14. 76 FR 40876 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in... meeting will be held at the San Juan Public Lands Center, 15 Burnett Court, Durango, Colorado in...

  15. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The VTS area consists of all the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay Region south of the Mare Island...

  16. 77 FR 50459 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... will be held at the Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron...

  17. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the San Joaquin River, as far north as the port of Sacramento on the Sacramento River. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The...

  18. Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region, Kern, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region Kern, Riverside, and Bernardino counties were made in five areas recommended as favorable for the occurrence of radioactive raw materials: (1) Rock Corral area, San Bernardino County. (2) Searles Station area, Kern county. (3) Soledad area, Kern County. (4) White Tank area, Riverside and San Bernardino counties. (5) Harvard Hills area, San Bernardino County. Anomalous radiation was detected in all but the Harvard Hills area. The radioactivity anomalies detected in the Rock Corral area are of the greatest amplitude yet recorded by the airborne equipment over natural sources. The activity is apparently attributable to the thorium-beating mineral associated with roof pendants of crystalline metamorphic rocks in a granitic intrusive. In the Searles Station, Soledad, and White Tank area, several radioactivity anomalies of medium amplitude were recorded, suggesting possible local concentrations of radioactive minerals.

  19. Hoover/Crawford Area Middle School, San Diego Unified School District: Educational Specifications. Final [Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1993

    This document presents the San Diego Unified School District's specifications for planning and designing a new middle school. Information on district parameters, a vision plan, curriculum and instruction concepts, community functions, aesthetic and flexibility considerations, and activity areas are included, as well as summaries of space…

  20. Creating an Engaging Library Orientation: First Year Experience Courses at UC San Diego

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Crystal; Turnbow, Dominique; Roth, Amanda; Friedman, Lia; Heskett, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of an engaging library orientation module for UC San Diego First Year Experience (FYE) courses. The library module included a brief in-class presentation about research concepts and library services, an online interactive library scavenger hunt given as an in-class activity, and a homework assignment where…

  1. Distributed resource applications at San Diego Gas & Electric

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes some of the activities San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) is conducting in distributed resources (DR). Proposed changes in regulation of investor owned utilities in California by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) have prompted SDG&E and other utilities to consider their role in development of generation power technologies. SDG&E continues to perform activities in technology and product development of generation technologies applicable specifically to distributed resources. These activities include application assessments and demonstration of DR applications. Preliminary results from application assessments and economic evaluations indicate that for the near-term, DR applications in SDG&E system may fit as a peak displacement option in discrete locations to defer distribution system upgrades from one to three years. This application option may be used as an integrated resource planning strategy, however, additional work is needed to improve the acceptance of this technology application within traditional utility operations.

  2. Historical Seismicity in the South San Francisco Bay Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Locations (intensity centers) and moment magnitude M for 24 earthquakes (1858-1911) in the southern San Francisco Bay area are estimated from Modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) assignments. The uncertainties in location and M are generally large because there are few MMI assignments available. Preferred locations are selected to be consistent with a simple model for seismic activity on the central and southern Calaveras fault. Significant seismic activity can be explained by repetitive failure of the same fault areas in nearly identical earthquakes. Significant earthquake activity occurred on both east- and west-Bay faults in the ten or so years before the 1868 east-Bay earthquake and before the1906 and 1989 west-Bay earthquakes.

  3. Shallow structure and deformation along the San Andreas Fault in Cholame Valley, California, based on high-resolution reflection profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, K.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Harding, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    The mapped active traces of the San Andreas fault are separated by a 1-km-wide right-stepping offset in Cholame Valley. The geometry of this offset, defined in other strike-slip systems as a releasing bend or a dilational jog, has resulted in the formation of a pull-apart basin. Various researchers have inferred that this offset served as a rupture terminus for earthquakes on both strands of the San Andreas fault (1966 Parkfield and 1857 Fort Tejon); thus, this en echelon offset may represent a barrier to the propagation of rupture between two segments of the San Andreas fault. We collected 18 km of high-resolution seismic reflection data specifically designed to image the San Andreas fault zone in the shallow crust surrounding this offset. -from Authors

  4. 33 CFR 3.55-20 - Sector San Francisco: San Francisco Bay Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sector San Francisco: San..., MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-20 Sector San Francisco: San Francisco Bay Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. The Sector San...

  5. 33 CFR 3.55-20 - Sector San Francisco: San Francisco Bay Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector San Francisco: San..., MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-20 Sector San Francisco: San Francisco Bay Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. The Sector San...

  6. The Third International San Francisco Book Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmon, Winn; And Others

    Friends of Books and Comics presents its catalog of the Third International San Francisco Book Fair, a marketplace of alternative books, comics, and magazines. Nearly 200 alternative and small presses are listed alphabetically with address, telephone number, names of principal people involved, and a brief description of type and subject of…

  7. San Miguel High School: Focus and Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The corporate internship program is a cornerstone of the education that students receive at San Miguel High School in Tucson, Arizona. Four students share one job, so each student works for a corporate partner outside of the school every fourth day. The money they earn is used to help defray the cost of their education, and the experience is…

  8. San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Francisco, CA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  9. Nathaniel Hawthorne Elementary School: San Antonio, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the successful use of Core Knowledge Curriculum in one inner-city elementary school in San Antonio (Texas) that had previously reflected low student achievement, inconsistent attendance, and student behavioral problems. Improvements in these conditions as revealed through teacher observations are highlighted. (GR)

  10. Humanities at College of San Mateo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo Coll., CA.

    Descriptions are provided for the courses in the College of San Mateo's new Humanities program. As introductory material notes, these team-taught, interdisciplinary courses were designed to be taken independently in various combinations depending upon the student's major or interests. They carry three units of transferable credit and satisfy…

  11. 77 FR 20379 - San Diego Gas &

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission San Diego Gas & Electric Company v. Sellers of Energy and Ancillary Services Into Markets Operated by the California Independent System Operator Corporation and the...

  12. Simulations of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Petersson, A; Tkalcic, H

    2005-12-16

    Simulations of the Great 1906 San Francisco earthquake are being performed as part of the event's centenary. LLNL is participating in a large effort to study this event and possible consequences if the event were to happen today. This document is meant to describe our efforts to others participating in the project.

  13. San Jose, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Jose, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  14. San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Antonio, TX, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  15. Educational and Demographic Profile: San Benito County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for San Benito County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  16. Potamocorbula amurensis discovered in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1989-01-01

    The small Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, is now a major component of benthic communities in most areas of northern San Francisco Bay and some areas of South Bay. Because of its wide tolerance of salinity and other environmental variables and its high abundance in many areas, benthic ecologists believe this recent invasion may represent a major and permanent change in the bay system.

  17. San Francisco's New Zoo's Connections for Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routman, Emily

    2001-01-01

    Provides information on a redevelopment project at the San Francisco Zoo known as the New Zoo. The explicit goal of the project is to inspire a sense of caring and appreciation for wildlife that is the foundation of a conservation ethic. (DDR)

  18. San Diego, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Diego, CA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  19. Zapotec Immigration: The San Lucas Quiavini Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Felipe H.; Munro, Pamela

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 20 Zapotec immigrants from Oaxaca (Mexico) to Los Angeles examined their immigration experiences and adjustment to life in the United States. Discussion covers immigration from Oaxaca; living conditions, illiteracy, education, and language usage in the village of San Lucas Quiavini; immigration patterns; ethnicity and Oaxacan…

  20. 27 CFR 9.171 - San Bernabe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false San Bernabe. 9.171 Section 9.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... benchmark 304, located one-half mile southwest of King City, along the Salinas River, in Township 20...

  1. 27 CFR 9.171 - San Bernabe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false San Bernabe. 9.171 Section 9.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... benchmark 304, located one-half mile southwest of King City, along the Salinas River, in Township 20...

  2. Computer-based PRA at San Onofre

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Personal computer software, called Safety Monitor, used to perform probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) is described. Safety Monitor assesses core damage and containment failure risks in less than 60 seconds. The software was developed by San Onofre PRA analysts and NUS Corporation. Operational use and cost savings are described.

  3. Academic Decathlon--San Diego County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    Publicity materials and a brief program description of the 1983 San Diego County (California) Academic Decathlon are presented. The program description discusses the background, subject coverage, and rules of the Academic Decathlon, a program to promote academic excellence among high school juniors and seniors through competition. The Academic…

  4. Educational and Demographic Profile: San Joaquin County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for San Joaquin County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  5. The San Joaquin Valley: 20 years later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of irrigation development and the need for disposal of saline drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley was described to provide background for the drainage water disposal problem that resulted from the closure of the Kesterson Reservoir. A 5 year study developed in Valley alternatives fo...

  6. Desegregation in the South San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rodolfo G.

    Notably isolated from the large metropolitan centers by geography and predominantly agricultural in its economy, Kern County is California's third largest county in land area. About one-third of the county is situated on the flat valley floor at the extreme southern end of the San Joaquin Valley. The area relies heavily on Chicano and Black manual…

  7. San Joaquin Delta College Student Athlete Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Merrilee R.; Marcopulos, Ernest

    In spring 1988, a study was conducted of students who participated in college athletics at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC) between 1983-84 and 1987-88. Data collected on each student athlete included ethnicity, sport, place of residence, initial and current reading level, total grade point average (GPA), GPA in athletics and physical education…

  8. Holocene Tectonic and Sedimentary Evolution of Coastal San Diego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, J. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Brothers, D. S.; Babcock, J. M.; Kent, G.

    2010-12-01

    The shelf and nearshore region of San Diego, California, between La Jolla cove in the north and the U.S.- Mexico border in the south, is an important ecological and economic resource. It contains two of the largest kelp forests in southern California and lies offshore miles of popular beaches. Understanding the interplay between tectonic and sedimentary processes in this area is critical because it will allow us to assess how other forcing functions such as the rapid sea level rise (2 - 3 mm/yr) and predicted climate change associated with global warming are impacting the kelp and nearshore environments. The fault architecture and sedimentary deposits offshore San Diego have been mapped using high-resolution seismic CHIRP profiling. The mapped area lies within the inner California Continental Borderland (CCB), which is characterized by a system of basins and ridges and extensive strike-slip faulting. The CHIRP data clearly images several splays of the Coronado Bank Fault Zone (CBFZ), a major fault in the area, which show recent activity in the upper 30 m of sediment with the most recent deformation at ~4 m below seafloor. Several sediment packages as deep as 50 m below the seafloor are imaged and place important constraints on tectonic deformation and sediment dispersal in the region as well as the earthquake recurrence interval on the CBFZ. Exposed and buried wavecut terraces identified on numerous CHIRP profiles, which can be correlated to terraces mapped regionally, provide insight into tectonic uplift rates and sea-level fluctuations. Finally, the extensive kelp forests offshore Mount Soledad and Point Loma occur where hardgrounds are exposed at the seafloor as a consequence of tectonic uplift. High resolution mapping offshore San Diego is providing new insight into the complex interplay between tectonics, sedimentation, and biology in this ecologically diverse region.

  9. San Francisco Bay Sand Mining Resource Evaluation and Impact Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenical, S.; Tirindelli, M.; Sicular, D.; Gragg, J.; Huitt, C.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents results of the evaluation of potential future sand resources within certain Central San Francisco Bay (Central Bay) sand mining lease areas, as well as the potential impacts of further mining these areas for a ten-year period. The study consisted of morphological analysis using field measurements and hydrodynamic modeling, and covered a wide spectrum of physical processes including tidal and river circulation, salinity, sediment transport, and morphology. The study was conducted within the framework of an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) prepared by the California State Lands Commission (CSLC) as part of the discretionary approval process for issuing new mining leases. The results of the morphological analysis indicate a measurable depletion of sand resources in the Central Bay lease areas during the period 1997-2008, and that for the purposes of the proposed ten-year mining lease renewal, sand mining resources in Central Bay are largely limited to material already in place. The morphological analysis results also indicate that the proposed additional ten years of sand mining in the Central Bay lease areas are not likely to cause a significant impact on sediment transport and budgets in areas outside the vicinity of the lease areas, such as the San Francisco Bar, Ocean Beach, etc. Numerical modeling results, including particle tracking exercises, do indicate a net seaward transport of sand, and that a linkage exists between the mining areas and offshore areas (San Francisco Bar, Ocean Beach, etc). However, the modeling results demonstrate that the linkage is weak, and that any measurable changes in hydrodynamics, salinity and sediment transport/morphology caused by the mining activities are likely to be confined to the vicinity of the mining areas.

  10. Groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Fernando and San Gabriel groundwater basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  11. 75 FR 8106 - Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent to...) and Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (LHG)” is a liquid containing one or more of the products listed in Table 127.005 of 33 CFR 127.005... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (LHG)” is a liquid containing one or more of the products listed in Table 127.005 of 33 CFR 127.005... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  14. 75 FR 8804 - Safety Zone; NASSCO Launching of USNS Charles Drew, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; NASSCO Launching of USNS Charles Drew, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in support...

  15. Preliminary Geologic Map of the San Fernando 7.5' Quadrangle, Southern California: A Digital Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    The city of San Fernando sits atop a structurally complex, sedimentologically diverse, and tectonically evolving late Tertiary-Quaternary basin situated within the Transverse Ranges of southern California. The surrounding San Fernando Valley (SFV) contains the headwaters of the Los Angeles River and its tributaries. Prior to the advent of flood control, the valley floor was composed of active alluvial fans and floodplains. Seasonal streams emanating from Pacoima and Big Tujunga Canyons drain the complex western San Gabriel Mountains and deposit coarse, highly permeable alluvium that contains generally high-quality ground water. The more shallow western part derives mainly from Tertiary and pre-Tertiary sedimentary rocks, and is underlain by less permeable, fine-grained deposits containing persistent shallow ground water and poorer water quality. Home of the 1971 San Fernando and the 1994 Northridge earthquakes, the SFV experienced near-record levels of strong ground motion in 1994 that caused widespread damage from strong shaking and ground failure. A new map of late Quaternary deposits of the San Fernando area shows that the SFV is a structural trough that has been filled from the sides, with the major source of sediment being large drainages in the San Gabriel Mountains. Deposition on the major alluvial fan of Tujunga Wash and Pacoima Wash, which issues from the San Gabriel Mountains, and on smaller fans, has been influenced by ongoing compressional tectonics in the valley. Late Pleistocene deposits have been cut by active faults and warped over growing folds. Holocene alluvial fans are locally ponded behind active uplifts. The resulting complex pattern of deposits has a major effect on liquefaction hazards. Young sandy sediments generally are highly susceptible to liquefaction where they are saturated, but the distribution of young deposits, their grain size characteristics, and the level of ground water all are complexly dependent on the tectonics of the valley

  16. Olmec civilization, veracruz, Mexico: dating of the san lorenzo phase.

    PubMed

    Coe, M D; Diehl, R A; Stuiver, M

    1967-03-17

    Archeological excavations at San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz, show that the Olmec sculptures of this zone are associated with the San Lorenzo phase, which can be placed in the Early Formative period (1500-800 B.C.) on the basis of ceramic comparisons. Five of six radiocarbon dates for the San Lorenzo phase fall within the 1200-900 B.C. span. The San Lorenzo phase therefore marks the beginning of Olmec civilization, and the sites forming the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan group represent the oldest civilized communities known in Mexico or Central America.

  17. Mezzanine plan and north elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mezzanine plan and north elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, library building. Also includes interior elevation of wall between windows, showing light receptacle and section through beam. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 3, job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan, elevation) and 1/2 inch to the foot (interior elevation). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. Floor plan and front elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor plan and front elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes detail of concrete grille; sections QQ and TT; and detail of bulletin board. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 2, job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan, elevation), 1/2 inch to the foot (sections), and 1/4 inch to the foot (bulletin board). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. North & south elevations. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North & south elevations. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Also includes longitudinal sections through the boiler room, plan of chimney, elevations of counter in the bookkeeping room, and detail of trusses over the oral English room. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, job no. 312. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot and 1/2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Crustal-scale tilting of the central Salton block, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorsey, Rebecca; Langenheim, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The southern San Andreas fault system (California, USA) provides an excellent natural laboratory for studying the controls on vertical crustal motions related to strike-slip deformation. Here we present geologic, geomorphic, and gravity data that provide evidence for active northeastward tilting of the Santa Rosa Mountains and southern Coachella Valley about a horizontal axis oriented parallel to the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The Santa Rosa fault, a strand of the San Jacinto fault zone, is a large southwest-dipping normal fault on the west flank of the Santa Rosa Mountains that displays well-developed triangular facets, narrow footwall canyons, and steep hanging-wall alluvial fans. Geologic and geomorphic data reveal ongoing footwall uplift in the southern Santa Rosa Mountains, and gravity data suggest total vertical separation of ∼5.0–6.5 km from the range crest to the base of the Clark Valley basin. The northeast side of the Santa Rosa Mountains has a gentler topographic gradient, large alluvial fans, no major active faults, and tilted inactive late Pleistocene fan surfaces that are deeply incised by modern upper fan channels. Sediments beneath the Coachella Valley thicken gradually northeast to a depth of ∼4–5 km at an abrupt boundary at the San Andreas fault. These features all record crustal-scale tilting to the northeast that likely started when the San Jacinto fault zone initiated ca. 1.2 Ma. Tilting appears to be driven by oblique shortening and loading across a northeast-dipping southern San Andreas fault, consistent with the results of a recent boundary-element modeling study.

  1. Predicted variation of stress orientation with depth near an active fault: application to the Cajon Pass Scientific Drillhole, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary measurements of the stress orientation at a depth of 2 km interpreted to indicate that the regional orientation of the maximum compression is normal to the fault, and taken as evidence for a very weak fault. The orientation expected from plate tectonic arguments is about 66?? NE from the strike of the fault. Geodetic data indicate that the orientation of maximum compressive strain rate is about 43?? NE from the strike of the fault, and show nearly pure right-lateral shear acting parallel to the fault. These apparent conflicts in the inferred orientation of the axis of maximum compression may be explained in part by a model in which the fault zone is locked over a depth interval in the range of 2-5 to 15 km, but is very weak above and below that interval. This solution does require, however, a few mm/yr of creep at the surface on the San Andreas or nearby sub-parallel faults (such as the San Jacinto), which has not yet been observed, or a shallow zone near the faults of distributed deformation. -from Author

  2. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the San Miguel River basin, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.; Rush, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    The San Miguel River Basin encompasses 4,130 square kilometers of which about two-thirds is in the southeastern part of the Paradox Basin. The Paradox Basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Evaporite beds of mostly salt are both overlain and underlain by confining beds. Aquifers are present above and below the confining-bed sequence. The principal element of ground-water outflow from the upper aquifer is flow to the San Miguel River and its tributaries; this averages about 90 million cubic meters per year. A water budget for the lower aquifer has only two equal, unestimated elements, subsurface outflow and recharge from precipitation. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. No brines have been sampled and no brine discharges have been identified in the basin. Salt water has been reported for petroleum-exploration wells, but no active salt solution has been identified. (USGS)

  3. Giant sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P.L.; Hanes, D.M.; Rubin, D.M.; Kvitek, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    A field of giant sand waves, among the largest in the world, recently was mapped in high resolution for the first time during a multibeam survey in 2004 and 2005 through the strait of the Golden Gate at the mouth of San Francisco Bay in California (Figure la). This massive bed form field covers an area of approximately four square kilometers in water depths ranging from 30 to 106 meters, featuring more than 40 distinct sand waves with crests aligned approximately perpendicular to the dominant tidally generated cross-shore currents, with wavelengths and heights that measure up to 220 meters and 10 meters, respectively. Sand wave crests can be traced continuously for up to two kilometers across the mouth of this energetic tidal inlet, where depth-averaged tidal currents through the strait below the Golden Gate Bridge exceed 2.5 meters per second during peak ebb flows. Repeated surveys demonstrated that the sand waves are active and dynamic features that move in response to tidally generated currents. The complex temporal and spatial variations in wave and tidal current interactions in this region result in an astoundingly diverse array of bed form morphologies, scales, and orientations. Bed forms of approximately half the scale of those reported in this article previously were mapped inside San Francisco Bay during a multibeam survey in 1997 [Chin et al., 1997].

  4. My Most Memorial Meeting - The June, 1997, San Diego Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, A. G. Davis

    1999-05-01

    At the June, 1997 AAS meeting in San Diego I arranged a topical session on the Shapley Visiting Lectureships Program. There were poster papers and speakers from the early days of the program, going back to the Visiting Lectureships Program of the AAS. Then the three past directors and the present director described their activities in running the program from 1979 to 1997. We had other speakers who described their many visits to institutions over the years and representatives from two institutions which had received many visits. This session provided much interesting information about the Shapley Program and its history. At the end of the program several people pledged, and then gave, a substantial sum to the Shapley Endowment Fund. Because of all these events and happenings, the San Diego Meeting was a highlight meeting for me. A second meeting with significance to the Shapley Program was the June, 1996 meeting in Madison, Wisconsin. At this meeting certificates were awarded to 31 lecturers who had made 15 or more Shapley visits and 18 lecturers who had made 25 or more visits. A dinner was held at which those lecturers in these two groups who were present at the meeting were personally awarded their certificates. The remaining certificates were mailed after the meeting. The success of the Shapley Program is directly related to the devotion of its group of lecturers who spend considerable time and effort in making the two day visits to host institutions.

  5. Talc-bearing serpentinite and the creeping section of the San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Rymer, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The section of the San Andreas fault located between Cholame Valley and San Juan Bautista in central California creeps at a rate as high as 28 mm yr -1 (ref. 1), and it is also the segment that yields the best evidence for being a weak fault embedded in a strong crust. Serpentinized ultramafic rocks have been associated with creeping faults in central and northern California, and serpentinite is commonly invoked as the cause of the creep and the low strength of this section of the San Andreas fault. However, the frictional strengths of serpentine minerals are too high to satisfy the limitations on fault strength, and these minerals also have the potential for unstable slip under some conditions. Here we report the discovery of talc in cuttings of serpentinite collected from the probable active trace of the San Andreas fault that was intersected during drilling of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) main hole in 2005. We infer that the talc is forming as a result of the reaction of serpentine minerals with silica-saturated hydrothermal fluids that migrate up the fault zone, and the talc commonly occurs in sheared serpentinite. This discovery is significant, as the frictional strength of talc at elevated temperatures is sufficiently low to meet the constraints on the shear strength of the fault, and its inherently stable sliding behaviour is consistent with fault creep. Talc may therefore provide the connection between serpentinite and creep in the San Andreas fault, if shear at depth can become localized along a talc-rich principal-slip surface within serpentinite entrained in the fault zone. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Low strength of deep San Andreas fault gouge from SAFOD core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Morrow, C.; Moore, D.; Hickman, S.

    2011-01-01

    The San Andreas fault accommodates 28-"34-???mm-???yr ????'1 of right lateral motion of the Pacific crustal plate northwestward past the North American plate. In California, the fault is composed of two distinct locked segments that have produced great earthquakes in historical times, separated by a 150-km-long creeping zone. The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is a scientific borehole located northwest of Parkfield, California, near the southern end of the creeping zone. Core was recovered from across the actively deforming San Andreas fault at a vertical depth of 2.7-???km (ref. 1). Here we report laboratory strength measurements of these fault core materials at in situ conditions, demonstrating that at this locality and this depth the San Andreas fault is profoundly weak (coefficient of friction, 0.15) owing to the presence of the smectite clay mineral saponite, which is one of the weakest phyllosilicates known. This Mg-rich clay is the low-temperature product of metasomatic reactions between the quartzofeldspathic wall rocks and serpentinite blocks in the fault. These findings provide strong evidence that deformation of the mechanically unusual creeping portions of the San Andreas fault system is controlled by the presence of weak minerals rather than by high fluid pressure or other proposed mechanisms. The combination of these measurements of fault core strength with borehole observations yields a self-consistent picture of the stress state of the San Andreas fault at the SAFOD site, in which the fault is intrinsically weak in an otherwise strong crust. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Low strength of deep San Andreas fault gouge from SAFOD core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, David A.; Morrow, Carolyn A.; Moore, Diane E.; Hickman, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    The San Andreas fault accommodates 28–34 mm yr−1 of right lateral motion of the Pacific crustal plate northwestward past the North American plate. In California, the fault is composed of two distinct locked segments that have produced great earthquakes in historical times, separated by a 150-km-long creeping zone. The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is a scientific borehole located northwest of Parkfield, California, near the southern end of the creeping zone. Core was recovered from across the actively deforming San Andreas fault at a vertical depth of 2.7 km (ref. 1). Here we report laboratory strength measurements of these fault core materials at in situ conditions, demonstrating that at this locality and this depth the San Andreas fault is profoundly weak (coefficient of friction, 0.15) owing to the presence of the smectite clay mineral saponite, which is one of the weakest phyllosilicates known. This Mg-rich clay is the low-temperature product of metasomatic reactions between the quartzofeldspathic wall rocks and serpentinite blocks in the fault2, 3. These findings provide strong evidence that deformation of the mechanically unusual creeping portions of the San Andreas fault system is controlled by the presence of weak minerals rather than by high fluid pressure or other proposed mechanisms1. The combination of these measurements of fault core strength with borehole observations1, 4, 5 yields a self-consistent picture of the stress state of the San Andreas fault at the SAFOD site, in which the fault is intrinsically weak in an otherwise strong crust.

  8. Deep structure in the region of the San Fernando and Santa Clarita Valleys, southern California, from LARSE II seismic imaging, earthquake relocation, and magnetic modeling -- a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuis, G. S.; Ryberg, T.; Lutter, W. J.; Hauksson, E.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.; Hildenbrand, T. G.; Langenheim, V. E.; Murphy, J. M.; Okaya, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment has as its chief goal seismic imaging of sedimentary basins and faults in the Los Angeles region in order to address earthquake hazards posed by these geologic features. Two 150-km-long transects were investigated, one (LARSE I) crossing the Los Angeles basin and San Gabriel Mts in a northeasterly direction through the vicinity of the 1987 M 5.9 Whittier Narrows earthquake, and a second (LARSE II) crossing the San Fernando Valley (SFV) and Santa Clarita Valley (SCV) in a northerly direction through the vicinities of the 1994 M 6.7 Northridge and 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando earthquakes. Along the LARSE II profile, seismic reflection data and relocated earthquakes suggest that the Northridge fault is a relatively simple plane dipping ~30o southward from ~8 km depth beneath the Santa Susana Mts (between the SFV and SCV) to the 1994 hypocenter at ~19 km depth. Relocated hypocenters suggest a deep part of the Santa Susana fault was activated during the Northridge aftershock sequence. In contrast, the 1971 San Fernando earthquake appears to have activated several faults in addition to the two rupture planes inferred by Heaton (1982), including the Northridge Hills blind thrust fault and a deep part of the San Gabriel fault. These two faults truncate reflections from the bottoms of the sedimentary basins in the SFV and SCV. We interpret the Northridge Hills blind thrust fault to truncate basin-bottom reflections beneath the SFV at ~5-6 km depth in the northern part of the SFV, and the San Gabriel fault to truncate similar reflections at ~3.5-4.5 km depth beneath the central part of the SCV. The San Gabriel fault projects to the 1971 hypocenter. In between the Northridge Hills blind thrust and San Gabriel faults, reflections are largely incoherent, and the velocity structure is complex. Below the 1971 hypocenter (at ~13 km depth), the San Fernando fault appears to be contained in a broad north-dipping zone of reflectivity in which

  9. Active Tectonics of Southern California Revealed by Cluster Analysis of GPS Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, W. R.; Savage, J. C.; Simpson, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    We use cluster analysis of the USGS National Seismic Hazard Map GPS velocity field for southern California with standard deviations < 1 mm/yr to determine velocity gradients that locate the most important faults, the elastic strain associated with them, and regions of possible block-like behavior. Seven to ten well resolved clusters are statistically significant and spatially distinct with small overlap. In map view (see figure), the 7 clusters solution shows bands of relatively constant velocity sub-parallel to the San Andreas (SAF) and San Jacinto (SJF) faults and the major faults of the eastern Mojave shear zone (EMSZ). These bands are due both to elastic strain accumulation on the SAF and relative motion across lower slip rate faults in the EMSZ and Los Angeles and Ventura basins. At the largest scale, the 7-cluster map shows two main trends. The blue dots define the SJ and SA faults from northwest of the Salton Sea (SS) to Parkfield (P); the grey/magenta boundary suggests that the defined Eastern California Shear Zone could be extended farther south to the Salton Sea. The short ~80-km-long San Gorgonio Pass-San Bernardino Mountains (SGP) segment of the SAF has a much lower slip rate, ~7 mm/yr of right-lateral oblique convergence. As generally shown by previous GPS studies, right-lateral strike-slip movement rates vary considerably along the SAF. In the Imperial Valley (IV) the rate is ~40 mm/yr; east of the Salton Sea it drops to ~20 mm/yr, with 10-15 mm/yr having been shunted westward to the SJF; north of the Salton Sea ~10-15 mm/yr of strike-slip is transferred to the faults of the eastern Mojave; therefore the east-trending faults of San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) take up only ~5 mm/yr of strike slip and ~equal amounts of north-south shortening; on the Mojave (M) segment of the SAF the slip rate increases to ~15-20 mm/yr in the vicinity of Cajon Pass (CP) because of transfer of SJF slip back onto the San Andreas; northwest of Tejon Pass the rate increases again to

  10. Paleomagnetic definition of crustal fragmentation and Quaternary block rotations in the east Ventura Basin and San Fernando valley, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Shaul; Yeats, Robert S.

    2003-10-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of the Pliocene-Quaternary Saugus Formation in the eastern part of the western Transverse Ranges of California show that the crust is fragmented into small domains, tens of kilometers in linear dimension, identified by rotation of reverse-fault blocks. In an area approximately 35 × 25 km in the San Fernando valley and east Ventura Basin we identified four distinct domains. Two domains, southwest of and adjacent to the San Gabriel fault, are rotated clockwise: (1) The Magic Mountain domain, R = 30° ± 5° and (2) the Merrick syncline domain, R = 34° ± 6°. The Magic Mountain domain has rotated since 1 Ma. Both rotated sections occur in hanging walls of active reverse faults, the Santa Susana and San Fernando faults, respectively. Structural data suggest that the fault tip of the Santa Susana fault is the rotation pivot of the Magic Mountain domain. Two additional blocks are unrotated: (1) the Van Norman Lake domain, directly south of the Santa Susana fault, and (2) the Soledad Canyon domain, immediately across the San Gabriel fault from the Magic Mountain domain, suggesting that the San Gabriel fault might be a domain boundary. Our results suggest that part of the clockwise rotation of some Miocene and older rocks in this area might have occurred in the Quaternary. The Plio-Pleistocene fragmentation and clockwise rotations continue at present, based on geodetic data, and represent crustal response to diffuse, oblique dextral shearing within the San Andreas fault system.

  11. Seismic-reflection evidence that the hayward fault extends into the lower crust of the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents deep seismic-reflection data from an experiment across San Francisco Peninsula in 1995 using large (125 to 500 kg) explosive sources. Shot gathers show a mostly nonreflective upper crust in both the Franciscan and Salinian terranes (juxtaposed across the San Andreas fault), an onset of weak lower-crustal reflectivity beginning at about 6-sec two-way travel time (TWTT) and bright southwest-dipping reflections between 11 and 13 sec TWTT. Previous studies have shown that the Moho in this area is no deeper than 25 km (~8 to 9 sec TWTT). Three-dimensional reflection travel-time modeling of the 11 to 13 sec events from the shot gathers indicates that the bright events may be explained by reflectors 15 to 20 km into the upper mantle, northeast of the San Andreas fault. However, upper mantle reflections from these depths were not observed on marine-reflection profiles collected in San Francisco Bay, nor were they reported from a refraction profile on San Francisco Peninsula. The most consistent interpretation of these events from 2D raytracing and 3D travel-time modeling is that they are out-of-plane reflections from a high-angle (dipping ~70??to the southwest) impedance contrast in the lower crust that corresponds with the surface trace of the Hayward fault. These results suggest that the Hayward fault truncates the horizontal detachment fault suggested to be active beneath San Francisco Bay.

  12. Loading of the San Andreas fault by flood-induced rupture of faults beneath the Salton Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, Daniel; Kilb, Debi; Luttrell, Karen; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The southern San Andreas fault has not experienced a large earthquake for approximately 300 years, yet the previous five earthquakes occurred at ~180-year intervals. Large strike-slip faults are often segmented by lateral stepover zones. Movement on smaller faults within a stepover zone could perturb the main fault segments and potentially trigger a large earthquake. The southern San Andreas fault terminates in an extensional stepover zone beneath the Salton Sea—a lake that has experienced periodic flooding and desiccation since the late Holocene. Here we reconstruct the magnitude and timing of fault activity beneath the Salton Sea over several earthquake cycles. We observe coincident timing between flooding events, stepover fault displacement and ruptures on the San Andreas fault. Using Coulomb stress models, we show that the combined effect of lake loading, stepover fault movement and increased pore pressure could increase stress on the southern San Andreas fault to levels sufficient to induce failure. We conclude that rupture of the stepover faults, caused by periodic flooding of the palaeo-Salton Sea and by tectonic forcing, had the potential to trigger earthquake rupture on the southern San Andreas fault. Extensional stepover zones are highly susceptible to rapid stress loading and thus the Salton Sea may be a nucleation point for large ruptures on the southern San Andreas fault.

  13. Building upon the Great Waters Initiative: Scoping study for potential polyaromatic hydrocarbon deposition into San Diego Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.; Sylte, W.W.

    1997-12-31

    The deposition of atmospheric polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into San Diego Bay was evaluated at an initial study level. This study was part of an overall initial estimate of PAH waste loading to San Diego Bay from all environmental pathways. The study of air pollutant deposition to water bodies has gained increased attention both as a component of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) determinations required under the Clean Water Act and pursuant to federal funding authorized by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments to study the atmospheric deposition of hazardous air pollutants to the Great Waters, which includes coastal waters. To date, studies under the Clean Air Act have included the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay, Lake Champlain, and Delaware Bay. Given the limited resources of this initial study for San Diego Bay, the focus was on maximizing the use of existing data and information. The approach developed included the statistical evaluation of measured atmospheric PAH concentrations in the San Diego area, the extrapolation of EPA study results of atmospheric PAH concentrations above Lake Michigan to supplement the San Diego data, the estimation of dry and wet deposition with published calculation methods considering local wind and rainfall data, and the comparison of resulting PAH deposition estimates for San Diego Bay with estimated PAH emissions from ship and commercial boat activity in the San Diego area. The resulting PAH deposition and ship emission estimates were within the same order of magnitude. Since a significant contributor to the atmospheric deposition of PAHs to the Bay is expected to be from shipping traffic, this result provides a check on the order of magnitude on the PAH deposition estimate. Also, when compared against initial estimates of PAH loading to San Diego Bay from other environmental pathways, the atmospheric deposition pathway appears to be a significant contributor.

  14. Carte du Ciel, San Fernando zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, C.

    2014-06-01

    An updated summary of a future large astrometric catalogue is presented, based on the two most important astrometric projects carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando (ROA). The goal is to make a catalogue of positions and proper motions based on ROA's Cart du Ciel (CdC) and the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) San Fernando zone plates, and the HAMC2 meridian circle catalogue. The CdC and AC plates are being reduced together to provide first-epoch positions while HAMC2 will provide second-epoch ones. New techniques have been applied, that range from using a commercial flatbed scanner to the proper reduction schemes to avoid systematics from it. Only thirty plates (out of 540) remain to be processed, due to scanning problems that are being solved.

  15. Examination of spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus) pollutant bioaccumulation in San Diego Bay, San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus) is an important recreational sport and subsistence food fish within San Diego Bay, a large industrialized harbor in San Diego, California. Despite this importance, few studies examining the species life history relative to pollutant tissue concentrations and the consumptive fishery exist. This study utilized data from three independent spotted sand bass studies from 1989 to 2002 to investigate PCB, DDT, and mercury tissue concentrations relative to spotted sand bass age and growth in San Diego Bay, with subsequent comparisons to published pollutant advisory levels and fishery regulations for recreational and subsistence consumption of the species. Subsequent analysis focused on examining temporal and spatial differences for different regions of San Diego Bay. Study results for growth confirmed previous work, finding the species to exhibit highly asymptotic growth, making tissue pollutant concentrations at initial take size difficult if not impossible to predict. This was corroborated by independent tissue concentration results for mercury, which found no relationship between fish size and pollutant bioaccumulation observed. However, a positive though highly variable relationship was observed between fish size and PCB tissue concentration. Despite these findings, a significant proportion of fish exhibited pollutant levels above recommended state recreational angler consumption advisory levels for PCBs and mercury, especially for fish above the minimum take size, making the necessity of at-size predictions less critical. Lastly, no difference in tissue concentration was found temporally or spatially within San Diego Bay. PMID:24282672

  16. Diazinon concentrations in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and San Francisco Bay, California, February 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution and possible biological effects of a dormant spray pesticide, diazinon, were examined by measuring pesticide concentrations and estimating toxicity using bioassays at a series of sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay. Pulses of diazinon were observed in early February 1993 in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers after heavy rains, with elevated concentrations measured for a few days to weeks at a time. The pulse of diazinon in the Sacramento River was followed from Sacramento through Suisun Bay, the eastward embayment of San Francisco Bay. In the central delta, well-defined pulses of diazinon were not observed at the Old and Middle River sites; instead, the concentrations steadily increased throughout February. Ceriodaphnia dubia mortality was 100% in water samples collected for 12 consecutive days (February 8-19) from the San Joaquin River at Vernalis. The bioassay mortality corresponded with the peak diazinon concentrations. Conversely, no toxicity was observed in water collected before or after peaks of diazinon concentration. Other pesticides present also could contribute to the toxicity.

  17. The San-in shear zone in southwest Japan revealed by the GEONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.; Takada, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The most remarkable lineament of microseismicity in the Japanese Islands exists along the northern coastline in the San-in region that is a northern half of the westernmost part of Honshu in southwest Japan. Several M~7 earthquakes including the 1943 Tottori, and the 2000 Western Tottori earthquakes occurred along the lineament. However, no well-developed active fault has been identified in and around the lineament. Though several previous studies proposed a large dextral shear zone corresponding to seismicity lineament in the San-in region, none of them dealt with geodetic data. In this study, we report that a high strain rate is concentrated along the seismicity lineament from cGNSS observations. We propose to call this deformed zone "the San-in shear zone". The GNSS data used in this study are from the GEONET data operated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. We estimate interseismic velocities by fitting a linear function to daily GNSS coordinates estimated with both Bernese and GIPSY software. We recognize the following characteristics in the velocity distribution in the San-in region and its vicinity (Fig. 1). First, a northern limit of the observed northwestward velocity due to interplate coupling on the subducting Philippine Sea plate locates in and around the Seto Inland Sea. Second, the inland San-in region does not significantly deform though the northern coast of the San-in regions moves eastward with a velocity of 4 mm/yr relative to the inland region. The observed right-lateral shear deformation is generally localized along the lineament of seismicity and continues more than 200 km long along the coast of the Japan Sea. Velocity profile across the shear zone is roughly reproduced by a 2-dimensional dislocation model for a vertical strike-slip fault with a locking depth of 5~15 km. The San-in shear zone can be interpreted as strain portioning to accommodate strike slip component of oblique subduction along the Nankai Trough. The Median

  18. Anthropogenic influences on shoreline and nearshore evolution in the San Francisco Bay coastal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dallas, K.L.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of four historical bathymetric surveys over a 132-year period has revealed significant changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar, an ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay estuary. From 1873 to 2005 the San Francisco Bar vertically-eroded an average of 80 cm over a 125 km2 area, which equates to a total volume loss of 100 ± 52 million m3 of fine- to coarse-grained sand. Comparison of the surveys indicates the entire ebb-tidal delta contracted radially, with the crest moving landward an average of 1 km. Long-term erosion of the ebb-tidal delta is hypothesized to be due to a reduction in the tidal prism of San Francisco Bay and a decrease in coastal sediment supply, both as a result of anthropogenic activities. Prior research indicates that the tidal prism of the estuary was reduced by 9% from filling, diking, and sedimentation. Compilation of historical records dating back to 1900 reveals that a minimum of 200 million m3 of sediment has been permanently removed from the San Francisco Bay coastal system through dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining. Of this total, ~54 million m3 of sand-sized or coarser sediment was removed from central San Francisco Bay. With grain sizes comparable to the ebb-tidal delta, and its direct connection to the bay mouth, removal of sediments from central San Francisco Bay may limit the sand supply to the delta and open coast beaches. SWAN wave modeling illustrates that changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar have altered the alongshore wave energy distribution at adjacent Ocean Beach, and thus may be a significant factor in a persistent beach erosion ‘hot spot’ occurring in the area. Shoreline change analyses show that the sandy shoreline in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta experienced long-term (1850s/1890s to 2002) and short-term (1960s/1980s to 2002) accretion while the adjacent sandy shoreline exposed to open-ocean waves experienced long-term and short-term erosion. Therefore

  19. Anthropogenic influences on shoreline and nearshore evolution in the San Francisco Bay coastal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallas, Kate L.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2011-03-01

    Analysis of four historical bathymetric surveys over a 132-year period has revealed significant changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar, an ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay estuary. From 1873 to 2005 the San Francisco Bar vertically-eroded an average of 80 cm over a 125 km 2 area, which equates to a total volume loss of 100 ± 52 million m 3 of fine- to coarse-grained sand. Comparison of the surveys indicates the entire ebb-tidal delta contracted radially, with the crest moving landward an average of 1 km. Long-term erosion of the ebb-tidal delta is hypothesized to be due to a reduction in the tidal prism of San Francisco Bay and a decrease in coastal sediment supply, both as a result of anthropogenic activities. Prior research indicates that the tidal prism of the estuary was reduced by 9% from filling, diking, and sedimentation. Compilation of historical records dating back to 1900 reveals that a minimum of 200 million m 3 of sediment has been permanently removed from the San Francisco Bay coastal system through dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining. Of this total, ˜54 million m 3 of sand-sized or coarser sediment was removed from central San Francisco Bay. With grain sizes comparable to the ebb-tidal delta, and its direct connection to the bay mouth, removal of sediments from central San Francisco Bay may limit the sand supply to the delta and open coast beaches. SWAN wave modeling illustrates that changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar have altered the alongshore wave energy distribution at adjacent Ocean Beach, and thus may be a significant factor in a persistent beach erosion 'hot spot' occurring in the area. Shoreline change analyses show that the sandy shoreline in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta experienced long-term (1850s/1890s to 2002) and short-term (1960s/1980s to 2002) accretion while the adjacent sandy shoreline exposed to open-ocean waves experienced long-term and short-term erosion. Therefore

  20. San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge Well 10

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Easterly, C.E.; Ketelle, R.H.; Quarles, H.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), at the request of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluated the water production capacity of an artesian well in the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona. Water from the well initially flows into a pond containing three federally threatened or endangered fish species, and water from this pond feeds an adjacent pond/wetland containing an endangered plant species.