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Sample records for active school transport

  1. School Travel Planning: Mobilizing School and Community Resources to Encourage Active School Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buliung, Ron; Faulkner, Guy; Beesley, Theresa; Kennedy, Jacky

    2011-01-01

    Background: Active school transport (AST), school travel using an active mode like walking, may be important to children's overall physical activity. A "school travel plan" (STP) documents a school's transport characteristics and provides an action plan to address school and neighborhood barriers to AST. Methods: We conducted a pilot STP…

  2. Active transportation safety features around schools in Canada.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Bryn; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers). Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  3. Active Transportation Safety Features around Schools in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, Bryn; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers). Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries. PMID:24185844

  4. Active Transportation to School: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Janet E.; Shisler, Jessica L.; Yore, Michelle M.; Caspersen, Carl J.

    2005-01-01

    In the past, active transportation to school offered an important source of daily physical activity for youth; more recently, however, factors related to distance, safety, or physical or social environments may have contributed to the proportion of children who travel to school by motorized vehicle. The authors examine the characteristics of…

  5. School Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A special report on school transportation covers the following topics: (1) a school bus safety update; (2) equipping school buses with motion detectors; (3) state training requirements for school bus drivers; (4) recruiting and retaining drivers; (5) regulations covering underground fuel-storage tanks; and (6) a transportation directory. (MLF)

  6. The Effect of an Active Transport to School Intervention at a Suburban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bungum, Timothy J.; Clark, Sheila; Aguilar, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. One strategy that may enhance PA is to increase active transport to school (ATS) rates. Purpose: To assess the effects of an ATS intervention. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare ATS and vehicle traffic rates at a school that participated in a statewide…

  7. Are the correlates of active school transport context-specific?

    PubMed Central

    Larouche, R; Sarmiento, O L; Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Church, T S; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous research consistently indicates that children who engage in active school transport (AST) are more active than their peers who use motorized modes (car or bus). However, studies of the correlates of AST have been conducted predominantly in high-income countries and have yielded mixed findings. Using data from a heterogeneous sample of 12 country sites across the world, we investigated the correlates of AST in 9–11-year olds. METHODS: The analytical sample comprised 6555 children (53.8% girls), who reported their main travel mode to school and the duration of their school trip. Potential individual and neighborhood correlates of AST were assessed with a parent questionnaire adapted from previously validated instruments. Multilevel generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to examine the associations between individual and neighborhood variables and the odds of engaging in AST while controlling for the child's school. Site moderated the relationship of seven of these variables with AST; therefore we present analyses stratified by site. RESULTS: The prevalence of AST varied from 5.2 to 79.4% across sites and the school-level intra-class correlation ranged from 0.00 to 0.56. For each site, the final GLMM included a different set of correlates of AST. Longer trip duration (that is, ⩾16 min versus ⩽15 min) was associated with lower odds of AST in eight sites. Other individual and neighborhood factors were associated with AST in three sites or less. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate wide variability in the prevalence and correlates of AST in a large sample of children from twelve geographically, economically and culturally diverse country sites. This suggests that AST interventions should not adopt a ‘one size fits all' approach. Future research should also explore the association between psychosocial factors and AST in different countries. PMID:27152191

  8. A systematic review of interventions for promoting active transportation to school

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active transportation to school is an important contributor to the total physical activity of children and adolescents. However, active school travel has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The purpose of this paper is to review intervention studies related to active school transportation to guide future intervention research. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention studies of active transportation to school published in the scientific literature through January 2010. Five electronic databases and a manual search were conducted. Detailed information was extracted, including a quantitative assessment comparing the effect sizes, and a qualitative assessment using an established evaluation tool. Results We identified 14 interventions that focused on active transportation to school. These interventions mainly focused on primary school children in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Almost all the interventions used quasi-experimental designs (10/14), and most of the interventions reported a small effect size on active transportation (6/14). Conclusion More research with higher quality study designs and measures should be conducted to further evaluate interventions and to determine the most successful strategies for increasing active transportation to school. PMID:21320322

  9. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  10. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  11. Active transportation to school in Canadian youth: should injury be a concern?

    PubMed

    Gropp, Kathleen; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-02-01

    Active transportation to school provides a means for youth to incorporate physical activity into their daily routines, and this has obvious benefits for child health. Studies of active transportation have rarely focused on the negative health effects in terms of injury. This cross-sectional study is based on the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. A sample of children aged 11-15 years (n=20 076) was studied. Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine associations between walking or bicycling to school and related injury. Regular active transportation to school at larger distances (approximately >1.6 km; 1.0 miles) was associated with higher relative odds of active transportation injury (OR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.15), with a suggestion of a dose-response relationship between longer travel distances and injury (p=0.02). Physical activity interventions for youth should encourage participation in active transportation to school, while also recognising the potential for unintentional injury.

  12. Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

  13. Policies Related to Active Transport to and from School: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Doescher, Mark P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fesperman, Carrie E.; Litt, Jill S.; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E.; Terpstra, Jennifer L.; Troped, Philip J.; Schmid, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that…

  14. A Profile of Active Transportation in Colorado Public Schools, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Timothy K; Osman, Randa; Whitney, Paige; Carpenter, Dick; Tucker, Elizabeth; Field, Julaine; Kelly, Cheryl

    2017-02-01

    Active transportation (AT) may represent an ideal opportunity to accumulate physical activity (PA). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the AT profile among students from two Colorado school districts. Students completed a survey on AT resulting in a final dataset (n = 3738) from which descriptive and inferential statics were calculated. Respondents were 11.32 ± 2.82 years of age (Boys = 48.27 %; Girls = 51.73 %). Most students (87.29 %) traveled to or from school via automobile, while 11.17 % walked and 1.53 % biked. Boys rode bicycles to school significantly more (p < 0.0001) than girls, and when walking, accumulated significantly more time (p = 0.02) than females. When examining by grade level significant differences were found for days/week walking (p = 0.0002) to school and biking (p < 0.001) to school. High school students accumulated significantly (p < 0.0001) more time walking to school than middle or elementary school students. Similarly, high school students spent more time biking (p < 0.0001) to school than middle school and elementary school respondents. These findings indicate that travel to school by automobile is still the dominant mode of travel for most public school students. Further, males were generally more likely to obtain extra time in AT. Moreover, older students were more likely to engage in AT, and to spend more time during their AT.

  15. Policies related to active transport to and from school: a multisite case study.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Amy A; Brownson, Ross C; Doescher, Mark P; Evenson, Kelly R; Fesperman, Carrie E; Litt, Jill S; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E; Terpstra, Jennifer L; Troped, Philip J; Schmid, Thomas L

    2008-12-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that influence ATS initiatives. Nine elementary schools in seven states participated in this case study. Sixty-nine stakeholders were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analyzed using a master thematic codebook. This study identified two distinct aspects of policies: 'influential factors' which are factors that might impact policies related to ATS and 'policy actions' which are policies reported by people involved in ATS initiatives that directly affected their success. Influential factors included sidewalks, crosswalks/crossing guards, funding, personal safety concerns, advocacy group involvement and others. Policy actions included policies on school speed zone, drop-off, no-transport zones, school siting, school start/dismissal time and school choice. Despite the diversity of the schools studied, similarities included influence of built environment, safety concerns, funding and transdisciplinary collaboration. Stakeholders need to work together to stimulate action and ensure successful initiatives. Influential factors appear to be important to this process.

  16. Direct observations of active school transportation and stroller use in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Linda; Macpherson, Alison K; Howard, Andrew; Parkin, Patricia C; Richmond, Sarah A; Birken, Catherine S

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about kindergarten students' active school transportation (AST) and stroller/wagon use as sedentary travel devices. The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of kindergarten children arriving to school by active and sedentary modes, including strollers, in Toronto elementary schools and compare to students in kindergarten to grade 6 (K-6). The secondary objective was to examine factors associated with AST in kindergarten and K-6 students. School travel mode was counted using direct observations at elementary schools in the City of Toronto in 2015. Two samples were observed: 1) Kindergarten sample: a random sample of schools with separate kindergarten entrances (n = 26 schools, 1069 children); 2) Kindergarten to grade 6 sample: observations were conducted at arrival locations at 50% of eligible elementary schools for students of all ages (n = 88 schools, 17,224 children). Proportions arriving by different travel modes were compared using Chi-square analysis. Negative binomial regression was conducted to examine the association between school characteristics and AST. AST was lower in the kindergarten compared to the K-6 sample (60% versus 74%, χ(2) = 91.37, p < 0.001). The predominant sedentary mode for kindergarten students was by vehicle (38%), with < 2% using strollers/wagons. Recent immigrant status was related to higher AST in kindergarten students; higher social disadvantage, crossing guards, school population and collision rates were related to higher AST in the K-6 sample. Factors influencing AST in young students require further investigation to influence the development of healthy active lifestyles at an early age.

  17. School Transportation: Administrator's Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Pupil transportation is an essential part of the overall school program, which requires constant supervision and direction. Perhaps no other phase of the school program is more closely observed by the public or has a greater tendency to mold public opinion about the schools than the school bus system. The success of any school district pupil…

  18. GIS measured environmental correlates of active school transport: A systematic review of 14 studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Emerging frameworks to examine active school transportation (AST) commonly emphasize the built environment (BE) as having an influence on travel mode decisions. Objective measures of BE attributes have been recommended for advancing knowledge about the influence of the BE on school travel mode choice. An updated systematic review on the relationships between GIS-measured BE attributes and AST is required to inform future research in this area. The objectives of this review are: i) to examine and summarize the relationships between objectively measured BE features and AST in children and adolescents and ii) to critically discuss GIS methodologies used in this context. Methods Six electronic databases, and websites were systematically searched, and reference lists were searched and screened to identify studies examining AST in students aged five to 18 and reporting GIS as an environmental measurement tool. Fourteen cross-sectional studies were identified. The analyses were classified in terms of density, diversity, and design and further differentiated by the measures used or environmental condition examined. Results Only distance was consistently found to be negatively associated with AST. Consistent findings of positive or negative associations were not found for land use mix, residential density, and intersection density. Potential modifiers of any relationship between these attributes and AST included age, school travel mode, route direction (e.g., to/from school), and trip-end (home or school). Methodological limitations included inconsistencies in geocoding, selection of study sites, buffer methods and the shape of zones (Modifiable Areal Unit Problem [MAUP]), the quality of road and pedestrian infrastructure data, and school route estimation. Conclusions The inconsistent use of spatial concepts limits the ability to draw conclusions about the relationship between objectively measured environmental attributes and AST. Future research should explore

  19. Active school transport and weekday physical activity in 9–11-year-old children from 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Denstel, K D; Broyles, S T; Larouche, R; Sarmiento, O L; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Active school transport (AST) may increase the time that children spend in physical activity (PA). This study examined relationships between AST and weekday moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity (LPA), sedentary time (SED) and total activity during naturally organized time periods (daily, before school, during school and after school) in a sample of children from 12 countries. METHODS: The sample included 6224 children aged 9–11 years. PA and sedentary time were objectively measured using Actigraph accelerometers. AST was self-reported by participants. Multilevel generalized linear and logistic regression statistical models were used to determine associations between PA, SED and AST across and within study sites. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, highest parental educational attainment, BMI z-score and accelerometer wear time, children who engaged in AST accumulated significantly more weekday MVPA during all studied time periods and significantly less time in LPA before school compared with children who used motorized transport to school. AST was unrelated to time spent in sedentary behaviors. Across all study sites, AST was associated with 6.0 min (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7–7.3; P<0.0001) more of weekday MVPA; however, there was some evidence that this differed across study sites (P for interaction=0.06). Significant positive associations were identified within 7 of 12 study sites, with differences ranging from 4.6 min (95% CI: 0.3–8.9; P=0.04, in Canada) to 10.2 min (95% CI: 5.9–14.4; P<0.0001, in Brazil) more of daily MVPA among children who engaged in AST compared with motorized transport. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that AST was associated with children spending more time engaged in MVPA throughout the day and less time in LPA before school. AST represents a good behavioral target to increase levels of PA in children. PMID:27152177

  20. The relationships between active transport to work or school and cardiovascular health or body weight: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2013-07-01

    To systematically examine the relationships between active transport to work or school and cardiovascular health, body weight, or other health outcomes, a systematic review of the literature was conducted in September 2012 using 3 electronic databases. A total of 3887 articles were screened, 30 full text articles were retrieved, and 19 articles were identified. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of each article. The review found that active transport to work or school was significantly associated with improved cardiovascular health and lower body weight. However, the strength of the evidence varied from weak (mental health and cancer), moderate (body weight), to strong (cardiovascular health). The evidence was limited by lack of comparability of study outcomes, weak study designs, small sample sizes, and lack of experimental studies. Further research is needed to examine the effect of active transport on health using stronger research designs, including randomized controlled trials or longitudinal studies.

  1. Which Socio-Ecological Factors Associate with a Switch to or Maintenance of Active and Passive Transport during the Transition from Primary to Secondary School?

    PubMed Central

    Vanwolleghem, Griet; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Meester, Femke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Gheysen, Freja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to investigate which individual, psychosocial and physical neighborhood environmental factors associate with children’s switch to or maintenance of active/passive transport to school and to leisure time destinations during the transition from primary to secondary school. Methods Children (n = 313) filled out a questionnaire in the last year of primary school and 2 years later to assess socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported transport. One of their parents completed a questionnaire to assess parental perceptions of psychosocial and physical neighborhood environmental factors. Results The increase of the home-school distance was significantly associated with children’s switch to or maintenance of passive transport to school compared to a switch to (OR = 0.81; p = 0.03) and maintenance (OR = 0.87; p = 0.03) of active transport to school. Low SES was associated with children’s switch to active transport to school compared to maintenance of active transport (OR = 3.67; p = 0.07). For transport to leisure time destinations, other factors such as parental perceived neighborhood safety from traffic and crime (OR = 2.78; p = 0.004), a positive social norm (OR = 1.49; p = 0.08), positive attitudes (OR = 1.39; p = 0.08) (i.e. more benefits, less barriers) towards their children’s physical activity and poor walking/cycling facilities in the neighborhood (OR = 0.70; p = 0.06) were associated with children’s maintenance of active transport to leisure time destinations compared to a switch to or maintenance of passive transport. Conclusions This longitudinal study can give directions for interventions promoting children’s active transport during the transition to secondary school. It is necessary to promote different possibilities at primary school for children to use active transport when going to secondary school. Walking/cycling a part of the home-school trip can be a possible solution for children who will be living at non

  2. A Combined Impact-Process Evaluation of a Program Promoting Active Transport to School: Understanding the Factors That Shaped Program Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, S.; Garrard, J.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study was a comprehensive impact-process evaluation of the Ride2School program in metropolitan and regional areas in Victoria, Australia. The program aimed to promote transport to school for primary school children. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected at baseline and followup from two primary schools involved in the pilot phase of the program and two matched comparison schools, and a further 13 primary schools that participated in the implementation phase of the program. Classroom surveys, structured and unstructured observations, and interviews with Ride2School program staff were used to evaluate the pilot program. For the 13 schools in the second phase of the program, parents and students completed questionnaires at baseline (N = 889) and followup (N = 761). Based on the quantitative data, there was little evidence of an overall increase in active transport to school across participating schools, although impacts varied among individual schools. Qualitative data in the form of observations, interviews, and focus group discussions with students, school staff, and program staff provided insight into the reasons for variable program impacts. This paper highlights the benefits of undertaking a mixed methods approach to evaluating active transport to school programs that enables both measurement and understanding of program impacts. PMID:23606865

  3. [Tort Liability and School Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Allyn J.

    School districts, school employees, bus companies contracted by districts, and bus company employees could be involved in court litigation over student injury and student civil rights related to school bus transportation. Civil rights insurance should be added to general liability insurance and motor vehicle liability insurance. Students must be…

  4. Are single entry communities and cul-de-sacs a barrier to active transport to school in 11 elementary schools in Las Vegas, NV metropolitan area?

    PubMed

    Coughenour, Courtney; Clark, Sheila; Singh, Ashok; Huebner, Joshua

    2017-06-01

    Single entry communities (SECs) and cul-de-sacs minimize route choices and increase trip distance. Las Vegas' built environment facilitates the examination of these variables and active transport to school (ATS) rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of SECs and cul-de-sacs on ATS rates in Las Vegas, NV elementary children. Parental-reported data was collected from 11 elementary schools on ATS rates (n = 1217). SECs and cul-de-sacs were quantified for each school zone. Logistic regression models were used to predict ATS. 23.9% of students reported ATS all of the time and 31.4% some of the time. SECs per school zone ranged from 0 to 25 (mean = 11.9). Cul-de-sacs ranged from 12 to 315 (mean = 138.3). Some ATS use was predicted by distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.61), parental education (high school: p = 0.004;OR = 0.53, some college: p = 0.001;OR = 0.50, 4 year degree: p = 0.004;OR = 0.52) and cul-de-sacs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.99). A separate model using distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.61), parental education (high school: p = 0.002;OR = 0.51, some college: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.45, 4 year degree: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.45) and SECs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.96) predicted some ATS. All ATS use was predicted by distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.58), parental education (Grades 9-11: p = 0.05;OR = 0.61, high school: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.45, some college: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.41, 4 year degree: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.38) and SECs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.97). A separate model using distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.58), parental education (Grades 9-11: p = 0.041;OR = 0.59, high school: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.47, some college: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.44, 4 year degree: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.43) and cul-de-sacs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.99) predicted all ATS. Current findings reveal that both SECs and cul-de-sacs were predictors of ATS beyond distance. Students with

  5. Marketing active transportation to school to improve children's health: Utilizing parental perspectives from an inner-city environment.

    PubMed

    Royne, Marla B; Ivey, Stephanie S; Levy, Marian; Fox, Alexa K; Roakes, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, nearly half of the children in the United States walked or rode their bikes to school. Today, less than 15% of children actively commute to school. With the growing obesity epidemic, encouraging children to walk or bike to school has become a national priority. This research examines factors that influence parental decisions allowing their children to walk to school in an urban environment to identify effective marketing and communication strategies to reach those parents. Results indicate differences in parental perspectives across populations; suggestions for effectively marketing the Safe Routes to School program to minority populations are provided.

  6. Relationships between active school transport and adiposity indicators in school-age children from low-, middle- and high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, O L; Lemoine, P; Gonzalez, S A; Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Larouche, R; Onywera, V; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Within the global context of the nutrition and physical activity transition it is important to determine the relationship between adiposity and active school transport (AST) across different environmental and socio-cultural settings. The present study assessed the association between adiposity (that is, body mass index z-score (BMIz), obesity, percentage body fat (PBF), waist circumference) and AST in 12 country sites, in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: The analytical sample included 6797 children aged 9–11 years. Adiposity indicators included, BMIz calculated using reference data from the World Health Organization, obesity (BMIz ⩾+2 s.d.), PBF measured using bioelectrical impedance and waist circumference. School travel mode was assessed by questionnaire and categorized as active travel versus motorized travel. Multilevel linear and non-linear models were used to estimate the magnitude of the associations between adiposity indicators and AST by country site and sex. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, parental education and motorized vehicle availability, children who reported AST were less likely to be obese (odds ratio=0.72, 95% confidence interval (0.60–0.87), P<0.001) and had a lower BMIz (−0.09, s.e.m.=0.04, P=0.013), PBF (least square means (LSM) 20.57 versus 21.23% difference −0.66, s.e.m.=0.22, P=0.002) and waist circumference (LSM 63.73 cm versus 64.63 cm difference −0.90, s.e.m.=0.26, P=0.001) compared with those who reported motorized travel. Overall, associations between obesity and AST did not differ by country (P=0.279) or by sex (P=0.571). Conclusions: AST was associated with lower measures of adiposity in this multinational sample of children. Such findings could inform global efforts to prevent obesity among school-age children. PMID:27152178

  7. Using accelerometers and global positioning system devices to assess gender and age differences in children’s school, transport, leisure and home based physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge on domain-specific physical activity (PA) has the potential to advance public health interventions and inform new policies promoting children’s PA. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess domains (leisure, school, transport, home) and subdomains (e.g., recess, playgrounds, and urban green space) for week day moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) using objective measures and investigate gender and age differences. Methods Participants included 367 Danish children and adolescents (11–16 years, 52% girls) with combined accelerometer and Global Positioning System (GPS) data (mean 2.5 days, 12.7 hrs/day). The Personal Activity and Location Measurement System and a purpose-built database assessed data in 15-second epochs to determine PA and assign epochs to 4 domains and 11 subdomains. Frequencies and proportions of time spent in MVPA were determined and differences assessed using multi-level modeling. Results More than 90% of MVPA was objectively assigned to domains/subdomains. Boys accumulated more MVPA overall, in leisure, school and transport (all p < 0.05). Children compared with adolescents accumulated more MVPA, primarily through more school MVPA (p < 0.05). Boys spent a large proportion of time accumulating MVPA in playgrounds, active transport, Physical Education, sports facilities, urban green space and school grounds. Girls spent a significant proportion of time accumulating MVPA in active transport and playgrounds. No gender or age differences were found in the home domain. Conclusions Large variations were found in PA frequency and intensity across domains/subdomains. Significant gender differences were found, with girls being less active in almost all domains and subdomains. Objectively measured patterns of PA across domains/subdomains can be used to better tailor PA interventions and inform future policies for promoting child PA. PMID:24457029

  8. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  9. Environmental and socio-demographic associates of children’s active transport to school: a cross-sectional investigation from the URBAN Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Active transport (e.g., walking, cycling) to school (ATS) can contribute to children’s physical activity and health. The built environment is acknowledged as an important factor in understanding children’s ATS, alongside parental factors and seasonality. Inconsistencies in methodological approaches exist, and a clear understanding of factors related to ATS remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of associates of children’s ATS, by considering the effects of daily weather patterns and neighbourhood walk ability and neighbourhood preferences (i.e., for living in a high or low walkable neighbourhood) on this behaviour. Methods Data were drawn from the Understanding Relationships between Activity and Neighbourhoods study, a cross-sectional study of physical activity and the built environment in adults and children in four New Zealand cities. Parents of participating children completed an interview and daily trip diary that assessed their child’s mode of travel to school, household and individual demographic information, and parental neighbourhood preference. Daily weather data were downloaded from New Zealand’s national climate database. Geographic information systems-derived variables were calculated for distance to school and neighbourhood walkability. Bivariate analyses were conducted with ATS and potential associates; factors related to ATS at p < 0.20 were considered simultaneously in generalized estimation equation models, and backwards elimination of non-significant factors was conducted; city was treated as a fixed effect in all models. Results A total of 217 children aged 6.5-15 years participated in this study. Female sex, age, city, household income, limited/no car access, residing in zone of school, shorter distance to school, neighbourhood self selection, rainfall, and sunlight hours were simultaneously considered in multivariate generalised estimation equation modelling (all p < 0.20 in

  10. Transport to Rhebpress activity.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Amanda; Brandt, Marta; Djouder, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPases from the rat sarcoma (Ras) superfamily are a heterogeneous group of proteins of about 21 kDa that act as molecular switches, modulating cell signaling pathways and controlling diverse cellular processes. They are active when bound to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and inactive when bound to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) is a member of the Ras GTPase superfamily and a key activator of the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). We recently determined that microspherule protein 1 (MCRS1) maintains Rheb at lysosomal surfaces in an amino acid-dependent manner. MCRS1 depletion promotes the formation of the GDP-bound form of Rheb, which is then delocalized from the lysosomal platform and transported to endocytic recycling vesicles, leading to mTORC1 inactivation. During this delocalization process, Rheb-GDP remains farnesylated and associated with cellular endomembranes. These findings provide new insights into the regulation of small GTPases, whose activity depends on both their GTP/GDP switch state and their capacity to move between different cellular membrane-bound compartments. Dynamic spatial transport between compartments makes it possible to alter the proximity of small GTPases to their activatory sites depending on the prevailing physiological and cellular conditions.

  11. Active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  12. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  13. Walking School Buses as a Form of Active Transportation for Children--A Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Liz; Norgate, Sarah H.; Cherrett, Tom; Davies, Nigel; Winstanley, Christopher; Harding, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background: Walking school buses (WSBs) offer a potentially healthier way for children to get to school while reducing traffic congestion. A number of pressing societal challenges make it timely to evaluate evidence of their value. Methods: Studies that focused solely on WSBs were identified through online and manual literature searches. Twelve…

  14. 25 CFR 39.721 - What transportation information must off-reservation boarding schools report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contract; (2) Variable vehicle costs; (3) Mileage traveled to transport students to and from school on school days, to sites of special services, and to extra-curricular activities; (4) Medical trips;...

  15. Transportation as a "Related Service": Issues that Involve Transition Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper discusses transportation as a related service for students with disabilities expecially as related to school-to-work transition activities. First, the legislative and legal basis for providing transportation services is discussed in the form of answers to frequently asked questions: why provide transportation? what is the basis for…

  16. Schools, Housing, Jobs, Transportation: Interlocking Metropolitan Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, William G.

    In this paper the interrelationships among income, health, education, employment and crime in the nation's metropolitan areas are explored in the context of recent and current trends in housing, transportation and urban growth policy. The central role of inner city schools in these phenomena is assessed. Alternative metropolitan strategies for…

  17. 25 CFR 39.705 - Are schools eligible for transportation funds to transport special education students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Student Transportation Eligibility for Funds § 39.705 Are schools eligible for transportation funds to transport special education students? Yes. A school that transports a special education student from home to a treatment center and back...

  18. Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…

  19. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Transport of alkali, metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and preexponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process.

  20. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M.A.; Underwood, M.L.; O`Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-07-01

    Transport of alkali metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant, reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. Little can be learned about the detailed mass transport process from the ac impedance or current voltage curves of an electrode at one set of operating parameters, because the transport process includes a number of important physical parameters that are not all uniquely determined by one experiment. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and pre-exponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process. 17 refs.

  1. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M.A.; Underwood, M.L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Transport of alkali metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant, reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. Little can be learned about the detailed mass transport process from the ac impedance or current voltage curves of an electrode at one set of operating parameters, because the transport process includes a number of important physical parameters that are not all uniquely determined by one experiment. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and pre-exponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process. 17 refs.

  2. Improving School Bus Safety. Transportation Research Board Special Report 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    While school buses transport more passengers per trip, the rate of occupant fatalities per mile driven for school buses is one-quarter that for passenger cars. Nevertheless, the public expects school districts and other school bus operators to take all reasonable precautions to protect children as they travel to and from school. Although a variety…

  3. 25 CFR 39.705 - Are schools eligible for transportation funds to transport special education students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transport special education students? 39.705 Section 39.705 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Funds § 39.705 Are schools eligible for transportation funds to transport special education students? Yes. A school that transports a special education student from home to a treatment center and back...

  4. 25 CFR 39.705 - Are schools eligible for transportation funds to transport special education students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transport special education students? 39.705 Section 39.705 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Funds § 39.705 Are schools eligible for transportation funds to transport special education students? Yes. A school that transports a special education student from home to a treatment center and back...

  5. 25 CFR 39.705 - Are schools eligible for transportation funds to transport special education students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transport special education students? 39.705 Section 39.705 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Funds § 39.705 Are schools eligible for transportation funds to transport special education students? Yes. A school that transports a special education student from home to a treatment center and back...

  6. Science Activities for School Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quint, Walter C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes ways in which physics-learning activity packets can be used by high school students participating in trips organized by other departments. Provides an example of physics activities incorporated into an airplane trip to Disney World. (CS)

  7. 25 CFR 39.705 - Are schools eligible for transportation funds to transport special education students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... special education students? 39.705 Section 39.705 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE....705 Are schools eligible for transportation funds to transport special education students? Yes. A school that transports a special education student from home to a treatment center and back to home on...

  8. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  9. Energy Conservation in School Transportation Systems. Energy Conservation Guidelines 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesguth, John, Ed.; Scheingold, Edward, Ed.

    Fourth in a series of four publications on energy conservation, this booklet offers basic guidelines for sound fuel reduction in school transportation. The pamphlet suggests ways to implement energy-saving practices, guidelines for preventive maintenance of school vehicles, a definition of the drivers' and superintendents' roles, school policies…

  10. Common folds and transport mechanisms of secondary active transporters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yigong

    2013-01-01

    Secondary active transporters exploit the electrochemical potential of solutes to shuttle specific substrate molecules across biological membranes, usually against their concentration gradient. Transporters of different functional families with little sequence similarity have repeatedly been found to exhibit similar folds, exemplified by the MFS, LeuT, and NhaA folds. Observations of multiple conformational states of the same transporter, represented by the LeuT superfamily members Mhp1, AdiC, vSGLT, and LeuT, led to proposals that structural changes are associated with substrate binding and transport. Despite recent biochemical and structural advances, our understanding of substrate recognition and energy coupling is rather preliminary. This review focuses on the common folds and shared transport mechanisms of secondary active transporters. Available structural information generally supports the alternating access model for substrate transport, with variations and extensions made by emerging structural, biochemical, and computational evidence.

  11. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  12. School Bus and School Pupil Activity Bus Inspection and Maintenance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowash, Fred W.

    This publication deals with suggested maintenance standards that apply to vehicles used for pupil transportation in California and covers all the safety-related systems that are common to most buses. The guide has been prepared to help all school bus and school pupil activity bus operators set up an inspection and preventive maintenance program…

  13. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  14. Energetics of active transport processes.

    PubMed

    Essig, A; Caplan, S R

    1968-12-01

    Discussions of active transport usually assume stoichiometry between the rate of transport J(+) and the metabolic rate J(r). However, the observation of a linear relationship between J(+) and J(r) does not imply a stoichiometric relationship, i.e., complete coupling. Since coupling may possibly be incomplete, we examine systems of an arbitrary degree of coupling q, regarding stoichiometry as a limiting case. We consider a sodium pump, with J(+) and J(r) linear functions of the electrochemical potential difference, -X(+), and the chemical affinity of the metabolic driving reaction, A. The affinity is well defined even for various complex reaction pathways. Incorporation of a series barrier and a parallel leak does not affect the linearity of the composite observable system. The affinity of some region of the metabolic chain may be maintained constant, either by large pools of reactants or by regulation. If so, this affinity can be evaluated by two independent methods. Sodium transport is conveniently characterized by the open-circuit potential (Deltapsi)(I=0) and the natural limits, level flow (J(+))(X+=0), and static head X(0) (+) = (X(+))(J+=0). With high degrees of coupling -X(0) (+)/F approaches the electromotive force E(Na) (Ussing); -X(0) (+)/F cannot be identified with ((RT/F) ln f)(X+=0), where f is the flux ratio. The efficiency eta = -J(+)X(+)/J(r)A is of significance only when appreciable energy is being converted from one form to another. When either J(+) or -X(+) is small eta is low; the significant parameters are then the efficacies epsilon(J+) = J(+)/J(r)A and epsilon(X+) = -X(+)/J(r)A, respectively maximal at level flow and static head. Leak increases both J(+) and epsilon(J+) for isotonic saline reabsorption, but diminishes -X(0) (+) and epsilon(Xfemale symbol). Electrical resistance reflects both passive parameters and metabolism. Various fundamental relations are preserved despite coupling of passive ion and water flows.

  15. Physical fitness in relation to transport to school in adolescents: the Danish youth and sports study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B; Lawlor, D A; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Anderssen, S A

    2009-06-01

    In many Western countries, there are concerns about declining levels of physical activity in school-aged children. Active transport is one way to increase physical activity in children, but few studies have evaluated whether active transport in school-aged children and adolescents has beneficial effects on fitness and, if so, whether different modes of transport affect different aspects of fitness. In this study, we examined the association of active transport with different aspects of fitness in a representative Danish sample of 545 boys and 704 girls, 15-19 years of age. Physical fitness was assessed through a number of field tests, including a maximal cycle test, dynamic and static strength in different muscle groups, muscle endurance, flexibility and agility. Transport to school was reported as the mode of transport. Almost two-thirds of the population cycled to school. Cyclists had higher aerobic power than both walkers and passive travelers (4.6-5.9%). Isometric muscle endurance (10-16%), dynamic muscle endurance in the abdominal muscles (10%) and flexibility (6%) were also higher in cyclists compared with walkers and passive travelers. Mode of travel was not related to leisure-time sports participation. Our findings suggest that commuter bicycling may be a way to improve health in adolescents.

  16. Assessing Liability and Legitimacy of School Transportation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammon, Tim; Burns, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Whenever a school district considers changing bus stops, bus routes, or bell times, the public reaction is often decidedly unequal to the magnitude of the changes proposed. Unfortunately, the severity of continued budget crises has compelled many school districts to make major changes to their transportation systems. While additional cuts in…

  17. School and Community Transportation Safety Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Patricia J.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive school bus safety program designed and implemented in Euclid (Ohio) involves participation by students, drivers, parents, and the community. This article was originally submitted in application for, and the author received, a 1993 Pinnacle of Achievement Award from the Association of School Business Officials. (MLF)

  18. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  19. 25 CFR 39.702 - Can a school receive funds to transport residential students using commercial transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation? A school transporting students by commercial bus, train, airplane, or other commercial modes of... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school receive funds to transport residential students using commercial transportation? 39.702 Section 39.702 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...

  20. 25 CFR 39.702 - Can a school receive funds to transport residential students using commercial transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transportation? A school transporting students by commercial bus, train, airplane, or other commercial modes of... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a school receive funds to transport residential students using commercial transportation? 39.702 Section 39.702 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...

  1. 25 CFR 39.702 - Can a school receive funds to transport residential students using commercial transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transportation? A school transporting students by commercial bus, train, airplane, or other commercial modes of... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a school receive funds to transport residential students using commercial transportation? 39.702 Section 39.702 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...

  2. 25 CFR 39.702 - Can a school receive funds to transport residential students using commercial transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transportation? A school transporting students by commercial bus, train, airplane, or other commercial modes of... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can a school receive funds to transport residential students using commercial transportation? 39.702 Section 39.702 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...

  3. 25 CFR 39.702 - Can a school receive funds to transport residential students using commercial transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transportation? A school transporting students by commercial bus, train, airplane, or other commercial modes of... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a school receive funds to transport residential students using commercial transportation? 39.702 Section 39.702 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...

  4. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from... motor vehicles being used at the time of operation in the transportation of schoolchildren and...

  5. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from... motor vehicles being used at the time of operation in the transportation of schoolchildren and...

  6. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from... motor vehicles being used at the time of operation in the transportation of schoolchildren and...

  7. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from... motor vehicles being used at the time of operation in the transportation of schoolchildren and...

  8. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from... motor vehicles being used at the time of operation in the transportation of schoolchildren and...

  9. The transport properties of activated carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    di Vittorio, S.L. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Dresselhaus, M.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA . Dept. of Physics); Endo, M. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Issi, J-P.; Piraux, L.

    1990-07-01

    The transport properties of activated isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers with surface area 1000 m{sup 2}/g have been investigated. We report preliminary results on the electrical conductivity, the magnetoresistance, the thermal conductivity and the thermopower of these fibers as a function of temperature. Comparisons are made to transport properties of other disordered carbons. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  10. The Transport Properties of Activated Carbon Fibers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    di Vittorio, S. L.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Endo, M.; Issi, J-P.; Piraux, L.

    1990-07-01

    The transport properties of activated isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers with surface area 1000 m{sup 2}/g have been investigated. We report preliminary results on the electrical conductivity, the magnetoresistance, the thermal conductivity and the thermopower of these fibers as a function of temperature. Comparisons are made to transport properties of other disordered carbons.

  11. Physical Activity Opportunities before and after School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the many ways in which schools can provide physical activity opportunities for students by taking advantage of hours that students might otherwise spend waiting for school to begin or playing computer games after school has ended. The article presents creative strategies for engaging students in activities that are…

  12. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  13. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  14. School-Age Ideas and Activities for After School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas-Foletta, Karen; Cogley, Michele

    This guide describes activities for school-age children in after-school day care programs. These activities may also be used in other settings. An introductory section discusses program philosophy, room arrangement, multicultural curriculum, program scheduling, summer programs and holiday care, field trips and special programs, age grouping,…

  15. Ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Bao-quan

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the ratchet transport of mixtures of active and passive particles in a transversal asymmetric channel. A big passive particle is immersed in a ‘sea’ of active particles. Due to the chirality of active particles, the longitudinal directed transport is induced by the transversal asymmetry. For the active particles, the chirality completely determines the direction of the ratchet transport, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions and can be separated. However, for the passive particle, the transport behavior becomes complicated, the direction is determined by competitions among the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, and the packing fraction. Interestingly, within certain parameters, the passive particle moves to the left, while active particles move to the right. In addition, there exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the height of the barrier, the self-propulsion speed and the packing fraction) at which the rectified efficiency takes its maximal value. Our findings could be used for the experimental pursuit of the ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles. PMID:26795952

  16. Impact of a walking school bus program on children's active commuting to school and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking School Buses (WSB) are groups of students, led to and from school by adults, in which students are picked up at designated "bus stops". The impact of WSB programs on students' active commuting to school (walking/cycling to school, ACS), and moderate-to vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) has n...

  17. Structured Computer Learning Activities at School and Participation in Out-of-School Structured Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Jeffrey B.; Dwyer, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the relationship between student participation in structured activities and academic success at school; discusses the use of computers in schools; and describes a study that investigated 220 students in 3 high schools to determine relationships between participation in structured activities and successful computer use in school. (Contains…

  18. Stochastic steps in secondary active sugar transport.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Joshua L; Ghezzi, Chiara; Bisignano, Paola; Loo, Donald D F; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Rosenberg, John M; Wright, Ernest M; Grabe, Michael

    2016-07-05

    Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the concomitant flow of substrates is a fundamental structural and biophysical question that is beginning to be answered at the atomistic level with the advent of high-resolution structures of transporters in different structural states. Nonetheless, the dynamic character of the transporters, such as ion/substrate binding order and how binding triggers conformational change, is not revealed from static structures, yet it is critical to understanding their function. Here, we report a series of molecular simulations carried out on the sugar transporter vSGLT that lend insight into how substrate and ions are released from the inward-facing state of the transporter. Our simulations reveal that the order of release is stochastic. Functional experiments were designed to test this prediction on the human homolog, hSGLT1, and we also found that cytoplasmic release is not ordered, but we confirmed that substrate and ion binding from the extracellular space is ordered. Our findings unify conflicting published results concerning cytoplasmic release of ions and substrate and hint at the possibility that other transporters in the superfamily may lack coordination between ions and substrate in the inward-facing state.

  19. Stochastic steps in secondary active sugar transport

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Joshua L.; Ghezzi, Chiara; Bisignano, Paola; Loo, Donald D. F.; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Rosenberg, John M.; Wright, Ernest M.; Grabe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the concomitant flow of substrates is a fundamental structural and biophysical question that is beginning to be answered at the atomistic level with the advent of high-resolution structures of transporters in different structural states. Nonetheless, the dynamic character of the transporters, such as ion/substrate binding order and how binding triggers conformational change, is not revealed from static structures, yet it is critical to understanding their function. Here, we report a series of molecular simulations carried out on the sugar transporter vSGLT that lend insight into how substrate and ions are released from the inward-facing state of the transporter. Our simulations reveal that the order of release is stochastic. Functional experiments were designed to test this prediction on the human homolog, hSGLT1, and we also found that cytoplasmic release is not ordered, but we confirmed that substrate and ion binding from the extracellular space is ordered. Our findings unify conflicting published results concerning cytoplasmic release of ions and substrate and hint at the possibility that other transporters in the superfamily may lack coordination between ions and substrate in the inward-facing state. PMID:27325773

  20. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  1. Increasing Children's Physical Activity: Individual, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated with Walking to and from School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Christian, Hayley E.; Bulsara, Max; Timperio, Anna F.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Villaneuva, Karen P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Efforts to increase the prevalence of children's active school transport require evidence to inform the development of comprehensive interventions. This study used a multilevel ecological framework to investigate individual, social, and environmental factors associated with walking to and from school among elementary school-aged…

  2. An Analysis of Court Cases Involving School Transportation in the K-12 Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Andrew Jay

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide school transportation supervisors and superintendents a set of guiding principles to refer to when administering and implementing school transportation programs. School transportation supervisors and superintendents need the practical knowledge of the rulings in recent court cases to develop policies and…

  3. Making Tracks 1.0: Action Researching an Active Transportation Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel; Foran, Andrew; Robinson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of the first cycle of an action research project. The objective of this action research was to examine the implementation of a school-based active transportation education program (Making Tracks). A two-cycle action research design was employed in which elementary school students' (ages 7-9), middle school…

  4. Active commuting to school: an overlooked source of childrens' physical activity?

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, C; Ainsworth, B E; Popkin, B M

    2001-01-01

    The assessment and promotion of childrens' healthful physical activity is important: (i) to combat the international obesity epidemic that extends to childhood; and (ii) to establish an early habit of lifestyle physical activity that can be sustained into adolescence and adulthood. The primary focus of both assessment and promotion efforts has been on in-school physical education classes and, to a lesser extent, out-of-school structured exercise, sport and play. A potential source of continuous moderate activity, active commuting to school by means of walking or by bicycle, has been largely ignored in surveys of physical activity. Suggestive evidence of steep declines in the amount of childrens' destination walking can be gleaned from national transportation surveys. At the same time, there has been a dramatic increase in the reported use of motorised vehicles, including the use for chauffeuring children. There is very little evidence to support or refute active commuting to school as an important source of childrens' physical activity; however, this is largely because it has been overlooked in the stampede to assess time in more vigorous activities. The promotion of active commuting to school must be considered in the context of parents' real and perceived concerns for their children's personal and pedestrian safety. We certainly do not have a full understanding at this time of all the factors related to decisions about transportation mode, whether by child, parent, community, or school. Such information is necessary if successful and sustainable interventions can be implemented, important transport policy decisions can be made, and community and school designs can be modified. Practice rarely waits for research, however, and there are numerous examples of innovative programming, policies and environmental designs occurring internationally that can serve as natural experiments for enterprising researchers willing to push the envelope of our understanding of active

  5. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  6. Active commuting to school in Finland, the potential for physical activity increase in different seasons

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Jouni; Turpeinen, Salla; Hakonen, Harto; Tammelin, Tuija

    2016-01-01

    Background Active commuting to school (ACS) can be a significant source of physical activity and provide many health benefits. Objective This study identified the potential to increase physical activity levels by promoting ACS in Finnish schools and evaluated the effects of season, distance and age on ACS. Design Data were collected with a questionnaire from 5,107 students, aged 10–16, in 45 comprehensive schools in Finland. The distance and the mode of transport to school in different seasons were self-reported. Results The prevalence of ACS was over 80% during spring/fall for those living 0–5 km from school. ACS was inversely associated with the distance to school and was lower in winter compared to spring and fall. Cycling is less common in winter, especially among girls and younger students. The potential for increasing students’ physical activity levels via ACS seems to be largest in winter, especially among students living 1–5 km from school. The variation in the prevalence of ACS between schools was large, especially in winter. Conclusions When planning interventions to promote ACS, one is encouraged to acknowledge and evaluate the potential in the selected target schools in different seasons. The potential varies largely between schools and seasons and is highly dependent on students’ commuting distances. PMID:27924739

  7. Development of novel active transport membrande devices

    SciTech Connect

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Air Products has undertaken a research program to fabricate and evaluate gas separation membranes based upon promising ``active-transport`` (AT) materials recently developed in our laboratories. Active Transport materials are ionic polymers and molten salts which undergo reversible interaction or reaction with ammonia and carbon dioxide. The materials are useful for separating these gases from mixtures with hydrogen. Moreover, AT membranes have the unique property of possessing high permeability towards ammnonia and carbon dioxide but low permeability towards hydrogen and can thus be used to permeate these components from a gas stream while retaining hydrogen at high pressure.

  8. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S.; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16–64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76–163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29–104), Barcelona 37 (24–56), Paris 37 (18–64) and Basel 5 (3–9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3–42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3–21) in Prague, 6 (4–9) in Basel, 3 (2–6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2–4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  9. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    PubMed Central

    Thornell, Ian M.; Bevensee, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4), Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs) including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2), electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2), and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), as well as a borate transporter (BTR1). These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO−3 either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO−3 transporter contributes to a cell's ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s) (e.g., Na+ or Cl−). In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both well-known and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family. PMID:26124722

  10. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K.; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children’s physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students’ physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment’s impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards. PMID:26230850

  11. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    PubMed

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  12. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  13. Health Activities for Primary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This manual targets new and second-year Peace Corps volunteers, presenting health lessons and activities for primary school students in Thailand. Each section of the manual outlines basic technical information about the topic, contains several detailed lesson plans, and lists quick activities that can be carried out at schools. Songs and recipes…

  14. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

  15. Fluid transport by active elastic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur A.; Lauga, Eric

    2011-09-01

    A flexible membrane deforming its shape in time can self-propel in a viscous fluid. Alternatively, if the membrane is anchored, its deformation will lead to fluid transport. Past work in this area focused on situations where the deformation kinematics of the membrane were prescribed. Here we consider models where the deformation of the membrane is not prescribed, but instead the membrane is internally forced. Both the time-varying membrane shape and the resulting fluid motion result then from a balance between prescribed internal active stresses, internal passive resistance, and external viscous stresses. We introduce two specific models for such active internal forcing: one where a distribution of active bending moments is prescribed, and one where active inclusions exert normal stresses on the membrane by pumping fluid through it. In each case, we asymptotically calculate the membrane shape and the fluid transport velocities for small forcing amplitudes, and recover our results using scaling analysis.

  16. Astrocytic GABA transporter activity modulates excitatory neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Boddum, Kim; Jensen, Thomas P.; Magloire, Vincent; Kristiansen, Uffe; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are ideally placed to detect and respond to network activity. They express ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, and can release gliotransmitters. Astrocytes also express transporters that regulate the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters. Here we report a previously unrecognized role for the astrocytic GABA transporter, GAT-3. GAT-3 activity results in a rise in astrocytic Na+ concentrations and a consequent increase in astrocytic Ca2+ through Na+/Ca2+ exchange. This leads to the release of ATP/adenosine by astrocytes, which then diffusely inhibits neuronal glutamate release via activation of presynaptic adenosine receptors. Through this mechanism, increases in astrocytic GAT-3 activity due to GABA released from interneurons contribute to 'diffuse' heterosynaptic depression. This provides a mechanism for homeostatic regulation of excitatory transmission in the hippocampus. PMID:27886179

  17. Environment, Schools and Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    In response to the rapidly emerging environmental imperative that environmental awareness needs to be taught in the schools, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) through its Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) developed a project oriented toward grass-roots improvements by schools within environmental…

  18. 25 CFR 39.711 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Transportation Miles § 39.711 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential... driven for all buses used to transport students from their homes to the school. If a school...

  19. 25 CFR 39.711 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Transportation Miles § 39.711 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential... driven for all buses used to transport students from their homes to the school. If a school...

  20. 25 CFR 39.711 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Transportation Miles § 39.711 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential... driven for all buses used to transport students from their homes to the school. If a school...

  1. 25 CFR 39.711 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Transportation Miles § 39.711 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential... driven for all buses used to transport students from their homes to the school. If a school...

  2. 25 CFR 39.711 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Transportation Miles § 39.711 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for residential... driven for all buses used to transport students from their homes to the school. If a school...

  3. Activities for Engaging Schools in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…

  4. Prayers and Extracurricular Activities in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the constitutionality of public school personnel organizing prayers at extracurricular events and of using ceremonial prayers, invocation, and benedictions at school activities. Reviews court litigation and Supreme Court decisions that use the Establishment Clause and Lemon test to determine legality. Finds, in most cases, that prayer at…

  5. Bursts of Active Transport in Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Kuo, James; Granick, Steve

    2013-11-01

    We show, using a large new data set, that the temporally resolved speed of active cargo transport in living cells follows a scaling law over several decades of time and length. The statistical regularities display a time-averaged shape that we interpret to reflect stress buildup, followed by rapid release. The scaling power law agrees quantitatively with those reported in inanimate systems (jammed colloids and granular media, and magnetic Barkhausen noise), suggesting a common origin in pushing through a crowded environment in a weak force regime. The implied regulation of the speed of active cellular transport due to environmental obstruction results in bursts of speed and acceleration. These findings extend the classical notion of molecular crowding.

  6. Bursts of active transport in living cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Kuo, James; Granick, Steve

    2013-11-15

    We show, using a large new data set, that the temporally resolved speed of active cargo transport in living cells follows a scaling law over several decades of time and length. The statistical regularities display a time-averaged shape that we interpret to reflect stress buildup, followed by rapid release. The scaling power law agrees quantitatively with those reported in inanimate systems (jammed colloids and granular media, and magnetic Barkhausen noise), suggesting a common origin in pushing through a crowded environment in a weak force regime. The implied regulation of the speed of active cellular transport due to environmental obstruction results in bursts of speed and acceleration. These findings extend the classical notion of molecular crowding.

  7. Identifying a Statistical Model for North Dakota K-12 Public School Transportation Funding by Comparing Fifteen State Transportation Funding Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holen, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…

  8. Lessons learned from Action Schools! BC--an 'active school' model to promote physical activity in elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Macdonald, Heather M; Zebedee, Janelle A; Reed, Katherine E; McKay, Heather A

    2006-10-01

    The 'active school' model offers promise for promoting school-based physical activity (PA); however, few intervention trials have evaluated its effectiveness. Thus, our purpose was to: (1) describe Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) and its implementation (fidelity and feasibility) and (2) evaluate the impact of AS! BC on school provision of PA. Ten elementary schools were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions: Usual Practice (UP, three schools), Liaison (LS, four schools) or Champion (CS, three schools). Teachers in LS and CS schools received AS! BC training and resources but differed on the level of facilitation provided. UP schools continued with regular PA. Delivery of PA during the 11-month intervention was assessed with weekly Activity Logs and intervention fidelity and feasibility were assessed using Action Plans, workshop evaluations, teacher surveys and focus groups with administrators, teachers, parents and students. Physical activity delivered was significantly greater in LS (+67.4 min/week; 95% CI: 18.7-116.1) and CS (+55.2 min/week; 95% CI: 26.4-83.9) schools than UP schools. Analysis of Action Plans and Activity Logs showed fidelity to the model and moderate levels of compliance (75%). Teachers were highly satisfied with training and support. Benefits of AS! BC included positive changes in the children and school climate, including provision of resources, improved communication and program flexibility. These results support the use of the 'active school' model to positively alter the school environment. The AS! BC model was effective, providing more opportunities for "more children to be more active more often" and as such has the potential to provide health benefits to elementary school children.

  9. International Approaches to Whole-of-School Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; Tammelin, Tuija; Pogorzelska, Malgorzata; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Increasing physical activity opportunities in schools has emerged as a global priority among school-aged youth. As a result, many countries have designed and implemented whole-of-school physical activity initiatives that seek to increase physical activity opportunities that are available to school-aged children before, during, and after school.…

  10. Active learning in transportation engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, Jennifer Anne

    The objectives of this research were (1) to develop experimental active-based-learning curricula for undergraduate courses in transportation engineering and (2) to assess the effectiveness of an active-learning-based traffic engineering curriculum through an educational experiment. The researcher developed a new highway design course as a pilot study to test selected active-learning techniques before employing them in the traffic engineering curriculum. Active-learning techniques, including multiple-choice questions, short problems completed by individual students or small groups, and group discussions, were used as active interludes within lectures. The researcher also collected and analyzed student performance and attitude data from control and experimental classes to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the traditional lecture (control) approach and the active-learning (experimental) approach. The results indicate that the active-learning approach adopted for the experimental class did have a positive impact on student performance as measured by exam scores. The students in the experimental class also indicated slightly more positive attitudes at the end of the course than the control class, although the difference was not significant. The author recommends that active interludes similar to those in the experimental curricula be used in other courses in civil engineering.

  11. Single-molecule detection with active transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, David Allan

    A glass capillary is used near the focal region of a custom-built confocal microscope to investigate the use of active transport for single-molecule detection in solution, with both one and two-photon laser excitation. The capillary tip has a diameter of several microns and is carefully aligned nearby to the sub-micron laser beam waist, collinear to the optical axis, so that a negative pressure-difference causes molecules to be drawn into the capillary, along the laser beam axis. The flow of solution, which is characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), can increase the single-molecule detection rate for slowly diffusing proteins by over a factor of 100, while the mean rate of photons during each burst is similar to that for random diffusional transport. Also, the flow is along the longest axis of the ellipsoidally-shaped confocal volume, which results in more collected photons per molecule than that for transverse flow at the same speed. When transport is dominated by flow, FCS can no longer distinguish molecules with differing translational diffusion, and hence a fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy method based on differences in fluorescence brightness is investigated as a means for assaying different solution components, for applications in pharmaceutical drug discovery. Multi-channel fluctuation spectroscopy techniques can also be used for assays with the flow system and hence this dissertation also reports the characterization of a prototype 4-channel single-photon detector with a two-wavelength polarization-resolved optical set-up.

  12. School Administrators' Perceptions of Factors that Influence Children's Active Travel to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Anna E.; Pluto, Delores M.; Ogoussan, Olga; Banda, Jorge A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing children's active travel to school may be 1 strategy for addressing the growing prevalence of obesity among school age children. Using the School Travel Survey, we examined South Carolina school district leaders' perceptions of factors that influence elementary and middle school students walking to school. Methods: Frequency…

  13. School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia; Solmon, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    A quality physical education program is at the heart of any plan to promote lifelong participation in physical activity, but it has become evident at many schools that physical education specialists alone cannot address the physical activity needs of children. This is why a series of studies were conducted to develop strategies for the…

  14. Transport in active systems crowded by obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Schofield, Jeremy; Kapral, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    The reactive and diffusive dynamics of a single chemically powered Janus motor in a crowded medium of moving but passive obstacles is investigated using molecular simulation. It is found that the reaction rate of the catalytic motor reaction decreases in a crowded medium as the volume fraction of obstacles increases as a result of a reduction in the Smoluchowski diffusion-controlled reaction rate coefficient that contributes to the overall reaction rate. A continuum model is constructed and analyzed to interpret the dependence of the steady-state reaction rate observed in simulations on the volume fraction of obstacles in the system. The steady-state concentration fields of reactant and product are shown to be sensitive to the local structure of obstacles around the Janus motor. It is demonstrated that the active motor exhibits enhanced diffusive motion at long times with a diffusion constant that decreases as the volume fraction of crowding species increases. In addition, the dynamical properties of a passive tracer particle in a system containing many active Janus motors is studied to investigate how an active environment influences the transport of non-active species. The diffusivity of a passive tracer particle in an active medium is found to be enhanced in systems with forward-moving Janus motors due to the cooperative dynamics of these motors.

  15. Active Play: Exploring the Influences on Children's School Playground Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda; Telford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Because children spend so much of their time in schools, their playgrounds offer a good setting for promoting active play in young lives. Teachers, instead of considering active play a taxing demand on their busy day, have begun to develop an informal curriculum for it. The authors review the research on children's active play and explores its…

  16. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-25

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein's ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter's mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na(+)-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures.

  17. Berberine acutely activates the glucose transport activity of GLUT1.

    PubMed

    Cok, Alexandra; Plaisier, Christina; Salie, Matthew J; Oram, Daniel S; Chenge, Jude; Louters, Larry L

    2011-07-01

    Berberine, which has a long history of use in Chinese medicine, has recently been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of diabetes. While the hypoglycemic effect of berberine has been clearly documented in animal and cell line models, such as 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotube cells, the mechanism of action appears complex with data implicating activation of the insulin signaling pathway as well as activation of the exercise or AMP kinase-mediated pathway. There have been no reports of the acute affects of berberine on the transport activity of the insulin-insensitive glucose transporter, GLUT1. Therefore, we examined the acute effects of berberine on glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells, a cell line that express only GLUT1. Berberine- activated glucose uptake reaching maximum stimulation of five-fold at >40 μM. Significant activation (P < 0.05) was measured within 5 min reaching a maximum by 30 min. The berberine effect was not additive to the maximal stimulation by other known stimulants, azide, methylene blue or glucose deprivation, suggesting shared steps between berberine and these stimulants. Berberine significantly reduced the K(m) of glucose uptake from 6.7 ± 1.9 mM to 0.55 ± 0.08 mM, but had no effect on the V(max) of uptake. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP kinase, did not affect berberine-stimulated glucose uptake, but inhibitors of downstream kinases partially blocked berberine stimulation. SB203580 (inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase) did not affect submaximal berberine activation, but did lower maximal berberine stimulation by 26%, while PD98059 (inhibitor of ERK kinase) completely blocked submaximal berberine activation and decreased the maximal stimulation by 55%. It appears from this study that a portion of the hypoglycemic effects of berberine can be attributed to its acute activation of the transport activity of GLUT1.

  18. Physical Activity Breaks and Facilities in US Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on physical activity breaks and facilities (indoor and outdoor) in secondary schools is relatively limited. Methods: School administrators and students in nationally representative samples of 8th (middle school) and 10th/12th grade (high school) students were surveyed annually from 2008-2009 to 2011-2012. School administrators…

  19. Integration of a 'proton antenna' facilitates transport activity of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4.

    PubMed

    Noor, Sina Ibne; Pouyssegur, Jacques; Deitmer, Joachim W; Becker, Holger M

    2017-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate the proton-coupled transport of high-energy metabolites like lactate and pyruvate and are expressed in nearly every mammalian tissue. We have shown previously that transport activity of MCT4 is enhanced by carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), which has been suggested to function as a 'proton antenna' for the transporter. In the present study, we tested whether creation of an endogenous proton antenna by introduction of a cluster of histidine residues into the C-terminal tail of MCT4 (MCT4-6xHis) could facilitate MCT4 transport activity when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results show that integration of six histidines into the C-terminal tail does indeed increase transport activity of MCT4 to the same extent as did coexpression of MCT4-WT with CAII. Transport activity of MCT4-6xHis could be further enhanced by coexpression with extracellular CAIV, but not with intracellular CAII. Injection of an antibody against the histidine cluster into MCT4-expressing oocytes decreased transport activity of MCT4-6xHis, while leaving activity of MCT4-WT unaltered. Taken together, these findings suggest that transport activity of the proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 can be facilitated by integration of an endogenous proton antenna into the transporter's C-terminal tail.

  20. GalileoMobile: Astronomical activities in schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasi Espuig, Maria; Vasquez, Mayte; Kobel, Philippe

    GalileoMobile is an itinerant science education initiative run on a voluntary basis by an international team of astronomers, educators, and science communicators. Our team's main goal is to make astronomy accessible to schools and communities around the globe that have little or no access to outreach actions. We do this by performing teacher workshops, activities with students, and donating educational material. Since the creation of GalileoMobile in 2008, we have travelled to Chile, Bolivia, Peru, India, and Uganda, and worked with 56 schools in total. Our activities are centred on the GalileoMobile Handbook of Activities that comprises around 20 astronomical activities which we adapted from many different sources, and translated into 4 languages. The experience we gained in Chile, Bolivia, Peru, India, and Uganda taught us that (1) bringing experts from other countries was very stimulating for children as they are naturally curious about other cultures and encourages a collaboration beyond borders; (2) high-school students who were already interested in science were always very eager to interact with real astronomers doing research to ask for career advice; (3) inquiry-based methods are important to make the learning process more effective and we have therefore, re-adapted the activities in our Handbook according to these; (4) local teachers and university students involved in our activities have the potential to carry out follow-up activities, and examples are those from Uganda and India.

  1. How Active Are Your Students? Increasing Physical Activity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell; Brandt, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that youth engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day, most of which should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Half of this amount (30 minutes) should be achieved during the school day. NASPE provides guidance in the form of a…

  2. The maltose ABC transporter: action of membrane lipids on the transporter stability, coupling and ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huan; Dalal, Kush; Wang, Victor; Rouiller, Isabelle; Duong, Franck

    2013-08-01

    The coupling between ATP hydrolysis and substrate transport remains a key question in the understanding of ABC-mediated transport. We show using the MalFGK2 complex reconstituted into nanodiscs, that membrane lipids participate directly to the coupling reaction by stabilizing the transporter in a low energy conformation. When surrounded by short acyl chain phospholipids, the transporter is unstable and hydrolyzes large amounts of ATP without inducing maltose. The presence of long acyl chain phospholipids stabilizes the conformational dynamics of the transporter, reduces its ATPase activity and restores dependence on maltose. Membrane lipids therefore play an essential allosteric function, they restrict the transporter ATPase activity to increase coupling to the substrate. In support to the notion, we show that increasing the conformational dynamics of MalFGK2 with mutations in MalF increases the transporter ATPase activity but decreases the maltose transport efficiency.

  3. A Nursery School Activities Card File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Dorothy

    This file contains a total of 285 cards describing activities for nursery-school children. It was designed to accompany "The Child-Care Teacher Aide" (ED 147 492), a teacher's guide for vocational training of teacher aides. The file is divided into four main divisions--fall, winter, spring, and summer. Apportioned among the different seasons are…

  4. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  5. 25 CFR 39.722 - What transportation information must day schools, on-reservation boarding schools and peripheral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... must include: (1) Fixed vehicle costs and other costs, including: the number and type of buses, passenger size, and local GSA rental rate and duration of GSA contract; (2) Variable vehicle costs; (3) Mileage traveled to transport students to and from school on school days, to sites of special...

  6. 25 CFR 39.722 - What transportation information must day schools, on-reservation boarding schools and peripheral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... must include: (1) Fixed vehicle costs and other costs, including: the number and type of buses, passenger size, and local GSA rental rate and duration of GSA contract; (2) Variable vehicle costs; (3) Mileage traveled to transport students to and from school on school days, to sites of special...

  7. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Kindergarten Units: The School, The Farm, The Family, and Transportation].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    Four curriculum units for use at the kindergarten level focus on: (1) school jobs and the school community; (2) farming jobs and lifestyle; (3) family jobs at home and outside the home; and (4) transportation jobs and its industry. Objectives linking the units emphasize increasing students' awareness of and appreciation for each unit's jobs. The…

  8. Criterion distances and environmental correlates of active commuting to school in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    more cycling to school compared to walking to school. Conclusions Household distance from school is an important correlate of transport mode to school in children. Interventions to promote active commuting in 11-12 year olds should be focusing on children who are living within the criterion distance of 3.0 kilometers from school by improving the accessibility en route from children's home to school. PMID:21831276

  9. The role of parental risk judgements, transport safety attitudes, transport priorities and accident experiences on pupils' walking to school.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Milad; Nordfjaern, Trond; Mamdoohi, Amir Reza; Shariat Mohaymany, Afshin

    2017-03-02

    Walking to school could improve pupils' health condition and might also reduce the use of motorized transport modes, which leads to both traffic congestion and air pollution. The current study aims to examine the role of parental risk judgements (i.e. risk perception and worry), transport safety attitudes, transport priorities and accident experiences on pupils' walking and mode choices on school trips in Iran, a country with poor road safety records. A total of 1078 questionnaires were randomly distributed among pupils at nine public and private schools in January 2014 in Rasht, Iran. Results from valid observations (n=711) showed that parents with high probability assessments of accidents and strong worry regarding pupils' accident risk while walking were less likely to let their children walk to school. Parents with high safety knowledge were also more likely to allow their pupils to walk to school. Parents who prioritized convenience and accessibility in transport had a stronger tendency to choose motorized modes over walking modes. Also, parents who prioritized safety and security in transport were less likely to allow pupils to walk to school. Elasticities results showed that a one percent increase in priorities of convenience and accessibility, priorities of safety and security, car ownership and walking time from home to school reduced walking among pupils by a probability of 0.62, 0.20, 0.86 and 0.57%, respectively. A one percent increase in parental safety knowledge increased the walking probability by around 0.25%. A 1 unit increase in parental probability assessment and worry towards pupils' walking, decreased the probability of choosing walking mode by 0.11 and 0.05, respectively. Policy-makers who aim to promote walking to schools should improve safety and security of the walking facilities and increase parental safety knowledge.

  10. Increasing School Stability for Students Experiencing Homelessness: Overcoming Challenges to Providing Transportation to the School of Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Diana; Barksdale, Katina

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to review the provisions of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act as related to the provision of transportation of homeless children and youth to their school of origin and provide recommendations for implementing the transportation mandate. The National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) in 2003-2004…

  11. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  12. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  13. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  14. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  15. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  16. A Simple Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Active Transport in Yeast Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambuk, Boris U.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  17. HEPS Tool for Schools: A Guide for School Policy Development on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simovska, Venka; Dadaczynski, Kevin; Viig, Nina Grieg; Bowker, Sue; Woynarowska, Barbara; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Tool for Schools provides ideas, guidelines and suggested techniques to help schools in their development of school policy on healthy eating and physical activity. There is growing evidence that a comprehensive whole school policy on healthy eating and physical activity can lead to better academic outcomes of pupils as well as promoting…

  18. Chill activation of compatible solute transporters in Corynebacterium glutamicum at the level of transport activity.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Nuran; Krämer, Reinhard; Morbach, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum harbors four osmoregulated secondary uptake systems for compatible solutes, BetP, EctP, LcoP, and ProP. When reconstituted in proteoliposomes, BetP was shown to sense hyperosmotic conditions via the increase in luminal K(+) and to respond by instant activation. To study further putative ways of stimulus perception and signal transduction, we have investigated the responses of EctP, LcoP, and BetP, all belonging to the betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family, to chill stress at the level of activity. When fully activated by hyperosmotic stress, they showed the expected increase of activity at increasing temperature. In the absence of osmotic stress, EctP was not activated by chill and LcoP to only a very low extent, whereas BetP was significantly stimulated at low temperature. BetP was maximally activated at 10 degrees C, reaching the same transport rate as that observed under hyperosmotic conditions at this temperature. A role of cytoplasmic K(+) in chill-dependent activation of BetP was ruled out, since (i) the cytoplasmic K(+) concentration did not change significantly at lower temperatures and (ii) a mutant BetP lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids, which was previously shown to have lost the ability to be activated by luminal K(+), was fully competent in chill sensing. When heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, BetP did not respond to chill stress. This may indicate that the membrane in which BetP is inserted plays an important role in chill activation and thus in signal transduction by BetP, different from the previously established K(+)-mediated process.

  19. Hawai‘i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO‘ĀLA): Addressing Childhood Obesity through Safe Routes to School

    PubMed Central

    Dierenfield, Laura; Alexander, Daniel A; Prose, Marcia; Peterson, Ann C

    2011-01-01

    Increasing active transportation to and from school may reduce childhood obesity rates in Hawai‘i. A community partnership was formed to address this issue in Hawai‘i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO‘ĀLA), a quasi-experimental study of active transportation in Hawai‘i County. The purpose of this study was to determine baseline rates for active transportation rates to and from school and to track changes related to macro-level (statewide) policy, locally-based Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs and bicycle and pedestrian planning initiatives expected to improve the safety, comfort and ease of walking and bicycling to and from school. Measures included parent surveys, student travel tallies, traffic counts and safety observations. Assessments of the walking and biking environment around each school were made using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan. Complete Streets and SRTS policy implementation was tracked through the activities of a state transportation-led Task Force and an advocacy-led coalition, respectively. Planning initiatives were tracked through citizen-based advisory committees. Thirteen volunteer schools participated as the intervention (n=8) or comparison (n=5) schools. The majority of students were Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander in schools located in under-resourced communities. Overall, few children walked or biked to school. The majority of children were driven to and from school by their parents. With the influence of HO‘ĀLA staff members, two intervention schools were obligated SRTS project funding from the state, schools were identified as key areas in the pedestrian master plan, and one intervention school was slated for a bike plan priority project. As the SRTS programs are implemented in the next phase of the project, post-test data will be collected to ascertain if changes in active transportation rates occur. PMID:21886289

  20. Hawai'i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO'ĀLA): addressing childhood obesity through safe routes to school.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Katie M; Dierenfield, Laura; Alexander, Daniel A; Prose, Marcia; Peterson, Ann C

    2011-07-01

    Increasing active transportation to and from school may reduce childhood obesity rates in Hawai'i. A community partnership was formed to address this issue in Hawai'i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO'ĀLA), a quasi-experimental study of active transportation in Hawai'i County. The purpose of this study was to determine baseline rates for active transportation rates to and from school and to track changes related to macro-level (statewide) policy, locally-based Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs and bicycle and pedestrian planning initiatives expected to improve the safety, comfort and ease of walking and bicycling to and from school. Measures included parent surveys, student travel tallies, traffic counts and safety observations. Assessments of the walking and biking environment around each school were made using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan. Complete Streets and SRTS policy implementation was tracked through the activities of a state transportation-led Task Force and an advocacy-led coalition, respectively. Planning initiatives were tracked through citizen-based advisory committees. Thirteen volunteer schools participated as the intervention (n=8) or comparison (n=5) schools. The majority of students were Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander in schools located in under-resourced communities. Overall, few children walked or biked to school. The majority of children were driven to and from school by their parents. With the influence of HO'ĀLA staff members, two intervention schools were obligated SRTS project funding from the state, schools were identified as key areas in the pedestrian master plan, and one intervention school was slated for a bike plan priority project. As the SRTS programs are implemented in the next phase of the project, post-test data will be collected to ascertain if changes in active transportation rates occur.

  1. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  2. Flying the "Active School Flag": Physical Activity Promotion through Self-Evaluation in Primary Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chroinin, Deirdre Ni; Murtagh, Elaine; Bowles, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Primary schools are key sites where children can be active, advance their knowledge and understanding of how to participate in physical activity (PA) and develop an appreciation of its importance in their lives. This study explored the role of schools in promoting PA asking: how do primary schools approach the promotion of whole-school PA? Data…

  3. Socioeconomic Factors Influence Physical Activity and Sport in Quebec Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Pascale; Lebel, Alexandre; Robitaille, Éric; Bisset, Sherri

    2016-01-01

    Background: School environments providing a wide selection of physical activities and sufficient facilities are both essential and formative to ensure young people adopt active lifestyles. We describe the association between school opportunities for physical activity and socioeconomic factors measured by low-income cutoff index, school size…

  4. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  5. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model.

    PubMed

    Vaquer, Sergi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Rabadán, Arnau; González, Albert; Fenollosa, Felip; de la Torre, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay (®) (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary) was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG) transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology opens new and

  6. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model

    PubMed Central

    Vaquer, Sergi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Rabadán, Arnau; González, Albert; Fenollosa, Felip; de la Torre, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay ® (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary) was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG) transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology opens new and

  7. High School Students' Participation in Music Activities beyond the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the music activities that high school band students are involved in and how these activities might lead to lifelong music participation. Specific research questions were the following: (a) In what activities are high school band students involved? (b) What are high school band directors…

  8. Mediators Affecting Girls’ Levels of Physical Activity Outside of School: Findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Moody, Jamie; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background Providing after school activities is a community level approach for reducing the decline in physical activity of girls as they reach early adolescence. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors as potential mediators of after school physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods We assessed objectively measured levels of physical activity occurring outside of school and potential predictors and mediators of activity in girls participating in the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Results We found that the TAAG intervention had a statistically significant and positive effect on out of school activity in the 2006 cohort. Self-efficacy, friends’ social support, total social support, and difficulty getting to and from community activities mediated the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity in girls. Conclusions Parents, communities, and schools should provide and enhance opportunities outside of the school day for adolescents to be active. Reducing transportation barriers and enlisting social support appear to be key. PMID:20012810

  9. Physical Activity Change through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeio, Erin E.; McCaughtry, Nate; Gutuskey, Lila; Garn, Alex C.; Somers, Cheryl; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulik, Noel L.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAPs) on urban children's, educators', and parents' physical activity (PA) is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore overall changes in student, educator, and parent PA after an 8-month CSPAP-based program. This longitudinal, exploratory study implemented a…

  10. Runaway Spending: Private Contractors Increase the Cost of School Student Transportation Services in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mark; Herzenberg, Stephen; Brandon, Sean; Herzenberg, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the cost of transportation services for Pennsylvania's school districts, focusing especially on the impact on costs of contracting out. Using data from the Pennsylvania Department of Education from 1986 to 2008, the study statistically analyzes total costs, the costs to the state, and the costs to local school districts. On…

  11. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  12. Qatar's School Transportation System: Supporting Safety, Efficiency, and Service Quality. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Keith; Younossi, Obaid; Al-Dafa, Maryah; Culbertson, Shelly; Mattock, Michael G.; Light, Thomas; Rohr, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    In consideration of the many challenges associated with Qatar's continued growth and demographic changes, the government of Qatar is interested in updating its school transportation system (STS). This volume assesses the perspectives of parents and school administrators on Qatar's STS, identifies a vision and goals for the STS, reviews…

  13. Heat transport in active harmonic chains

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Mei C.; Ellis, Fred M.; Kottos, Tsampikos; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Geisel, Theo; Prosen, Tomaz

    2011-08-15

    We show that a harmonic lattice model with amplifying and attenuating elements, when coupled to two thermal baths, exhibits unique heat transport properties. Some of these novel features include anomalous nonequilibrium steady-state heat currents, negative differential thermal conductance, as well as nonreciprocal heat transport. We find that when these elements are arranged in a PT-symmetric manner, the domain of existence of the nonequilibrium steady state is maximized. We propose an electronic experimental setup based on resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) transmission lines, where our predictions can be tested.

  14. Transport and biological activities of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, Brittnee L; Agellon, Luis B

    2013-07-01

    Bile acids have emerged as important biological molecules that support the solubilization of various lipids and lipid-soluble compounds in the gut, and the regulation of gene expression and cellular function. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and eventually released into the small intestine. The majority of bile acids are recovered in the distal end of the small intestine and then returned to the liver for reuse. The components of the mechanism responsible for the recycling of bile acids within the enterohepatic circulation have been identified whereas the mechanism for intracellular transport is less understood. Recently, the ileal lipid binding protein (ILBP; human gene symbol FABP6) was shown to be needed for the efficient transport of bile acids from the apical side to the basolateral side of enterocytes in the distal intestine. This review presents an overview of the transport of bile acids between the liver and the gut as well as within hepatocytes and enterocytes. A variety of pathologies is associated with the malfunction of the bile acid transport system.

  15. School Counselors' Perceptions of Their Academic Preparedness and Job Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily

    2015-01-01

    School counselors are trained in academic preparation programs for future job activities. However, job expectations taught in such programs can differ from actual school counseling activities. This article reports the findings of a national survey of school counselors' (N = 1,052) perceived preparation and practice.

  16. Exploring Extension Involvement in Farm to School Program Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here examined Extension professionals' involvement in farm-to-school program activities. Results of an online survey distributed to eight state Extension systems indicate that on average, Extension professionals are involved with one farm to school program activity, with most supporting school or community garden programs.…

  17. Associations between School Recreational Environments and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichol, Marianne E.; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Background: School environments may promote or hinder physical activity in young people. The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between school recreational environments and adolescent physical activity. Methods: Using multilevel logistic regression, data from 7638 grade 6 to 10 students from 154 schools who participated in the…

  18. 101 Activities for Building More Effective School-Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Dorothy; Mattox, Beverly

    This booklet contains a collection of more than 100 activities designed to promote school-home and school-community relations. Activities are organized into seven categories: (1) communicating word from home to school, (2) people to people, (3) educational events, (4) volunteers--hands on in the classroom, (5) utilizing community resources, (6)…

  19. Free Time Motivation and Physical Activity in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozub, Francis M.; Farmer, James

    2011-01-01

    This study examined free time motivation and physical activity in 68 middle school children from a rural public school system (N = 24) and a private school located in the same area of the Midwest (N = 44). Results indicated that free time motivation did not explain variability in physical activity behavior during free time or while students were…

  20. School Culture and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This review examines literature on aspects of school culture and students' physical activity participation. The following questions were addressed: (1) what aspects of school culture have been examined in relation to physical activity, (2) what is the weight of evidence concerning the relationships between school culture factors and physical…

  1. Here's Just the Best, Most Complete, and (Would You Believe) Interesting Story About School Transportation Ever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A special study of school bus transportation that (1) describes board responsibility for bus transportation (2) discusses the merits of buying, leasing, or contracting for buses; (3) points out the inadequacy of State safety requirements; and (4) presents the merits of L.P.-gas powered and diesel powered buses. (JF)

  2. Transporting Evidence-Based Therapy for Adolescent Depression to the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Heather L.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Mood Project (Project AMP), a study transporting an evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for adolescent depression from the university lab setting to a school-based setting. Extant research on the psychosocial treatment of adolescent depression is reviewed and rationale for transporting evidence…

  3. Evaluating the Implementation of School-to-Work Activities in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Rachel A.; Almonte, Brenda; Borrowman, Vern; Lamb, Terri; McCleary, Barb; Oliver, Liz

    1998-01-01

    School-to-work (STW) activities were described by 1257 K-12 teachers and 22 administrators in the Oswego County (New York) school system. More school-based than work-based activities were used. Few teachers felt knowledgeable about STW; lack of training and time were barriers. Administrators consistently underestimated the extent of STW…

  4. Changes in physical activity during the transition from primary to secondary school in Belgian children: what is the role of the school environment?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Key life periods have been associated with changes in physical activity (PA). This study investigated (1) how PA changes when primary school children transfer to secondary school, (2) if school environmental characteristics differ between primary and secondary schools and (3) if changes in school environmental characteristics can predict changes in PA in Belgian schoolchildren. Moderating effects of gender and the baseline level of PA were investigated for the first and third research question. Methods In total, 736 children (10–13 years) of the last year of primary school participated in the first phase of this longitudinal study. Two years later, 502 of these children (68.2%) agreed to participate in the second phase. Accelerometers, pedometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to measure PA. School environmental characteristics were reported by the school principals. Cross-classified regression models were conducted to analyze the data. Results S elf-reported active transport to school and accelerometer weekday moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) increased after the transition to secondary school while self-reported extracurricular PA and total PA decreased. Pedometer weekday step counts decreased, but this decrease was only apparent among those who achieved the PA guidelines in primary school. Secondary schools scored higher on the school environmental characteristics: provision of sports and PA during lunch break, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy but lower on sports and PA after-school than primary schools. Changes in the school environmental characteristics: active commuting to school, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy resulted in changes in self-reported extracurricular PA, total PA , pedometer/accelerometer determined step counts and accelerometer determined MVPA. Moderating effects were found for baseline PA and gender. Conclusion PA changed after the transition to

  5. Study of active cooling for supersonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The potential benefits of using the fuel heat sink of hydrogen fueled supersonic transports for cooling large portions of the aircraft wing and fuselage are examined. The heat transfer would be accomplished by using an intermediate fluid such as an ethylene glycol-water solution. Some of the advantages of the system are: (1) reduced costs by using aluminum in place of titanium, (2) reduced cabin heat loads, and (3) more favorable environmental conditions for the aircraft systems. A liquid hydrogen fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic transport aircraft design was used for the reference uncooled vehicle. The cooled aircraft designs were analyzed to determine their heat sink capability, the extent and location of feasible cooled surfaces, and the coolant passage size and spacing.

  6. Modeling of active transmembrane transport in a mixture theory framework.

    PubMed

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Morrison, Barclay; Hung, Clark T

    2010-05-01

    This study formulates governing equations for active transport across semi-permeable membranes within the framework of the theory of mixtures. In mixture theory, which models the interactions of any number of fluid and solid constituents, a supply term appears in the conservation of linear momentum to describe momentum exchanges among the constituents. In past applications, this momentum supply was used to model frictional interactions only, thereby describing passive transport processes. In this study, it is shown that active transport processes, which impart momentum to solutes or solvent, may also be incorporated in this term. By projecting the equation of conservation of linear momentum along the normal to the membrane, a jump condition is formulated for the mechano-electrochemical potential of fluid constituents which is generally applicable to nonequilibrium processes involving active transport. The resulting relations are simple and easy to use, and address an important need in the membrane transport literature.

  7. [Model of active peristaltic transport in biosystems].

    PubMed

    Klochkov, B N; Romanov, A S

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear distributed mathematical model of soft vessel with the nonmonotonous static characteristic is proposed and considered. The model describes space-time dynamics of vessel clearance change. Wave phenomena in vessels of different nature and the possibility of peristaltic fluid pumping are discussed and analyzed. The model is rather common in character and represents a description of the whole class of transport phenomena. Lymphatic vessels are particularly considered.

  8. Organized Extracurricular Activities: Are In-School and Out-of-School Activities Associated with Different Outcomes for Canadian Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guèvremont, Anne; Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Participation in extracurricular activities can have positive effects on youth, with greater participation associated with higher academic as well as better socioemotional and behavioral outcomes. Little research has examined differential effects of in-school and out-of-school activities. Methods: This study examines in-school and…

  9. Impact of a walking school bus program on children’s active commuting to school and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Walking School Bus (WSB) pilot program was evaluated to determine the impact on student’s Active Commuting to School (ACS) and moderate-to vigorous- physical activity (MVPA). We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 8 low income, elementary schools in Houston, TX, USA. Students (n=149) wer...

  10. In vitro synthesis of a Major Facilitator Transporter for specific active transport across Droplet Interface Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Heather E.; Harris, Nicola J.; Booth, Paula J.

    2016-01-01

    Nature encapsulates reactions within membrane-bound compartments, affording sequential and spatial control over biochemical reactions. Droplet Interface Bilayers are evolving into a valuable platform to mimic this key biological feature in artificial systems. A major issue is manipulating flow across synthetic bilayers. Droplet Interface Bilayers must be functionalised, with seminal work using membrane-inserting toxins, ion channels and pumps illustrating the potential. Specific transport of biomolecules, and notably transport against a concentration gradient, across these bilayers has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we successfully incorporate the archetypal Major Facilitator Superfamily transporter, lactose permease, into Droplet Interface Bilayers and demonstrate both passive and active, uphill transport. This paves the way for controllable transport of sugars, metabolites and other essential biomolecular substrates of this ubiquitous transporter superfamily in DIB networks. Furthermore, cell-free synthesis of lactose permease during DIB formation also results in active transport across the interface bilayer. This adds a specific disaccharide transporter to the small list of integral membrane proteins that can be synthesised via in vitro transcription/translation for applications of DIB-based artificial cell systems. The introduction of a means to promote specific transport of molecules across Droplet Interface Bilayers against a concentration gradient gives a new facet to droplet networks. PMID:27996025

  11. Total Costing for School Transportation Service: How the San Diego City Schools Missed the Bus. Policy Study No. 199.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beales, Janet R.

    In December 1994, San Diego City Schools' (California) Board of Education voted to discontinue competitive contracting for busing and expand its in-house transportation department, believing the new arrangement would save money. This report argues that the decision was based on a flawed financial analysis prepared by the district's in-house…

  12. An Abiotic Glass-Bead Collector Exhibiting Active Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Youhei; Kanda, Masato; Yamamoto, Daigo; Shioi, Akihisa

    2015-09-01

    Animals relocate objects as needed by active motion. Active transport is ubiquitous in living organisms but has been difficult to realize in abiotic systems. Here we show that a self-propelled droplet can gather scattered beads toward one place on a floor and sweep it clean. This is a biomimetic active transport with loadings and unloadings, because the transport was performed by a carrier and the motion of the carrier was maintained by the energy of the chemical reaction. The oil droplet produced fluctuation of the local number density of the beads on the floor, followed by its autocatalytic growth. This mechanism may inspire the technologies based on active transport wherein chemical and physical substances migrate as in living organisms.

  13. Regulation of airway surface liquid volume and mucus transport by active ion transport.

    PubMed

    Tarran, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Mucus clearance is an important component of the lung's innate defense against disease, and the ability of the airways to clear mucus is strongly dependent on the volume of liquid on airway surfaces. Whether airway surface liquid (ASL) volume is maintained by passive surface forces or by active ion transport is controversial yet crucial to the understanding of how this system operates in both health and disease. In support of active ion transport being the major determinant of ASL volume, we have demonstrated that normal airway epithelia sense and autoregulate ASL height (volume) by adjusting the rates of Na+ absorption and Cl- secretion to maintain mucus transport.

  14. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein’s ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter’s mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na+-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21016.001 PMID:28121290

  15. Community Vision and Interagency Alignment: A Community Planning Process to Promote Active Transportation.

    PubMed

    DeGregory, Sarah Timmins; Chaudhury, Nupur; Kennedy, Patrick; Noyes, Philip; Maybank, Aletha

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer streets locally. Consensus among residents and key multisectoral stakeholders, including city agencies and community-based organizations, was garnered in support of a planned expansion of bicycling infrastructure. The process of building on community assets and applying a collective impact approach yielded changes in the built environment, attracted new partners and resources, and helped to restore a sense of power among residents.

  16. Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Bao-Quan; He, Ya-Feng; Zhong, Wei-Rong

    2014-11-21

    Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction.

  17. Active urea transport in lower vertebrates and mammals.

    PubMed

    Bankir, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Some unicellular organisms can take up urea from the surrounding fluids by an uphill pumping mechanism. Several active (energy-dependent) urea transporters (AUTs) have been cloned in these organisms. Functional studies show that active urea transport also occurs in elasmobranchs, amphibians, and mammals. In the two former groups, active urea transport may serve to conserve urea in body fluids in order to balance external high ambient osmolarity or prevent desiccation. In mammals, active urea transport may be associated with the need to either store and/or reuse nitrogen in the case of low nitrogen supply, or to excrete nitrogen efficiently in the case of excess nitrogen intake. There are probably two different families of AUTs, one with a high capacity able to establish only a relatively modest transepithelial concentration difference (renal tubule of some frogs, pars recta of the mammalian kidney, early inner medullary collecting duct in some mammals eating protein-poor diets) and others with a low capacity but able to maintain a high transepithelial concentration difference that has been created by another mechanism or in another organ (elasmobranch gills, ventral skin of some toads, and maybe mammalian urinary bladder). Functional characterization of these transporters shows that some are coupled to sodium (symports or antiports) while others are sodium-independent. In humans, only one genetic anomaly, with a mild phenotype (familial azotemia), is suspected to concern one of these transporters. In spite of abundant functional evidence for such transporters in higher organisms, none have been molecularly identified yet.

  18. Commercial Activities in Primary Schools: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The commercialisation of schools is a controversial issue, but very little is known about the actual situation in UK schools. The aim of this study was to investigate, with particular reference to health education and health promotion, commercial activities and their regulation in primary schools in the Yorkshire and Humber region of the UK. A…

  19. Participation in Extracurricular Physical Activity Programs at Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Holly S.; Conway, Terry L.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Sallis, James F.; Marshall, Simon J.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated student participation in structured, on-campus extracurricular activities at 24 middle schools. Overall, boys and girls participated at similar rates (except for intramurals). All schools offered multiple extracurricular activity programs, but due to low participation rates, the amount of physical activity obtained was minimal.…

  20. Activity Preferences of Middle School Physical Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Michael; Stillwell, Jim; Byars, Allyn

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the physical education activity preferences of middle school students who completed a checklist featuring a variety of activities. Overall, middle school boys and girls both differed and agreed on their interests for specific activities. Most students liked basketball, bicycling, roller skating, soccer, swimming, and volleyball but…

  1. Schools and Obesity Prevention: Creating School Environments and Policies to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Story, Mary; Nanney, Marilyn S; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2009-01-01

    Context: Research consistently shows that the majority of American children do not consume diets that meet the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, nor do they achieve adequate levels of daily physical activity. As a result, more children are overweight today than at any other time in U.S. history. Schools offer many opportunities to develop strategies to prevent obesity by creating environments in which children eat healthfully and engage regularly in physical activity. Methods: This article discusses the role of schools in obesity prevention efforts. Current issues in schools' food and physical activity environments are examined, as well as federal, state, and local policies related to food and physical activity standards in schools. The article is organized around four key areas: (1) school food environments and policies, (2) school physical activity environments and policies, (3) school body mass index measurements, and (4) school wellness policies. Recommendations for accelerating change also are addressed. Findings: The article found that (1) competitive foods (foods sold outside of federally reimbursed school meals) are widely available in schools, especially secondary schools. Studies have related the availability of snacks and drinks sold in schools to students' high intake of total calories, soft drinks, total fat and saturated fat, and lower intake of fruits and vegetables; (2) physical activity can be added to the school curriculum without academic consequences and also can offer physical, emotional, and social benefits. Policy leadership has come predominantly from the districts, then the states, and, to a much lesser extent, the federal government; (3) few studies have examined the effectiveness or impact of school-based BMI measurement programs; and (4) early comparative analyses of local school wellness policies suggest that the strongest policies are found in larger school districts and districts with a greater number of

  2. Caulis Sinomenii extracts activate DA/NE transporter and inhibit 5HT transporter.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Bi, Cheng; Qin, Guo-Wei; Guo, Li-He

    2009-08-01

    Caulis Sinomenii (QFT) has analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic-like actions, and is proven effective for improving drug dependence that is known to be associated with abnormal monoaminergic transmission. We assessed whether QFT would be biologically active in functionally regulating monoamine transporters using CHO cells expressing dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), or serotonin transporter (SERT) (i.e. D8, N1, or S6 cells, respectively). Here, we showed that its primary extracts, such as QA, QC, QE, QD, and QB (QFT ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alkaloid-free chloroform, and alkaloid-containing chloroform extract, respectively), and secondary extracts, such as QE-2, - 3, - 5, - 7, QD-1, - 2, - 3, - 4, - 5, and QB-1, - 2, - 3, - 4, - 5 (fractioned from QE, QD, and QB, respectively), in differing degrees, either increased DA/ NE uptake by corresponding D8/N1 cells or decreased 5HT uptake by S6 cells; wherein, QE-2, QD-3, and QE-7 were potent DA/NE uptake activators while both QE-7 and QB-5 were potent 5HT uptake inhibitors. Furthermore, the enhancement of DA/NE uptake was dependent of DAT/NET activity, and the inhibition of 5HT uptake was typical of competition. Thus, QFT extracts, especially QE-2 and QE-7 (both with stronger potencies), are novel monoamine transporter modulators functioning as DAT/ NET activators and/or SERT inhibitors, and would likely improve neuropsychological disorders through regulating monoamine transporters.

  3. The Effects of Homework Programs and After-School Activities on School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosden, Merith; Morrison, Gale; Gutierrez, Lisa; Brown, Megan

    2004-01-01

    The role of homework needs to be considered within the context of the broader developmental needs of children. This article focuses on how children spend their time after school and how homework, as well as other activities, can contribute to school success. Children differ in their after-school experiences, from "latchkey" children who lack…

  4. School Sports Opportunities Influence Physical Activity in Secondary School and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Daniel; Sabiston, Catherine; Karp, Igor; Barnett, Tracie; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the availability of intramural or extramural sports in secondary schools is associated with physical activity levels in youth throughout secondary school and at age 20. Methods: Eight hundred and eight adolescents from 10 secondary schools in Montreal, Canada, provided physical…

  5. Classroom Activities in Transportation: Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This curriculum supplement was designed to correlate directly with "A Guide to Curriculum Planning in Technology Education," published by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. It is also a companion book to three other classroom activity compilations, one in each of the other three major systems of technology--manufacturing,…

  6. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  7. The connexion between active cation transport and metabolism in erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Whittam, R.; Ager, Margaret E.

    1965-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the dependence on the concentrations of internal Na+ and external K+ of lactate and phosphate production in human erythrocytes. 2. Lactate production was stimulated by Na+ and K+ but only when they were internal and external respectively. The stimulation was counteracted by ouabain. The production of phosphate was affected in the same way. 3. There is a quantitative correlation between these effects and those previously found for cation movements and the membrane adenosine triphosphatase. 4. It is concluded that the rate of energy production in glycolysis is partly controlled by the magnitude of active transport; the extent of this regulation is shown to vary from 25 to 75% of a basal rate that is independent of active transport. 5. The activity of the membrane adenosine triphosphatase was also compared with rates of Na+ and K+ transport. The latter were varied by altering the concentrations of internal Na+ and external K+, and by inhibiting with ouabain. 6. A threefold variation of active transport rate was accompanied by a parallel change in the membrane adenosine-triphosphatase activity. The results show a constant stoicheiometry for the number of ions moved/mol. of ATP hydrolysed, independent of the electrochemical gradient against which the ions were moved. 7. Calculations show that the amount of ATP hydrolysed would provide enough energy for the osmotic work. The results are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms for active transport. PMID:16749106

  8. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change: opportunities to replace short car trips with active transportation.

    PubMed

    Maibach, Edward; Steg, Linda; Anable, Jillian

    2009-10-01

    Automobile use is a significant contributor to climate change, local air pollution, pedestrian injuries and deaths, declines in physical activity and obesity. A significant proportion of car use is for short trips that can relatively easily be taken with active transportation options--walking or cycling--or with public transportation. In this commentary, we review a number of immediate, practical opportunities to implement policies and programs that reduce short car trips and increase active transportation.

  9. The Adaptive Optics Summer School Laboratory Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammons, S. M.; Severson, S.; Armstrong, J. D.; Crossfield, I.; Do, T.; Fitzgerald, M.; Harrington, D.; Hickenbotham, A.; Hunter, J.; Johnson, J.; Johnson, L.; Li, K.; Lu, J.; Maness, H.; Morzinski, K.; Norton, A.; Putnam, N.; Roorda, A.; Rossi, E.; Yelda, S.

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is a new and rapidly expanding field of instrumentation, yet astronomers, vision scientists, and general AO practitioners are largely unfamiliar with the root technologies crucial to AO systems. The AO Summer School (AOSS), sponsored by the Center for Adaptive Optics, is a week-long course for training graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in the underlying theory, design, and use of AO systems. AOSS participants include astronomers who expect to utilize AO data, vision scientists who will use AO instruments to conduct research, opticians and engineers who design AO systems, and users of high-bandwidth laser communication systems. In this article we describe new AOSS laboratory sessions implemented in 2006-2009 for nearly 250 students. The activity goals include boosting familiarity with AO technologies, reinforcing knowledge of optical alignment techniques and the design of optical systems, and encouraging inquiry into critical scientific questions in vision science using AO systems as a research tool. The activities are divided into three stations: Vision Science, Fourier Optics, and the AO Demonstrator. We briefly overview these activities, which are described fully in other articles in these conference proceedings (Putnam et al., Do et al., and Harrington et al., respectively). We devote attention to the unique challenges encountered in the design of these activities, including the marriage of inquiry-like investigation techniques with complex content and the need to tune depth to a graduate- and PhD-level audience. According to before-after surveys conducted in 2008, the vast majority of participants found that all activities were valuable to their careers, although direct experience with integrated, functional AO systems was particularly beneficial.

  10. Transportation. School Business Management Handbook No. 6. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund

    This handbook is designed as a guide for those who may be involved in the administration or management of pupil transportation in New York State. It is especially geared to central, union free, and city districts under 125,000 population, and is designed to complement other New York State Education Department publications. Guidelines include…

  11. Substrate regulation of ascorbate transport activity in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.X.; Jaworski, E.M.; Kulaga, A.; Dixon, S.J. )

    1990-10-01

    Astrocytes possess a concentrative L-ascorbate (vitamin C) uptake mechanism involving a Na(+)-dependent L-ascorbate transporter located in the plasma membrane. The present experiments examined the effects of deprivation and supplementation of extracellular L-ascorbate on the activity of this transport system. Initial rates of L-ascorbate uptake were measured by incubating primary cultures of rat astrocytes with L-(14C)ascorbate for 1 min at 37 degrees C. We observed that the apparent maximal rate of uptake (Vmax) increased rapidly (less than 1 h) when cultured cells were deprived of L-ascorbate. In contrast, there was no change in the apparent affinity of the transport system for L-(14C)ascorbate. The increase in Vmax was reversed by addition of L-ascorbate, but not D-isoascorbate, to the medium. The effects of external ascorbate on ascorbate transport activity were specific in that preincubation of cultures with L-ascorbate did not affect uptake of 2-deoxy-D-(3H(G))glucose. We conclude that the astroglial ascorbate transport system is modulated by changes in substrate availability. Regulation of transport activity may play a role in intracellular ascorbate homeostasis by compensating for regional differences and temporal fluctuations in external ascorbate levels.

  12. Students' Attitudes toward an After-School Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Though considerable research on student attitudes has been conducted in physical education, little information exists concerning student attitudes toward after-school physical activity programmes. This study assessed students' attitudes toward their after-school physical activity programme located in southwest Texas, USA. Participants included 158…

  13. Correlates of School-Day Physical Activity in Preschool Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Peoples, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among sex, body mass index, motor skill competence (MSC), perceived physical competence (PPC), and school-day physical activity in preschool students (N = 34). Physical activity was assessed by steps accumulated during the school day, while MSC and PPC were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development--2nd…

  14. Use of SPARK to Promote After-School Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Heidi; Thompson, Hannah; Kinder, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The after-school period is potentially an important venue for increasing physical activity for youth. We sought to assess the effectiveness of the Sports, Play, and Recreation for Youth (SPARK) program to increase physical activity and improve cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status among elementary students after school. Methods:…

  15. An Examination of Parents' Preferred School Counselor Professional Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parent preferences for school counselor professional activities. The primary focus of research was to determine if any relationship exists between (1) parents' demographic factors--gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity--and their preferences for school counselors' professional activities; (2)…

  16. Physical Activity Opportunity in United States Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lisa; Butterfield, Stephen A.; Pratt, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that many elementary schools have curtailed recess and Physical Education (Morrow, Jackson & Payne 1999). These finding are at a variance with the goal of Healthy People 2010 to increase physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity opportunities (PAO) in U. S. public elementary schools.…

  17. Physiological Effects of Bouldering Activities in Upper Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fencl, Matthew; Muras, Jennifer; Steffen, Jeff; Battista, Rebecca; Elfessi, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the physiological responses of two different types of bouldering activities in upper elementary school students. As part of a physical education fitness unit, fourth and fifth grade students (N = 64) from two Midwestern elementary schools participated in two different activities at the…

  18. Active Writing Plus Feedback: A Successful Elementary School Writing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vockell, Edward L.; And Others

    The Highland (Indiana) public schools developed a writing program for elementary school students based on the premise that children learn to use language by actively generating language. The program features language production as the principal student activity in the English class and uses the students' own written work and oral expression as the…

  19. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Promotion: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…

  20. Bureaucratic Activism and Radical School Change in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Activity Based Learning (ABL), a child-centered, activity-based method of pedagogical practice, transformed classrooms in all of the over 37,000 primary-level government schools in Tamil Nadu, India. The large scale, rapid pace, and radical nature of educational change sets the ABL initiative apart from most school reform efforts.…

  1. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity.

    PubMed

    2011-09-16

    During the last 3 decades, the prevalence of obesity has tripled among persons aged 6--19 years. Multiple chronic disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and high blood glucose levels are related to obesity. Schools have a responsibility to help prevent obesity and promote physical activity and healthy eating through policies, practices, and supportive environments. This report describes school health guidelines for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, including coordination of school policies and practices; supportive environments; school nutrition services; physical education and physical activity programs; health education; health, mental health, and social services; family and community involvement; school employee wellness; and professional development for school staff members. These guidelines, developed in collaboration with specialists from universities and from national, federal, state, local, and voluntary agencies and organizations, are based on an in-depth review of research, theory, and best practices in healthy eating and physical activity promotion in school health, public health, and education. Because every guideline might not be appropriate or feasible for every school to implement, individual schools should determine which guidelines have the highest priority based on the needs of the school and available resources.

  2. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training) and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport. Conclusions There is potential for the

  3. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  4. STUDY OF BUS TRANSPORTATION FOR RELIEF OF OVERCROWDEDNESS IN THE ST. LOUIS SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Board of Education, MO.

    PRESENTED IS A REPORT ON WHAT ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, AND 15 OTHER CITIES HAVING MORE THAN A 300,000 POPULATION ARE DOING WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF BUS TRANSPORTATION IN RELIEVING OVERCROWDEDNESS RELATIVE TO THE PROCESS OF DESEGREGATION AND INTEGRATION OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE REPORT CONTAINS FOUR SECTIONS--(1) BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM OF BUS…

  5. School Counselors' Perceptions of Their Academic Preparedness for Job Activities and Actual Job Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The school counseling field has evolved over the years and increasingly clarified school counselors' job roles and activities (Burnham & Jackson, 2000; Cervoni & DeLucia-Waack, 2011; Shillingford & Lambie, 2010; Trolley, 2011); however, school counselors' job roles and activities remain inconsistently understood and practiced (Burnham…

  6. Neuroinflammation activates efflux transport by NFκB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanhui; Argyropoulos, George; Zhang, Yan; Kastin, Abba J.; Hsuchou, Hung; Pan, Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Background/aims Although it is known that drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be hampered by efflux transport activity of the multidrug resistance (mdr) gene product P-glycoprotein, it is not clear how inflammation regulates efflux transporters. In rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells of BBB origin, the proinflammatory cytokine TNF mainly induces transcriptional upregulation of mdr1b, and to a lesser extent mdr1a, resulting in greater efflux of the substrates (Yu C et al., Cell Physiol Biochem, 2007). This study further determined the mechanisms by which TNF activates mdr1b promoter activity. Methods/Results Luciferase reporter assays and DNA binding studies show that (a) maximal basal promoter activity was conferred by a 476 bp sequence upstream to the mdr1b transcriptional initiation site; (2) TNF induced upregulation of promoter activity by NFkB nuclear translocation; and (3) the NFκB binding site of the mdr1b promoter was solely responsible for basal and TNF-activated gene transcription, whereas the p53 binding site was not involved. Binding of the p65 subunit of NFκB to nuclear DNA from RBE4 cells was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Conclusion Thus, NFκB mediated TNF-induced upregulation of mdr1b promoter activity, illustrating how inflammation activates BBB efflux transport. PMID:19088456

  7. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls’ Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls’ physical activity in middle school girls. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers’ and boys’ behaviors, respectively, fit the data well in both sixth and eighth graders. SEM detected a positive, significant direct association of the teacher factor, but not the boy factor, with girls’ self-reported physical activity. Conclusions School climate for girls’ physical activity is a measurable construct, and preliminary evidence suggests a relationship with physical activity. PMID:15899688

  8. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eveloff, J.L.; Warnock, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K/sup +/-H/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca/sup 2 +/ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchange systems.

  9. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Selected Environmental Topics for Use With Elementary and Junior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Alan D., Ed.

    This guide contains learning activities in environmental education developed by teachers and intended for use at the elementary or junior high school levels. Topics covered include: water, esthetics, air, soil and sediment, solid waste, energy, noise, population, and transportation. Generally, each activity contains an introduction, a listing of…

  10. High School Extracurricular Activities & College Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rombokas, Mary; And Others

    Many factors influence the development and socialization of American adolescents including peers, schools, family, and the community. This paper examines how the relationship of extracurricular participation influences academic growth. To determine if selected personal and academic variables during high school currently affect college academic…

  11. Dopamine transporter occupancy by RTI-55, inhibition of dopamine transport and stimulation of locomotor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gatley, S.J.; Gifford, A.N.; Volkow, N.D.

    1997-05-01

    Cocaine analogs such as RTI-55 (or {beta}CIT) with a higher affinity for the DAT are potentially useful as therapeutic drugs in cocaine abuse as well as for radiopharmaceutical use. Previously we showed that in mice RTI-55 (2 mg/Kg, i/p) reduced H-3 cocaine striatum-to-cerebellum ratios (St/Cb, {lg_bullet}) from 1.6 to 1.2 at 3 h after administration, with recovery by 12 h. In the present study we demonstrate a very similar time-course for transport {triangle} measured in striatal homo within 2 min of sacrifice. The maximum inhibition of uptake at about 1 h corresponded to about 80% of the control uptake rate, similar to the percent reduction in St/Cb. The time-course of the effect of this dose of RTI-55 on locomotor activity ({sq_bullet}) was complex, with a drop in the activity measure at 7 h, after a further injection of RTI-55, but activity remained higher than in saline controls. In spite of this complexity, which may be associated with stereotypies and/or exhaustion, the duration of increased activity is consistent with the duration of transporter blockade. These experiments support the notion that PET/SPECT measures of transporter occupancy accurately reflect transporter inhibition.

  12. Active and passive calcium transport systems in plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, H.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to change cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} levels ((Ca{sup 2+})) by cells has made this cation a key regulator of many biological processes. Cytoplasmic (Ca{sup 2+}) is determined by the coordination of passive Ca{sup 2+} fluxes which increase cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}) and active Ca{sup 2+} transport systems that lower cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}). The mechanisms by which plant cells achieve this is poorly understood. We have initially used isolated vesicles from the plasma membrane or organellar membranes to study Ca{sup 2+} transport systems in oat roots (a monocot) and carrot suspension cells (a dicot). The objectives of the proposal were to identify and characterize active (energy-dependent) and passive calcium transport systems that work together to regulate calcium levels in the cytoplasm of plant cells. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Active and passive calcium transport systems in plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, H.

    1991-01-01

    The ability to change cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} levels ((Ca{sup 2+})) by cells has made this cation a key regulator of many biological processes. Cytoplasmic (Ca{sup 2+}) is determined by the coordination of passive Ca{sup 2+} fluxes which increase cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}) and active Ca{sup 2+} transport systems that lower cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}). The mechanisms by which plant cells achieve this is poorly understood. We have initially used isolated vesicles from the plasma membrane or organellar membranes to study Ca{sup 2+} transport systems in oat roots (a monocot) and carrot suspension cells (a dicot). The objectives of the proposal were to identify and characterize active (energy-dependent) and passive calcium transport systems that work together to regulate calcium levels in the cytoplasm of plant cells.

  14. Transport of active ellipsoidal particles in ratchet potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Bao-Quan Wu, Jian-Chun

    2014-03-07

    Rectified transport of active ellipsoidal particles is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional asymmetric potential. The out-of-equilibrium condition for the active particle is an intrinsic property, which can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the perfect sphere particle can facilitate the rectification, while the needlelike particle destroys the directed transport. There exist optimized values of the parameters (the self-propelled velocity, the torque acting on the body) at which the average velocity takes its maximal value. For the ellipsoidal particle with not large asymmetric parameter, the average velocity decreases with increasing the rotational diffusion rate, while for the needlelike particle (very large asymmetric parameter), the average velocity is a peaked function of the rotational diffusion rate. By introducing a finite load, particles with different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities) will move to the opposite directions, which is able to separate particles of different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities)

  15. 49 CFR 37.61 - Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities. 37.61 Section 37.61 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.61...

  16. 49 CFR 37.61 - Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities. 37.61 Section 37.61 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.61...

  17. 49 CFR 37.61 - Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities. 37.61 Section 37.61 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.61...

  18. 49 CFR 37.61 - Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities. 37.61 Section 37.61 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.61...

  19. 49 CFR 37.61 - Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public transportation programs and activities in existing facilities. 37.61 Section 37.61 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.61...

  20. Regional differences in rat conjunctival ion transport activities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongfang; Thelin, William R; Rogers, Troy D; Stutts, M Jackson; Randell, Scott H; Grubb, Barbara R; Boucher, Richard C

    2012-10-01

    Active ion transport and coupled osmotic water flow are essential to maintain ocular surface health. We investigated regional differences in the ion transport activities of the rat conjunctivas and compared these activities with those of cornea and lacrimal gland. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (Slc5a1), transmembrane protein 16 (Tmem16a, b, f, and g), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr), and mucin (Muc4, 5ac, and 5b) mRNA expression was characterized by RT-PCR. ENaC proteins were measured by Western blot. Prespecified regions (palpebral, fornical, and bulbar) of freshly isolated conjunctival tissues and cell cultures were studied electrophysiologically with Ussing chambers. The transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD) of the ocular surface was also measured in vivo. The effect of amiloride and UTP on the tear volume was evaluated in lacrimal gland excised rats. All selected genes were detected but with different expression patterns. We detected αENaC protein in all tissues, βENaC in palpebral and fornical conjunctiva, and γENaC in all tissues except lacrimal glands. Electrophysiological studies of conjunctival tissues and cell cultures identified functional ENaC, SLC5A1, CFTR, and TMEM16. Fornical conjunctiva exhibited the most active ion transport under basal conditions amongst conjunctival regions. PD measurements confirmed functional ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport on the ocular surface. Amiloride and UTP increased tear volume in lacrimal gland excised rats. This study demonstrated that the different regions of the conjunctiva exhibited a spectrum of ion transport activities. Understanding the specific functions of distinct regions of the conjunctiva may foster a better understanding of the physiology maintaining hydration of the ocular surface.

  1. Unraveling fatty acid transport and activation mechanisms in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Thévenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    Fatty acid (FA) transport and activation have been extensively studied in the model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae but have rarely been examined in oleaginous yeasts, such as Yarrowia lipolytica. Because the latter begins to be used in biodiesel production, understanding its FA transport and activation mechanisms is essential. We found that Y. lipolytica has FA transport and activation proteins similar to those of S. cerevisiae (Faa1p, Pxa1p, Pxa2p, Ant1p) but mechanism of FA peroxisomal transport and activation differs greatly with that of S. cerevisiae. While the ScPxa1p/ScPxa2p heterodimer is essential for growth on long-chain FAs, ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 is not impaired for growth on FAs. Meanwhile, ScAnt1p and YlAnt1p are both essential for yeast growth on medium-chain FAs, suggesting they function similarly. Interestingly, we found that the ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 ΔYlant1 mutant was unable to grow on short-, medium-, or long-chain FAs, suggesting that YlPxa1p, YlPxa2p, and YlAnt1p belong to two different FA degradation pathways. We also found that YlFaa1p is involved in FA storage in lipid bodies and that FA remobilization largely depended on YlFat1p, YlPxa1p and YlPxa2p. This study is the first to comprehensively examine FA intracellular transport and activation in oleaginous yeast.

  2. Regional differences in rat conjunctival ion transport activities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongfang; Thelin, William R.; Rogers, Troy D.; Stutts, M. Jackson; Randell, Scott H.; Grubb, Barbara R.

    2012-01-01

    Active ion transport and coupled osmotic water flow are essential to maintain ocular surface health. We investigated regional differences in the ion transport activities of the rat conjunctivas and compared these activities with those of cornea and lacrimal gland. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (Slc5a1), transmembrane protein 16 (Tmem16a, b, f, and g), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr), and mucin (Muc4, 5ac, and 5b) mRNA expression was characterized by RT-PCR. ENaC proteins were measured by Western blot. Prespecified regions (palpebral, fornical, and bulbar) of freshly isolated conjunctival tissues and cell cultures were studied electrophysiologically with Ussing chambers. The transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD) of the ocular surface was also measured in vivo. The effect of amiloride and UTP on the tear volume was evaluated in lacrimal gland excised rats. All selected genes were detected but with different expression patterns. We detected αENaC protein in all tissues, βENaC in palpebral and fornical conjunctiva, and γENaC in all tissues except lacrimal glands. Electrophysiological studies of conjunctival tissues and cell cultures identified functional ENaC, SLC5A1, CFTR, and TMEM16. Fornical conjunctiva exhibited the most active ion transport under basal conditions amongst conjunctival regions. PD measurements confirmed functional ENaC-mediated Na+ transport on the ocular surface. Amiloride and UTP increased tear volume in lacrimal gland excised rats. This study demonstrated that the different regions of the conjunctiva exhibited a spectrum of ion transport activities. Understanding the specific functions of distinct regions of the conjunctiva may foster a better understanding of the physiology maintaining hydration of the ocular surface. PMID:22814399

  3. Engineering intracellular active transport systems as in vivo biomolecular tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, George David; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2006-11-01

    Active transport systems provide essential functions in terms of cell physiology and metastasis. These systems, however, are also co-opted by invading viruses, enabling directed transport of the virus to and from the cell's nucleus (i.e., the site of virus replication). Based on this concept, fundamentally new approaches for interrogating and manipulating the inner workings of living cells may be achievable by co-opting Nature's active transport systems as an in vivo biomolecular tool. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the ability to engineer kinesin-based transport systems for in vivo applications, specifically the collection of effector proteins (e.g., transcriptional regulators) within single cells. In the first part of this project, a chimeric fusion protein consisting of kinesin and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody was successfully produced through a recombinant expression system. The kinesin-scFv retained both catalytic and antigenic functionality, enabling selective capture and transport of target antigens. The incorporation of a rabbit IgG-specific scFv into the kinesin established a generalized system for functionalizing kinesin with a wide range of target-selective antibodies raised in rabbits. The second objective was to develop methods of isolating the intact microtubule network from live cells as a platform for evaluating kinesin-based transport within the cytoskeletal architecture of a cell. Successful isolation of intact microtubule networks from two distinct cell types was demonstrated using glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation methods. This work provides a platform for inferring the ability of kinesin-scFv to function in vivo, and may also serve as a three-dimensional scaffold for evaluating and exploiting kinesin-based transport for nanotechnological applications. Overall, the technology developed in this project represents a first-step in engineering active transport system for in vivo applications. Further

  4. Morphine Induces Ubiquitin-Proteasome Activity and Glutamate Transporter Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liling; Wang, Shuxing; Sung, Backil; Lim, Grewo; Mao, Jianren

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate transporters play a crucial role in physiological glutamate homeostasis, neurotoxicity, and glutamatergic regulation of opioid tolerance. However, how the glutamate transporter turnover is regulated remains poorly understood. Here we show that chronic morphine exposure induced posttranscriptional down-regulation of the glutamate transporter EAAC1 in C6 glioma cells with a concurrent decrease in glutamate uptake and increase in proteasome activity, which were blocked by the selective proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or lactacystin but not the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquin. At the cellular level, chronic morphine induced the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome Ten)-mediated up-regulation of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Nedd4 via cAMP/protein kinase A signaling, leading to EAAC1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Either Nedd4 or PTEN knockdown with small interfering RNA prevented the morphine-induced EAAC1 degradation and decreased glutamate uptake. These data indicate that cAMP/protein kinase A signaling serves as an intracellular regulator upstream to the activation of the PTEN/Nedd4-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome system activity that is critical for glutamate transporter turnover. Under an in vivo condition, chronic morphine exposure also induced posttranscriptional down-regulation of the glutamate transporter EAAC1, which was prevented by MG-132, and transcriptional up-regulation of PTEN and Nedd4 within the spinal cord dorsal horn. Thus, inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated glutamate transporter degradation may be an important mechanism for preventing glutamate overexcitation and may offer a new strategy for treating certain neurological disorders and improving opioid therapy in chronic pain management. PMID:18539596

  5. Voluntary Religious Activities in Public Schools: Policy Guidelines. Fastback 253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jan C.

    This booklet was written to help school officials understand the law concerning public forums and voluntary religious activities in public schools. Compliance dilemmas arising from the First Amendment establishment of religion clause and the accompanying free speech and free expression clauses, along with 14th Amendment equal protection…

  6. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls' physical activity in middle school girls. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers' and boys' behaviors,…

  7. Factors Related to Exclusion of Students from School Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry J.; And Others

    A survey of 130 high school principals in 3 southern states revealed alcohol abuse, insubordination, and other misbehavior as the major causes for excluding students from participation in school activities. The study also indicated that students have to meet disproportionately higher standards to participate in athletics, cheerleading, and student…

  8. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  9. A "Marked Success": Physical Activity at Miss White's School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Linda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the career of Flora White, who operated a school for girls in Concord, Massachusetts (USA) from 1897 to 1914. The school promoted individualised learning and physical activity for young women. Its programme of female exercise and sports ran counter to prevailing scholarly, medical, and popular opinion in the US. White faced…

  10. Physical Activity in High School during "Free-Time" Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Sá, Carla; Ribeiro, José; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth physical activity (PA) in free-time periods during high school days and their contribution to total PA. Differences in terms of sex, age, body mass index and school level were assessed in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants totalled 213 (135 girls), aged 14.6 ± 1.7, from two different…

  11. Empty Calories: Commercializing Activities in America's Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David R.

    2005-01-01

    This year's Schoolhouse Commercialism Trends report finds that schools continue to be a prime target of a wide variety of corporate advertising efforts and criticism of marketing to children in schools is mounting. Most of this criticism is directed at marketing activities that are thought to have a negative impact on children's health. Public…

  12. Fun Club: A Physical Activity Program for Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Susan B.

    2008-01-01

    Elementary schools have continued to reduce physical education instruction and recess time to bolster classroom instructional time. Many school personnel seem to believe that an increase in time for physical activity or physical education instruction would be counterproductive to students' academic performance. However, due to the rise in…

  13. Active commuting to elementary school and adiposity: An observational study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS; walking or cycling to school) appears promising for decreasing children's obesity risk, although long-term studies are sparse. The aim was to examine whether kindergarten ACS was associated with fifth grade adiposity. This study was a secondary analysis of the Early ...

  14. Alignment of Hands-On STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in…

  15. Fluctuation driven active molecular transport in passive channel proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosztin, Ioan

    2006-03-01

    Living cells interact with their extracellular environment through the cell membrane, which acts as a protective permeability barrier for preserving the internal integrity of the cell. However, cell metabolism requires controlled molecular transport across the cell membrane, a function that is fulfilled by a wide variety of transmembrane proteins, acting as either passive or active transporters. In this talk it is argued that, contrary to the general belief, in active cell membranes passive and spatially asymmetric channel proteins can act as active transporters by consuming energy from nonequilibrium fluctuations fueled by cell metabolism. This assertion is demonstrated in the case of the E. coli aquaglyceroporin GlpF channel protein, whose high resolution crystal structure is manifestly asymmetric. By calculating the glycerol flux through GlpF within the framework of a stochastic model, it is found that, as a result of channel asymmetry, glycerol uptake driven by a concentration gradient is enhanced significantly in the presence of non-equilibrium fluctuations. Furthermore, the enhancement caused by a ratchet-like mechanism is larger for the outward, i.e., from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, flux than for the inward one, suggesting that the same non-equilibrium fluctuations also play an important role in protecting the interior of the cell against poisoning by excess uptake of glycerol. Preliminary data on water and sugar transport through aquaporin and maltoporin channels, respectively, are indicative of the universality of the proposed nonequilibrium-fluctuation-driven active transport mechanism. This work was supported by grants from the Univ. of Missouri Research Board, the Institute for Theoretical Sciences and the Department of Energy (DOE Contract W-7405-ENG-36), and the National Science Foundation (FIBR-0526854).

  16. Active and Passive Commuting to School: Influences on Affect in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulley, Angela; Bentley, Nick; Clough, Catherine; Fishlock, Adelle; Morrell, Frances; O'Brien, James; Radmore, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Active commuting among school children is being encouraged for physical and environmental reasons, but little is known about its influence on affect. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that children who walk further to school experience increased arousal and affective valence compared with children who walk a short distance. This was…

  17. Team Nutrition School Activity Planner. A How-To Guide for Team Nutrition Schools and Supporters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This "how-to" guide for Team Nutrition fairs and tasting activities helps Team Nutrition supporters and schools understand how to work together to improve the health and education of children. Team Nutrition is the implementation tool for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children. Section 1 of the guide…

  18. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime.

    PubMed

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    School represents a suitable setting for intervention programmes aiming to promote physical activity to benefit health. During the school day, physical education and school playtime offer children regular opportunities to engage in physical activity. However, there is growing concern that, internationally, curricular time allocated to physical education is not meeting statutory guidelines. The effectiveness of the playground environment to promote physical activity has been considered as a complementary setting to physical education. Physical activity guidelines state that children should engage in at least 1 hour of moderate intensity physical activity a day. Currently no empirically tested guidelines exist for physical activity levels during playtime. However, studies cited in this article indicate that playtime can contribute between 5-40% of recommended daily physical activity levels when no interventions have been utilised. The limited school-based investigations that have been reported in the literature suggest that boys engage in more physical activity during playtime than girls. Studies that have implemented intervention strategies in order to promote physical activity levels indicate that playtime can substantially contribute towards daily optimal physical activity guidelines. Energy expenditure and physical activity levels have increased during playtime following the implementation of playtime-based interventions. In order to advance knowledge of children's physical activity during playtime, a number of key issues for consideration in future research are detailed. Research on children's use of playtime to be physically active and the extent of the contribution of playtime to daily physical activity guidelines is warranted.

  19. Physical activity correlates of overweight and obesity in school-going children of Dehradun, Uttarakhand

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Madhavi; Kandpal, S. D.; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is important for prevention of overweight and obesity in growing children. Objective: The present study aims to explore the association of overweight and obesity in school children of the district of Dehradun with physical activity, sports, and recreation at home and school. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1266 schoolchildren of select private and government schools in urban and rural areas was done. Results: Overall 15.6% of children were overweight, of which 5.4% were obese. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with physical inactivity related to passive transport to school, missed opportunities for play during lunch breaks, lack of participation in household work, and excessive viewing of television. Conclusion: We found a significant association between the lack of physical activity and overweight and obesity. There is a need to enhance physical activity, sports, and recreational opportunities at school as well as home to prevent overweight and obesity in children. Family physicians should include counseling for this important and cheap modifiable risk factor in their family care practice. PMID:28217584

  20. Preparing Students for Middle School Through After-School STEM Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory; Newell, Alana D.; Burnett, Christopher A.

    2016-12-01

    The middle school years are a crucial time for cultivating students' interest in and preparedness for future STEM careers. However, not all middle school children are provided opportunities to engage, learn and achieve in STEM subject areas. Engineering, in particular, is neglected in these grades because it usually is not part of science or mathematics curricula. This study investigates the effectiveness of an engineering-integrated STEM curriculum designed for use in an after-school environment. The inquiry-based activities comprising the unit, Think Like an Astronaut, were intended to introduce students to STEM careers—specifically engineering and aerospace engineering—and enhance their skills and knowledge applicable related to typical middle school science objectives. Results of a field test with a diverse population of 5th grade students in nine schools revealed that Think Like an Astronaut lessons are appropriate for an after-school environment, and may potentially help increase students' STEM-related content knowledge and skills.

  1. Association Between the Built Environment in School Neighborhoods With Physical Activity Among New York City Children, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Heewon Lee; Quinn, James; Rundle, Andrew G.; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of physical activity for health and well-being are well established, yet built environment characteristics in the school neighborhood may constrain students’ ability to engage in physical activity and contribute to the considerable variation in physical activity among students at different schools. Methods Baseline data from the Food, Health and Choices obesity prevention trial were used to create multilevel linear models of the relationship between fifth-grade students’ (n = 952) physical activity and related psychosocial factors and characteristics of the built environment of the school’s neighborhood (park access, public transportation density, total crime, and walkability), controlling for age and body mass index z scores. Results Total crime was inversely associated with boys’ light physical activity duration (β = −0.189; P = .02) and behavioral intention for physical activity (β = −0.178; P = .03). Boys’ habit strength for physical activity was positively associated with public transportation density (β = 0.375; P = .02) and negatively associated with total crime (β = −0.216; P = .01), explaining 67% of between-school variation. Girls’ frequency of light physical activity was positively associated with park access (β = 0.188; P = .04). Built environment characteristics explained 97% of the between-school variation in girls’ self-efficacy in walking for exercise. Conclusions Characteristics of the built environment surrounding schools were associated with and explain between-school variation in students’ physical activity and several theory-based psychosocial factors. Partnerships between public health practitioners, policy makers, and school administrators may be warranted to shape the school neighborhood, specifically to decrease crime rates and increase park access, to encourage physical activity in youth. PMID:27536902

  2. After-School Physical Activity Programs for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Doris L.; Poczwaradowski, Artur; Eisenman, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescent girls' responses to an after-school physical activity program, examining how it functioned as a listening tool within a social marketing approach to promoting physical activity. Focus groups and interviews indicated that girls enjoyed and valued the program. Though the program did not increase girls' physical activity levels,…

  3. Innovative Hands-on Activities for Middle School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    This paper contains some hands-on activities that relate science to art and language arts. The focus is placed on middle schools and activities engage students in the discovery that chemicals are used to draw and color. Students also read and write poetry and literature that employ science-related topics. A number of spin-off activities are…

  4. Outdoor Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Connie L.

    Outdoor education is an informal method of teaching and learning which offers opportunities for elementary school students, regardless of intellectual abilities, to learn about and appreciate their environment and acquire skills with which to enjoy a lifetime of creative, productive, and healthful living. Outdoor education can enrich, vitalize,…

  5. Interdisciplinary Activities Using "Census in Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Like many other teachers, the author always looks for a way to enliven a lesson--a new twist, a different perspective, a novel resource. The slogan of the NCSS convention held in Atlanta, Georgia, in 2009 was, "Dreams and Deeds: The Civic Mission of Schools," and this article provides "how to" ideas, easy, high-interest opportunities to make that…

  6. GEMS: Nutrition Activities for the School Cafeteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hix, Cathy L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a teaching kit for use in the K-6 school cafeteria to teach about food and nutrition. The kit (consisting of a 56-page instruction booklet and 60 colorful nutrition cards) is meant to supplement nutrition education provided in the classroom by providing relevant food information at the point-of-purchase. (JN)

  7. The influence of distance to school on the associations between active commuting and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Panter, Jenna; Jones, Andrew; Van Sluijs, Esther; Griffin, Simon

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between active commuting behavior, levels of physical activity and distance to school in 9-10 year old children. Participants were children (n = 1824) who took part in the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people). For both boys and girls, significant positive associations were observed between walking to school and physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during weekday journey times (8-9 am and 3-4 pm), and the size of association also became stronger with increasing distance from school. Promotion of active commuting to school might be an important way to increase levels of physical activity in school children.

  8. After-School Activities, Misbehavior in School, and Delinquency from the End of Elementary School through the Beginning of High School: A Test of Social Development Model Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Charles B.; Catalano, Richard F.; Mazza, James J.; Brown, Eric C.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Harachi, Tracy W.

    2008-01-01

    Annual survey data on 776 students from sixth through ninth grade were used to examine the relationships among after-school activities, misbehavior in school, and delinquency. The social development model hypothesizes that antisocial behavior in one developmental time period leads to less involvement in activities and interactions that have…

  9. [Effect of nitrates on active transport of iodine].

    PubMed

    Szökeová, E; Tajtáková, M; Mirossay, L; Mojzis, J; Langer, P; Marcinová, E; Petrovicová, J; Zemberová, E; Bodnár, J

    2001-11-01

    Active iodine transport into the thyrocyte is catalyzed by the transmembrane transport protein Na+/J- symport (NIS) Nitrates can expel iodine from the bond with this transport protein which was found not only in the thyrocyte membrane but also in the cell membrane of the gastric mucosa. The weight of the thyroid gland in mg was significantly greater even when calculated in relation to body weight in the NIT group of rats who were given for 6 days nitrate by gastric tube (100 mg/kg/day) as compared with controls (CON) 17.56 +/- 8.4, 0.07 +/- 0.03/12.10 +/- 9.57, 0.05 +/- 0.03, P < or = 0.01. A lower thyroid activity in per cent calculated per 1 mg of its weight (1.39 +/- 1.0/2.22 +/- 0.9, P < or = 0.01), a higher activity in blood before removal of the thyroid gland (8.54 +/- 4.09/5.45 +/- 2.78) and a lower one after removal of the thyroid gland (1.09 +/- 0.05/0.21 +/- 0.10) before oral administration of I131 in group NIT, suggests a negative effect of nitrates on active iodine transport not only at the level of the thyrocyte but also possible interaction with iodine at the level of the digestive tract. A significantly higher serum level of TT3 in group NIT (0.66 +/- 0.27/0.44 +/- 0.21, P < or = 0.01 regardless of the TSH serum level (2.31 +/- 1.83/2.64 +/- 1.52) and T4 (22.72 +/- 8.2/25 +/- 11.0) suggests a qualitative change in thyroid hormone production in favour of T3 caused even by short-term nitrate administration.

  10. The Asymmetric Active Coupler: Stable Nonlinear Supermodes and Directed Transport

    PubMed Central

    Kominis, Yannis; Bountis, Tassos; Flach, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric active coupler (AAC) consisting of two coupled dissimilar waveguides with gain and loss. We show that under generic conditions, not restricted by parity-time symmetry, there exist finite-power, constant-intensity nonlinear supermodes (NS), resulting from the balance between gain, loss, nonlinearity, coupling and dissimilarity. The system is shown to possess non-reciprocal dynamics enabling directed power transport functionality. PMID:27640818

  11. 77 FR 71430 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Public Transportation Baseline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Public Transportation Baseline Assessment for Security Enhancement (BASE) Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the...

  12. Implementation of a school environment intervention to increase physical activity in high school girls.

    PubMed

    Ward, D S; Saunders, R; Felton, G M; Williams, E; Epping, J N; Pate, R R

    2006-12-01

    Physical activity levels begin to decline in childhood and continue falling throughout adolescence, with girls being at greatest risk for inactivity. Schools are ideal settings for helping girls develop and maintain a physically active lifestyle. This paper describes the design and implementation of 'Lifestyle Education for Activity Program', or LEAP. LEAP used a health team approach with participatory strategies to provide training and support, instructional capacity building and opportunities to adapt school instructional program and environmental supports to local needs. The social-ecological model, based on social cognitive theory, served as the organizing framework for the LEAP intervention and elements of the coordinated school health program model as intervention channels. For the 12 intervention schools, LEAP staff documented 191 visits and interactions with 850 individuals over the 2-year period. Teachers reported successful implementation of most components of the intervention and demonstrated optimism for sustainability. These results indicate that a facilitative approach to intervention implementation can be used successfully to engage school personnel, and to change instructional programs and school environments to increase the physical activity level of high school girls.

  13. Synaptic activation modifies microtubules underlying transport of postsynaptic cargo.

    PubMed

    Maas, Christoph; Belgardt, Dorthe; Lee, Han Kyu; Heisler, Frank F; Lappe-Siefke, Corinna; Magiera, Maria M; van Dijk, Juliette; Hausrat, Torben J; Janke, Carsten; Kneussel, Matthias

    2009-05-26

    Synaptic plasticity, the ability of synapses to change in strength, requires alterations in synaptic molecule compositions over time, and synapses undergo selective modifications on stimulation. Molecular motors operate in sorting/transport of neuronal proteins; however, the targeting mechanisms that guide and direct cargo delivery remain elusive. We addressed the impact of synaptic transmission on the regulation of intracellular microtubule (MT)-based transport. We show that increased neuronal activity, as induced through GlyR activity blockade, facilitates tubulin polyglutamylation, a posttranslational modification thought to represent a molecular traffic sign for transport. Also, GlyR activity blockade alters the binding of the MT-associated protein MAP2 to MTs. By using the kinesin (KIF5) and the postsynaptic protein gephyrin as models, we show that such changes of MT tracks are accompanied by reduced motor protein mobility and cargo delivery into neurites. Notably, the observed neurite targeting deficits are prevented on functional depletion or gene expression knockdown of neuronal polyglutamylase. Our data suggest a previously undescribed concept of synaptic transmission regulating MT-dependent cargo delivery.

  14. Implementation of a School Environment Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, D. S.; Saunders, R.; Felton, G. M.; Williams, E.; Epping, J. N.; Pate, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels begin to decline in childhood and continue falling throughout adolescence, with girls being at greatest risk for inactivity. Schools are ideal settings for helping girls develop and maintain a physically active lifestyle. This paper describes the design and implementation of "Lifestyle Education for Activity Program", or…

  15. Aerospace Activities in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Wiggins, Kenneth E.

    1974-01-01

    Describes 17 activities which are aerospace oriented and yet provide an interdisciplinary approach to learning. Some of the activities described involve paper airplanes, parachutes, model rockets, etc. (BR)

  16. Physical Activity Promotion in Schools: Which Strategies Do Schools (Not) Implement and Which Socioecological Factors Are Associated with Implementation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet M.; Van Acker, Ragnar; Seghers, Jan; De Martelaer, Kristine; Haerens, Leen L.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the implementation and associated factors of strategies (e.g. sports after school and during lunch break, active schoolyards, active school commuting) and organizational principles (e.g. safe bike racks, pupil involvement) that facilitate the physical activity (PA)-promoting role of schools. Key representatives of 111 elementary and 125…

  17. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annewandter, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced gas transport and subsequent soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Generally, gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of radioxenons and radioiodines in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open peer-reviewed literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the multiple isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radionuclides, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different mass diffusivities due to mass differences between the radionuclides. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures or highly conductive faults which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a so-called ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which is recognized by the oil industry as leading in Discrete Fracture-Matrix (DFM) simulations. It has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations, fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, and Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic differential equations by a complementary finite

  18. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  19. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    PubMed

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation.

  20. Blood pressure of urban school children in relation to road-traffic noise, traffic density and presence of public transport.

    PubMed

    Paunovic, Katarina; Belojevic, Goran; Jakovljevic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between noise levels, traffic density and the presence of public transport and children's blood pressure. Another aim was to assess the applicability of public transport as a proxy indicator of noise exposure. A cross-sectional study involved 1113 children aged 7-11 years from a central municipality in Belgrade. Equivalent noise levels were measured in front of all schools and in the middle of all streets. Traffic density was defined as number of light and heavy vehicles per hour. The number of public transport vehicles was calculated from official timetables. Children's addresses were matched with noise levels and transport maps. A physician measured blood pressure with the sphygmomanometer. Children attending schools with public transport running nearby had by 1.3 mmHg higher systolic pressure than did children from schools without public transport. This relationship was independent from children's age, gender, and body mass index, family history of hypertension, some dwelling characteristics, and lifestyle habits. The association between diastolic pressure and public transport was statistically insignificant. The study indicated a possible positive association between the presence of public transport in the vicinity of schools with systolic blood pressure in 7-11 year-old schoolchildren. The presence of public transport may serve as an auxiliary indicator of noise exposure in undeveloped countries with limited capacities for noise measurement or modeling.

  1. Active and passive transport of drugs in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Włoch, Stanisław; Pałasz, Artur; Kamiński, Marcin

    2009-10-01

    The human placenta, characterized by the processes of passive transport and facilitated diffusion, contains numerous active transport proteins, usually located in the microvilli of the syncytiotrophoblast or in the endothelium of the capillaries of the villi. These proteins use either the energy from ATP hydrolysis or other mechanisms resulting, among others, from the formation of the maternofetal ion gradient, which facilitates the transfer of various endogenous substances or xenobiotics across the body membranes. The proteins either trigger the efflux of these substances from the fetal tissues via the placenta into the maternal bloodstream, or conversely they accumulate them in the fetal tissues. Both the placenta and the fetus are equipped with independent systems of enzymes of 1st and 2nd phase of substrate metabolism, such as CYP450, glucuronyltransferase or sulphatase. An active therapy with a wide range of drugs, often at high toxicity levels, either shortly before or during pregnancy, has naturally posed a question concerning the degree of impermeability of the placental barrier and how effectively it can be crossed, including any possible negative embryotoxic or teratogenic consequences. Such hazards seem to be quite real, as many drugs are substrates for ABC transporters. Also the placenta itself, including its structure, is subject to vast transformations during pregnancy which may be observed as the thinning of the barrier separating the maternal blood from the fetal one, from 20-30 microm in the first trimester of gestation down to 2-4 microm in the third trimester of gestation.

  2. Promoting Active Transport in Older Adolescents Before They Obtain Their Driving Licence: A Matched Control Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Dorien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Dyck, Delfien; Vandelanotte, Corneel; de Geus, Bas; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Background Active transport has great potential to increase physical activity in older adolescents (17–18 years). Therefore, a theory- and evidence-based intervention was developed aiming to promote active transport among older adolescents. The intervention aimed to influence psychosocial factors of active transport since this is the first step in order to achieve a change in behaviour. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the intervention on the following psychosocial factors: intention to use active transport after obtaining a driving licence, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, subjective norm, self-efficacy, habit and awareness towards active transport. Methods A matched control three-arm study was conducted and consisted of a pre-test post-test design with intervention and control schools in Flanders (northern part of Belgium). A lesson promoting active transport was implemented as the last lesson in the course ‘Driving Licence at School’ in intervention schools (intervention group 1). Individuals in intervention group 2 received this active transport lesson and, in addition, they were asked to become a member of a Facebook group on active transport. Individuals in the control group only attended the regular course ‘Driving Licence at School’. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographics and psychosocial variables at baseline, post (after one week) and follow-up (after eight weeks). To assess intervention effects, multilevel linear mixed models analyses were performed. Results A sample of 441 older adolescents (56.8% female; 17.4 (0.7) years) was analysed. For awareness regarding the existence of car sharing schemes, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to post measurement was found within intervention group 1 (p = 0.001) and intervention group 2 (p = 0.030) compared to the control group in which no change was found. In addition, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to follow

  3. Serotonin transporter activity in platelets and canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Belén; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; Palacio, Jorge; Chacón, Gema; Villegas, Ainara; Alcalde, Ana I

    2010-10-01

    Several studies have suggested an inhibitory action of the serotonergic system in the regulation of canine aggression, but the role of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) has not been investigated. Platelet 5-HT uptake has been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain 5-HTT. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between platelet 5-HTT activity and canine aggression by measuring the rate of 5-HT uptake mediated by 5-HTT in platelets and serum concentrations of 5-HT in both aggressive (n=14) and non-aggressive dogs (n=17). Aggressive dogs showed significantly higher 5-HT uptake by 5-HTT in platelets and lower serum concentrations of 5-HT, compared with the control group. These results suggested an association between an alteration in the serotonergic system and canine aggression, possibly mediated by an increased 5-HT transport.

  4. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kasess, Christian H.; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Hofmaier, Tina; Diers, Kersten; Bartova, Lucie; Pail, Gerald; Huf, Wolfgang; Uzelac, Zeljko; Hartinger, Beate; Kalcher, Klaudius; Perkmann, Thomas; Haslacher, Helmuth; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kasper, Siegfried; Freissmuth, Michael; Windischberger, Christian; Willeit, Matthäus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Esterbauer, Harald; Brocke, Burkhard; Moser, Ewald; Sitte, Harald H.; Pezawas, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax) was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA) to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity and platelet Vmax. Results The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN) suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity. Conclusion This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation. PMID:24667541

  5. High School Counselors' Perceived Self-Efficacy and Relationships with Actual and Preferred Job Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellison, Vickie Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between School Counselor self-efficacy, role definition and actual and preferred school counseling activities in a sample drawn from a population of school counselors. To measure these variables, the School Counselor Self-Efficacy Scale (SCSE) and the School Counselor Activity Rating…

  6. Children's Physical Activity during Recess and Outside of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine children's physical activity during recess and outside of school. Third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students (N = 270; 121 boys, age = 9.5 plus or minus 0.9 years; 150 girls, age = 9.6 plus or minus 0.9 years) wore sealed pedometers during a 15-minute recess period and outside of school for 4 consecutive…

  7. Activity-Based Costing in the Naval Postgraduate School

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Some colleges have substantial endowments, while others are non-existent. For this reason, the printed tuition price on college websites is not...always equivalent to the cost. Nonetheless, using these college tuition prices as references provides insight to where the Naval Postgraduate School...ABSTRACT (maximum200words) The Naval Postgraduate School is required to report activity costs and set tuition rates annually. The requirement to

  8. Curcumin directly inhibits the transport activity of GLUT1.

    PubMed

    Gunnink, Leesha K; Alabi, Ola D; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Gunnink, Stephen M; Schuiteman, Sam J; Strohbehn, Lauren E; Hamilton, Kathryn E; Wrobel, Kathryn E; Louters, Larry L

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin, a major ingredient in turmeric, has a long history of medicinal applications in a wide array of maladies including treatment for diabetes and cancer. Seemingly counterintuitive to the documented hypoglycemic effects of curcumin, however, a recent report indicates that curcumin directly inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes. The major glucose transporter in adipocytes is GLUT4. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of curcumin in cell lines where the major transporter is GLUT1. We report that curcumin has an immediate inhibitory effect on basal glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells with a maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 75 μM curcumin. Curcumin also blocks activation of glucose uptake by azide, glucose deprivation, hydroxylamine, or phenylarsine oxide. Inhibition does not increase with exposure time and the inhibitory effects reverse within an hour. Inhibition does not appear to involve a reaction between curcumin and the thiol side chain of a cysteine residue since neither prior treatment of cells with iodoacetamide nor curcumin with cysteine alters curcumin's inhibitory effects. Curcumin is a mixed inhibitor reducing the Vmax of 2DG transport by about half with little effect on the Km. The inhibitory effects of curcumin are not additive to the effects of cytochalasin B and 75 μM curcumin actually reduces specific cytochalasin B binding by 80%. Taken together, the data suggest that curcumin binds directly to GLUT1 at a site that overlaps with the cytochalasin B binding site and thereby inhibits glucose transport. A direct inhibition of GLUT proteins in intestinal epithelial cells would likely reduce absorption of dietary glucose and contribute to a hypoglycemic effect of curcumin. Also, inhibition of GLUT1 activity might compromise cancer cells that overexpress GLUT1 and be another possible mechanism for the documented anticancer effects of curcumin.

  9. Chloride transport in functionally active phagosomes isolated from Human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Martha L.; Painter, Richard G.; Zhou, Yun; Wang, Guoshun

    2012-01-01

    Chloride anion is critical for hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production and microbial killing in neutrophil phagosomes. However, the molecular mechanism by which this anion is transported to the organelle is poorly understood. In this report, membrane-enclosed and functionally active phagosomes were isolated from human neutrophils by using opsonized paramagnetic latex microspheres and a rapid magnetic separation method. The phagosomes recovered were highly enriched for specific protein markers associated with this organelle such as lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin, and NADPH oxidase. When FITC–dextran was included in the phagocytosis medium, the majority of the isolated phagosomes retained the fluorescent label after isolation, indicative of intact membrane structure. Flow cytometric measurement of acridine orange, a fluorescent pH indicator, in the purified phagosomes demonstrated that the organelle in its isolated state was capable of transporting protons to the phagosomal lumen via the vacuolar-type ATPase proton pump (V-ATPase). When NADPH was supplied, the isolated phagosomes constitutively oxidized dihydrorhodamine 123, indicating their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. The preparations also showed a robust production of HOCl within the phagosomal lumen when assayed with the HOCl-specific fluorescent probe R19-S by flow cytometry. MPO-mediated iodination of the proteins covalently conjugated to the phagocytosed beads was quantitatively measured. Phagosomal uptake of iodide and protein iodination were significantly blocked by chloride channel inhibitors, including CFTRinh-172 and NPPB. Further experiments determined that the V-ATPase-driving proton flux into the isolated phagosomes required chloride cotransport, and the cAMP-activated CFTR chloride channel was a major contributor to the chloride transport. Taken together, the data suggest that the phagosomal preparation described herein retains ion transport

  10. Curcumin directly inhibits the transport activity of GLUT1

    PubMed Central

    Gunnink, Leesha K.; Alabi, Ola D.; Kuiper, Benjamin D.; Gunnink, Stephen M.; Schuiteman, Sam J.; Strohbehn, Lauren E.; Hamilton, Kathryn E.; Wrobel, Kathryn E.; Louters, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a major ingredient in turmeric, has a long history of medicinal applications in a wide array of maladies including treatment for diabetes and cancer. Seemingly counterintuitive to the documented hypoglycemic effects of curcumin, however, a recent report indicates that curcumin directly inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes. The major glucose transporter in adipocytes is GLUT4. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of curcumin in cell lines where the major transporter is GLUT1. We report that curcumin has an immediate inhibitory effect on basal glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells with a maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 75 μM curcumin. Curcumin also blocks activation of glucose uptake by azide, glucose deprivation, hydroxylamine, or phenylarsine oxide. Inhibition does not increase with exposure time and the inhibitory effects reverse within an hour. Inhibition does not appear to involve a reaction between curcumin and the thiol side chain of a cysteine residue since neither prior treatment of cells with iodoacetamide nor curcumin with cysteine alters curcumin’s inhibitory effects. Curcumin is a mixed inhibitor reducing the Vmax of 2DG transport by about half with little effect on the Km. The inhibitory effects of curcumin are not additive to the effects of cytochalasin B and 75 μM curcumin actually reduces specific cytochalasin B binding by 80%. Taken together, the data suggest that curcumin binds directly to GLUT1 at a site that overlaps with the cytochalasin B binding site and thereby inhibits glucose transport. A direct inhibition of GLUT proteins in intestinal epithelial cells would likely reduce absorption of dietary glucose and contribute to a hypoglycemic effect of curcumin. Also, inhibition of GLUT1 activity might compromise cancer cells that overexpress GLUT1 and be another possible mechanism for the documented anticancer effects of curcumin. PMID:27039889

  11. Evaluation of the physical activity biography: sport and transport.

    PubMed

    Rogen, Sandra; Hofmann, Peter; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Müller, Wolfram

    2014-05-01

    Beside the genetic disposition, physical activity (PA) is one of the major health factors and can play a large role in the prevention and therapy of many diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity-related diseases etc.). In contrast to the genetic disposition, PA can be deliberately influenced by lifestyle. Therefore, it is of high importance to assess PA patterns. In order to assess PA reliably and validly, a new questionnaire (Physical Activity Biography, PAB) was created. The PAB assesses recreational PA (sport and transport) and enables to distinguish between endurance intensity levels and considers strength and high speed activity patterns throughout life. This study aims to evaluate the PAB by means of item analysis, retest-reliability and validity (criteria were physical fitness assessed by the questionnaire FFB-mot and by exercise tests). 141 participants answered the PAB. For deriving retest-reliability, 81 participants completed the PAB after a retest-interval of one month again. 55 participated in exercise tests and answered the FFB-mot to determine construct validity. Retest-reliability (ICC) above 0.7 was found for most items. For the items assessing recent PA, the criteria of convergent and discriminant validity were given. Despite the complexity of the question under study, the results fulfilled the expectations concerning reliability and validity. The PAB enables to assess the amount of sport and locomotion a person has accomplished during different life time frames and, because of the protective effects of PA on various diseases, may become an important tool for risk assessment. Key pointsThe risk of chronic diseases depends largely on physical activity biography.A new questionnaire (PAB) assessing recent and lifetime physical activity was created.The PAB assesses physical activity during sports and transport.The results of the evaluation of the PAB fulfilled the expectations.The PAB enables to determine a person's amount of recreational

  12. Evaluation of the Physical Activity Biography: Sport and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Rogen, Sandra; Hofmann, Peter; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Müller, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Beside the genetic disposition, physical activity (PA) is one of the major health factors and can play a large role in the prevention and therapy of many diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity-related diseases etc.). In contrast to the genetic disposition, PA can be deliberately influenced by lifestyle. Therefore, it is of high importance to assess PA patterns. In order to assess PA reliably and validly, a new questionnaire (Physical Activity Biography, PAB) was created. The PAB assesses recreational PA (sport and transport) and enables to distinguish between endurance intensity levels and considers strength and high speed activity patterns throughout life. This study aims to evaluate the PAB by means of item analysis, retest-reliability and validity (criteria were physical fitness assessed by the questionnaire FFB-mot and by exercise tests). 141 participants answered the PAB. For deriving retest-reliability, 81 participants completed the PAB after a retest-interval of one month again. 55 participated in exercise tests and answered the FFB-mot to determine construct validity. Retest-reliability (ICC) above 0.7 was found for most items. For the items assessing recent PA, the criteria of convergent and discriminant validity were given. Despite the complexity of the question under study, the results fulfilled the expectations concerning reliability and validity. The PAB enables to assess the amount of sport and locomotion a person has accomplished during different life time frames and, because of the protective effects of PA on various diseases, may become an important tool for risk assessment. Key points The risk of chronic diseases depends largely on physical activity biography. A new questionnaire (PAB) assessing recent and lifetime physical activity was created. The PAB assesses physical activity during sports and transport. The results of the evaluation of the PAB fulfilled the expectations. The PAB enables to determine a person’s amount of

  13. Introduction to Vocations Comprehensive Middle School Program: Mathematics Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Karen; And Others

    Junior high or middle school student activities in mathematics are provided for three entry level occupations in each of fifteen career clusters. The fifteen cluster titles including one of the three occupations for each cluster with an example of a student activity follow: (1) Agri-business and Natural Resources (cropdusting pilot, reading an…

  14. Associations between the School Environment and Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from…

  15. High School Girls' Perceptions of Selected Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Bretzing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    High school students, and particularly girls, are not very active (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006). To help girls develop the abilities to enjoy lifetime, healthy physical activity, physical educators need to provide curricula that will achieve this goal. In the process, they need to make sure they are aligned with the current…

  16. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School: Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet on asthma for physical education teachers and other school personnel offers guidelines for the maximum inclusion of students with asthma in regular physical education activities. It stresses that today's treatments can successfully control asthma so that students can participate fully in physical activities most of the time. First…

  17. Teachers' Collaborative Activity in School-Wide Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the strong interest in research about collaboration among teachers, there are few longitudinal studies that have investigated improvements in collaborative activity among teachers through school-wide interventions. Drawing on data from a larger study, this article describes improvements in collaborative activity among 900 teachers at 28…

  18. Youth Development in After-School Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Denise M.; Gottfredson, Denise C.; Cross, Amanda B.; Rorie, Melissa; Connell, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Leisure activities that occur outside of the school hours may facilitate positive youth development.The experiences of youth in three categories of activities (basketball and football, other sports, and nonsports) are examined in this study. Based on prior research, it is hypothesized that students participating in basketball and football will…

  19. Designing Culturally Responsive Organized After-School Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Ngo, Bic; Vest Ettekal, Andrea; Okamoto, Dina

    2017-01-01

    Organized after-school activities promote positive youth development across a range of outcomes. To be most effective, organized activities need to meet high-quality standards. The eight features of quality developed by the National Research Council's Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth have helped guide the field in this regard.…

  20. Peer Listening in the Middle School: Training Activities for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazouri, Sandra Peyser; Smith, Miriam Frey

    This workbook presents activities for training middle school student peer listeners. The first of the workbook's 10 chapters contains an introduction to peer listening. Activities include a pretest on a series of true-false statements called the "Peer Listening Inventory," defining the meaning of the words that describe the qualities of a peer…

  1. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  2. Developing Science and Math Integrated Activities for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Sonya Ellouise; Dwyer, Jerry; Narayan, Ratna

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the development and refinement of science and mathematics integrated activities for middle school students. The expectations of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics that students develop an understanding of mathematics and an ability to apply it gave birth to these activities. The expectations of the National…

  3. Active sodium transport and the electrophysiology of rabbit colon.

    PubMed

    Schultz, S G; Frizzell, R A; Nellans, H N

    1977-05-12

    The electrophysiologic properties of rabbit colonic epithelial cells were investigated employing microelectrode techniques. Under open-circuit conditions, the transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD) averaged 20 mV, serosa positive, and the intracellular electrical potential (psimc) averaged -32 mV, cell interior negative with respect to the mucosal solution; under short-circuit conditions, psimc averaged -46 mV. The addition of amiloride to the mucosal solution abolishes the transepithelial PD and active Na transport, and psimc is hyperpolarized to an average value of -53 mV. These results indicate that Na entry into the mucosal cell is a conductive process which, normally, depolarized psimc. The data obtained were interpreted using a double-membrane equivalent electrical circuit model of the "active Na transport pathway" involving two voltage-independent electromotive forces (emf's) and two voltage-independent resistances arrayed in series. Our observations are consistent with the notions that: (a) The emf's and resistances across the mucosal and baso-lateral membranes are determined predominantly by the emf (64 mV) and resistance of the Na entry process and the emf (53 mV) and resistance of the process responsible for active Na extrusion across the baso-lateral membranes: that is, the electrophysiological properties of the cell appear to be determined solely by the properties and processes responsible for transcellular active Na transport. The emf of the Na entry process is consistent with the notion that the Na activity in the intracellular transport pool is approximately one-tenth that in the mucosal solution or about 14 mM. (b) In the presence of amiloride, the transcellular conductance is essentially abolished and the total tissue conductance is the result of ionic diffusion through paracellular pathways. (c) The negative intracellular potential (with respect to the mucosal solution) is due primarily to the presence of a low resistance

  4. Saharan Dust, Transport Processes, and Possible Impacts on Hurricane Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present observational evidence of significant relationships between Saharan dust outbreak, and African Easterly wave activities and hurricane activities. We found two dominant paths of transport of Saharan dust: a northern path, centered at 25degN associated with eastward propagating 6-19 days waves over northern Africa, and a southern path centered at 15degN, associated with the AEW, and the Atlantic ITCZ. Seasons with stronger dust outbreak from the southern path are associated with a drier atmosphere over the Maximum Development Region (MDR) and reduction in tropical cyclone and hurricane activities in the MDR. Seasons with stronger outbreak from the northern path are associated with a cooler N. Atlantic, and suppressed hurricane in the western Atlantic basin.

  5. Why Inner-City High-School Students Attend After-School Physical Activity Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Laurel; McCaughtry, Nate; Garn, Alex; Kulik, Noel; Centeio, Erin E.; Maljak, Kimberly; Kaseta, Michele; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The population of young people most vulnerable to low levels of physical activity (e.g. urban/minority/low socio-economic status/female/non-athletes) often has the least access to physical activity opportunities and resources. It has been suggested that a comprehensive, school-based approach, including prudent use of time before, during…

  6. Identifying High School Physical Education Physical Activity Patterns after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Pleban, Francis T.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for physical education (PE) encompass five principles for the purpose of defining what high school students should recognize and be able to perform as a result of a quality PE program. The expectation is that youth will develop an active, healthy lifestyle into adulthood from activities and skills taught in PE. Researchers from…

  7. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, J.; Abuful, A.; Chaimovitz, C.; Noeh, Z.; Hays, R.M. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY )

    1988-09-01

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (J{sub i}) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. J{sub i} is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in J{sub i} in unadapted toads at 10{sup {minus}4} and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K{sub {1/2}}) was 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M for adapted animals. J{sub i} was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that J{sub i} is independent of sodium transport.

  8. Commercial activities and the promotion of health in schools.

    PubMed

    Raine, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Many companies nowadays consider schools to be an important setting for marketing to children. However, important concerns can be raised from a health promotion perspective about the potential negative impact of commercial activities on the health and well-being of pupils. As this discussion paper will demonstrate, some commercial activities raise concerns in relation to physical health and obesity, not only by potentially undermining formal curriculum messages, but also through the active promotion of specific products, particularly those high in fat, sugar or salt. Nonetheless, the issues raised by commercial activities are not solely limited to effects on physical health. By allowing commercial activities, schools risk instilling in pupils consumer-orientated values. This is significant as such values have been linked to the development of poor health and well-being. Furthermore, the presence in schools of commercial activities will also militate against informed decision-making and be disempowering. There is also evidence that business-sponsored teaching materials can contain biased and misleading information. The potential negative impacts of commercial activities are inconsistent with goals in relation to the promotion of health and the principles of health-promoting schools.

  9. Dopamine Transporter Activity Is Modulated by α-Synuclein.

    PubMed

    Butler, Brittany; Saha, Kaustuv; Rana, Tanu; Becker, Jonas P; Sambo, Danielle; Davari, Paran; Goodwin, J Shawn; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2015-12-04

    The duration and strength of the dopaminergic signal are regulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). Drug addiction and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases have all been associated with altered DAT activity. The membrane localization and the activity of DAT are regulated by a number of intracellular proteins. α-Synuclein, a protein partner of DAT, is implicated in neurodegenerative disease and drug addiction. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the interaction between DAT and α-synuclein, the cellular location of this interaction, and the functional consequences of this interaction on the basal, amphetamine-induced DAT-mediated dopamine efflux, and membrane microdomain distribution of the transporter. Here, we found that the majority of DAT·α-synuclein protein complexes are found at the plasma membrane of dopaminergic neurons or mammalian cells and that the amphetamine-mediated increase in DAT activity enhances the association of these proteins at the plasma membrane. Further examination of the interaction of DAT and α-synuclein revealed a transient interaction between these two proteins at the plasma membrane. Additionally, we found DAT-induced membrane depolarization enhances plasma membrane localization of α-synuclein, which in turn increases dopamine efflux and enhances DAT localization in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains.

  10. CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Chang H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

  11. Rural Schooling in Georgia: The Experiences of a Minority Community Service Organization Involved in Local School Decision-Making Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…

  12. Problems Encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and Other Secondary School Students in Physical Education and Sports Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Mustafa; Yaman, Menzure Sibel; Hergüner, Gülten

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to determine problems encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and other Secondary School students in physical education and sports activities and to compare these problems according to school type and gender. A questionnaire named "Problems encountered in attending to physical education and sports activities"…

  13. Active urea transport independent of H+ and Na+ transport in frog skin epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lacoste, I; Dunel-Erb, S; Harvey, B J; Laurent, P; Ehrenfeld, J

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between H+ secretion (JH), Na+ absorption (JNa), and urea transport (Ju) in skin of frogs (Rana esculenta) adapted to running tap water, NaCl (100 mM), and KCl (100 mM). In addition, cell morphological changes, particularly in the mitochondria-rich cells (MRC), were followed. NaCl adaptation stimulated an active Ju, reduced JNa and JH, and caused a decrease in the apical surface of MRC. After KCl adaptation, JNa and JH were increased and highly correlated, with a twofold increase in Ju, whereas the numerous MRC developed infoldings on their apical membranes. No correlation was found between JH and Ju. Clamping the skins in a range of +/- 50 mV or changing the external pH from 7.4 to 5.4 (at high cellular buffering power) had no effect on Ju. Depolarization of the basolateral membranes (serosal KCl-Ringer) had no effect on Ju. Ju was reversibly blocked by acidification of the cells by oxygen-free solution and sulfhydryl reagents (Hg2+, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide). Diethylstilbestrol, a proton transport blocker, had no effect on Ju. Apical addition of amiloride and derivatives (phenamil and ethylisopropyl amiloride) reversibly blocked Ju, whereas ouabain had no effect. We conclude that a cation (Na+ or H+)-dependent process is unlikely to exist in R. esculenta skin. A primary active transport in a two-step process is the simplest hypothesis to account for the energy-dependent Ju that develops in NaCl-adapted frogs.

  14. School environment, sedentary behavior and physical activity in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. Methods: 370 preschoolers, aged 4–6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6–90.9%), followed by light (4.6–7.6%), moderate (1.3–3.0%) and vigorous (0.5–2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.05–0.83) and the playground (OR 0.08, 95%CI 0.00–0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.00–0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77), the playground (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.14–6.96) and the recess (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. Conclusions: The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. PMID:26975560

  15. Promoting Physical Activity in Middle School Girls: Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Larry S.; Catellier, Diane J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Young, Deborah R.; Elder, John P.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Stevens, June; Jobe, Jared B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is important for weight control and good health; however, activity levels decline in the adolescent years, particularly in girls. Design Group randomized controlled trial Setting/participants Middle school girls with English-speaking skills and no conditions to prevent participation in physical activity in 36 schools in six geographically diverse areas of the United States. Random, cross-sectional samples were drawn within schools: 6th graders in 2003 (n=1721) and 8th graders in 2005 (n=3504) and 2006 (n=3502). Intervention A 2-year study-directed intervention (fall 2003 to spring 2005) targeted schools, community agencies, and girls to increase opportunities, support, and incentives for increased physical activity. Components included programs linking schools and community agencies, physical education, health education, and social marketing. A third-year intervention used school and community personnel to direct intervention activities. Main outcome measures The primary outcome, daily MET-weighted minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MET-weighted MVPA), was assessed using accelerometry. Percent body fat was assessed using anthropometry. Results After the staff-directed intervention (pre-stated primary outcome), there were no differences (mean= −0.4, 95% CI= CI= −8.2 to 7.4) in adjusted MET-weighted MVPA between 8th-grade girls in schools assigned to intervention or control. Following the Program Champion–directed intervention, girls in intervention schools were more physically active than girls in control schools (mean difference 10.9 MET-weighted minutes of MVPA, 95% CI=0.52–21.2). This difference is about 1.6 minutes of daily MVPA or 80 kcal per week. There were no differences in fitness or percent body fat at either 8th-grade timepoint. Conclusion A school-based, community-linked intervention modestly improved physical activity in girls. PMID:18312804

  16. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  17. Extracurricular Activities and High School Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study of 14,249 students to determine whether participation in specific extracurricular activities (athletics and fine arts) significantly reduces a student's likelihood of dropping out. Finds that, when all activities are examined, only athletic participation remains significantly related to dropping out. (ACM)

  18. Active transport of vesicles in neurons is modulated by mechanical tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Wylie W.; Saif, Taher A.

    2014-03-01

    Effective intracellular transport of proteins and organelles is critical in cells, and is especially important for ensuring proper neuron functionality. In neurons, most proteins are synthesized in the cell body and must be transported through thin structures over long distances where normal diffusion is insufficient. Neurons transport subcellular cargo along axons and neurites through a stochastic interplay of active and passive transport. Mechanical tension is critical in maintaining proper function in neurons, but its role in transport is not well understood. To this end, we investigate the active and passive transport of vesicles in Aplysia neurons while changing neurite tension via applied strain, and quantify the resulting dynamics. We found that tension in neurons modulates active transport of vesicles by increasing the probability of active motion, effective diffusivity, and induces a retrograde bias. We show that mechanical tension modulates active transport processes in neurons and that external forces can couple to internal (subcellular) forces and change the overall transport dynamics.

  19. Adult Active Transport in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Its Contribution to Physical Activity Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of

  20. Active migration and passive transport of malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Ross G; Amino, Rogerio; Sinnis, Photini; Frischknecht, Freddy

    2015-08-01

    Malaria parasites undergo a complex life cycle between their hosts and vectors. During this cycle the parasites invade different types of cells, migrate across barriers, and transfer from one host to another. Recent literature hints at a misunderstanding of the difference between active, parasite-driven migration and passive, circulation-driven movement of the parasite or parasite-infected cells in the various bodily fluids of mosquito and mammalian hosts. Because both active migration and passive transport could be targeted in different ways to interfere with the parasite, a distinction between the two ways the parasite uses to get from one location to another is essential. We discuss the two types of motion needed for parasite dissemination and elaborate on how they could be targeted by future vaccines or drugs.

  1. Directed transport of active particles over asymmetric energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Koumakis, N; Maggi, C; Di Leonardo, R

    2014-08-21

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the transport of active colloids to target regions, delimited by asymmetric energy barriers. We show that it is possible to introduce a generalized effective temperature that is related to the local variance of particle velocities. The stationary probability distributions can be derived from a simple diffusion equation in the presence of an inhomogeneous effective temperature resulting from the action of external force fields. In particular, transition rates over asymmetric energy barriers can be unbalanced by having different effective temperatures over the two slopes of the barrier. By varying the type of active noise, we find that equal values of diffusivity and persistence time may produce strongly varied effective temperatures and thus stationary distributions.

  2. Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Hundeep; Lakatos-Karoly, Andrea; Vogel, Ramona; Nöll, Anne; Tampé, Robert; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a superfamily of integral membrane proteins, catalyse the translocation of substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. Here we demonstrate by nucleotide turnover and binding studies based on 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy that the ABC exporter and lipid A flippase MsbA can couple ATP hydrolysis to an adenylate kinase activity, where ADP is converted into AMP and ATP. Single-point mutations reveal that both ATPase and adenylate kinase mechanisms are associated with the same conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding domain. Based on these results, we propose a model for the coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase mechanism, involving the canonical and an additional nucleotide-binding site. We extend these findings to other prokaryotic ABC exporters, namely LmrA and TmrAB, suggesting that the coupled activities are a general feature of ABC exporters. PMID:28004795

  3. Active Transport of Nanomaterials Using Motor Proteins -Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Henry

    2005-09-01

    During the six months of funding we have focused first on the completion of the research begun at the University of Washington in the previous funding cycle. Specifically, we developed a method to polymerize oriented networks of microtubules on lithographically patterned surfaces (M.S. thesis Robert Doot). The properties of active transport have been studied detail, yielding insights into the dispersion mechanisms (Nitta et al.). The assembly of multifunctional structures with a microtubule core has been investigated (Ramachandran et al.). Isaac Luria (B.S. in physics, U. of Florida 2005) worked on the directed assembly of nanoscale, non-equilibrium structures as a summer intern. He is now a graduate student in my group at the University of Florida. T. Nitta and H. Hess: Dispersion in Active Transport by Kinesin-Powered Molecular Shuttles, Nano Letters, 5, 1337-1342 (2005) S. Ramachandran, K.-H. Ernst, G. D. Bachand, V. Vogel, H. Hess*: Selective Loading of Kinesin-Powered Molecular Shuttles with Protein Cargo and its Application to Biosensing, submitted to Small (2005)

  4. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  5. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annewandter, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of all radioxenons in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radioxenons, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different diffusivities due to mass differences between the radioxenons. A previous study showed surface arrival time of a chemically inert gaseous tracer is affected by its diffusivity. They observed detectable amount for SF6 50 days after detonation and 375 days for He-3. They predict 50 and 80 days for Xe-133 and Ar-37 respectively. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations , fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic

  6. Integration of Active Video Games in Extracurricular Activity at Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…

  7. Amphetamine activates calcium channels through dopamine transporter-mediated depolarization.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Krasnodara N; Solis, Ernesto; Ruchala, Iwona; De Felice, Louis J; Eltit, Jose M

    2015-11-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) and its more potent enantiomer S(+)AMPH are psychostimulants used therapeutically to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and have significant abuse liability. AMPH is a dopamine transporter (DAT) substrate that inhibits dopamine (DA) uptake and is implicated in DA release. Furthermore, AMPH activates ionic currents through DAT that modify cell excitability presumably by modulating voltage-gated channel activity. Indeed, several studies suggest that monoamine transporter-induced depolarization opens voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (CaV), which would constitute an additional AMPH mechanism of action. In this study we co-express human DAT (hDAT) with Ca(2+) channels that have decreasing sensitivity to membrane depolarization (CaV1.3, CaV1.2 or CaV2.2). Although S(+)AMPH is more potent than DA in transport-competition assays and inward-current generation, at saturating concentrations both substrates indirectly activate voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (CaV1.3 and CaV1.2) but not the N-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV2.2). Furthermore, the potency to achieve hDAT-CaV electrical coupling is dominated by the substrate affinity on hDAT, with negligible influence of L-type channel voltage sensitivity. In contrast, the maximal coupling-strength (defined as Ca(2+) signal change per unit hDAT current) is influenced by CaV voltage sensitivity, which is greater in CaV1.3- than in CaV1.2-expressing cells. Moreover, relative to DA, S(+)AMPH showed greater coupling-strength at concentrations that induced relatively small hDAT-mediated currents. Therefore S(+)AMPH is not only more potent than DA at inducing hDAT-mediated L-type Ca(2+) channel currents but is a better depolarizing agent since it produces tighter electrical coupling between hDAT-mediated depolarization and L-type Ca(2+) channel activation.

  8. Bonding, Achievement, and Activities: School Bonding, Academic Achievement, and Participation in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Anissa K.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a single-group interrupted time series design (Creswell, 2003), this pilot study examined the relationship between academic achievement, school bonding, and the extracurricular activity participation of "uninvolved" students (n=11) who participated in a voluntary support group at a suburban high school in the southeast. Results…

  9. Nicotine decreases the activity of glutamate transporter type 3.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hea-Jo; Lim, Young-Jin; Zuo, Zhiyi; Hur, Wonseok; Do, Sang-Hwan

    2014-02-10

    Nicotine, the main ingredient of tobacco, elicits seizures in animal models and cigarette smoking is regarded as a behavioral risk factor associated with epilepsy or seizures. In the hippocampus, the origin of nicotine-induced seizures, most glutamate uptake could be performed primarily by excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3). An association between temporal lobe epilepsy and EAAT3 downregulation has been reported. Therefore, we hypothesized that nicotine may elicit seizures through the attenuation of EAAT3 activity. We investigated chronic nicotine exposure (72 h) cause reduction of the activity of EAAT3 in a Xenopus oocyte expression system using a two-electrode voltage clamp. The roles of protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) were also determined. Nicotine (0.001-1 μM) resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in EAAT3 activity with maximal inhibition at nicotine concentrations of 0.03 μM or higher and at an exposure time of 72 h. Vmax on the glutamate response was significantly reduced in the nicotine group (0.03 μM for 72 h), but the Km value of EAAT3 for glutamate was not altered. When nicotine-exposed oocytes (0.03 μM for 72 h) were pretreated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, a PKC activator), the nicotine-induced reduction in EAAT3 activity was abolished. PKC inhibitors (staurosporine, chelerythrine, and calphostin C) significantly reduced basal EAAT3 activity, but there were no significant differences among the PKC inhibitors, nicotine, and PKC inhibitors+nicotine groups. Similar response patterns were observed among PI3K inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002), nicotine, and PI3K inhibitors+nicotine. In conclusion, this study suggests that nicotine decreases EAAT3 activity, and that this inhibition seems to be dependent on PKC and PI3K. Our results may provide an additional mechanism for nicotine-induced seizure.

  10. Active/Cooperative Learning in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandiera, Milena; Bruno, Costanza

    2006-01-01

    The study describes a teaching action undertaken in the belief that the use of methodologies based on active and cooperative learning could obviate some of the most worrying deficiencies in current scientific teaching, while at the same time supporting the validity of the constructivistic theory that prompted them. A teaching action on genetically…

  11. Thermal Cameras in School Laboratory Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Hedberg, David; Schönborn, Konrad J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal cameras offer real-time visual access to otherwise invisible thermal phenomena, which are conceptually demanding for learners during traditional teaching. We present three studies of students' conduction of laboratory activities that employ thermal cameras to teach challenging thermal concepts in grades 4, 7 and 10-12. Visualization of…

  12. Integrating research, policy, and practice in school-based physical activity prevention programming: the School Health Action, Planning, and Evaluation System (SHAPES) Physical Activity Module.

    PubMed

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Manske, Steve; Wong, Suzy L; Cameron, Roy

    2009-04-01

    The School Health Action, Planning, and Evaluation System (SHAPES) is a data collection and feedback system designed to support population-based intervention planning, evaluation, and field research related to youth. The Physical Activity Module of SHAPES consists of: (a) a machine readable questionnaire to collect physical activity data from all students (grades 6 to 12) in a school, (b) a school administrator questionnaire to assess school policies, programs, and resources related to physical activity, and (c) a school-specific feedback report documenting student behavior and school programs and policies. This SHAPES module provides schools with feedback that enables them to take stock of patterns of activity and obesity within their school, recognize what is (and what is not) in place to support physical activity, and how to plan and evaluate their own prevention efforts. SHAPES enables researchers and stakeholders to identify what interventions work, in what contexts, with what students.

  13. Novice Teachers' Infusion into Pedagogical Activity at American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chychuk, Antonina

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with innovations used in the USA to assist novice teachers with adaptation to professional activity. It has been found out that the experience in implementing support programs for novice teachers and introducing the position of a mentor at schools is an extremely innovative system of novice teachers' adaptation in the USA. The…

  14. The Relevant Factors in Promoting Reading Activities in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…

  15. School Physical Education, Extracurricular Sports, and Lifelong Active Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocarro, Jason; Kanters, Michael A.; Casper, Jonathan; Forrester, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the role of school-based extracurricular initiatives in facilitating immediate and long-term positive impact on physical activity, healthy behavior, and obesity in children. A critique of the role of various sports-related initiatives that have been developed to address the obesity epidemic currently…

  16. Compulsory "Foreign Language Activities" in Japanese Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Kayoko

    2011-01-01

    From 2011, the new curriculum for introducing English to Japanese primary schools will be fully implemented in the form of "foreign language activities". This innovation forms part of the government's plan to cultivate "Japanese with English abilities", a development based on the awareness, particularly in the business sector,…

  17. Understanding Militant Teacher Union Members' Activities in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahlangu, Vimbi P.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the activities of teacher unions in some Gauteng secondary schools in South Africa. The methods used in collecting data were questionnaires, interviews and a literature study of appropriate educational and labour law journals, books and newspapers. An interpretive paradigm was used in analysing the data. In this article,…

  18. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  19. Recess Physical Activity Packs in Elementary Schools: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Steven; Combs, Sue; Boyce, Robert

    2011-01-01

    To supplement the present weekly allotment of 30 minutes of physical education, a school district in southeastern North Carolina identified recess time as part of the state mandated (HSP-S-000) 150 minutes of physical activity (PA) per week and have purchased fitness equipment (recess packs) for the children to use. Twelve participants were…

  20. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  1. Space Station Freedom. An Activity Book for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet was prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use by teachers in the classroom or by parents at home. The descriptions, classroom activities and illustrations are designed for elementary-level school children. On each right-hand page is a simple line drawing that illustrates the narrative and the…

  2. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  3. Expectations and Support for Scholarly Activity in Schools of Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohrer, Paul; Dolphin, Robert, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses issues relating to scholarship productivity and examines these issues with consideration given to the size and the accreditation status of the business schools sampled. First, how important is scholarly activity within an institution for a variety of personnel decisions? Second, what is the relative importance of various types of…

  4. Hands On Physical Science Activities for Middle Schools. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Salvator S.

    This book was written on the premise that learning science should be fun and rewarding. The teacher may use it as the foundation for an extended middle school curriculum spanning more than one year or to supplement an existing curriculum with individual sections or exercises from the book. The activities have been organized and designed in a…

  5. Validity and Reliability of the School Physical Activity Environment Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to establish the factor validity of the Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment (Robertson-Wilson, Levesque, & Holden, 2007) using confirmatory factor analysis procedures. Another goal was to establish internal reliability and test-retest reliability. The confirmatory factor analysis…

  6. Suggested Calendar of Yearly School Board Activities 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, George B.

    The materials contained in this school board calendar are intended to help local boards take the appropriate actions required by the state of Oregon at the appropriate times. Many of these board actions involve budget preparation and approval, collective bargaining, and personnel procedures. The calendar suggests activities based on the timeline…

  7. Active transport and obesity prevention - A transportation sector obesity impact scoping review and assessment for Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, V; Moodie, M; Mantilla Herrera, A M; Veerman, J L; Carter, R

    2017-03-01

    Given the alarming prevalence of obesity worldwide and the need for interventions to halt the growing epidemic, more evidence on the role and impact of transport interventions for obesity prevention is required. This study conducts a scoping review of the current evidence of association between modes of transport (motor vehicle, walking, cycling and public transport) and obesity-related outcomes. Eleven reviews and thirty-three primary studies exploring associations between transport behaviours and obesity were identified. Cohort simulation Markov modelling was used to estimate the effects of body mass index (BMI) change on health outcomes and health care costs of diseases causally related to obesity in the Melbourne, Australia population. Results suggest that evidence for an obesity effect of transport behaviours is inconclusive (29% of published studies reported expected associations, 33% mixed associations), and any potential BMI effect is likely to be relatively small. Hypothetical scenario analyses suggest that active transport interventions may contribute small but significant obesity-related health benefits across populations (approximately 65 health adjusted life years gained per year). Therefore active transport interventions that are low cost and targeted to those most amenable to modal switch are the most likely to be effective and cost-effective from an obesity prevention perspective. The uncertain but potentially significant opportunity for health benefits warrants the collection of more and better quality evidence to fully understand the potential relationships between transport behaviours and obesity. Such evidence would contribute to the obesity prevention dialogue and inform policy across the transportation, health and environmental sectors.

  8. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P.; Walsh, Kathleen A.; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Steidl, Rebecca J.; Tessmer, Stuart H.; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-03-01

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors.

  9. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P; Walsh, Kathleen A; Feliciano, Gustavo T; Steidl, Rebecca J; Tessmer, Stuart H; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-03-24

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors.

  10. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P.; Walsh, Kathleen A.; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Steidl, Rebecca J.; Tessmer, Stuart H.; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors. PMID:27009596

  11. Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Predictors of Middle School Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kristi M.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Brown, Stephen L.; Partridge, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Children's participation in after-school physical activity can attenuate the overweight and obesity rates among rural, low socioeconomic status (SES) children. Children's individual determination, as well as social and environmental factors, can influence their behaviors. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine if a difference…

  12. Physical Activity Pattern of Prepubescent Filipino School Children during School Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo B.; Grimmer-Somers, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about pre-pubescent Filipino children's involvement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). There are international guidelines regarding required levels of MVPA for healthy children. Methods: This study describes participation of 11- to 12-year-olds in randomly selected public and private schools in San Juan,…

  13. Before the School Bell Rings: How a Before-School Physical Activity Program Improves Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Georgia; Poston, Kristen Fay; Harris, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Across the country, school administrators and educators struggle to find time for children to engage in physical activity while still giving them enough time in academic instruction. The steep rise in childhood obesity in the U.S. (National Center for Health Statistics, 2011; Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2014) suggests that the concern is…

  14. Theory of activated transport in bilayer quantum Hall systems.

    PubMed

    Roostaei, B; Mullen, K J; Fertig, H A; Simon, S H

    2008-07-25

    We analyze the transport properties of bilayer quantum Hall systems at total filling factor nu=1 in drag geometries as a function of interlayer bias, in the limit where the disorder is sufficiently strong to unbind meron-antimeron pairs, the charged topological defects of the system. We compute the typical energy barrier for these objects to cross incompressible regions within the disordered system using a Hartree-Fock approach, and show how this leads to multiple activation energies when the system is biased. We then demonstrate using a bosonic Chern-Simons theory that in drag geometries current in a single layer directly leads to forces on only two of the four types of merons, inducing dissipation only in the drive layer. Dissipation in the drag layer results from interactions among the merons, resulting in very different temperature dependences for the drag and drive layers, in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  15. Accelerometry-Derived Physical Activity of First through Third Grade Children during the Segmented School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Crimarco, Anthony; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Webster, Collin A.; Burns, Ryan D.; Hannon, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools should provide children 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity (MVPA). Determining school day segments that contribute to children's MVPA can inform school-based activity promotion. The purpose of this paper was to identify the proportion of children accumulating 30 minutes/day of school-based MVPA, and to…

  16. Complement activation of electrogenic ion transport in isolated rat colon.

    PubMed

    McCole, D F; Otti, B; Newsholme, P; Baird, A W

    1997-11-15

    The complement cascade is an important component in many immune and inflammatory reactions and may contribute to both the diarrhoea and inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Isolated rat colonic mucosae were voltage clamped in Ussing chambers. Basolateral addition of zymosan-activated whole human serum (ZAS) induced a rapid onset, transient inward short circuit current (SCC). This response was concentration dependent and was significantly attenuated by pre-heating ZAS at 60 degrees C for 30 min. Depletion of complement from normal human serum with cobra venom factor (CVF) significantly lowered SCC responses. Chloride was the primary charge carrying ion as responses to ZAS were abolished in the presence of the loop diuretic bumetanide. The complement component C3a stimulated ion transport but not to the same extent as whole serum. Exogenous C5 was without effect. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor piroxicam significantly attenuated the response to ZAS. These findings support the possibility that complement activation may contribute to the pathophysiology of secretory diarrhoea since activation of electrogenic chloride secretion converts intestinal epithelia to a state of net fluid secretion.

  17. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates amygdala activity during mood regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Hengyi; Wang, Jiongjiong; Detre, John A.; Breland, Jessica; Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V.; Brodkin, Edward S.; Farah, Martha J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated the short allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in depression vulnerability, particularly in the context of stress. Several neuroimaging studies have shown that 5-HTTLPR genotype predicts amygdala reactivity to negatively valenced stimuli, suggesting a mechanism whereby the short allele confers depression risk. The current study investigated whether 5-HTTLPR genotype similarly affects neural activity during an induced sad mood and during recovery from sad mood. Participants were 15 homozygous short (S) and 15 homozygous long (L) individuals. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging during four scanning blocks: baseline, sad mood, mood recovery and following return to baseline. Comparing mood recovery to baseline, both whole brain analyses and template-based region-of-interest analyses revealed greater amygdala activity for the S vs the L-group. There were no significant amygdala differences found during the induced sad mood. These results demonstrate the effect of the S allele on amygdala activity during intentional mood regulation and suggest that amygdala hyperactivity during recovery from a sad mood may be one mechanism by which the S allele confers depression risk. PMID:19858108

  18. Physical Activity of Fifth to Sixth Graders during School Hours According to School Race/Ethnicity: Suburban Cook County, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Soyang; Mason, Maryann; Welch, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background: We compared moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and inactivity levels among fifth and sixth graders during school hours according to school-level race/ethnicity and income attributes to inform school-based obesity interventions in Illinois Suburban Cook County (SCC). Methods: Fifth- and sixth-grade students…

  19. Out of School Activities during Primary School and KS2 Attainment. Centre for Longitudinal Studies Working Paper 2016/1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanfreau, Jenny; Tanner, Emily; Callanan, Meg; Laing, Karen; Skipp, Amy; Todd, Liz

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this working paper were to investigate whether taking part in out of school activities during primary school is linked with end of primary school attainment and social, emotional and behavioural outcomes, for all children and specifically for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. The analysis is based on the Millennium…

  20. Active commuting to school and association with physical activity and adiposity among US youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking or bicycling to school, i.e. active commuting, has shown promise for improving physical activity and preventing obesity in youth. Our objectives were to examine, among US youth, whether active commuting was inversely associated with adiposity and positively associated with moderate-to vigoro...

  1. Active commuting to school and association with physical activity and adiposity among US youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking or bicycling to school, i.e., "active commuting", was associated with greater physical activity and lower adiposity. However, findings were mixed and may be due to small sample sizes, subjectively measured physical activity, or not controlling for dietary energy intake. Our objective was to ...

  2. After-School Physical Activity and Eating Behaviors of Middle School Students in Relation to Adult Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wayne C.; Hering, Michelle; Cothran, Carrie; Croteau, Kim; Dunlap, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine after-school activity patterns, eating behaviors, and social environment of overweight and normal weight middle school students. Design: Eating and physical activity behaviors of 141 students, ages 10-14, were monitored. Students completed a diary documenting type of activity, location, adult supervision, accompanying…

  3. Compromising KCC2 transporter activity enhances the development of continuous seizure activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Deeb, Tarek Z.; Brandon, Nicholas J.; Dunlop, John; Davies, Paul A.; Moss, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired neuronal inhibition has long been associated with the increased probability of seizure occurrence and heightened seizure severity. Fast synaptic inhibition in the brain is primarily mediated by the type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs), ligand-gated ion channels that can mediate Cl− influx resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and the restriction of neuronal firing. In most adult brain neurons, the K+/Cl− co-transporter-2 (KCC2) establishes hyperpolarizing GABAergic inhibition by maintaining low [Cl−]i. In this study, we sought to understand how decreased KCC2 transport function affects seizure event severity. We impaired KCC2 transport in the 0-Mg2+ ACSF and 4-aminopyridine in vitro models of epileptiform activity in acute mouse brain slices. Experiments with the selective KCC2 inhibitor VU0463271 demonstrated that reduced KCC2 transport increased the duration of SLEs, resulting in non-terminating discharges of clonic-like activity. We also investigated slices obtained from the KCC2-Ser940Ala (S940A) point-mutant mouse, which has a mutation at a known functional phosphorylation site causing behavioral and cellular deficits under hyperexcitable conditions. We recorded from the entorhinal cortex of S940A mouse brain slices in both 0-Mg2+ ACSF and 4-aminopyridine, and demonstrated that loss of the S940 residue increased the susceptibility of continuous clonic-like discharges, an in vitro form of status epilepticus. Our experiments revealed KCC2 transport activity is a critical factor in seizure event duration and mechanisms of termination. Our results highlight the need for therapeutic strategies that potentiate KCC2 transport function in order to decrease seizure event severity and prevent the development of status epilepticus. PMID:27108931

  4. Monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer P; McKenna, Mary L; Butler, Gregory P

    2010-01-01

    Given the increase in the number of Canadian jurisdictions with school nutrition and/or physical activity policies, there is a need to assess the effectiveness of such policies. The objectives of this paper are to 1) provide an overview of key issues in monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies in Canada and 2) identify areas for further research needed to strengthen the evidence base and inform the development of effective approaches to monitoring and evaluation. Evaluation indicators, data sources and existing tools for evaluating nutrition and physical activity are reviewed. This paper has underscored the importance of identifying common indicators and approaches, using a comprehensive approach based on the WHO framework and ensuring that research capacity and funding is in place to facilitate high-quality evaluation efforts in the future.

  5. Hands-on astronomy activities for the elementary school

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, T.E.; Horne, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    We held a series of astronomy workshops for local school teachers using astronomy activities from a course we give for Elementary Education majors. The school teachers provide us with feedback about successes and failures. Then we try the revised activities in the classroom. Via this in-service and pre-service feedback, the astronomy laboratory activities in the course have been completely revised over the last three years. The activities we use are almost entirely hands-on. The activities include use of log book (or journal) for describing outside-of-class observations of sunsets, phases of the moon, portable sundial, and the somewhat unique method we use to teach the constellations. In addition, all laboratory activity records are kept in the log book. Laboratory activities cover the use of fists to measure degrees, constellations, phases of the moon, relative distances and size of planets, Invent an Alien, lenses, images and telescopes, and the making of a comet. In our poster, based roughly on the theme of the seasons, we will describe a portable, multi-user sundial, length of the day display using newspaper data, two temperature/season activities, and a model demonstration of why the sundial shadows behave as they do.

  6. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  7. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    PubMed Central

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning S.; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting. PMID:25489998

  8. The association between access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting.

    PubMed

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning S; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-12-05

    Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.

  9. Non-Overweight and Overweight Children's Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little research has investigated children's physical activity levels during school recess and the contribution of recess to school day physical activity levels by weight status. The aims of this study were to examine non-overweight and overweight children's physical activity levels during school recess, and examine the contribution of…

  10. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sarah M.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fulton, Janet E.; Spain, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school-based physical activity programs consist of physical education and other physical activity opportunities including recess and other physical activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school initiatives. This article describes the characteristics of school physical education and…

  11. The Effect of School Uniform on Incidental Physical Activity among 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrish, Hannah; Farringdon, Fiona; Bulsara, Max; Hands, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The school setting provides a unique opportunity to promote physical activity in children by ensuring adequate time, appropriate facilities and education guidance is offered. However school uniform design could also limit physical activity. A repeated measures crossover design was used to compare school recess and lunchtime physical activity over…

  12. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kai-Yang; Wu, Min-Chen; Tung, Shu-Chin; Hsieh, City C.; Yao, Hsueh-Hua; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between students’ school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine. School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium) and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents’ physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI), bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump). Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed significantly in

  13. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kai-Yang; Wu, Min-Chen; Tung, Shu-Chin; Hsieh, City C; Yao, Hsueh-Hua; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-01-15

    The relationship between students' school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine.School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium) and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents' physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI), bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump). Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed significantly in

  14. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children's Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Amanda E; Broyles, Stephanie T; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-07-30

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children's health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June-July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5-18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score (BMIz) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth's physical activity and TV viewing.

  15. Association of After-School Physical Activity Levels and Organized Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) describe the children's physical activity (PA) patterns during the after-school period and 2) to compare the type and intensity of activity during the after-school period of children with or without participation in organized PA programmes. The participants were 456 children from four primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  16. Ethnic minority children’s active commuting to school and association with physical activity and pedestrian safety behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's active commuting to school, i.e. walking or cycling to school, was associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, although studies among ethnic minorities are sparse. Among a low-income, ethnic minority sample of fourth grade students from eight public schools, we examine...

  17. The Copenhagen Consensus Conference 2016: children, youth, and physical activity in schools and during leisure time

    PubMed Central

    Bangsbo, Jens; Duda, Joan; Hillman, Charles; Andersen, Lars Bo; Weiss, Maureen; Williams, Craig A; Lintunen, Taru; Green, Ken; Hansen, Peter Riis; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Ericsson, Ingegerd; Nielsen, Glen; Froberg, Karsten; Bugge, Anna; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Dagkas, Symeon; Agergaard, Sine; von Seelen, Jesper; Østergaard, Charlotte; Skovgaard, Thomas; Busch, Henrik; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    From 4 to 7 April 2016, 24 researchers from 8 countries and from a variety of academic disciplines gathered in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity in children and youth, that is, individuals between 6 and 18 years. Physical activity is an overarching term that consists of many structured and unstructured forms within school and out-of-school-time contexts, including organised sport, physical education, outdoor recreation, motor skill development programmes, recess, and active transportation such as biking and walking. This consensus statement presents the accord on the effects of physical activity on children's and youth's fitness, health, cognitive functioning, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion, as well as presenting educational and physical activity implementation strategies. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with presentation of the state-of-the art in each domain followed by plenary and group discussions. Ultimately, Consensus Conference participants reached agreement on the 21-item consensus statement. PMID:27354718

  18. The Copenhagen Consensus Conference 2016: children, youth, and physical activity in schools and during leisure time.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Duda, Joan; Hillman, Charles; Andersen, Lars Bo; Weiss, Maureen; Williams, Craig A; Lintunen, Taru; Green, Ken; Hansen, Peter Riis; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Ericsson, Ingegerd; Nielsen, Glen; Froberg, Karsten; Bugge, Anna; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Schipperijn, Jasper; Dagkas, Symeon; Agergaard, Sine; von Seelen, Jesper; Østergaard, Charlotte; Skovgaard, Thomas; Busch, Henrik; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2016-10-01

    From 4 to 7 April 2016, 24 researchers from 8 countries and from a variety of academic disciplines gathered in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity in children and youth, that is, individuals between 6 and 18 years. Physical activity is an overarching term that consists of many structured and unstructured forms within school and out-of-school-time contexts, including organised sport, physical education, outdoor recreation, motor skill development programmes, recess, and active transportation such as biking and walking. This consensus statement presents the accord on the effects of physical activity on children's and youth's fitness, health, cognitive functioning, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion, as well as presenting educational and physical activity implementation strategies. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with presentation of the state-of-the art in each domain followed by plenary and group discussions. Ultimately, Consensus Conference participants reached agreement on the 21-item consensus statement.

  19. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  20. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  1. Riding to School in a Wheelchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buning, Mary Ellen; Shutrump, Sue; Manary, Miriam A.

    2007-01-01

    Riding on a school bus is one of the safest forms of transportation in the U.S. Every year 450,000 public school buses travel more than 4.3 billion miles to transport 23.5 million children to and from school and school related activities. Students are reportedly eight times safer on the school bus than they are in cars. However, the percentage of…

  2. The Role of Schools in Children's Physical Activity Participation: Staff Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, J.; Dinkel, D.; Coleman, J.; Beighle, A.; Apenteng, B.

    2012-01-01

    The school setting provides a promising environment to increase children's physical activity (PA), however, staff often impact the success of PA within schools. The purpose of this article was to describe the knowledge of elementary school staff related to PA and their perception of the importance of the school environment being conducive to PA…

  3. Promoting Physical Activity in Girls: A Case Study of One School's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Gwen; Saunders, Ruth P.; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2005-01-01

    This case study profiles one of 24 high schools that participated in a school-based, NIH-funded study to increase physical activity among high school girls. The case study school was one of 12 randomly assigned to the intervention group. The study intervention was based on the premise that a successful intervention is developed and tailored by…

  4. Beyond the Classroom: Involving Students with Disabilities in Extracurricular Activities at Levy Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam; And Others

    Six students in a special education classroom at Levy Middle School (Syracuse, New York) became involved in a variety of after-school activities with nondisabled students. The students participated in the school computer club, cross-country skiing, volleyball, stage crew, intramural basketball, the Spanish Club, and after-school programs at two…

  5. Physical Activity Practices in Elementary Schools and Associations with Physical Education Staffing and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lindsey; Johnson, Tyler G.; Slater, Sandy J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Authorities recommend that schools provide a variety of opportunities for students to obtain physical activity (PA) before, during, and after school. This study assessed the prevalence of several school PA practices--including measures of quantity and quality of physical education (PE)--in elementary schools and examined the associations…

  6. Multilevel Analyses of School and Children's Characteristics Associated with Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Zhu, Weimo; Eisenmann, Joey; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children spend most of their awake time at school, and it is important to identify individual and school-level correlates of their physical activity (PA) levels. This study aimed to identify the between-school variability in Portuguese children PA and to investigate student and school PA correlates using multilevel modeling. Methods:…

  7. Active Agents of Health Promotion? The School's Role in Supporting the HPV Vaccination Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Jennifer; Shucksmith, Janet; Philip, Kate; McNaughton, Rebekah

    2013-01-01

    By providing a place in which children can be accessed, the school has long been a site for population-level health initiatives. Recent policy shifts towards health-promoting schools have however re-cast the school from passive host to active collaborator in public health. This paper examines secondary school teachers' views of their roles as…

  8. The Role of Out-of-School English Literacy Activities in Promoting Students' English Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setiasih, Lilies

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the role of out-of-school English literacy activities in promoting students' English literacy at an elementary school in Bandung. The study is an attempt to respond to controversy among decision makers about the idea of offering English at elementary schools and the reality that at the school where the…

  9. A Review of Research on Small-School Student Participation in Extracurricular Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Neil G.; Peltier, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Research reveals that high school students in small schools participate more in extracurricular activities than their peers in large schools; that a high degree of student participation provides opportunities for enhancing leadership, responsibility, and motivation; that students in small schools feel needed; and that the benefits of…

  10. Travel to School and Physical Activity Levels in 9–10 Year-Old UK Children of Different Ethnic Origin; Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ekelund, Ulf; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Travel to school may offer a convenient way to increase physical activity levels in childhood. We examined the association between method of travel to school and physical activity levels in urban multi-ethnic children. Methods and Findings 2035 children (aged 9–10 years in 2006–7) provided data on their usual method of travel to school and wore an Actigraph-GT1M activity monitor during waking hours. Associations between method of travel and mean level of physical activity (counts per minute [CPM], steps, time spent in light, moderate or vigorous activity per day) were examined in models adjusted for confounding variables. 1393 children (69%) walked or cycled to school; 161 (8%) used public transport and 481 (24%) travelled by car. White European children were more likely to walk/cycle, black African Caribbeans to travel by public transport and South Asian children to travel by car. Children travelling by car spent less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (−7 mins, 95%CI-9,-5), and had lower CPM (−32 CPM, 95%CI-44,-19) and steps per day (−813 steps, 95%CI,-1043,-582) than walkers/cyclists. Pupils travelling by public transport had similar activity levels to walkers/cyclists. Lower physical activity levels amongst car travellers' were especially marked at travelling times (school days between 8–9 am, 3–5 pm), but were also evident on weekdays at other times and at weekends; they did not differ by gender or ethnic group. Conclusion Active travel to school is associated with higher levels of objectively measured physical activity, particularly during periods of travel but also at other times. If children travelling by car were to achieve physical activity levels (steps) similar to children using active travel, they would increase their physical activity levels by 9%. However, the population increase would be a modest 2%, because of the low proportion of car travellers in this urban population. PMID:22319596

  11. Effectiveness Research: Transporting Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A) From the Lab to School-Based Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mufson, Laura H.; Dorta, Kristen Pollack; Olfson, Mark; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the process of modifying and transporting an evidence-based treatment, Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A), from a university setting to school-based health clinics. It addresses conceptual issues involved in the shift from efficacy to effectiveness research as well as operational issues specific to…

  12. What Is a Good Activity for Teaching World Literature to High School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razzano, Elaine; Baldwin, Anna E.; Cobbs, Lewis; Whitaker, Sandra; Parker, Jessica; Krajcovic, Frank J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents six educators' ideas for good activities for teaching world literature to high school students. Describes ideas, activities, and experiences with innovative ways to teach World Literature. (SG)

  13. Effects of surfactants and thermodynamic activity of model active ingredient on transport over plant leaf cuticle.

    PubMed

    Fagerström, Anton; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Westbye, Peter; Bergström, Karin; Engblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of molecular transport across the cuticle of Clivia leaves. In vitro diffusion methodology was used to investigate the transport of a systemic fungicide, tebuconazole, over a model silicone membrane, enzymatically isolated cuticle membranes, and dermatomed leaves. It was shown that dermatomed leaves may replace enzymatically isolated cuticles. Furthermore, the effects of two surfactants, C(10)EO(7) and C(8)G(1.6), on the fungicide transport were investigated. Tebuconazole cuticle permeation was described using Fick's first law of diffusion, expressed by the thermodynamic activity of the solute in the membrane. A new method for calculation of diffusion coefficients in the membrane is proposed. To access the thermodynamic activity of the fungicide in the membranes, sorption isotherms of tebuconazole in the membrane materials studied were recorded. The thermodynamic activity of the fungicide in aqueous solutions was calculated from solubility data. For that purpose, the effect of surfactants on tebuconazole solubility was studied. The results show that addition of surfactants allows for higher concentrations of tebuconazole available for penetration. Nonetheless, at a fixed fungicide thermodynamic activity, all formulations produced the same flux over the silicone membrane independently on the fungicide concentration. This shows that the driving force across non-responding membranes is the gradient of thermodynamic activity, rather than the gradient of the fungicide concentration. In case of leaves, surfactants induced the same quantitative increase in both flux and diffusion coefficient of solute in the cuticle, while the cuticle-water partition coefficient was unaffected.

  14. Earth-Shaking Seismology Activities for Middle School Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, S. J.; Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    A sequence of related earthquake and seismology activities provides an effective curriculum unit for inquiry-based science for the middle school level. The activities allow hands-on and in-depth study, progress from relatively simple "low-tech" approaches to more advanced activities emphasizing problem-solving and use of technology, and involve significant practice with science process skills. The unit begins with an earthquake plotting activity in which student teams find recent earthquake information from the Internet and plot epicenters on a classroom map. The activity continues throughout the year and provides opportunities for discovery, connections to other seismology activities, developing map skills, and cooperative learning. Subsequent activities include investigations of plate tectonics, plate boundaries, Earth's interior structure, seismic wave propagation, plotting earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on the computer using Alan Jones' Seismic/Eruption software, earthquake hazards, magnitude and intensity scales, and use of an educational seismograph in the classroom. The near real time monitoring of earthquakes provided by the mapping exercises and the educational seismograph, and the relevance of earthquake studies, generate student excitement and long term impact. We have shared this approach and the activities with K-12 teachers in many professional development settings. Many of the activities are available online at: www.eas.purdue.edu/~braile.

  15. The impact of state safe routes to school-related laws on active travel to school policies and practices in U.S. elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Taber, Daniel R; Slater, Sandy J; Turner, Lindsey; Lowrey, Kerri McGowan; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between state laws requiring minimum bussing distances, hazardous route exemptions, sidewalks, crossing guards, speed zones, and traffic control measures around schools and active travel to school (ATS) policies/practices in nationally representative samples of U.S. public elementary schools between 2007-2009. The state laws and school data were compiled through primary legal research and annual mail-back surveys of principals, respectively. Multivariate logistic and zero-inflated poisson regression indicated that all state law categories (except for sidewalks) relate to ATS. These laws should be considered in addition to formal safe routes to school programs as possible influences on ATS.

  16. School Environment Handbook Part I: Overview and Workshop Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith; And Others

    This handbook, produced by the School Environmental Impact Program (Indiana) was developed to improve school environments and to create more positive attitudes and behaviors in school participants (all those involved in the school and its environment). It is designed to help in the assessment of school conditions by individuals, groups, or school…

  17. Impacting Children's Health and Academic Performance through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusseau, Timothy A.; Hannon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with numerous academic and health benefits. Furthermore, schools have been identified as an ideal location to promote physical activity as most youth attend school regularly from ages 5-18. Unfortunately, in an effort to increase academic learning time, schools have been eliminating traditional activity…

  18. Sustaining Comprehensive Physical Activity Practice in Elementary School: A Case Study Applying Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjomsland, Hege Eikland

    2010-01-01

    This study examines an elementary school which during enrollment in the European Network of Health Promoting Schools, 1993-2003, and the Norwegian Physical Activity and Healthy Meals Project, 2004-2006, selected physical activity (PA) as a prioritized area. Survey data, school documents, and focus group data were collected and analyzed through a…

  19. The Characteristics of the Outdoor School Environment Associated with Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Sallis, James F.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    The school is an important setting for physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between physical environmental characteristics and participation in daily physical activity during school breaks. Data from 130 schools and 16 471 students (Grades 4-10) in Norway were obtained in 2004 through self-administered…

  20. The Walking School Bus and children's physical activity: A pilot cluster randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the impact of a "walking school bus" program on children's rates of active commuting to school and physical activity. We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial among 4th-graders from 8 schools in Houston, Texas (N = 149). Random allocation to treatment or control condition...

  1. Differences in Physical Activity Levels between Urban and Rural School Children in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.; Bennett, Neville

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to examine differences in physical activity levels between urban and rural primary school children. The sample consisted of 256 Greek-Cypriot children and their parents from two schools representing urban areas and three schools representing rural areas. Children's activity levels were assessed for 4 weekdays in the winter and…

  2. The Effect of Extracurricular Activities on Interracial Contact for University and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Elois Skeen; Damico, Sandra Bowman

    1983-01-01

    Reports on a study of whether interracial contact in high school predicts interracial contact in college. Concludes that school-sponsored interracial activities promote cross-race contact at both educational levels. Offers recommendations to school administrators for developing extracurricular activities that encourage interracial contact. (KH)

  3. The Activity System of School-Teaching Mathematics and Mathematical Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julie, Cyril

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the activity system of school-teaching mathematics and the impact of mathematical modeling. Describes the Applications of and Modeling in School Mathematics Project (AMSMAP) which investigates teachers' mathematical modeling and its relationship to a hypothesized school mathematical modeling activity system. Discusses the notion of an…

  4. Promoting Physical Activity in Secondary Schools: Growing Expectations, "Same Old" Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Duncombe, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There are growing expectations on schools to promote health and physical activity and helping schools to effectively do so is considered a priority. This paper reports on selected findings from a research project that was concerned with supporting secondary schools in the effective promotion of physical activity and establishing their needs in…

  5. Implementing Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: A Wayne State University Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeio, Erin E.; McCaughtry, Nate

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) have been highlighted by numerous public health and education agencies for their potential to improve the health and academic achievement of American youth. A CSPAP integrates physical activity throughout the school environment before, during and after school by engaging educators, children,…

  6. Increasing Student Physical Activity during the School Day: Opportunities for the Physical Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Joan D.; Luebbers, Paul E.; Shane, Shawna D.

    2009-01-01

    America is facing an obesity epidemic--one that is difficult to ignore. In order to combat the nation's obesity crisis, it is imperative that schools find ways to increase the physical activity levels of students during the school day, as well as encourage additional activity outside of school. By teaching youth to incorporate physical activity…

  7. Elementary school aerospace activities: A resource for teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The chronological development of the story of man and flight, with emphasis on space flight, is presented in 10 units designed as a resource for elementary school teachers. Future exploration of space and the utlization of space flight capabilities are included. Each unit contains an outline, a list of suggested activities for correlation, a bibliography, and a list of selected audiovisual materials. A glossary of aerospace terms is included. Topics cover: earth characteristics that affect flight; flight in atmosphere, rockets, technological advances, unmanned Earth satellites, umanned exploration of the solar system, life support systems; astronauts, man in space, and projections for the future.

  8. Active zone proteins are transported via distinct mechanisms regulated by Par-1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Kara R.; Sherman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Consistent with a block in axonal transport, we find a decrease in number of active zones and reduced neurotransmission in flies overexpressing Par-1 kinase. Interestingly, we find that Par-1 acts independently of Tau-one of the most well studied substrates of Par-1, revealing a presynaptic function for Par-1 that is independent of Tau. Thus, our study strongly suggests that there are distinct mechanisms that transport components of active zones and that they are tightly regulated. PMID:28222093

  9. These Small Schools Pooled Resources to Beef Up Bare-Bones Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditzler, Lolita

    1984-01-01

    In the Midwest, three types of cooperation among rural school districts have supplemented rural schools' limited curricula and facilities: (1) shared classes, with cooperative transportation between schools; (2) shared classes via cable television; and (3) shared extracurricular activities. (JW)

  10. The physical environment and health-enhancing activity during the school commute: global positioning system, geographical information systems and accelerometry.

    PubMed

    McMinn, David; Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Aitkenhead, Matt J; Johnston, Derek W; Murtagh, Shemane; Rowe, David A

    2014-05-01

    Active school travel is in decline. An understanding of the potential determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute may help to inform interventions aimed at reversing these trends. The purpose of this study was to identify the physical environmental factors associated with health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute. Data were collected in 2009 on 166 children commuting home from school in Scotland. Data on location and physical activity were measured using global positioning systems (GPS) and accelerometers, and mapped using geographical information systems (GIS). Multi-level logistic regression models accounting for repeated observations within participants were used to test for associations between each land-use category (road/track/path, other man-made, greenspace, other natural) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thirty-nine children provided 2,782 matched data points. Over one third (37.1%) of children's school commute time was spent in MVPA. Children commuted approximately equal amounts of time via natural and man-made land-uses (50.2% and 49.8% respectively). Commuting via road/track/path was associated with increased likelihood of MVPA (Exp(B)=1.23, P <0.05), but this association was not seen for commuting via other manmade land-uses. No association was noted between greenspace use and MVPA, but travelling via other natural land-uses was associated with lower odds of MVPA (Exp(B)=0.32, P <0.05). Children spend equal amounts of time commuting to school via man-made and natural land-uses, yet man-made transportation route infrastructure appears to provide greater opportunities for achieving health-enhancing physical activity levels.

  11. Rethinking Middle School Physical Education: Combining Lifetime Leisure Activities and Sport Education to Encourage Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Derek J.; Townsend, J. Scott; Pritchard, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Physical education represents an area of the middle school curriculum that has the potential to impact adolescents' developing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in positive and meaningful ways that may endure across the lifespan. Despite the well-documented benefits of engaging in regular physical activity (e.g., American Heart…

  12. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  13. Urban Middle School African American Girls' Attitudes toward Physical Education and Out-of-School Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle schools…

  14. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  15. Home Schooling and the Request for Access to Public School Extracurricular Activities: A Legal and Policy Study of Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lett, David R.

    This paper reports on a study that examines legal and policy issues surrounding access to public-school extracurricular activities for home-school students. Chapter 1, "The Problem and Its Background," reviews such relevant issues as the history of choice in America and Illinois, legal foundations, regulatory disparities, research…

  16. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  17. Achieving recommended daily physical activity levels through commuting by public transportation: unpacking individual and contextual influences.

    PubMed

    Wasfi, Rania A; Ross, Nancy A; El-Geneidy, Ahmed M

    2013-09-01

    This paper estimates the amount of daily walking associated with using public transportation in a large metropolitan area and examines individual and contextual characteristics associated with walking distances. Total walking distance to and from transit was calculated from a travel diary survey for 6913 individuals. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the underlying factors associated with walking to public transportation. The physical activity benefits of public transportation varied along gender and socio-economic lines. Recommended minutes of daily physical activity can be achieved for public transportation users, especially train users living in affluent suburbs.

  18. Correlation between Electron Transport and Shear Alfven Activity in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stutman, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Tritz, K.; Gorelenkov, N.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaye, S.; Mazzucato, E.

    2009-03-20

    We report the observation of a correlation between shear Alfven eigenmode activity and electron transport in plasma regimes where the electron temperature gradient is flat, and thus the drive for temperature gradient microinstabilities is absent. Plasmas having rapid central electron transport show intense, broadband global Alfven eigenmode (GAE) activity in the 0.5-1.1 MHz range, while plasmas with low transport are essentially GAE-free. The first theoretical assessment of a GAE-electron transport connection indicates that overlapping modes can resonantly couple to the bulk thermal electrons and induce their stochastic diffusion.

  19. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  20. Borreliacidal activity of Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA) binding small molecules by manganese transport inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wagh, Dhananjay; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Liu, Song; Kim, Kwang-Min; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, utilizes manganese (Mn) for its various metabolic needs. We hypothesized that blocking Mn transporter could be a possible approach to inhibit metabolic activity of this pathogen and eliminate the infection. We used a combination of in silico protein structure prediction together with molecular docking to target the Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA), a single known Mn transporter in Borrelia and screened libraries of FDA approved compounds that could potentially bind to the predicted BmtA structure with high affinity. Tricyclic antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-hydroxydesloratadine as well as yohimbine and tadalafil demonstrated a tight binding to the in silico folded BmtA transporter. We, then, tested borreliacidal activity and dose response of the shortlisted compounds from this screen using a series of in vitro assays. Amongst the probed compounds, desloratadine exhibited potent borreliacidal activity in vitro at and above 78 μg/mL (250 μM). Borrelia treated with lethal doses of desloratadine exhibited a significant loss of intracellular Mn specifically and a severe structural damage to the bacterial cell wall. Our results support the possibility of developing a novel, targeted therapy to treat Lyme disease by targeting specific metabolic needs of Borrelia.

  1. Borreliacidal activity of Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA) binding small molecules by manganese transport inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, Dhananjay; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Liu, Song; Kim, Kwang-Min; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, utilizes manganese (Mn) for its various metabolic needs. We hypothesized that blocking Mn transporter could be a possible approach to inhibit metabolic activity of this pathogen and eliminate the infection. We used a combination of in silico protein structure prediction together with molecular docking to target the Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA), a single known Mn transporter in Borrelia and screened libraries of FDA approved compounds that could potentially bind to the predicted BmtA structure with high affinity. Tricyclic antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-hydroxydesloratadine as well as yohimbine and tadalafil demonstrated a tight binding to the in silico folded BmtA transporter. We, then, tested borreliacidal activity and dose response of the shortlisted compounds from this screen using a series of in vitro assays. Amongst the probed compounds, desloratadine exhibited potent borreliacidal activity in vitro at and above 78 μg/mL (250 μM). Borrelia treated with lethal doses of desloratadine exhibited a significant loss of intracellular Mn specifically and a severe structural damage to the bacterial cell wall. Our results support the possibility of developing a novel, targeted therapy to treat Lyme disease by targeting specific metabolic needs of Borrelia. PMID:25709405

  2. Physical activity associated with public transport use--a review and modelling of potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Rissel, Chris; Curac, Nada; Greenaway, Mark; Bauman, Adrian

    2012-07-01

    Active travel, particularly walking and cycling, has been recommended because of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity. Use of public transport generally involves some walking to bus stops or train stations. This paper is a systematic review of how much time is spent in physical activity among adults using public transport. It also explores the potential effect on the population level of physical activity if inactive adults in NSW, Australia, increased their walking through increased use of public transport. Of 1,733 articles, 27 met the search criteria, and nine reported on absolute measures of physical activity associated with public transport. A further 18 papers reported on factors associated with physical activity as part of public transport use. A range of 8-33 additional minutes of walking was identified from this systematic search as being attributable to public transport use. Using "bootstrapping" statistical modelling, if 20% of all inactive adults increased their walking by only 16 minutes a day for five days a week, we predict there would be a substantial 6.97% increase in the proportion of the adult population considered "sufficiently active". More minutes walked per day, or a greater uptake of public transport by inactive adults would likely lead to significantly greater increases in the adult population considered sufficiently active.

  3. School-based physical education programs: evidence-based physical activity interventions for youth in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Soares, Jesus; Torres, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Legetic, Branka; Malta, Deborah C.; Matsudo, Victor; Ramos, Luiz R.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on results of the systematic review from the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Latin America project related to school-based physical education (PE) programs in Latin America. The aims of the article are to describe five school-based PE programs from Latin America, discuss implications for effective school-based PE recommendations, propose approaches for implementing these interventions, and identify gaps in the research literature related to physical activity promotion in Latin American youth. Following the US Community Guide systematic review process, five school-based PE intervention studies with sufficient quality of design, execution and detail of intervention and outcomes were selected for full abstraction. One study was conducted in Brazil, two studies were conducted in Chile and two studies were conducted on the US/Mexico border. While studies presented assorted outcomes, methods and duration of interventions, there were consistent positive increases in physical activity levels for all outcomes measured during PE classes, endurance and active transportation to school in all three randomized studies. Except for one cohort from one study, the non-randomized studies showed positive intervention effects for moderate and vigorous physical activity levels during PE classes. The core elements of these five interventions included capacity building and staff training (PE specialists and/or classroom teachers); changes in the PE curricula; provision of equipment and materials; and adjustment of the interventions to specific target populations. In order to translate the strong evidence for school-based PE into practice, systematic attention to policy and implementation issues is required. (Global Health Promotion, 2010; 17(2): pp. 05–15) PMID:20587626

  4. School-based physical education programs: evidence-based physical activity interventions for youth in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Soares, Jesus; Torres, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Legetic, Branka; Malta, Deborah C; Matsudo, Victor; Ramos, Luiz R; Simoes, Eduardo J; Brownson, Ross C

    2010-06-01

    This article focuses on results of the systematic review from the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Latin America project related to school-based physical education (PE) programs in Latin America. The aims of the article are to describe five school-based PE programs from Latin America, discuss implications for effective school-based PE recommendations, propose approaches for implementing these interventions, and identify gaps in the research literature related to physical activity promotion in Latin American youth. Following the US Community Guide systematic review process, five school-based PE intervention studies with sufficient quality of design, execution and detail of intervention and outcomes were selected for full abstraction. One study was conducted in Brazil, two studies were conducted in Chile and two studies were conducted on the US/Mexico border. While studies presented assorted outcomes, methods and duration of interventions, there were consistent positive increases in physical activity levels for all outcomes measured during PE classes, endurance and active transportation to school in all three randomized studies. Except for one cohort from one study, the non-randomized studies showed positive intervention effects for moderate and vigorous physical activity levels during PE classes. The core elements of these five interventions included capacity building and staff training (PE specialists and/or classroom teachers); changes in the PE curricula; provision of equipment and materials; and adjustment of the interventions to specific target populations. In order to translate the strong evidence for school-based PE into practice, systematic attention to policy and implementation issues is required.

  5. Alignment of Hands-on STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-12-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in activities such as an after-school robotics program. Both groups are compared and contrasted with a third group of high school students admitted at the eleventh grade to an academy of mathematics and science. All students were assessed using the same science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) dispositions instrument. Findings indicate that the after-school group whose participants self-selected STEM engagement activities, and the self-selected academy of mathematics and science group, each had highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to those of STEM professionals, while a subset of the middle school whole-classroom energy monitoring group that reported high interest in STEM as a career, also possessed highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to the STEM Professionals group. The authors conclude that several different kinds of hands-on STEM engagement activities are likely to foster or maintain positive STEM dispositions at the middle school and high school levels, and that these highly positive levels of dispositions can be viewed as a target toward which projects seeking to interest mainstream secondary students in STEM majors in college and STEM careers, can hope to aspire. Gender findings regarding STEM dispositions are also reported for these groups.

  6. Physical Activity Associated with Public Transport Use—A Review and Modelling of Potential Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Rissel, Chris; Curac, Nada; Greenaway, Mark; Bauman, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Active travel, particularly walking and cycling, has been recommended because of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity. Use of public transport generally involves some walking to bus stops or train stations. This paper is a systematic review of how much time is spent in physical activity among adults using public transport. It also explores the potential effect on the population level of physical activity if inactive adults in NSW, Australia, increased their walking through increased use of public transport. Of 1,733 articles, 27 met the search criteria, and nine reported on absolute measures of physical activity associated with public transport. A further 18 papers reported on factors associated with physical activity as part of public transport use. A range of 8–33 additional minutes of walking was identified from this systematic search as being attributable to public transport use. Using “bootstrapping” statistical modelling, if 20% of all inactive adults increased their walking by only 16 minutes a day for five days a week, we predict there would be a substantial 6.97% increase in the proportion of the adult population considered “sufficiently active”. More minutes walked per day, or a greater uptake of public transport by inactive adults would likely lead to significantly greater increases in the adult population considered sufficiently active. PMID:22851954

  7. Drug Transporter Expression and Activity in Human Hepatoma HuH-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vée, Marc; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatoma cells may represent a valuable alternative to the use of human hepatocytes for studying hepatic drug transporters, which is now a regulatory issue during drug development. In the present work, we have characterized hepatic drug transporter expression, activity and regulation in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells, in order to determine the potential relevance of these cells for drug transport assays. HuH-7 cells displayed notable multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) activity, presumed to reflect expression of various hepatic MRPs, including MRP2. By contrast, they failed to display functional activities of the uptake transporters sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), and of the canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Concomitantly, mRNA expressions of various sinusoidal and canalicular hepatic drug transporters were not detected (NTCP, OATP1B1, organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), OCT1 and bile salt export pump) or were found to be lower (OATP1B3, OATP2B1, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1, BCRP and MRP3) in hepatoma HuH-7 cells than those found in human hepatocytes, whereas other transporters such as OAT7, MRP4 and MRP5 were up-regulated. HuH-7 cells additionally exhibited farnesoid X receptor (FXR)- and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-related up-regulation of some transporters. Such data indicate that HuH-7 cells, although expressing rather poorly some main hepatic drug transporters, may be useful for investigating interactions of drugs with MRPs, notably MRP2, and for studying FXR- or Nrf2-mediated gene regulation. PMID:28036031

  8. The Role of School Environment in Physical Activity among Brazilian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado; Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Silva, Kelly Samara; Claro, Rafael Moreira; França-Junior, Ivan; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Eluf-Neto, José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association of physical activity facilities and extracurricular sports activities in schools with physical activity among adolescents. Methodology/Principal Findings We used data collected for the National Survey of School Health in 2012. The national representative sample comprised 109,104 Brazilian students from 2,842 schools. We calculated the prevalence of participation in physical education classes, leisure-time physical activity, and total physical activity level. We also evaluated the following physical activity facilities: sports courts, running/athletics tracks, schoolyard with teacher-directed physical activities, swimming pools, locker rooms; and the offer of extracurricular sports activities. Schools with at least one physical activity facility had increased odds of participation in physical education (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.10). However, in order to increase leisure-time physical activity (OR1.14; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26) and total physical activity level (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.24) at least four and two facilities, respectively, were necessary. Extracurricular sports activities in schools were positively associated with leisure-time physical activity and physical activity level. The number of sports courts and swimming pool in a school were associated with participation in physical education classes. Availability of sports courts, running/athletics tracks, and swimming pool in schools were associated with leisure-time physical activity. Total physical activity was associated with schools with sports courts, schoolyard with teacher-directed physical activities, and swimming pool. Conclusions School-level characteristics have important potential to increase the possibility of engagement in physical activity in and out of school, and therefore have a fundamental role in promoting these practices. PMID:26098906

  9. Opposite-polarity motors activate one another to trigger cargo transport in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Ally, Shabeen; Larson, Adam G.; Barlan, Kari; Rice, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular transport is typically bidirectional, consisting of a series of back and forth movements. Kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein require each other for bidirectional transport of intracellular cargo along microtubules; i.e., inhibition or depletion of kinesin-1 abolishes dynein-driven cargo transport and vice versa. Using Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we demonstrate that replacement of endogenous kinesin-1 or dynein with an unrelated, peroxisome-targeted motor of the same directionality activates peroxisome transport in the opposite direction. However, motility-deficient versions of motors, which retain the ability to bind microtubules and hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate, do not activate peroxisome motility. Thus, any pair of opposite-polarity motors, provided they move along microtubules, can activate one another. These results demonstrate that mechanical interactions between opposite-polarity motors are necessary and sufficient for bidirectional organelle transport in live cells. PMID:20038680

  10. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities in Electrochemistry: High School Students' Achievements and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental (N =…

  11. Riding to the Rescue while Holding on by a Thread: Physical Activity in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katherine Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The public health burden of obesity, overweight, and physical inactivity suggests schools be actively involved in prevention and treatment. Schools were challenged to take action by the Surgeon General in 2001. Few resources have been allocated to support the schools and in the presence of budget and high stakes testing pressure, resources are…

  12. A Multilevel Assessment of School Climate, Bullying Victimization, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Caterina G.; Taylor, Caitlin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study integrated criminological and public health perspectives to examine the influence of bullying victimization and the school environment on physical activity (PA). Methods: We used a weighted sample of 7786 US middle school students surveyed as part of the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study to conduct a multilevel…

  13. Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in the After-School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Karen J.; Geller, Karly S.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: No research to date has extensively described moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and healthful eating (HE) opportunities in the after-school environment. The current study described the quality of the after-school environment for its impact on children's MVPA and HE. Methods: An alliance of 7 elementary schools and Boys and…

  14. Promoting Physical Activity in Elementary Schools: Needs Assessment and a Pilot Study of Brain Breaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera, Thushanthi; Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    A sedentary life style contributes to many chronic diseases and poor educational performance. Since elementary school-aged children spend most wakeful hours in school, classroom teachers are essential for providing physical activity (PA) breaks during school. As first objective, we assessed current PA levels for Oregon public elementary schools…

  15. Outside-School Physical Activity Participation and Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Experience in non-school contexts can shape and reshape students' motivation and mediate their learning in school. Outside-school physical activity may provide students with an extensive cognitive and affective foundation and influence their motivation in physical education. Although a trans-contextual effect of physical education has…

  16. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief presents the results of the study in the area of physical activity, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; (2) Physical…

  17. Writing Chemistry Jingles as an Introductory Activity in a High School Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Starting the school year in an introductory high school chemistry class can be a challenge. The topic and approach is new to the students; many of the early chapters in the texts can be a bit tedious; and for many students the activities are uninspiring. My goal in the first few weeks of school is to hook the students on chemistry by getting them…

  18. The Effects of Extracurricular Activity, Ethnic Identification, and Perception of School on Student Dropout Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davalos, Deana B.; Chavez, Ernest L.; Guardiola, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of 2,621 Anglo and Mexican-American secondary school students and dropouts in the Southwest found that individuals participating in extracurricular activities were 2.3 times more likely to remain in school than nonparticipants. For Mexican Americans, high levels of Anglo ethnic identity were related to being in school and having positive…

  19. Using an agent-based model to simulate children’s active travel to school

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the multiple advantages of active travel to school, only a small percentage of US children and adolescents walk or bicycle to school. Intervention studies are in a relatively early stage and evidence of their effectiveness over long periods is limited. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the utility of agent-based models in exploring how various policies may influence children’s active travel to school. Methods An agent-based model was developed to simulate children’s school travel behavior within a hypothetical city. The model was used to explore the plausible implications of policies targeting two established barriers to active school travel: long distance to school and traffic safety. The percent of children who walk to school was compared for various scenarios. Results To maximize the percent of children who walk to school the school locations should be evenly distributed over space and children should be assigned to the closest school. In the case of interventions to improve traffic safety, targeting a smaller area around the school with greater intensity may be more effective than targeting a larger area with less intensity. Conclusions Despite the challenges they present, agent based models are a useful complement to other analytical strategies in studying the plausible impact of various policies on active travel to school. PMID:23705953

  20. Active Travel to School: Views of 10-13 Year Old Schoolchildren in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Inchley, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the views of Scottish schoolchildren on active travel to school and their ideas about promotion strategies for school-based interventions. Design/methodology/approach: Focus group discussions were conducted with 66 students from four primary and three secondary schools. Findings: The most common…

  1. Partnering with School Nutrition Professionals to Promote Fruit and Vegetable Intake through Taste-Testing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirignano, Sherri M.; Hughes, Luanne J.; Wu-Jung, Corey J.; Morgan, Kathleen; Grenci, Alexandra; Savoca, LeeAnne

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010 sets new nutrition standards for schools, requiring them to serve a greater variety and quantity of fruits and vegetables. Extension educators in New Jersey partnered with school nutrition professionals to implement a school wellness initiative that included taste-testing activities to support…

  2. Predictors of children's active commuting to school: An observational evaluation in 5 U.S. communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few reports examined long term predictors of children's active commuting to school (walking or cycling to school, ACS). The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of ACS over 1 school year among a sample of children with relatively high rates of ACS. Parents were surveyed in September 201...

  3. The Association between Socio-Ecological Factors and Having an After-School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Ragnar; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Martelaer, Kristine; Seghers, Jan; De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-01

    Background: After-school physical activity (PA) programs promote PA among youth. Few studies have used socio-ecological health models to identify barriers and facilitators of after-school PA programs. This study examined which socio-ecological factors are associated with having an after-school PA program. Methods: A questionnaire was administered…

  4. An Objective Assessment of Children's Physical Activity during the Keep It Moving! After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuna, John M., Jr.; Lauersdorf, Rebekah L.; Behrens, Timothy K.; Liguori, Gary; Liebert, Mina L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: After-school programs may provide valuable opportunities for children to accumulate healthful physical activity (PA). This study assessed the PA of third-, fourth-, and ?fth-grade children in the Keep It Moving! (KIM) after-school PA program, which was implemented in an ethnically diverse and low socioeconomic status school district in…

  5. School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity: Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Schools play a critical role in improving the dietary and physical activity behaviors of students. Schools can create an environment supportive of students' efforts to eat healthily and be active by implementing policies and practices that support healthy eating and regular physical activity and by providing opportunities for students to learn…

  6. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) Version. Method: This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students…

  7. Engaging Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    With school-based physical activity emerging as a public health issue, it is more important than ever to understand what keeps children and adolescents interested and participating in physical education and physical activity. As the research on physical activity patterns indicates, the middle school years may be a watershed moment in the lives of…

  8. Mediators of change following a senior school physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the low level of effectiveness of youth interventions is due to a lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms responsible for behaviour change. The identification of behaviour mediators is necessary for the progression of physical activity research, as it allows researchers to determine which components of an intervention are responsible for mediating behaviour change. The purpose of this study was to identify mediators of behaviour change in a physical activity intervention for senior school students. Participants (n=78) were randomly allocated to control or intervention conditions for a period of 10 weeks. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and potential mediators were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (10 weeks). Hypothesized mediators were derived from Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and included: peer support, exercise self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. Mediation was assessed using the product-of-coefficients test described by MacKinnon and colleagues, based on the criteria for mediation identified by Baron and Kenny. While none of the variables satisfied all four criteria for mediation among males or females, self-efficacy was able to satisfy the first three criteria among females in the study. Exercise self-efficacy may be a mediator of physical activity behaviour in adolescent girls.

  9. Regulation of hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Simon; Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Fardel, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides constitute a major class of persistent and toxic organic pollutants, known to modulate drug-detoxifying enzymes. In the present study, OCs were demonstrated to also alter the activity and expression of human hepatic drug transporters. Activity of the sinusoidal influx transporter OCT1 (organic cation transporter 1) was thus inhibited by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, lindane, and dieldrine, but not by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers, whereas those of the canalicular efflux pumps MRP2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein) were blocked by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, and chlordecone; this latter OC additionally inhibited the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. OCs, except endosulfan, were next found to induce MDR1/P-gp and MRP2 mRNA expressions in hepatoma HepaRG cells; some of them also upregulated BCRP. By contrast, expression of sinusoidal transporters was not impaired (organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP2B1) or was downregulated (sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) and OCT1). Such regulations of drug transporter activity and expression, depending on the respective nature of OCs and transporters, may contribute to the toxicity of OC pesticides.

  10. Multimotor transport in a system of active and inactive kinesin-1 motors.

    PubMed

    Scharrel, Lara; Ma, Rui; Schneider, René; Jülicher, Frank; Diez, Stefan

    2014-07-15

    Long-range directional transport in cells is facilitated by microtubule-based motor proteins. One example is transport in a nerve cell, where small groups of motor proteins, such as kinesins and cytoplasmic dynein, work together to ensure the supply and clearance of cellular material along the axon. Defects in axonal transport have been linked to Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is not known in detail how multimotor-based cargo transport is impaired if a fraction of the motors are defective. To mimic impaired multimotor transport in vitro, we performed gliding motility assays with varying fractions of active kinesin-1 motors and inactive kinesin-1 motor mutants. We found that impaired transport manifests in multiple motility regimes: 1), a fast-motility regime characterized by gliding at velocities close to the single-molecule velocity of the active motors; 2), a slow-motility regime characterized by gliding at close-to zero velocity or full stopping; and 3), a regime in which fast and slow motilities coexist. Notably, the transition from the fast to the slow regime occurred sharply at a threshold fraction of active motors. Based on single-motor parameters, we developed a stochastic model and a mean-field theoretical description that explain our experimental findings. Our results demonstrate that impaired multimotor transport mostly occurs in an either/or fashion: depending on the ratio of active to inactive motors, transport is either performed at close to full speed or is out of action.

  11. Head Start Parent Involvement Activities: Measuring the Effect of School Based Parent Involvement Activities on Parent Efficacy in Early Childhood Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadri, Khadijat O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this position paper was to examine the impact of school based parent involvement activities on parent efficacy. Methodology: The paper explores research studies into school based activities on long term parent efficacy. Conclusions: Most schools are involving parents in school-based activities in a variety of ways but the…

  12. Overcoming Legal Liability Concerns for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Sara; Kramer, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a priority environment for physical activity promotion as a component of efforts to help prevent childhood obesity. A variety of school-based environmental and programmatic strategies have been proven effective in promoting physical activity both on-site and in the surrounding community. However, many schools are deterred by fears of increased risk of legal liability for personal injuries. We examine 3 school-based strategies for promoting physical activity—Safe Routes to School programs, joint use agreements, and playground enhancement—from a tort liability perspective, and describe how schools can substantially minimize any associated liability risk through injury prevention and other strategies. We also recommend approaches to help schools overcome their liability concerns and adopt these critically needed healthy school policies. PMID:24028226

  13. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  14. Transporting Motivational Interviewing to School Settings to Improve the Engagement and Fidelity of Tier 2 Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andy J.; Lee, Jon; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.; Feil, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of Tier 2 interventions are facilitated by specialized instructional support personnel, such as a school psychologists, school social workers, school counselors, or behavior consultants. Many professionals struggle to involve parents and teachers in Tier 2 behavior interventions. However, attention to the motivational issues for…

  15. Individual Public Transportation Accessibility is Positively Associated with Self-Reported Active Commuting

    PubMed Central

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age, and gender. Methods: Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred twenty-eight commuters in The Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multi-modal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the association between accessibility, expressed as access area, and being an active commuter. Results: Public transport accessibility area based on all stops within walking and cycling distance was positively associated with being an active commuter. Distance to work, age, and gender modified the associations. Residing within 10 km commute distance and in areas of high accessibility was associated with being an active commuter and meeting the recommendations of physical activity. For the respondents above 29 years, individual public transportation accessibility was positively associated with being an active commuter. Women having high accessibility had significantly higher odds of being an active commuter compared to having a low accessibility. For men, the associations were insignificant. Conclusion: This study extends the knowledge about the driving forces of using public transportation for commuting by examining the individual public transportation accessibility. Findings suggest that transportation accessibility supports active commuting and planning

  16. Inhibition of Human Drug Transporter Activities by the Pyrethroid Pesticides Allethrin and Tetramethrin

    PubMed Central

    Chedik, Lisa; Bruyere, Arnaud; Le Vee, Marc; Stieger, Bruno; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Potin, Sophie; Fardel, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Pyrethroids are widely-used chemical insecticides, to which humans are commonly exposed, and known to alter functional expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. Limited data have additionally suggested that drug transporters, that constitute key-actors of the drug detoxification system, may also be targeted by pyrethroids. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the potential regulatory effects of these pesticides towards activities of main ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters, using transporter-overexpressing cells. The pyrethroids allethrin and tetramethrin were found to inhibit various ABC and SLC drug transporters, including multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion transporter polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, organic anion transporter (OAT) 3, multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter (MATE) 1, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and OCT2, with IC50 values however ranging from 2.6 μM (OCT1 inhibition by allethrin) to 77.6 μM (OAT3 inhibition by tetramethrin) and thus much higher than pyrethroid concentrations (in the nM range) reached in environmentally pyrethroid-exposed humans. By contrast, allethrin and tetramethrin cis-stimulated OATP2B1 activity and failed to alter activities of OATP1B3, OAT1 and MATE2-K, whereas P-glycoprotein activity was additionally moderately inhibited. Twelve other pyrethoids used at 100 μM did not block activities of the various investigated transporters, or only moderately inhibited some of them (inhibition by less than 50%). In silico analysis of structure-activity relationships next revealed that molecular parameters, including molecular weight and lipophilicity, are associated with transporter inhibition by allethrin/tetramethrin and successfully predicted transporter inhibition by the pyrethroids imiprothrin and prallethrin. Taken together, these data fully demonstrated that two pyrethoids, i.e., allethrin and tetramethrin, can

  17. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  18. Molecular features of the prazosin molecule required for activation of Transport-P.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joaquim Fernando Mendes; Walters, Marcus; Al-Damluji, Saad; Ganellin, C Robin

    2008-08-01

    Closely related structural analogues of prazosin have been synthesised and tested for inhibition and activation of Transport-P in order to identify the structural features of the prazosin molecule that appear to be necessary for activation of Transport-P. So far, all the compounds tested are less active than prazosin. It is shown that the structure of prazosin appears to be very specific for the activation. Only quinazolines have been found to activate, and the presence of the 6,7-dimethoxy and 4-amino groups appears to be critically important.

  19. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007–08 (N = 513) and 2011–12 (N = 490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income. Results After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time. Conclusion Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools. PMID:24731514

  20. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Conveys Familial Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder through Striatal Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Fossella, John A.; Mulder, Martijn J.; Casey B. J.; Ziermans, Tim B.; Vessaz, M. Nathalie; Van Engeland, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effect of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results confirm that DAT1 translates the genetic risk of ADHD through striatal activation.

  1. Development and testing of heat transport fluids for use in active solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Work on heat transport fluids for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is described. Program objectives and how they were accomplished including problems encountered during testing are discussed.

  2. 76 FR 73020 - Agency Information Collection (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement): Activity Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... unable to pursue training or employment without travel assistance. An agency may not conduct or sponsor... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement): Activity...

  3. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) version. Methods This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students during the school day. Inter-observer agreement scores and summary data were calculated. Results All categories had Kappa statistics above 0.80, with the exception of the activity initiator category. Inter-observer agreement scores were 96% or greater. The OSRAC-E was shown to be a reliable observation system that allows researchers to assess physical activity behaviors, the contexts of those behaviors, and the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in the school environment. Conclusion The OSRAC-E can yield data with high interobserver reliability and provide relatively extensive contextual information about physical activity of students in elementary schools. PMID:26889587

  4. The Role of Flexible Loops in Folding, Trafficking and Activity of Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, Jaya; Tran, Lucky; Machaca, Khaled; Boudker, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are integral membrane proteins, which reside in plasma membranes of all eukaryotic cells and mediate thermodynamically downhill transport of nucleosides. This process is essential for nucleoside recycling, and also plays a key role in terminating adenosine-mediated cellular signaling. Furthermore, ENTs mediate the uptake of many drugs, including anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogues. The structure and mechanism, by which ENTs catalyze trans-membrane transport of their substrates, remain unknown. To identify the core of the transporter needed for stability, activity, and for its correct trafficking to the plasma membrane, we have expressed human ENT deletion mutants in Xenopus laevis oocytes and determined their localization, transport properties and susceptibility to inhibition. We found that the carboxyl terminal trans-membrane segments are essential for correct protein folding and trafficking. In contrast, the soluble extracellular and intracellular loops appear to be dispensable, and must be involved in the fine-tuning of transport regulation.

  5. Statistics of active transport in Xenopus melanophores cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Snezhko, A.; Barlan, K.; Aranson, I. S.; Gelfand, V. I.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-11-01

    The transport of cell cargo, such as organelles and protein complexes in the cytoplasm, is determined by cooperative action of molecular motors stepping along polar cytoskeletal elements. Analysis of transport of individual organelles generated useful information about the properties of the motor proteins and underlying cytoskeletal elements. In this work, for the first time (to our knowledge), we study collective movement of multiple organelles using Xenopus melanophores, pigment cells that translocate several thousand of pigment granules (melanosomes), spherical organelles of a diameter of {approx} 1 {micro}m. These cells disperse melanosomes in the cytoplasm in response to high cytoplasmic cAMP, while at low cAMP melanosomes cluster at the cell center. Obtained results suggest spatial and temporal organization, characterized by strong correlations between movement of neighboring organelles, with correlation length of {approx} 4 {micro}m and pair lifetime {approx} 5 s. Furthermore, velocity statistics revealed strongly non-Gaussian velocity distribution with high velocity tails demonstrating exponential behavior suggestive of strong velocity correlations. Depolymerization of vimentin intermediate filaments using a dominant-negative vimentin mutant or actin with cytochalasin B reduced correlation of behavior of individual particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that steric repulsion is dominant, but both intermediate filaments and actin microfilaments are involved in dynamic cross-linking organelles in the cytoplasm.

  6. Auxin Activity of Substituted Benzoic Acids and Their Effect on Polar Auxin Transport 1

    PubMed Central

    Keitt, George W.; Baker, Robert A.

    1966-01-01

    Six dichloro-, 3 trichloro-, 2 triiodo-, and 3 heterosubstituted benzoic acids (amiben, dinoben, dicamba), and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid have been tested for effects on growth and on polar auxin transport. Growth activity with and without kinetin was measured by effects on fresh and dry weights of 30-day cultures of fresh tobacco pith. Transport inhibition was measured by following uptake and output of IAA-2-14C through 10 mm bean epicotyl sections. The distribution of callus growth on vascularized tobacco stem segments was also observed. Avena first internode extension assays established the relative activities: dicamba > amiben > dinoben suggested by pith growth results. Growth effects of active compounds were similar with and without kinetin, except that amiben was less active with kinetin, while 2,3,6-trichlorobenzoic acid was more active with kinetin than alone. The weak auxin activity of NPA was confirmed. Transport experiments showed that NPA was the most inhibitory compound tested, followed by TIBA. Other compounds tested were at least 300 times less inhibitory to IAA transport. The best growth promoters were the least inhibitory to transport, and the most effective transport inhibitors were at best poor auxins. It is suggested that the weak auxin and auxin synergistic activity of TIBA (and perhaps 2,3-dichlorobenzoic acid) in extension growth tests arises from its inhibition of transport of endogenous or added auxin out of the sections, rather than from its intrinsic auxin activity. Chemically induced apolar callus growth on vascularized tobacco stem explants can arise from inhibition of native auxin transport, apolar growth stimulation by auxinic action of the test compound, or both. PMID:16656441

  7. Active Supervision: An Intervention to Reduce High School Tardiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Gros, Kristin N.; Lyons, Elizabeth A.; Griffin, Jennifer R.

    2008-01-01

    One proactive approach to aid in reducing disciplinary problems in schools is implementing Positive Behavior Support (PBS) strategies. To successfully implement PBS school-wide, Sugai and Horner (2002a) emphasize a multisystems perspective, which focuses on school-wide discipline, classroom management, non-classroom settings, and individual…

  8. Injecting Computational Thinking into Computing Activities for Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Heidi Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Advances in technology have caused high schools to update their computer science curricula; however there has been little analogous attention to technology-related education in middle schools. With respect to computer-related knowledge and skills, middle school students are at a critical phase in life, exploring individualized education options…

  9. Parent Education and Consultation Activities of School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Martin H.; Partin, Ronald L.

    1994-01-01

    Assessed extent and nature of involvement of school counselors in parenting skills training and parent consultation. Findings from 213 elementary and secondary school counselors revealed that school counselors on all levels recognized importance of working with parents for benefit of students, yet many had little contact with parents. Many…

  10. Effect of a school-based active play intervention on sedentary time and physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, M V; Fairclough, S J; Ridgers, N D; Knowles, Z R; Foweather, L; Stratton, G

    2013-12-01

    Early childhood is a critical time for promoting physical activity. Few studies have investigated the effect of interventions in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a school-based active play intervention on preschool children's sedentary time and physical activity. Preschool children were recruited from randomly selected preschools. Schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or comparison group. One teacher per intervention school received training from active play professionals in the delivery of a 6-week active play programme. Comparison schools continued their usual practice. Children wore a uni-axial accelerometer for 7 days at baseline, immediately after and at 6-month post-intervention. No significant intervention effects were observed for sedentary time or physical activity. However, sex and hours spent at school were significant predictors of physical activity. Children who spent fewer hours (half-day children) at school were significantly more active than their full-day counterparts. Physical activity during the intervention classes was high even though neither daily physical activity nor sedentary time changed. Notably children who spent more time at preschool were less active suggesting that preschool was not as conducive to physical activity engagement as other environments.

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of After-School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Sommer, Evan C.; Lambert, E. Warren; Vides de Andrade, Ana Regina; Davis, Lauren; Beech, Bettina M.; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Neloms, Stevon; Ryan, Colleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. Methods. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. Results. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7). Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P < .001). Cost analysis suggested that children attending traditional school-based ASPs—at an average cost of $17.67 per day—would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. Conclusions. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program. PMID:23984052

  12. Wind for Schools: A National Data and Curricula Development Activity for Schools (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2011-05-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America?s Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by: 1) Developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; WAC students assist in implementing school wind turbines and participate in wind courses. 2) Installing small wind turbines at community 'host' schools. 3) Implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school.

  13. Shared use agreements and leisure time physical activity in North Carolina public schools.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Troy A; Kanters, Michael A; Bocarro, Jason N; Floyd, Myron F; Edwards, Michael B; Suau, Luis J

    2017-02-01

    Although increasing community access to public schools through shared use agreements (SUAs) has been a recommended strategy for promoting physical activity (PA) among national, state and local organizations, empirical evidence examining the efficacy of SUAs is limited. This study examined the degree of usage and production of PA among schools with shared use, and how variation in PA output is related to characteristics of the school, type of activity, facility type, and when activity occurs. Data were collected in 20 schools across North Carolina using System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) and Structured Physical Activity Surveys (SPAS) to assess PA in school athletic facilities during out of school time. Findings indicated that although schools had a policy of shared or open use, most facilities were empty during non-school hours. Hierarchal linear regression models also showed that formal programming was positively associated with both use and PA levels. Given the abundance of empty facilities, community groups in need of space to facilitate structured PA programs should pursue avenues of sharing facilities with public schools. Furthermore, to increase the efficacy of shared use, structured physical activity programs may be needed. Future studies are encouraged to further explore the effects of the specific types of shared use programs on PA production as well other aspects of the built environment surrounding schools.

  14. Barrier Crossing and Transport Activated by Kangaroo Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostur, M.; Luczka, J.

    1999-01-01

    We study barrier crossing of Brownian particles in a bistable symmetric potential and transport of Brownian particles in spatially periodic structures, driven by both kangaroo fluctuations and thermal equilibrium noise of zero mean values. We consider exponentially and algebraically correlated kangaroo fluctuations. Starting with the full Newton--Langevin equation for the Brownian particle and by introducing scaling as well as dimensionless variables, we show that the equation is very well approximated by overdamped dynamics in which inertial effects can be neglected. We analyze properties of selected macroscopic characteristics of the system such as the mean first passage time (MFPT) of particles from one minimum of the bistable potential to the other and mean stationary velocity of particles moving in a spatially periodic potential. In dependence upon statistics of kangaroo fluctuations and temperature of the system, macroscopic characteristics exhibit distinctive non-monotonic behavior. Accordingly, there exist optimal statistics of fluctuations optimizing macroscopic characteristics.

  15. School Involvement Leave: Providing Leave for Parental Involvement in School Activities. Policy Briefing Series. Issue 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlew, Mary; Weber, Julie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors in school performance is parental involvement. However, many parents do not have the flexibility in their work schedules or the leave policies necessary to attend school functions. As a result, legislators are creating policies to address this issue. School involvement leave policies provide parents with…

  16. Physical Activity and School Performance: A Survey among Students Not Qualified for Upper Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Ingegerd; Cederberg, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many students leave compulsory school without being qualified to apply for national upper secondary school programmes. Despite efforts, the number of unqualified students in Sweden has increased. Grades from compulsory school have direct implications for students' educational futures and the requirement to qualify for an upper…

  17. Differential effects of school experiences on active citizenship among German and Turkish-origin students.

    PubMed

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter

    2016-12-14

    While research suggests that schools can foster active citizenship among youth, studies have not tested whether ethnic minority youth may benefit differently from school experiences than ethnic majority youth. In this study of 219 students (138 German majority and 81 Turkish-origin minority; Mage  = 18.26; 55% females), we examined the association between different experiences at school and 4 indicators of youth active citizenship, controlling for various socio-demographic characteristics. Although value of social studies was associated with three out of four active citizenship indicators among both ethnic groups, the effects of the other school-related variables on active citizenship were moderated by ethnicity. Specifically, indicators of classroom climate, such as open classroom climate and classroom community, were only associated with greater active citizenship among Turkish-minority youth, while participatory factors, such as engagement in school decisions, were only associated with active citizenship among native German youth.

  18. Activated Transport in the Separate Layers that Form the νT=1 Exciton Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, R. D.; Lok, J. G.; Kraus, S.; Dietsche, W.; von Klitzing, K.; Schuh, D.; Bichler, M.; Tranitz, H.-P.; Wegscheider, W.

    2004-12-01

    We observe the total filling factor νT=1 quantum Hall state in a bilayer two-dimensional electron system with virtually no tunneling. We find thermally activated transport in the balanced system with a monotonic increase of the activation energy with decreasing d/ℓB below 1.65. In the imbalanced system we find activated transport in each of the layers separately, yet the activation energies show a striking asymmetry around the balance point, implying a different excitation spectrum for the separate layers forming the condensed state.

  19. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dacey, Marie L.; Kennedy, Mary A.; Polak, Rani; Phillips, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions Current results provide some support for

  20. Role of thyroxine on postnatal development of ileal active bile salt transport

    SciTech Connect

    Heubi, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    The role of thyroid hormone on the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport uptake was measured by an in vitro incubation technique in Sprague-Dawley rats. In 16-day-old rats treated with pharmacological doses of L-thyroxine ileal active transport appeared precociously whose K/sub m/ was 1.60 +/- 0.48 mM and V/sub app/ was 8.09 +/- 1.14 nmol min mg dry wt , while age-matched shams had only passive diffusion of taurocholate. To determine whether enhanced endogenous secretion of thyroxine was capable of stimulating development of ileal active taurocholate transport, thyrotrophic stimulating hormone (TSH) was given on days 10-13, with uptake measured on day 16. Following TSH treatment, only passive transport for taurocholate was observed in the ileum; uptake rates were consistently higher than those for untreated controls at each study concentration. Thyroidectomy performed at age 14 days with uptake measured at age 21 days did not ablate development of ileal active transport but resulted in a significant reduction in the V/sub app/ and a significant increase in K/sub m/ compared with age-matched controls. Thyroid hormone does not appear to be obligatory for the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport.

  1. Electron transfer activation of a second water channel for proton transport in [FeFe]-hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Sode, Olaseni; Voth, Gregory A.

    2014-12-14

    Hydrogenase enzymes are important because they can reversibly catalyze the production of molecular hydrogen. Proton transport mechanisms have been previously studied in residue pathways that lead to the active site of the enzyme via residues Cys299 and Ser319. The importance of this pathway and these residues has been previously exhibited through site-specific mutations, which were shown to interrupt the enzyme activity. It has been shown recently that a separate water channel (WC2) is coupled with electron transport to the active site of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase. The water-mediated proton transport mechanisms of the enzyme in different electronic states have been studied using the multistate empirical valence bond reactive molecular dynamics method, in order to understand any role WC2 may have in facilitating the residue pathway in bringing an additional proton to the enzyme active site. In a single electronic state A{sup 2−}, a water wire was formed through which protons can be transported with a low free energy barrier. The remaining electronic states were shown, however, to be highly unfavorable to proton transport in WC2. A double amino acid substitution is predicted to obstruct proton transport in electronic state A{sup 2-} by closing a cavity that could otherwise fill with water near the proximal Fe of the active site.

  2. Perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with leisure-time and transport physical activity in Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, Alejandra; Salvo, Deborah; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández, Bernardo; Rivera, Juan A; Pratt, Michael

    2016-12-07

    Environmental factors have been associated with specific physical activity domains, including leisure-time and transport physical activity, in some high income countries. Few studies have examined the environmental correlates for domain-specific physical activity in low-and middle-income countries, and results are inconsistent. We aimed to estimate the associations between perceived environment and self-reported leisure-time walking, moderate-to-vigorous leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity among adults living in Cuernavaca, Mexico. A population-based study of adults 20 to 64years old was conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico in 2011 (n=677). Leisure and transport physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form. Perceptions of neighborhood environment were obtained by questionnaire. Hurdle regression models estimated the association between environmental perceptions and participation and time spent in each physical activity domain. High perceived aesthetics were positively correlated with participation and time spent in leisure-time walking and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. SES differences existed for aesthetics in relation to participation in leisure-time walking. Participation in transport physical activity was positively associated with easy access to large parks, while closer distance to large parks was a negative correlate for participation and time-spent in this physical activity domain. Results suggest that perceived environmental characteristics related with physical activity are domain specific. High perceived aesthetics were an important correlate for leisure-time activities among Mexican adults, suggesting that policy strategies aimed at improving this environmental perception may be warranted. Patterns of associations between environmental correlates and transport physical activity differed from those reported in commonly studied high income countries.

  3. Amino-acid transporters in T-cell activation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ren, W; Liu, G; Yin, J; Tan, B; Wu, G; Bazer, F W; Peng, Y; Yin, Y

    2017-03-02

    T-cell-mediated immune responses aim to protect mammals against cancers and infections, and are also involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. Cellular uptake and the utilization of nutrients is closely related to the T-cell fate decision and function. Research in this area has yielded surprising findings in the importance of amino-acid transporters for T-cell development, homeostasis, activation, differentiation and memory. In this review, we present current information on amino-acid transporters, such as LAT1 (l-leucine transporter), ASCT2 (l-glutamine transporter) and GAT-1 (γ-aminobutyric acid transporter-1), which are critically important for mediating peripheral naive T-cell homeostasis, activation and differentiation, especially for Th1 and Th17 cells, and even memory T cells. Mechanically, the influence of amino-acid transporters on T-cell fate decision may largely depend on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. These discoveries remarkably demonstrate the role of amino-acid transporters in T-cell fate determination, and strongly indicate that manipulation of the amino-acid transporter-mTORC1 axis could ameliorate many inflammatory or autoimmune diseases associated with T-cell-based immune responses.

  4. Promotion of Physical Activity Among High-School Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Felton, Gwen; Dishman, Rod K.; Dowda, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. Many adolescent girls fail to meet national guidelines for physical activity, and the prevalence of obesity is increasing among this group. Our study examined the effects of a comprehensive school-based intervention on physical activity among high-school girls. Methods. A group-randomized controlled field trial was conducted at 24 high schools. A school-based sample of 2744 girls (48.7% African American, 46.7% White) participated in a measurement protocol when they were in eighth and then ninth grade. A comprehensive physical activity intervention was designed to change the instructional program and the school environment to increase support for physical activity among girls. Results. At follow-up, 45% of girls in the intervention schools and 36% of girls in the control schools reported vigorous physical activity during an average of 1 or more 30-minute time blocks per day over a 3-day period. Conclusions. A comprehensive school-based intervention can increase regular participation in vigorous physical activity among high-school girls. PMID:16118370

  5. Memoryless self-reinforcing directionality in endosomal active transport within living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kejia; Wang, Bo; Granick, Steve

    2015-06-01

    In contrast to Brownian transport, the active motility of microbes, cells, animals and even humans often follows another random process known as truncated Lévy walk. These stochastic motions are characterized by clustered small steps and intermittent longer jumps that often extend towards the size of the entire system. As there are repeated suggestions, although disagreement, that Lévy walks have functional advantages over Brownian motion in random searching and transport kinetics, their intentional engineering into active materials could be useful. Here, we show experimentally in the classic active matter system of intracellular trafficking that Brownian-like steps self-organize into truncated Lévy walks through an apparent time-independent positive feedback such that directional persistence increases with the distance travelled persistently. A molecular model that allows the maximum output of the active propelling forces to fluctuate slowly fits the experiments quantitatively. Our findings offer design principles for programming efficient transport in active materials.

  6. Ethnic Minority Children’s Active Commuting to School and Association with Physical Activity and Pedestrian Safety Behaviors*

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jason A.; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Uscanga, Doris K.; Nguyen, Nga; Hanfling, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children’s active commuting to school, i.e. walking or cycling to school, was associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, although studies among ethnic minorities are sparse. Objectives Among a low-income, ethnic minority sample of fourth grade students from eight public schools, we examined (1) correlates of active commuting to school and (2) the relationship between active commuting to school and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements from a sample of participants (n=149) aged 9–12 years from a walk to school intervention study in Houston, Texas. The primary outcome was the weekly rate of active commuting to school. Daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, measured by accelerometers, was a secondary outcome. Child self-efficacy (alpha=0.75), parent self-efficacy (alpha=0.88), and parent outcome expectations (alpha=0.78) were independent variables. Participant characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, distance from home to school, acculturation, and BMI percentile) were independent sociodemographic variables. We used mixed-model regression analyses to account for clustering by school and a stepwise procedure with backward elimination of non-significant interactions and covariates to identify significant moderators and predictors. School-level observations of student pedestrians were assessed and compared using chi-square tests of independence. Results Among our sample, which was 61.7% Latino, the overall rate of active commuting to school was 43%. In the mixed model for active commuting to school, parent self-efficacy (std. beta = 0.18, p=0.018) and age (std. beta = 0.18, p=0.018) were positively related. Latino students had lower rates of active commuting to school than non-Latinos ( 16.5%, p=0.040). Distance from home to school was inversely related to active commuting to school (std. beta = 0.29, p<0.001). In the mixed model for moderate

  7. Integrating Physical Activity, Coach Collaboration, and Life Skill Development in Youth: School Counselors' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Laura; Cook, Amy; Scherer, Alexandra; Greenspan, Scott; Silva, Meghan Ray; Cadet, Melanie; Maki, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Given the social, emotional, and academic benefits of physical activity related to youth development (Hellison, 2011), coupled with the minimal research regarding how school counselors can use physical activity for life skill development, this article focuses on school counselors' beliefs about collaborating with coaches and using physical…

  8. Daily Physical Activity: A Handbook for Grades 1-9 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Alberta Education has prepared this school handbook to help teachers and administrators select age-appropriate activities that can be done almost anytime and anywhere. The Daily Physical Activity (DPA) school handbook is designed to provide information, ideas and inspiration for developing a successful DPA plan. The handbook is divided into four…

  9. Parent, psycho-social, and household factors associated with urban children's active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS), i.e. walking or cycling to school, has been proposed as a method to increase physical activity. Few studies have examined children's ACS using the framework of behavior change theory. This study used social cognitive theory as the framework. The objective of this st...

  10. Parent, psycho-social, and household factors associated with children's active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS), i.e. walking or cycling to school, has been associated with higher levels of physical activity. Few studies have examined children's ACS using the framework of behavior change theory. This study used social cognitive theory as the framework. To examine the relations...

  11. Association between School Policies and Built Environment, and Youth's Participation in Various Types of Physical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Stephanie; Bélanger, Mathieu; Donovan, Denise; Caissie, Isabelle; Goguen, Julie; Vanasse, Allain

    2015-01-01

    Background: School environmental characteristics may be associated with youth's participation in different types of physical activities (PAs). This study aimed to identify which school policies and built environmental characteristics were associated with participation in organized, nonorganized, individual, and group-based activities. Methods:…

  12. Rethinking Recommendations for Implementing Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: A Partnership Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin Andrew; Beets, Michael; Weaver, Robert Glenn; Vazou, Spyridoula; Russ, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Recommended approaches to promoting children's physical activity through schools call for physical education teachers to serve as champions for, and leaders of, Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAPs). Little evidence, however, exists to suggest that physical education teachers are ideally prepared or supported to assume CSPAP…

  13. Parents' Networking Strategies: Participation of Formal and Informal Parent Groups in School Activities and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…

  14. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  15. School Social Worker's Perceptions of the Frequency of Actual and Preferred Engagement in Role Related Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the frequency in which school social workers in Virginia engage in and prefer to engage in social work related activities and (2) to determine if the frequency in which the social work related activities the school social workers engage in is related to select variables. After a comprehensive review…

  16. Physical Activity and U.S. Public Elementary Schools: Implications for Our Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lisa; Butterfield, Stephen A.; Mason, Craig A.; Loovis, E. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity in the U.S. has reached crisis proportion. In response, public elementary schools have embarked on various methods to increase children's physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine strategies by United States public elementary schools to increase children's physical activity. Of particular concern was how…

  17. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  18. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Walking, Cycling, Public Transport and Passive Transport to Various Destinations in Flemish Older Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Hannah; Simons, Dorien; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; de Geus, Bas; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Background Active transport is a convenient way to incorporate physical activity in adolescents’ daily life. The present study aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with walking, cycling, public transport (train, tram, bus, metro) and passive transport (car, motorcycle, moped) over short distances (maximum eight kilometres) among older adolescents (17–18 years), to school and to other destinations. Methods 562 older adolescents completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables, environmental variables and transport to school/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed. Results More social modelling and a higher residential density were positively associated with walking to school and walking to other destinations, respectively. Regarding cycling, higher self-efficacy and a higher social norm were positively associated with cycling to school and to other destinations. Regarding public transport, a higher social norm, more social modelling of siblings and/or friends, more social support and a higher land use mix access were positively related to public transport to school and to other destinations, whereas a greater distance to school only related positively to public transport to school. Regarding passive transport, more social support and more perceived benefits were positively associated with passive transport to school and to other destinations. Perceiving less walking and cycling facilities at school was positively related to passive transport to school only, and more social modelling was positively related to passive transport to other destinations. Conclusions Overall, psychosocial variables seemed to be more important than environmental variables across the four transport modes. Social norm, social modelling and social support were the most consistent psychosocial factors which indicates that it is important to target both

  19. Intraparticle mass transport mechanism in activated carbon adsorption of phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, E.G.; Miura, Y.; Yokomura, H.; Tajima, S.; Yamashita, S.; Chang, H.T.; Noll, K.E.

    1996-10-01

    Two parallel diffusion mechanisms, pore and surface, can control the rate of contaminant adsorption. The two mechanisms are different functions of temperature and adsorbate concentration. To develop a mechanistic design model for adsorption processes, the two mechanisms must be evaluated separately. In this paper, the authors show that the mechanisms can be separated accurately using a stepwise linearization technique. The technique can easily be incorporated in adsorption diffusion modeling. Two phenolic compounds were used in this study: p-chlorophenol (PCP) and p-nitrophenol (PNP). The application of the linearization technique is illustrated using two types of reactors: a completely mixed batch reactor and a differential reactor. The study results show that pore and surface diffusivity can be determined accurately using the linearization technique. Furthermore, the tortuosity for the absorbent can be estimated from the pore diffusivity. For PCP that is strongly adsorbed by the adsorbent, surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism controlling the intraparticle transport. For weakly adsorbed PNP, neither surface nor pore diffusion is dominant.

  20. Regulation of Human Hepatic Drug Transporter Activity and Expression by Diesel Exhaust Particle Extract

    PubMed Central

    Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Stieger, Bruno; Lecureur, Valérie; Fardel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are common environmental air pollutants primarily affecting the lung. DEPs or chemicals adsorbed on DEPs also exert extra-pulmonary effects, including alteration of hepatic drug detoxifying enzyme expression. The present study was designed to determine whether organic DEP extract (DEPe) may target hepatic drug transporters that contribute in a major way to drug detoxification. Using primary human hepatocytes and transporter-overexpressing cells, DEPe was first shown to strongly inhibit activities of the sinusoidal solute carrier (SLC) uptake transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 and of the canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux pump multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, with IC50 values ranging from approximately 1 to 20 μg/mL and relevant to environmental exposure situations. By contrast, 25 μg/mL DEPe failed to alter activities of the SLC transporter organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and of the ABC efflux pumps P-glycoprotein and bile salt export pump (BSEP), whereas it only moderately inhibited those of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Treatment by 25 μg/mL DEPe was next demonstrated to induce expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in cultured human hepatic cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B3, OATP2B1, OCT1 and BSEP. Such changes in transporter expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. This suggests that DEPe, which is enriched in known ligands of AhR like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alters drug transporter expression via activation of the AhR cascade. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of organic chemicals containing in DEPs, which may contribute to their

  1. The association between green neighborhood environments and active transportation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Urban nature is an important aspect of health-promoting environments. In particular, street trees and green space can provide a low cost approach to improving public health by promoting physical activity, improving mental health, and facilitating social cohesion. Acti...

  2. Red blood cell cation transports in uraemic anaemia: evidence for an increased K/Cl co-transport activity. Effects of dialysis and erythropoietin treatment.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, L; Olivieri, O; Girelli, D; Lupo, A; Bernich, P; Corrocher, R

    1995-10-01

    This study examines the role of uraemia and the effect of different dialysis treatments on red cell cation transport. We evaluated the main cation transport systems in erythrocytes of non-dialysed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) subjects, of patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), as well as the changes induced by human recombinant erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) administration. In uraemic undialysed and dialysed patients, we observed an increase in K/Cl co-transport activity and in shrinkage-induced amiloride-sensitive (HMA-sensitive) Na efflux (Na/H exchange) and a decrease in Na/K pump and Na/K/Cl co-transport activity, while Na/Li exchange was increased only in dialysed patients. In uraemic erythrocytes, we showed for the first time an increased K/Cl co-transport activity, which was cell age independent. Generally, the different method of dialysis (CAPD or HD) did not modify the cation transport abnormalities observed. During the treatment with r-HuEPO, all the systems, with the exception of the Na/K pump and Na/K/Cl co-transport, increased their activities following the increase of circulating young red cells. The changes produced under r-HuEPO administration were transient and cation transports returned to the baseline values within 100 days of treatment, indicating a primary and prominent pathogenetic role of uraemia in modulating the red cell membrane cation transport activities.

  3. Nutritional impact of elevated calcium transport activity in carrots

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jay; Hawthorne, Keli M.; Hotze, Tim; Abrams, Steven A.; Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrition recommendations worldwide emphasize ingestion of plant-based diets rather than diets that rely primarily on animal products. However, this plant-based diet could limit the intake of essential nutrients such as calcium. Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate dietary calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. Previously, we have modified carrots to express increased levels of a plant calcium transporter (sCAX1), and these plants contain ≈2-fold-higher calcium content in the edible portions of the carrots. However, it was unproven whether this change would increase the total amount of bioavailable calcium. In randomized trials, we labeled these modified carrots with isotopic calcium and fed them to mice and humans to assess calcium bioavailability. In mice feeding regimes (n = 120), we measured 45Ca incorporation into bones and determined that mice required twice the serving size of control carrots to obtain the calcium found in sCAX1 carrots. We used a dual-stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled carrots and i.v. 46Ca to determine the absorption of calcium from these carrots in humans. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female adults, we found that when people were fed sCAX1 and control carrots, total calcium absorption per 100 g of carrots was 41% ± 2% higher in sCAX1 carrots. Both the mice and human feeding studies demonstrate increased calcium absorption from sCAX1-expressing carrots compared with controls. These results demonstrate an alternative means of fortifying vegetables with bioavailable calcium. PMID:18202180

  4. Family Background, School-Age Trajectories of Activity Participation, and Academic Achievement at the Start of High School

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Smith, Chelsea; Leventhal, Tama

    2014-01-01

    Applying latent class and regression techniques to data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 997), this study explored the potential academic advantages of time spent in out-of-school activities. Of particular interest was how these potential advantages played out in relation to the timing and duration of activity participation and the family contexts in which it occurred. Participation closer to the start of high school—including consistent participants and latecomers—was associated with higher grades at the transition into high school, especially for youth from low-income families. Sensitivity analyses indicated that this link between school-age activity participation and adolescent academic progress was unlikely to be solely a function of selection. It also tended to be more pronounced among youth from lower-income families, although without varying by other aspects of family status or process. PMID:26279615

  5. Thyroid-induced alterations in myocardial sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase, monovalent cation active transport, and cardiac glycoside binding.

    PubMed Central

    Curfman, G D; Crowley, T J; Smith, T W

    1977-01-01

    The effects of thyroid hormone on guinea pig myocardial NaK-ATPase activity, transmembrane monovalent cation active transport, and cardiac glycoside binding were were examined. NaK-ATPase activities of left atrial and left ventricular homogenates of control and triiodothyronine (T3)-treated animals were determined, and compared to activities of skeletal muscle and liver. T3 administration was associated with a significant increase of 18% in left atrial and left ventricular NaK-ATPase specific activities. This increment was less than that noted in skeletal muscle (+42%) and liver (+30%). To determine if enhanced NaK-ATPase activity was accompanied by increased monovalent cation active transport, in vitro 86Rb+ uptake by left atrial strips and hemidiaphragms was measured. Transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state resulted in a 68% increase in active 86Rb+ uptake by left atrium, and a 62% increase in active uptake by diaphragm. Passive 86Rb+ uptake was not affected in either tissue. Ouabain binding by atrial and ventricular homogenates of T3-treated animals was increased by 19 and 17%, respectively, compared to controls, in close agreement with thyroid-induced increments in NaK-ATPase activiey. Taken together, these results are consistent with enhanced myocardial NaK-ATPase activity and monovalent cation activt transport due to an increase in the number of functional enzyme complexes. PMID:138689

  6. Teachers and Students Perceptions of the Active Science Curriculum: Incorporating Physical Activity into Middle School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kevin E.; McInnis, Kyle J.

    2014-01-01

    Many children get little to no regular physical education during the school day. National recommendations call for schools to offer physical activity as part of planned academic lessons that teach math, language arts, science, and other subjects through movement. The purpose of this study was to analyze the student and teacher perceptions of the…

  7. The Physically Active Lifestyle of Flemish Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Approach towards Developing a Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to describe and analyse the physical activity and sedentary levels of secondary school teachers in Flanders. A secondary aim was to collect information regarding a possible worksite intervention of special relevance to secondary school teachers. Design: Mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative…

  8. Metronidazole activation and isolation of Clostridium acetobutylicum electron transport genes.

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, J D; Jones, D T; Woods, D R

    1991-01-01

    An Escherichia coli F19 recA, nitrate reductase-deficient mutant was constructed by transposon mutagenesis and shown to be resistant to metronidazole. This mutant was a most suitable host for the isolation of Clostridium acetobutylicum genes on recombinant plasmids, which activated metronidazole and rendered the E. coli F19 strain sensitive to metronidazole. Twenty-five E. coli F19 clones containing different recombinant plasmids were isolated and classified into five groups on the basis of their sensitivity to metronidazole. The clones were tested for nitrate reductase, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and hydrogenase activities. DNA hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping revealed that four of the C. acetobutylicum insert DNA fragments on recombinant plasmids were linked in an 11.1-kb chromosomal fragment. DNA sequencing and amino acid homology studies indicated that this DNA fragment contained a flavodoxin gene which encoded a protein of 160 amino acids that activated metronidazole and made the E. coli F19 mutant very sensitive to metronidazole. The flavodoxin and hydrogenase genes which are involved in electron transfer systems were linked on the 11.1-kb DNA fragment from C. acetobutylicum. Images PMID:1991710

  9. The co-benefits for health of investing in active transportation.

    PubMed

    Giles-Corti, Billie; Foster, Sarah; Shilton, Trevor; Falconer, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Amid growing concerns about the impact of rising obesity and physical inactivity levels, climate change, population growth, increasing traffic congestion and declining oil supplies, multiple sectors are now promoting active transportation as an alternative to driving. This paper considers the health benefits and co-benefits of investing in active transportation, enabling comparison of policy options to optimise societal objectives aimed at creating healthy, socially and environmentally sustainable communities. Policies promoting the use of both energy-efficient motor vehicles and increased active transportation would almost double the impact on greenhouse gas emissions and would reduce disease burden by increasing physical activity. More co-benefit and economic analyses research is required to inform 'joined-up' policy solutions.

  10. Teaching about Science and Society: Activities for Elementary and Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    This book provides activities designed to meet the needs of new and practicing elementary and middle school science teachers. The activities, which focus on science and society, are arranged in four major sections: environmental biology activities; health and nutrition activities; physical science activities; and earth and environmental science…

  11. Preschool and school age activities: comparison of urban and suburban populations.

    PubMed

    Damore, Dorothy T

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare urban and suburban preschool and school age activities. A prospective survey using a convenience sample was conducted at one urban and one suburban primary care pediatric office. Questionnaires were completed for 66 urban preschool children, 70 suburban preschool children, 57 urban school age children and 61 suburban school age children during the school year. Also, questionniaires were completed for 63 suburban school age children during the summer. The suburban preschool children spent more time outdoors, were read to more frequently, visited the library more frequently and more often attended summer camp. The suburban school age children spent more time outdoors, more frequently participated in a community sport league and more often attended summer camp. The urban school age children watched more television or videos. During the summer, suburban school age children spent more time outdoors, while during the school year, suburban school age children used the library more frequently. Important differences exist between the activities of urban and suburban children in two practices in the New York metropolitan area. Pediatricians caring for urban children may have an important opportunity to promote participation in sports and educational activities.

  12. Prolactin increases hepatic Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity and messenger RNA post partum.

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, T C; Liu, Y; Hyde, J F; Hagenbuch, B; Meier, P J; Vore, M

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity is decreased in pregnancy, but rebounds post partum relative to non-pregnant controls, and that activity can be increased by treatment with ovine prolactin [Ganguly, Hyde and Vore (1993) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 267, 82-87]. To determine the basis for these effects, Na+/taurocholate co-transport was determined in purified basolateral liver plasma-membrane (bLPM) vesicles and compared with steady-state mRNA levels encoding the Na+/taurocholate-co-transporting polypeptide (Ntcp) in non-pregnant controls, pregnant rats (19-20 days pregnant), rats post partum (48 h post partum) and rats post partum treated with bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin secretion. Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity (nmol/5 s per mg of protein) in bLPM was decreased from 10.4 +/- 1.8 in non-pregnant controls to 7.9 +/- 0.6 in bLPM in pregnant rats, but rebounded to 17.5 +/- 1.3 post partum; treatment of rats post partum with bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin secretion decreased activity to 14.1 +/- 0.9. Northern and slot-blot analyses revealed similar changes in mRNA for Ntcp, so that a positive correlation was observed between Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity and Ntcp mRNA. Furthermore, treatment of ovariectomized rats with ovine prolactin increased Ntcp mRNA 10-fold compared with solvent-treated controls, consistent with the 2-fold increase in Vmax, for Na+/taurocholate co-transport in isolated hepatocytes. These data are the first to demonstrate endogenous physiological regulation by prolactin of Ntcp mRNA in parallel with Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity. Images Figure 2 PMID:7945260

  13. The characteristics of the outdoor school environment associated with physical activity.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Sallis, James F; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-04-01

    The school is an important setting for physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between physical environmental characteristics and participation in daily physical activity during school breaks. Data from 130 schools and 16 471 students (Grades 4-10) in Norway were obtained in 2004 through self-administered questionnaires to principals and students. Multilevel logistic regression models revealed that boys at secondary level with a larger number of outdoor facilities at school had 2.69 times [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21-5.98] and girls 2.90 times (95% CI = 1.32-6.37) higher odds of being physically active compared with students in schools with fewer facilities. Boys at secondary level with areas for hopscotch/skipping rope had 2.53 times (95% CI = 1.55-4.13), with a soccer field 1.68 times (95% CI = 1.15-2.45), with playground equipment 1.66 times (95% CI = 1.16-2.37) and with a sledding hill 1.70 times (95% CI = 1.23-2.35) higher odds to be physically active compared with students in schools without these facilities. A sledding hill was also associated with girls' physical activity participation in secondary school (odds ratio = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.11-2.24). Outdoor facilities in secondary schools are associated with students' daily physical activity participation during school breaks. Therefore, improving the outdoor environment should be considered in physical activity promotion school programs in secondary schools.

  14. A spatial model of cellular molecular trafficking including active transport along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Cangiani, A; Natalini, R

    2010-12-21

    We consider models of Ran-driven nuclear transport of molecules such as proteins in living cells. The mathematical model presented is the first to take into account for the active transport of molecules along the cytoplasmic microtubules. All parameters entering the models are thoroughly discussed. The model is tested by numerical simulations based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. The numerical experiments are compared to the behavior observed experimentally.

  15. School Bus Safety Issues. Hearing on Examining Defective Handrails Which Have Been Found on School Buses across the Country, the Need for a School Bus Specific Commercial Drivers' License, and the Use of Public Transportation by Students, of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The hearing was held to examine the following student-transportation safety issues: defective handrails on school buses; the need for a school-bus specific-commercial driver's license; and the use of public transportation by students. Senator Mike DeWine presided over the hearing. The document contains testimonies and prepared statements of…

  16. Electric Pulse Discharge Activated Carbon Supercapacitors for Transportation Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Subhadarshi; Agrawal, Jyoti

    2012-03-01

    ScienceTomorrow is developing a high-speed, low-cost process for synthesizing high-porosity electrodes for electrochemical double-layer capacitors. Four types of coal (lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite) were used as precursor materials for spark discharge activation with multiscale porous structure. The final porosity and pore distribution depended, among other factors, on precursor type. The high gas content in low-grade carbon resulted in mechanical disintegration, whereas high capacitance was attained in higher-grade coal. The properties, including capacitance, mechanical robustness, and internal conductivity, were excellent when the cost is taken into consideration.

  17. Tau reduction prevents Aβ-induced axonal transport deficits by blocking activation of GSK3β

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jordan C.; Fomenko, Vira; Miyamoto, Takashi; Suberbielle, Elsa; Knox, Joseph A.; Ho, Kaitlyn; Kim, Daniel H.; Yu, Gui-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Axonal transport deficits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are attributed to amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and pathological forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Genetic ablation of tau prevents neuronal overexcitation and axonal transport deficits caused by recombinant Aβ oligomers. Relevance of these findings to naturally secreted Aβ and mechanisms underlying tau’s enabling effect are unknown. Here we demonstrate deficits in anterograde axonal transport of mitochondria in primary neurons from transgenic mice expressing familial AD-linked forms of human amyloid precursor protein. We show that these deficits depend on Aβ1–42 production and are prevented by tau reduction. The copathogenic effect of tau did not depend on its microtubule binding, interactions with Fyn, or potential role in neuronal development. Inhibition of neuronal activity, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, or glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity or expression also abolished Aβ-induced transport deficits. Tau ablation prevented Aβ-induced GSK3β activation. Thus, tau allows Aβ oligomers to inhibit axonal transport through activation of GSK3β, possibly by facilitating aberrant neuronal activity. PMID:25963821

  18. Motivation towards extracurricular activities and motivation at school: A test of the generalization effect hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Guay, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is a promising avenue for enhancing students' school motivation. Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the goal of this study was to test a serial multiple mediator model. In this model, students' perceptions of autonomy support from their extracurricular activity leader predicted their activity-based intrinsic and identified regulations. In turn, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations during the same school year. Finally, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations one year later. A total of 276 youths (54% girls) from disadvantaged neighborhoods were surveyed over two waves of data collection. The proposed mediation model was supported for both types of regulation. These results highlight the generalization effects of motivation from the extracurricular activity context to the school context.

  19. Student Activism in the High Schools of New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haake, Bernard F.; Langworthy, Philip B.

    The purpose of nine regional meetings between New York State Education Department personnel, educators and students from selected secondary school districts was to obtain information about unrest and the changing expectations of high school students. The following conclusions were made: (1) rising expectations of students are part of the "times,"…

  20. Continuing Professional Development Needs and Activities of School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Evelyn; Harrison, Patti L.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates school psychologists' continuing professional development (CPD) needs and their relationship to selected demographic factors and preservice training. A survey of 235 National Association of School Psychologists members reports that the greatest CPD needs are in the areas of direct service and consultation. No demographic variables…