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Sample records for active site disulfide

  1. The reduction potential of the active site disulfides of human protein disulfide isomerase limits oxidation of the enzyme by Ero1α.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Joseph E; Tavender, Timothy J; Oka, Ojore B V; Warwood, Stacey; Knight, David; Bulleid, Neil J

    2010-09-17

    Disulfide formation in newly synthesized proteins entering the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum is catalyzed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), which is itself thought to be directly oxidized by Ero1α. The activity of Ero1α is tightly regulated by the formation of noncatalytic disulfides, which need to be broken to activate the enzyme. Here, we have developed a novel PDI oxidation assay, which is able to simultaneously determine the redox status of the individual active sites of PDI. We have used this assay to confirm that when PDI is incubated with Ero1α, only one of the active sites of PDI becomes directly oxidized with a slow turnover rate. In contrast, a deregulated mutant of Ero1α was able to oxidize both PDI active sites at an equivalent rate to the wild type enzyme. When the active sites of PDI were mutated to decrease their reduction potential, both were now oxidized by wild type Ero1α with a 12-fold increase in activity. These results demonstrate that the specificity of Ero1α toward the active sites of PDI requires the presence of the regulatory disulfides. In addition, the rate of PDI oxidation is limited by the reduction potential of the PDI active site disulfide. The inability of Ero1α to oxidize PDI efficiently likely reflects the requirement for PDI to act as both an oxidase and an isomerase during the formation of native disulfides in proteins entering the secretory pathway.

  2. Engineered disulfide bonds increase active-site local stability and reduce catalytic activity of a cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Adalbjörnsson, Björn Vidar; Gylfason, Gudjón Andri

    2007-06-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an extracellular enzyme that is membrane-bound in eukaryotes but resides in the periplasmic space of bacteria. It normally carries four cysteine residues that form two disulfide bonds, for instance in the APs of Escherichia coli and vertebrates. An AP variant from a Vibrio sp. has only one cysteine residue. This cysteine is second next to the nucleophilic serine in the active site. We have individually modified seven residues to cysteine that are on two loops predicted to be within a 5 A radius. Four of them formed a disulfide bond to the endogenous cysteine. Thermal stability was monitored by circular dichroism and activity measurements. Global stability was similar to the wild-type enzyme. However, a significant increase in heat-stability was observed for the disulfide-containing variants using activity as a measure, together with a large reduction in catalytic rates (k(cat)) and a general decrease in Km values. The results suggest that a high degree of mobility near the active site and in the helix carrying the endogenous cysteine is essential for full catalytic efficiency in the cold-adapted AP.

  3. The role of short-range Cys171-Cys178 disulfide bond in maintaining cutinase active site integrity: A molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Matak, Mehdi Youssefi; Moghaddam, Majid Erfani

    2009-12-11

    Understanding structural determinants in enzyme active site integrity can provide a good knowledge to design efficient novel catalytic machineries. Fusarium solani pisi cutinase with classic triad Ser-His-Asp is a promising enzyme to scrutinize these structural determinants. We performed two MD simulations: one, with the native structure, and the other with the broken Cys171-Cys178 disulfide bond. This disulfide bond stabilizes a turn in active site on which catalytic Asp175 is located. Functionally important H-bonds and atomic fluctuations in catalytic pocket have been changed. We proposed that this disulfide bond within active site can be considered as an important determinant of cutinase active site structural integrity.

  4. Modulation of an active-site cysteine pKa allows PDI to act as a catalyst of both disulfide bond formation and isomerization.

    PubMed

    Karala, Anna-Riikka; Lappi, Anna-Kaisa; Ruddock, Lloyd W

    2010-03-05

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) plays a central role in disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is implicated both in disulfide bond formation and in disulfide bond reduction and isomerization. To be an efficient catalyst of all three reactions requires complex mechanisms. These include mechanisms to modulate the pK(a) values of the active-site cysteines of PDI. Here, we examined the role of arginine 120 in modulating the pK(a) values of these cysteines. We find that arginine 120 plays a significant role in modulating the pK(a) of the C-terminal active-site cysteine in the a domain of PDI and plays a role in determining the reactivity of the N-terminal active-site cysteine but not via direct modulation of its pK(a). Mutation of arginine 120 and the corresponding residue, arginine 461, in the a' domain severely reduces the ability of PDI to catalyze disulfide bond formation and reduction but enhances the ability to catalyze disulfide bond isomerization due to the formation of more stable PDI-substrate mixed disulfides. These results suggest that the modulation of pK(a) of the C-terminal active cysteine by the movement of the side chain of these arginine residues into the active-site locales has evolved to allow PDI to efficiently catalyze both oxidation and isomerization reactions. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Localization of the labile disulfide bond between SU and TM of the murine leukemia virus envelope protein complex to a highly conserved CWLC motif in SU that resembles the active-site sequence of thiol-disulfide exchange enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, A; Kopelman, R; Li, Z; Kayman, S C; Sanders, D A

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits of the envelope protein (Env) of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) are joined by a labile disulfide bond that can be stabilized by treatment of virions with thiol-specific reagents. In the present study this observation was extended to the Envs of additional classes of MuLV, and the cysteines of SU involved in this linkage were mapped by proteolytic fragmentation analyses to the CWLC sequence present at the beginning of the C-terminal domain of SU. This sequence is highly conserved across a broad range of distantly related retroviruses and resembles the CXXC motif present at the active site of thiol-disulfide exchange enzymes. A model is proposed in which rearrangements of the SU-TM intersubunit disulfide linkage, mediated by the CWLC sequence, play roles in the assembly and function of the Env complex. PMID:9311907

  6. S-glutathionylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase induces formation of C150-C154 intrasubunit disulfide bond in the active site of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Barinova, K V; Serebryakova, M V; Muronetz, V I; Schmalhausen, E V

    2017-09-19

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a glycolytic protein involved in numerous non-glycolytic functions. S-glutathionylated GAPDH was revealed in plant and animal tissues. The role of GAPDH S-glutathionylation is not fully understood. Rabbit muscle GAPDH was S-glutathionylated in the presence of H2O2 and reduced glutathione (GSH). The modified protein was assayed by MALDI-MS analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, and ultracentrifugation. Incubation of GAPDH in the presence of H2O2 together with GSH resulted in the complete inactivation of the enzyme. In contrast to irreversible oxidation of GAPDH by H2O2, this modification could be reversed in the excess of GSH or dithiothreitol. By data of MALDI-MS analysis, the modified protein contained both mixed disulfide between Cys150 and GSH and the intrasubunit disulfide bond between Cys150 and Cys154 (different subunits of tetrameric GAPDH may contain different products). S-glutathionylation results in loosening of the tertiary structure of GAPDH, decreases its affinity to NAD(+) and thermal stability. The mixed disulfide between Cys150 and GSH is an intermediate product of S-glutathionylation: its subsequent reaction with Cys154 results in the intrasubunit disulfide bond in the active site of GAPDH. The mixed disulfide and the C150-C154 disulfide bond protect GAPDH from irreversible oxidation and can be reduced in the excess of thiols. Conformational changes that were observed in S-glutathionylated GAPDH may affect interactions between GAPDH and other proteins (ligands), suggesting the role of S-glutathionylation in the redox signaling. The manuscript considers one of the possible mechanisms of redox regulation of cell functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrostatic stabilization and general base catalysis in the active site of the human protein disulfide isomerase a domain monitored by hydrogen exchange.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Griselda; Anderson, Janet S; LeMaster, David M

    2008-03-25

    The nucleophilic Cys36 thiol of the human protein disulfide isomerase a domain is positioned over the N terminus of the alpha(2) helix. Amides in the active site exhibit diffusion-limited, hydroxide-catalyzed exchange, indicating that the local positive electrostatic potential decreases the pK value for peptide anion formation by at least 2 units so as to equal or exceed the acidity of water. In stark contrast to the pH dependence of exchange for simple peptides, the His38 amide in the reduced enzyme exhibits a maximum rate of exchange at pH 5 due to efficient general base catalysis by the neutral imidazole of its own side chain and suppression of its exchange by the ionization of the Cys36 thiol. Ionization of this thiol and deprotonation of the His38 side chain suppress the Cys39 amide hydroxide-catalyzed exchange by a million-fold. The electrostatic potential within the active site monitored by these exchange experiments provides a means of stabilizing the two distinct transition states that lead to substrate reduction and oxidation. Molecular modeling offers a role for the conserved Arg103 in coordinating the oxidative transition-state complex, thus providing further support for mechanisms of disulfide isomerization that utilize enzymatic catalysis at each step of the overall reaction.

  8. Kinetic-based trapping by intervening sequence variants of the active sites of protein-disulfide isomerase identifies platelet protein substrates.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Jack D; Baker, Katherine M; Grover, Steven P; Flaumenhaft, Robert; Furie, Bruce

    2017-06-02

    Thiol isomerases such as protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) direct disulfide rearrangements required for proper folding of nascent proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Identifying PDI substrates is challenging because PDI catalyzes conformational changes that cannot be easily monitored (e.g. compared with proteolytic cleavage or amino acid phosphorylation); PDI has multiple substrates; and it can catalyze either oxidation, reduction, or isomerization of substrates. Kinetic-based substrate trapping wherein the active site motif CGHC is modified to CGHA to stabilize a PDI-substrate intermediate is effective in identifying some substrates. A limitation of this approach, however, is that it captures only substrates that are reduced by PDI, whereas many substrates are oxidized by PDI. By manipulating the highly conserved -GH- residues in the CGHC active site of PDI, we created PDI variants with a slowed reaction rate toward substrates. The prolonged intermediate state allowed us to identify protein substrates that have biased affinities for either oxidation or reduction by PDI. Because extracellular PDI is critical for thrombus formation but its extracellular substrates are not known, we evaluated the ability of these bidirectional trapping PDI variants to trap proteins released from platelets and on the platelet surface. Trapped proteins were identified by mass spectroscopy. Of the trapped substrate proteins identified by mass spectroscopy, five proteins, cathepsin G, glutaredoxin-1, thioredoxin, GP1b, and fibrinogen, showed a bias for oxidation, whereas annexin V, heparanase, ERp57, kallekrein-14, serpin B6, tetranectin, and collagen VI showed a bias for reduction. These bidirectional trapping variants will enable more comprehensive identification of thiol isomerase substrates and better elucidation of their cellular functions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Disulfide Bond Requirements for Active Wnt Ligands*

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Bryan T.; Hien, Annie; Zhang, Xinjun; Iranloye, Oladoyin; Virshup, David M.; Waterman, Marian L.; He, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Secreted Wnt lipoproteins are cysteine-rich and lipid-modified morphogens that bind to the Frizzled (FZD) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). Wnt engages FZD through protruding thumb and index finger domains, which are each assembled from paired β strands secured by disulfide bonds and grasp two sides of the FZD ectodomain. The importance of Wnt disulfide bonds has been assumed but uncharacterized. We systematically analyzed cysteines and associated disulfide bonds in the prototypic Wnt3a. Our data show that mutation of any individual cysteine of Wnt3a results in covalent Wnt oligomers through ectopic intermolecular disulfide bond formation and diminishes/abolishes Wnt signaling. Although individual cysteine mutations in the amino part of the saposin-like domain and in the base of the index finger are better tolerated and permit residual Wnt3a secretion/activity, those in the amino terminus, the thumb, and at the tip of the index finger are incompatible with secretion and/or activity. A few select double cysteine mutants based on the disulfide bond pattern restore Wnt secretion/activity. Further, a double cysteine mutation at the index finger tip results in a Wnt3a with normal secretion but minimal FZD binding and dominant negative properties. Our results experimentally validate predictions from the Wnt crystal structure and highlight critical but different roles of the saposin-like and cytokine-like domains, including the thumb and the index finger in Wnt folding/secretion and FZD binding. Finally, we modified existing expression vectors for 19 epitope-tagged human WNT proteins by removal of a tag-supplied ectopic cysteine, thereby generating tagged WNT ligands active in canonical and non-canonical signaling. PMID:24841207

  10. Steps in reductive activation of the disulfide-generating enzyme Ero1p

    PubMed Central

    Heldman, Nimrod; Vonshak, Ohad; Sevier, Carolyn S; Vitu, Elvira; Mehlman, Tevie; Fass, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Ero1p is the primary catalyst of disulfide bond formation in the yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Ero1p contains a pair of essential disulfide bonds that participate directly in the electron transfer pathway from substrate thiol groups to oxygen. Remarkably, elimination of certain other Ero1p disulfides by mutation enhances enzyme activity. In particular, the C150A/C295A Ero1p mutant exhibits increased thiol oxidation in vitro and in vivo and interferes with redox homeostasis in yeast cells by hyperoxidizing the ER. Inhibitory disulfides of Ero1p are thus important for enzyme regulation. To visualize the differences between de-regulated and wild-type Ero1p, we determined the crystal structure of Ero1p C150A/C295A. The structure revealed local changes compared to the wild-type enzyme around the sites of mutation, but no conformational transitions within 25 Å of the active site were observed. To determine how the C150—C295 disulfide nonetheless participates in redox regulation of Ero1p, we analyzed using mass spectrometry the changes in Ero1p disulfide connectivity as a function of time after encounter with reducing substrates. We found that the C150—C295 disulfide sets a physiologically appropriate threshold for enzyme activation by guarding a key neighboring disulfide from reduction. This study illustrates the diverse and interconnected roles that disulfides can play in redox regulation of protein activity. PMID:20669236

  11. A disulfide bridge in the calcium binding site of a polyester hydrolase increases its thermal stability and activity against polyethylene terephthalate.

    PubMed

    Then, Johannes; Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Gerdts, André; Schmidt, Juliane; Barth, Markus; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Elevated reaction temperatures are crucial for the efficient enzymatic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). A disulfide bridge was introduced to the polyester hydrolase TfCut2 to substitute its calcium binding site. The melting point of the resulting variant increased to 94.7 °C (wild-type TfCut2: 69.8 °C) and its half-inactivation temperature to 84.6 °C (TfCut2: 67.3 °C). The variant D204C-E253C-D174R obtained by introducing further mutations at vicinal residues showed a temperature optimum between 75 and 80 °C compared to 65 and 70 °C of the wild-type enzyme. The variant caused a weight loss of PET films of 25.0 ± 0.8% (TfCut2: 0.3 ± 0.1%) at 70 °C after a reaction time of 48 h. The results demonstrate that a highly efficient and calcium-independent thermostable polyester hydrolase can be obtained by replacing its calcium binding site with a disulfide bridge.

  12. Steric effects in peptide and protein exchange with activated disulfides.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jason; Schlosser, Jessica L; Griffin, Donald R; Wong, Darice Y; Kasko, Andrea M

    2013-08-12

    Disulfide exchange is an important bioconjugation tool, enabling chemical modification of peptides and proteins containing free cysteines. We previously reported the synthesis of a macromer bearing an activated disulfide and its incorporation into hydrogels. Despite their ability to diffuse freely into hydrogels, larger proteins were unable to undergo in-gel disulfide exchange. In order to understand this phenomenon, we synthesized four different activated disulfide-bearing model compounds (Mn = 300 Da to 10 kDa) and quantified their rate of disulfide exchange with a small peptide (glutathione), a moderate-sized protein (β-lactoglobulin), and a large protein (bovine serum albumin) in four different pH solutions (6.0, 7.0, 7.4, and 8.0) to mimic biological systems. Rate constants of exchange depend significantly on the size and accessibility of the thiolate. pH also significantly affects the rate of reaction, with the faster reactions occurring at higher pH. Surprisingly, little difference in exchange rates is seen between macromolecular disulfides of varying size (Mn = 2 kDa - 10 kDa), although all undergo exchange more slowly than their small molecule analogue (MW = 300 g/mol). The maximum exchange efficiencies (% disulfides exchanged after 24 h) are not siginificantly affected by thiol size or pH, but somewhat affected by disulfide size. Therefore, while all three factors investigated (pH, disulfide size, and thiolate size) can influence the exchange kinetics and extent of reaction, the size of the thiolate and its accessibility plays the most significant role.

  13. Steric Effects in Peptide and Protein Exchange with Activated Disulfides

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jason; Schlosser, Jessica L.; Griffin, Donald R.; Wong, Darice Y.; Kasko, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide exchange is an important bioconjugation tool, enabling chemical modification of peptides and proteins containing free cysteines. We previously reported the synthesis of a macromer bearing an activated disulfide and its incorporation into hydrogels. Despite their ability to diffuse freely into hydrogels, larger proteins were unable to undergo in-gel disulfide exchange. In order to understand this phenomenon, we synthesized four different activated disulfide-bearing model compounds (Mn = 300 Da-10 kDa) and quantified their rate of disulfide exchange with a small peptide (glutathione), a moderate-sized protein (β-lactoglobulin), and a large protein (bovine serum albumin) in four different pH solutions (6.0, 7.0, 7.4, and 8.0) to mimic biological systems. Rate constants of exchange depend significantly on the size and accessibility of the thiolate. pH also significantly affects the rate of reaction, with the faster reactions occurring at higher pH. Surprisingly, little difference in exchange rates is seen between macromolecular disulfides of varying size (Mn = 2 kDa – 10kDa), although all undergo exchange more slowly than their small molecule analogue (MW = 300 g/mol). The maximum exchange efficiencies (% disulfides exchanged after 24 h) are not siginificantly affected by thiol size or pH, but somewhat affected by disulfide size. Therefore, while all three factors investigated (pH, disulfide size and thiolate size) can influence the exchange kinetics and extent of reaction, the size of the thiolate and its accessibility plays the most significant role. PMID:23865598

  14. Role of disulfide bridges in the activity and stability of a cold-active alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail; Poljak, Anne; Guilhaus, Michael; Feller, Georges; D'Amico, Salvino; Gerday, Charles; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2005-09-01

    The cold-adapted alpha-amylase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis unfolds reversibly and cooperatively according to a two-state mechanism at 30 degrees C and unfolds reversibly and sequentially with two transitions at temperatures below 12 degrees C. To examine the role of the four disulfide bridges in activity and conformational stability of the enzyme, the eight cysteine residues were reduced with beta-mercaptoethanol or chemically modified using iodoacetamide or iodoacetic acid. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that all of the cysteines were modified. The iodoacetamide-modified enzyme reversibly folded/unfolded and retained approximately one-third of its activity. Removal of all disulfide bonds resulted in stabilization of the least stable region of the enzyme (including the active site), with a concomitant decrease in activity (increase in activation enthalpy). Disulfide bond removal had a greater impact on enzyme activity than on stability (particularly the active-site region). The functional role of the disulfide bridges appears to be to prevent the active site from developing ionic interactions. Overall, the study demonstrated that none of the four disulfide bonds are important in stabilizing the native structure of enzyme, and instead, they appear to promote a localized destabilization to preserve activity.

  15. An intramolecular disulfide bond designed in myoglobin fine-tunes both protein structure and peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei-Bin; Yuan, Hong; Zhou, Hu; Gao, Shu-Qin; Nie, Chang-Ming; Tan, Xiangshi; Wen, Ge-Bo; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2016-06-15

    Disulfide bond plays crucial roles in stabilization of protein structure and in fine-tuning protein functions. To explore an approach for rational heme protein design, we herein rationally introduced a pair of cysteines (F46C/M55C) into the scaffold of myoglobin (Mb), mimicking those in native neuroglobin. Molecular modeling suggested that it is possible for Cys46 and Cys55 to form an intramolecular disulfide bond, which was confirmed experimentally by ESI-MS analysis, DTNB reaction and CD spectrum. Moreover, it was shown that the spontaneously formed disulfide bond of Cys46-Cys55 fine-tunes not only the heme active site structure, but also the protein functions. The substitution of Phe46 with Ser46 in F46S Mb destabilizes the protein while facilitates H2O2 activation. Remarkably, the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond of Cys46-Cys55 in F46C/M55C Mb improves the protein stability and regulates the heme site to be more favorable for substrate binding, resulting in enhanced peroxidase activity. This study provides valuable information of structure-function relationship for heme proteins regulated by an intramolecular disulfide bond, and also suggests that construction of such a covalent bond is useful for design of functional heme proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Site-Selective Disulfide Modification of Proteins: Expanding Diversity beyond the Proteome.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Seah Ling; Wang, Tao; Weil, Tanja

    2016-11-21

    The synthetic transformation of polypeptides with molecular accuracy holds great promise for providing functional and structural diversity beyond the proteome. Consequently, the last decade has seen an exponential growth of site-directed chemistry to install additional features into peptides and proteins even inside living cells. The disulfide rebridging strategy has emerged as a powerful tool for site-selective modifications since most proteins contain disulfide bonds. In this Review, we present the chemical design, advantages and limitations of the disulfide rebridging reagents, while summarizing their relevance for synthetic customization of functional protein bioconjugates, as well as the resultant impact and advancement for biomedical applications.

  17. [Antivitamin activity of oxythiamine disulfide nicotinate].

    PubMed

    Oparin, D A; Zabrodskaia, S V

    1992-01-01

    The B1-antivitamin activity of oxythiamine disulphide nicotinate has been determined in experiments on albino mice and it is shown that in the liver this derivative exerts the equal action while in the blood and heart--a more profound and prolonged inhibitory action on the transketolase activity in comparison with oxythiamine disulphide. Like the initial compound oxythiamine disulphide nicotinate does not penetrate through hemato-encephalic barrier and does not inhibit the brain transketolase.

  18. A disulfide intercalator toolbox for the site-directed modification of polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Wu, Yuzhou; Kuan, Seah Ling; Dumele, Oliver; Lamla, Markus; Ng, David Y W; Arzt, Matthias; Thomas, Jessica; Mueller, Jan O; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Weil, Tanja

    2015-01-02

    A disulfide intercalator toolbox was developed for site-specific attachment of a broad variety of functional groups to proteins or peptides under mild, physiological conditions. The peptide hormone somatostatin (SST) served as model compound for intercalation into the available disulfide functionalization schemes starting from the intercalator or the reactive SST precursor before or after bioconjugation. A tetrazole-SST derivative was obtained that undergoes photoinduced cycloaddition in mammalian cells, which was monitored by live-cell imaging. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Protein disulfide isomerase acts as an injury response signal that enhances fibrin generation via tissue factor activation

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Christoph; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Manukyan, Davit; Grahl, Lenka; Lorenz, Michael; Altmann, Berid; Dlugai, Silke; Hess, Sonja; Konrad, Ildiko; Orschiedt, Lena; Mackman, Nigel; Ruddock, Lloyd; Massberg, Steffen; Engelmann, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The activation of initiator protein tissue factor (TF) is likely to be a crucial step in the blood coagulation process, which leads to fibrin formation. The stimuli responsible for inducing TF activation are largely undefined. Here we show that the oxidoreductase protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) directly promotes TF-dependent fibrin production during thrombus formation in vivo. After endothelial denudation of mouse carotid arteries, PDI was released at the injury site from adherent platelets and disrupted vessel wall cells. Inhibition of PDI decreased TF-triggered fibrin formation in different in vivo murine models of thrombus formation, as determined by intravital fluorescence microscopy. PDI infusion increased — and, under conditions of decreased platelet adhesion, PDI inhibition reduced — fibrin generation at the injury site, indicating that PDI can directly initiate blood coagulation. In vitro, human platelet–secreted PDI contributed to the activation of cryptic TF on microvesicles (microparticles). Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that part of the extracellular cysteine 209 of TF was constitutively glutathionylated. Mixed disulfide formation contributed to maintaining TF in a state of low functionality. We propose that reduced PDI activates TF by isomerization of a mixed disulfide and a free thiol to an intramolecular disulfide. Our findings suggest that disulfide isomerases can act as injury response signals that trigger the activation of fibrin formation following vessel injury. PMID:18274674

  20. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  1. Method for removal of asphaltene depositions with amine-activated disulfide oil

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, S.P.

    1983-04-12

    A method for treating and removing unwanted asphaltene deposits from oil and gas wells, surface equipment, flow lines, and pore spaces of oil-baring formations comprises treatment with an amine -activated aliphatic disulfide oil as an asphaltene solvent. In a preferred aspect, the aliphatic disulfide oil is a dialkyl disulfide oil and is activated by the addition of 10 weight percent of diethylamine. In a specific use, the activated disulfide oil is used to remove asphaltene deposits from an oilbearing formation and a producing well penetrating the formation.

  2. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes.

  3. Role of disulfide bonds in the structure and activity of human insulin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seung-Gu; Choi, Ki-Doo; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Shin, Hang-Cheol

    2003-12-31

    Insulin contains two inter-chain disulfide bonds between the A and B chains (A7-B7 and A20-B19), and one intra-chain linkage in the A chain (A6-A11). To investigate the role of each disulfide bond in the structure, function and stability of the molecule, three des mutants of human insulin, each lacking one of the three disulfide bonds, were prepared by enzymatic conversion of refolded mini-proinsulins. Structural and biological studies of the three des mutants revealed that all three disulfide bonds are essential for the receptor binding activity of insulin, whereas the different disulfide bonds make different contributions to the overall structure of insulin. Deletion of the A20-B19 disulfide bond had the most substantial influence on the structure as indicated by loss of ordered secondary structure, increased susceptibility to proteolysis, and markedly reduced compactness. Deletion of the A6-A11 disulfide bond caused the least perturbation to the structure. In addition, different refolding efficiencies between the three des mutants suggest that the disulfide bonds are formed sequentially in the order A20-B19, A7-B7 and A6-A11 in the folding pathway of proinsulin.

  4. Human β-defensin 4 with non-native disulfide bridges exhibit antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Himanshu; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Human defensins play multiple roles in innate immunity including direct antimicrobial killing and immunomodulatory activity. They have three disulfide bridges which contribute to the stability of three anti-parallel β-strands. The exact role of disulfide bridges and canonical β-structure in the antimicrobial action is not yet fully understood. In this study, we have explored the antimicrobial activity of human β-defensin 4 (HBD4) analogs that differ in the number and connectivity of disulfide bridges. The cysteine framework was similar to the disulfide bridges present in μ-conotoxins, an unrelated class of peptide toxins. All the analogs possessed enhanced antimicrobial potency as compared to native HBD4. Among the analogs, the single disulfide bridged peptide showed maximum potency. However, there were no marked differences in the secondary structure of the analogs. Subtle variations were observed in the localization and membrane interaction of the analogs with bacteria and Candida albicans, suggesting a role for disulfide bridges in modulating their antimicrobial action. All analogs accumulated in the cytosol where they can bind to anionic molecules such as nucleic acids which would affect several cellular processes leading to cell death. Our study strongly suggests that native disulfide bridges or the canonical β-strands in defensins have not evolved for maximal activity but they play important roles in determining their antimicrobial potency.

  5. Arabidopsis protein disulfide isomerase-8 is a type I endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein with thiol-disulfide oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Christen Y L; Shek, Roger; Kang, Byung-Ho; Matsumoto, Kristie; Cho, Eun Ju; Christopher, David A

    2016-08-22

    In eukaryotes, classical protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) facilitate the oxidative folding of nascent secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum by catalyzing the formation, breakage, and rearrangement of disulfide bonds. Terrestrial plants encode six structurally distinct subfamilies of PDIs. The novel PDI-B subfamily is unique to terrestrial plants, and in Arabidopsis is represented by a single member, PDI8. Unlike classical PDIs, which lack transmembrane domains (TMDs), PDI8 is unique in that it has a C-terminal TMD and a single N-terminal thioredoxin domain (instead of two). No PDI8 isoforms have been experimentally characterized to date. Here we describe the characterization of the membrane orientation, expression, sub-cellular localization, and biochemical function of this novel member of the PDI family. Histochemical staining of plants harboring a PDI8 promoter:β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion revealed that the PDI8 promoter is highly active in young, expanding leaves, the guard cells of cotyledons, and in the vasculature of several organs, including roots, leaves, cotyledons, and flowers. Immunoelectron microscopy studies using a PDI8-specific antibody on root and shoot apical cells revealed that PDI8 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Transient expression of two PDI8 fusions to green fluorescent protein (spGFP-PDI8 and PDI8-GFP-KKED) in leaf mesophyll protoplasts also resulted in labeling of the ER. Protease-protection immunoblot analysis indicated that PDI8 is a type I membrane protein, with its catalytic domain facing the ER lumen. The lumenal portion of PDI8 was able to functionally complement the loss of the prokaryotic protein foldase, disulfide oxidase (DsbA), as demonstrated by the reconstitution of periplasmic alkaline phosphatase in Escherichia coli. The results indicate that PDI8 is a type I transmembrane protein with its catalytic domain facing the lumen of the ER and functions in the oxidation of cysteines to produce disulfide

  6. Mechanistic study of the hydrodesulfurization of methanethiol over tungsten disulfide; a survey of rare earth sulfides for hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, D.Q.

    1985-06-01

    Hydrodesulfurization is a process whereby sulfur bound in organic compounds is removed as hydrogen sulfide, and is important to the control of sulfur dioxide emissions in the combustion of petroleum and coal fuels. It involves the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and is catalyzed by layered disulfides such as molybdenum and tungsten disulfide. The simplest example is the reaction CH/sub 3/SH + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/S. The mechanism of even this protypical reaction is unclear. In an effort to clarify it, the kinetics of methanethiol hydrodesulfurization over tungsten disulfide at low pressures was established, with partial pressures of methanethiol and hydrogen varied over a hundred fold. The kinetic order in each reactant was positive when its partial pressure was low negative when its partial pressure was high. The negative order in hydrogen had not been previously seen. The product gases, methane and hydrogen sulfide, each exhibited negative kinetic orders at high partial pressures, zero kinetic orders at low partial pressures. A dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type mechanism, which defines one active site as two adjacent edge sulfur vacancies and the second as a neighboring sulfur atom, describes these results quite well. Seventeen rare earth sulfides were surveyed for catalytic activity toward methanethiol hydrodesulfurization. These sulfides included both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric compositions and four different morphologies. In general, nonconductors were inactive and conductors were active. This correlation extended to the nonstoichiometric ..gamma..-phase sesquisulfides which exhibit both insulating and conducting properties. 96 refs.

  7. Mechanistic study of the hydrodesulfurization of methanethiol over tungsten disulfide. II. A survey of rare earth sulfides for hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, D.Q.

    1985-01-01

    I. Hydrodesulfurization is a process whereby sulfur bound in organic compounds is removed as hydrogen sulfide, and is important to the control of sulfur dioxide emissions in the combustion of petroleum and coal fuels. It involves the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and is catalyzed by layered disulfides such as molybdenum and tungsten disulfide. The simplest example is the reaction CH/sub 3/SH + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/S. The mechanism of even this prototypical reaction is unclear. In an effort to clarify it, the kinetics of methanethiol hydro desulfurization over tungsten disulfide at low pressures was established, with partial pressures of methanethiol and hydrogen varied over a hundred fold. The kinetic order in each reactant was positive when its partial pressure was low, negative when its partial pressure was high. The negative order in hydrogen had not been previously seen. The product gases, methane and hydrogen sulfide, each exhibited negative kinetic orders at high partial pressures, zero kinetic orders at low partial pressures. A dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type mechanism, which defines one active site as two adjacent edge sulfur vacancies and the second as a neighboring sulfur atom, describes these results quite well. II. Seventeen rare earth sulfides were surveyed for catalytic activity toward methanethiol hydrodesulfurization. These sulfides included both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric compositions and four different morphologies. In general, nonconductors were inactive and conductors were active. This correlation extended to the nonstoichiometric ..gamma..-phase sesquisulfides which exhibit both insulating and conducting properties.

  8. Differential roles for disulfide bonds in the structural integrity and biological activity of kappa-Bungarotoxin, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Grant, G A; Luetje, C W; Summers, R; Xu, X L

    1998-09-01

    kappa-Bungarotoxin, a kappa-neurotoxin derived from the venom of the banded Krait, Bungarus multicinctus, is a homodimeric protein composed of subunits of 66 amino acid residues containing five disulfide bonds. kappa-Bungarotoxin is a potent, selective, and slowly reversible antagonist of alpha3 beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. kappa-Bungarotoxin is structurally related to the alpha-neurotoxins, such as alpha-bungarotoxin derived from the same snake, which are monomeric in solution and which effectively antagonize muscle type receptors (alpha1 beta1 gamma delta) and the homopentameric neuronal type receptors (alpha7, alpha8, and alpha9). Like the kappa-neurotoxins, the long alpha-neurotoxins contain the same five conserved disulfide bonds, while the short alpha-neurotoxins only contain four of the five. Systematic removal of single disulfide bonds in kappa-bungarotoxin by site-specific mutagenesis reveals a differential role for each of the disulfide bonds. Removal of either of the two disulfides connecting elements of the carboxy terminal loop of this toxin (Cys 46-Cys 58 and Cys 59-Cys 64) interferes with the ability of the toxin to fold. In contrast, removal of each of the other three disulfides does not interfere with the general folding of the toxin and yields molecules with biological activity. In fact, when either C3-C21 or C14-C42 are removed individually, no loss in biological activity is seen. However, removing both produces a polypeptide chain which fails to fold properly. Removal of the C27-C31 disulfide only reduces the activity of the toxin 46.6-fold. This disulfide may play a role in specific interaction of the toxin with specific neuronal receptors.

  9. Novel Protein Disulfide Isomerase Inhibitor with Anticancer Activity in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Vatolin, Sergei; Phillips, James G; Jha, Babal K; Govindgari, Shravya; Hu, Jennifer; Grabowski, Dale; Parker, Yvonne; Lindner, Daniel J; Zhong, Fei; Distelhorst, Clark W; Smith, Mitchell R; Cotta, Claudiu; Xu, Yan; Chilakala, Sujatha; Kuang, Rebecca R; Tall, Samantha; Reu, Frederic J

    2016-06-01

    Multiple myeloma cells secrete more disulfide bond-rich proteins than any other mammalian cell. Thus, inhibition of protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) required for protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) should increase ER stress beyond repair in this incurable cancer. Here, we report the mechanistically unbiased discovery of a novel PDI-inhibiting compound with antimyeloma activity. We screened a 30,355 small-molecule library using a multilayered multiple myeloma cell-based cytotoxicity assay that modeled disease niche, normal liver, kidney, and bone marrow. CCF642, a bone marrow-sparing compound, exhibited a submicromolar IC50 in 10 of 10 multiple myeloma cell lines. An active biotinylated analog of CCF642 defined binding to the PDI isoenzymes A1, A3, and A4 in MM cells. In vitro, CCF642 inhibited PDI reductase activity about 100-fold more potently than the structurally distinct established inhibitors PACMA 31 and LOC14. Computational modeling suggested a novel covalent binding mode in active-site CGHCK motifs. Remarkably, without any further chemistry optimization, CCF642 displayed potent efficacy in an aggressive syngeneic mouse model of multiple myeloma and prolonged the lifespan of C57BL/KaLwRij mice engrafted with 5TGM1-luc myeloma, an effect comparable to the first-line multiple myeloma therapeutic bortezomib. Consistent with PDI inhibition, CCF642 caused acute ER stress in multiple myeloma cells accompanied by apoptosis-inducing calcium release. Overall, our results provide an illustration of the utility of simple in vivo simulations as part of a drug discovery effort, along with a sound preclinical rationale to develop a new small-molecule therapeutic to treat multiple myeloma. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3340-50. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Collision-activated cleavage of a peptide/antibiotic disulfide linkage: possible evidence for intramolecular disulfide bond rearrangement upon collisional activation.

    PubMed

    Fagerquist, Clifton K

    2004-01-01

    Ceftiofur is an important veterinary beta-lactam antibiotic whose bioactive metabolite, desfuroylceftiofur, has a free thiol group. Desfuroylceftiofur (DFC) was reacted with two peptides, [Arg8]-vasopressin and reduced glutathione, both of which have cysteine residues to form disulfide-linked peptide/antibiotic complexes. The products of the reaction, [vasopressin + (DFC-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+, [(vasopressin+H) + (DFC-H) + H]+ and [(glutathione-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+, were analyzed using collision-activated dissociation (CAD) with a quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. MS/MS of [vasopressin + (DFC-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+ resulted in facile dissociative loss of one and two covalently bound DFC moieties. Loss of one DFC resulted from either homolytic or heterolytic dissociation of the peptide/antibiotic disulfide bond with equal or unequal partitioning of the two sulfur atoms between the fragment ion and neutral loss. Hydrogen migration preceded heterolytic dissociation. Loss of two DFC moieties from [vasopressin + (DFC-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+ appears to result from collision-activated intramolecular disulfide bond rearrangement (IDBR) to produce cyclic [vasopressin + H]+ (at m/z 1084) as well as other cyclic fragment ions at m/z 1084 +/- 32 and +64. The cyclic structure of these ions could only be inferred as MS/MS may result in rearrangement to non-cyclic structures prior to dissociative loss. IDBR was also detected from MS(3) experiments of [vasopressin + (DFC-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+ fragment ions. MS/MS of [(glutathione-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+ resulted in cleavage of the peptide backbone with retention of the DFC moiety as well as heterolytic cleavage of the peptide/antibiotic disulfide bond to produce the fragment ion: [(DFC-2H) + H]+. These results demonstrate the facile dissociative loss by CAD of DFC moieties covalently attached to peptides through disulfide bonds. Published in 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The significance of disulfide bonding in biological activity of HB-EGF, a mutagenesis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, J.T.; Zhou, Z.; Harding, P.A.

    2008-10-31

    A site-directed mutagenesis approach was taken to disrupt each of 3 disulfide bonds within human HB-EGF by substituting serine for both cysteine residues that contribute to disulfide bonding. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue (HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 108/121}, HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 116/132}, and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 134/143}) was cloned under the regulation of the mouse metallothionein (MT) promoter and stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. HB-EGF immunoreactive proteins with M{sub r} of 6.5, 21 and 24 kDa were observed from lysates of HB-EGF and each HB-EGF disulfide analogue. HB-EGF immunohistochemical analyses of each HB-EGF stable cell line demonstrated ubiquitous protein expression except HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 108/121} and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 116/132} stable cell lines which exhibited accumulated expression immediately outside the nucleus. rHB-EGF, HB-EGF, and HB-EGF{sub 134/143} proteins competed with {sup 125}I-EGF in an A431 competitive binding assay, whereas HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 108/121} and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 116/132} failed to compete. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue lacked the ability to stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of the 170 kDa EGFR. These results suggest that HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 134/143} antagonizes EGFRs.

  12. Identifying the presence of a disulfide linkage in peptides by the selective elimination of hydrogen disulfide from collisionally activated alkali and alkaline earth metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hugh I; Beauchamp, J L

    2008-01-30

    We report a new method for identifying disulfide linkages in peptides using mass spectrometry. This is accomplished by collisional activation of singly charged cationic alkali and alkaline earth metal complexes, which results in the highly selective elimination of hydrogen disulfide (H2S2). Complexes of peptides possessing disulfide bonds with sodium and alkaline earth metal are generated using electrospray ionization (ESI). Isolation followed by collision induced dissociation (CID) of singly charged peptide complexes results in selective elimination of H2S2 to leave newly formed dehydroalanine residues in the peptide. Further activation of the product yields sequence information in the region previously short circuited by the disulfide bond. For example, singly charged magnesium and calcium ion bound complexes of [Lys8]-vasopressin exhibit selective elimination of H2S2 via low-energy CID. Further isolation of the product followed by CID yields major b- and z-type fragments revealing the peptide sequence in the region between the newly formed dehydroalanine residues. Numerous model peptides provide mechanistic details for the selective elimination of H2S2. The process is initiated starting with a metal stabilized enolate anion at Cys, followed by cleavage of the S-C bond. An examination of the peptic digest of insulin provides an example of the application of the selective elimination of H2S2 for the identification of peptides with disulfide linkages. The energetics and mechanisms of H2S2 elimination from model compounds are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  13. Changes in serum angiotensin I converting enzyme activity due to carbon disulfide exposure.

    PubMed

    Filipović, N; Bilalbegović, Z; Sefić, M; Djurić, D

    1984-01-01

    The activity of serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was determined in 50 workers from a viscose factory in Banja Luka, Yugoslavia, and in 50 control subjects. Activity of serum ACE was significantly lower in workers exposed to carbon disulfide than in the control group. No correlation was found between a decrease of serum ACE in exposed workers and duration of exposure. These findings indicate that the serum ACE may be influenced by carbon disulfide, but the mechanism of these changes remains to be elucidated in this case.

  14. Disulfide Bond Formation and Activation of Escherichia coli β-Galactosidase under Oxidizing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Affentranger, Roman; Ferrer-Navarro, Mario; Daura, Xavier; Villaverde, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli β-galactosidase is probably the most widely used reporter enzyme in molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology because of the easy detection of its activity. Its large size and tetrameric structure make this bacterial protein an interesting model for crystallographic studies and atomic mapping. In the present study, we investigate a version of Escherichia coli β-galactosidase produced under oxidizing conditions, in the cytoplasm of an Origami strain. Our data prove the activation of this microbial enzyme under oxidizing conditions and clearly show the occurrence of a disulfide bond in the β-galactosidase structure. Additionally, the formation of this disulfide bond is supported by the analysis of a homology model of the protein that indicates that two cysteines located in the vicinity of the catalytic center are sufficiently close for disulfide bond formation. PMID:22286993

  15. Protein disulfide isomerase as a regulator of chloroplast translational activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungmook; Mayfield, S.P.

    1997-12-12

    Light-regulated translation of chloroplast messenger RNAs (mRNAs) requires transacting factors that interact with the 5{prime} untranslated region (UTR) of these mRNAs. Chloroplast polyadenylate-binding protein (cPABP) specifically binds to the 5{prime}-UTR of the psbA mRNA and is essential for translation of this mRNA. A protein disulfide isomeriase that is localized to the chloroplast and copurifies with cPABP was shown to modulate the binding of cPABP to the 5{prime}-UTR of the psbA mRNA by reversibly changing the redox status of cPaBP through redox potential or adenosine 5{prime}-diphosphate-dependent phosphorylation. This mechanism allows for a simple reversible switch regulating gene expression in the chloroplast. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  16. CD44 Binding to Hyaluronic Acid Is Redox Regulated by a Labile Disulfide Bond in the Hyaluronic Acid Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Kellett-Clarke, Helena; Stegmann, Monika; Barclay, A. Neil; Metcalfe, Clive

    2015-01-01

    CD44 is the primary leukocyte cell surface receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix. Enzymatic post translational cleavage of labile disulfide bonds is a mechanism by which proteins are structurally regulated by imparting an allosteric change and altering activity. We have identified one such disulfide bond in CD44 formed by Cys77 and Cys97 that stabilises the HA binding groove. This bond is labile on the surface of leukocytes treated with chemical and enzymatic reducing agents. Analysis of CD44 crystal structures reveal the disulfide bond to be solvent accessible and in the–LH hook configuration characteristic of labile disulfide bonds. Kinetic trapping and binding experiments on CD44-Fc chimeric proteins show the bond is preferentially reduced over the other disulfide bonds in CD44 and reduction inhibits the CD44-HA interaction. Furthermore cells transfected with CD44 no longer adhere to HA coated surfaces after pre-treatment with reducing agents. The implications of CD44 redox regulation are discussed in the context of immune function, disease and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26379032

  17. Structural Insight into Activation Mechanism of Toxoplasma gondii Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolases by Disulfide Reduction*

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Ulrike; Zebisch, Matthias; Krauss, Michel; Sträter, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces two nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDase1 and -3). These tetrameric, cysteine-rich enzymes require activation by reductive cleavage of a hitherto unknown disulfide bond. Despite a 97% sequence identity, both isozymes differ largely in their ability to hydrolyze ATP and ADP. Here, we present crystal structures of inactive NTPDase3 as an apo form and in complex with the product AMP to resolutions of 2.0 and 2.2 Å, respectively. We find that the enzyme is present in an open conformation that precludes productive substrate binding and catalysis. The cysteine bridge 258–268 is identified to be responsible for locking of activity. Crystal structures of constitutively active variants of NTPDase1 and -3 generated by mutation of Cys258–Cys268 show that opening of the regulatory cysteine bridge induces a pronounced contraction of the whole tetramer. This is accompanied by a 12° domain closure motion resulting in the correct arrangement of all active site residues. A complex structure of activated NTPDase3 with a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog and the cofactor Mg2+ to a resolution of 2.85 Å indicates that catalytic differences between the NTPDases are primarily dictated by differences in positioning of the adenine base caused by substitution of Arg492 and Glu493 in NTPDase1 by glycines in NTPDase3. PMID:22130673

  18. Modulating Therapeutic Activity and Toxicity of Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Antibody-Drug Conjugates with Self-Immolative Disulfide Linkers.

    PubMed

    Pillow, Thomas H; Schutten, Melissa; Yu, Shang-Fan; Ohri, Rachana; Sadowsky, Jack; Poon, Kirsten Achilles; Solis, Willy; Zhong, Fiona; Del Rosario, Geoffrey; Go, Mary Ann T; Lau, Jeffery; Yee, Sharon; He, Jintang; Liu, Luna; Ng, Carl; Xu, Keyang; Leipold, Douglas D; Kamath, Amrita V; Zhang, Donglu; Masterson, Luke; Gregson, Stephen J; Howard, Philip W; Fang, Fan; Chen, Jinhua; Gunzner-Toste, Janet; Kozak, Katherine K; Spencer, Susan; Polakis, Paul; Polson, Andrew G; Flygare, John A; Junutula, Jagath R

    2017-02-21

    A novel disulfide linker was designed to enable a direct connection between cytotoxic pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) drugs and the cysteine on a targeting antibody for use in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). ADCs composed of a cysteine-engineered antibody were armed with a PBD using a self-immolative disulfide linker. Both the chemical linker and the antibody site were optimized for this new bioconjugation strategy to provide a highly stable and efficacious ADC. This novel disulfide ADC was compared to a conjugate containing the same PBD drug, but attached to the antibody via a peptide linker. Both ADCs had similar efficacy in mice bearing human tumor xenografts. Safety studies in rats revealed that the disulfide-linked ADC had a higher maximum tolerated dose (MTD) than the peptide-linked ADC. Overall, these data suggest that the novel self-immolative disulfide linker represents a valuable way to construct ADCs with equivalent efficacy and improved safety.

  19. Importance of the disulfide bridges in the antibacterial activity of human hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Hocquellet, Agnès; le Senechal, Caroline; Garbay, Bertrand

    2012-08-01

    Hepcidin was first identified as an antimicrobial peptide present in human serum and urine. It was later demonstrated that hepcidin is the long sought hormone that regulates iron homeostasis in mammals. The native peptide of 25 amino acids (Hepc25) contains four disulfide bridges that maintain a β-hairpin motif. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the intramolecular disulfide bridges are necessary for Hepc25 antimicrobial activity. We show that a synthetic peptide corresponding to human Hepc25, and which contains the four disulfide bridges, has an antibacterial activity against several strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. On the contrary, a synthetic peptide where all cysteines were replaced by alanines (Hepc25-Ala) had no detectable activity against the same strains of bacteria. In a further step, the mode of action of Hepc25 on Escherichia coli was studied. SYTOX Green uptake was used to assess bacterial membrane integrity. No permeabilization of the membrane was observed with Hepc25, indicating that this peptide does not kill bacteria by destroying their membranes. Gel retardation assay showed that the Hepc25 binds to DNA with high efficiency, and that this binding ability is dependent on the presence of the intramolecular disulfide bridges. Reduction of Hepc25 or replacement of the eight cysteines by alanine residues led to peptides that were no longer able to bind DNA in the in vitro assay. Altogether, these results demonstrate that Hepc25 should adopt a three-dimensional structure stabilized by the intramolecular disulfide bridges in order to have antibacterial activity.

  20. Fusion expression and purification of four disulfide-rich peptides reveals enterokinase secondary cleavage sites in animal toxins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zongyun; Han, Song; Cao, Zhijian; Wu, Yingliang; Zhuo, Renxi; Li, Wenxin

    2013-01-01

    Animal toxins are powerful tools for testing the pharmacological, physiological, and structural characteristics of ion channels, proteases, and other receptors. However, most animal toxins are disulfide-rich peptides that are difficult to produce functionally. Here, a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion expression strategy was used to produce four recombinant animal toxin peptides, ChTX, StKTx23, BmP01, and ImKTx1, with different isoelectric points from 4.7 to 9.2. GST tags were removed by enterokinase, a widely used and effective commercial protease that cleaves after lysine at the cleavage site DDDDK. Using this strategy, two disulfide-rich animal toxins ChTX and StKTx23 were obtained successfully with a yield of approximately 1-2 mg/l culture. Electrophysiological experiments further showed that these two recombinant toxins showed good bioactivities, indicating that our method was effective in producing large amounts of functional disulfide-rich animal toxins. Interestingly, by analyzing the separated fractions of BmP01, StKTx23, and ImKTx1 using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, four new enterokinase secondary cleavage sites were found, consisting of the sequences "WEYR," "EDK," "QNAR," and "DNDK." To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of secondary cleavage sites for commercial enterokinase in animal toxins. These findings will help us use commercial enterokinase appropriately as a cleavage tool in the production of animal toxins.

  1. Small-molecule reductants inhibit multicatalytic activity of AA-NADase from Agkistrodon acutus venom by reducing the disulfide-bonds and Cu(II) of enzyme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Yun; Xu, Xiao-Long; Luo, Zhao-Feng; Wu, Hao; Shen, Deng-Ke; Peng, Li-Li; Liu, Yang-Zhong

    2010-02-01

    AA-NADase from Agkistrodon acutus venom is a unique multicatalytic enzyme with both NADase and AT(D)Pase activities. Among all identified NADases, only AA-NADase contains Cu(II) and has disulfide-bond linkages between two peptide chains. The effects of the reduction of the disulfide-bonds and Cu(II) in AA-NADase by small-molecule reductants on its NADase and ADPase activities have been investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. The results show that AA-NADase has six disulfide-bonds and fifteen free cysteine residues. L-ascorbate inhibits AA-NADase on both NADase and ADPase activities through the reduction of Cu(II) in AA-NADase to Cu(I), while other reductants, dithiothreitol, glutathione and tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine inhibit both NADase and ADPase activities through the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) and the cleavage of disulfide-bonds in AA-NADase. Apo-AA-NADase can recover its NADase and ADPase activities in the presence of 1 mM Zn(II). However, apo-AA-NADase does not recover any NADase or ADPase activity in the presence of 1 mM Zn(II) and 2 mM TCEP. The multicatalytic activity relies on both disulfide-bonds and Cu(II), while Cu(I) can not activate the enzyme activities. AA-NADase is probably only active as a dimer. The inhibition curves for both ADPase and NADase activities by each reductant share a similar trend, suggesting both ADPase and NADase activities probably occur at the same site. In addition, we also find that glutathione and L-ascorbate are endogenous inhibitors to the multicatalytic activity of AA-NADase. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Linker Immolation Determines Cell Killing Activity of Disulfide-Linked Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Antibody-Drug Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Donglu; Pillow, Thomas H; Ma, Yong; Cruz-Chuh, Josefa Dela; Kozak, Katherine R; Sadowsky, Jack D; Lewis Phillips, Gail D; Guo, Jun; Darwish, Martine; Fan, Peter; Chen, Jingtian; He, Changrong; Wang, Tao; Yao, Hui; Xu, Zijin; Chen, Jinhua; Wai, John; Pei, Zhonghua; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Khojasteh, S Cyrus; Dragovich, Peter S

    2016-11-10

    Disulfide bonds could be valuable linkers for a variety of therapeutic applications requiring tunable cleavage between two parts of a molecule (e.g., antibody-drug conjugates). The in vitro linker immolation of β-mercaptoethyl-carbamate disulfides and DNA alkylation properties of associated payloads were investigated to understand the determinant of cell killing potency of anti-CD22 linked pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD-dimer) conjugates. Efficient immolation and release of a PBD-dimer with strong DNA alkylation properties were observed following disulfide cleavage of methyl- and cyclobutyl-substituted disulfide linkers. However, the analogous cyclopropyl-containing linker did not immolate, and the associated thiol-containing product was a poor DNA alkylator. As predicted from these in vitro assessments, the related anti-CD22 ADCs showed different target-dependent cell killing activities in WSU-DLCL2 and BJAB cell lines. These results demonstrate how the in vitro immolation models can be used to help design efficacious ADCs.

  3. Mixed Disulfide Formation at Cys141 Leads to Apparent Unidirectional Attenuation of Aspergillus niger NADP-Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Walvekar, Adhish S.; Choudhury, Rajarshi; Punekar, Narayan S.

    2014-01-01

    NADP-Glutamate dehydrogenase from Aspergillus niger (AnGDH) exhibits sigmoid 2-oxoglutarate saturation. Incubation with 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide (2-HED, the disulfide of 2-mercaptoethanol) resulted in preferential attenuation of AnGDH reductive amination (forward) activity but with a negligible effect on oxidative deamination (reverse) activity, when monitored in the described standard assay. Such a disulfide modified AnGDH displaying less than 1.0% forward reaction rate could be isolated after 2-HED treatment. This unique forward inhibited GDH form (FIGDH), resembling a hypothetical ‘one-way’ active enzyme, was characterized. Kinetics of 2-HED mediated inhibition and protein thiol titrations suggested that a single thiol group is modified in FIGDH. Two site-directed cysteine mutants, C141S and C415S, were constructed to identify the relevant thiol in FIGDH. The forward activity of C141S alone was insensitive to 2-HED, implicating Cys141 in FIGDH formation. It was observed that FIGDH displayed maximal reaction rate only after a pre-incubation with 2-oxoglutarate and NADPH. In addition, compared to the native enzyme, FIGDH showed a four fold increase in K0.5 for 2-oxoglutarate and a two fold increase in the Michaelis constants for ammonium and NADPH. With no change in the GDH reaction equilibrium constant, the FIGDH catalyzed rate of approach to equilibrium from reductive amination side was sluggish. Altered kinetic properties of FIGDH at least partly account for the observed apparent loss of forward activity when monitored under defined assay conditions. In sum, although Cys141 is catalytically not essential, its covalent modification provides a striking example of converting the biosynthetic AnGDH into a catabolic enzyme. PMID:24987966

  4. Oxidative modification of caspase-9 facilitates its activation via disulfide-mediated interaction with Apaf-1.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yong; Xiang, Binggang; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xuxu; Wang, Yumei; Cang, Hui; Yi, Jing

    2009-04-01

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to regulate apoptosis. Activation of caspase-9, the initial caspase in the mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, is closely associated with ROS, but it is unclear whether ROS regulate caspase-9 via direct oxidative modification. The present study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which ROS mediate caspase-9 activation. Our results show that the cellular oxidative state facilitates caspase-9 activation. Hydrogen peroxide treatment causes the activation of caspase-9 and apoptosis, and promotes an interaction between caspase-9 and apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) via disulfide formation. In addition, in an in vitro mitochondria-free system, the thiol-oxidant diamide promotes auto-cleavage of caspase-9 and the caspase-9/Apaf-1 interaction by facilitating the formation of disulfide-linked complexes. Finally, a point mutation at C403 of caspase-9 impairs both H(2)O(2)-promoted caspase-9 activation and interaction with Apaf-1 through the abolition of disulfide formation. The association between cytochrome c and the C403S mutant is significantly weaker than that between cytochrome c and wild-type caspase-9, indicating that oxidative modification of caspase-9 contributes to apoptosome formation under oxidative stress. Taken together, oxidative modification of caspase-9 by ROS can mediate its interaction with Apaf-1, and can thus promote its auto-cleavage and activation. This mechanism may facilitate apoptosome formation and caspase-9 activation under oxidative stress.

  5. Aromatic glycosyl disulfide derivatives: evaluation of their inhibitory activities against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Bessy; Muñoz, Christian; Osorio, Luis; Fehér, Krisztina; Illyés, Tünde-Zita; Papp, Zsuzsa; Kumar, Ambati Ashok; Kövér, Katalin E; Sagua, Hernán; Araya, Jorge E; Morales, Patricio; Szilágyi, László; González, Jorge

    2013-06-15

    Aromatic oligovalent glycosyl disulfides and some diglycosyl disulfides were tested against three different Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Di-(β-D-galactopyranosyl-dithiomethylene) benzenes 2b and 4b proved to be the most active derivatives against all three strains of cell culture-derived trypomastigotes with IC50 values ranging from 4 to 11 μM at 37 °C. The inhibitory activities were maintained, although somewhat lowered, at a temperature of 4 °C as well. Three further derivatives displayed similar activities against at least one of the three strains. Low cytotoxicities of the active compounds, tested on confluent HeLa, Vero and peritoneal macrophage cell cultures, resulted in significantly higher selectivity indices (SI) than that of the reference drug benznidazole. Remarkably, several molecules of the tested panel strongly inhibited the parasite release from T. cruzi infected HeLa cell cultures suggesting an effect against the intracellular development of T. cruzi amastigotes as well.

  6. MetalDetector: a web server for predicting metal-binding sites and disulfide bridges in proteins from sequence

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Marco; Passerini, Andrea; Punta, Marco; Rost, Burkhard; Frasconi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The web server MetalDetector classifies histidine residues in proteins into one of two states (free or metal bound) and cysteines into one of three states (free, metal bound or disulfide bridged). A decision tree integrates predictions from two previously developed methods (DISULFIND and Metal Ligand Predictor). Cross-validated performance assessment indicates that our server predicts disulfide bonding state at 88.6% precision and 85.1% recall, while it identifies cysteines and histidines in transition metal-binding sites at 79.9% precision and 76.8% recall, and at 60.8% precision and 40.7% recall, respectively. Availability: Freely available at http://metaldetector.dsi.unifi.it Contact: metaldetector@dsi.unifi.it Supplementary Information: Details and data can be found at http://metaldetector.dsi.unifi.it/help.php PMID:18635571

  7. Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry and Site-Directed Disulfide Cross-Linking Suggest an Important Dynamic Interface between the Two Lysostaphin Domains

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hai-Rong; Gu, Mei-Gang; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Jin-Jiang; Lu, Wan-Ying; Lu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Lysostaphin is a peptidoglycan hydrolase secreted by Staphylococcus simulans. It can specifically lyse Staphylococcus aureus and is being tested as a novel antibacterial agent. The protein contains an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal cell wall targeting domain. Although the two domains from homologous enzymes were structurally determined, the structural organization of lysostaphin domains remains unknown. We used hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) and site-directed disulfide cross-linking to probe the interface between the lysostaphin catalytic and targeting domains. H/DX-MS-mediated comparison of peptides from full-length lysostaphin and the separated domains identified four peptides of lower solvent accessibility in the full-length protein. Cross-linking analysis using cysteine pair substitutions within those peptides showed that two pairs of cysteines can form disulfide bonds, supporting the domain association role of the targeted peptides. The cross-linked mutant exhibited a binding capacity to S. aureus that was similar to that of the wild-type protein but reduced bacteriolytic activity probably because of restraint in conformation. The diminished activity was further reduced with increasing NaCl concentrations that can cause contractions of bacterial peptidoglycan. The lytic activity, however, could be fully recovered by reducing the disulfide bonds. These results suggest that lysostaphin may require dynamic association of the two domains for coordinating substrate binding and target cleavage on the elastic peptidoglycan. Our study will help develop site-specific PEGylated lysostaphin to treat systemic S. aureus infections. PMID:23380729

  8. Solution structure and activity of the synthetic four-disulfide bond Mediterranean mussel defensin (MGD-1).

    PubMed

    Yang, Y S; Mitta, G; Chavanieu, A; Calas, B; Sanchez, J F; Roch, P; Aumelas, A

    2000-11-28

    MGD-1 is a 39-residue defensin-like peptide isolated from the edible Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. This peptide is characterized by the presence of four disulfide bonds. We report here its solid-phase synthesis and an easy way to improve the yield of the four native disulfide bonds. Synthetic and native MGD-1 display similar antibacterial activity, suggesting that the hydroxylation of Trp28 observed in native MGD-1 is not involved in the antimicrobial effect. The three-dimensional solution structure of MGD-1 has been established using (1)H NMR and mainly consists of a helical part (Asn7-Ser16) and two antiparallel beta-strands (Arg20-Cys25 and Cys33-Arg37), together giving rise to the common cystine-stabilized alpha-beta motif frequently observed in scorpion toxins. In MGD-1, the cystine-stabilized alpha-beta motif is stabilized by four disulfide bonds (Cys4-Cys25, Cys10-Cys33, Cys14-Cys35, and Cys21-Cys38), instead of by the three disulfide bonds commonly found in arthropod defensins. Except for the Cys21-Cys38 disulfide bond which is solvent-exposed, the three others belong to the particularly hydrophobic core of the highly constrained structure. Moreover, the C4-P5 amide bond in the cis conformation characterizes the MGD-1 structure. MGD-1 and insect defensin A possess similar bactericidal anti-Gram-positive activity, suggesting that the fourth disulfide bond of MGD-1 is not essential for the biological activity. In agreement with the general features of antibacterial peptides, the MGD-1 and defensin A structures display a typical distribution of positively charged and hydrophobic side chains. The positively charged residues of MGD-1 are located in three clusters. For these two defensin peptides isolated from insects and mollusks, it appears that the rather well conserved location of certain positively charged residues and of the large hydrophobic cluster are enough to generate the bactericidal potency and the Gram-positive specificity.

  9. LEAP-1, a novel highly disulfide-bonded human peptide, exhibits antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Krause, A; Neitz, S; Mägert, H J; Schulz, A; Forssmann, W G; Schulz-Knappe, P; Adermann, K

    2000-09-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of a novel human peptide with antimicrobial activity, termed LEAP-1 (liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide). Using a mass spectrometric assay detecting cysteine-rich peptides, a 25-residue peptide containing four disulfide bonds was identified in human blood ultrafiltrate. LEAP-1 expression was predominantly detected in the liver, and, to a much lower extent, in the heart. In radial diffusion assays, Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus carnosus, and Gram-negative Neisseria cinerea as well as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae dose-dependently exhibited sensitivity upon treatment with synthetic LEAP-1. The discovery of LEAP-1 extends the known families of mammalian peptides with antimicrobial activity by its novel disulfide motif and distinct expression pattern.

  10. The Dynamic Disulfide Relay of Quiescin Sulfhydryl Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Alon, Assaf; Grossman, Iris; Gat, Yair; Kodali, Vamsi K.; DiMaio, Frank; Mehlman, Tevie; Haran, Gilad; Baker, David; Thorpe, Colin; Fass, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Protein stability, assembly, localization, and regulation often depend on formation of disulfide cross-links between cysteine side chains. Enzymes known as sulfhydryl oxidases catalyze de novo disulfide formation and initiate intra- and intermolecular dithiol/disulfide relays to deliver the disulfides to substrate proteins1,2. Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX) is a unique, multi-domain disulfide catalyst that is localized primarily to the Golgi apparatus and secreted fluids3 and has attracted attention due to its over-production in tumors4,5. In addition to its physiological importance, QSOX is a mechanistically intriguing enzyme, encompassing functions typically carried out by a series of proteins in other disulfide formation pathways. How disulfides are relayed through the multiple redox-active sites of QSOX and whether there is a functional benefit to concatenating these sites on a single polypeptide are open questions. We determined the first crystal structure of an intact QSOX enzyme, derived from a trypanosome parasite. Notably, sequential sites in the disulfide relay were found more than 40 Å apart in this structure, too far for direct disulfide transfer. To resolve this puzzle, we trapped and crystallized an intermediate in the disulfide hand-off, which showed a 165° domain rotation relative to the original structure, bringing the two active sites within disulfide bonding distance. The comparable structure of a mammalian QSOX enzyme, also presented herein, reveals additional biochemical features that facilitate disulfide transfer in metazoan orthologs. Finally, we quantified the contribution of concatenation to QSOX activity, providing general lessons for the understanding of multi-domain enzymes and the design of novel catalytic relays. PMID:22801504

  11. Mutagenesis of the redox-active disulfide in mercuric ion reductase: Catalysis by mutant enzymes restricted to flavin redox chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Distefano, M.D.; Au, K.G.; Walsh, C.T. )

    1989-02-07

    Mercuric reductase, a flavoenzyme that possesses a redox-active cystine, Cys{sub 135}Cys{sub 140}, catalyzes the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) by NADPH. As a probe of mechanism, the authors have constructed mutants lacking a redox-active disulfide by eliminating Cys{sub 135} (Ala{sub 135}Cys{sub 140}), Cys{sub 14} (Cys{sub 135}Ala{sub 140}), or both (Ala{sub 135}Ala{sub 140}). Additionally, they have made double mutants that lack Cys{sub 135} (Ala{sub 135}Cys{sub 139}Cys{sub 140}) or Cys{sub 140} (Cys{sub 135}Cys{sub 139}Ala{sub 140}) but introduce a new Cys in place of Gly{sub 139} with the aim of constructing dithiol pairs in the active site that do not form a redox-active disulfide. The resulting mutant enzymes all lack redox-active disulfides and are hence restricted to FAD/FADH{sub 2} redox chemistry. Each mutant enzyme possesses unique physical and spectroscopic properties that reflect subtle differences in the FAD microenvironment. Preliminary evidence for the Ala{sub 135}Cys{sub 139}Cys{sub 14} mutant enzyme suggests that this protein forms a disulfide between the two adjacent Cys residues. Hg(II) titration experiments that correlate the extent of charge-transfer quenching with Hg(II) binding indicate that the Ala{sub 135}Cys{sub 140} protein binds Hg(II) with substantially less avidity than does the wild-type enzyme. All mutant mercuric reductases catalyze transhydrogenation and oxygen reduction reactions through obligatory reduced flavin intermediates at rates comparable to or greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. In multiple-turnover assays which monitored the production of Hg(0), two of the mutant enzymes were observed to proceed through at least 30 turnovers at rates ca. 1000-fold slower than that of wild-type mercuric reductase. They conclude that the Cys{sub 135} and Cys{sub 140} thiols serve as Hg(II) ligands that orient the Hg(II) for subsequent reduction by a reduced flavin intermediate.

  12. [Comparative antivitamin activity of oxythiamine disulfide and its monosulfoxide].

    PubMed

    Zimatkina, T I; Oparin, D A

    1990-01-01

    The B1-antivitamin activity of oxythiamine disulphide monosulphoxide has been determined in experiments on albino mice. It is shown that this derivative is less toxic and exerts a more profound and prolonged inhibitory action on the pyruvate dehydrogenase and transketolase activity in the animal body in comparison with initial oxythiamine disulphide.

  13. The drosomycin multigene family: three-disulfide variants from Drosophila takahashii possess antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2016-01-01

    Drosomycin (DRS) is a strictly antifungal peptide in Drosophila melanogaster, which contains four disulfide bridges (DBs) with three buried in molecular interior and one exposed on molecular surface to tie the amino- and carboxyl-termini of the molecule together (called wrapper disulfide bridge, WDB). Based on computational analysis of genomes of Drosophila species belonging to the Oriental lineage, we identified a new multigene family of DRS in Drosphila takahashii that includes a total of 11 DRS-encoding genes (termed DtDRS-1 to DtDRS-11) and a pseudogene. Phylogenetic tree and synteny analyses reveal orthologous relationship between DtDRSs and DRSs, indicating that orthologous genes of DRS-1, DRS-2, DRS-3 and DRS-6 have undergone duplication in D. takahashii and three amplifications (DtDRS-9 to DtDRS-11) of DRS-3 have lost WDB. Among the 11 genes, five are transcriptionally active in adult fruitflies. The ortholog of DRS (DtDRS-1) shows high structural and functional similarity to DRS while two WDB-deficient members display antibacterial activity accompanying complete loss or remarkable reduction of antifungal activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of three-disulfide antibacterial DRSs in a specific Drosophila species, suggesting a potential role of DB loss in neofunctionalization of a protein via structural adjustment. PMID:27562645

  14. Disulfide cross-linking influences symbiotic activities of nodule peptide NCR247.

    PubMed

    Shabab, Mohammed; Arnold, Markus F F; Penterman, Jon; Wommack, Andrew J; Bocker, Hartmut T; Price, Paul A; Griffitts, Joel S; Nolan, Elizabeth M; Walker, Graham C

    2016-09-06

    Interactions of rhizobia with legumes establish the chronic intracellular infection that underlies symbiosis. Within nodules of inverted repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) legumes, rhizobia differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. This terminal differentiation is driven by host nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides that orchestrate the adaptation of free-living bacteria into intracellular residents. Medicago truncatula encodes a family of >700 NCR peptides that have conserved cysteine motifs. NCR247 is a cationic peptide with four cysteines that can form two intramolecular disulfide bonds in the oxidized forms. This peptide affects Sinorhizobium meliloti transcription, translation, and cell division at low concentrations and is antimicrobial at higher concentrations. By preparing the three possible disulfide-cross-linked NCR247 regioisomers, the reduced peptide, and a variant lacking cysteines, we performed a systematic study of the effects of intramolecular disulfide cross-linking and cysteines on the activities of an NCR peptide. The relative activities of the five NCR247 variants differed strikingly among the various bioassays, suggesting that the NCR peptide-based language used by plants to control the development of their bacterial partners during symbiosis is even greater than previously recognized. These patterns indicate that certain NCR bioactivities require cysteines whereas others do not. The results also suggest that NCR247 may exert some of its effects within the cell envelope whereas other activities occur in the cytoplasm. BacA, a membrane protein that is critical for symbiosis, provides protection against all bactericidal forms of NCR247. Oxidative folding protects NCR247 from degradation by the symbiotically relevant metalloprotease HrrP (host range restriction peptidase), suggesting that disulfide bond formation may additionally stabilize NCR peptides during symbiosis.

  15. A pulse--radiolysis approach to fast reductive cleavage of a disulfide bond to uncage enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Lilia; Tomas, Salvador; Hunter, Christopher A; Weinstein, Julia A; Edge, Ruth; Navaratnam, Suppiah; Waltho, Jonathan P; Best, Jonathan

    2008-11-01

    The essential thiol of the enzyme papain has been caged by linking to an aromatic thiol. The resulting caged protein is inactive but enzymatic activity is fully restored upon chemical cleavage of the protective disulfide bond. We have exploited the chemistry of this disulfide bond to uncage papain by pulse radiolysis. We have shown that up to 10% of the enzyme activity can be restored by reductive pulse radiolysis. This approach has been tested on a small-molecule model system, and experiments on this model compound show that pulse radiolysis of the mixed cysteine-aromatic disulfide results in selective reduction of the disulfide bond to generate a thiol in 10-20% yield, consistent with the radiolytically restored activity of the caged papain quantified by the biochemical assay.

  16. Photonic activation of disulfide bridges achieves oriented protein immobilization on biosensor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Snabe, Torben; Klitgaard, Søren; Duroux, Meg; Petersen, Steffen B

    2006-02-01

    Photonic induced immobilization is a novel technology that results in spatially oriented and spatially localized covalent coupling of biomolecules onto thiol-reactive surfaces. Immobilization using this technology has been achieved for a wide selection of proteins, such as hydrolytic enzymes (lipases/esterases, lysozyme), proteases (human plasminogen), alkaline phosphatase, immunoglobulins' Fab fragment (e.g., antibody against PSA [prostate specific antigen]), Major Histocompability Complex class I protein, pepsin, and trypsin. The reaction mechanism behind the reported new technology involves "photonic activation of disulfide bridges," i.e., light-induced breakage of disulfide bridges in proteins upon UV illumination of nearby aromatic amino acids, resulting in the formation of free, reactive thiol groups that will form covalent bonds with thiol-reactive surfaces (see Fig. 1). Interestingly, the spatial proximity of aromatic residues and disulfide bridges in proteins has been preserved throughout molecular evolution. The new photonic-induced method for immobilization of proteins preserves the native structural and functional properties of the immobilized protein, avoiding the use of one or more chemical/thermal steps. This technology allows for the creation of spatially oriented as well as spatially defined multiprotein/DNA high-density sensor arrays with spot size of 1 microm or less, and has clear potential for biomedical, bioelectronic, nanotechnology, and therapeutic applications.

  17. Responses ton-dipropyl disulfide by ovipositing onion flies: Effects of concentration and site of release.

    PubMed

    Harris, M O; Keller, J E; Miller, J R

    1987-05-01

    Onion fly females,Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) laid the most eggs on ovipositional dishes havingn-dipropyl disulfide (Pr2S2) release rates of 1-6 ng/sec from polyethylene capsules placed beneath a sand substrate. When dipropyl disulfide was released from the wax coating of surrogate foliage rather than from the substrate, ovipositing females again responded differentially to various concentrations, laying more eggs around stems containing 0.075 and 0.089 mg/stem. Factorial combinations of several concentrations released from surrogate foliage and substrate showed that releases from surrogate foliage stimulated four times more egg-laying than releases from the substrate. Females tended to lay more eggs around surrogate stems having Pr2S2 at the base rather than on the upper half of foliage. Observations of individual females performing preovipositional examining behaviors on Pr2S2-treated surrogate stems indicated that females tended to land on the upper portions of the foliage, but after landing, spent most of their time examining areas of soil and surrogate within 1 cm of the soil-surrogate foliage interface. Surrogate stems provide a realistic context for investigating effects of plant chemicals on host-acceptance behaviors.

  18. Disulfide cross-linking influences symbiotic activities of nodule peptide NCR247

    PubMed Central

    Shabab, Mohammed; Arnold, Markus F. F.; Penterman, Jon; Wommack, Andrew J.; Bocker, Hartmut T.; Price, Paul A.; Griffitts, Joel S.; Nolan, Elizabeth M.; Walker, Graham C.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of rhizobia with legumes establish the chronic intracellular infection that underlies symbiosis. Within nodules of inverted repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) legumes, rhizobia differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. This terminal differentiation is driven by host nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides that orchestrate the adaptation of free-living bacteria into intracellular residents. Medicago truncatula encodes a family of >700 NCR peptides that have conserved cysteine motifs. NCR247 is a cationic peptide with four cysteines that can form two intramolecular disulfide bonds in the oxidized forms. This peptide affects Sinorhizobium meliloti transcription, translation, and cell division at low concentrations and is antimicrobial at higher concentrations. By preparing the three possible disulfide–cross-linked NCR247 regioisomers, the reduced peptide, and a variant lacking cysteines, we performed a systematic study of the effects of intramolecular disulfide cross-linking and cysteines on the activities of an NCR peptide. The relative activities of the five NCR247 variants differed strikingly among the various bioassays, suggesting that the NCR peptide-based language used by plants to control the development of their bacterial partners during symbiosis is even greater than previously recognized. These patterns indicate that certain NCR bioactivities require cysteines whereas others do not. The results also suggest that NCR247 may exert some of its effects within the cell envelope whereas other activities occur in the cytoplasm. BacA, a membrane protein that is critical for symbiosis, provides protection against all bactericidal forms of NCR247. Oxidative folding protects NCR247 from degradation by the symbiotically relevant metalloprotease HrrP (host range restriction peptidase), suggesting that disulfide bond formation may additionally stabilize NCR peptides during symbiosis. PMID:27551097

  19. Hapten-directed spontaneous disulfide shuffling: a universal technology for site-directed covalent coupling of payloads to antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Dengl, Stefan; Hoffmann, Eike; Grote, Michael; Wagner, Cornelia; Mundigl, Olaf; Georges, Guy; Thorey, Irmgard; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Bujotzek, Alexander; Josel, Hans-Peter; Dziadek, Sebastian; Benz, Joerg; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    ., Georges, G., Thorey, I., Stubenrauch, K.-G., Bujotzek, A., Josel, H.-P., Dziadek, S., Benz, J., Brinkmann, U. Hapten-directed spontaneous disulfide shuffling: a universal technology for site-directed covalent coupling of payloads to antibodies. PMID:25670234

  20. Nonnative Disulfide Bond Formation Activates the σ32-Dependent Heat Shock Response in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Jörg H.; Meyer, Helmut E.; Narberhaus, Franz; Jakob, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Formation of nonnative disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm, so-called disulfide stress, is an integral component of oxidative stress. Quantification of the extent of disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli revealed that disulfide stress is associated with oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide, paraquat, and cadmium. To separate the impact of disulfide bond formation from unrelated effects of these oxidative stressors in subsequent experiments, we worked with two complementary approaches. We triggered disulfide stress either chemically by diamide treatment of cells or genetically in a mutant strain lacking the major disulfide-reducing systems TrxB and Gor. Studying the proteomic response of E. coli exposed to disulfide stress, we found that intracellular disulfide bond formation is a particularly strong inducer of the heat shock response. Real-time quantitative PCR experiments showed that disulfide stress induces the heat shock response in E. coli σ32 dependently. However, unlike heat shock treatment, which induces these genes transiently, transcripts of σ32-dependent genes accumulated over time in disulfide stress-treated cells. Analyzing the stability of σ32, we found that this constant induction can be attributed to an increase of the half-life of σ32 upon disulfide stress. This is concomitant with aggregation of E. coli proteins treated with diamide. We conclude that oxidative stress triggers the heat shock response in E. coli σ32 dependently. The component of oxidative stress responsible for the induction of heat shock genes is disulfide stress. Nonnative disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm causes protein unfolding. This stabilizes σ32 by preventing its DnaK- and FtsH-dependent degradation. PMID:23585533

  1. Targeting of Arenavirus RNA Synthesis by a Carboxamide-Derivatized Aromatic Disulfide with Virucidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Claudia S.; García, Cybele C.; Levingston Macleod, Jesica M.

    2013-01-01

    Several arenaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans, representing a public health threat in endemic areas of Africa and South America. The present study characterizes the potent virucidal activity of the carboxamide-derivatized aromatic disulfide NSC4492, an antiretroviral zinc finger-reactive compound, against Junín virus (JUNV), the causative agent of Argentine HF. The compound was able to inactivate JUNV in a time and temperature-dependent manner, producing more than 99 % reduction in virus titer upon incubation with virions at 37°C for 90 min. The ability of NSC4492-treated JUNV to go through different steps of the multiplication cycle was then evaluated. Inactivated virions were able to bind and enter into the host cell with similar efficiency as control infectious particles. In contrast, treatment with NSC4492 impaired the capacity of JUNV to drive viral RNA synthesis, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR, and blocked viral protein expression, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. These results suggest that the disulfide NSC4492 targets on the arenavirus replication complex leading to impairment in viral RNA synthesis. Additionally, analysis of VLP produced in NSC4492-treated cells expressing JUNV matrix Z protein revealed that the compound may interact with Z resulting in an altered aggregation behavior of this protein, but without affecting its intrinsic self-budding properties. The potential perspectives of NSC4492 as an inactivating vaccinal compound for pathogenic arenaviruses are discussed. PMID:24278404

  2. Targeting of arenavirus RNA synthesis by a carboxamide-derivatized aromatic disulfide with virucidal activity.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Claudia S; García, Cybele C; Levingston Macleod, Jesica M; López, Nora; Damonte, Elsa B

    2013-01-01

    Several arenaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans, representing a public health threat in endemic areas of Africa and South America. The present study characterizes the potent virucidal activity of the carboxamide-derivatized aromatic disulfide NSC4492, an antiretroviral zinc finger-reactive compound, against Junín virus (JUNV), the causative agent of Argentine HF. The compound was able to inactivate JUNV in a time and temperature-dependent manner, producing more than 99 % reduction in virus titer upon incubation with virions at 37 °C for 90 min. The ability of NSC4492-treated JUNV to go through different steps of the multiplication cycle was then evaluated. Inactivated virions were able to bind and enter into the host cell with similar efficiency as control infectious particles. In contrast, treatment with NSC4492 impaired the capacity of JUNV to drive viral RNA synthesis, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR, and blocked viral protein expression, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. These results suggest that the disulfide NSC4492 targets on the arenavirus replication complex leading to impairment in viral RNA synthesis. Additionally, analysis of VLP produced in NSC4492-treated cells expressing JUNV matrix Z protein revealed that the compound may interact with Z resulting in an altered aggregation behavior of this protein, but without affecting its intrinsic self-budding properties. The potential perspectives of NSC4492 as an inactivating vaccinal compound for pathogenic arenaviruses are discussed.

  3. Native disulfide bonds in plasma retinol-binding protein are not essential for all-trans-retinol-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Gabriel O; Yu, Yong; Tarr, George E; Cantor, Charles R

    2003-01-01

    A human plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP) mutant, named RBP-S, has been designed and produced in which the six native cysteine residues, involved in the formation of three disulfide bonds, have been replaced with serine. A hexa-histidine tag was also added to the C-terminus of RBP for ease of purification. The removal of the disulfide bonds led to a decrease in the affinity of RBP for all trans-retinol. Data indicates all-trans-retinol binds RBP and RBP-S with Kd = 4 x 10(-8) M and 1 x 10(-7) M, respectively, at approximately 20 degrees C. RBP-S has reduced stability as compared to natural RBP below pH 8.0 and at room temperature. Circular dichroism in the far-UV shows that there is a relaxation of the RBP structure upon the removal of its disulfide bonds. Circular dichroism in the near-UV shows that in the absence of the disulfide bonds, the optical activity of RBP is higher in the 310-330 nm than in the 280-290 nm range. This work suggests that the three native disulfide bonds aid in the folding of RBP but are not essential to produce a soluble, active protein.

  4. Structure-activity relationships of the intramolecular disulfide bonds in coprisin, a defensin from the dung beetle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daeun; Choi, Hyemin; Kim, Ha Hyung; Kim, Ho; Hwang, Jae Sam; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il

    2014-01-01

    Defensins, which are small cationic molecules produced by organisms as part of their innate immune response, share a common structural scaffold that is stabilized by three disulfide bridges. Coprisin is a 43-amino acid defensin-like peptide from Copris tripartitus. Here, we report the intramolecular disulfide connectivity of cysteine-rich coprisin, and show that it is the same as in other insect defensins. The disulfide bond pairings of coprisin were determined by combining the enzymatic cleavage and mass analysis. We found that the loss of any single disulfide bond in coprisin eliminated all antibacterial, but not antifungal, activity. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed that two disulfide bonds, Cys20-Cys39 and Cys24-Cys41, stabilize coprisin’s α-helical region. Moreover, a BLAST search against UniProtKB database revealed that coprisin’s α-helical region is highly homologous to those of other insect defensins. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(11): 625-630] PMID:24393527

  5. Regulation of a Phage Endolysin by Disulfide Caging ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kuty, Gabriel F.; Xu, Min; Struck, Douglas K.; Summer, Elizabeth J.; Young, Ry

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to canonical phage endolysins, which require holin-mediated disruption of the membrane to gain access to attack the cell wall, signal anchor release (SAR) endolysins are secreted by the host sec system, where they accumulate in an inactive form tethered to the membrane by their N-terminal SAR domains. SAR endolysins become activated by various mechanisms upon release from the membrane. In its inactive form, the prototype SAR endolysin, LyzP1, of coliphage P1, has an active-site Cys covalently blocked by a disulfide bond; activation involves a disulfide bond isomerization driven by a thiol in the newly released SAR domain, unblocking the active-site Cys. Here, we report that Lyz103, the endolysin of Erwinia phage ERA103, is also a SAR endolysin. Although Lyz103 does not have a catalytic Cys, genetic evidence suggests that it also is activated by a thiol-disulfide isomerization triggered by a thiol in the SAR domain. In this case, the inhibitory disulfide in nascent Lyz103 is formed between cysteine residues flanking a catalytic glutamate, caging the active site. Thus, LyzP1 and Lyz103 define subclasses of SAR endolysins that differ in the nature of their inhibitory disulfide, and Lyz103 is the first enzyme found to be regulated by disulfide bond caging of its active site. PMID:20833810

  6. Human protein-disulfide isomerase is a redox-regulated chaperone activated by oxidation of domain a'.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Jiang; Huo, Lin; Wang, Lei; Feng, Wei; Wang, Chih-chen

    2012-01-06

    Protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI), with domains arranged as abb'xa'c, is a key enzyme and chaperone localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) catalyzing oxidative folding and preventing misfolding/aggregation of proteins. It has been controversial whether the chaperone activity of PDI is redox-regulated, and the molecular basis is unclear. Here, we show that both the chaperone activity and the overall conformation of human PDI are redox-regulated. We further demonstrate that the conformational changes are triggered by the active site of domain a', and the minimum redox-regulated cassette is located in b'xa'. The structure of the reduced bb'xa' reveals for the first time that domain a' packs tightly with both domain b' and linker x to form one compact structural module. Oxidation of domain a' releases the compact conformation and exposes the shielded hydrophobic areas to facilitate its high chaperone activity. Thus, the study unequivocally provides mechanistic insights into the redox-regulated chaperone activity of human PDI.

  7. Human Protein-disulfide Isomerase Is a Redox-regulated Chaperone Activated by Oxidation of Domain a′*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Jiang; Huo, Lin; Wang, Lei; Feng, Wei; Wang, Chih-chen

    2012-01-01

    Protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI), with domains arranged as abb′xa′c, is a key enzyme and chaperone localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) catalyzing oxidative folding and preventing misfolding/aggregation of proteins. It has been controversial whether the chaperone activity of PDI is redox-regulated, and the molecular basis is unclear. Here, we show that both the chaperone activity and the overall conformation of human PDI are redox-regulated. We further demonstrate that the conformational changes are triggered by the active site of domain a′, and the minimum redox-regulated cassette is located in b′xa′. The structure of the reduced bb′xa′ reveals for the first time that domain a′ packs tightly with both domain b′ and linker x to form one compact structural module. Oxidation of domain a′ releases the compact conformation and exposes the shielded hydrophobic areas to facilitate its high chaperone activity. Thus, the study unequivocally provides mechanistic insights into the redox-regulated chaperone activity of human PDI. PMID:22090031

  8. A C-Terminal Disulfide Bridge in Pediocin-Like Bacteriocins Renders Bacteriocin Activity Less Temperature Dependent and Is a Major Determinant of the Antimicrobial Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Fimland, Gunnar; Johnsen, Line; Axelsson, Lars; Brurberg, May B.; Nes, Ingolf F.; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Several lactic acid bacteria produce so-called pediocin-like bacteriocins that share sequence characteristics, but differ in activity and target cell specificity. The significance of a C-terminal disulfide bridge present in only a few of these bacteriocins was studied by site-directed mutagenesis of pediocin PA-1 (which naturally contains the bridge) and sakacin P (which lacks the bridge). Introduction of the C-terminal bridge into sakacin P broadened the target cell specificity of this bacteriocin, as illustrated by the fact that the mutants were 10 to 20 times more potent than the wild-type toward certain indicator strains, whereas the potency toward other indicator strains remained essentially unchanged. Like pediocin PA-1, disulfide-containing sakacin P mutants had the same potency at 20 and 37°C, whereas wild-type sakacin P was approximately 10 times less potent at 37°C than at 20°C. Reciprocal effects on target cell specificity and the temperature dependence of potency were observed upon studying the effect of removing the C-terminal disulfide bridge from pediocin PA-1 by Cys→Ser mutations. These results clearly show that a C-terminal disulfide bridge in pediocin-like bacteriocins contributes to widening of the antimicrobial spectrum as well as to higher potency at elevated temperatures. Interestingly, the differences between sakacin P and pediocin PA-1 in terms of the temperature dependency of their activities correlated well with the optimal temperatures for bacteriocin production and growth of the bacteriocin-producing strain. PMID:10762272

  9. In vitro refolding of human proinsulin. Kinetic intermediates, putative disulfide-forming pathway folding initiation site, and potential role of C-peptide in folding process.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhi-Song; Min, Cheng-Yin; Hua, Qing-Xin; Weiss, Michael A; Feng, You-Min

    2003-05-16

    Human insulin is a double-chain peptide that is synthesized in vivo as a single-chain human proinsulin (HPI). We have investigated the disulfide-forming pathway of a single-chain porcine insulin precursor (PIP). Here we further studied the folding pathway of HPI in vitro. While the oxidized refolding process of HPI was quenched, four obvious intermediates (namely P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively) with three disulfide bridges were isolated and characterized. Contrary to the folding pathway of PIP, no intermediates with one- or two-disulfide bonds could be captured under different refolding conditions. CD analysis showed that P1, P2, and P3 retained partially structural conformations, whereas P4 contained little secondary structure. Based on the time-dependent distribution, disulfide pair analysis, and disulfide-reshuffling process of the intermediates, we have proposed that the folding pathway of HPI is significantly different from that of PIP. These differences reveal that the C-peptide not only facilitates the folding of HPI but also governs its kinetic folding pathway of HPI. Detailed analysis of the molecular folding process reveals that there are some similar folding mechanisms between PIP and HPI. These similarities imply that the initiation site for the folding of PIP/HPI may reside in the central alpha-helix of the B-chain. The formation of disulfide A20-B19 may guide the transfer of the folding information from the B-chain template to the unstructured A-chain. Furthermore, the implications of this in vitro refolding study on the in vivo folding process of HPI have been discussed.

  10. Mass spectrometric identification of N- and O-glycosylation sites of full-length rat selenoprotein P and determination of selenide-sulfide and disulfide linkages in the shortest isoform.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuguang; Hill, Kristina E; Burk, Raymond F; Caprioli, Richard M

    2003-08-19

    Rat selenoprotein P is an extracellular glycoprotein of 366 amino acid residues that is rich in cysteine and selenocysteine. Plasma contains four isoforms that differ principally by length at the C-terminal end. Mass spectrometry was used to identify sites of glycosylation on the full-length protein. Of the potential N-glycosylation sites, three located at residues 64, 155, and 169 were occupied, while the two at residues 351 and 356 were not occupied. Threonine 346 was variably O-glycosylated. Thus, full-length selenoprotein P is both N- and O-glycosylated. The shortest isoform of selenoprotein P, which terminates at residue 244, was analyzed for selenide-sulfide and disulfide linkages. In this isoform, a single selenocysteine and seven cysteines are present. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that a selenide-sulfide bond exists between Sec40 and Cys43. Two disulfides were also detected as Cys149-Cys167 and Cys153-Cys156. The finding of a selenide-sulfide bond in the shortest isoform is compatible with a redox function of this pair that might be analogous to the selenol-thiol pair near the C terminus of animal thioredoxin reductase. The disulfide formed by Cys153-Cys156 also has some characteristics of a redox active pair.

  11. List 9 - Active CERCLIS Sites:

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The List 9 displays the sequence of activities undertaken at active CERCLIS sites. An active site is one at which site assessment, removal, remedial, enforcement, cost recovery, or oversight activities are being planned or conducted.

  12. Endothelial cells microparticle-associated protein disulfide isomerase promotes platelet activation in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-hui; Song, Dai-jun; Chen, Tong-shuai; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Xing, Yan-qiu; Wang, Zhi-hao

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common challenge in the world, and the platelet activation is enhanced in MetS patients. However, the fundamental mechanism that underlies platelet activation in MetS remains incompletely understood. Endothelial cells are damaged seriously in MetS patients, then they release more endothelial microparticles (EMPs). After all, whether the EMPs participate in platelet activation is still obscure. If they were, how did they work? Results We demonstrated that the levels of EMPs, PMPs (platelet derived microparticles) and microparticle-carried-PDI activity increased in MetS patients. IR endothelial cells released more EMPs, the EMP-PDI was more activated. EMPs can enhance the activation of CD62P, GPIIb/IIIa and platelet aggregation and this process can be partly inhibited by PDI inhibitor such as RL90 and rutin. Activated platelets stimulated by EMPs expressed more PDI on cytoplasm and released more PMPs. Materials and Methods We obtained plasma from 23 MetS patients and 8 normal healthy controls. First we built insulin resistance (IR) model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and then we separated EMPs from HUVECs culture medium and used these EMPs to stimulate platelets. Levels of microparticles, P-selectin(CD62P), Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) were detected by flow cytometry and levels of EMPs were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) activity was detected by insulin transhydrogenase assay. Platelet aggregation was assessed by turbidimetry. Conclusion EMPs can promote the activation of GPIIb/IIIa in platelets and platelet aggregation by the PDI which is carried on the surface of EMPs. PMID:27825126

  13. Human pancreas-specific protein disulfide-isomerase (PDIp) can function as a chaperone independently of its enzymatic activity by forming stable complexes with denatured substrate proteins.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xin-Miao; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2010-07-01

    Members of the PDI (protein disulfide-isomerase) family are critical for the correct folding of secretory proteins by catalysing disulfide bond formation as well as by serving as molecular chaperones to prevent protein aggregation. In the present paper, we report that the chaperone activity of the human pancreas-specific PDI homologue (PDIp) is independent of its enzymatic activity on the basis of the following lines of evidence. First, alkylation of PDIp by iodoacetamide fully abolishes its enzymatic activity, whereas it still retains most of its chaperone activity in preventing the aggregation of reduced insulin B chain and denatured GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase). Secondly, mutation of the cysteine residues in PDIp's active sites completely abolishes its enzymatic activity, but does not affect its chaperone activity. Thirdly, the b-b' fragment of PDIp, which does not contain the active sites and is devoid of enzymatic activity, still has chaperone activity. Mechanistically, we found that both the recombinant PDIp expressed in Escherichia coli and the natural PDIp present in human or monkey pancreas can form stable complexes with thermal-denatured substrate proteins independently of their enzymatic activity. The high-molecular-mass soluble complexes between PDIp and GAPDH are formed in a stoichiometric manner (subunit ratio of 1:3.5-4.5), and can dissociate after storage for a certain time. As a proof-of-concept for the biological significance of PDIp in intact cells, we demonstrated that its selective expression in E. coli confers strong protection of these cells against heat shock and oxidative-stress-induced death independently of its enzymatic activity.

  14. Acid-denatured Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as model substrate to study the chaperone activity of protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Mares, Rosa E; Meléndez-López, Samuel G; Ramos, Marco A

    2011-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been widely used in several molecular and cellular biology applications, since it is remarkably stable in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, native GFP is resistant to the most common chemical denaturants; however, a low fluorescence signal has been observed after acid-induced denaturation. Furthermore, this acid-denatured GFP has been used as substrate in studies of the folding activity of some bacterial chaperones and other chaperone-like molecules. Protein disulfide isomerase enzymes, a family of eukaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bonds in nascent polypeptides, play a key role in protein folding and it could display chaperone activity. However, contrasting results have been reported using different proteins as model substrates. Here, we report the further application of GFP as a model substrate to study the chaperone activity of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) enzymes. Since refolding of acid-denatured GFP can be easily and directly monitored, a simple micro-assay was used to study the effect of the molecular participants in protein refolding assisted by PDI. Additionally, the effect of a well-known inhibitor of PDI chaperone activity was also analyzed. Because of the diversity their functional activities, PDI enzymes are potentially interesting drug targets. Since PDI may be implicated in the protection of cells against ER stress, including cancer cells, inhibitors of PDI might be able to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy; furthermore, it has been demonstrated that blocking the reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds of proteins associated with the cell surface markedly reduces the infectivity of the human immunodeficiency virus. Although several high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to test PDI reductase activity have been described, we report here a novel and simple micro-assay to test the chaperone activity of PDI enzymes, which is amenable for HTS of PDI

  15. Dithiolopyrrolones: Biosynthesis, Synthesis, and Activity of a Unique Class of Disulfide-Containing Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Wever, Walter J.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Bowers, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dithiolopyrrolone (DTP) group antibiotics were first isolated in the early half of the 20th century, but only recently has research been reawakened by insights gained from the synthesis and biosynthesis of this structurally intriguing class of molecules. DTPs are characterized by an electronically unique bicyclic structure, which contains a compact disulfide bridge between two ene-thiols. Points of diversity within the compound class occur outside of the bicyclic core, at the two amide nitrogens. Such modifications distinguish three of the most well studied members of the class, holomycin, thiolutin, and aureothricin; the DTP core has also more recently been identified in the marine antibiotic thiomarinol, in which it is linked to a marinolic acid moiety, analog of the FDA-approved topical antibiotic Bactroban® (GlaxoSmithKline). Dithiolopyrrolones exhibit relatively broad-spectrum antibiotic activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Additionally, they have been shown to exhibit potent and selective anti-cancer activity. Despite this promising profile, there is still much unknown about the mechanisms of action for DTPs. Early reports suggested that they inhibit yeast growth at the level of transcription and that this effect is largely responsible for their distinctive microbial static properties; a similar mechanism is supported in bacteria. Elucidation of biosynthetic pathways for holomycin in Streptomyces clavuligerus and Yersinia ruckeri and thiomarinol in Alteromonas rava sp. nov. SANK 73390, have contributed evidence suggesting that multiple mechanisms may be operative in the activity of these compounds. This review will comprehensively cover the history and development of dithiolopyrrolones with particular emphasis on the biosynthesis, synthesis, biological activity and mechanism of action. PMID:24835149

  16. Protective effects of diallyl disulfide on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity through activation of Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Chul; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Yun-Bae; Yun, Won-Kee; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the potential effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced acute hepatotoxicity and to determine the molecular mechanisms of protection offered by DADS in rats. DADS was administered orally at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day once daily for 5 consecutive days prior to CCl4 administration. The single oral dose of CCl4 (2 mL/kg) caused a significant elevation in serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities, which decreased upon pretreatment with DADS. Histopathological examinations showed extensive liver injury, characterized by extensive hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis, fatty changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, and congestion, which were reversed following pretreatment with DADS. The effects of DADS on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), the major isozyme involved in CCl4 bioactivation, were also investigated. DADS pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in CYP2E1 protein levels in dose-dependent manner. In addition, CCl4 caused a decrease in protein level of cytoplasmic nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and suppression of nuclear translocation of Nrf2 concurrent with downregulation of detoxifying phase II enzymes and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities. In contrast, DADS prevented the depletion of cytoplasmic Nrf2 and enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which, in turn, upregulated antioxidant and/or phase II enzymes. These results indicate that the protective effects of DADS against CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity possibly involve mechanisms related to its ability to induce antioxidant or detoxifying enzymes by activating Nrf2 and block metabolic activation of CCl4 by suppressing CYP2E1. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The biologically active form of the sea urchin egg receptor for sperm is a disulfide-bonded homo-multimer

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Since many cell surface receptors exist in their active form as oligomeric complexes, we have investigated the subunit composition of the biologically active sperm receptor in egg plasma membranes from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Electrophoretic analysis of the receptor without prior reduction of disulfide bonds revealed that the surface receptor exists in the form of a disulfide-bonded multimer, estimated to be a tetramer. These findings are in excellent agreement with the fact that the NH2-terminus of the extracellular domain of the sperm receptor is rich in cysteine residues. Studies with cross-linking agents of various length and hydrophobicity suggest that no other major protein is tightly associated with the receptor. Given the multimeric structure of the receptor, we investigated the effect of disulfide bond reduction on its biological activity. Because in quantitative bioassays fertilization was found to be inhibited by treatment of eggs with 5 mM dithiothreitol, we undertook more direct studies of the effect of reduction on properties of the receptor. First, we studied the effect of addition of isolated, pure receptor on fertilization. Whereas the non-reduced, native receptor complex inhibited fertilization in a dose- dependent manner, the reduced and alkylated receptor was inactive. Second, we tested the ability of the isolated receptor to mediate binding of acrosome-reacted sperm to polystyrene beads. Whereas beads coated with native receptor bound sperm, those containing reduced and alkylated receptor did not. Thus, these results demonstrate that the biologically active form of the sea urchin sperm receptor consists only of 350 kD subunits and that these must be linked as a multimer via disulfide bonds to produce a complex that is functional in sperm recognition and binding. PMID:8188748

  18. Insulin analog with additional disulfide bond has increased stability and preserved activity

    PubMed Central

    Vinther, Tine N; Norrman, Mathias; Ribel, Ulla; Huus, Kasper; Schlein, Morten; Steensgaard, Dorte B; Pedersen, Thomas Å; Pettersson, Ingrid; Ludvigsen, Svend; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Jensen, Knud J; Hubálek, František

    2013-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone controlling glucose homeostasis. All known vertebrate insulin analogs have a classical structure with three 100% conserved disulfide bonds that are essential for structural stability and thus the function of insulin. It might be hypothesized that an additional disulfide bond may enhance insulin structural stability which would be highly desirable in a pharmaceutical use. To address this hypothesis, we designed insulin with an additional interchain disulfide bond in positions A10/B4 based on Cα-Cα distances, solvent exposure, and side-chain orientation in human insulin (HI) structure. This insulin analog had increased affinity for the insulin receptor and apparently augmented glucodynamic potency in a normal rat model compared with HI. Addition of the disulfide bond also resulted in a 34.6°C increase in melting temperature and prevented insulin fibril formation under high physical stress even though the C-terminus of the B-chain thought to be directly involved in fibril formation was not modified. Importantly, this analog was capable of forming hexamer upon Zn addition as typical for wild-type insulin and its crystal structure showed only minor deviations from the classical insulin structure. Furthermore, the additional disulfide bond prevented this insulin analog from adopting the R-state conformation and thus showing that the R-state conformation is not a prerequisite for binding to insulin receptor as previously suggested. In summary, this is the first example of an insulin analog featuring a fourth disulfide bond with increased structural stability and retained function. PMID:23281053

  19. Carbon disulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Carbon disulfide ; CASRN 75 - 15 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  20. The disulfide oxidoreductase SdbA is active in Streptococcus gordonii using a single C-terminal cysteine of the CXXC motif.

    PubMed

    Davey, Lauren; Cohen, Alejandro; LeBlanc, Jason; Halperin, Scott A; Lee, Song F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we identified a novel disulfide oxidoreductase, SdbA, in the oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii. Disulfide oxidoreductases form disulfide bonds in nascent proteins using a CXXC catalytic motif. Typically, the N-terminal cysteine interacts with substrates, whereas the C-terminal cysteine is buried and only reacts with the first cysteine of the motif. In this study, we investigated the SdbA C(86) P(87) D(88) C(89) catalytic motif. In vitro, SdbA single cysteine variants at the N or C-terminal position (SdbAC86P and SdbAC89A ) were active but displayed different susceptibility to oxidation, and N-terminal cysteine was prone to sulfenylation. In S. gordonii, mutants with a single N-terminal cysteine were inactive and formed unstable disulfide adducts with other proteins. Activity was partially restored by inactivation of pyruvate oxidase, a hydrogen peroxide generator. Presence of the C-terminal cysteine alone (in the SdbAC86P variant) could complement the ΔsdbA mutant and restore disulfide bond formation in recombinant and natural protein substrates. These results provide evidence that certain disulfide oxidoreductases can catalyze disulfide bond formation using a single cysteine of the CXXC motif, including the buried C-terminal cysteine.

  1. Protein disulfide isomerase inhibition blocks thrombin generation in humans by interfering with platelet factor V activation

    PubMed Central

    Stopa, Jack D.; Neuberg, Donna; Puligandla, Maneka; Furie, Bruce; Zwicker, Jeffrey I.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is required for thrombus formation. We previously demonstrated that glycosylated quercetin flavonoids such as isoquercetin inhibit PDI activity and thrombus formation in animal models, but whether extracellular PDI represents a viable anticoagulant target in humans and how its inhibition affects blood coagulation remain unknown. METHODS: We evaluated effects of oral administration of isoquercetin on platelet-dependent thrombin generation in healthy subjects and patients with persistently elevated anti-phospholipid antibodies. RESULTS: Following oral administration of 1,000 mg isoquercetin to healthy adults, the measured peak plasma quercetin concentration (9.2 μM) exceeded its IC50 for inhibition of PDI by isoquercetin in vitro (2.5 ± 0.4 μM). Platelet-dependent thrombin generation decreased by 51% in the healthy volunteers compared with baseline (P = 0.0004) and by 64% in the anti-phospholipid antibody cohort (P = 0.015) following isoquercetin ingestion. To understand how PDI affects thrombin generation, we evaluated substrates of PDI identified using an unbiased mechanistic-based substrate trapping approach. These studies identified platelet factor V as a PDI substrate. Isoquercetin blocked both platelet factor Va and thrombin generation with an IC50 of ~5 μM. Inhibition of PDI by isoquercetin ingestion resulted in a 53% decrease in the generation of platelet factor Va (P = 0.001). Isoquercetin-mediated inhibition was reversed with addition of exogenous factor Va. CONCLUSION: These studies show that oral administration of isoquercetin inhibits PDI activity in plasma and diminishes platelet-dependent thrombin generation predominantly by blocking the generation of platelet factor Va. These pharmacodynamic and mechanistic observations represent an important step in the development of a novel class of antithrombotic agents targeting PDI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01722669) FUNDING: National Heart

  2. Influence of garlic or its main active component diallyl disulfide on iron bioavailability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nahdi, Afef; Hammami, Imen; Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Pilard, Nathalie; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hedi; Beaumont, Carole; El May, Michèle

    2010-02-01

    Garlic is regularly consumed and is known to have diverse biologic activities, particularly due to its antioxidant properties. In this study, we hypothesized that crude garlic can prevent iron-mediated oxidative stress in a rat model of nutritional iron overload, and we used an in vitro model to confirm the results. For the in vivo studies, rats received a basal diet supplemented with or without carbonyl iron (3%) and were fed distilled water or garlic solution (1g/kg body weight) by gavage for 3 weeks. The presence of both garlic and iron led to a 2-fold increase in plasma iron and a 50% increase in liver iron as compared with iron alone. However, garlic did not offer any protection against iron-induced oxidative stress. Duodenal divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA expression was fully repressed by iron and by the combined treatments but was also reduced by garlic alone. To confirm these data, we tested the effect of diallyl disulfide, one of the active components in garlic, in vitro on polarized Caco-2 cells. A 24-hour treatment decreased iron uptake at the apical side of Caco-2 cells but increased the percentage of iron transfer at the basolateral side. This probably resulted from a modest induction of ferroportin mRNA and protein expression. These results suggest that garlic, when given in the presence of iron, enhances iron absorption by increasing ferroportin expression. The presence of garlic in the diet at the dose studied does not seem to protect against iron-mediated oxidative stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary soy isoflavones increased hepatic protein disulfide isomerase content and suppressed its enzymatic activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chao Wu; Donak, Kevin; Ly, Olivia; Wood, Carla; Cooke, Gerard; Curran, Ivan

    2014-06-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a multifunctional protein and plays important roles in protein folding, triglyceride transfer, insulin degradation, and thyroid hormone transportation. This study examined the modulation of PDI expression by soy consumption using rat as a model. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats at 50 days (d) of age were fed diets containing either 20% casein or alcohol-washed soy protein isolate (SPI, containing 50 mg isoflavones (ISFs)/kg diet) or SPI plus ISF (250 mg/kg diet) and mated at age of 120 d. The offspring (F1) were fed the same diets as their parents. Addition of ISF to SPI diet markedly increased PDI protein content in the liver and testis of the adult rats compared with the casein or SPI diet. PDI mRNA abundance in the liver and protein content in the brain, thyroid, heart, and uterus were unchanged by the diets. Two-dimensional Western blot showed that the rats fed diets containing SPI had a diminished hepatic PDI protein with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.12, a dephosphorylated form, compared with the rats fed diets containing either casein or SPI with supplemental ISF. Soy ISF added into SPI diet remarkably suppressed hepatic PDI activity of the rats compared with the casein diet. Moreover, soy ISF dose-dependently increased PDI and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) β protein content, whereas reduced TR DNA binding ability in human hepatocytes. Overall, this study shows that soy ISF increased hepatic PDI protein content, but addition of ISF into SPI diet inhibited its enzymatic activities and this effect may be mediated through a post-transcriptional mechanism.

  4. Identification of dimethyl disulfide-forming bacteria isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, B; Inoue, H; Chaya, K; Nakamura, A; Hamamura, N; Ueno, K; Watanabe, K; Ose, Y

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four strains with high dimethyl disulfide (DMDS)-forming ability were isolated from activated sludge and identified to the genus level. These bacteria were classified into four groups (A, B, C, and D) by the API ZYM System (API System S.A., Montalieu, France). Group A (three strains) was identified as genus Lactobacillus by the API 20B System, by the method of Cowan and Steel, and by production of lactic acid as confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography. Group B (eight strains) was identified as genus Corynebacterium by API 20B and the Cowan and Steel method. Group C (one strain) was suggested to belong to genus Corynebacterium by the API 20B System. Group D (12 strains) was identified as genus Pseudomonas or Alcaligenes by the API 20B System, as genus Alcaligenes by the Cowan and Steel method, and as Achromobacter group Vd by the API 20NE System. However, on the basis of guanine-plus-cytosine contents in DNA and form of flagella, these strains were identified as genus Pseudomonas. Formation of DMDS from DL-methionine and S-methyl-L-cysteine was tested. DMDS-forming bacteria isolated from activated sludge formed DMDS from both precursors. In genus Pseudomonas, P. aeruginosa could not form DMDS from either precursor, but P. acidovorans, P. alcaligenes, P. pseudoalcaligenes, and P. testosteroni formed DMDS. In genus Alcaligenes, A. denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans, A. denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, A. faecalis, and A. odorans formed DMDS from both precursors. Achromobacter group Vd formed DMDS from S-methyl-L-cysteine, but could not from DL-methionine. PMID:3662505

  5. Syntheses, spectroscopic characterization, crystal structure and natural rubber vulcanization activity of new disulfides derived from sulfonyldithiocarbimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Leandro de Carvalho; Rubinger, Mayura Marques Magalhães; Tavares, Eder do Couto; Janczak, Jan; Pacheco, Elen Beatriz Acordi Vasques; Visconte, Leila Lea Yuan; Oliveira, Marcelo Ribeiro Leite

    2013-09-01

    The compounds (Bu4N)2[(4-RC6H4SO2NCS2)2] [Bu4N = tetrabutylammonium cation; R = H (1), F (2), Cl (3) and Br (4)] and (Ph4P)2[(4-RC6H4SO2NCS2)2]ṡH2O [Ph4P = tetraphenylphosphonium cation and R = I (5)] were synthesized by the reaction of the potassium dithiocarbimates (4-RC6H4SO2NCS2K2ṡ2H2O) with I2 and Bu4NBr or Ph4PCl. The IR data were consistent with the formation of the dithiocarbimatodisulfides anions. The NMR spectra showed the expected signals for the cations and anions in a 2:1 proportion. The structures of compounds 1-5 were determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds 2, 3 and 4 are isostructural and crystallise in the centrosymmetric space group C2/c of the monoclinic system. Compound 1 crystallises in the monoclinic system in the space group of P21/n and the compound 5 crystallises in the centrosymmetric space group P-1 of the triclinic system. The complex anions of compounds 2, 3 and 4 exhibit similar conformations having twofold symmetry, while in 1 and 5 the anions exhibit C1 symmetry. The activity of the new compounds in the vulcanization of the natural rubber was evaluated and compared to the commercial accelerators ZDMC, TBBS and TMTD. These studies confirm that the sulfonyldithiocarbimato disulfides anions are new vulcanization accelerators, being slower than the commercial accelerators, but producing a greater degree of crosslinking, and scorch time values compatible with good processing safety for industrial applications. The mechanical properties, stress and tear resistances were determined and compared to those obtained with the commercial accelerators.

  6. Rapid activation of monocyte tissue factor by antithymocyte globulin is dependent on complement and protein disulfide isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Spath, Brigitte; Fischer, Cornelia; Stolz, Moritz; Ayuk, Francis A.; Kröger, Nicolaus; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Ruf, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Lymphocyte depletion with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) can be complicated by systemic coagulation activation. We found that ATG activated tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF PCA) on monocytic cells more potently than other stimuli that decrypt TF, including cell disruption, TF pathway inhibitor inhibition, and calcium ionophore treatment. Induction of TF PCA by ATG was dependent on lipid raft integrity and complement activation. We showed that ATG-mediated TF activation required complement activation until assembly of the C5b-7 membrane insertion complex, but not lytic pore formation by the membrane attack complex C5b-9. Consistently, induction of TF PCA by ATG did not require maximal phosphatidylserine membrane exposure and was not correlated with the magnitude of complement-induced lytic cell injury. Blockade of free thiols, an inhibitory monoclonal antibody to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and the small-molecule PDI antagonist quercetin-3-rutinoside prevented ATG-mediated TF activation, and C5 complement activation resulted in oxidation of cell surface PDI. This rapid and potent mechanism of cellular TF activation represents a novel connection between the complement system and cell surface PDI-mediated thiol-disulfide exchange. Delineation of this clinically relevant mechanism of activation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway during immunosuppressive therapy with ATG may have broader implications for vascular thrombosis associated with inflammatory disorders. PMID:23315166

  7. Substitution of lysine for arginine at position 42 of human transforming growth factor-alpha eliminates biological activity without changing internal disulfide bonds.

    PubMed Central

    Defeo-Jones, D; Tai, J Y; Vuocolo, G A; Wegrzyn, R J; Schofield, T L; Riemen, M W; Oliff, A

    1989-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is a growth-promoting protein that binds to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. To identify critical residues that govern TGF-alpha-EGF receptor binding, we prepared site-specific substitution mutants of TGF-alpha. Mutant proteins were tested in receptor-binding and mitogenesis assays. Semiconservative substitutions at positions 4, 12, 18, and 45 decreased biological activity 2.1- to 14-fold. The conservative substitution of lysine for arginine at position 42 completely eliminated biological activity. Amino acid composition analysis of proteolytic fragments from TGF-alpha and the Lys-42 mutant indicated that these proteins contained the same disulfide bonds. These studies suggest that arginine 42 may be a contact point for TGF-alpha-EGF receptor interaction. PMID:2506441

  8. Revisiting the mechanistic basis of the French Paradox: Red wine inhibits the activity of protein disulfide isomerase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Galinski, Christine N; Zwicker, Jeffrey I; Kennedy, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Although epidemiologic evidence points to cardioprotective activity of red wine, the mechanistic basis for antithrombotic activity has not been established. Quercetin and related flavonoids are present in high concentrations in red but not white wine. Quercetin-glycosides were recently shown to prevent thrombosis in animal models through the inhibition of extracellular protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). We evaluated whether red or white wine inhibited PDI activity in vitro. Quercetin levels in red and white wines were measured by HPLC analysis. Inhibition of PDI activity by red and white wines was assessed by an insulin reduction turbidity assay at various concentrations of wine. PDI inhibition was confirmed using a reduced peptide that contained a disulfide containing peptide as a substrate. The inhibition of PDI related thiol isomerases ERp5 and ERp57 was also assessed. We observed a dose-dependent decrease of PDI activity for a variety of red but not white wines. Red wine diluted to 3% final concentration resulted in over 80% inhibition of PDI activity by insulin reductase assay for all varieties tested. This inhibition was also observed in the peptide based assay. Red grape juice yielded similar results but ethanol alone did not affect PDI activity. Interestingly, red wine also inhibited the PDI related thiol isomerases ERp5 and ERp57, albeit to a lesser degree than PDI. PDI activity is inhibited by red wine and grape juice, identifying a potentially novel mechanism underlying the cardiovascular benefits attributed to wine consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Direct interaction of multidrug efflux transporter AcrB and outer membrane channel TolC detected via site-directed disulfide cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Norihisa; Murakami, Satoshi; Oyama, Yoshiaki; Ishiguro, Masaji; Yamaguchi, Akihito

    2005-08-23

    The AcrAB-TolC system exports a wide variety of drugs and toxic compounds, and confers intrinsic drug tolerance on Escherichia coli. The crystal structures suggested that AcrB and TolC directly dock with each other. However, biochemical and biophysical evidence of their interaction has been contradictory until recently. In this study, we examine the interaction sites by means of in vivo disulfide cross-linking between cysteine residues introduced by site-directed mutagenesis at the tops of the vertical hairpins of AcrB and the bottoms of the coiled coils of polyhistidine-tagged TolC molecules, which are structurally predicted docking sites. The AcrB-TolC complex formed through disulfide cross-linking was detected when a specific pair of mutants was coexpressed in E. coli. Our observations suggested that the AcrB-TolC complex may be formed through a two-step mechanism via transient tip-to-tip interaction of AcrB and TolC. The cross-linking was not affected by AcrA, the substrate, or a putative proton coupling site mutation.

  10. Catalysis of Protein Disulfide Bond Isomerization in a Homogeneous Substrate†

    PubMed Central

    Kersteen, Elizabeth A.; Barrows, Seth R.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2008-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes the rearrangement of nonnative disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells, a process that often limits the rate at which polypeptide chains fold into a native protein conformation. The mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by PDI is unclear. In assays involving protein substrates, the reaction appears to involve the complete reduction of some or all of its nonnative disulfide bonds followed by oxidation of the resulting dithiols. The substrates in these assays are, however, heterogeneous, which complicates mechanistic analyses. Here, we report the first analysis of disulfide bond isomerization in a homogeneous substrate. Our substrate is based on tachyplesin I, a 17-mer peptide that folds into a _-hairpin stabilized by two disulfide bonds. We describe the chemical synthesis of a variant of tachyplesin I in which its two disulfide bonds are in a nonnative state and side chains near its N-and C-terminus contain a fluorescence donor (tryptophan) and acceptor (N_-dansyllysine). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from 280 to 465 nm increases by 28-fold upon isomerization of the disulfide bonds into their native state (which has a lower E°_ = -0.313 V than does PDI). We use this continuous assay to analyze catalysis by wild-type human PDI and a variant in which the C-terminal cysteine residue within each Cys—Gly—His—Cys active site is replaced with alanine. We find that wild-type PDI catalyzes the isomerization of the substrate with kcat/KM = 1.7 _ 105 M–1M s–1, which is the largest value yet reported for catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization. The variant, which is a poor catalyst of disulfide bond reduction and dithiol oxidation, retains virtually all of the activity of wild-type PDI in catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization. Thus, the C-terminal cysteine residues play an insignificant role in the isomerization of the disulfide bonds in nonnative tachyplesin I. We conclude that

  11. RAGE receptor targeted bioconjuguate lipid nanoparticles of diallyl disulfide for improved apoptotic activity in triple negative breast cancer: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Siddhartha, Venkata Talluri; Pindiprolu, Sai Kiran S S; Chintamaneni, Pavan Kumar; Tummala, Shashank; Nandha Kumar, S

    2017-04-17

    In the present study, we have demonstrated receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) as a target for delivery of drugs specifically to triple negative breast cancer cells. We have prepared solid lipid nanoparticle formulation of cytotoxic agent di-allyl-disulfide (DADS) to overcome its bioavailability issues. Then, we have surface modified DADS-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (DADS-SLN) with RAGE antibody to achieve site-specific delivery of DADS to TNBC cells. We found a significant cellular internalization of RAGE surface modified DADS-SLN (DADS-RAGE-SLN) when compared to DADS-SLN. The cytotoxic effect of DADS was also significantly improved with DADS-RAGE-SLN by downregulating anti-apoptotic proteins and upregulating pro-apoptotic proteins as observed by western blot analysis. RAGE-targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents can be, therefore, a promising approach for improving antitumour activity and reducing off-target effects.

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Activated Transcription Factor ATF6α Requires the Disulfide Isomerase PDIA5 To Modulate Chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Arisa; Taouji, Said; Lhomond, Stéphanie; Jensen, Devon; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Simpson, Jeremy C.; Pasquet, Jean-Max; Schekman, Randy

    2014-01-01

    ATF6α, a membrane-anchored transcription factor from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates the cellular response to stress as an effector of the unfolded-protein response (UPR), is a key player in the development of tumors of different origin. ATF6α activation has been linked to oncogenic transformation and tumor maintenance; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon remains elusive. Here, using a phenotypic small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening, we identified a novel role for ATF6α in chemoresistance and defined the protein disulfide isomerase A5 (PDIA5) as necessary for ATF6α activation upon ER stress. PDIA5 contributed to disulfide bond rearrangement in ATF6α under stress conditions, thereby leading to ATF6α export from the ER and activation of its target genes. Further analysis of the mechanism demonstrated that PDIA5 promotes ATF6α packaging into coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles and that the PDIA5/ATF6α activation loop is essential to confer chemoresistance on cancer cells. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the PDIA5/ATF6α axis restored sensitivity to the drug treatment. This work defines the mechanisms underlying the role of ATF6α activation in carcinogenesis and chemoresistance; furthermore, it identifies PDIA5 as a key regulator ATF6α-mediated cellular functions in cancer. PMID:24636989

  13. Barley γ3-hordein: glycosylation at an atypical site, disulfide bridge analysis, and reactivity with IgE from patients allergic to wheat.

    PubMed

    Snégaroff, Jacques; Bouchez, Isabelle; Smaali, Mohamed El Amine; Pecquet, Catherine; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Jolivet, Pascale; Laurière, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Post translational modifications of a seed storage protein, barley γ3-hordein, were determined using immunochemical and mass spectrometry methods. IgE reactivity towards this protein was measured using sera from patients diagnosed with allergies to wheat. N-glycosylation was found at an atypical Asn-Leu-Cys site. The observed glycan contains xylose. This indicates that at least some γ3-hordein molecules trafficked through the Golgi apparatus. Disulfide bridges in native γ3-hordein were almost the same as those found in wheat γ46-gliadin, except the bridge involving the cysteine included in the glycosylation site. IgE reacted more strongly towards the recombinant than the natural γ3-hordein protein. IgE binding to γ3-hordein increased when the protein sample was reduced. Glycosylation and disulfide bridges therefore decrease epitope accessibility. Thus the IgE from patients sensitized to wheat cross-react with γ3-hordein due to sequence homology with wheat allergens rather than through shared carbohydrate determinants.

  14. The b' domain provides the principal peptide-binding site of protein disulfide isomerase but all domains contribute to binding of misfolded proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Klappa, P; Ruddock, L W; Darby, N J; Freedman, R B

    1998-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a very efficient catalyst of folding of many disulfide-bonded proteins. A great deal is known about the catalytic functions of PDI, while little is known about its substrate binding. We recently demonstrated by cross-linking that PDI binds peptides and misfolded proteins, with high affinity but broad specificity. To characterize the substrate-binding site of PDI, we investigated the interactions of various recombinant fragments of human PDI, expressed in Escherichia coli, with different radiolabelled model peptides. We observed that the b' domain of human PDI is essential and sufficient for the binding of small peptides. In the case of larger peptides, specifically a 28 amino acid fragment derived from bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, or misfolded proteins, the b' domain is essential but not sufficient for efficient binding, indicating that contributions from additional domains are required. Hence we propose that the different domains of PDI all contribute to the binding site, with the b' domain forming the essential core. PMID:9463371

  15. Role of the disulfide cleavage induced molten globule state of type a botulinum neurotoxin in its endopeptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Cai, S; Singh, B R

    2001-12-18

    Botulinum neurotoxins are produced by anaerobic Clostridium botulinum in an inactive form. The endopeptidase activity of type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A) is triggered by reduction of its disulfide bond between its heavy chain and light chain. By using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we show that, upon reduction of BoNT/A and under physiological temperature (37 degrees C), the BoNT/A loses most of its native tertiary structure, while retaining most of its secondary structure. This type of structure is characterized as a molten globule type conformation, which was further confirmed for BoNT/A by the characteristic binding of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid. Under nonreducing conditions where the interchain disulfide bond is intact, the enzymatically inactive BoNT/A did not show a molten globule type of structure. A temperature profile of the structure and enzyme activity of BoNT/A revealed that, under reducing conditions, there was a strong correlation in the existence of the molten globule structure and optimum endopeptidase activity at about 37 degrees C.

  16. Hapten-directed spontaneous disulfide shuffling: a universal technology for site-directed covalent coupling of payloads to antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dengl, Stefan; Hoffmann, Eike; Grote, Michael; Wagner, Cornelia; Mundigl, Olaf; Georges, Guy; Thorey, Irmgard; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Bujotzek, Alexander; Josel, Hans-Peter; Dziadek, Sebastian; Benz, Joerg; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    Humanized hapten-binding IgGs were designed with an accessible cysteine close to their binding pockets, for specific covalent payload attachment. Individual analyses of known structures of digoxigenin (Dig)- and fluorescein (Fluo) binding antibodies and a new structure of a biotin (Biot)-binder, revealed a "universal" coupling position (52(+2)) in proximity to binding pockets but without contributing to hapten interactions. Payloads that carry a free thiol are positioned on the antibody and covalently linked to it via disulfides. Covalent coupling is achieved and driven toward complete (95-100%) payload occupancy by spontaneous redox shuffling between antibody and payload. Attachment at the universal position works with different haptens, antibodies, and payloads. Examples are the haptens Fluo, Dig, and Biot combined with various fluorescent or peptidic payloads. Disulfide-bonded covalent antibody-payload complexes do not dissociate in vitro and in vivo. Coupling requires the designed cysteine and matching payload thiol because payload or antibody without the Cys/thiol are not linked (<5% nonspecific coupling). Hapten-mediated positioning is necessary as hapten-thiol-payload is only coupled to antibodies that bind matching haptens. Covalent complexes are more stable in vivo than noncovalent counterparts because digoxigeninylated or biotinylated fluorescent payloads without disulfide-linkage are cleared more rapidly in mice (approximately 50% reduced 48 hour serum levels) compared with their covalently linked counterparts. The coupling technology is applicable to many haptens and hapten binding antibodies (confirmed by automated analyses of the structures of 140 additional hapten binding antibodies) and can be applied to modulate the pharmacokinetics of small compounds or peptides. It is also suitable to link payloads in a reduction-releasable manner to tumor- or tissue-targeting delivery vehicles.

  17. Electrochemical behavior of polyamides with cyclic disulfide structure and their application to positive active material for lithium secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Oyari, Yoshiaki; Onimura, Kenjiro; Oishi, Tsutomu

    Polyamides (DTA-I, DTA-II, and DTA-III) containing cyclic disulfide structure were prepared by condensation between 1,2-dithiane-3,6-dicarboxylic acid (DTA) and alkyl diamine, NH 2-(CH 2) n-NH 2 (DTA-I; n=4, DTA-II; n=6, DTA-III; n=8) and their application to positive active material for lithium secondary batteries was investigated. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements under slow sweep rate (0.5 mV s -1) with a carbon paste electrode containing the polyamide (DTA-I, DTA-II, or DTA-III) were performed. The results indicated that the polyamides were electroactive in the organic electrolyte solution (propylene carbonate (PC)-1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), 1:1 by volume containing lithium salt, such as LiClO 4). The responses based on the redox of the disulfide bonds in the polyamide were observed. Test cells, Li/PC-DME (1:1. by volume) with 1 mol dm -3 LiClO 4/the polyamide cathode, were constructed and their performance was tested under constant current charge/discharge condition. The average capacity of the test cells with the DTA-III cathode was 64.3 Ah kg -1 of cathode (135 Wh kg -1 of cathode, capacity (Ah kg -1) of the cathode×average cell voltage (2.10 V)). Performance of the cell with linear polyamide containing disulfide bond (-CO-(CH 2) 2-S-S-(CH 2) 2-CONH-(CH 2) 8-NH-, GTA-III) was also investigated and the average capacity was 56.8 Ah kg -1 of cathode (100 Wh kg -1 of cathode, capacity (Ah kg -1) of the cathode×average cell voltage (1.76 V)). Cycle efficiency of the test cell with the DTA-III cathode was higher than that with the GTA-III cathode.

  18. Enhancing the thermostability of a cold-active lipase from Penicillium cyclopium by in silico design of a disulfide bridge.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhongbiao; Li, Jianfang; Wu, Minchen; Wang, Junqing

    2014-08-01

    Cysteine mutants of a cold-active lipase (PcLipI) from Penicillium cyclopium were designed by the software Disulfide by Design Ver. 1.20 in an effort to improve enzyme thermostability by addition of a disulfide bridge. Those mutants predicted by molecular dynamics simulation to have better thermostability than the wild type were first expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and then, for further investigation, in Pichia pastoris GS115. By replacing Val248 and Thr251 with cysteines to create a disulfide bridge, the recombinant lipases reE-PcLipV248C-T251C (expressed in E. coli) and reP-PcLipV248C-T251C (expressed in P. pastoris) were obtained. Both had enhanced thermostability with half-lives at 35 °C about 4.5- and 12.8-fold longer than that of the parent PcLipI expressed in E. coli and P. pastoris, respectively. The temperature optima of reE-PcLipV248C-T251C and reP-PcLipV248C-T251C were 35 and 30 °C, which were each 5 °C higher than those of the parent PcLipI expressed in E. coli and P. pastoris. The K ms of reE-PcLipV248C-T251C and reP-PcLipV248C-T251C toward tributyrin were 53.2 and 39.5 mM, while their V maxs were 1,460 and 3,800 U/mg, respectively. PcLipV248C-T251C had better thermostability and catalytic efficiency than the other mutants and the parent PcLipI.

  19. Elimination of a Free Cysteine by Creation of a Disulfide Bond Increases the Activity and Stability of Candida boidinii Formate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junxian; Yang, Taowei; Zhou, Junping; Xu, Meijuan; Zhang, Xian; Rao, Zhiming

    2017-01-15

    NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH; EC 1.2.1.2) is an industrial enzyme widely used for NADH regeneration. However, enzyme inactivation caused by the oxidation of cysteine residues is a flaw of native FDH. In this study, we relieved the oxidation of the free cysteine of FDH from Candida boidinii (CboFDH) through the construction of disulfide bonds between A10 and C23 as well as I239 and C262. Variants A10C, I239C, and A10C/I239C were obtained by the site-directed mutagenesis and their properties were studied. Results showed that there were no significant changes in the optimum temperature and pH between variants and wild-type CboFDH. However, the stabilities of all variant enzymes were improved. Specifically, the CboFDH variant A10C (A10Cfdh) showed a significant increase in copper ion resistance and acid resistance, a 6.7-fold increase in half-life at 60°C, and a 1.4-fold increase in catalytic efficiency compared with the wild type. Asymmetric synthesis of l-tert-leucine indicated that the process time was reduced by 40% with variant A10Cfdh, which benefited from the increase in catalytic efficiency. Circular dichroism analysis and molecular dynamics simulation indicated that variants that contained disulfide bonds lowered the overall root mean square deviation (RMSD) and consequently increased the protein rigidity without affecting the secondary structure of enzyme. This work is expected to provide a viable strategy to avoid the microbial enzyme inactivation caused by the oxidation of the free cysteine residues and improving their performances. FDH is widely used for NADH regeneration in dehydrogenase-based synthesis of optically active compounds to decrease the cost of production. This study highlighted a viable strategy that was used to eliminate the oxidation of free cysteine residues of FDH from Candida boidinii by the introduction of disulfide bonds. Using this strategy, we obtained a variant FDH with improved activity and stability. The

  20. Elimination of a Free Cysteine by Creation of a Disulfide Bond Increases the Activity and Stability of Candida boidinii Formate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Junxian; Yang, Taowei; Zhou, Junping; Xu, Meijuan; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH; EC 1.2.1.2) is an industrial enzyme widely used for NADH regeneration. However, enzyme inactivation caused by the oxidation of cysteine residues is a flaw of native FDH. In this study, we relieved the oxidation of the free cysteine of FDH from Candida boidinii (CboFDH) through the construction of disulfide bonds between A10 and C23 as well as I239 and C262. Variants A10C, I239C, and A10C/I239C were obtained by the site-directed mutagenesis and their properties were studied. Results showed that there were no significant changes in the optimum temperature and pH between variants and wild-type CboFDH. However, the stabilities of all variant enzymes were improved. Specifically, the CboFDH variant A10C (A10Cfdh) showed a significant increase in copper ion resistance and acid resistance, a 6.7-fold increase in half-life at 60°C, and a 1.4-fold increase in catalytic efficiency compared with the wild type. Asymmetric synthesis of l-tert-leucine indicated that the process time was reduced by 40% with variant A10Cfdh, which benefited from the increase in catalytic efficiency. Circular dichroism analysis and molecular dynamics simulation indicated that variants that contained disulfide bonds lowered the overall root mean square deviation (RMSD) and consequently increased the protein rigidity without affecting the secondary structure of enzyme. This work is expected to provide a viable strategy to avoid the microbial enzyme inactivation caused by the oxidation of the free cysteine residues and improving their performances. IMPORTANCE FDH is widely used for NADH regeneration in dehydrogenase-based synthesis of optically active compounds to decrease the cost of production. This study highlighted a viable strategy that was used to eliminate the oxidation of free cysteine residues of FDH from Candida boidinii by the introduction of disulfide bonds. Using this strategy, we obtained a variant FDH with improved activity and

  1. Garlic-derived diallyl disulfide modulates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pagliei, Beatrice; Aquilano, Katia; Baldelli, Sara; Ciriolo, Maria R

    2013-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC1α) is an inducible transcriptional co-activator with direct function in the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. In the present report we show that, in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, garlic-derived diallyl disulfide (DADS) is able to increase PGC1α expression in a ROS-dependent manner and to induce mitochondrial biogenesis at early stage of treatment that precede cell cycle arrest and apoptosis outcome. In particular, we demonstrate that DADS elicits: i) the increase of PGC1α within nuclear compartment; ii) the decrease of PGC1α non-active acetylated form; iii) the induction of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes such as TFAM and TFBM1. We also show an accumulation of PGC1α within mitochondria along with an increased association with the regulatory D-Loop region of mtDNA and a concomitant augmented expression of mitochondrial RNA. Such events are related to a prompt elevation of mitochondrial mass, as assessed by evaluating the content of mtDNA. We show that the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis is directed to dampen the cytotoxic effect of DADS. Indeed, PGC1α overexpression or down-regulation prevents or exacerbates mtDNA loss and apoptosis. Overall the data highlight an anti-apoptotic role of PGC1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis in neuroblatoma cells and suggest PGC1α as a potential target for enhancing the effectiveness of therapy in aggressive neuroblastoma with high drug-resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Centipede venom peptide SsmTX-I with two intramolecular disulfide bonds shows analgesic activities in animal models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaojie; Yang, Meifeng; Wu, Chunyun; Zou, Zhirong; Tang, Jing; Yang, Xinwang

    2017-05-01

    Pain is a major symptom of many diseases and results in enormous pressures on human body or society. Currently, clinically used analgesic drugs, including opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, have adverse reactions, and thus, the development of new types of analgesic drug candidates is urgently needed. Animal venom peptides have proven to have potential as new types of analgesic medicine. In this research, we describe the isolation and characterization of an analgesic peptide from the crude venom of centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. The amino acid sequence of this peptide was identical with SsmTX-I that was previously reported as a specific Kv2.1 ion channel blocker. Our results revealed that SsmTX-I was produced by posttranslational processing of a 73-residue prepropeptide. The intramolecular disulfide bridge motifs of SsmTX-I was Cys1-Cys3 and Cys2-Cys4. Functional assay revealed that SsmTX-I showed potential analgesic activities in formalin-induced paw licking, thermal pain, and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing mice models. Our research provides the first report of cDNA sequences, disulfide motif, successful synthesis, and analgesic potential of SsmTX-I for the development of pain-killing drugs. It indicates that centipede peptide toxins could be a treasure trove for the search of novel analgesic drug candidates. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus DsbA is a membrane-bound lipoprotein with thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity.

    PubMed

    Dumoulin, Alexis; Grauschopf, Ulla; Bischoff, Markus; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte

    2005-11-01

    DsbA proteins, the primary catalysts of protein disulfide bond formation, are known to affect virulence and penicillin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. We identified a putative DsbA homologue in the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus that was able to restore the motility phenotype of an Escherichia coli dsbA mutant and thus demonstrated a functional thiol oxidoreductase activity. The staphylococcal DsbA (SaDsbA) had a strong oxidative redox potential of -131 mV. The persistence of the protein throughout the growth cycle despite its predominant transcription during exponential growth phase suggested a rather long half-life for the SaDsbA. SaDsbA was found to be a membrane localised lipoprotein, supporting a role in disulfide bond formation. But so far, neither in vitro nor in vivo phenotype could be identified in a staphylococcal dsbA mutant, leaving its physiological role unknown. The inability of SaDsbA to interact with the E. coli DsbB and the lack of an apparent staphylococcal DsbB homologue suggest an alternative re-oxidation pathway for the SaDsbA.

  4. Evidence for disulfide bonds in SR Protein Kinase 1 (SRPK1) that are required for activity and nuclear localization

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumani, Maria; Papadopoulos, Georgios E.; Vlassi, Metaxia; Nikolakaki, Eleni; Giannakouros, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Serine/arginine protein kinases (SRPKs) phosphorylate Arg/Ser dipeptide-containing proteins that play crucial roles in a broad spectrum of basic cellular processes. The existence of a large internal spacer sequence that separates the bipartite kinase catalytic core is a unique structural feature of SRPKs. Previous structural studies on a catalytically active fragment of SRPK1, which lacks the main part of the spacer domain, revealed that SRPK1 remains in an active state without any post-translational modifications or specific intra-protein interactions, while the spacer domain is depicted as a loop structure, outside the kinase core. Using systematic mutagenesis we now provide evidence that replacement of any individual cysteine residue in the spacer, apart from Cys414, or in its proximal flaking ends of the two kinase catalytic domains has an impact on kinase activity. Furthermore, the cysteine residues are critical for nuclear translocation of SRPK1 in response to genotoxic stress and SRPK1-dependent splicing of a reporter gene. While replacement of Cys207, Cys502 and Cys539 of the catalytic domains is predicted to distort the kinase active structure, our findings suggest that Cys356, Cys386, Cys427 and Cys455 of the spacer domain and Cys188 of the first catalytic domain are engaged in disulfide bridging. We propose that such a network of intramolecular disulfide bonds mediates the bending of the spacer region thus allowing the proximal positioning of the two catalytic subunits which is a prerequisite for SRPK1 activity. PMID:28166275

  5. Cu(II)-disulfide complexes display simultaneous superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Margarita E; Andrade-Acuña, Daniela; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristián; Speisky, Hernán

    2013-12-01

    Superoxide is a potentially toxic by-product of cellular metabolism. We have addressed here the in vitro ability of complexes formed between copper(II) ions and various biologically-occurring disulfides (RSSR: oxidized glutathione, cystine, homocystine and α-lipoic acid) to react with superoxide. The studied complexes were found to react with superoxide (generated by a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system) at rate constants (kCu(II)-RSSR) close to 10(6)M(-1)s(-1), which are three orders of magnitude lower than that reported for superoxide dismutase (SOD) but comparable to that of several other copper-containing complexes reported as SOD mimetics. The interaction between the tested Cu(II)-RSSR and superoxide, led to the generation and recovery of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen that were, respectively, below and above those theoretically-expected from a sole SOD mimetic action. Interestingly, oxygen was generated when the Cu(II)-RSSR complexes were directly incubated with hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results reveal that the Cu(II)-RSSR complexes not only have the capacity to dismutate superoxide but also to simultaneously act like catalase mimetic molecules. When added to superoxide-overproducing mitochondria (condition attained by its exposure to diclofenac), three of the tested complexes were able (2-4μM), not only to totally restore, but also to lower below the basal level the mitochondrial production of superoxide. The present study is first in reporting on the potential of Cu(II)-disulfide complexes to act as SOD and catalase like molecules, suggesting a potential for these types of molecules to act as such under physiological and/or oxidative-stress conditions.

  6. Novel molybdenum disulfide nanosheets-decorated polyaniline: Preparation, characterization and enhanced electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shuangshuang; He, Ping; Feng, Wanru; Li, Lian; Zhang, Guangli; Chen, Jingchao; Dong, Faqin; He, Huichao

    2016-04-01

    Novel molybdenum disulfide nanosheets-decorated polyaniline (MoS2/PANI) was synthesized and investigated as an efficient catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Compared with MoS2, MoS2/PANI nanocomposites exhibited higher catalytic activity and lower Tafel slope for HER in H2SO4 solution. The amount of 19 wt% PANI for coupling with MoS2 resulted in a high current density of 80 mA cm-2 at 400 mV (vs. RHE). In addition, the optimal MoS2/PANI nanocomposite showed impressive long-term stability even after 500 cycles. The enhanced catalytic activity of MoS2/PANI nanocomposites was primarily ascribed to the effective electron transport channels of PANI and the increase of electrochemically accessible surface area in composite materials, which was advantageous to facilitate the charge transfer at catalyst/electrolyte interface.

  7. Use of dipyridyl-dithio substrates to measure directly the protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity of the auxin stimulated NADH: protein disulfide reductase (NADH oxidase) of soybean plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Morré, D J; Gomez-Rey, M L; Schramke, C; Em, O; Lawler, J; Hobeck, J; Morré, D M

    1999-10-01

    Dipyridyl-dithio substrates were cleaved by isolated vesicles of plasma membranes prepared from etiolated hypocotyls of soybean. The cleavage was stimulated by auxins at physiological concentrations. The substrates utilized were principally 2,2'-dithiodipyridine (DTP) and 6,6'-dithiodinicotinic acid (DTNA). The DTP generated 2 moles of 2-pyridinethione whereas the 6,6'-dithiodinicotinic acid generated 2 moles of 6-nicotinylthionine. Both products absorbed at 340 nm. The auxin herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) stimulated the activity approximately 2-fold to a maximum at about 10 microM. Concentrations of 2,4-D greater than 100 microM inhibited the activity. Indole-3-acetic acid stimulated the activity as well. The growth-inactive auxin, 2,3-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,3-D), was without effect. DTNA cleavage correlated with oxidation of NADH and reduction of protein disulfide bonds reported earlier in terms of location at the external plasma membrane surface, absolute specific activity, pH dependence and auxin specificity. The dipyridyl-dithio substrates provide, for the first time, a direct measure of the disulfide-thiol interchange activity of the protein previously measured only indirectly as an auxin-dependent ability of isolated plasma membrane vesicles to restore activity to scrambled and inactive RNase.

  8. Role of the intra-A-chain disulfide bond of insulin-like peptide 3 in binding and activation of its receptor, RXFP2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suode; Hughes, Richard A; Bathgate, Ross A D; Shabanpoor, Fazel; Hossain, M Akhter; Lin, Feng; van Lierop, Bianca; Robinson, Andrea J; Wade, John D

    2010-09-01

    INSL3 is a member of the insulin-IGF-relaxin superfamily and plays a key role in male fetal development and in adult germ cell maturation. It is the cognate ligand for RXFP2, a leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein coupled receptor. To date, and in contrast to our current knowledge of the key structural features that are required for the binding of INSL3 to RXFP2, comparatively little is known about the key residues that are required to elicit receptor activation and downstream cell signaling. Early evidence suggests that these are contained principally within the A-chain. To further explore this hypothesis, we have undertaken an examination of the functional role of the intra-A-chain disulfide bond. Using solid-phase peptide synthesis together with regioselective disulfide bond formation, two analogs of human INSL3 were prepared in which the intra-chain disulfide bond was replaced, one in which the corresponding Cys residues were substituted with the isosteric Ser and the other in which the Cys were removed altogether. Both of these peptides retained nearly full RXFP2 receptor binding but were devoid of cAMP activity (receptor activation), indicating that the intra-A-chain disulfide bond makes a significant contribution to the ability of INSL3 to act as an RXFP2 agonist. Replacement of the disulfide bond with a metabolically stable dicarba bond yielded two isomers of INSL3 that each exhibited bioactivity similar to native INSL3. This study highlights the critical structural role played by the intra-A-chain disulfide bond of INSL3 in mediating agonist actions through the RXFP2 receptor.

  9. Implication of disulfide bridge induced thermal reversibility, structural and functional stability for luciferase.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Mina; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Nazari, Mahboobeh; Bohlooli, Mousa; Hong, Jun; Hadi-Alijanvand, Hamid; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Firefly luciferase is a relatively unstable protein and commonly loses its activity at room temperature because of structural changes. The structural and functional stability of this protein is critical for its enzymatic applications. Different approaches are applied to increase the stability of this enzyme such as designing of covalent cross-links (disulfide bonds). In this study, luciferase mutants containing one or two disulfide bonds were compared to the native protein for their for their structural, thermodynamic, and functional properties. Mutant forms of P. Pyralis luciferase A²⁹⁶C-A³²⁶C and A²⁹⁶C-A³²⁶C/P⁴⁵¹C-V⁴⁶⁹C were used. Thermodynamic and biophysical studies were carried out using UV-Vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism, luminescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). We observed that both mutant forms of the protein were more stable than the wild-type enzyme. However, the single disulfide bond containing mutant was structurally and functionally more stable than the mutant protein containing two disulfide bonds. Furthermore, the enzymatic activity of the single disulfide bond containing mutant protein was 7-folds greater than the wild type and the double disulfide bond proteins. The A²⁹⁶C-A³²⁶C mutation also increased the reversibility and disaggregation of the protein. The enhanced activity of the single disulfide bond mutant protein was contributed to the expansion of its active site cleft, which was confirmed by bioinformatics tools.

  10. Docking and molecular dynamics studies at trypanothione reductase and glutathione reductase active sites.

    PubMed

    Iribarne, Federico; Paulino, Margot; Aguilera, Sara; Murphy, Miguel; Tapia, Orlando

    2002-05-01

    A theoretical docking study on the active sites of trypanothione reductase (TR) and glutathione reductase (GR) with the corresponding natural substrates, trypanothione disulfide (T[S]2) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), is reported. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out in order to check the robustness of the docking results. The energetic results are in agreement with previous experimental findings and show the crossed complexes have lower stabilization energies than the natural ones. To test DOCK3.5, four nitro furanic compounds, previously designed as potentially active anti-chagasic molecules, were docked at the GR and TR active sites with the DOCK3.5 procedure. A good correlation was found between differential inhibitory activity and relative interaction energy (affinity). The results provide a validation test for the use of DOCK3.5 in connection with the design of anti-chagasic drugs.

  11. The role of the disulfide bridge in the stability and structural integrity of ovalbumin evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Takayuki; Ito, Kazunari; Tanaka, Miho; Tanaka, Syunpei; Matsudomi, Naotoshi

    2011-01-01

    To provide a molecular explanation of the role of the disulfide (SS) bridge in the thermostability and structural integrity of ovalbumin (OVA), we prepared SS-mutated OVAs in which SS-forming residues were replaced by Ala or Ser (C73A, C73S, C120A, and C73/120A), and compared the conformation, thermostability, susceptibility to elastase, and formation of heat-stable OVA (S-OVA) with those of the wild-type. The circular dichroism (CD) and tryptophan fluorescence spectra revealed that the SS-mutated OVAs assumed a native-like conformation similar to the wild-type. The thermal denaturation temperature for the SS-mutated OVAs was significantly lower than that for the wild-type. C73S, C120A, and C73/120A mutants converted to S-OVA on alkaline treatment. Analyses for elastase digestion fragments showed that a non-native SS bridge was generated in all SS-mutated OVAs, but non-native SS-pairing did not contribute to thermostability. Hence, we concluded that the presence of the original SS bridge in OVA contributes to conformational stability but is not directly related to the conversion to S-OVA.

  12. Quantitative analysis of the temperature dependency in Raman active vibrational modes of molybdenum disulfide atomic layers.

    PubMed

    Najmaei, Sina; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, J

    2013-10-21

    Raman spectroscopy is utilized to quantify the temperature dependency of the vibrational modes in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) atomic layers. These analyses are essential for understanding the structural properties and phononic behaviors of this two-dimensional (2D) material. We quantitatively analyze the temperature dependent shifts of the Raman peak positions in the temperature range from 300 to 550 K, and find that both planar and out-of-plane characteristic modes are highly sensitive to temperature variations. This temperature dependency is linear and can be fully explained by the first-order temperature coefficient. Using a semi-quantitative model, we evaluate the contributions of the material's thermal expansion and intrinsic temperature effects to this dependency. We reveal that the dominating source of shift in the peak position of planar mode E2g(1) for samples of all thicknesses investigated is the four-phonon process. In addition to the four-phonon process, thermal expansion plays a significant role in the temperature dependency of the out-of-plane mode, A1g. The thickness dependency of the temperature coefficient for MoS2 and a drastic change in behaviors of samples from bi- to single-layered are also demonstrated. We further explore the role of defects in the thermal properties of MoS2 by examining the temperature dependency of Raman modes in CVD-grown samples.

  13. The remarkable efficiency of a Pin-II proteinase inhibitor sans two conserved disulfide bonds is due to enhanced flexibility and hydrogen bond density in the reactive site loop.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rakesh S; Mishra, Manasi; Tamhane, Vaijayanti A; Ghosh, Anirban; Sonavane, Uddhavesh; Suresh, C G; Joshi, Rajendra; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-01-01

    Capsicum annuum (L.) expresses diverse potato type II family proteinase inhibitors comprising of inhibitory repeat domain (IRD) as basic functional unit. Most IRDs contain eight conserved cysteines forming four disulfide bonds, which are indispensible for their stability and activity. We investigated the functional significance of evolutionary variations in IRDs and their role in mediating interaction between the inhibitor and cognate proteinase. Among the 18 IRDs encoded by C. annuum, IRD-7, -9, and -12 were selected for further characterization on the basis of variation in their reactive site loop, number of conserved cysteine residues, and higher theoretical ΔGbind for interaction with Helicoverpa armigera trypsin. Moreover, inhibition kinetics showed that IRD-9, despite loss of some of the disulfide bonds, was a more potent proteinase inhibitor among the three selected IRDs. Molecular dynamic simulations revealed that serine residues in the place of cysteines at seventh and eighth positions of IRD-9 resulted in an increase in the density of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and reactive site loop flexibility. Results of the serine residues chemical modification also supported this observation and provided a possible explanation for the remarkable inhibitory potential of IRD-9. Furthermore, this natural variant among IRDs showed special attributes like stability to proteolysis and synergistic inhibitory effect on other IRDs. It is likely that IRDs have coevolved selective specialization of their structure and function as a response towards specific insect proteases they encountered. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pest protease-plant proteinaceous inhibitor interaction will help in developing effective pest control strategies. An animated interactive 3D complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:39.

  14. The in vitro ejection of zinc from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 nucleocapsid protein by disulfide benzamides with cellular anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed Central

    Tummino, P J; Scholten, J D; Harvey, P J; Holler, T P; Maloney, L; Gogliotti, R; Domagala, J; Hupe, D

    1996-01-01

    Several disulfide benzamides have been shown to possess wide-spectrum antiretroviral activity in cell culture at low micromolar to submicromolar concentrations, inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) clinical and drug-resistant strains along with HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus [Rice, W. G., Supko, J. G., Malspeis, L., Buckheit, R. W., Jr., Clanton, D., Bu, M., Graham, L., Schaeffer, C. A., Turpin, J. A., Domagala, J., Gogliotti, R., Bader, J. P., Halliday, S. M., Coren, L., Sowder, R. C., II, Arthur, L. O. & Henderson, L. E. (1995) Science 270, 1194-1197]. Rice and coworkers have proposed that the compounds act by "attacking" the two zinc fingers of HIV nucleocapsid protein. Shown here is evidence that low micromolar concentrations of the anti-HIV disulfide benzamides eject zinc from HIV nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) in vitro, as monitored by the zinc-specific fluorescent probe N-(6-methoxy-8-quinoyl)-p-toluenesulfonamide (TSQ). Structurally similar disulfide benzamides that do not inhibit HIV-1 in culture do not eject zinc, nor do analogs of the antiviral compounds with the disulfide replaced with a methylene sulfide. The kinetics of NCp7 zinc ejection by disulfide benzamides were found to be nonsaturable and biexponential, with the rate of ejection from the C-terminal zinc finger 7-fold faster than that from the N-terminal. The antiviral compounds were found to inhibit the zinc-dependent binding of NCp7 to HIV psi RNA, as studied by gel-shift assays, and the data correlated well with the zinc ejection data. Anti-HIV disulfide benzamides specifically eject NCp7 zinc and abolish the protein's ability to bind psi RNA in vitro, providing evidence for a possible antiretroviral mechanism of action of these compounds. Congeners of this class are under advanced preclinical evaluation as a potential chemotherapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images Fig. 7 PMID:8577770

  15. Structural Asymmetry and Disulfide Bridges among Subunits Modulate the Activity of Human Malonyl-CoA Decarboxylase*

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, David; Pérez-Luque, Rosa; Carpena, Xavier; Díaz, Mireia; Ferrer, Joan C.; Loewen, Peter C.; Fita, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD; EC 4.1.1.9) is an essential facet in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. The structure of human peroxisomal MCD reveals a molecular tetramer that is best described as a dimer of structural heterodimers, in which the two subunits present markedly different conformations. This molecular organization is consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity. Each subunit has an all-helix N-terminal domain and a catalytic C-terminal domain with an acetyltransferase fold (GNAT superfamily). Intersubunit disulfide bridges, Cys-206–Cys-206 and Cys-243–Cys-243, can link the four subunits of the tetramer, imparting positive cooperativity to the catalytic process. The combination of a half-of-the-sites mechanism within each structural heterodimer and positive cooperativity in the tetramer produces a complex regulatory picture that is further complicated by the multiple intracellular locations of the enzyme. Transport into the peroxisome has been investigated by docking human MCD onto the peroxisomal import protein peroxin 5, which revealed interactions that extend beyond the C-terminal targeting motif. PMID:23482565

  16. Role of individual disulfide bridges in the conformation and activity of spinoxin (α-KTx6.13), a potassium channel toxin from Heterometrus spinifer scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoko; Peigneur, Steve; Liu, Junyi; Uemura, Shiho; Nose, Takeru; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Tytgat, Jan; Sato, Kazuki

    2016-11-01

    Spinoxin (SPX; α-KTx6.13), isolated from venom of the scorpion Heterometrus spinifer, is a K(+) channel-specific peptide toxin (KTx), which adopts a cysteine-stabilized α/β scaffold that is cross-linked by four disulfide bridges (Cys1-Cys5, Cys2-Cys6, Cys3-Cys7, and Cys4-Cys8). To investigate the role of the individual disulfide bonds in the structure-activity relationship of SPX, we synthesized four SPX analogs in which each pair of cysteine residues was replaced by alanine residues. The analysis of circular dichroism spectra and inhibitory activity against Kv1.3 channels showed that the SPX analogs lacking any of three specific disulfide bonds (Cys1-Cys5, Cys2-Cys6, and Cys3-Cys7) were unable to form the native secondary structure and completely lost inhibitory activities. Thus, we conclude that Cys1-Cys5, Cys2-Cys6, and Cys3-Cys7 are required for the inhibition of the Kv1.3 channel by SPX. In contrast, the analog lacking Cys4-Cys8 retained both native secondary structure and inhibitory activity. Interestingly, one of the isomers of the analog lacking Cys1-Cys5 also showed inhibitory activities, although its inhibition was ∼18-fold weaker than native SPX. This isomer had an atypical disulfide bond pairing (Cys3-Cys4 and Cys7-Cys8) that corresponds to that of maurotoxin (MTX), another α-KTx6 family member. These results indicate that the Cys1-Cys5 and Cys2-Cys6 bonds are important for restricting the toxin from forming an atypical (MTX-type) disulfide bond pairing among the remaining four cysteine residues (Cys3, Cys4, Cys7, and Cys8) in native SPX.

  17. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase is activated through a sulfenic acid intermediate at a copper ion entry site.

    PubMed

    Fetherolf, Morgan M; Boyd, Stefanie D; Taylor, Alexander B; Kim, Hee Jong; Wohlschlegel, James A; Blackburn, Ninian J; Hart, P John; Winge, Dennis R; Winkler, Duane D

    2017-07-21

    Metallochaperones are a diverse family of trafficking molecules that provide metal ions to protein targets for use as cofactors. The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (Ccs1) activates immature copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) by delivering copper and facilitating the oxidation of the Sod1 intramolecular disulfide bond. Here, we present structural, spectroscopic, and cell-based data supporting a novel copper-induced mechanism for Sod1 activation. Ccs1 binding exposes an electropositive cavity and proposed "entry site" for copper ion delivery on immature Sod1. Copper-mediated sulfenylation leads to a sulfenic acid intermediate that eventually resolves to form the Sod1 disulfide bond with concomitant release of copper into the Sod1 active site. Sod1 is the predominant disulfide bond-requiring enzyme in the cytoplasm, and this copper-induced mechanism of disulfide bond formation obviates the need for a thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase in that compartment. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Thiol/disulfide redox states in signaling and sensing

    PubMed Central

    Go, Young-Mi; Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in redox systems biology are creating new opportunities to understand complexities of human disease and contributions of environmental exposures. New understanding of thiol-disulfide systems have occurred during the past decade as a consequence of the discoveries that thiol and disulfide systems are maintained in kinetically controlled steady-states displaced from thermodynamic equilibrium, that a widely distributed family of NADPH oxidases produces oxidants that function in cell signaling, and that a family of peroxiredoxins utilize thioredoxin as a reductant to complement the well-studied glutathione antioxidant system for peroxide elimination and redox regulation. This review focuses on thiol/disulfide redox state in biologic systems and the knowledge base available to support development of integrated redox systems biology models to better understand the function and dysfunction of thiol-disulfide redox systems. In particular, central principles have emerged concerning redox compartmentalization and utility of thiol/disulfide redox measures as indicators of physiologic function. Advances in redox proteomics show that, in addition to functioning in protein active sites and cell signaling, cysteine residues also serve as redox sensors to integrate biologic functions. These advances provide a framework for translation of redox systems biology concepts to practical use in understanding and treating human disease. Biological responses to cadmium, a widespread environmental agent, are used to illustrate the utility of these advances to the understanding of complex pleiotropic toxicities. PMID:23356510

  19. Vitamin K epoxide reductase: homology, active site and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goodstadt, Leo; Ponting, Chris P

    2004-06-01

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) recycles reduced vitamin K, which is used subsequently as a co-factor in the gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in blood coagulation enzymes. VKORC1, a subunit of the VKOR complex, has recently been shown to possess this activity. Here, we show that VKORC1 is a member of a large family of predicted enzymes that are present in vertebrates, Drosophila, plants, bacteria and archaea. Four cysteine residues and one residue, which is either serine or threonine, are identified as likely active-site residues. In some plant and bacterial homologues the VKORC1 homologous domain is fused with domains of the thioredoxin family of oxidoreductases. These might reduce disulfide bonds of VKORC1-like enzymes as a prerequisite for their catalytic activities.

  20. Inhibitory effects of diallyl disulfide on the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Young; Kim, Nam Deuk; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung-Woo; Kim, Wun Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2012-07-15

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a main organosulfur component responsible for the diverse biological effects of garlic, displays a wide variety of internal biological activities. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying DADS' anti-inflammatory activity remain poorly understood. In this study, therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of DADS were studied to investigate its potential therapeutic effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. We found that pretreatment with DADS prior to treatment with LPS significantly inhibited excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was associated with down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. DADS also attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by suppressing the expression of mRNAs for these proteins. The mechanism underlying this protective effect might be related to the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation in LPS-stimulated microglial cells. These findings indicated that DADS is potentially a novel therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence for the participation of Cys sub 558 and Cys sub 559 at the active site of mercuric reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.M.; Moore, M.J.; Massey, V.; Williams, C.H. Jr.; Distefano, M.D.; Ballou, D.P.; Walsh, C.T. )

    1989-02-07

    Mercuric reductase, with FAD and a reducible disulfide at the active site, catalyzes the two-electron reduction of Hg(II) by NADPH. Addition of reducing equivalents rapidly produces a spectrally distinct EH{sub 2} form of the enzyme containing oxidized FAD and reduced active site thiols. Formation of EH{sub 2} has previously been reported to require only 2 electrons for reduction of the active site disulfide. The authors present results of anaerobic titrations of mercuric reductase with NADPH and dithionite showing that the equilibrium conversion of oxidized enzyme to EH{sub 2} actually requires 2 equiv of reducing agent or 4 electrons. Kinetic studies conducted both at 4{degree}C and at 25{degree}C indicate that reduction of the active site occurs rapidly, as previously reported; this is followed by a slower reduction of another redox group via reaction with the active site. ({sup 14}C)Iodoacetamide labeling experiments demonstrate that the C-terminal residues, Cys{sub 558} and Cys{sub 559}, are involved in this disulfide. The fluorescence, but not the absorbance, of the enzyme-bound FAD was found to be highly dependent on the redox state of the C-terminal thiols. Thus, E{sub ox} with Cys{sub 558} and Cys{sub 559} as thiols exhibits less than 50% of the fluorescence of E{sub ox} where these residues are present as a disulfide, indicating that the thiols remain intimately associated with the active site. Initial velocity measurements show that the auxiliary disulfide must be reduced before catalytic Hg(II) reduction can occur, consistent with the report of a preactivation phenomenon with NADPH or cysteine. A modified minimal catalytic mechanism is proposed as well as several chemical mechanisms for the Hg(II) reduction step.

  2. Novel Roles of the Non-catalytic Elements of Yeast Protein-disulfide Isomerase in Its Interplay with Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1*

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yingbo; Zhang, Lihui; Yu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Chih-chen; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The formation of disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells is catalyzed by the sulfhydryl oxidase, ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1), and protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI). PDI is oxidized by Ero1 to continuously introduce disulfides into substrates, and feedback regulates Ero1 activity by manipulating the regulatory disulfides of Ero1. In this study we find that yeast Ero1p is enzymatically active even with its regulatory disulfides intact, and further activation of Ero1p by reduction of the regulatory disulfides requires the reduction of non-catalytic Cys90-Cys97 disulfide in Pdi1p. The principal client-binding site in the Pdi1p b′ domain is necessary not only for the functional Ero1p-Pdi1p disulfide relay but also for the activation of Ero1p. We also demonstrate by complementary activation assays that the regulatory disulfides in Ero1p are much more stable than those in human Ero1α. These new findings on yeast Ero1p-Pdi1p interplay reveal significant differences from our previously identified mode of human Ero1α-PDI interplay and provide insights into the evolution of the eukaryotic oxidative protein folding pathway. PMID:26846856

  3. Role of diallyl disulfide-mediated cleavage of c-Myc and Sp-1 in the regulation of telomerase activity in human lymphoma cell line U937.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Pritha; Sengupta, Sumita Bandyopadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been considered a wonder herb for years with a reputation of disease prevention. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme responsible for telomere integrity, is strongly up-regulated in different types of cancers. The aim of this study was to reveal the role of diallyl disulfide (DADS), an organosulfur component of garlic, on telomerase activity in human lymphoma with an emphasis on key transcription factors c-Myc and Sp-1. Human lymphoma cell line U937 was used as model cell line. Telomerase activity was measured by telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay, levels of related proteins and mRNAs were measured by Western blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Moreover, in vitro binding assay was performed using radiolabeled double-stranded DNA having specific sequences to detect involvement of transcription factors in DADS-dependent modulation of telomerase activity. The present study demonstrated DADS-mediated decrease in telomerase activity in U937 cells with concomitant transcriptional down-regulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) that is caused by reduced binding of c-Myc and Sp-1 to their respective binding sites on hTERT promoter. Lowering of DNA-binding activity of c-Myc and Sp-1 due to DADS treatment is caused by the deactivation of these transcription factors due to cleavage. Additionally, Mad1-the repressor protein of hTERT expression-is also overexpressed in DADS-treated U937 cells. These findings strongly suggest that DADS down-regulate telomerase activity through c-Myc-, Sp-1-, and Mad1-dependent transcriptional down-regulation of hTERT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diallyl disulfide induces apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells through activation of JNK mediated by reactive oxygen.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lan; Ji, Xiao-Xia; Lin, Min; Tan, Hui; Tang, Yi; Wen, Ling; Ma, Yan-Hua; Su, Qi

    2010-09-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a chemopreventive agent that can induce apoptosis in many tumor cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in apoptosis induced by various stimuli, including chemopreventive agents. The phosphotransferase c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to regulate apoptosis. In this study, we found that DADS-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells is mediated by ROS-activated JNK. The DADS-treated HL-60 cells showed a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability and proliferation. Agarose gel electrophoresis of cells treated with 10.0 or 20.0 mg/L DADS for 24 h showed a characteristic ladder pattern in their DNA. Levels of DADS-induced ROS, as measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence, also showed dose- and time-dependent increases in HL-60 cells. Activity of JNK was induced by DADS in a dose-dependent manner; HL-60 cells exposed to 10.0 mg/L DADS for 8 h showed maximum levels of phosphorylated JNK, which decreased when exposed for additional 4h. In contrast, Sp600125, a specific inhibitor of JNK, blocked apoptosis of HL-60 cells exposed to DADS. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a known antioxidant, also decreased ROS generation, effectively blocked apoptosis, and decreased DADS-induced phosphorylated JNK levels. These results suggest that JNK is involved in DADS-induced ROS-mediated apoptosis in HL-60 cells.

  5. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activities and tightening of tight junctions by diallyl disulfide in AGS human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Nam Deuk; Hwang, Hye Jin; Choi, Young-Whan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2011-05-01

    The effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major component of an oil-soluble allyl sulfide garlic (Allium sativum) derivative, on the correlation between anti-invasive activity and tightening of tight junctions (TJs) was investigated in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells. Our data indicated that the inhibitory effects of DADS on cell motility and invasiveness were found to be associated with increased tightness of the TJs, which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance. Activities of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and -9 in AGS cells were dose-dependently inhibited by treatment with DADS, and this was also correlated with a decrease in expression of their mRNA and proteins; however, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2 mRNA levels and proteins were increased. Additionally, immunoblotting results indicated that DADS repressed the levels of claudin proteins (claudin-2, -3, and -4), major components of TJs that play key roles in control and selectivity of paracellular transport. Although further studies are needed, these results suggest that DADS treatment may inhibit tumor cell motility and invasion and, therefore, act as a dietary source to decrease the risk of cancer metastasis.

  6. Molecular characterization of a new scorpion venom lipolysis activating peptide: Evidence for disulfide bridge-mediated functional switch of peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Gao, B

    2006-12-22

    Venoms from scorpions contain extremely rich bioactive peptides that often carry diverse functions and are presumably needed to achieve synergistic effects for rapidly immobilizing prey and defending themselves. BotLVP1 is a unique heterodimer protein recently found in the scorpion Buthus occitanus tunetanus venom that is structurally related to scorpion toxins affecting sodium channels (NaScTxs) but exhibits adipocyte lipolysis activity. We have isolated and identified two cDNA clones encoding subunits alpha and beta of a BotLVP1-like peptide (named BmLVP1) from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii venom gland and determined the first complete gene structure of this subfamily. These results highlight a genetic link between these lipolysis activating peptides and NaScTxs. Comparison of cDNA and genomic sequences combined with protein structural and functional analysis provides evidence supporting the existence of RNA editing mechanism in scorpion venom glands, which could mediate functional switch of BmLVP1 gene, from adipocyte lipolysis to neurotoxicity, by altering the wrapper disulfide bridge (WDB) pattern of the peptides.

  7. Hypochlorous Acid Converts the γ-Glutamyl Group of Glutathione Disulfide to 5-Hydroxybutyrolactam, a Potential Marker for Neutrophil Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wei; Wang, Yi; Heinecke, Jay W.; Fu, Xiaoyun

    2009-01-01

    In healthy cells, glutathione disulfide (GSSG) is rapidly reduced back to glutathione (GSH) by glutathione reductase to maintain redox status. The ratio of GSH/GSSG has been used as an indicator of oxidative stress. However, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generated by the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-Cl− system of neutrophils converts GSH to irreversible oxidation products. Although several such products have been identified, yields of these compounds are very low in biological systems, and they cannot account quantitatively for thiol loss. In the current studies, we use liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to demonstrate that HOCl and chloramines oxidize GSSG to two irreversible products in high yield. The products, termed M-45 and M-90, are, respectively, 45 or 90 atomic mass units lighter than GSSG. The reaction pathway involves chloramine and aldehyde intermediates, and converts the γ-glutamyl residues of GSSG to 5-hydroxybutyrolactam. Importantly, M-45 and M-90 were resistant to reduction by glutathione reductase. Moreover, the monohydroxylbutyrolactam M-45 accounted for >90% of the endogenous GSH oxidation products generated by activated neutrophils. Because the reaction pathway involves chlorinating intermediates, hydroxylbutyrolactams are likely to be specific products of HOCl, which is generated only by myeloperoxidase. Therefore, our observations implicate M-45 as a potential biomarker for myeloperoxidase activity in vivo. PMID:19584048

  8. Diallyl disulfide ameliorates isoproterenol induced cardiac hypertrophy activating mitochondrial biogenesis via eNOS-Nrf2-Tfam pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Tarak Nath; Dinda, Amit K; Putcha, Uday K; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2016-03-01

    The beneficial effect of garlic on cardiovascular disease is well known. However, the use of raw garlic against cardiac hypertrophy is not established. In the present study we explored whether raw garlic and its compound, diallyl disulfide (DADS) could inhibit hypertrophy through H2S and/or mitochondrial biogenesis. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rat by giving isoproterenol at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day subcutaneously for 14 days through alzet minipump. Aqueous garlic homogenate, DADS and NaHS (liberate H2S) were fed to third, forth and fifth group of rats for 14 days at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day, 50 mg/kg/day, 14 µM/kg/day respectively. Garlic and DADS reduced cardiac hypertrophy markers and normalized mitochondrial ETC-complex activities, mitochondrial enzyme activites and mitochondrial biogenetic and apoptotic genes expression. Garlic and DADS enhanced eNOS and p-AKT level in rat heart along with increased NRF2 protein level and Tfam gene expression. However, normalization was not observed after administration of NaHS which generates H2S in-vivo. In conclusion, garlic and DADS induces mitochondrial biogenesis and ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy via activation of eNOS-Nrf2-Tfam pathway in rats.

  9. Structure-activity relation of human beta-defensin 3: influence of disulfide bonds and cysteine substitution on antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Enno; Schulz-Maronde, Sandra; Scheid, Svenja; Meyer, Bernd; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Adermann, Knut

    2005-07-19

    Human beta-defensins form a group of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides which have been found in epithelial tissue and, more recently, in the male genital tract. They play a role in the defense against microbial pathogens in innate immunity and display additional chemotactic functions in the adaptive immune system. An important characteristic of antimicrobial peptides is that they also exhibit toxic potential on eukaryotic cells. Very little is known about the structure dependence of antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects. We investigated human beta-defensin 3 (hBD-3), a potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial effector peptide, regarding the influence of structural parameters on the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. We have established a structure-activity relation of the hBD-3 using synthetic derivatives differing in length, charge, disulfide connectivity, and overall hydrophobicity. The antimicrobial activity of the peptides was compared to the cyctotoxic effects on monocytic THP-1 cells and the hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes. We found that it is not important for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity whether and how cysteine residues are arranged to form disulfide bonds. Substitution of half-cystinyl residues by tryptophan resulted in increased activities, while other substitutions did not change activity. Correlation of activities with the structural changes demonstrates that the activity on eukaryotic cells appears to depend strongly on the overall hydrophobicity. In contrast, the antimicrobial potency of hBD-3 peptides is determined by the distribution of positively charged amino acid residues and hydrophobic side chains. The results facilitate the understanding of beta-defensin interaction with different cell types and guide the design of antimicrobially active peptides.

  10. Inhibitory effects of diallyl disulfide on the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hye Young; Kim, Nam Deuk; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung-Woo; Kim, Wun Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2012-07-15

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a main organosulfur component responsible for the diverse biological effects of garlic, displays a wide variety of internal biological activities. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying DADS' anti-inflammatory activity remain poorly understood. In this study, therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of DADS were studied to investigate its potential therapeutic effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. We found that pretreatment with DADS prior to treatment with LPS significantly inhibited excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was associated with down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. DADS also attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by suppressing the expression of mRNAs for these proteins. The mechanism underlying this protective effect might be related to the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation in LPS-stimulated microglial cells. These findings indicated that DADS is potentially a novel therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. -- Highlights: ► DADS attenuates production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. ► DADS downregulates levels of iNOS and COX-2. ► DADS inhibits production and expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. ► DADS exhibits these effects by suppression of NF-κB, PI3K/Akt and MAPKs pathways.

  11. Conferring specificity in redox pathways by enzymatic thiol/disulfide exchange reactions.

    PubMed

    Netto, Luis Eduardo S; de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio; Tairum, Carlos A; da Silva Neto, José Freire

    2016-01-01

    Thiol-disulfide exchange reactions are highly reversible, displaying nucleophilic substitutions mechanism (S(N)2 type). For aliphatic, low molecular thiols, these reactions are slow, but can attain million times faster rates in enzymatic processes. Thioredoxin (Trx) proteins were the first enzymes described to accelerate thiol-disulfide exchange reactions and their high reactivity is related to the high nucleophilicity of the attacking thiol. Substrate specificity in Trx is achieved by several factors, including polar, hydrophobic, and topological interactions through a groove in the active site. Glutaredoxin (Grx) enzymes also contain the Trx fold, but they do not share amino acid sequence similarity with Trx. A conserved glutathione binding site is a typical feature of Grx that can reduce substrates by two mechanisms (mono and dithiol). The high reactivity of Grx enzymes is related to the very acid pK(a) values of reactive Cys that plays roles as good leaving groups. Therefore, although distinct oxidoreductases catalyze similar thiol–disulfide exchange reactions, their enzymatic mechanisms vary. PDI and DsbA are two other oxidoreductases, but they are involved in disulfide bond formation, instead of disulfide reduction, which is related to the oxidative environment where they are found. PDI enzymes and DsbC are endowed with disulfide isomerase activity, which is related with their tetra-domain architecture. As illustrative description of specificity in thiol-disulfide exchange, redox aspects of transcription activation in bacteria, yeast, and mammals are presented in an evolutionary perspective. Therefore, thiol-disulfide exchange reactions play important roles in conferring specificity to pathways, a required feature for signaling.

  12. Proapoptotic Activities of Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) and PDIA3 Protein, a Role of the Bcl-2 Protein Bak*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoping; Lu, Huayi; Li, Chi

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family proteins are classified as enzymatic chaperones for reconstructing misfolded proteins. Previous studies have shown that several PDI members possess potential proapoptotic functions. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of PDI-mediated apoptosis are not completely known. In this study, we investigated how two members of PDI family, PDI and PDIA3, modulate apoptotic signaling. Inhibiting PDI and PDIA3 activities pharmacologically alleviates apoptosis induced by various apoptotic stimuli. Although a decrease of PDIA3 expression alleviates apoptotic responses, overexpression of PDIA3 exacerbates apoptotic signaling. Importantly, Bak, but not Bax, is essential for PDIA3-induced proapoptotic signaling. Furthermore, both purified PDI and PDIA3 proteins induce Bak-dependent, but not Bax-dependent, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in vitro, probably through triggering Bak oligomerization on mitochondria. Our results suggest that both of PDI and PDIA3 possess Bak-dependent proapoptotic function through inducing mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, which provides a new mechanism linking ER chaperone proteins and apoptotic signaling. PMID:25697356

  13. Evaluation of disulfide reduction during receptor-mediated endocytosis by using FRET imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Hongtao; Vlahov, Iontcho R; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Low, Philip S

    2006-09-12

    Despite functional evidence for disulfide bond-reducing activity in endosomal compartments, the mechanistic details pertaining to such process (e.g., kinetics and sites of disulfide reduction) remain largely controversial. To address these questions directly, we have synthesized a previously uncharacterized fluorescent folate conjugate, folate-(BODIPY FL)-SS-rhodamine (folate-FRET), that changes fluorescence from red to green upon disulfide bond reduction. Using this construct, we have observed that disulfide reduction: (i) occurs with a half-time of 6 h after folate-FRET endocytosis, (ii) begins in endosomes and does not depend significantly on redox machinery located on the cell surface or within the lysosome or the Golgi apparatus, (iii) occurs independently of endocytic vesicle trafficking along microtubules, and (iv) yields products that are subsequently sorted into distinct endosomes and trafficked in different directions. Finally, colocalization of folate and transferrin receptors suggest that conclusions derived from this study may apply to other endocytic pathways.

  14. Contributions of phase, sulfur vacancies, and edges to the hydrogen evolution reaction catalytic activity of porous molybdenum disulfide nanosheets

    DOE PAGES

    Yin, Ying; Han, Jiecai; Zhang, Yumin; ...

    2016-06-07

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising nonprecious catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that has been extensively studied due to its excellent performance, but the lack of understanding of the factors that impact its catalytic activity hinders further design and enhancement of MoS2-based electrocatalysts. Here, by using novel porous (holey) metallic 1T phase MoS2 nanosheets synthesized by a liquid-ammonia-assisted lithiation route, we systematically investigated the contributions of crystal structure (phase), edges, and sulfur vacancies (S-vacancies) to the catalytic activity toward HER from five representative MoS2 nanosheet samples, including 2H and 1T phase, porous 2H and 1T phase, and sulfur-compensatedmore » porous 2H phase. Superior HER catalytic activity was achieved in the porous 1T phase MoS2 nanosheets that have even more edges and S-vacancies than conventional 1T phase MoS2. A comparative study revealed that the phase serves as the key role in determining the HER performance, as 1T phase MoS2 always outperforms the corresponding 2H phase MoS2 samples, and that both edges and S-vacancies also contribute significantly to the catalytic activity in porous MoS2 samples. Then, using combined defect characterization techniques of electron spin resonance spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to quantify the S-vacancies, the contributions of each factor were individually elucidated. Furthermore, this study presents new insights and opens up new avenues for designing electrocatalysts based on MoS2 or other layered materials with enhanced HER performance.« less

  15. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  16. The Disulfide Bond of the Peptide Thanatin Is Dispensible for Its Antimicrobial Activity In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bo; Niu, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Xue, Xiaoyan; Meng, Jingru

    2016-01-01

    Thanatin (THA) displays potent antibiotic activity, especially against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli both in vitro and in vivo, with minimal hemolytic toxicity and satisfactory stability in plasma. However, the high cost of thanatin significantly limits its development and clinical application. To reduce the cost of peptide synthesis, a formulation of cyclic thanatin (C-thanatin) called linear thanatin (L-thanatin) was synthesized and its activity was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that C-thanatin and L-thanatin MICs did not differ against eight Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacterial strains. Furthermore, the survival rates of ESBL-producing-E. coli-infected mice were consistent after C-thanatin or L-thanatin treatment at 5 or 10 mg/kg of body weight. Neither C-thanatin nor L-thanatin showed toxicity for human red blood cells (hRBCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at a concentration as high as 256 μg/ml. Results of circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the secondary structure of L-thanatin is extremely similar to that of C-thanatin. Membrane permeabilization and depolarization assays showed that C-thanatin and L-thanatin have similar abilities to permeabilize the outer and inner membranes and to induce membrane depolarization in ESBL-producing E. coli. However, neither of them caused significant HUVEC membrane permeability. These findings indicate that the two peptides have similar effects on bacterial cell membranes and that the disulfide bond in thanatin is not essential for its antimicrobial activities in vivo and in vitro. L-thanatin is thus a promising low-cost peptide candidate for treating ESBL-producing E. coli infections. PMID:27161645

  17. The Disulfide Bond of the Peptide Thanatin Is Dispensible for Its Antimicrobial Activity In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bo; Niu, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Xue, Xiaoyan; Meng, Jingru; Luo, Xiaoxing; Hou, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Thanatin (THA) displays potent antibiotic activity, especially against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli both in vitro and in vivo, with minimal hemolytic toxicity and satisfactory stability in plasma. However, the high cost of thanatin significantly limits its development and clinical application. To reduce the cost of peptide synthesis, a formulation of cyclic thanatin (C-thanatin) called linear thanatin (L-thanatin) was synthesized and its activity was evaluated in vivo and in vitro Results showed that C-thanatin and L-thanatin MICs did not differ against eight Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacterial strains. Furthermore, the survival rates of ESBL-producing-E. coli-infected mice were consistent after C-thanatin or L-thanatin treatment at 5 or 10 mg/kg of body weight. Neither C-thanatin nor L-thanatin showed toxicity for human red blood cells (hRBCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at a concentration as high as 256 μg/ml. Results of circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the secondary structure of L-thanatin is extremely similar to that of C-thanatin. Membrane permeabilization and depolarization assays showed that C-thanatin and L-thanatin have similar abilities to permeabilize the outer and inner membranes and to induce membrane depolarization in ESBL-producing E. coli However, neither of them caused significant HUVEC membrane permeability. These findings indicate that the two peptides have similar effects on bacterial cell membranes and that the disulfide bond in thanatin is not essential for its antimicrobial activities in vivo and in vitro L-thanatin is thus a promising low-cost peptide candidate for treating ESBL-producing E. coli infections.

  18. Crystal Structures of the Reduced, Sulfenic Acid, and Mixed Disulfide Forms of SarZ, a Redox Active Global Regulator in Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Poor, Catherine B.; Chen, Peng R.; Duguid, Erica; Rice, Phoebe A.; He, Chuan

    2010-01-20

    SarZ is a global transcriptional regulator that uses a single cysteine residue, Cys{sup 13}, to sense peroxide stress and control metabolic switching and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. SarZ belongs to the single-cysteine class of OhrR-MgrA proteins that play key roles in oxidative resistance and virulence regulation in various bacteria. We present the crystal structures of the reduced form, sulfenic acid form, and mixed disulfide form of SarZ. Both the sulfenic acid and mixed disulfide forms are structurally characterized for the first time for this class of proteins. The Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid modification is stabilized through two hydrogen bonds with surrounding residues, and the overall DNA-binding conformation is retained. A further reaction of the Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid with an external thiol leads to formation of a mixed disulfide bond, which results in an allosteric change in the DNA-binding domains, disrupting DNA binding. Thus, the crystal structures of SarZ in three different states provide molecular level pictures delineating the mechanism by which this class of redox active regulators undergoes activation. These structures help to understand redox-mediated virulence regulation in S. aureus and activation of the MarR family proteins in general.

  19. Loop recognition and copper-mediated disulfide reduction underpin metal site assembly of CuA in human cytochrome oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Morgada, Marcos N.; Abriata, Luciano A.; Cefaro, Chiara; Gajda, Karolina; Banci, Lucia; Vila, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    Maturation of cytochrome oxidases is a complex process requiring assembly of several subunits and adequate uptake of the metal cofactors. Two orthologous Sco proteins (Sco1 and Sco2) are essential for the correct assembly of the dicopper CuA site in the human oxidase, but their function is not fully understood. Here, we report an in vitro biochemical study that shows that Sco1 is a metallochaperone that selectively transfers Cu(I) ions based on loop recognition, whereas Sco2 is a copper-dependent thiol reductase of the cysteine ligands in the oxidase. Copper binding to Sco2 is essential to elicit its redox function and as a guardian of the reduced state of its own cysteine residues in the oxidizing environment of the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS). These results provide a detailed molecular mechanism for CuA assembly, suggesting that copper and redox homeostasis are intimately linked in the mitochondrion. PMID:26351686

  20. Protein disulfide engineering.

    PubMed

    Dombkowski, Alan A; Sultana, Kazi Zakia; Craig, Douglas B

    2014-01-21

    Improving the stability of proteins is an important goal in many biomedical and industrial applications. A logical approach is to emulate stabilizing molecular interactions found in nature. Disulfide bonds are covalent interactions that provide substantial stability to many proteins and conform to well-defined geometric conformations, thus making them appealing candidates in protein engineering efforts. Disulfide engineering is the directed design of novel disulfide bonds into target proteins. This important biotechnological tool has achieved considerable success in a wide range of applications, yet the rules that govern the stabilizing effects of disulfide bonds are not fully characterized. Contrary to expectations, many designed disulfide bonds have resulted in decreased stability of the modified protein. We review progress in disulfide engineering, with an emphasis on the issue of stability and computational methods that facilitate engineering efforts. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological activity of volatile di-n-propyl disulfide from seeds of neem, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), to two species of stored grain pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst).

    PubMed

    Koul, Opender

    2004-06-01

    Head space volatiles, including 73% di-n-propyl disulfide, were collected from freshly crushed neem seeds. This compound along with previously reported diallyl disulfide (di-2-propenyl disulfide) were toxic when applied topically or as a fumigant to Tribolium castaneum adults and 8-, 12-, and 16-d-old larvae, and Sitophilus oryzae adults. Di-n-propyl disulfide significantly decreased the growth rate and dietary utilization with moderate inhibition of food consumption in both insects. The total coefficient of deterrence for this compound ranged between 68.5 and 178.6, which suggests that it has medium to very good deterrent activity vis-à-vis the treatment concentration and instar. Di-n-propyl disulfide and diallyl disulfide presented a similar effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food, which is reduced 3-fold; this implies that both compounds are physiological toxicants. Present studies clearly demonstrate that di-n-propyl disulfide could be a potent toxicant, fumigant, and feeding deterrent for stored grain pests, if a suitable formulation and application procedure are developed.

  2. Evidence for thiol/disulfide exchange reactions between tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Landino, Lisa M; Hagedorn, Tara D; Kennett, Kelly L

    2014-12-01

    While thiol redox reactions are a common mechanism to regulate protein structure and function, protein disulfide bond formation is a marker of oxidative stress that has been linked to neurodegeneration. Both tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) contain multiple cysteines that have been identified as targets for oxidation to disulfides, S-nitrosation and S-glutathionylation. We show that GAPDH is one of three prominent brain microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), in addition to MAP-2 and tau, with reactive cysteines. We detected a threefold to fourfold increase in tubulin cysteine oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of rabbit muscle GAPDH by 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein labeling and by Western blot detection of higher molecular weight inter-chain tubulin disulfides. In thiol/disulfide exchange experiments, tubulin restored ∼50% of oxidized GAPDH cysteines and the equilibrium favored reduced GAPDH. Further, we report that oxidized GAPDH is repaired by the thioredoxin reductase system (TRS). Restoration of GAPDH activity after reduction by both tubulin and the TRS was time-dependent suggesting conformational changes near the active site cysteine149. The addition of brain MAPs to oxidized tubulin reduced tubulin disulfides and labeling of MAP-2 and of GAPDH decreased. Because the extent of tubulin repair of oxidized GAPDH was dependent on buffer strength, we conclude that electrostatics influence thiol/disulfide exchange between the two proteins. The novel interactions presented herein may protect GAPDH from inhibition under oxidative stress conditions.

  3. Bivalent O-glycoside mimetics with S/disulfide/Se substitutions and aromatic core: Synthesis, molecular modeling and inhibitory activity on biomedically relevant lectins in assays of increasing physiological relevance.

    PubMed

    Kaltner, Herbert; Szabó, Tamás; Fehér, Krisztina; André, Sabine; Balla, Sára; Manning, Joachim C; Szilágyi, László; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2017-06-15

    The emerging significance of recognition of cellular glycans by lectins for diverse aspects of pathophysiology is a strong incentive for considering development of bioactive and non-hydrolyzable glycoside derivatives, for example by introducing S/Se atoms and the disulfide group instead of oxygen into the glycosidic linkage. We report the synthesis of 12 bivalent thio-, disulfido- and selenoglycosides attached to benzene/naphthalene cores. They present galactose, for blocking a plant toxin, or lactose, the canonical ligand of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins. Modeling reveals unrestrained flexibility and inter-headgroup distances too small to bridge two sites in the same lectin. Inhibitory activity was first detected by solid-phase assays using a surface-presented glycoprotein, with relative activity enhancements per sugar unit relative to free cognate sugar up to nearly 10fold. Inhibitory activity was also seen on lectin binding to surfaces of human carcinoma cells. In order to proceed to characterize this capacity in the tissue context monitoring of lectin binding in the presence of inhibitors was extended to sections of three types of murine organs as models. This procedure proved to be well-suited to determine relative activity levels of the glycocompounds to block binding of the toxin and different human galectins to natural glycoconjugates at different sites in sections. The results on most effective inhibition by two naphthalene-based disulfides and a selenide raise the perspective for broad applicability of the histochemical assay in testing glycoclusters that target biomedically relevant lectins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Folic acid-targeted disulfide-based cross-linking micelle for enhanced drug encapsulation stability and site-specific drug delivery against tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhou, Junhui; Yang, Cuihong; Wang, Weiwei; Chu, Liping; Huang, Fan; Liu, Qiang; Deng, Liandong; Kong, Deling; Liu, Jianfeng; Liu, Jinjian

    2016-01-01

    Although the shortcomings of small molecular antitumor drugs were efficiently improved by being entrapped into nanosized vehicles, premature drug release and insufficient tumor targeting demand innovative approaches that boost the stability and tumor responsiveness of drug-loaded nanocarriers. Here, we show the use of the core cross-linking method to generate a micelle with enhanced drug encapsulation ability and sensitivity of drug release in tumor. This kind of micelle could increase curcumin (Cur) delivery to HeLa cells in vitro and improve tumor accumulation in vivo. We designed and synthesized the core cross-linked micelle (CCM) with polyethylene glycol and folic acid-polyethylene glycol as the hydrophilic units, pyridyldisulfide as the cross-linkable and hydrophobic unit, and disulfide bond as the cross-linker. CCM showed spherical shape with a diameter of 91.2 nm by the characterization of dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. Attributed to the core cross-linking, drug-loaded CCM displayed higher Nile Red or Cur-encapsulated stability and better sensitivity to glutathione than noncross-linked micelle (NCM). Cellular uptake and in vitro antitumor studies proved the enhanced endocytosis and better cytotoxicity of CCM-Cur against HeLa cells, which had a high level of glutathione. Meanwhile, the folate receptor-mediated drug delivery (FA-CCM-Cur) further enhanced the endocytosis and cytotoxicity. Ex vivo imaging studies showed that CCM-Cur and FA-CCM-Cur possessed higher tumor accumulation until 24 hours after injection. Concretely, FA-CCM-Cur exhibited the highest tumor accumulation with 1.7-fold of noncross-linked micelle Cur and 2.8-fold of free Cur. By combining cross-linking of the core with active tumor targeting of FA, we demonstrated a new and effective way to design nanocarriers for enhanced drug encapsulation, smart tumor responsiveness, and elevated tumor accumulation. PMID:27051287

  5. Cleavage of Disulfide Bonds in Mouse Spermatogenic Cell-Specific Type 1 Hexokinase Isozyme Is Associated with Increased Hexokinase Activity and Initiation of Sperm Motility1

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Noriko; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Miki, Kiyoshi; Mori, Chisato; Eddy, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    During epididymal transit, sperm acquire the ability to initiate rapid forward progressive motility on release into the female reproductive tract or physiological media. Glycolysis is the primary source of the ATP necessary for this motility in the mouse, and several novel glycolytic enzymes have been identified that are localized to the principal piece region of the flagellum. One of these is the spermatogenic cell-specific type 1 hexokinase isozyme (HK1S), the only member of the hexokinase enzyme family detected in sperm. Hexokinase activity was found to be lower in immotile sperm immediately after removal from the cauda epididymis (quiescent) than in sperm incubated in physiological medium for 5 min and showing rapid forward progressive motility (activated). However, incubating sperm in medium containing diamide, an inhibitor of disulfide bond reduction, resulted in lower motility and HK activity than in controls. HK1S was present in dimer and monomer forms in extracts of quiescent sperm but mainly as a monomer in motile sperm. A dimer-size band detected in quiescent sperm with phosphotyrosine antibody was not detected in activated sperm, and the monomer-size band was enhanced. In addition, the general protein oxido-reductase thioredoxin-1 was able to catalyze the in vitro conversion of HK1S dimers to the monomeric form. These results strongly suggest that cleavage of disulfide bonds in HK1S dimers contributes to the increases in HK activity and motility that occur when mouse sperm become activated. PMID:18509164

  6. Peroxynitrite modification of glutathione reductase: modeling studies and kinetic evidence suggest the modification of tyrosines at the glutathione disulfide binding site.

    PubMed

    Francescutti, D; Baldwin, J; Lee, L; Mutus, B

    1996-02-01

    The catalytic properties of glutathione reductase for its substrate, glutathione disulfide, were altered following a 60 s exposure to a 100-fold molar excess of peroxynitrite; the K(M) value was increased by approximately 2.5-fold and the V(max) value was decreased by approximately 1.7-fold. The kinetic alterations are thought to result from nitrotyrosine formation as the intrinsic Tyr fluorescence is diminished. The UV-visible spectrum of glutathione reductase exhibited absorbance at approximately 423 nm, characteristic of nitrotyrosine. In addition, the presence of nitrotyrosine has been detected by Western immunoblots with an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody. The peroxynitrite-induced inactivation is not observed in the presence of excess glutathione disulfide. However, excess NADPH offered no protection against peroxynitrite-induced inactivation. These observations suggest that the modification of approximately 1.8 Tyr per subunit, at or near the glutathione disulfide binding domain, probably results in the observed catalytic alterations. To test this hypothesis, the two tyrosines closest to the glutathione disulfide binding domain (Tyr114 and Tyr106), as indicated by the X-ray crystallographic data [Karplus and Schulz (1989) J. Biol. Chem., 210, 163-180], were each converted to nitrotyrosines by molecular modeling and the structure energy was minimized. These theoretical calculations indicate that the bond lengths between Tyr114-O and the Gly-N and Cys II-N of glutathione disulfide bound to glutathione reductase (Karplus and Schulz, 1989) increased by 3.0 and 4.3 A, respectively, upon nitration. In the case of Tyr106 the 0-Cys II-N distance also increases by approximately 1.6 A. The loss of these hydrogen bonding contacts is likely to result in the observed catalytic alterations upon reaction with peroxynitrite.

  7. Lid mobility in lipase SMG1 validated using a thiol/disulfide redox potential probe.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaohua; Popowicz, Grzegorz Maria; Li, Daoming; Yuan, Dongjuan; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-05-01

    Most lipases possess a lid domain above the catalytic site that is responsible for their activation. Lipase SMG1 from Malassezia globose CBS 7966 (Malassezia globosa LIP1), is a mono- and diacylglycerol lipase with an atypical loop-like lid domain. Activation of SMG1 was proposed to be solely through a gating mechanism involving two residues (F278 and N102). However, through disulfide bond cross-linking of the lid, this study shows that full activation also requires mobility of the lid domain, contrary to a previous proposal. The newly introduced disulfide bond makes lipase SMG1 eligible as a ratiometric thiol/disulfide redox potential probe, when it is coupled with chromogenic substrates. This redox-switch lipase could also be of potential use in cascade biocatalysis.

  8. Antileishmanial Activity of Disulfiram and Thiuram Disulfide Analogs in an Ex Vivo Model System Is Selectively Enhanced by the Addition of Divalent Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Peniche, Alex G.; Renslo, Adam R.; Melby, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Current treatments for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are toxic, expensive, difficult to administer, and limited in efficacy and availability. Disulfiram has primarily been used to treat alcoholism. More recently, it has shown some efficacy as therapy against protozoan pathogens and certain cancers, suggesting a wide range of biological activities. We used an ex vivo system to screen several thiuram disulfide compounds for antileishmanial activity. We found five compounds (compound identifier [CID] 7188, 5455, 95876, 12892, and 3117 [disulfiram]) with anti-Leishmania activity at nanomolar concentrations. We further evaluated these compounds with the addition of divalent metal salts based on studies that indicated these salts could potentiate the action of disulfiram. In addition, clinical studies suggested that zinc has some efficacy in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis. Several divalent metal salts were evaluated at 1 μM, which is lower than the normal levels of copper and zinc in plasma of healthy individuals. The leishmanicidal activity of disulfiram and CID 7188 were enhanced by several divalent metal salts at 1 μM. The in vitro therapeutic index (IVTI) of disulfiram and CID 7188 increased 12- and 2.3-fold, respectively, against L. major when combined with ZnCl2. The combination of disulfiram with ZnSO4 resulted in a 1.8-fold increase in IVTI against L. donovani. This novel combination of thiuram disulfides and divalent metal ions salts could have application as topical and/or oral therapies for treatment of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26239994

  9. Anti-invasive activity of diallyl disulfide through tightening of tight junctions and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activities in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Yeok; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Jung-In; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Lee, Su Jae; Choi, Young-Whan; Kang, Ho Sung; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2010-09-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a major component of an oil-soluble allyl sulfide garlic (Allium sativum) derivative, which has been shown to exert a potential for anti-cancer activity. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying DADS-induced anti-invasiveness and anti-metastasis have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, we investigated the effect of DADS on the correlation between tightening of tight junctions (TJs) and anti-invasive activity in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells. Inhibitory effects of DADS on cell motility and invasiveness were found to be associated with increased tightness of the TJ, which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Additionally, immunoblotting results indicated that DADS repressed the levels of the claudin proteins, which are major components of TJs that play a key role in control and selectivity of paracellular transport. Furthermore, the activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in LNCaP cells were dose-dependently inhibited by treatment with DADS, and this was also correlated with a decrease in expression of their mRNA and proteins. Although further studies are needed, the present study indicates that TJs and MMPs are critical targets of DADS-induced anti-invasiveness in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells.

  10. Investigations and activities at superfund sites.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, M; Burger, J

    1990-01-01

    Only a small proportion of the hazardous waste sites in the United States have been placed on the National Priority List (NPL), and these have become known as Superfund Sites. Many more sites exist on active industrial or military facilities, and a large number of sites remain to be discovered. It is useful to illustrate several hazardous waste sites to provide a clearer impression of the nature of the hazards, the kind of work done, and the proximity of residences to sites.

  11. Normal Modes Expose Active Sites in Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Glantz-Gashai, Yitav; Samson, Abraham O.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of active sites is an important tool in bioinformatics. Here we present an improved structure based technique to expose active sites that is based on large changes of solvent accessibility accompanying normal mode dynamics. The technique which detects EXPOsure of active SITes through normal modEs is named EXPOSITE. The technique is trained using a small 133 enzyme dataset and tested using a large 845 enzyme dataset, both with known active site residues. EXPOSITE is also tested in a benchmark protein ligand dataset (PLD) comprising 48 proteins with and without bound ligands. EXPOSITE is shown to successfully locate the active site in most instances, and is found to be more accurate than other structure-based techniques. Interestingly, in several instances, the active site does not correspond to the largest pocket. EXPOSITE is advantageous due to its high precision and paves the way for structure based prediction of active site in enzymes. PMID:28002427

  12. Modification of the binding site(s) of lectins by an affinity column carrying an activated galactose-terminated ligand.

    PubMed

    Moroney, S E; D'Alarcao, L J; Goldmacher, V S; Lambert, J M; Blättler, W A

    1987-12-15

    An affinity column approach is described, aimed at the modification of the galactose binding site(s) of ricin in an effort to block the binding of ricin to cells. The affinity column was prepared by linking N-(2'-mercaptoethyl)lactamine to pyridyldithio-activated polyacrylamide heads. The linker between the ligand and the solid support thus contained a disulfide bond and an unmodified terminal galactose moiety. The amino group of the ligand was allowed to react with the bifunctional cross-linking reagent 2,4-dichloro-6-methoxytriazine. The lectin was then allowed to bind to the galactose functions on the activated column at pH 7.0, prior to raising the pH to 8.6 to initiate the cross-linking reaction between the ligand and the lectin. Lectin that was not covalently linked to the functionalized galactose residues on the column was eluted with galactose or lactose. Finally, the covalent ligand-lectin complexes were released from the solid support by reducing the disulfide bond between the ligand and the support. The affinity column was used in this way to modify the galactose binding site(s) of ricin. Upon release from the affinity column, blocked ricin was purified from unmodified ricin by affinity chromatography on columns of immobilized asialofetuin (a ligand to which ricin binds very tightly). The sulfhydryl group formed by cleavage of the ligand-ricin complex from the column was labeled with [3H]-N-ethylmaleimide to provide evidence that one blocking ligand was linked per ricin molecule. The blocked ricin and a conjugate of the blocked ricin with the monoclonal antibody J5 were toxic for cultures of Namalwa cells in vitro.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Role for the disulfide-bonded region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 in receptor-triggered activation of membrane fusion function

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy-McIntyre, Anna K.; Baer, Severine; Ludlow, Louise; Drummer, Heidi E.; Poumbourios, Pantelis

    2010-04-16

    The conserved disulfide-bonded region (DSR) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusion glycoprotein, gp41, mediates association with the receptor-binding glycoprotein, gp120. Interactions between gp120, CD4 and chemokine receptors activate the fusion activity of gp41. The introduction of W596L and W610F mutations to the DSR of HIV-1{sub QH1549.13} blocked viral entry and hemifusion without affecting gp120-gp41 association. The fusion defect correlated with inhibition of CD4-triggered gp41 pre-hairpin formation, consistent with the DSR mutations having decoupled receptor-induced conformational changes in gp120 from gp41 activation. Our data implicate the DSR in sensing conformational changes in the gp120-gp41 complex that lead to fusion activation.

  14. Identification of Allosteric Disulfides from Prestress Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Beifei; Baldus, Ilona B.; Li, Wenjin; Edwards, Scott A.; Gräter, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide bonds serve to form physical cross-links between residues in protein structures, thereby stabilizing the protein fold. Apart from this purely structural role, they can also be chemically active, participating in redox reactions, and they may even potentially act as allosteric switches controlling protein functions. Specific types of disulfide bonds have been identified in static protein structures from their distinctive pattern of dihedral bond angles, and the allosteric function of such bonds is purported to be related to the torsional strain they store. Using all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations for ∼700 disulfide bonded proteins, we analyzed the intramolecular mechanical forces in 20 classes of disulfide bonds. We found that two particular classes, the −RHStaple and the −/+RHHook disulfides, are indeed more stressed than other disulfide bonds, but the stress is carried primarily by stretching of the S-S bond and bending of the neighboring bond angles, rather than by dihedral torsion. This stress corresponds to a tension force of magnitude ∼200 pN, which is balanced by repulsive van der Waals interactions between the cysteine Cα atoms. We confirm stretching of the S-S bond to be a general feature of the −RHStaples and the −/+RHHooks by analyzing ∼20,000 static protein structures. Given that forced stretching of S-S bonds is known to accelerate their cleavage, we propose that prestress of allosteric disulfide bonds has the potential to alter the reactivity of a disulfide, thereby allowing us to readily switch between functional states. PMID:25099806

  15. From structure to redox: the diverse functional roles of disulfides and implications in disease

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Tyler J.; Weerapana, Eranthie

    2017-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the functional roles of disulfide bonds and their relevance to human disease. The critical roles of disulfide bonds in protein structure stabilization and redox regulation of protein activity are addressed. Disulfide bonds are essential to the structural stability of many proteins within the secretory pathway and can exist as intramolecular or inter-domain disulfides. The proper formation of these bonds often relies on folding chaperones and oxidases such as members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family. Many of the PDI family members catalyze disulfide-bond formation, reduction and isomerization through redox-active disulfides and perturbed PDI activity is characteristic of carcinomas and neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to catalytic function in oxidoreductases, redox-active disulfides are also found on a diverse array of cellular proteins and act to regulate protein activity and localization in response to oxidative changes in the local environment. These redox-active disulfides are either dynamic intramolecular protein disulfides or mixed disulfides with small-molecule thiols generating glutathionylation and cysteinylation adducts. The oxidation and reduction of redox-active disulfides are mediated by cellular reactive oxygen species and activity of reductases, such as glutaredoxin and thioredoxin. Dysregulation of cellular redox conditions and resulting changes in mixed disulfide formation are directly linked to diseases such as cardiovascular disease and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:28044432

  16. Homodimeric chicken galectin CG-1B (C-14): Crystal structure and detection of unique redox-dependent shape changes involving inter- and intrasubunit disulfide bridges by gel filtration, ultracentrifugation, site-directed mutagenesis, and peptide mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    López-Lucendo, María F; Solís, Dolores; Sáiz, José Luis; Kaltner, Herbert; Russwurm, Roland; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Romero, Antonio

    2009-02-20

    Intrafamily gene diversification has led to three prototype galectins in chicken [i.e., chicken galectin (CG)-1A, CG-1B, and CG-2] that show distinct expression profiles and developmental regulation. In order to pinpoint structural disparities among them, we determined the crystal structure of CG-1B. Alteration of the position of the Trp ring in the lectin site and the presence of only two ordered water molecules therein, as well as changes in the interface region between the two subunits, set the structure of CG-1B clearly apart from that of CG-1A. Intriguingly, the unique presence of two Cys residues at positions 2 and 7 in the N-terminal region translated into formation of an intersubunit disulfide bridge between the Cys7 residues of the homodimer in the crystal. In solution, oxidation is associated with significant shape changes in the dimeric protein and the additional occurrence of a compacted form with an intrasubunit disulfide bridge between Cys2 and Cys7. The single-site mutant C7S/C7V was not subjected to such changes, supporting the crucial role of Cys7 in redox-dependent shape changes. These results point to the functional significance of the distinctive presence of the two Cys residues in the N-terminal region of CG-1B.

  17. Native signal peptide of human ERp57 disulfide isomerase mediates secretion of active native recombinant ERp57 protein in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Čiplys, Evaldas; Žitkus, Eimantas; Slibinskas, Rimantas

    2013-06-01

    Human ERp57 protein is disulfide isomerase, facilitating proper folding of glycoprotein precursors in the concert with ER lectin chaperones calreticulin and calnexin. Growing amount of data also associates ERp57 with many different functions in subcellular locations outside the ER. Analysis of protein functions requires substantial amounts of correctly folded, biologically active protein, and in this study we introduce yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a perfect host for production of human ERp57. Our data suggest that native signal peptide of human ERp57 protein is recognized and correctly processed in the yeast cells, which leads to protein secretion. Secreted recombinant ERp57 protein possesses native amino acid sequence and is biologically active. Moreover, secretion allows simple one-step purification of recombinant ERp57 protein with the yields reaching up to 10mg/L. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of the unpaired cysteine status and complete mapping of the 17 disulfides of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator using LC-MS with electron transfer dissociation/collision induced dissociation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Jiang, Haitao; Hancock, William S; Karger, Barry L

    2010-06-15

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen (rt-PA) with 35 cysteine residues has been completely assigned by mapping the 17 disulfide linkages and the unpaired cysteine. The result is consistent with the prediction from homology except for the unassigned cysteine, which was identified at Cys83. This cysteine was found to be blocked and paired with either a glutathione or cysteine residue in an approximately 60:40 ratio, respectively. The analysis was conducted using a multifragmentation approach consisting of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision induced dissociation (CID), in combination with a multienzyme digestion strategy (Lys-C, trypsin, and Glu-C). The disulfide-linked peptides, even those containing N- or O-linked glycosylation, could be assigned since the disulfide bonds were still preferably cleaved over the glycosidic cleavages under ETD fragmentation. The use of a multiple and sequential enzymatic digestion strategy was important in producing fragment sizes suitable for analysis. For the analysis of complex intertwined disulfides, the use of CID-MS(3) to target partially disulfide-dissociated peptides from the ETD fragmentation was necessary for linkage assignment. The ability to identify the exact location and status of the unpaired cysteine (free or blocked with a glutathione or cysteine) could shed light on the activation of rt-PA, upon stimulation by either oxidative or ischemic stress.

  19. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1990-10-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites active on or after September 1988 and all transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites be monitored periodically to assure that radioactive contamination does not escape from the waste sites and pose a threat to the public or to the environment. This plan describes such a monitoring program for the active LLW disposal sites in SWSA 6 and the TRU waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Conserved loop cysteines of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1-like 1 (VKORC1L1) are involved in its active site regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tie, Jian-Ke; Jin, Da-Yun; Stafford, Darrel W

    2014-03-28

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) reduces vitamin K epoxide in the vitamin K cycle for post-translational modification of proteins that are involved in a variety of biological functions. However, the physiological function of VKORC1-like 1 (VKORC1L1), a paralogous enzyme sharing about 50% protein identity with VKORC1, is unknown. Here we determined the structural and functional differences of these two enzymes using fluorescence protease protection (FPP) assay and an in vivo cell-based activity assay. We show that in vivo VKORC1L1 reduces vitamin K epoxide to support vitamin K-dependent carboxylation as efficiently as does VKORC1. However, FPP assays show that unlike VKORC1, VKORC1L1 is a four-transmembrane domain protein with both its termini located in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the conserved loop cysteines, which are not required for VKORC1 activity, are essential for VKORC1L1's active site regeneration. Results from domain exchanges between VKORC1L1 and VKORC1 suggest that it is VKORC1L1's overall structure that uniquely allows for active site regeneration by the conserved loop cysteines. Intermediate disulfide trapping results confirmed an intra-molecular electron transfer pathway for VKORC1L1's active site reduction. Our results allow us to propose a concerted action of the four conserved cysteines of VKORC1L1 for active site regeneration; the second loop cysteine, Cys-58, attacks the active site disulfide, forming an intermediate disulfide with Cys-139; the first loop cysteine, Cys-50, attacks the intermediate disulfide resulting in active site reduction. The different membrane topologies and reaction mechanisms between VKORC1L1 and VKORC1 suggest that these two proteins might have different physiological functions.

  1. PrrC from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a homologue of eukaryotic Sco proteins, is a copper-binding protein and may have a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Alastair G; Lewin, Allison; Davy, Sharon L; Boetzel, Ruth; Leech, Andrew; Walker, Daniel; Wood, Tania; Moore, Geoffrey R

    2002-05-08

    PrrC from Rhodobacter sphaeroides provides the signal input to a two-component signal transduction system that senses changes in oxygen tension and regulates expression of genes involved in photosynthesis (Eraso, J.M. and Kaplan, S. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 2052-2062; Oh, J.-I. and Kaplan, S. (2000) EMBO J. 19, 4237-4247). It is also a homologue of eukaryotic Sco proteins and each has a C-x-x-x-C-P sequence. In mitochondrial Sco proteins these cysteines appear to be essential for the biogenesis of the CuA centre of respiratory cytochrome oxidase. Overexpression and purification of a water-soluble and monomeric form of PrrC has provided sufficient material for a chemical and spectroscopic study of the properties of the four cysteine residues of PrrC, and its ability to bind divalent cations, including copper. PrrC expressed in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli binds Ni2+ tightly and the data are consistent with a mononuclear metal site. Following removal of Ni2+ and formation of renatured metal-free rPrrC (apo-PrrC), Cu2+ could be loaded into the reduced form of PrrC to generate a protein with a distinctive UV-visible spectrum, having absorbance with a lambda(max) of 360 nm. The copper:PrrC ratio is consistent with the presence of a mononuclear metal centre. The cysteines of metal-free PrrC oxidise in the presence of air to form two intramolecular disulfide bonds, with one pair being extremely reactive. The cysteine thiols with extreme O2 sensitivity are involved in copper binding in reduced PrrC since the same copper-loaded protein could not be generated using oxidised PrrC. Thus, it appears that PrrC, and probably Sco proteins in general, could have both a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase function and a copper-binding role.

  2. The effects of exfoliation, organic solvents and anodic activation on the catalytic hydrogen evolution reaction of tungsten disulfide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanglian; Benson, John; Dawson, Craig; Strudwick, Andrew; Raju, Arun Prakash Aranga; Han, Yisong; Li, Meixian; Papakonstantinou, Pagona

    2017-09-21

    The rational design of transition metal dichalcogenide electrocatalysts for efficiently catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is believed to lead to the generation of a renewable energy carrier. To this end, our work has made three main contributions. At first, we have demonstrated that exfoliation via ionic liquid assisted grinding combined with gradient centrifugation is an efficient method to exfoliate bulk WS2 to nanosheets with a thickness of a few atomic layers and lateral size dimensions in the range of 100 nm to 2 nm. These WS2 nanosheets decorated with scattered nanodots exhibited highly enhanced catalytic performance for HER with an onset potential of -130 mV vs. RHE, an overpotential of 337 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) and a Tafel slope of 80 mV dec(-1) in 0.5 M H2SO4. Secondly, we found a strong aging effect on the electrocatalytic performance of WS2 stored in high boiling point organic solvents such as dimethylformamide (DMF). Importantly, the HER ability could be recovered by removing the organic (DMF) residues, which obstructed the electron transport, with acetone. Thirdly, we established that the HER performance of WS2 nanosheets/nanodots could be significantly enhanced by activating the electrode surface at a positive voltage for a very short time (60 s), decreasing the kinetic overpotential by more than 80 mV at 10 mA cm(-2). The performance enhancement was found to arise primarily from the ability of a formed proton-intercalated amorphous tungsten trioxide (a-WO3) to provide additional active sites and favourably modify the immediate chemical environment of the WS2 catalyst, rendering it more favorable for local proton delivery and/or transport to the active edge site of WS2. Our results provide new insights into the effects of organic solvents and electrochemical activation on the catalytic performance of two-dimensional WS2 for HER.

  3. Disulfide-Trapping Identifies a New, Effective Chemical Probe for Activating the Nuclear Receptor Human LRH-1 (NR5A2)

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Cortez, Felipe; Suzawa, Miyuki; Irvy, Sam; Bruning, John M.; Sablin, Elena; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Ingraham, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional efforts relying on high-throughput physical and virtual screening of large compound libraries have failed to yield high-efficiency chemical probes for many of the 48 human nuclear receptors. Here, we investigated whether disulfide-trapping, an approach new to nuclear receptors, would provide effective lead compounds targeting human liver receptor homolog 1 (hLRH-1, NR5A2). Despite the fact that hLRH-1 contains a large ligand binding pocket and binds phospholipids with high affinity, existing synthetic hLRH-1 ligands are of limited utility due to poor solubility, low efficacy or significant off-target effects. Using disulfide-trapping, we identified a lead compound that conjugates with remarkably high-efficiency to a native cysteine residue (Cys346) lining the hydrophobic cavity in the ligand binding domain of hLRH-1. Guided by computational modeling and cellular assays, the lead compound was elaborated into ligands PME8 and PME9 that bind hLRH-1 reversibly (no cysteine reactivity) and increase hLRH-1 activity in cells. When compared with the existing hLRH-1 synthetic agonist RJW100, both PME8 and PME9 showed comparable induction of the LRH-1 dependent target gene CYP24A1 in human HepG2 cells, beginning as early as 3 h after drug treatment. The induction is specific as siRNA-mediated knock-down of hLRH-1 renders both PME8 and PME9 ineffective. These data show that PME8 and PME9 are potent activators of hLRH-1 and suggest that with further development this lead series may yield useful chemical probes for manipulating LRH-1 activity in vivo. PMID:27467220

  4. Disulfide-Trapping Identifies a New, Effective Chemical Probe for Activating the Nuclear Receptor Human LRH-1 (NR5A2).

    PubMed

    de Jesus Cortez, Felipe; Suzawa, Miyuki; Irvy, Sam; Bruning, John M; Sablin, Elena; Jacobson, Matthew P; Fletterick, Robert J; Ingraham, Holly A; England, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    Conventional efforts relying on high-throughput physical and virtual screening of large compound libraries have failed to yield high-efficiency chemical probes for many of the 48 human nuclear receptors. Here, we investigated whether disulfide-trapping, an approach new to nuclear receptors, would provide effective lead compounds targeting human liver receptor homolog 1 (hLRH-1, NR5A2). Despite the fact that hLRH-1 contains a large ligand binding pocket and binds phospholipids with high affinity, existing synthetic hLRH-1 ligands are of limited utility due to poor solubility, low efficacy or significant off-target effects. Using disulfide-trapping, we identified a lead compound that conjugates with remarkably high-efficiency to a native cysteine residue (Cys346) lining the hydrophobic cavity in the ligand binding domain of hLRH-1. Guided by computational modeling and cellular assays, the lead compound was elaborated into ligands PME8 and PME9 that bind hLRH-1 reversibly (no cysteine reactivity) and increase hLRH-1 activity in cells. When compared with the existing hLRH-1 synthetic agonist RJW100, both PME8 and PME9 showed comparable induction of the LRH-1 dependent target gene CYP24A1 in human HepG2 cells, beginning as early as 3 h after drug treatment. The induction is specific as siRNA-mediated knock-down of hLRH-1 renders both PME8 and PME9 ineffective. These data show that PME8 and PME9 are potent activators of hLRH-1 and suggest that with further development this lead series may yield useful chemical probes for manipulating LRH-1 activity in vivo.

  5. Electrocatalytic activity of molybdenum disulfide nanosheets enhanced by self-doped polyaniline for highly sensitive and synergistic determination of adenine and guanine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Yang, Ruirui; Chen, Huaiyin; Nan, Fuxin; Ge, Tong; Jiao, Kui

    2015-02-04

    Recently, easy, green, and low-cost liquild exfoliation of bulk materials to obtain thin-layered nanostructure significantly emerged. In this work, thin-layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets were fabricated through intercalation of self-doped polyaniline (SPAN) to layer space of bulk MoS2 by ultrasonic exfoliating method to effectively prevent reaggregation of MoS2 nanosheets. The obtained hybrid showed specific surface area, a large number of electroactive species, and open accessible space, accompanied by rich negative charged and special conjugated structure, which was applied to adopt positively charged guanine and adenine, based on their strong π-π* interactions and electrostatic adsorption. Also, the SPAN-MoS2 interface exhibited the synergistic effect and good electrocatalytic activity compared with the sole SPAN or MoS2 modified electrode.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations on pars intercerebralis major peptide-C (PMP-C) reveal the role of glycosylation and disulfide bonds in its enhanced structural stability and function.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Sandeep; Mohanty, Debasisa; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2012-01-01

    Fucosylation of Thr 9 in pars intercerebralis major peptide-C (PMP-C) enhances its structural stability and functional ability as a serine protease inhibitor. In order to understand the role of disulfide bonds and glycosylation on the structure and function of PMP-C, we have carried out multiple explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on fucosylated and non-fucosylated forms of PMP-C, both in the presence and absence of the disulfide bonds. Our simulations revealed that there were no significant structural changes in the native disulfide bonded forms of PMP-C due to fucosylation. On the other hand, the non-fucosylated form of PMP-C without disulfide bonds showed larger deviations from the starting structure than the fucosylated form. However, the structural deviations were restricted to the terminal regions while core β-sheet retained its hydrogen bonded structure even in absence of disulfide bonds as well as fucosylation. Interestingly, fucosylation of disulfide bonded native PMP-C led to a decreased thermal flexibility in the residue stretch 29-32 which is known to interact with the active site of the target proteases. Our analysis revealed that disulfide bonds covalently connect the residue stretch 29-32 to the central β-sheet of PMP-C and using a novel network of side chain interactions and disulfide bonds fucosylation at Thr 9 is altering the flexibility of the stretch 29-32 located at a distal site. Thus, our simulations explain for the first time, how presence of disulfide bonds between conserved cysteines and fucosylation enhance the function of PMP-C as a protease inhibitor.

  7. Identification of an Atypical Membrane Protein Involved in the Formation of Protein Disulfide Bonds in Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhay K.; Bhattacharyya-Pakrasi, Maitrayee; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria nearly three billion years ago provided abundant reducing power and facilitated the elaboration of numerous oxygen-dependent reactions in our biosphere. Cyanobacteria contain an internal thylakoid membrane system, the site of photosynthesis, and a typical Gram-negative envelope membrane system. Like other organisms, the extracytoplasmic space in cyanobacteria houses numerous cysteine-containing proteins. However, the existence of a biochemical system for disulfide bond formation in cyanobacteria remains to be determined. Extracytoplasmic disulfide bond formation in non-photosynthetic organisms is catalyzed by coordinated interaction between two proteins, a disulfide carrier and a disulfide generator. Here we describe a novel gene, SyndsbAB, required for disulfide bond formation in the extracytoplasmic space of cyanobacteria. The SynDsbAB orthologs are present in most cyanobacteria and chloroplasts of higher plants with fully sequenced genomes. The SynDsbAB protein contains two distinct catalytic domains that display significant similarity to proteins involved in disulfide bond formation in Escherichia coli and eukaryotes. Importantly, SyndsbAB complements E. coli strains defective in disulfide bond formation. In addition, the activity of E. coli alkaline phosphatase localized to the periplasm of Synechocystis 6803 is dependent on the function of SynDsbAB. Deletion of SyndsbAB in Synechocystis 6803 causes significant growth impairment under photoautotrophic conditions and results in hyper-sensitivity to dithiothreitol, a reductant, whereas diamide, an oxidant had no effect on the growth of the mutant strains. We conclude that SynDsbAB is a critical protein for disulfide bond formation in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms and required for their optimal photoautotrophic growth. PMID:18413314

  8. Identification and reactivity of the catalytic site of pig liver thioltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Z.R.; Wells, W.W.

    1987-05-01

    The active site cysteine of pig liver thioltransferase was identified as Cys 22. The kinetics of the reaction between Cys 22 of the reduced enzyme and iodoacetic acid as a function of pH revealed that the active site sulfhydryl group had a pKa of 2.5. Incubation of reduced enzyme with (1-/sup 14/C)cystine prevented the inactivation of the enzyme by iodoacetic acid at pH 6.5 and no stable protein-cysteine disulfide was found suggesting an intramolecular disulfide formation. The reaction rate between reduced enzyme and S-sulfocysteine was concentration dependent, but not pH dependent, whereas the reaction between oxidized enzyme and reduced glutathione was both concentration and pH dependent. The results suggested a reaction mechanism for thioltransferase. The thiolated Cys 22 first initiates a nucleophilic attack on a disulfide substrate, resulting in the formation of an unstable mixed disulfide between Cys 22 and the substrate. Subsequently, the sulfhydryl group at Cys 25 is deprotonated as a result of microenvironmental changes within the active site domain, releasing the mixed disulfide and forming an intramolecular disulfide bond. Reduced glutathione, the second substrate, reduces the intramolecular disulfide forming a transient mixed disulfide which is then further reduced by glutathione to regenerate the reduced enzyme and form oxidized glutathione. The rate limiting step is proposed to be the reduction of the intramolecular disulfide form of the enzyme by reduced glutathione.

  9. Impact of SCILL catalysts for the S-S coupling of thiols to disulfides.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Octavian D; Podolean, Iunia; Parvulescu, Vasile I; Taylor, S F Rebecca; Manyar, Haresh G; Ralphs, Kathryn; Goodrich, Peter; Hardacre, Christopher

    2017-09-20

    This study reports the behaviour of SCILL based catalysts in the oxidative S-S coupling of aliphatic and aromatic thiols, namely 1-butanethiol and thiophenol, to dibutyl disulfide and diphenyl disulfide. A range of ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and metal supported catalysts (5% Pt/SiO2; 5% Ru/SiO2; 5% Ru/C; 5% Pt/OMS-2) were used to prepare the SCILL catalysts and all were found to be active for the reaction following the trend 5% Pt-OMS-2 > 5% Pt/SiO2 > 5% Ru/C > 5% Ru/SiO2. The presence of SCILL catalysts afforded high selectivity to the disulfide, and the activity of the SCILL catalyst was dependent on the ionic liquid used. A significant increase in the stability of all the supported metal catalysts was found in the presence of the ionic liquid, and there was no change in the selectivity towards disulfides. This demonstrated that the ionic liquids protect the active sites of the catalyst against sulfation, thus providing more stable and active catalysts.

  10. Enhancing protein stability with extended disulfide bonds

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaozhou; ...

    2016-05-09

    Disulfide bonds play an important role in protein folding and stability. However, the cross-linking of sites within proteins by cysteine disulfides has significant distance and dihedral angle constraints. In this paper, we report the genetic encoding of noncanonical amino acids containing long side-chain thiols that are readily incorporated into both bacterial and mammalian proteins in good yields and with excellent fidelity. These amino acids can pair with cysteines to afford extended disulfide bonds and allow cross-linking of more distant sites and distinct domains of proteins. To demonstrate this notion, we preformed growth-based selection experiments at nonpermissive temperatures using a librarymore » of random β-lactamase mutants containing these noncanonical amino acids. A mutant enzyme that is cross-linked by one such extended disulfide bond and is stabilized by ~9 °C was identified. Finally, this result indicates that an expanded set of building blocks beyond the canonical 20 amino acids can lead to proteins with improved properties by unique mechanisms, distinct from those possible through conventional mutagenesis schemes.« less

  11. Validated ligand mapping of ACE active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, Daniel J.; Marshall, Garland R.

    2005-08-01

    Crystal structures of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) complexed with three inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril) provided experimental data for testing the validity of a prior active site model predicting the bound conformation of the inhibitors. The ACE active site model - predicted over 18 years ago using a series of potent ACE inhibitors of diverse chemical structure - was recreated using published data and commercial software. Comparison between the predicted structures of the three inhibitors bound to the active site of ACE and those determined experimentally yielded root mean square deviation (RMSD) values of 0.43-0.81 Å, among the distances defining the active site map. The bound conformations of the chemically relevant atoms were accurately deduced from the geometry of ligands, applying the assumption that the geometry of the active site groups responsible for binding and catalysis of amide hydrolysis was constrained. The mapping of bound inhibitors at the ACE active site was validated for known experimental compounds, so that the constrained conformational search methodology may be applied with confidence when no experimentally determined structure of the enzyme yet exists, but potent, diverse inhibitors are available.

  12. Disulfide-activated protein kinase G Iα regulates cardiac diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank-Starling response.

    PubMed

    Scotcher, Jenna; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Kistamas, Kornel; Hadgraft, Natasha; Martin, Eva D; Worthington, Jenny; Rudyk, Olena; Rodriguez Cutillas, Pedro; Cuello, Friederike; Shattock, Michael J; Marber, Michael S; Conte, Maria R; Greenstein, Adam; Greensmith, David J; Venetucci, Luigi; Timms, John F; Eaton, Philip

    2016-10-26

    The Frank-Starling mechanism allows the amount of blood entering the heart from the veins to be precisely matched with the amount pumped out to the arterial circulation. As the heart fills with blood during diastole, the myocardium is stretched and oxidants are produced. Here we show that protein kinase G Iα (PKGIα) is oxidant-activated during stretch and this form of the kinase selectively phosphorylates cardiac phospholamban Ser16-a site important for diastolic relaxation. We find that hearts of Cys42Ser PKGIα knock-in (KI) mice, which are resistant to PKGIα oxidation, have diastolic dysfunction and a diminished ability to couple ventricular filling with cardiac output on a beat-to-beat basis. Intracellular calcium dynamics of ventricular myocytes isolated from KI hearts are altered in a manner consistent with impaired relaxation and contractile function. We conclude that oxidation of PKGIα during myocardial stretch is crucial for diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank-Starling response.

  13. Disulfide-activated protein kinase G Iα regulates cardiac diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank–Starling response

    PubMed Central

    Scotcher, Jenna; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Kistamas, Kornel; Hadgraft, Natasha; Martin, Eva D.; Worthington, Jenny; Rudyk, Olena; Rodriguez Cutillas, Pedro; Cuello, Friederike; Shattock, Michael J.; Marber, Michael S.; Conte, Maria R.; Greenstein, Adam; Greensmith, David J.; Venetucci, Luigi; Timms, John F.; Eaton, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The Frank–Starling mechanism allows the amount of blood entering the heart from the veins to be precisely matched with the amount pumped out to the arterial circulation. As the heart fills with blood during diastole, the myocardium is stretched and oxidants are produced. Here we show that protein kinase G Iα (PKGIα) is oxidant-activated during stretch and this form of the kinase selectively phosphorylates cardiac phospholamban Ser16—a site important for diastolic relaxation. We find that hearts of Cys42Ser PKGIα knock-in (KI) mice, which are resistant to PKGIα oxidation, have diastolic dysfunction and a diminished ability to couple ventricular filling with cardiac output on a beat-to-beat basis. Intracellular calcium dynamics of ventricular myocytes isolated from KI hearts are altered in a manner consistent with impaired relaxation and contractile function. We conclude that oxidation of PKGIα during myocardial stretch is crucial for diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank–Starling response. PMID:27782102

  14. An efficient molybdenum disulfide/cobalt diselenide hybrid catalyst for electrochemical hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Rui; Liang, Jin-Xia; Zheng, Ya-Rong; Xu, Yun-Fei; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Qiang; Li, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-01-14

    The electroreduction of water for sustainable hydrogen production is a critical component of several developing clean-energy technologies, such as water splitting and fuel cells. However, finding a cheap and efficient alternative catalyst to replace currently used platinum-based catalysts is still a prerequisite for the commercialization of these technologies. Here we report a robust and highly active catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction that is constructed by in situ growth of molybdenum disulfide on the surface of cobalt diselenide. In acidic media, the molybdenum disulfide/cobalt diselenide catalyst exhibits fast hydrogen evolution kinetics with onset potential of -11 mV and Tafel slope of 36 mV per decade, which is the best among the non-noble metal hydrogen evolution catalysts and even approaches to the commercial platinum/carbon catalyst. The high hydrogen evolution activity of molybdenum disulfide/cobalt diselenide hybrid is likely due to the electrocatalytic synergistic effects between hydrogen evolution-active molybdenum disulfide and cobalt diselenide materials and the much increased catalytic sites.

  15. Multiscale structural and electronic control of molybdenum disulfide foam for highly efficient hydrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jiao; Li, Haobo; Wang, Suheng; Ding, Ding; Chen, Mingshu; Liu, Chuan; Tian, Zhongqun; Novoselov, K. S.; Ma, Chao; Deng, Dehui; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen production through water splitting has been considered as a green, pure and high-efficient technique. As an important half-reaction involved, hydrogen evolution reaction is a complex electrochemical process involving liquid-solid-gas three-phase interface behaviour. Therefore, new concepts and strategies of material design are needed to smooth each pivotal step. Here we report a multiscale structural and electronic control of molybdenum disulfide foam to synergistically promote the hydrogen evolution process. The optimized three-dimensional molybdenum disulfide foam with uniform mesopores, vertically aligned two-dimensional layers and cobalt atoms doping demonstrated a high hydrogen evolution activity and stability. In addition, density functional theory calculations indicate that molybdenum disulfide with moderate cobalt doping content possesses the optimal activity. This study demonstrates the validity of multiscale control in molybdenum disulfide via overall consideration of the mass transport, and the accessibility, quantity and capability of active sites towards electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution, which may also be extended to other energy-related processes. PMID:28401882

  16. Multiscale structural and electronic control of molybdenum disulfide foam for highly efficient hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiao; Li, Haobo; Wang, Suheng; Ding, Ding; Chen, Mingshu; Liu, Chuan; Tian, Zhongqun; Novoselov, K. S.; Ma, Chao; Deng, Dehui; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen production through water splitting has been considered as a green, pure and high-efficient technique. As an important half-reaction involved, hydrogen evolution reaction is a complex electrochemical process involving liquid-solid-gas three-phase interface behaviour. Therefore, new concepts and strategies of material design are needed to smooth each pivotal step. Here we report a multiscale structural and electronic control of molybdenum disulfide foam to synergistically promote the hydrogen evolution process. The optimized three-dimensional molybdenum disulfide foam with uniform mesopores, vertically aligned two-dimensional layers and cobalt atoms doping demonstrated a high hydrogen evolution activity and stability. In addition, density functional theory calculations indicate that molybdenum disulfide with moderate cobalt doping content possesses the optimal activity. This study demonstrates the validity of multiscale control in molybdenum disulfide via overall consideration of the mass transport, and the accessibility, quantity and capability of active sites towards electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution, which may also be extended to other energy-related processes.

  17. An efficient molybdenum disulfide/cobalt diselenide hybrid catalyst for electrochemical hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min-Rui; Liang, Jin-Xia; Zheng, Ya-Rong; Xu, Yun-Fei; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Qiang; Li, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The electroreduction of water for sustainable hydrogen production is a critical component of several developing clean-energy technologies, such as water splitting and fuel cells. However, finding a cheap and efficient alternative catalyst to replace currently used platinum-based catalysts is still a prerequisite for the commercialization of these technologies. Here we report a robust and highly active catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction that is constructed by in situ growth of molybdenum disulfide on the surface of cobalt diselenide. In acidic media, the molybdenum disulfide/cobalt diselenide catalyst exhibits fast hydrogen evolution kinetics with onset potential of -11 mV and Tafel slope of 36 mV per decade, which is the best among the non-noble metal hydrogen evolution catalysts and even approaches to the commercial platinum/carbon catalyst. The high hydrogen evolution activity of molybdenum disulfide/cobalt diselenide hybrid is likely due to the electrocatalytic synergistic effects between hydrogen evolution-active molybdenum disulfide and cobalt diselenide materials and the much increased catalytic sites.

  18. Role of cysteine residues and disulfide bonds in the activity of a legume root nodule-specific, cysteine-rich peptide.

    PubMed

    Haag, Andreas F; Kerscher, Bernhard; Dall'Angelo, Sergio; Sani, Monica; Longhi, Renato; Baloban, Mikhail; Wilson, Heather M; Mergaert, Peter; Zanda, Matteo; Ferguson, Gail P

    2012-03-30

    The root nodules of certain legumes including Medicago truncatula produce >300 different nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides. Medicago NCR antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mediate the differentiation of the bacterium, Sinorhizobium meliloti into a nitrogen-fixing bacteroid within the legume root nodules. In vitro, NCR AMPs such as NCR247 induced bacteroid features and exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. meliloti. The bacterial BacA protein is critical to prevent S. meliloti from being hypersensitive toward NCR AMPs. NCR AMPs are cationic and have conserved cysteine residues, which form disulfide (S-S) bridges. However, the natural configuration of NCR AMP S-S bridges and the role of these in the activity of the peptide are unknown. In this study, we found that either cysteine replacements or S-S bond modifications influenced the activity of NCR247 against S. meliloti. Specifically, either substitution of cysteines for serines, changing the S-S bridges from cysteines 1-2, 3-4 to 1-3, 2-4 or oxidation of NCR247 lowered its activity against S. meliloti. We also determined that BacA specifically protected S. meliloti against oxidized NCR247. Due to the large number of different NCRs synthesized by legume root nodules and the importance of bacterial BacA proteins for prolonged host infections, these findings have important implications for analyzing the function of these novel peptides and the protective role of BacA in the bacterial response toward these peptides.

  19. Radically different thioredoxin domain arrangement of ERp46, an efficient disulfide bond introducer of the mammalian PDI family.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Rieko; Okumura, Masaki; Masui, Shoji; Kanemura, Shingo; Inoue, Michio; Saiki, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Suzuki, Mamoru; Akiyama, Shuji; Inaba, Kenji

    2014-03-04

    The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contains a diverse oxidative protein folding network in which ERp46, a member of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family, serves as an efficient disulfide bond introducer together with Peroxiredoxin-4 (Prx4). We revealed a radically different molecular architecture of ERp46, in which the N-terminal two thioredoxin (Trx) domains with positively charged patches near their peptide-binding site and the C-terminal Trx are linked by unusually long loops and arranged extendedly, forming an opened V-shape. Whereas PDI catalyzes native disulfide bond formation by the cooperative action of two mutually facing redox-active sites on folding intermediates bound to the central cleft, ERp46 Trx domains are separated, act independently, and engage in rapid but promiscuous disulfide bond formation during early oxidative protein folding. Thus, multiple PDI family members likely contribute to different stages of oxidative folding and work cooperatively to ensure the efficient production of multi-disulfide proteins in the ER.

  20. Comparison of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold: Coadsorption of Thiols and Disulfides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-15

    self-assembled monolayers of thiols and disulfides. Previous studies by Dubois et alt t of the adsorption of dimethyl disulfide and methanethiol on...with an activation energy of desorption of 28 kcal/mol of disulfide, but the methanethiol was only physisorbed on the gold surface and desorbed intact

  1. [Diallyl disulfide inhibits invasion and metastasis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro by down-regulating p38 activity].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Xiao-Wang; Zhou, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Xue-Yan; Li, Li-Ding; Xiong, Ting; Peng, Lu; Tu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS) on invasion and metastasis of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and explore the possible mechanism. MCF-7 cells treated with 100, 200, and 400 µmol/L of DADS for 24 h were examined for cell invasion and migration capacities using Transwell assay and wound healing assay, respectively. The protein expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, MMP-9 and p-p38 in the cells were detected with Western blotting. The effect of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) as the agonist of p38 activity was tested in antagonizing the effects of DADS. DADS inhibited the invasion and migration of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, down-regulated the protein expression of Vimentin and MMP-9 and up-regulated E-cadherin expression in the cells. Treatment with TGF-β1 to up-regulate p38 activity obviously antagonized the inhibitory effect of DADS on the invasion and metastasis of MCF-7 cells. DADS can inhibit the invasion and metastasis of MCF-7 cells in vitro by down-regulating p38 activity.

  2. Direct observation of disulfide isomerization in a single protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Kosuri, Pallav; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Fernández, Julio M.

    2011-11-01

    Photochemical uncaging techniques use light to release active molecules from otherwise inert compounds. Here we expand this class of techniques by demonstrating the mechanical uncaging of a reactive species within a single protein. We proved this novel technique by capturing the regiospecific reaction between a thiol and a vicinal disulfide bond. We designed a protein that includes a caged cysteine and a buried disulfide. The mechanical unfolding of this protein in the presence of an external nucleophile frees the single reactive cysteine residue, which now can cleave the target disulfide via a nucleophilic attack on either one of its two sulfur atoms. This produces two different and competing reaction pathways. We used single-molecule force spectroscopy to monitor the cleavage of the disulfides, which extends the polypeptide by a magnitude unambiguously associated with each reaction pathway. This allowed us to measure, for the first time, the kinetics of disulfide-bond isomerization in a protein.

  3. A protein disulfide isomerase gene fusion expression system that increases the extracellular productivity of Bacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Kajino, T; Ohto, C; Muramatsu, M; Obata, S; Udaka, S; Yamada, Y; Takahashi, H

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system.

  4. Aged garlic extract, garlic powder extract, S-allylcysteine, diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide do not interfere with the antibiotic activity of gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Perla D; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2005-03-01

    It was shown that aged garlic extract (AGE), garlic powder and the following garlic-derived compounds: S-allylcysteine (SAC), diallyl sulfide (DAS) and diallyl disulfide (DADS), ameliorate gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. However, it was not established if the above mentioned extracts and compounds of garlic could interfere with the antibiotic action of GM. To address this point, AGE, garlic powder extract (GPE), SAC, DAS and DADS were assessed for their ability to interfere with the in vitro antibiotic activity of GM in Escherichia coli cultures. It was found that the above mentioned extracts and compounds of garlic were unable to decrease the antibiotic capacity of GM and even SAC, DAS and DADS alone inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and enhanced the antibiotic effect of GM. Our data show that SAC, DAS and DADS are antibacterial compounds against E. coli and suggest that AGE, GPE, SAC, DAS and[sol ]or DADS may be administered along with GM-treatment to ameliorate GM-induced nephrotoxicity without interfering with its antibiotic activity. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Probing S4 and S5 Segment Proximity in Mammalian Hyperpolarization Activated HCN Channels by Disulfide Bridging and Cd2+ Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Damian C.; Turbendian, Harma K.; Valley, Matthew T.; Zhou, Lei; Riley, John H.; Siegelbaum, Steven A.; Tibbs, Gareth R.

    2009-01-01

    We explored the structural basis of voltage sensing in HCN1 hyperpolarization-activated channels by examining the relative orientation of the voltage-sensor and pore domains. The opening of channels engineered to contain single cysteine residues at the extracellular ends of the voltage-sensing S4 (V246C) and pore-forming S5 (C303) domains is inhibited by formation of disulfide or cysteine:Cd2+ bonds. As Cd2+ coordination is promoted by depolarization, the S4-S5 interaction occurs preferentially in the closed state. The failure of oxidation to catalyze dimer formation, as assayed by Western blotting, indicates the V246C:C303 interaction occurs within a subunit. Intriguingly, a similar interaction has been observed in depolarization-activated Shaker Kv channels at depolarized potentials but such an intrasubunit interaction is inconsistent with the X-ray crystal structure of Kv1.2, wherein S4 approaches S5 of an adjacent subunit. These findings suggest channels of opposite voltage-sensing polarity adopt a conserved S4-S5 orientation in the depolarized state that is distinct from that trapped upon crystallization. PMID:19034494

  6. Diallyl-disulfide, an organosulfur compound of garlic, attenuates airway inflammation via activation of the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway and NF-kappaB suppression.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Hong, Jumi; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Shin, Na-Rae; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Hui-Seong; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2013-12-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a major organosulfur compound found in garlic oil that is widely used as a flavoring agent. In this study, we evaluated the effects of DADS on airway inflammation using an ovalbumin-induced model of allergic asthma and RAW264.7 cells. DADS decreased nitric oxide production with a reduction in the levels of interleukins (IL)-1β and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. DADS also reduced the expression of proinflammatory proteins including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and it enhanced the expression of antioxidant proteins including Nrf-2 and hemeoxygenase (HO)-1. In in vivo experiments, DADS decreased the inflammatory cell count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E. These results were consistent with the histological analysis. DADS attenuated the airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion induced by OVA challenge. In addition, DADS induced the activation of Nrf-2 and the expression of HO-1. In contrast, DADS reduced the activation of NF-κB, iNOS and MMP-9. In conclusion, DADS reduced the airway inflammation via regulation of Nrf-2/HO-1 and NF-κB. These results suggest that DADS might represent a useful new oral therapy to treat allergic asthma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantification of Thiols and Disulfides

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Jakob R.; Thorpe, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Background Disulfide bond formation is a key posttranslational modification, with implications for structure, function and stability of numerous proteins. While disulfide bond formation is a necessary and essential process for many proteins, it is deleterious and disruptive for others. Cells go to great lengths to regulate thiol-disulfide bond homeostasis, typically with several, apparently redundant, systems working in parallel. Dissecting the extent of oxidation and reduction of disulfides is an ongoing challenge due, in part, to the facility of thiol/disulfide exchange reactions. Scope of the review In the present account, we briefly survey the toolbox available to the experimentalist for the chemical determination of thiols and disulfides. We have chosen to focus on the key chemical aspects of current methodology, together with identifying potential difficulties inherent in their experimental implementation. Major conclusions While many reagents have been described for the measurement and manipulation of the redox status of thiols and disulfides, a number of these methods remain underutilized. The ability to effectively quantify changes in redox conditions in living cells presents a continuing challenge. General Significance Many unresolved questions in the metabolic interconversion of thiols and disulfides remain. For example, while pool sizes of redox pairs and their intracellular distribution are being uncovered, very little is known about the flux in thiol-disulfide exchange pathways. New tools are needed to address this important aspect of cellular metabolism. PMID:23567800

  8. The activation of HO-1/Nrf-2 contributes to the protective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Cui-Li; Song, Fu-Yong; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Yu, Li-Hua; Zhu, Zhen-Ping; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2013-10-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a garlic-derived organosulfur compound. The current study is designed to evaluate the protective effects of DADS against ethanol-induced oxidative stress, and to explore the underlying mechanisms by examining the HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway. We investigated whether or not DADS could activate the HO-1 in normal human liver cell LO2, and then evaluated the protective effects of DADS against ethanol-induced damage in LO2 cells and in acute ethanol-intoxicated mice. The biochemical parameters were measured using commercial kits. HO-1 mRNA level was determined by RT-PCR. Histopathology and immunofluorescence assay were performed with routine methods. Protein levels were measured by western blot. DADS significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of HO-1, stimulated the nuclear translocation of Nrf-2 and increased the phosphorylation of MAPK in LO2 cells. The nuclear translocation of Nrf-2 was abrogated by MAPK inhibitors. DADS significantly suppressed ethanol-induced elevation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities, decrease of glutathione (GSH) level, increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and apoptosis of LO2 cells, which were all blocked by ZnPPIX. In mice, DADS effectively suppressed acute ethanol-induced elevation of aminotransferase activities, and improved liver histopathological changes, which might be associated with HO-1 activation. These results demonstrate that DADS could induce the activation of HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway, which may contribute to the protective effects of DADS against ethanol-induced liver injury. DADS may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of ALD due to significant activation of HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway. © 2013.

  9. Multiple disulfide bridges modulate conformational stability and flexibility in hyperthermophilic archaeal purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Bagarolo, Maria Libera; Porcelli, Marina; Martino, Elisa; Feller, Georges; Cacciapuoti, Giovanna

    2015-10-01

    5'-Deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus is a hexameric hyperthermophilic protein containing in each subunit two pairs of disulfide bridges, a CXC motif, and one free cysteine. The contribution of each disulfide bridge to the protein conformational stability and flexibility has been assessed by comparing the thermal unfolding and the limited proteolysis of the wild-type enzyme and its variants obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of the seven cysteine residues. All variants catalyzed efficiently MTA cleavage with specific activity similar to the wild-type enzyme. The elimination of all cysteine residues caused a substantial decrease of ΔHcal (850 kcal/mol) and Tmax (39°C) with respect to the wild-type indicating that all cysteine pairs and especially the CXC motif significantly contribute to the enzyme thermal stability. Disulfide bond Cys200-Cys262 and the CXC motif weakly affected protein flexibility while the elimination of the disulfide bond Cys138-Cys205 lead to an increased protease susceptibility. Experimental evidence from limited proteolysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions also allowed to propose a stabilizing role for the free Cys164. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Edge-terminated molybdenum disulfide with a 9.4-Å interlayer spacing for electrochemical hydrogen production

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Min -Rui; Chan, Maria K. Y.; Sun, Yugang

    2015-07-03

    In this study, layered molybdenum disulfide has demonstrated great promise as a low-cost alternative to platinum-based catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen production from water. Research effort on this material has focused mainly on synthesizing highly nanostructured molybdenum disulfide that allows the exposure of a large fraction of active edge sites. Here we report a promising microwave-assisted strategy for the synthesis of narrow molybdenum disulfide nanosheets with edge-terminated structure and a significantly expanded interlayer spacing, which exhibit striking kinetic metrics with onset potential of -103 mV, Tafel slope of 49 mV per decade and exchange current density of 9.62 × 10-3 mAmore » cm-2, performing among the best of current molybdenum disulfide catalysts. Besides benefits from the edge-terminated structure, the expanded interlayer distance with modified electronic structure is also responsible for the observed catalytic improvement, which suggests a potential way to design newly advanced molybdenum disulfide catalysts through modulating the interlayer distance.« less

  11. Edge-terminated molybdenum disulfide with a 9.4-Å interlayer spacing for electrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Min -Rui; Chan, Maria K. Y.; Sun, Yugang

    2015-07-03

    In this study, layered molybdenum disulfide has demonstrated great promise as a low-cost alternative to platinum-based catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen production from water. Research effort on this material has focused mainly on synthesizing highly nanostructured molybdenum disulfide that allows the exposure of a large fraction of active edge sites. Here we report a promising microwave-assisted strategy for the synthesis of narrow molybdenum disulfide nanosheets with edge-terminated structure and a significantly expanded interlayer spacing, which exhibit striking kinetic metrics with onset potential of -103 mV, Tafel slope of 49 mV per decade and exchange current density of 9.62 × 10-3 mA cm-2, performing among the best of current molybdenum disulfide catalysts. Besides benefits from the edge-terminated structure, the expanded interlayer distance with modified electronic structure is also responsible for the observed catalytic improvement, which suggests a potential way to design newly advanced molybdenum disulfide catalysts through modulating the interlayer distance.

  12. Interdisciplinary neurotoxicity inhalation studies: Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide research in F344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, Robert C. . E-mail: sills@niehs.nih.gov; Harry, G. Jean; Valentine, William M.; Morgan, Daniel L.

    2005-09-01

    Inhalation studies were conducted on the hazardous air pollutants, carbon disulfide, which targets the central nervous system (spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (distal portions of long myelinated axons), and carbonyl sulfide, which targets the central nervous system (brain). The objectives were to investigate the neurotoxicity of these compounds by a comprehensive evaluation of function, structure, and mechanisms of disease. Through interdisciplinary research, the major finding in the carbon disulfide inhalation studies was that carbon disulfide produced intra- and intermolecular protein cross-linking in vivo. The observation of dose-dependent covalent cross-linking in neurofilament proteins prior to the onset of lesions is consistent with this process contributing to the development of the neurofilamentous axonal swellings characteristic of carbon disulfide neurotoxicity. Of significance is that valine-lysine thiourea cross-linking on rat globin and lysine-lysine thiourea cross-linking on erythrocyte spectrin reflect cross-linking events occurring within the axon and could potentially serve as biomarkers of carbon disulfide exposure and effect. In the carbonyl sulfide studies, using magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), we determined that carbonyl sulfide targets the auditory pathway in the brain. MRM allowed the examination of 200 brain slices and made it possible to identify the most vulnerable sites of neurotoxicity, which would have been missed in our traditional neuropathology evaluations. Electrophysiological studies were focused on the auditory system and demonstrated decreases in auditory brain stem evoked responses. Similarly, mechanistic studies focused on evaluating cytochrome oxidase activity in the posterior colliculus and parietal cortex. A decrease in cytochrome oxidase activity was considered to be a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of carbonyl sulfide neurotoxicity.

  13. Structural characterization of PTX3 disulfide bond network and its multimeric status in cumulus matrix organization.

    PubMed

    Inforzato, Antonio; Rivieccio, Vincenzo; Morreale, Antonio P; Bastone, Antonio; Salustri, Antonietta; Scarchilli, Laura; Verdoliva, Antonio; Vincenti, Silvia; Gallo, Grazia; Chiapparino, Caterina; Pacello, Lucrezia; Nucera, Eleonora; Serlupi-Crescenzi, Ottaviano; Day, Anthony J; Bottazzi, Barbara; Mantovani, Alberto; De Santis, Rita; Salvatori, Giovanni

    2008-04-11

    PTX3 is an acute phase glycoprotein that plays key roles in resistance to certain pathogens and in female fertility. PTX3 exerts its functions by interacting with a number of structurally unrelated molecules, a capacity that is likely to rely on its complex multimeric structure stabilized by interchain disulfide bonds. In this study, PAGE analyses performed under both native and denaturing conditions indicated that human recombinant PTX3 is mainly composed of covalently linked octamers. The network of disulfide bonds supporting this octameric assembly was resolved by mass spectrometry and Cys to Ser site-directed mutagenesis. Here we report that cysteine residues at positions 47, 49, and 103 in the N-terminal domain form three symmetric interchain disulfide bonds stabilizing four protein subunits in a tetrameric arrangement. Additional interchain disulfide bonds formed by the C-terminal domain cysteines Cys(317) and Cys(318) are responsible for linking the PTX3 tetramers into octamers. We also identified three intrachain disulfide bonds within the C-terminal domain that we used as structural constraints to build a new three-dimensional model for this domain. Previously it has been shown that PTX3 is a key component of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix, which forms around the oocyte prior to ovulation, because cumuli from PTX3(-/-) mice show defective matrix organization. Recombinant PTX3 is able to restore the normal phenotype ex vivo in cumuli from PTX3(-/-) mice. Here we demonstrate that PTX3 Cys to Ser mutants, mainly assembled into tetramers, exhibited wild type rescue activity, whereas a mutant, predominantly composed of dimers, had impaired functionality. These findings indicate that protein oligomerization is essential for PTX3 activity within the cumulus matrix and implicate PTX3 tetramers as the functional molecular units required for cumulus matrix organization and stabilization.

  14. Protein disulfide isomerase a multifunctional protein with multiple physiological roles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Khan, Hyder; Mutus, Bulent

    2014-08-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), is a member of the thioredoxin superfamily of redox proteins. PDI has three catalytic activities including, thiol-disulfide oxireductase, disulfide isomerase and redox-dependent chaperone. Originally, PDI was identified in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently detected at additional locations, such as cell surfaces and the cytosol. This review will provide an overview of the recent advances in relating the structural features of PDI to its multiple catalytic roles as well as its physiological and pathophysiological functions related to redox regulation and protein folding.

  15. The Pediocin PA-1 Accessory Protein Ensures Correct Disulfide Bond Formation in the Antimicrobial Peptide Pediocin PA-1.

    PubMed

    Oppegård, Camilla; Fimland, Gunnar; Anonsen, Jan Haug; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2015-05-19

    Peptides, in contrast to proteins, are generally not large enough to form stable and well-defined three-dimensional structures. However, peptides are still able to form correct disulfide bonds. Using pediocin-like bacteriocins, we have examined how this may be achieved. Some pediocin-like bacteriocins, such as pediocin PA-1 and sakacin P[N24C+44C], have four cysteines. There are three possible ways by which the four cysteines may combine to form two disulfide bonds, and the three variants are expected to be produced in approximately equal amounts if their formation is random. Pediocin PA-1 and sakacin P[N24C+44C] with correct disulfide bonds were the main products when they were secreted by the pediocin PA-1 ABC transporter and accessory protein, but when they were secreted by the corresponding secretion machinery for sakacin A, a pediocin-like bacteriocin with one disulfide bond (two cysteines), peptides with all three possible disulfide bonds were produced in approximately equal amounts. All five cysteines in the pediocin PA-1 ABC transporter and the two cysteines (that form a CxxC motif) in the accessory protein were individually replaced with serines to examine their involvement in disulfide bond formation in pediocin PA-1. The Cys86Ser mutation in the accessory protein caused a 2-fold decrease in the amount of pediocin PA-1 with correct disulfide bonds, while the Cys83Ser mutation nearly abolished the production of pediocin PA-1 and resulted in the production of all three disufide bond variants in equal amounts. The Cys19Ser mutation in the ABC transporter completely abolished secretion of pediocin PA-1, suggesting that Cys19 is in the proteolytic active site and involved in cleaving the prebacteriocin. Replacing the other four cysteines in the ABC transporter with serines caused a slight reduction in the overall amount of secreted pediocin PA-1, but the relative amount with the correct disulfide bonds remained large. These results indicate that the pediocin

  16. Lysine Decarboxylase with an Enhanced Affinity for Pyridoxal 5-Phosphate by Disulfide Bond-Mediated Spatial Reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Sagong, Hye-Young; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of l-lysine to produce cadaverine, an important industrial platform chemical for bio-based polyamides. However, due to high flexibility at the pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) binding site, use of the enzyme for cadaverine production requires continuous supplement of large amounts of PLP. In order to develop an LDC enzyme from Selenomonas ruminantium (SrLDC) with an enhanced affinity for PLP, we introduced an internal disulfide bond between Ala225 and Thr302 residues with a desire to retain the PLP binding site in a closed conformation. The SrLDCA225C/T302C mutant showed a yellow color and the characteristic UV/Vis absorption peaks for enzymes with bound PLP, and exhibited three-fold enhanced PLP affinity compared with the wild-type SrLDC. The mutant also exhibited a dramatically enhanced LDC activity and cadaverine conversion particularly under no or low PLP concentrations. Moreover, introduction of the disulfide bond rendered SrLDC more resistant to high pH and temperature. The formation of the introduced disulfide bond and the maintenance of the PLP binding site in the closed conformation were confirmed by determination of the crystal structure of the mutant. This study shows that disulfide bond-mediated spatial reconstitution can be a platform technology for development of enzymes with enhanced PLP affinity. PMID:28095457

  17. Tungsten disulfide nanosheet and exonuclease III co-assisted amplification strategy for highly sensitive fluorescence polarization detection of DNA glycosylase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjin; Ma, Yefei; Kong, Rongmei; Zhang, Liangliang; Yang, Wen; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-08-05

    Herein, we introduced a tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheet and exonuclease III (Exo III) co-assisted signal amplification strategy for highly sensitive fluorescent polarization (FP) assay of DNA glycosylase activity. Two DNA glycosylases, uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) and human 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), were tested. A hairpin-structured probe (HP) which contained damaged bases in the stem was used as the substrate. The removal of damaged bases from substrate by DNA glycosylase would lower the melting temperature of HP. The HP was then opened and hybridized with a FAM dye-labeled single strand DNA (DP), generating a duplex with a recessed 3'-terminal of DP. This design facilitated the Exo III-assisted amplification by repeating the hybridization and digestion of DP, liberating numerous FAM fluorophores which could not be adsorbed on WS2 nanosheet. Thus, the final system exhibited a small FP signal. However, in the absence of DNA glycosylases, no hybridization between DP and HP was occurred, hampering the hydrolysis of DP by Exo III. The intact DP was then adsorbed on the surface of WS2 nanosheet that greatly amplified the mass of the labeled-FAM fluorophore, resulting in a large FP value. With the co-assisted amplification strategy, the sensitivity was substantially improved. In addition, this method was applied to detect UDG activity in cell extracts. The study of the inhibition of UDG was also performed. Furthermore, this method is simple in design, easy in implementation, and selective, which holds potential applications in the DNA glycosylase related mechanism research and molecular diagnostics.

  18. Diallyl disulfide-induced G2/M arrest of human gastric cancer MGC803 cells involves activation of p38 MAP kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jing-Ping; Wang, Gui-Hua; Ling, Hui; Su, Qi; Yang, Yue-Hong; Song, Ying; Tang, Rong-Jun; Liu, Yao; Huang, Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathways in diallyl disulfide (DADS)-induced G2/M arrest in human gastric cancer MGC803 cells. METHODS: MGC803 cell growth inhibition was measured by MTT assay. Phase distribution of cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Expression of Cdc25C, p38, phosphorylation of p38 (pp38) were determined by Western blotting. RESULTS: MTT assay showed that SB203580, a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor blocked DADS-induced growth inhibition. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that treatment of MGC803 cells with 30 mg/L DADS increased the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase from 9.3% to 39.4% (P < 0.05), whereas inhibition of p38 activity by SB203580 abolished induction of G2/M arrest by DADS. Western blotting showed that phosphorylation of p38 was increased 3.52-fold following treatment of MGC803 cells with 30 mg/L DADS for 20 min (P < 0.05), whereas Cdc25C was decreased 68% following treatment of MGC803 cells with 30 mg/L DADS for 24 h (P < 0.05). Decreased Cdc25C protein expression by DADS was attenuated by SB203580 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: DADS-induced G2/M arrest of MGC803 cells involves activation of p38 MAP kinase pathways. Decreased Cdc25C protein expression by p38 MAPK played a crucial role in G2/M arrest after treatment with DADS. PMID:15309729

  19. Enzyme structure captures four cysteines aligned for disulfide relay

    PubMed Central

    Gat, Yair; Vardi-Kilshtain, Alexandra; Grossman, Iris; Major, Dan Thomas; Fass, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxin superfamily proteins introduce disulfide bonds into substrates, catalyze the removal of disulfides, and operate in electron relays. These functions rely on one or more dithiol/disulfide exchange reactions. The flavoenzyme quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX), a catalyst of disulfide bond formation with an interdomain electron transfer step in its catalytic cycle, provides a unique opportunity for exploring the structural environment of enzymatic dithiol/disulfide exchange. Wild-type Rattus norvegicus QSOX1 (RnQSOX1) was crystallized in a conformation that juxtaposes the two redox-active di-cysteine motifs in the enzyme, presenting the entire electron-transfer pathway and proton-transfer participants in their native configurations. As such a state cannot generally be enriched and stabilized for analysis, RnQSOX1 gives unprecedented insight into the functional group environments of the four cysteines involved in dithiol/disulfide exchange and provides the framework for analysis of the energetics of electron transfer in the presence of the bound flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor. Hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) free energy simulations based on the X-ray crystal structure suggest that formation of the interdomain disulfide intermediate is highly favorable and secures the flexible enzyme in a state from which further electron transfer via the flavin can occur. PMID:24888638

  20. The dehydrogenase region of the NADPH oxidase component Nox2 acts as a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) resembling PDIA3 with a role in the binding of the activator protein p67phox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechor, Edna; Dahan, Iris; Fradin, Tanya; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zahavi, Anat; Rafalowski, Meirav; Federman-Gross, Aya; Pick, Edgar

    2015-02-01

    The superoxide (O2.-)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox), and four cytosolic components, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O2.- generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67phox. Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a 369CysGlyCys371 triad (CGC) bound p67phox with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67phox only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67phox via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: 1. Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; 2. Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; 3. Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; 4. Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; 5. A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; 6. p67phox, in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67phox to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two components.

  1. Corrosion Research And Web Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers corrosion-related activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 2000. The NASA Kennedy Space Center's corrosion web site, corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov, was updated with new information based on feedback over the past two years. The methodology for a two-year atmospheric exposure testing program to study the effectiveness of commercial chemicals sold for rinsing aircraft and other equipment was developed and some preliminary laboratory chemical analyses are presented.

  2. Corrosion Research and Web Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    This report covers corrosion-related activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 2000. The NASA Kennedy Space Center's corrosion web site, corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov, was updated with new information based on feedback over the past two years. The methodology for a two-year atmospheric exposure testing program to study the effectiveness of commercial chemicals sold for rinsing aircraft and other equipment was developed and some preliminary laboratory chemical analyses are presented.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of visible-active molybdenum disulfide (2H-MoS{sub 2}) nanospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Cheah, A. J. Chiu, W. S.; Khiew, P. S.; Radiman, S. Hamid, M. A. A.

    2015-07-22

    In current study, a novel 2H-MoS{sub 2} nanospheres were successfully synthesized and underwent structural- as well as optical-property characterizations. The MoS{sub 2} were prepared by one pot hydrothermal approach through adopting L-cysteine as environmentally-benignchalcogenide precursor. TEM image shows that the as-synthesized MoS{sub 2} appear to be spherical in shape with size distribution in the range of 120 nm – 180 nm. HRTEM lattice-fringes imaging further elucidate that the interlayer spacing at the edges is equal to be 0.62 nm that correspond to (002) plane stacking. Also, the HRTEM image clearly-illustrate that the internal microstructure of MoS{sub 2} composed of randomly-arrayed alternating layers, which render the postulation that the formation of nanosphere is driven by self-assembly of individual layers into globular morphology. XRD diffractogram that appear to be broad and unresolved reveal the partially crystalline nature of the sample. Optical-absorption spectra depicts the sample is visible active with featureless absorption, which can attribute to indirect transition of the excitions generated. By using Tauc plot, the bandgap energy is determined to be 1.75 eV, which reflect the nanospheres are indeed visible-active nanostructures.

  4. Interrelationships among biological activity, disulfide bonds, secondary structure, and metal ion binding for a chemically synthesized 34-amino-acid peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    MacColl, R; Eisele, L E; Stack, R F; Hauer, C; Vakharia, D D; Benno, A; Kelly, W C; Mizejewski, G J

    2001-10-03

    A 34-amino-acid peptide has been chemically synthesized based on a sequence from human alpha-fetoprotein. The purified peptide is active in anti-growth assays when freshly prepared in pH 7.4 buffer at 0.20 g/l, but this peptide slowly becomes inactive. This functional change is proven by mass spectrometry to be triggered by the formation of an intrapeptide disulfide bond between the two cysteine residues on the peptide. Interpeptide cross-linking does not occur. The active and inactive forms of the peptide have almost identical secondary structures as shown by circular dichroism (CD). Zinc ions bind to the active peptide and completely prevents formation of the inactive form. Cobalt(II) ions also bind to the peptide, and the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the cobalt-peptide complex shows that: (1) a near-UV sulfur-to-metal-ion charge-transfer band had a molar extinction coefficient consistent with two thiolate bonds to Co(II); (2) the lowest-energy visible d-d transition maximum at 659 nm, also, demonstrated that the two cysteine residues are ligands for the metal ion; (3) the d-d molar extinction coefficient showed that the metal ion-ligand complex was in a distorted tetrahedral symmetry. The peptide has two cysteines, and it is speculated that the other two metal ion ligands might be the two histidines. The Zn(II)- and Co(II)-peptide complexes had similar peptide conformations as indicated by their ultraviolet CD spectra, which differed very slightly from that of the free peptide. Surprisingly, the cobalt ions acted in the reverse of the zinc ions in that, instead of stabilizing anti-growth form of the peptide, they catalyzed its loss. Metal ion control of peptide function is a saliently interesting concept. Calcium ions, in the conditions studied, apparently do not bind to the peptide. Trifluoroethanol and temperature (60 degrees C) affected the secondary structure of the peptide, and the peptide was found capable of assuming various conformations in solution

  5. Thiol/Disulfide Redox Switches in the Regulation of Heme Binding to Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Li

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This review focuses on thiol/disulfide redox switches that regulate heme binding to proteins and modulate their activities. The importance of redox switches in metabolic regulation and the general mechanism by which redox switches modulate activity are discussed. Methods are described to characterize heme-binding sites and to assess their physiological relevance. For thiol/disulfide interconversion to regulate activity of a system, the redox process must be reversible at the ambient redox potentials found within the cell; thus, methods (and their limitations) are discussed that can address the physiological relevance of a redox switch. We review recent results that define a mechanism for how thiol/disulfide redox switches that control heme binding can regulate the activities of an enzyme, heme oxygenase-2, and an ion channel, the BK potassium channel. The redox switches on these proteins are composed of different types of Cys-containing motifs that have opposite effects on heme affinity, yet have complementary effects on hypoxia sensing. Finally, a model is proposed to describe how the redox switches on heme oxygenase-2 and the BK channel form an interconnected system that is poised to sense oxygen levels in the bloodstream and to elicit the hypoxic response when oxygen levels drop below a threshold value. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1039–1047. PMID:20812781

  6. Protein disulfide isomerase is essential for viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, R; Honey, N; Murant, S J; Bossier, P; Schultz, L; Montgomery, D; Ellis, R W; Freedman, R B; Tuite, M F

    1991-12-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an enzyme involved in the catalysis of disulfide bond formation in secretory and cell-surface proteins. Using an oligodeoxyribonucleotide designed to detect the conserved 'thioredoxin-like' active site of vertebrate PDIs, we have isolated a gene encoding PDI from the lower eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The nucleotide sequence and deduced open reading frame of the cloned gene predict a 530-amino-acid (aa) protein of Mr 59,082 and a pI of 4.1, physical properties characteristic of mammalian PDIs. Furthermore, the aa sequence shows 30-32% identity with mammalian and avian PDI sequences and has a very similar overall organisation, namely the presence of two approx. 100-aa segments, each of which is repeated, with the most significant homologies to mammalian and avian PDIs being in the regions (a, a') that contain the conserved 'thioredoxin-like' active site. The N-terminal region has the characteristics of a cleavable secretory signal sequence and the C-terminal four aa (-His-Asp-Glu-Leu) are consistent with the protein being a component of the S. cerevisiae endoplasmic reticulum. Transformants carrying multiple copies of this gene (designated PDI1) have tenfold higher levels of PDI activity and overproduce a protein of the predicted Mr. The PDI1 gene is unique in the yeast genome and encodes a single 1.8-kb transcript that is not found in stationary phase cells. Disruption of the PDI1 gene is haplo-lethal indicating that the product of this gene is essential for viability.

  7. Pseudo-active sites of protease domains: HGF/Met and Sonic hedgehog signaling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Maun, Henry R; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Lazarus, Robert A

    2010-08-01

    Proteases represent a large class of enzymes with crucial biological functions. Although targeting various relevant proteases for therapeutic intervention has been widely investigated, structurally related proteins lacking proteolytic activity (pseudo-proteases) have received relatively little attention. Two distinct clinically relevant cancer pathways that contain signaling proteins with pseudo-protease domains include the Met and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways. The receptor tyrosine kinase Met pathway is driven by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a plasminogen-related ligand that binds Met and activates intracellular pathways resulting in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, motility and survival. HGF is a disulfide-linked alpha/beta-heterodimer having a trypsin serine protease-like beta-chain. The Hh pathway is driven by Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which has a Zn(2+) metalloprotease fold and binds Patched1 (Ptc1), which de-represses Smoothened and ultimately activates Gli-dependent transcription. Although HGF and Shh differ in structure and function, the pseudo-catalytic sites of both HGF and Shh are crucial for signal transduction. For HGF, this region binds the Met beta-propeller domain, which leads to Met dimerization and signaling. For Hh, this region binds to the antagonist receptor Hedgehog-interacting protein (Hhip) and most probably to Ptc1 as well. Thus, for both HGF and Hh pathways, targeting ligand pseudo-active sites represents a new strategy for regulation.

  8. Disulfide-Bridged (Mo3S11) Cluster Polymer: Molecular Dynamics and Application as Electrode Material for a Rechargeable Magnesium Battery.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kempaiah Devaraju, Murukanahally; Nguyen, Duc N; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Nayuki, Keiichiro; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Tran, Phong D; Honma, Itaru

    2016-09-14

    Exploring novel electrode materials is critical for the development of a next-generation rechargeable magnesium battery with high volumetric capacity. Here, we showed that a distinct amorphous molybdenum sulfide, being a coordination polymer of disulfide-bridged (Mo3S11) clusters, has great potential as a rechargeable magnesium battery cathode. This material provided good reversible capacity, attributed to its unique structure with high flexibility and capability of deformation upon Mg insertion. Free-terminal disulfide moiety may act as the active site for reversible insertion and extraction of magnesium.

  9. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  10. Examination of the effect of increasing the number of intra-disulfide amino functional groups on the performance of small molecule cyclic polyamine disulfide vectors.

    PubMed

    Drake, Christopher R; Aissaoui, Abderrahim; Argyros, Orestis; Thanou, Maya; Steinke, Joachim H G; Miller, Andrew D

    2013-10-10

    Establishing structure-activity relationships is vital if the efficacy of non-viral vectors is to match that of their viral counter-parts. Recently, we reported on the ability of a series of small molecule, cyclic polyamine disulfides to condense and cage plasmid DNA (pDNA) by a process of thermodynamically controlled templated polymerization, leading to a series of corresponding pDNA-polyplex nanoparticles able to mediate high levels of transfection with no associated cytotoxicities. The leading cyclic polyamine disulfide was shown to be the spermine tetra-amine disulfide (TetraN-3,4,3). Herein we report on the significantly more challenging syntheses of cyclic disulfides with longer polyamine motifs. Two new cyclic polyamine disulfides, based on hexa- and octa-amine inserts, were prepared and their transfection efficacies and cytotoxicities compared with our previously reported cyclic tri- and tetra-amine disulfides. The new cyclic hexa- and octa-amine disulfides prove more effective at transfection in vitro, especially of lung epithelial A549 cell line. By contrast, our original cyclic tetra-amine disulfide remains the most efficient agent for the transfection of lung epithelial cells in vivo following intra-nasal administration. Hypothetical mechanistic reasons are presented to explain this outcome. Our data in toto support the concept of shorter cyclic polyamine disulfides as preferred agents for polycation-mediated controlled condensation and functional delivery of pDNA to lung epithelial cells in vivo.

  11. An additional function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum protein complex prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1·cartilage-associated protein·cyclophilin B: the CXXXC motif reveals disulfide isomerase activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2013-11-01

    Collagen biosynthesis occurs in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and many molecular chaperones and folding enzymes are involved in this process. The folding mechanism of type I procollagen has been well characterized, and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been suggested as a key player in the formation of the correct disulfide bonds in the noncollagenous carboxyl-terminal and amino-terminal propeptides. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1) forms a hetero-trimeric complex with cartilage-associated protein and cyclophilin B (CypB). This complex is a multifunctional complex acting as a prolyl 3-hydroxylase, a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and a molecular chaperone. Two major domains are predicted from the primary sequence of P3H1: an amino-terminal domain and a carboxyl-terminal domain corresponding to the 2-oxoglutarate- and iron-dependent dioxygenase domains similar to the α-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylases. The amino-terminal domain contains four CXXXC sequence repeats. The primary sequence of cartilage-associated protein is homologous to the amino-terminal domain of P3H1 and also contains four CXXXC sequence repeats. However, the function of the CXXXC sequence repeats is not known. Several publications have reported that short peptides containing a CXC or a CXXC sequence show oxido-reductase activity similar to PDI in vitro. We hypothesize that CXXXC motifs have oxido-reductase activity similar to the CXXC motif in PDI. We have tested the enzyme activities on model substrates in vitro using a GCRALCG peptide and the P3H1 complex. Our results suggest that this complex could function as a disulfide isomerase in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

  12. [Structural regularities in activated cleavage sites of thrombin receptors].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlik, I V; Verevka, S V

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of thrombin receptors activation splitting sites sequences testifies to their similarity both in activation splitting sites of protein precursors and protein proteinase inhibitors reactive sites. In all these sites corresponded to effectory sites P2'-positions are placed by hydrophobic amino-acids only. The regularity defined conforms with previous thesis about the role of effectory S2'-site in regulation of the processes mediated by serine proteinases.

  13. The influence of zinc(II) on thioredoxin/glutathione disulfide exchange: QM/MM studies to explore how zinc(II) accelerates exchange in higher dielectric environments.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Roby; Bruce, Mitchell R M; Bruce, Alice E; Amar, François G

    2015-08-01

    QM/MM studies were performed to explore the energetics of exchange reactions of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and the active site of thioredoxin [Cys32-Gly33-Pro34-Cys35] with and without zinc(II), in vacuum and solvated models. The activation energy for exchange, in the absence of zinc, is 29.7 kcal mol(-1) for the solvated model. This is 3.3 kcal mol(-1) higher than the activation energy for exchange in the gas phase, due to ground state stabilization of the active site Cys-32 thiolate in a polar environment. In the presence of zinc, the activation energy for exchange is 4.9 kcal mol(-1) lower than in the absence of zinc (solvated models). The decrease in activation energy is attributed to stabilization of the charge-separated transition state, which has a 4-centered, cyclic arrangement of Zn-S-S-S with an estimated dipole moment of 4.2 D. A difference of 4.9 kcal mol(-1) in activation energy would translate to an increase in rate by a factor of about 4000 for zinc-assisted thiol-disulfide exchange. The calculations are consistent with previously reported experimental results, which indicate that metal-thiolate, disulfide exchange rates increase as a function of solvent dielectric. This trend is opposite to that observed for the influence of the dielectric environment on the rate of thiol-disulfide exchange in the absence of metal. The results suggest a dynamic role for zinc in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions, involving accessible cysteine sites on proteins, which may contribute to redox regulation and mechanistic pathways during oxidative stress.

  14. Selective Gas-Phase Ion/Ion Reactions: Enabling Disulfide Mapping via Oxidation and Cleavage of Disulfide Bonds in Intermolecularly-Linked Polypeptide Ions.

    PubMed

    Pilo, Alice L; McLuckey, Scott A

    2016-09-20

    The selective gas-phase oxidation of disulfide bonds to their thiosulfinate form using ion/ion reactions and subsequent cleavage is demonstrated here. Oxidizing reagent anions are observed to attach to all polypeptides, regardless of amino acid composition. Direct proton transfer yielding a charge-reduced peptide is also frequently observed. Activation of the ion/ion complex between an oxidizing reagent anion and a disulfide-containing peptide cation results in oxygen transfer from the reagent anion to the peptide cation to form the [M+H+O](+) species. This thiosulfinate derivative can undergo one of several rearrangements that result in cleavage of the disulfide bond. Species containing an intermolecular disulfide bond undergo separation of the two chains upon activation. Further activation can be used to generate more sequence information from each chain. These oxidation ion/ion reactions have been used to illustrate the identification of S-glutathionylated and S-cysteinylated peptides, in which low molecular weight thiols are attached to cysteine residues in peptides via disulfide bonds. The oxidation chemistry effectively labels peptide ions with readily oxidized groups, such as disulfide bonds. This enables a screening approach for the identification of disulfide-linked peptides in a disulfide mapping application involving enzymatic digestion. The mixtures of ions generated by tryptic and peptic digestions of lysozyme and insulin, respectively, without prior separation or isolation were subjected both to oxidation and proton transfer ion/ion chemistry to illustrate the identification of peptides in the mixtures with readily oxidized groups.

  15. Design of disulfide bridge as an alternative mechanism for color shift in firefly luciferase and development of secreted luciferase.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mahboobeh; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2011-07-01

    The bioluminescence reaction, which uses luciferin, Mg(2+)-ATP and molecular oxygen to yield an electronically excited oxyluciferin, is carried out by luciferase and emits visible light. The bioluminescence color of firefly luciferases is determined by the luciferase structure and assay conditions. It is proposed that the stability of a protein can be increased by introduction of disulfide bridge that decreases the configurational entropy of unfolding. A disulfide bridge is introduced into Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase to make three separate mutant enzymes with a single bridge. Moreover, C(81)-A(105)C mutant luciferase was modified and successfully secreted to the extracellular medium. By introduction of disulfide bridges using site-directed mutagenesis in Photinus pyralis luciferase the color of emitted light was changed to red and the optimum temperature of activity was also increased (up to 10 °C more than wild type). Amongst mutants with a disulfide bridge, P(451)C-V(469)C and L(306)C-L(309)C mutants exhibit a single peak in the red region of the spectrum at pH 7.8. It is worthwhile to note that with the design of a secreted luciferase, the increased optimum temperature, thermostability and emission of red light might make mutant luciferase suitable reporters for the study of gene expression in high through-put screening.

  16. Structure of intact AhpF reveals a mirrored thioredoxin-like active site and implies large domain rotations during catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Z A; Poole, L B; Karplus, P A

    2001-04-03

    AhpF, a homodimer of 57 kDa subunits, is a flavoenzyme which catalyzes the NADH-dependent reduction of redox-active disulfide bonds in the peroxidase AhpC, a member of the recently identified peroxiredoxin class of antioxidant enzymes. The structure of AhpF from Salmonella typhimurium at 2.0 A resolution, determined using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion, shows that the C-terminal portion of AhpF (residues 210-521) is structurally like Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase. In addition, AhpF has an N-terminal domain (residues 1-196) formed from two contiguous thioredoxin folds, but containing just a single redox-active disulfide (Cys129-Cys132). A flexible linker (residues 197-209) connects the domains, consistent with experiments showing that the N-terminal domain acts as an appended substrate, first being reduced by the C-terminal portion of AhpF, and subsequently reducing AhpC. Modeling studies imply that an intrasubunit electron transfer accounts for the reduction of the N-terminal domain in dimeric AhpF. Furthermore, comparing the N-terminal domain with protein disulfide oxidoreductase from Pyrococcus furiosis, we describe a new class of protein disulfide oxidoreductases based on a novel mirror-image active site arrangement, with a distinct carboxylate (Glu86) being functionally equivalent to the key acid (Asp26) of E. coli thioredoxin. A final fortuitous result is that the N-terminal redox center is reduced and provides a high-resolution view of the thiol-thiolate hydrogen bond that has been predicted to stabilize the attacking thiolate in thioredoxin-like proteins.

  17. Disulfide bridges as essential elements for the thermostability of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase LPMO10C from Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, Magali; Danneels, Barbara; Last, Matthias; Beerens, Koen; Stals, Ingeborg; Desmet, Tom

    2017-05-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are crucial components of cellulase mixtures but their stability has not yet been studied in detail, let alone been engineered for industrial applications. In this work, we have evaluated the importance of disulfide bridges for the thermodynamic stability of Streptomyces coelicolor LPMO10C. Interestingly, this enzyme was found to retain 34% of its activity after 2-h incubation at 80°C while its apparent melting temperature (Tm) is only 51°C. When its three disulfide bridges were broken, however, irreversible unfolding occurred and no residual activity could be detected after a similar heat treatment. Based on these findings, additional disulfide bridges were introduced, as predicted by computational tools (MOdelling of DIsulfide bridges in Proteins (MODiP) and Disulfide by Design (DbD)) and using the most flexible positions in the structure as target sites. Four out of 16 variants displayed an improvement in Tm, ranging from 2 to 9°C. Combining the positive mutations yielded additional improvements (up to 19°C) but aberrant unfolding patterns became apparent in some cases, resulting in a diminished capacity for heat resistance. Nonetheless, the best variant, a combination of A143C-P183C and S73C-A115C, displayed a 12°C increase in Tm and was able to retain and was able to retain no less than 60% of its activity after heat treatment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Redox-dependent domain rearrangement of protein disulfide isomerase from a thermophilic fungus.

    PubMed

    Nakasako, Masayoshi; Maeno, Aya; Kurimoto, Eiji; Harada, Takushi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Oka, Toshihiko; Takayama, Yuki; Iwata, Aya; Kato, Koichi

    2010-08-17

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) acts as folding catalyst and molecular chaperone for disulfide-containing proteins through the formation, breakage, and rearrangement of disulfide bonds. PDI has a modular structure comprising four thioredoxin domains, a, b, b', and a', followed by a short segment, c. The a and a' domains have an active site cysteine pair for the thiol-disulfide exchange reaction, which alters PDI between the reduced and oxidized forms, and the b' domain provides a primary binding site for substrate proteins. Although the structures and functions of PDI have studied, it is still argued whether the overall conformation of PDI depends on the redox state of the active site cysteine pair. Here, we report redox-dependent conformational and solvation changes of PDI from a thermophilic fungus elucidated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. The redox state and secondary structures of PDI were also characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroic spectroscopy, respectively. The oxidized form of PDI showed SAXS differences from the reduced form, and the low-resolution molecular models restored from the SAXS profiles differed between the two forms regarding the positions of the a'-c region relative to the a-b-b' region. The normal mode analysis of the crystal structure of yeast PDI revealed that the inherent motions of the a-b-b' and a'-c regions expose the substrate binding surface of the b' domain. The apparent molecular weight of the oxidized form estimated from SAXS was 1.1 times larger than that of the reduced form, whereas the radius of gyration (ca. 33 A) was nearly independent of the redox state. These results suggest that the conformation of PDI is controlled by the redox state of the active site cysteine residues in the a and a' domains and that the conformational alternation accompanies solvation changes in the active site cleft formed by the a, b, b', and a' domains. On the basis of the results presented here, we

  19. Radiation inactivation of ricin occurs with transfer of destructive energy across a disulfide bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Haigler, H.T.; Woodbury, D.J.; Kempner, E.S.

    1985-08-01

    The ionizing radiation sensitivity of ricin, a disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein, was studied as a model to determine the ability of disulfide bonds to transmit destructive energy. The radiation-dependent loss of A chain enzymatic activity after irradiation of either intact ricin or ricin in which the interchain disulfide bond was disrupted gave target sizes corresponding to the molecular size of dimeric ricin or monomeric A chain, respectively. These results clearly show that a disulfide bond can transmit destructive energy between protein subunits.

  20. Disulfides as cyanide antidotes: evidence for a new in vivo oxidative pathway for cyanide detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zottola, Mark A; Beigel, Keith; Soni, Sunil-Datta; Lawrence, Richard

    2009-12-01

    It is known that cyanide is converted to thiocyanate in the presence of the enzyme rhodanese. The enzyme is activated by sulfur transfer from an appropriate sulfur donor. The activated enzyme then binds cyanide and transfers the sulfur atom to cyanide to form thiocyanate. This project began as an exploration of the ability of disulfides to act as sulfur donors in the rhodanese-mediated detoxification of cyanide. To our surprise, and contrary to expectations based on efficacy studies in vivo, our in vitro results showed that disulfides are rather poor sulfur donors. The transfer of a sulfur atom from a disulfide to the enzyme must occur via cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond either of the original disulfide or in a mixed disulfide arising from the reaction of rhodanese with the original disulfide. Extending the reaction time and addition of chloride anion (a nucleophile) did not significantly change the results of the experiment. Using ultrasound as a means of accelerating bond cleavage also had a minimal effect. Those results ruled out cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bond in the original disulfide but did not preclude formation of a mixed disulfide. S-Methyl methylthiosulfonate (MTSO) was used to determine whether a mixed disulfide, if formed, would result in transfer of a sulfur atom to rhodanese. While no thiocyanate was formed in the reaction between cyanide and rhodanese exposed to MTSO, NMR analysis revealed that MTSO reacted directly with cyanide anion to form methyl thiocyanate. This result reveals the body's possible use of oxidized disulfides as a first line of defense against cyanide intoxication. The oxidation of disulfides to the corresponding thiosulfinate or thiosulfonate will result in facilitating their reaction with other nucleophiles. The reaction of an oxidized disulfide with a sulfur nucleophile from glutathione could be a plausible origin for the cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid.

  1. Resolution of Disulfide Heterogeneity in Nogo Receptor 1 Fusion Proteins by Molecular Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    P Weinreb; D Wen; F Qian; C Wildes; E Garber; L Walus; M Jung; J Wang; J Relton; et al.

    2011-12-31

    NgRI (Nogo-66 receptor) is part of a signalling complex that inhibits axon regeneration in the central nervous system. Truncated soluble versions of NgRI have been used successfully to promote axon regeneration in animal models of spinal-cord injury, raising interest in this protein as a potential therapeutic target. The LRR (leucine-rich repeat) regions in NgRI are flanked by N- and C-terminal disulfide-containing 'cap' domains (LRRNT and LRRCT respectively). In the present work we show that, although functionally active, the NgRI(310)-Fc fusion protein contains mislinked and heterogeneous disulfide patterns in the LRRCT domain, and we report the generation of a series of variant molecules specifically designed to prevent this heterogeneity. Using these variants we explored the effects of modifying the NgRI truncation site or the spacing between the NgRI and Fc domains, or replacing cysteines within the NgRI or IgG hinge regions. One variant, which incorporates replacements of Cys{sup 266} and Cys{sup 309} with alanine residues, completely eliminated disulfide scrambling while maintaining functional in vitro and in vivo efficacy. This modified NgRI-Fc molecule represents a significantly improved candidate for further pharmaceutical development, and may serve as a useful model for the optimization of other IgG fusion proteins made from LRR proteins.

  2. Depletion of bovine pituitary prolactin by cysteamine involves a thiol:disulfide mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenson, M.Y.; Jacobs, L.S.

    1984-10-01

    Cysteamine (2-aminoethanethiol (CySH)) reduces measurable PRL concentrations in vivo and in vitro. Since secretion is also inhibited, CySH may block conversion from a poorly assayable hormone storage form(s) to readily assayable, releasable PRL. This would represent a previously unrecognized mechanism for secretory regulation. We undertook the present study to identify the sites involved in the loss of measurable PRL (depletion) induced by cysteamine. The disulfide cystamine was ineffective on secretory granules unless combined with reduced glutathione, indicating the generation of the active CySH-thiol form. Pretreatment of granules with thiol-blocking agents resulted in dose-dependent enhancement of CySH inhibition, achieving nearly complete inhibition with 5 mM iodoacetamide. In contrast, pretreatment with reduced glutathione or dithiothreitol, respectively, impaired or abolished the CySH effect. These data suggest that the mechanism by which CySH causes PRL depletion is mediated by granule disulfides and the -SH of CySH. The regulation of thiol:disulfide equilibria appears to be an important determinant of the detectability of PRL storage forms and of their secretion.

  3. Prm1 Functions as a Disulfide-linked Complex in Yeast Mating*

    PubMed Central

    Olmo, Valerie N.; Grote, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Prm1 is a pheromone-induced membrane glycoprotein that promotes plasma membrane fusion in yeast mating pairs. HA-Prm1 migrates at twice its expected molecular weight on non-reducing SDS-PAGE gels and coprecipitates with Prm1-TAP, indicating that Prm1 is a disulfide-linked homodimer. The N terminus of a plasma membrane-localized GFP-Prm1 endocytic mutant projects into the cytoplasm, where it is protected from low pH quenching in live cells and from external protease in spheroplasts. In a revised topological map, Prm1 has four transmembrane domains and two large extracellular loops. Mutation of all four cysteines in the extracellular loops blocked disulfide bond formation and destabilized the Prm1 homodimer without preventing Prm1 transport to contact sites in mating pairs. Cys120 in loop 1 and Cys545 in loop 2 form disulfide cross-links in the Prm1 homodimer and are required for fusion activity. Cys120 lies between a hydrophobic segment formerly thought to be a transmembrane domain and an amphipathic helix. An interaction between either of these regions and the opposing membrane could promote fusion. PMID:19933274

  4. Oxidation of a single active site suffices for the functional inactivation of the dimeric Bacillus subtilis OhrR repressor in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Soonsanga, Sumarin; Lee, Jin-Won; Helmann, John D

    2009-03-01

    Bacillus subtilis OhrR is a dimeric repressor that senses organic peroxides and regulates the expression of the OhrA peroxiredoxin. Derepression results from oxidation of an active site cysteine which ultimately results in formation of a mixed disulfide with a low molecular weight thiol, a cyclic sulfenamide, or overoxidation to the sulfinic or sulfonic acids. We expressed a single-chain OhrR (scOhrR) in which the two monomers were connected by a short amino-acid linker. scOhrR variants containing only one active site cysteine were fully functional as repressors and still responded, albeit with reduced efficacy, to organic peroxides in vivo. Biochemical analyses indicate that oxidation at a single active site is sufficient for derepression regardless of the fate of the active site cysteine. scOhrR with only one active site cysteine in the amino-terminal domain is inactivated at rates comparable to wild-type whereas when the active site is in the carboxyl-terminal domain the protein is inactivated much more slowly. The incomplete derepression noted for single active site variants of scOhrR in vivo is consistent with the hypothesis that protein reduction regenerates active repressor and that, in the cell, oxidation of the second active site may also contribute to derepression.

  5. The oxidation state of active site thiols determines activity of saccharopine dehydrogenase at low pH.

    PubMed

    Bobyk, Kostyantyn D; Kim, Sang Gon; Kumar, Vidya Prasanna; Kim, Sung-Kun; West, Ann H; Cook, Paul F

    2011-09-15

    Saccharopine dehydrogenase catalyzes the NAD-dependent conversion of saccharopine to generate L-lysine and α-ketoglutarate. A disulfide bond between cysteine 205 and cysteine 249, in the vicinity of the dinucleotide-binding site, is observed in structures of the apoenzyme, while a dithiol is observed in a structure with AMP bound, suggesting preferential binding of the dinucleotide to reduced enzyme. Mutation of C205 to S gave increased values of V/E(t) and V/KE(t) at pH 7 compared to wild type. Primary deuterium and solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effects suggest the catalytic pathway, which includes the hydride transfer and hydrolysis steps, contributes more to rate limitation in C205S, but the rates of the two steps relative to one another remain the same. There is a large increase in the rate constants V₁/E(t) and V₁/K(NAD)Et at pH values below 7 compared to WT. Data indicate the low pH increase in activity results from a decreased sensitivity of the C205S mutant enzyme to the protonation state of an enzyme group with a pK(a) of about 7, likely responsible for a pH-dependent conformational change. Reduction of WT and C205S mutant enzymes with TCEP gives equal activities at pH 6, consistent with the increased activity observed for the C205S mutant enzyme.

  6. MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hua; Rossetto, Dorine; Mellert, Hestia; Dang, Weiwei; Srinivasan, Madhusudan; Johnson, Jamel; Hodawadekar, Santosh; Ding, Emily C; Speicher, Kaye; Abshiru, Nebiyu; Perry, Rocco; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Y George; Speicher, David W; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Johnson, F Bradley; Berger, Shelley L; Sternglanz, Rolf; McMahon, Steven B; Côté, Jacques; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2012-01-04

    The MYST protein lysine acetyltransferases are evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes and acetylate proteins to regulate diverse biological processes including gene regulation, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation, stem cell homeostasis and development. Here, we demonstrate that MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation. The X-ray crystal structures of yeast Esa1 (yEsa1/KAT5) bound to a bisubstrate H4K16CoA inhibitor and human MOF (hMOF/KAT8/MYST1) reveal that they are autoacetylated at a strictly conserved lysine residue in MYST proteins (yEsa1-K262 and hMOF-K274) in the enzyme active site. The structure of hMOF also shows partial occupancy of K274 in the unacetylated form, revealing that the side chain reorients to a position that engages the catalytic glutamate residue and would block cognate protein substrate binding. Consistent with the structural findings, we present mass spectrometry data and biochemical experiments to demonstrate that this lysine autoacetylation on yEsa1, hMOF and its yeast orthologue, ySas2 (KAT8) occurs in solution and is required for acetylation and protein substrate binding in vitro. We also show that this autoacetylation occurs in vivo and is required for the cellular functions of these MYST proteins. These findings provide an avenue for the autoposttranslational regulation of MYST proteins that is distinct from other acetyltransferases but draws similarities to the phosphoregulation of protein kinases.

  7. MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hua; Rossetto, Dorine; Mellert, Hestia; Dang, Weiwei; Srinivasan, Madhusudan; Johnson, Jamel; Hodawadekar, Santosh; Ding, Emily C; Speicher, Kaye; Abshiru, Nebiyu; Perry, Rocco; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Y George; Speicher, David W; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Johnson, F Bradley; Berger, Shelley L; Sternglanz, Rolf; McMahon, Steven B; Côté, Jacques; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2012-01-01

    The MYST protein lysine acetyltransferases are evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes and acetylate proteins to regulate diverse biological processes including gene regulation, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation, stem cell homeostasis and development. Here, we demonstrate that MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation. The X-ray crystal structures of yeast Esa1 (yEsa1/KAT5) bound to a bisubstrate H4K16CoA inhibitor and human MOF (hMOF/KAT8/MYST1) reveal that they are autoacetylated at a strictly conserved lysine residue in MYST proteins (yEsa1-K262 and hMOF-K274) in the enzyme active site. The structure of hMOF also shows partial occupancy of K274 in the unacetylated form, revealing that the side chain reorients to a position that engages the catalytic glutamate residue and would block cognate protein substrate binding. Consistent with the structural findings, we present mass spectrometry data and biochemical experiments to demonstrate that this lysine autoacetylation on yEsa1, hMOF and its yeast orthologue, ySas2 (KAT8) occurs in solution and is required for acetylation and protein substrate binding in vitro. We also show that this autoacetylation occurs in vivo and is required for the cellular functions of these MYST proteins. These findings provide an avenue for the autoposttranslational regulation of MYST proteins that is distinct from other acetyltransferases but draws similarities to the phosphoregulation of protein kinases. PMID:22020126

  8. Enzymatic reduction of disulfide bonds in lysosomes: Characterization of a Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, Balasubramanian; Phan, Uyen T.; Geuze, Hans J.; Cresswell, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Proteins internalized into the endocytic pathway are usually degraded. Efficient proteolysis requires denaturation, induced by acidic conditions within lysosomes, and reduction of inter- and intrachain disulfide bonds. Cytosolic reduction is mediated enzymatically by thioredoxin, but the mechanism of lysosomal reduction is unknown. We describe here a lysosomal thiol reductase optimally active at low pH and capable of catalyzing disulfide bond reduction both in vivo and in vitro. The active site, determined by mutagenesis, consists of a pair of cysteine residues separated by two amino acids, similar to other enzymes of the thioredoxin family. The enzyme is a soluble glycoprotein that is synthesized as a precursor. After delivery into the endosomal/lysosomal system by the mannose 6-phosphate receptor, N- and C-terminal prosequences are removed. The enzyme is expressed constitutively in antigen-presenting cells and induced by IFN-γ in other cell types, suggesting a potentially important role in antigen processing.

  9. Differential involvement of disulfide bridges on the folding of a scorpion toxin.

    PubMed

    Calabro, V; Sabatier, J M; Blanc, E; Lecomte, C; Van Rietschoten, V; Darbon, H

    1997-07-01

    Leiurotoxin I is a neurotoxin, blocker of Ca(2+)-activated apamin-sensitive K+ channel, purified from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a 31-residue polypeptide reticulated by three disulfide bridges, i.e. Cys3-Cys21, Cys8-Cys26 and Cys12-Cys28. To investigate the role of these disulfide bridges in the folding of this toxin, analogs lacking one disulfide bridge were synthesized. The structures of two analogs in which two half-cystines were placed by alpha-aminobutyrate residues to suppress one disulfide bridge, were analyzed by 1H NMR. The NMR studies reveal a three-dimensional structure identical with the native toxin for the analog lacking disulfide bridge Cys3-Cys21 and a loss of organized structure for another analog lacking disulfide bridge Cys12-Cys28. These analogs are, respectively, fully active and weakly active (2% of the residual activity) when tested in vitro for their ability to interact with their receptor channel and in vivo for their neurotoxic activity in mice. This suggest that disulfide bridge Cys12-Cys28 is essential for the folding process. In contrast, the lack of disulfide bridge Cys3-Cys21 does not affect the folding and the maintenance of bioactive conformation of Leiurotoxin I.

  10. Increasing Fragmentation of Disulfide-Bonded Proteins for Top-Down Mass Spectrometry by Supercharging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiang; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The disulfide bond is an important post-translational modification to form and maintain the native structure and biological functions of proteins. Characterization of disulfide bond linkages is therefore of essential interest in the structural elucidation of proteins. Top-down mass spectrometry (MS) of disulfide-bonded proteins has been hindered by relatively low sequence coverage due to disulfide cross-linking. In this study, we employed top-down ESI-MS with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS with electron capture dissociation (ECD) and collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) to study the fragmentation of supercharged proteins with multiple intramolecular disulfide bonds. With charge enhancement upon the addition of sulfolane to the analyte solution, improved protein fragmentation and disulfide bond cleavage efficiency was observed for proteins including bovine β-lactoglobulin, soybean trypsin inhibitor, human proinsulin, and chicken lysozyme. Both the number and relative abundances of product ions representing disulfide cleavage increase with increasing charge states for the proteins studied. Our studies suggest supercharging ESI-MS is a promising tool to aid in the top-down MS analysis of disulfide-bonded proteins, providing potentially useful information for the determination of disulfide bond linkages. PMID:26028988

  11. Exon grafting yields a "two active-site" lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Li, Bin; Fei, Yanqun; Jiang, Dazhi; Sheng, Yongjie; Sun, Yanhong; Zhang, Jin

    2007-07-13

    The design of enzymes with enhanced stability and activity has long been a goal in protein engineering. We report a strategy to engineer an additional active site for human lysozyme, grafted the entire human lysozyme exon 2, which encodes the catalytically competent domain, into the gene at a position corresponding to an exposed loop region in the translated protein. Exon 2 grafting created a novel lysozyme with twice the activity of the wild type enzyme, equal activity came from each of the two active sites. We dissected the contributions of each active site using site-directed mutagenesis of the catalytic doublets of (E35A/D53A), circular dichroism, fluorescence spectra, and molecular modeling. Temperature and pH stability of the "two active-site" enzyme were similar to those of wild-type lysozyme. Thus, we provide a novel strategy for engineering the active site of enzymes.

  12. Reactivity of disulfide bonds is markedly affected by structure and environment: implications for protein modification and stability.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Maryam; Ignasiak, Marta T; Chan, Bun; Croft, Anna K; Radom, Leo; Schiesser, Carl H; Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael J

    2016-12-12

    Disulfide bonds play a key role in stabilizing protein structures, with disruption strongly associated with loss of protein function and activity. Previous data have suggested that disulfides show only modest reactivity with oxidants. In the current study, we report kinetic data indicating that selected disulfides react extremely rapidly, with a variation of 10(4) in rate constants. Five-membered ring disulfides are particularly reactive compared with acyclic (linear) disulfides or six-membered rings. Particular disulfides in proteins also show enhanced reactivity. This variation occurs with multiple oxidants and is shown to arise from favorable electrostatic stabilization of the incipient positive charge on the sulfur reaction center by remote groups, or by the neighboring sulfur for conformations in which the orbitals are suitably aligned. Controlling these factors should allow the design of efficient scavengers and high-stability proteins. These data are consistent with selective oxidative damage to particular disulfides, including those in some proteins.

  13. Reactivity of disulfide bonds is markedly affected by structure and environment: implications for protein modification and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Maryam; Ignasiak, Marta T.; Chan, Bun; Croft, Anna K.; Radom, Leo; Schiesser, Carl H.; Pattison, David I.; Davies, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    Disulfide bonds play a key role in stabilizing protein structures, with disruption strongly associated with loss of protein function and activity. Previous data have suggested that disulfides show only modest reactivity with oxidants. In the current study, we report kinetic data indicating that selected disulfides react extremely rapidly, with a variation of 104 in rate constants. Five-membered ring disulfides are particularly reactive compared with acyclic (linear) disulfides or six-membered rings. Particular disulfides in proteins also show enhanced reactivity. This variation occurs with multiple oxidants and is shown to arise from favorable electrostatic stabilization of the incipient positive charge on the sulfur reaction center by remote groups, or by the neighboring sulfur for conformations in which the orbitals are suitably aligned. Controlling these factors should allow the design of efficient scavengers and high-stability proteins. These data are consistent with selective oxidative damage to particular disulfides, including those in some proteins.

  14. Reactivity of disulfide bonds is markedly affected by structure and environment: implications for protein modification and stability

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Maryam; Ignasiak, Marta T.; Chan, Bun; Croft, Anna K.; Radom, Leo; Schiesser, Carl H.; Pattison, David I.; Davies, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Disulfide bonds play a key role in stabilizing protein structures, with disruption strongly associated with loss of protein function and activity. Previous data have suggested that disulfides show only modest reactivity with oxidants. In the current study, we report kinetic data indicating that selected disulfides react extremely rapidly, with a variation of 104 in rate constants. Five-membered ring disulfides are particularly reactive compared with acyclic (linear) disulfides or six-membered rings. Particular disulfides in proteins also show enhanced reactivity. This variation occurs with multiple oxidants and is shown to arise from favorable electrostatic stabilization of the incipient positive charge on the sulfur reaction center by remote groups, or by the neighboring sulfur for conformations in which the orbitals are suitably aligned. Controlling these factors should allow the design of efficient scavengers and high-stability proteins. These data are consistent with selective oxidative damage to particular disulfides, including those in some proteins. PMID:27941824

  15. The Effect of Tensile Stress on the Conformational Free Energy Landscape of Disulfide Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Anjukandi, Padmesh; Dopieralski, Przemyslaw; Ribas–Arino, Jordi; Marx, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide bridges are no longer considered to merely stabilize protein structure, but are increasingly recognized to play a functional role in many regulatory biomolecular processes. Recent studies have uncovered that the redox activity of native disulfides depends on their C–C–S–S dihedrals, and . Moreover, the interplay of chemical reactivity and mechanical stress of disulfide switches has been recently elucidated using force–clamp spectroscopy and computer simulation. The and angles have been found to change from conformations that are open to nucleophilic attack to sterically hindered, so–called closed states upon exerting tensile stress. In view of the growing evidence of the importance of C–C–S–S dihedrals in tuning the reactivity of disulfides, here we present a systematic study of the conformational diversity of disulfides as a function of tensile stress. With the help of force-clamp metadynamics simulations, we show that tensile stress brings about a large stabilization of the closed conformers, thereby giving rise to drastic changes in the conformational free energy landscape of disulfides. Statistical analysis shows that native TDi, DO and interchain Ig protein disulfides prefer open conformations, whereas the intrachain disulfide bridges in Ig proteins favor closed conformations. Correlating mechanical stress with the distance between the two –carbons of the disulfide moiety reveals that the strain of intrachain Ig protein disulfides corresponds to a mechanical activation of about 100 pN. Such mechanical activation leads to a severalfold increase of the rate of the elementary redox reaction step. All these findings constitute a step forward towards achieving a full understanding of functional disulfides. PMID:25286308

  16. The effect of tensile stress on the conformational free energy landscape of disulfide bonds.

    PubMed

    Anjukandi, Padmesh; Dopieralski, Przemyslaw; Ribas-Arino, Jordi; Marx, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide bridges are no longer considered to merely stabilize protein structure, but are increasingly recognized to play a functional role in many regulatory biomolecular processes. Recent studies have uncovered that the redox activity of native disulfides depends on their C-C-S-S dihedrals, χ2 and χ'2. Moreover, the interplay of chemical reactivity and mechanical stress of disulfide switches has been recently elucidated using force-clamp spectroscopy and computer simulation. The χ2 and χ'2 angles have been found to change from conformations that are open to nucleophilic attack to sterically hindered, so-called closed states upon exerting tensile stress. In view of the growing evidence of the importance of C-C-S-S dihedrals in tuning the reactivity of disulfides, here we present a systematic study of the conformational diversity of disulfides as a function of tensile stress. With the help of force-clamp metadynamics simulations, we show that tensile stress brings about a large stabilization of the closed conformers, thereby giving rise to drastic changes in the conformational free energy landscape of disulfides. Statistical analysis shows that native TDi, DO and interchain Ig protein disulfides prefer open conformations, whereas the intrachain disulfide bridges in Ig proteins favor closed conformations. Correlating mechanical stress with the distance between the two a-carbons of the disulfide moiety reveals that the strain of intrachain Ig protein disulfides corresponds to a mechanical activation of about 100 pN. Such mechanical activation leads to a severalfold increase of the rate of the elementary redox S(N)2 reaction step. All these findings constitute a step forward towards achieving a full understanding of functional disulfides.

  17. The flexibility and dynamics of protein disulfide isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Stephen A.; Emilio Jimenez‐Roldan, J.; Bhattacharyya, Moitrayee; Vishweshwara, Saraswathi; Freedman, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have studied the mobility of the multidomain folding catalyst, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), by a coarse‐graining approach based on flexibility. We analyze our simulations of yeast PDI (yPDI) using measures of backbone movement, relative positions and orientations of domains, and distances between functional sites. We find that there is interdomain flexibility at every interdomain junction but these show very different characteristics. The extent of interdomain flexibility is such that yPDI's two active sites can approach much more closely than is found in crystal structures—and indeed hinge motion to bring these sites into proximity is the lowest energy normal mode of motion of the protein. The flexibility predicted for yPDI (based on one structure) includes the other known conformation of yPDI and is consistent with (i) the mobility observed experimentally for mammalian PDI and (ii) molecular dynamics. We also observe intradomain flexibility and clear differences between the domains in their propensity for internal motion. Our results suggest that PDI flexibility enables it to interact with many different partner molecules of widely different sizes and shapes, and highlights considerable similarities of yPDI and mammalian PDI. Proteins 2016; 84:1776–1785. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27616289

  18. Semienzymatic cyclization of disulfide-rich peptides using Sortase A.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xinying; Kwon, Soohyun; Wang, Ching-I Anderson; Huang, Yen-Hua; Chan, Lai Y; Tan, Chia Chia; Rosengren, K Johan; Mulvenna, Jason P; Schroeder, Christina I; Craik, David J

    2014-03-07

    Disulfide-rich cyclic peptides have generated great interest in the development of peptide-based therapeutics due to their exceptional stability toward chemical, enzymatic, or thermal attack. In particular, they have been used as scaffolds onto which bioactive epitopes can be grafted to take advantage of the favorable biophysical properties of disulfide-rich cyclic peptides. To date, the most commonly used method for the head-to-tail cyclization of peptides has been native chemical ligation. In recent years, however, enzyme-mediated cyclization has become a promising new technology due to its efficiency, safety, and cost-effectiveness. Sortase A (SrtA) is a bacterial enzyme with transpeptidase activity. It recognizes a C-terminal penta-amino acid motif, LPXTG, and cleaves the amide bond between Thr and Gly to form a thioacyl-linked intermediate. This intermediate undergoes nucleophilic attack by an N-terminal poly-Gly sequence to form an amide bond between the Thr and N-terminal Gly. Here, we demonstrate that sortase A can successfully be used to cyclize a variety of small disulfide-rich peptides, including the cyclotide kalata B1, α-conotoxin Vc1.1, and sunflower trypsin inhibitor 1. These peptides range in size from 14 to 29 amino acids and contain three, two, or one disulfide bond, respectively, within their head-to-tail cyclic backbones. Our findings provide proof of concept for the potential broad applicability of enzymatic cyclization of disulfide-rich peptides with therapeutic potential.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Suppression of Cellular Activity by Guanidinoethyl Disulfide Released from Hydrogel Microspheres Composed of Partially Oxidized Hyaluronan and Gelatin

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lihui; Ivanova, Natalia D.; Zakhaleva, Julia; Chen, Weiliam

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation of oxidized hyaluronan crosslinked gelatin microspheres for drug delivery. Microspheres were prepared by a modified water-in-oil-emulsion crosslinking method, where 3-dimensional crosslinked hydrogel microspheres formed in the absence of any extraneous crosslinker. SEM analyses of the microspheres showed rough surfaces in their dried state with an average diameter of 90 µm. Lyophilization of fully-swollen microspheres revealed a highly porous structure. Guanidinoethyl disulfide (GED) was used as a model drug for incorporation into the microspheres; encapsulation of GED was confirmed by HPLC. There was an inverse correlation between the diameters of the microspheres with their GED loading. Macrophage was used as a model cell to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of GED release from the microspheres. The in vivo efficacy of the microspheres was further validated in a mouse full-thickness transcutaneous dermal wound model through suppression of cell infiltration. PMID:18678403

  20. Structure of protein O-mannose kinase reveals a unique active site architecture

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qinyu; Venzke, David; Walimbe, Ameya S; Anderson, Mary E; Fu, Qiuyu; Kinch, Lisa N; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xing; Grishin, Nick V; Huang, Niu; Yu, Liping; Dixon, Jack E; Campbell, Kevin P; Xiao, Junyu

    2016-01-01

    The ‘pseudokinase’ SgK196 is a protein O-mannose kinase (POMK) that catalyzes an essential phosphorylation step during biosynthesis of the laminin-binding glycan on α-dystroglycan. However, the catalytic mechanism underlying this activity remains elusive. Here we present the crystal structure of Danio rerio POMK in complex with Mg2+ ions, ADP, aluminum fluoride, and the GalNAc-β3-GlcNAc-β4-Man trisaccharide substrate, thereby providing a snapshot of the catalytic transition state of this unusual kinase. The active site of POMK is established by residues located in non-canonical positions and is stabilized by a disulfide bridge. GalNAc-β3-GlcNAc-β4-Man is recognized by a surface groove, and the GalNAc-β3-GlcNAc moiety mediates the majority of interactions with POMK. Expression of various POMK mutants in POMK knockout cells further validated the functional requirements of critical residues. Our results provide important insights into the ability of POMK to function specifically as a glycan kinase, and highlight the structural diversity of the human kinome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22238.001 PMID:27879205

  1. Role of the Conserved Disulfide Bridge in Class A Carbapenemases.

    PubMed

    Smith, Clyde A; Nossoni, Zahra; Toth, Marta; Stewart, Nichole K; Frase, Hilary; Vakulenko, Sergei B

    2016-10-14

    Some members of the class A β-lactamase family are capable of conferring resistance to the last resort antibiotics, carbapenems. A unique structural feature of these clinically important enzymes, collectively referred to as class A carbapenemases, is a disulfide bridge between invariant Cys(69) and Cys(238) residues. It was proposed that this conserved disulfide bridge is responsible for their carbapenemase activity, but this has not yet been validated. Here we show that disruption of the disulfide bridge in the GES-5 carbapenemase by the C69G substitution results in only minor decreases in the conferred levels of resistance to the carbapenem imipenem and other β-lactams. Kinetic and circular dichroism experiments with C69G-GES-5 demonstrate that this small drop in antibiotic resistance is due to a decline in the enzyme activity caused by a marginal loss of its thermal stability. The atomic resolution crystal structure of C69G-GES-5 shows that two domains of this disulfide bridge-deficient enzyme are held together by an intensive hydrogen-bonding network. As a result, the protein architecture and imipenem binding mode remain unchanged. In contrast, the corresponding hydrogen-bonding networks in NMCA, SFC-1, and SME-1 carbapenemases are less intensive, and as a consequence, disruption of the disulfide bridge in these enzymes destabilizes them, which causes arrest of bacterial growth. Our results demonstrate that the disulfide bridge is essential for stability but does not play a direct role in the carbapenemase activity of the GES family of β-lactamases. This would likely apply to all other class A carbapenemases given the high degree of their structural similarity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Structural Insights into the Protease-like Antigen Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 and Its Noncanonical Active-Site Serine

    SciTech Connect

    Hodder, Anthony N.; Malby, Robyn L.; Clarke, Oliver B.; Fairlie, W. Douglas; Colman, Peter M.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Smith, Brian J.

    2009-08-28

    The sera genes of the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium encode a family of unique proteins that are maximally expressed at the time of egress of parasites from infected red blood cells. These multi-domain proteins are unique, containing a central papain-like cysteine-protease fragment enclosed between the disulfide-linked N- and C-terminal domains. However, the central fragment of several members of this family, including serine repeat antigen 5 (SERA5), contains a serine (S596) in place of the active-site cysteine. Here we report the crystal structure of the central protease-like domain of Plasmodium falciparum SERA5, revealing a number of anomalies in addition to the putative nucleophilic serine: (1) the structure of the putative active site is not conducive to binding substrate in the canonical cysteine-protease manner; (2) the side chain of D594 restricts access of substrate to the putative active site; and (3) the S{sub 2} specificity pocket is occupied by the side chain of Y735, reducing this site to a small depression on the protein surface. Attempts to determine the structure in complex with known inhibitors were not successful. Thus, despite having revealed its structure, the function of the catalytic domain of SERA5 remains an enigma.

  3. Mechanism of SN2 disulfide bond cleavage by phosphorus nucleophiles. Implications for biochemical disulfide reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Dmitrenko, Olga; Thorpe, Colin; Bach, Robert D

    2007-10-26

    The B3LYP variant of DFT has been used to study the mechanism of S-S bond scission in dimethyl disulfide by a phosphorus nucleophile, trimethylphospine (TMP). The reaction is highly endothermic in the gas phase and requires significant external stabilization of the charged products. DFT calculations (B3LYP) were performed with explicit (water molecules added) and implicit solvent corrections (COSMO model). The transition structures for this SN2 displacement reaction in a number of model systems have been located and fully characterized. The reaction barriers calculated with different approaches for different systems are quite close (around 11 kcal/mol). Remarkably, the calculations suggest that the reaction is almost barrierless with respect to the preorganized reaction complex and that most of the activation energy is required to rearrange the disulfide and TMP to its most effective orientation for the SMe group transfer way. Different reactivities of different phosphorus nucleophiles were suggested to be the result of steric effects, as manifested largely by varying amounts of hindrance to solvation of the initial product phosphonium ion. These data indicate that the gas-phase addition of a phosphine to the disulfide moiety will most likely form a phosphonium cation-thiolate anion salt, in the presence of four or more water molecules, that provide sufficient H-bonding stabilization to allow displacement of the thiolate anion, a normal uncomplicated SN2 transition state is to be expected.

  4. Converting disulfide bridges in native peptides to stable methylene thioacetals.

    PubMed

    Kourra, C M B K; Cramer, N

    2016-12-01

    Disulfide bridges play a crucial role in defining and rigidifying the three-dimensional structure of peptides. However, disulfides are inherently unstable in reducing environments. Consequently, the development of strategies aiming to circumvent these deficiencies - ideally with little structural disturbance - are highly sought after. Herein, we report a simple protocol converting the disulfide bond of peptides into highly stable methylene thioacetal. The transformation occurs under mild, biocompatible conditions, enabling the conversion of unprotected native peptides into analogues with enhanced stability. The developed protocol is applicable to a range of peptides and selective in the presence of a multitude of potentially reactive functional groups. The thioacetal modification annihilates the reductive lability and increases the serum, pH and temperature stability of the important peptide hormone oxytocin. Moreover, it is shown that the biological activities for oxytocin are retained.

  5. Structural basis of protein disulfide bond generation in the cell.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kenji

    2010-09-01

    The formation of protein disulfide bonds is an oxidative reaction that is crucial for the folding and maturation of many secreted and membrane proteins. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells possess various disulfide oxidoreductases and redox-active cofactors to accelerate this oxidative reaction in a correct manner. Crystal or solution structures have been solved for some of the oxidoreductases in the past 10 years, leading to remarkable progress in the field of thiol-based redox cell biology. Consequently, structural and mechanistic similarities in the disulfide bond formation pathways have been uncovered. This review highlights the molecular basis of the elaborate oxidative systems operating in the Escherichia coli periplasm, the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The accumulated knowledge provides important insights into how protein and redox homeostasis are maintained in the cell.

  6. Control of blood proteins by functional disulfide bonds

    PubMed Central

    Butera, Diego; Cook, Kristina M.; Chiu, Joyce; Wong, Jason W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Most proteins in nature are chemically modified after they are made to control how, when, and where they function. The 3 core features of proteins are posttranslationally modified: amino acid side chains can be modified, peptide bonds can be cleaved or isomerized, and disulfide bonds can be cleaved. Cleavage of peptide bonds is a major mechanism of protein control in the circulation, as exemplified by activation of the blood coagulation and complement zymogens. Cleavage of disulfide bonds is emerging as another important mechanism of protein control in the circulation. Recent advances in our understanding of control of soluble blood proteins and blood cell receptors by functional disulfide bonds is discussed as is how these bonds are being identified and studied. PMID:24523239

  7. Mars Surveyor Project Landing Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Briggs, Geoffrey; Saunders, R. Stephen; Gilmore, Martha; Soderblom, Larry

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program --now a cooperative program led by NASA and CNES along with other international partners -- is underway. It has the primary science objective of furthering our understanding of the biological potential and possible biological history of Mars and has the complementary objective of improving our understanding of martian climate evolution and planetary history The missions will develop technology and acquire data necessary for eventual human Exploration. Launches of orbiters, landers and rovers will take place in 2001 and in 2003; in 2005 a complete system will be launched capable of returning samples to Earth by 2008. A key aspect of the program is the selection of landing sites. This abstract 1) reports on the status of the landing site selection process that begins with the 2001 lander mission and 2) outlines be opportunities for the Mars community to provide input into the landing site selection process.

  8. Structural changes upon peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of peroxiredoxin 2; nitrated Prx2 resembles its disulfide-oxidized form.

    PubMed

    Randall, Lía; Manta, Bruno; Nelson, Kimberly J; Santos, Javier; Poole, Leslie B; Denicola, Ana

    2016-01-15

    Peroxiredoxins are cys-based peroxidases that function in peroxide detoxification and H2O2-induced signaling. Human Prx2 is a typical 2-Cys Prx arranged as pentamers of head-to-tail homodimers. During the catalytic mechanism, the active-site cysteine (CP) cycles between reduced, sulfenic and disulfide state involving conformational as well as oligomeric changes. Several post-translational modifications were shown to affect Prx activity, in particular CP overoxidation which leads to inactivation. We have recently reported that nitration of Prx2, a post-translational modification on non-catalytic tyrosines, unexpectedly increases its peroxidase activity and resistance to overoxidation. To elucidate the cross-talk between this post-translational modification and the enzyme catalysis, we investigated the structural changes of Prx2 after nitration. Analytical ultracentrifugation, UV absorption, circular dichroism, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence were used to connect catalytically relevant redox changes with tyrosine nitration. Our results show that the reduced nitrated Prx2 structurally resembles the disulfide-oxidized native form of the enzyme favoring a locally unfolded conformation that facilitates disulfide formation. These results provide structural basis for the kinetic analysis previously reported, the observed increase in activity and the resistance to overoxidation of the peroxynitrite-treated enzyme.

  9. DIsulfide Mapping PLanner Software Tool.

    PubMed

    Kist, Andreas M; Lampert, Angelika; O'Reilly, Andrias O

    2017-08-17

    Disulfide bridges are side-chain-mediated covalent bonds between cysteines that stabilize many protein structures. Disulfide mapping experiments to resolve these linkages typically involve proteolytic cleavage of the protein of interest followed by mass spectroscopy to identify fragments corresponding to linked peptides. Here we report the sequence-based "DIMPL" web tool to facilitate the planning and analysis steps of experimental mapping studies. The software tests permutations of user-selected proteases to determine an optimal peptic digest that produces cleavage between cysteine residues, thus separating each to an individual peptide fragment. The webserver returns fragment sequence and mass data that can be dynamically ordered to enable straightforward comparative analysis with mass spectroscopy results, facilitating dipeptide identification.

  10. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis as a novel indicator of oxidative stress in children with simple febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Elmas, Bahri; Erel, Özcan; Ersavaş, Dilek; Yürümez, Yusuf

    2017-08-14

    Simple febrile seizures are generally benign, but during the seizure, elevated levels of glutamate and high levels of oxygen use due to the high metabolic brain activity result in oxidative stress. However, the relationship between febrile seizures and oxidative stress remains unclear. In this study, we investigated thiol/disulfide homeostasis as a new oxidative stress parameter in patients with simple febrile seizures. This study was performed between February 2016 and May 2016 at the Pediatric Emergency Unit. The study population consisted of 40 patients with a diagnosis of simple febrile seizure and 30 control participants aged 8-59 months. Total thiol, native thiol and disulfide levels, disulfide/native thiol, disulfide/total thiol, and native thiol/total thiol ratios were used as thiol/disulfide homeostasis parameters and were quantified in patient and control groups. Furthermore, correlations with seizure duration were investigated. In the patient group, native and total thiol levels and native thiol/total thiol ratios were low, and disulfide levels, disulfide/native thiol, and disulfide/total thiol ratios were significantly higher than in the control group. Negative correlations were observed between seizure duration, total and native thiol levels, and native thiol/total thiol ratio, whereas positive correlations were observed between seizure duration and disulfide/native thiol and disulfide/total thiol ratio. The sensitivities of both disulfide/native thiol and disulfide/total thiol ratios were high for simple febrile seizures. Simple febrile seizures may cause impairment in favor of disulfide bonds in thiol/disulfide homeostasis. Overall, these changes may contribute to neuronal cell damage after simple febrile seizures.

  11. Structures and related properties of helical, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, Mark D.

    1993-11-01

    The three dimensional structure of several peptides were determined by NMR spectroscopy and distance geometry calculations. Each peptide formed a predictable, rigid structure, consisting of an α-helix, a "scaffold" region which packed along one face of the helix, and two disulfide bridges which covalently connect the helix and scaffold regions. The peptide Apa-M5 was designed to constrain the M5 peptide from MLCK in a helical geometry using the apamin disulfide scaffold. This scaffold constrains the N- terminal end of the helix with two disulfide bridges and a reverse turn. Like the M5 peptide, Apa-M5 was found to bind calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent 1:1 stoichiometry. However, the dissociation constant of the (Apa-M5)-calmodulin complex, 107 nM, was 100-fold higher than the dissociation constant of the M5-calmodulin complex. This difference was due to a putative steric overlap between the Apa-M5 scaffold and calmodulin. The peptide Apa-Cro was designed to replace the large structural protein matrix of λ Cro with the apamin disulfide scaffold. However, Apa-Cro did not bind the consensus DNA operator half-site of λ Cro, probably due to a steric overlap between the Apa-Cro disulfide framework and the DNA. The amino acid sequence of the scaffold-disulfide bridge arrangement of the peptide Max was derived from the core sequence of scyllatoxin, which contains an α-helix constrained at the C-terminal end by two disulfide bridges and a two-stranded βsheet scaffold. Max was shown to fold with >84% yield to form a predictable, stable structure that is similar to scyllatoxin. The folding and stability properties of Max make this scaffold and disulfide bridge arrangement an ideal candidate for the development of hybrid sequence peptides. The dynamics of a fraying C-terminal end of the helix of the peptide Apa-AlaN was determined by analysis of 15N NMR relaxation properties.

  12. Regulation of interleukin-4 signaling by extracellular reduction of intramolecular disulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Curbo, Sophie; Gaudin, Raphael; Carlsten, Mattias; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Ahlborg, Niklas; Karlsson, Anna; Johansson, Magnus; Lundberg, Mathias

    2009-12-25

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) contains three structurally important intramolecular disulfides that are required for the bioactivity of the cytokine. We show that the cell surface of HeLa cells and endotoxin-activated monocytes can reduce IL-4 intramolecular disulfides in the extracellular space and inhibit binding of IL-4 to the IL-4R{alpha} receptor. IL-4 disulfides were in vitro reduced by thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Reduction of IL-4 disulfides by the cell surface of HeLa cells was inhibited by auranofin, an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase that is an electron donor to both Trx1 and PDI. Both Trx1 and PDI have been shown to be located at the cell surface and our data suggests that these enzymes are involved in catalyzing reduction of IL-4 disulfides. The pro-drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) that promotes T-helper type 1 responses was also shown to mediate the reduction of IL-4 disulfides. Our data provides evidence for a novel redox dependent pathway for regulation of cytokine activity by extracellular reduction of intramolecular disulfides at the cell surface by members of the thioredoxin enzyme family.

  13. Structural and functional consequences of the presence of a fourth disulfide bridge in the scorpion short toxins: solution structure of the potassium channel inhibitor HsTX1.

    PubMed

    Savarin, P; Romi-Lebrun, R; Zinn-Justin, S; Lebrun, B; Nakajima, T; Gilquin, B; Menez, A

    1999-12-01

    We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the potassium channel inhibitor HsTX1, using nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular modeling. This protein belongs to the scorpion short toxin family, which essentially contains potassium channel blockers of 29 to 39 amino acids and three disulfide bridges. It is highly active on voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channels. Furthermore, it has the particularity to possess a fourth disulfide bridge. We show that HsTX1 has a fold similar to that of the three-disulfide-bridged toxins and conserves the hydrophobic core found in the scorpion short toxins. Thus, the fourth bridge has no influence on the global conformation of HsTX1. Most residues spatially analogous to those interacting with voltage-gated potassium channels in the three-disulfide-bridged toxins are conserved in HsTX1. Thus, we propose that Tyr21, Lys23, Met25, and Asn26 are involved in the biological activity of HsTX1. As an additional positively charged residue is always spatially close to the aromatic residue in toxins blocking the voltage-gated potassium channels, and as previous mutagenesis experiments have shown the critical role played by the C-terminus in HsTX1, we suggest that Arg33 is also important for the activity of the four disulfide-bridged toxin. Docking calculations confirm that, if Lys23 and Met25 interact with the GYGDMH motif of Kv1.3, Arg33 can contact Asp386 and, thus, play the role of the additional positively charged residue of the toxin functional site. This original configuration of the binding site of HsTX1 for Kv1.3, if confirmed experimentally, offers new structural possibilities for the construction of a molecule blocking the voltage-gated potassium channels.

  14. Structural and functional consequences of the presence of a fourth disulfide bridge in the scorpion short toxins: solution structure of the potassium channel inhibitor HsTX1.

    PubMed Central

    Savarin, P.; Romi-Lebrun, R.; Zinn-Justin, S.; Lebrun, B.; Nakajima, T.; Gilquin, B.; Menez, A.

    1999-01-01

    We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the potassium channel inhibitor HsTX1, using nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular modeling. This protein belongs to the scorpion short toxin family, which essentially contains potassium channel blockers of 29 to 39 amino acids and three disulfide bridges. It is highly active on voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channels. Furthermore, it has the particularity to possess a fourth disulfide bridge. We show that HsTX1 has a fold similar to that of the three-disulfide-bridged toxins and conserves the hydrophobic core found in the scorpion short toxins. Thus, the fourth bridge has no influence on the global conformation of HsTX1. Most residues spatially analogous to those interacting with voltage-gated potassium channels in the three-disulfide-bridged toxins are conserved in HsTX1. Thus, we propose that Tyr21, Lys23, Met25, and Asn26 are involved in the biological activity of HsTX1. As an additional positively charged residue is always spatially close to the aromatic residue in toxins blocking the voltage-gated potassium channels, and as previous mutagenesis experiments have shown the critical role played by the C-terminus in HsTX1, we suggest that Arg33 is also important for the activity of the four disulfide-bridged toxin. Docking calculations confirm that, if Lys23 and Met25 interact with the GYGDMH motif of Kv1.3, Arg33 can contact Asp386 and, thus, play the role of the additional positively charged residue of the toxin functional site. This original configuration of the binding site of HsTX1 for Kv1.3, if confirmed experimentally, offers new structural possibilities for the construction of a molecule blocking the voltage-gated potassium channels. PMID:10631983

  15. Design and introduction of a disulfide bridge in firefly luciferase: increase of thermostability and decrease of pH sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Imani, Mehdi; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ahmadian, Shahin; Nazari, Mahboobeh

    2010-08-01

    The thermal sensitivity and pH-sensitive spectral properties of firefly luciferase have hampered its application in a variety of fields. It is proposed that the stability of a protein can be increased by introduction of disulfide bridge that decreases the configurational entropy of unfolding. A disulfide bridge is introduced into Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase to make two separate mutant enzymes with a single bridge. Even though the A103C/S121C mutant showed remarkable thermal stability, its specific activity decreased, whereas the A296C/A326C mutant showed tremendous thermal stability, relative pH insensitivity and 7.3-fold increase of specific activity. Moreover, the bioluminescence emission spectrum of A296C/A326C was resistant against higher temperatures (37 degrees C). Far-UV CD analysis showed slight secondary structure changes for both mutants. Thermal denaturation analysis showed that conformational stabilities of A103C/S121C and A296C/A326C are more than native firefly luciferase. It is proposed that since A296 and A326 are situated in the vicinity of the enzyme active site microenvironment in comparison with A103 and S121, the formation of a disulfide bridge in this region has more impact on enzyme kinetic characteristics.

  16. Functional coupling of Cys-226 and Cys-296 in the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor indicates a disulfide bond that is close to the activation pocket.

    PubMed

    Mann, Rosalind J; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; de Maturana, Rakel López; Sinfield, John K; Donnelly, Dan

    2010-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane α-helical (7TM) integral membrane proteins that play a central role in both cell signaling and in the action of many pharmaceuticals. The crystal structures of several Family A GPCRs have shown the presence of a disulfide bond linking transmembrane helix 3 (TM3) to the second extracellular loop (ECL2), enabling ECL2 to stabilize and contribute to the ligand binding pocket. Family B GPCRs share no significant sequence identity with those in Family A but nevertheless share two conserved cysteines in topologically equivalent positions. Since there are no available crystal structures for the 7TM domain of any Family B GPCR, we used mutagenesis alongside pharmacological analysis to investigate the role of ECL2 and the conserved cysteine residues. We mutated Cys-226, at the extracellular end of TM3 of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, to alanine and observed a 38-fold reduction in GLP-1 potency. Interestingly, this potency loss was restored by the additional substitution of Cys-296 in ECL2 to alanine. Alongside the complete conservation of these cysteine residues in Family B GPCRs, this functional coupling suggested the presence of a disulfide bond. Further mutagenesis demonstrated that the low potency observed at the C226A mutant, compared with the C226A-C296A double mutant, was the result of the bulky nature of the released Cys-296 side chain. Since this suggested that ECL2 was in close proximity to the agonist activation pocket, an alanine scan of ECL2 was carried out which confirmed the important role of this loop in agonist-induced receptor activation.

  17. The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase requires interacting domains of adjacent, identical subunits. Most active-site residues are located within the loop regions of an eight-stranded {beta}/{alpha}-barrel which constitutes the larger C-terminal domain; additional key residues are located within a segment of the smaller N-terminal domain which partially covers the mouth of the barrel. Site-directed mutagenesis of the gene encoding the enzyme from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been used to delineate functions of active-site residues. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Savannah River Site prioritization of transition activities

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.H.

    1993-11-01

    Effective management of SRS conversion from primarily a production facility to other missions (or Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D)) requires a systematic and consistent method of prioritizing the transition activities. This report discusses the design of a prioritizing method developed to achieve systematic and consistent methods of prioritizing these activities.

  19. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  20. A Distal Disulfide Bridge in OXA-1 β-Lactamase Stabilizes the Catalytic Center and Alters the Dynamics of the Specificity Determining Ω Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Nikolay; Leonard, David A.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Wymore, Troy; Szarecka, Agnieszka

    2016-09-26

    Widespread antibiotic resistance, particularly when mediated by broad-spectrum β-lactamases, has major implications for public health. Substitutions in the active site often allow broad-spectrum enzymes to accommodate diverse types of β-lactams. Substitutions observed outside the active site are thought to compensate for the loss of thermal stability. The OXA-1 clade of class D β-lactamases contains a pair of conserved cysteines located outside the active site that forms a disulfide bond in the periplasm. In this paper, the effect of the distal disulfide bond on the structure and dynamics of OXA-1 was investigated via 4 μs molecular dynamics simulations. The results reveal that the disulfide promotes the preorganized orientation of the catalytic residues and affects the conformation of the functionally important Ω loop. Furthermore, principal component analysis reveals differences in the global dynamics between the oxidized and reduced forms, especially in the motions involving the Ω loop. A dynamical network analysis indicates that, in the oxidized form, in addition to its role in ligand binding, the KTG family motif is a central hub of the global dynamics. Finally, as activity of OXA-1 has been measured only in the reduced form, we suggest that accurate assessment of its functional profile would require oxidative conditions mimicking periplasm.

  1. A Distal Disulfide Bridge in OXA-1 β-Lactamase Stabilizes the Catalytic Center and Alters the Dynamics of the Specificity Determining Ω Loop.

    PubMed

    Simakov, Nikolay; Leonard, David A; Smith, Jeremy C; Wymore, Troy; Szarecka, Agnieszka

    2017-04-20

    Widespread antibiotic resistance, particularly when mediated by broad-spectrum β-lactamases, has major implications for public health. Substitutions in the active site often allow broad-spectrum enzymes to accommodate diverse types of β-lactams. Substitutions observed outside the active site are thought to compensate for the loss of thermal stability. The OXA-1 clade of class D β-lactamases contains a pair of conserved cysteines located outside the active site that forms a disulfide bond in the periplasm. Here, the effect of the distal disulfide bond on the structure and dynamics of OXA-1 was investigated via 4 μs molecular dynamics simulations. The results reveal that the disulfide promotes the preorganized orientation of the catalytic residues and affects the conformation of the functionally important Ω loop. Furthermore, principal component analysis reveals differences in the global dynamics between the oxidized and reduced forms, especially in the motions involving the Ω loop. A dynamical network analysis indicates that, in the oxidized form, in addition to its role in ligand binding, the KTG family motif is a central hub of the global dynamics. As activity of OXA-1 has been measured only in the reduced form, we suggest that accurate assessment of its functional profile would require oxidative conditions mimicking periplasm.

  2. A Distal Disulfide Bridge in OXA-1 β-Lactamase Stabilizes the Catalytic Center and Alters the Dynamics of the Specificity Determining Ω Loop

    DOE PAGES

    Simakov, Nikolay; Leonard, David A.; Smith, Jeremy C.; ...

    2016-09-26

    Widespread antibiotic resistance, particularly when mediated by broad-spectrum β-lactamases, has major implications for public health. Substitutions in the active site often allow broad-spectrum enzymes to accommodate diverse types of β-lactams. Substitutions observed outside the active site are thought to compensate for the loss of thermal stability. The OXA-1 clade of class D β-lactamases contains a pair of conserved cysteines located outside the active site that forms a disulfide bond in the periplasm. In this paper, the effect of the distal disulfide bond on the structure and dynamics of OXA-1 was investigated via 4 μs molecular dynamics simulations. The results revealmore » that the disulfide promotes the preorganized orientation of the catalytic residues and affects the conformation of the functionally important Ω loop. Furthermore, principal component analysis reveals differences in the global dynamics between the oxidized and reduced forms, especially in the motions involving the Ω loop. A dynamical network analysis indicates that, in the oxidized form, in addition to its role in ligand binding, the KTG family motif is a central hub of the global dynamics. Finally, as activity of OXA-1 has been measured only in the reduced form, we suggest that accurate assessment of its functional profile would require oxidative conditions mimicking periplasm.« less

  3. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-15

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites.

  4. Controlled Orientation of Active Sites in a Nanostructured Multienzyme Complex

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung In; Yang, Byungseop; Jung, Younghan; Cha, Jaehyun; Cho, Jinhwan; Choi, Eun-Sil; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-01-01

    Multistep cascade reactions in nature maximize reaction efficiency by co-assembling related enzymes. Such organization facilitates the processing of intermediates by downstream enzymes. Previously, the studies on multienzyme nanocomplexes assembled on DNA scaffolds demonstrated that closer interenzyme distance enhances the overall reaction efficiency. However, it remains unknown how the active site orientation controlled at nanoscale can have an effect on multienzyme reaction. Here, we show that controlled alignment of active sites promotes the multienzyme reaction efficiency. By genetic incorporation of a non-natural amino acid and two compatible bioorthogonal chemistries, we conjugated mannitol dehydrogenase to formate dehydrogenase with the defined active site arrangement with the residue-level accuracy. The study revealed that the multienzyme complex with the active sites directed towards each other exhibits four-fold higher relative efficiency enhancement in the cascade reaction and produces 60% more D-mannitol than the other complex with active sites directed away from each other. PMID:28004799

  5. Ionizable side chains at catalytic active sites of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Morales, David; Liang, Jie; Eisenberg, Bob

    2012-05-01

    Catalytic active sites of enzymes of known structure can be well defined by a modern program of computational geometry. The CASTp program was used to define and measure the volume of the catalytic active sites of 573 enzymes in the Catalytic Site Atlas database. The active sites are identified as catalytic because the amino acids they contain are known to participate in the chemical reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. Acid and base side chains are reliable markers of catalytic active sites. The catalytic active sites have 4 acid and 5 base side chains, in an average volume of 1,072 Å(3). The number density of acid side chains is 8.3 M (in chemical units); the number density of basic side chains is 10.6 M. The catalytic active site of these enzymes is an unusual electrostatic and steric environment in which side chains and reactants are crowded together in a mixture more like an ionic liquid than an ideal infinitely dilute solution. The electrostatics and crowding of reactants and side chains seems likely to be important for catalytic function. In three types of analogous ion channels, simulation of crowded charges accounts for the main properties of selectivity measured in a wide range of solutions and concentrations. It seems wise to use mathematics designed to study interacting complex fluids when making models of the catalytic active sites of enzymes.

  6. Human CD4 Metastability Is a Function of the Allosteric Disulfide Bond in Domain 2.

    PubMed

    Owen, Gavin R; Channell, Jennifer A; Forsyth, V Trevor; Haertlein, Michael; Mitchell, Edward P; Capovilla, Alexio; Papathanasopoulos, Maria; Cerutti, Nichole M

    2016-04-19

    CD4 is expressed on the surface of specific leukocytes where it plays a key role in the activation of immunostimulatory T-cells and acts as a primary receptor for HIV-1 entry. CD4 has four ecto-domains (D1-D4) of which D1, D2, and D4 contain disulfide bonds. Although disulfide bonds commonly serve structural or catalytic functions, a rare class of disulfide bonds possessing unusually high dihedral strain energy and a relative ease of reduction can impact protein function by shuffling their redox state. D2 of CD4 possesses one such "allosteric" disulfide. While it is becoming accepted that redox exchange of the D2 allosteric disulfide plays an essential role in regulating CD4 activity, the biophysical consequences of its reduction remain incompletely understood. By analyzing the hydrodynamic volume, secondary structure, and thermal stability of the reduced and nonreduced forms of the single D1 and D2 domains, as well as the various redox isomers of two domain CD4, we have shown that ablation of the allosteric disulfide bond in domain 2 results in both a favorable structural collapse and an increase in the stability of CD4. Conversely, ablating the structural disulfide of D1 results in destabilizing structural rearrangements in CD4. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms by which oxidoreduction of the D2 allosteric disulfide regulates CD4 function; they reveal the intrinsic disulfide-dependent metastability of D2 and illustrate that redox shuffling of the allosteric disulfide results in previously undescribed conformational changes in CD4 that are likely important for its interaction with its protein partners.

  7. Challenges in the expression of disulfide bonded, threonine-rich antifreeze proteins in bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Tyshenko, Michael G; d'Anjou, Marc; Davies, Peter L; Daugulis, Andrew J; Walker, Virginia K

    2006-05-01

    Certain freeze-intolerant insects produce antifreeze proteins (AFPs) during overwintering including the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) and yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) AFP gene families. However, only a few of the isoforms, encoded by their multiple-copy gene families, have been characterized. When expressed in bacterial systems the insect AFPs have to be denatured and refolded in vitro, a procedure that is not uniformly successful, presumably due to the beta-helix structure and the requirement for disulfide bonds. In an attempt to overcome these difficulties, bacterial vectors and hosts that have been developed to produce soluble, folded proteins, as well as a yeast expression system (Pichia pastoris) were employed. Bacterial expression resulted in low quantities of active recombinant protein for certain isoforms. In contrast, both small and large-scale fermentation of recombinant AFP in Pichia yielded substantial protein production (100 mg/L) but functional ice binding activity of protein produced in three different transformed yeast strains (KM71, X33 or GS115) was low. Inappropriate O-linked glycosylation of the Thr-rich AFPs appeared to be partially reversed by mild chemical deglycosylation, but activity remained low. Substantial quantities, as well as activity were recovered when a fish AFP, with disulfide bonds, but without potential Thr glycosylation sites was expressed in the yeast system.

  8. Predicting active site residue annotations in the Pfam database.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Jaina; Bateman, Alex; Finn, Robert D

    2007-08-09

    Approximately 5% of Pfam families are enzymatic, but only a small fraction of the sequences within these families (<0.5%) have had the residues responsible for catalysis determined. To increase the active site annotations in the Pfam database, we have developed a strict set of rules, chosen to reduce the rate of false positives, which enable the transfer of experimentally determined active site residue data to other sequences within the same Pfam family. We have created a large database of predicted active site residues. On comparing our active site predictions to those found in UniProtKB, Catalytic Site Atlas, PROSITE and MEROPS we find that we make many novel predictions. On investigating the small subset of predictions made by these databases that are not predicted by us, we found these sequences did not meet our strict criteria for prediction. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of our methodology and estimate that only 3% of our predicted sequences are false positives. We have predicted 606110 active site residues, of which 94% are not found in UniProtKB, and have increased the active site annotations in Pfam by more than 200 fold. Although implemented for Pfam, the tool we have developed for transferring the data can be applied to any alignment with associated experimental active site data and is available for download. Our active site predictions are re-calculated at each Pfam release to ensure they are comprehensive and up to date. They provide one of the largest available databases of active site annotation.

  9. Locking the beta3 integrin I-like domain into high and low affinity conformations with disulfides.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bing-Hao; Takagi, Junichi; Springer, Timothy A

    2004-03-12

    Although integrin alpha subunit I domains exist in multiple conformations, it is controversial whether integrin beta subunit I-like domains undergo structurally analogous movements of the alpha7-helix that are linked to affinity for ligand. Disulfide bonds were introduced into the beta(3) integrin I-like domain to lock its beta6-alpha7 loop and alpha7-helix in two distinct conformations. Soluble ligand binding, ligand mimetic mAb binding and cell adhesion studies showed that disulfide-bonded receptor alpha(IIb)beta(3)(T329C/A347C) was locked in a low affinity state, and dithiothreitol treatment restored the capability of being activated to high affinity binding; by contrast, disulfide-bonded alpha(IIb)beta(3)(V332C/M335C) was locked in a high affinity state. The results suggest that activation of the beta subunit I-like domain is analogous to that of the alpha subunit I domain, i.e. that axial movement in the C-terminal direction of the alpha7-helix is linked to rearrangement of the I-like domain metal ion-dependent adhesion site into a high affinity conformation.

  10. Intermolecular disulfide bond influences unphosphorylated STAT3 dimerization and function.

    PubMed

    Butturini, Elena; Gotte, Giovanni; Dell'Orco, Daniele; Chiavegato, Giulia; Marino, Valerio; Canetti, Diana; Cozzolino, Flora; Monti, Maria; Pucci, Piero; Mariotto, Sofia

    2016-10-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor activated by the phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 in response to many cytokines and growth factors. Recently, the roles for unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3) have been described in response to cytokine stimulation, in cancers, and in the maintenance of heterochromatin stability. It has been reported that U-STAT3 dimerizes, shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus, and binds to DNA, thereby driving genes transcription. Although many reports describe the active role of U-STAT3 in oncogenesis in addition to phosphorylated STAT3, the U-STAT3 functional pathway remains elusive.In this report, we describe the molecular mechanism of U-STAT3 dimerization, and we identify the presence of two intermolecular disulfide bridges between Cys367 and Cys542 and Cys418 and Cys426, respectively. Recently, we reported that the same cysteines contribute to the redox regulation of STAT3 signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo The presence of these disulfides is here demonstrated to largely contribute to the structure and the stability of U-STAT3 dimer as the dimeric form rapidly dissociates upon reduction in the S-S bonds. In particular, the Cys367-Cys542 disulfide bridge is shown to be critical for U-STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Mutation of the two Cys residues completely abolishes the DNA-binding capability of U-STAT3. Spectroscopic investigations confirm that the noncovalent interactions are sufficient for proper folding and dimer formation, but that the interchain disulfide bonds are crucial to preserve the functional dimer. Finally, we propose a reaction scheme of U-STAT3 dimerization with a first common step followed by stabilization through the formation of interchain disulfide bonds. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Perspective: On the active site model in computational catalyst screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Karsten; Plaisance, Craig P.; Oberhofer, Harald; Andersen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    First-principles screening approaches exploiting energy trends in surface adsorption represent an unparalleled success story in recent computational catalysis research. Here we argue that our still limited understanding of the structure of active sites is one of the major bottlenecks towards an ever extended and reliable use of such computational screening for catalyst discovery. For low-index transition metal surfaces, the prevalently chosen high-symmetry (terrace and step) sites offered by the nominal bulk-truncated crystal lattice might be justified. For more complex surfaces and composite catalyst materials, computational screening studies will need to actively embrace a considerable uncertainty with respect to what truly are the active sites. By systematically exploring the space of possible active site motifs, such studies might eventually contribute towards a targeted design of optimized sites in future catalysts.

  12. Diffusional correlations among multiple active sites in a single enzyme.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Carlos; Kapral, Raymond

    2014-04-07

    Simulations of the enzymatic dynamics of a model enzyme containing multiple substrate binding sites indicate the existence of diffusional correlations in the chemical reactivity of the active sites. A coarse-grain, particle-based, mesoscopic description of the system, comprising the enzyme, the substrate, the product and solvent, is constructed to study these effects. The reactive and non-reactive dynamics is followed using a hybrid scheme that combines molecular dynamics for the enzyme, substrate and product molecules with multiparticle collision dynamics for the solvent. It is found that the reactivity of an individual active site in the multiple-active-site enzyme is reduced substantially, and this effect is analyzed and attributed to diffusive competition for the substrate among the different active sites in the enzyme.

  13. Robotics at Savannah River site: activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.

    1984-09-01

    The objectives of the Robotics Technology Group at the Savannah River Laboratory are to employ modern industrial robots and to develop unique automation and robotic systems to enhance process operations at the Savannah River site (SRP and SRL). The incentives are to improve safety, reduce personnel radiation exposure, improve product quality and productivity, and to reduce operating costs. During the past year robotic systems have been installed to fill chemical dilution vials in a SRP laboratory at 772-F and remove radioactive waste materials in the SRL Californium Production Facility at 773-A. A robotic system to lubricate an extrusion press has been developed and demonstrated in the SRL robotics laboratory and is scheduled for installation at the 321-M fuel fabrication area. A mobile robot was employed by SRP for a radiation monitoring task at a waste tank top in H-Area. Several other robots are installed in the SRL robotics laboratories and application development programs are underway. The status of these applications is presented in this report.

  14. Human Growth Hormone: 45-kDa Isoform with Extraordinarily Stable Interchain Disulfide Links has Attenuated Receptor-Binding and Cell-Proliferative Activities

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Juan J.; Grigorian, Alexei L.; Muñoz, Jesus; Aguilar, Roberto M.; Treviño, Lisa R.; Martinez, Andrew O.; Haro, Luis S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Human growth hormone (hGH) is a complex mixture of molecular isoforms. Gaps in our knowledge exist regarding the structures and biological significances of the uncharacterized hGH molecular variants. Mercaptoethanol-resistant 45-kDa human growth hormone (MER-45kDa hGH) is an extraordinarily stable disulfide-linked hGH homodimer whose biological significance is unknown. Objectives To elucidate the pharmacokinetic abilities of dimeric MER-45-kDa hGH to bind to GH and prolactin (PRL) receptors and to elucidate its abilities to stimulate cell-proliferation in lactogen-induced and somatogen-induced in vitro cell proliferation bioassays. Design The binding of MER-45-kDa hGH to GH and PRL receptors was tested in radioreceptorassays (RRAs). Competitive displacements of [125I]-bovine GH from bovine liver membranes, [125I]-ovine PRL from lactating rabbit mammary gland membranes and [125I]-hGH from human IM-9 lymphocytes by unlabelled GHs, PRLs or dimeric MER-45-kDa hGH were evaluated. The abilities of dimeric MER-45-kDa hGH to stimulate proliferation of lactogen-responsive Nb2 lymphoma cells and to stimulate proliferation of somatogen-responsive T47-D human breast cancer cells was assessed by incubation of cells with GHs or PRLs and subsequently measuring growth using the MTS cell proliferation assay. Results Dimeric MER-45-kDa hGH, compared to monomeric hGH, had reduced binding affinities to both GH and prolactin receptors. In a bovine liver GH radioreceptorassay its ED50 (197.5 pM) was 40.8% that of monomeric hGH. In a human IM-9 lymphocyte hGH RRA its ED50 (2.96 nM) was 26.2% that of monomeric hGH. In a lactating rabbit mammary gland prolactin RRA its ED50 (3.56 nM) was 16.8% that of a monomeric hGH. Dimeric MER-45-kDa hGH, compared to monomeric hGH, had a diminished capacity to stimulate proliferation of cells in vitro. In a dose-response relationship assessing proliferation of Nb2 lymphoma cells its ED50 (191 pM) was 18.0% that of monomeric hGH. While

  15. Differential structure and activity between human and mouse intelectin-1: human intelectin-1 is a disulfide-linked trimer, whereas mouse homologue is a monomer.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shoutaro; Yamashita, Makiko; Nishiyama, Akihito; Shinohara, Tsutomu; Li, Zhongwei; Myrvik, Quentin N; Hoffman, Donald R; Henriksen, Ruth Ann; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2007-10-01

    Human intelectin-1 (hITLN-1) is a 120-kDa lectin recognizing galactofuranosyl residues found in cell walls of various microorganisms but not in mammalian tissues. Although mouse intelectin-1 (mITLN-1) has been identified previously, its biochemical properties and functional characteristics have not been studied. Therefore, we have compared structures and saccharide-binding specificities of hITLN-1 and mITLN-1 using recombinant proteins produced by mammalian cells. Recombinant hITLN-1 is a trimer, disulfide-linked through Cys-31 and Cys-48, and N-glycosylated at Asn-163. Despite 84.9% amino acid identity to hITLN-1, recombinant and intestinal mITLN-1 are unglycosylated 30-kDa monomers. Recombinant hITLN-1, as well as recombinant and intestinal mITLN-1 were purified by Ca(2+)-dependent adsorption to galactose-Sepharose. In competitive binding studies, hITLN-1 was eluted from galactose-Sepharose by 100 mM 2-deoxygalactose, a galactofuranosyl disaccharide, d-xylose, and both d- and l-ribose. In contrast, mITLN-1 was partially eluted by the galactofuranosyl disaccharide, and only minimally by the other saccharides indicating that the two intelectins have different saccharide-binding specificities. When the N- and C-terminal regions of hITLN-1 were replaced, respectively, with those of mITLN-1, galactose-Sepharose binding was associated with the C-terminal regions. Finally, hITLN-1 binding to galactose-Sepharose was not affected by the substitution of the Cys residues in the N-terminal region that are necessary for oligomer formation, nor was it affected by the removal of the N-linked oligosaccharide at Asn-163. Although both hITLN-1 and mITLN-1 recognize galactofuranosyl residues, our comparative studies, taken together, demonstrate that these intelectins have different quaternary structures and saccharide-binding specificities.

  16. Crystal Structure of the Dithiol Oxidase DsbA Enzyme from Proteus Mirabilis Bound Non-covalently to an Active Site Peptide Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Fabian; Duprez, Wilko; Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Schembri, Mark A.; Fairlie, David P.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The disulfide bond forming DsbA enzymes and their DsbB interaction partners are attractive targets for development of antivirulence drugs because both are essential for virulence factor assembly in Gram-negative pathogens. Here we characterize PmDsbA from Proteus mirabilis, a bacterial pathogen increasingly associated with multidrug resistance. PmDsbA exhibits the characteristic properties of a DsbA, including an oxidizing potential, destabilizing disulfide, acidic active site cysteine, and dithiol oxidase catalytic activity. We evaluated a peptide, PWATCDS, derived from the partner protein DsbB and showed by thermal shift and isothermal titration calorimetry that it binds to PmDsbA. The crystal structures of PmDsbA, and the active site variant PmDsbAC30S were determined to high resolution. Analysis of these structures allows categorization of PmDsbA into the DsbA class exemplified by the archetypal Escherichia coli DsbA enzyme. We also present a crystal structure of PmDsbAC30S in complex with the peptide PWATCDS. The structure shows that the peptide binds non-covalently to the active site CXXC motif, the cis-Pro loop, and the hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site of the enzyme. This high-resolution structural data provides a critical advance for future structure-based design of non-covalent peptidomimetic inhibitors. Such inhibitors would represent an entirely new antibacterial class that work by switching off the DSB virulence assembly machinery. PMID:24831013

  17. Simple plate-based, parallel synthesis of disulfide fragments using the CuAAC click reaction.

    PubMed

    Turner, David M; Tom, Christopher T M B; Renslo, Adam R

    2014-12-08

    Disulfide exchange screening is a site-directed approach to fragment-based lead discovery that requires a bespoke library of disulfide-containing fragments. Previously, we described a simple one-pot, two-step synthesis of disulfide fragments from amine- or acid-bearing starting materials. Here, we describe the synthesis of disulfide fragments that bear a 1,4-substituted-1,2,3-triazole linkage between disulfide and molecular diversity element. This work establishes the compatibility of copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry with a one-pot, two-step reaction sequence that can be readily parallelized. We performed 96 reactions in a single deep-well microtiter plate, employing 48 alkynes and two different azide linker reagents. From this effort, a total of 81 triazole-containing disulfide fragments were obtained in useful isolated yields. Thus, CuAAC chemistry offers an experimentally convenient method to rapidly prepare disulfide fragments that are structurally distinct from fragments accessed via amide, sulfonamide, or isocyanate chemistries.

  18. Expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic studies of different redox states of the active site of thioredoxin 1 from the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Acevedo, Adam A.; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a 12 kDa cellular redox protein that belongs to a family of small redox proteins which undergo reversible oxidation to produce a cystine disulfide bond through the transfer of reducing equivalents from the catalytic site cysteine residues (Cys32 and Cys35) to a disulfide substrate. In this study, crystals of thioredoxin 1 from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx) were successfully obtained. One data set was collected from each of four crystals at 100 K and the three-dimensional structures of the catalytic cysteines in different redox states were determined: reduced and oxidized forms at 2.00 Å resolution using data collected at a synchrotron-radiation source and two partially reduced structures at 1.54 and 1.88 Å resolution using data collected using an in-house source. All of the crystals belonged to space group P3212, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.5 (4), b = 57.5 (4), c = 118.1 (8) Å. The asymmetric unit contains two subunits of LvTrx, with a Matthews coefficient (V M) of 2.31 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 46%. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using the crystallographic model of Trx from Drosophila melanogaster as a template. In the present work, LvTrx was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Structural analysis of the different redox states at the Trx active site highlights its reactivity and corroborates the existence of a dimer in the crystal. In the crystallographic structures the dimer is stabilized by several interactions, including a disulfide bridge between Cys73 of each LvTrx monomer, a hydrogen bond between the side chain of Asp60 of each monomer and several hydrophobic interactions, with a noncrystallographic twofold axis. PMID:23695560

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic studies of different redox states of the active site of thioredoxin 1 from the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Campos-Acevedo, Adam A; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a 12 kDa cellular redox protein that belongs to a family of small redox proteins which undergo reversible oxidation to produce a cystine disulfide bond through the transfer of reducing equivalents from the catalytic site cysteine residues (Cys32 and Cys35) to a disulfide substrate. In this study, crystals of thioredoxin 1 from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx) were successfully obtained. One data set was collected from each of four crystals at 100 K and the three-dimensional structures of the catalytic cysteines in different redox states were determined: reduced and oxidized forms at 2.00 Å resolution using data collected at a synchrotron-radiation source and two partially reduced structures at 1.54 and 1.88 Å resolution using data collected using an in-house source. All of the crystals belonged to space group P3212, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.5 (4), b = 57.5 (4), c = 118.1 (8) Å. The asymmetric unit contains two subunits of LvTrx, with a Matthews coefficient (VM) of 2.31 Å(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 46%. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using the crystallographic model of Trx from Drosophila melanogaster as a template. In the present work, LvTrx was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Structural analysis of the different redox states at the Trx active site highlights its reactivity and corroborates the existence of a dimer in the crystal. In the crystallographic structures the dimer is stabilized by several interactions, including a disulfide bridge between Cys73 of each LvTrx monomer, a hydrogen bond between the side chain of Asp60 of each monomer and several hydrophobic interactions, with a noncrystallographic twofold axis.

  20. Active sites of thioredoxin reductases: why selenoproteins?

    PubMed

    Gromer, Stephan; Johansson, Linda; Bauer, Holger; Arscott, L David; Rauch, Susanne; Ballou, David P; Williams, Charles H; Schirmer, R Heiner; Arnér, Elias S J

    2003-10-28

    Selenium, an essential trace element for mammals, is incorporated into a selected class of selenoproteins as selenocysteine. All known isoenzymes of mammalian thioredoxin (Trx) reductases (TrxRs) employ selenium in the C-terminal redox center -Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly-COOH for reduction of Trx and other substrates, whereas the corresponding sequence in Drosophila melanogaster TrxR is -Ser-Cys-Cys-Ser-COOH. Surprisingly, the catalytic competence of these orthologous enzymes is similar, whereas direct Sec-to-Cys substitution of mammalian TrxR, or other selenoenzymes, yields almost inactive enzyme. TrxRs are therefore ideal for studying the biology of selenocysteine by comparative enzymology. Here we show that the serine residues flanking the C-terminal Cys residues of Drosophila TrxRs are responsible for activating the cysteines to match the catalytic efficiency of a selenocysteine-cysteine pair as in mammalian TrxR, obviating the need for selenium. This finding suggests that the occurrence of selenoenzymes, which implies that the organism is selenium-dependent, is not necessarily associated with improved enzyme efficiency. Our data suggest that the selective advantage of selenoenzymes is a broader range of substrates and a broader range of microenvironmental conditions in which enzyme activity is possible.

  1. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program FY 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, C.M.; Marshall, D.S.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1995 through September 1996. The Radioactive Solid Waste Operations Group (RSWOG) of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) and the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) established ASEMP in 1989. The purpose of the program is to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North as required by Chapters 2 and 3 of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A.

  2. Tritium activities in selected wells on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B.F.

    1993-05-01

    Literature and data were reviewed related to radionuclides in groundwater on and near the Nevada Test Site. No elevated tritium activities have been reported outside of the major testing regions of the Nevada Test Site. Three wells were identified as having water with above-background (>50 pCi/l) tritium activities: UE-15d Water Well; USGS Water Well A; and USGS Test Well B Ex. Although none of these wells have tritium activities greater than the Nevada State Drinking Water standard (20,000 pCi/l), their time-series tritium trends may be indicative to potential on-site radionuclide migration.

  3. Dissecting the Disulfide Linkage of the N-Terminal Domain of HMW 1Dx5 and Its Contributions to Dough Functionality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing Jing; Liu, Guang; Huang, Yan-Bo; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Hou, Yi; Li, Lin; Ou, Shiyi; Zhang, Min; Hu, Song-Qing

    2017-08-02

    The N-terminal domain of HMW-GS 1Dx5 (1Dx5-N) contains three cysteine residues (Cys10, Cys25, Cys40), which are the basis of gluten network formation through disulfide bonds. Disulfide linkage in 1Dx5-N was dissected by site-directed mutagenesis and LC-MS/MS, and its contributions to structural and conformational stability of 1Dx5-N and dough functionality were investigated by circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, surface hydrophobicity determination, size exclusion chromatography, nonreducing/reducing SDS-PAGE, atomic force microscopy, and farinographic analysis. Results showed that Cys10 and Cys40 of 1Dx5-N were the active sites for intermolecular linkage. Meanwhile, Cys40 also exhibited the ability to form intrachain disulfide linkage with Cys25. Moreover, Cys10 and Cys40 played a functionally important role in maintaining the structural and conformational stability and high surface hydrophobicity of the N-terminal domain of HMW-GS, which in turn facilitated the formation of HMW polymers and massive disulfide linkage of HMW-GS through hydrophobic interaction. Additionally, the 1Dx5-N mutants in which Cys were replaced by serine (Ser) presented different effects on dough functionality, while only the C25S mutant produced positive effects compared with wild type 1Dx5-N. Na2CO3-induced β-elimination of cystine might occur in glutenin without heating, which would make it much easier to reduce the nutritional quality of flour products by the cost of lysine. Therefore, these results give a deep understanding of the disulfide linkage of the N-terminal domain of HMW-GS and its functional importance, which will provide a practical guide to effectively generate a superior HMW-GS allele by artificial mutagenesis.

  4. Structural and biochemical characterization of the essential DsbA-like disulfide bond forming protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial Disulfide bond forming (Dsb) proteins facilitate proper folding and disulfide bond formation of periplasmic and secreted proteins. Previously, we have shown that Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF aid in vitro oxidative folding of proteins. The M. tuberculosis proteome contains another predicted membrane-tethered Dsb protein, Mt-DsbA, which is encoded by an essential gene. Results Herein, we present structural and biochemical analyses of Mt-DsbA. The X-ray crystal structure of Mt-DsbA reveals a two-domain structure, comprising a canonical thioredoxin domain with the conserved CXXC active site cysteines in their reduced form, and an inserted α-helical domain containing a structural disulfide bond. The overall fold of Mt-DsbA resembles that of other DsbA-like proteins and not Mt-DsbE or Mt-DsbF. Biochemical characterization demonstrates that, unlike Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF, Mt-DsbA is unable to oxidatively fold reduced, denatured hirudin. Moreover, on the substrates tested in this study, Mt-DsbA has disulfide bond isomerase activity contrary to Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF. Conclusion These results suggest that Mt-DsbA acts upon a distinct subset of substrates as compared to Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF. One could speculate that Mt-DsbE and Mt-DsbF are functionally redundant whereas Mt-DsbA is not, offering an explanation for the essentiality of Mt-DsbA in M. tuberculosis. PMID:24134223

  5. Synthesis of unsymmetric disulfides as potential antiradiation drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    This research involved the synthesis of unsymmetric disulfides which contain the radioprotective compound cysteamine attached to a biologically active molecule via a disulfide linkage. This study involved the synthesis of unsymmetric disulfides of cysteamine with amino acids, amino acid esters, steroidal thiols, glutathione, and other known radio-protective compounds which were submitted for biological evaluation. It is hoped that by attaching a known radioprotective compound to a molecule such as an amino acid or steroid we may obtain an enhanced concentration of the radioprotective substance in the target areas within the cell. The use of steroidal thiols coupled to cysteamine may result in the protection of the central nervous system for which there is no known radioprotective agent available. In the second part of this work a synthesis of a thiol containing polymer was developed which would give a highly functionalized product. This thiol containing polymer can be utilized in a solid phase synthesis scheme for the preparation of unsymmetric disulfides free of side products.

  6. Diallyl disulfide ameliorates gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; González-Orozco, Ana E; Maldonado, Perla D; Barrera, Diana; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio

    2003-07-18

    Experimental evidences suggest a role of reactive oxygen species in gentamicin-induced nephropathy in rats. Therefore, we investigated if diallyl disulfide, a garlic-derived compound with antioxidant properties, has a renoprotective effect in this experimental model. Four groups of rats were studied: (1) control, (2) gentamicin treated subcutaneously with gentamicin (70 mg/kg/12 h/4 days), (3) diallyl disulfide treated intragastrically with diallyl disulfide (50 mg/kg/24 h/4 days), and (4) gentamicin + diallyl disulfide treated with gentamicin + diallyl disulfide. Gentamicin induced (a) nephrotoxicity, (b) increase in renal oxidative stress, and (c) decrease in the activity of manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. Diallyl disulfide ameliorated these changes induced by gentamicin. The mechanism by which diallyl disulfide has a renoprotective effect in gentamicin-induced acute renal failure in rats may be related, at least in part, to the amelioration in the oxidative stress and the preservation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes in kidney.

  7. Nicotinamide Cofactors Suppress Active-Site Labeling of Aldehyde Dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Stiti, Naim; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Strubl, Laura; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bartels, Dorothea; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2016-06-17

    Active site labeling by (re)activity-based probes is a powerful chemical proteomic tool to globally map active sites in native proteomes without using substrates. Active site labeling is usually taken as a readout for the active state of the enzyme because labeling reflects the availability and reactivity of active sites, which are hallmarks for enzyme activities. Here, we show that this relationship holds tightly, but we also reveal an important exception to this rule. Labeling of Arabidopsis ALDH3H1 with a chloroacetamide probe occurs at the catalytic Cys, and labeling is suppressed upon nitrosylation and oxidation, and upon treatment with other Cys modifiers. These experiments display a consistent and strong correlation between active site labeling and enzymatic activity. Surprisingly, however, labeling is suppressed by the cofactor NAD(+), and this property is shared with other members of the ALDH superfamily and also detected for unrelated GAPDH enzymes with an unrelated hydantoin-based probe in crude extracts of plant cell cultures. Suppression requires cofactor binding to its binding pocket. Labeling is also suppressed by ALDH modulators that bind at the substrate entrance tunnel, confirming that labeling occurs through the substrate-binding cavity. Our data indicate that cofactor binding adjusts the catalytic Cys into a conformation that reduces the reactivity toward chloroacetamide probes.

  8. Disulfide isoforms of recombinant glia maturation factor beta.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, A; Lim, R

    1990-09-14

    Recombinant human glia maturation factor beta (r-hGMF-beta) is a single-chain polypeptide (141 amino acid residues) containing three cysteines, at positions 7, 86 and 95. Nascent r-hGMF-beta exists in the reduced state and has no biological activity. The protein can be activated through oxidative refolding by incubation with a mixture of reduced and oxidized glutathione. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of the refolded r-hGMF-beta shows the presence of four peaks, corresponding to the reduced form plus three newly generated intrachain disulfide-containing isoforms predicted from the number of cysteine residues. Only one isoform shows biological activity when tested for growth suppression on C6 glioma cells. We infer from the HPLC elution pattern that the active form contains the disulfide bridge Cys86-Cys95.

  9. Community Update on Site Activities, July 19, 2013

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In an effort to engage and inform community members interested in the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site cleanup, EPA will be issuing periodic topic-based fact sheets that will provide background information and updates about ongoing activities.

  10. Physical activity and cancer risk: dose-response and cancer, all sites and site-specific.

    PubMed

    Thune, I; Furberg, A S

    2001-06-01

    The association between physical activity and overall and site-specific cancer risk is elaborated in relation to whether any observed dose-response association between physical activity and cancer can be interpreted in terms of how much physical activity (type, intensity, duration, frequency) is needed to influence site- and gender-specific cancer risk. Observational studies were reviewed that have examined the independent effect of the volume of occupational physical activity (OPA) and/or leisure time physical activity (LPA) on overall and site-specific cancer risk. The evidence of cohort and case-control studies suggests that both leisure time and occupational physical activity protect against overall cancer risk, with a graded dose-response association suggested in both sexes. Confounding effects such as diet, body weight, and parity are often included as a covariate in the analyses, with little influence on the observed associations. A crude graded inverse dose-response association was observed between physical activity and colon cancer in 48 studies including 40,674 colon/colorectal cancer cases for both sexes. A dose-response effect of physical activity on colon cancer risk was especially observed, when participation in activities of at least moderate activity (>4.5 MET) and demonstrated by activities expressed as MET-hours per week. An observed inverse association with a dose-response relationship between physical activity and breast cancer was also identified in the majority of the 41 studies including 108,031 breast cancer cases. The dose-response relationship was in particular observed in case-control studies and supported by observations in cohort studies when participation in activities of at least moderate activity (>4.5 MET) and demonstrated by activities expressed by MET-hours per week. This association between physical activity and breast cancer risk is possibly dependent on age at exposure, age at diagnosis, menopausal status and other effect

  11. The CRIPTO/FRL-1/CRYPTIC (CFC) domain of human Cripto. Functional and structural insights through disulfide structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Foley, Susan F; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; Boynton, Raymond E; Adkins, Heather B; Cheung, Anne E; Singh, Juswinder; Sanicola, Michele; Young, Carmen N; Wen, Dingyi

    2003-09-01

    The disulfide structure of the CRIPTO/FRL-1/CRYPTIC (CFC) domain of human Cripto protein was determined by a combination of enzymatic and chemical fragmentation, followed by chromatographic separation of the fragments, and characterization by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. These studies showed that Cys115 forms a disulfide bond with Cys133, Cys128 with Cys149, and Cys131 with Cys140. Protein database searching and molecular modeling revealed that the pattern of disulfide linkages in the CFC domain of Cripto is the same as that in PARS intercerebralis major Peptide C (PMP-C), a serine protease inhibitor, and that the EGF-CFC domains of Cripto are predicted to be structurally homologous to the EGF-VWFC domains of the C-terminal extracellular portions of Jagged 1 and Jagged 2. Biochemical studies of the interactions of ALK4 with the CFC domain of Cripto by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis indicate that the CFC domain binds to ALK4 independent of the EGF domain. A molecular model of the CFC domain of Cripto was constructed based on the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of PMP-C. This model reveals a hydrophobic patch in the domain opposite to the presumed ALK4 binding site. This hydrophobic patch may be functionally important for the formation of intra or intermolecular complexes.

  12. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ömer Hınç; Bal, Ceylan; Neşelioglu, Salim; Büyükşekerci, Murat; Gündüzöz, Meşide; Eren, Funda; Tutkun, Lutfiye; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric

    2016-09-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers who are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occupationally. The study was carried out in 34 nonsmoker asphalt workers. Additionally, 35 healthy nonsmoker volunteers were recruited as control group. Thiol and disulfide concentrations were determined using the novel automated measurement method. Levels of urinary 1-OH-pyrene were analyzed by liquid chromatography. Disulfide/thiol ratio was significantly higher in exposed group (p = .034). Also, a positive correlation was detected between disulfide/thiol ratio and 1-OH-pyrene values (r = .249, p = .036). Thiol/disulfide homeostasis was found to be disturbed in asphalt workers. The novel test used in this study may be useful for evaluating the oxidative status in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure.

  13. Identification of Reduction-Susceptible Disulfide Bonds in Transferrin by Differential Alkylation Using O16/O18 Labeled Iodoacetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shunhai; Kaltashov, Igor A.

    2015-05-01

    Stabilization of native three-dimensional structure has been considered for decades to be the main function of disulfide bonds in proteins. More recently, it was becoming increasingly clear that in addition to this static role, disulfide bonds are also important for many other aspects of protein behavior, such as regulating protein function in a redox-sensitive fashion. Dynamic disulfide bonds can be taken advantage of as candidate anchor sites for site-specific modification (such as PEGylation of conjugation to a drug molecule), but are also frequently implicated in protein aggregation (through disulfide bond scrambling leading to formation of intermolecular covalent linkages). A common feature of all these labile disulfide bonds is their high susceptibility to reduction, as they need to be selectively regulated by either specific local redox conditions in vivo or well-controlled experimental conditions in vitro. The ability to identify labile disulfide bonds in a cysteine-rich protein can be extremely beneficial for a variety of tasks ranging from understanding the mechanistic aspects of protein function to identification of troublesome "hot spots" in biopharmaceutical products. Herein, we describe a mass spectrometry (MS)-based method for reliable identification of labile disulfide bonds, which consists of limited reduction, differential alkylation with an O18-labeled reagent, and LC-MS/MS analysis. Application of this method to a cysteine-rich protein transferrin allows the majority of its native disulfide bonds to be measured for their reduction susceptibility, which appears to reflect both solvent accessibility and bond strain energy.

  14. Identification of reduction-susceptible disulfide bonds in transferrin by differential alkylation using O16/O18 labeled iodoacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shunhai; Kaltashov, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    Stabilization of native three-dimensional structure has been considered for decades the main function of disulfide bonds in proteins. More recently, it was becoming increasingly clear that in addition to this static role, disulfide bonds are also important for many other aspects of protein behavior, such as regulating protein function in a redox-sensitive fashion. Dynamic disulfide bonds can be taken advantage of as candidate anchor sites for site-specific modification (such as PEGylation of conjugation to a drug molecule), but are also frequently implicated in protein aggregation (through disulfide bond scrambling leading to formation of intermolecular covalent linkages). A common feature of all these labile disulfide bonds is their high susceptibility to reduction, as they need to be selectively regulated by either specific local redox conditions in vivo or well-controlled experimental conditions in vitro. The ability to identify labile disulfide bonds in a cysteine-rich protein can be extremely beneficial for a variety of tasks ranging from understanding the mechanistic aspects of protein function to identification of troublesome “hot spots” in biopharmaceutical products. Herein, we describe a mass spectrometry-based method for reliable identification of labile disulfide bonds, which consists of limited reduction, differential alkylation with an O18-labeled reagent, and LC-MS/MS analysis. Application of this method to a cysteine-rich protein transferrin allows the majority of its native disulfide bonds to be measured for their reduction susceptibility, which appears to reflect both solvent accessibility and bond strain energy. PMID:25716754

  15. Redox-coupled structural changes of the catalytic a' domain of protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Koya; Satoh, Tadashi; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Le Gulluche, Anne-Charlotte; Anzai, Takahiro; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Kamiya, Yukiko; Kato, Koichi

    2015-09-14

    Protein disulfide isomerase functions as a folding catalyst in the endoplasmic reticulum. Its b' and a' domains provide substrate-binding sites and undergo a redox-dependent domain rearrangement coupled to an open-closed structural change. Here we determined the first solution structure of the a' domain in its oxidized form and thereby demonstrate that oxidation of the a' domain induces significant conformational changes not only in the vicinity of the active site but also in the distal b'-interfacial segment. Based on these findings, we propose that this conformational transition triggers the domain segregation coupled with the exposure of the hydrophobic surface. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Topology of the disulfide bonds in the antiviral lectin scytovirin

    PubMed Central

    Moulaei, Tinoush; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew; Yuan, Weirong; Pohl, Jan; Lu, Wuyuan; Haugh-Krumpe, Lauren; O'Keefe, Barry R; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The antiviral lectin scytovirin (SVN) contains a total of five disulfide bonds in two structurally similar domains. Previous reports provided contradictory results on the disulfide pairing in each individual domain, and we have now re-examined the disulfide topology. N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry were used to analyze proteolytic fragments of native SVN obtained at acidic pH, yielding the assignment as Cys7–Cys55, Cys20–Cys32, Cys26–Cys38, Cys68–Cys80, and Cys74–Cys86. We also analyzed the N-terminal domain of SVN (SD1, residues 1–48) prepared by expression/oxidative folding of the recombinant protein and by chemical synthesis. The disulfide pairing in the chemically synthesized SD1 was forced into predetermined topologies: SD1A (Cys20–Cys26, Cys32–Cys38) or SD1B (Cys20–Cys32, Cys26–Cys38). The topology of native SVN was found to be in agreement with the SD1B and the one determined for the recombinant SD1 domain. Although the two synthetic forms of SD1 were distinct when subjected to chromatography, their antiviral properties were indistinguishable, having low nM activity against HIV. Tryptic fragments, the “cystine clusters” [Cys20–Cys32/Cys26–Cys38; SD1] and [Cys68–Cys80/Cys74–C-86; SD2], were found to undergo rapid disulfide interchange at pH 8. This interchange resulted in accumulation of artifactual fragments in alkaline pH digests that are structurally unrelated to the original topology, providing a rational explanation for the differences between the topology reported herein and the one reported earlier (Bokesh et al., Biochemistry 2003;42:2578–2584). Our observations emphasize the fact that proteins such as SVN, with disulfide bonds in close proximity, require considerable precautions when being fragmented for the purpose of disulfide assignment. PMID:20572021

  17. Semienzymatic Cyclization of Disulfide-rich Peptides Using Sortase A*

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xinying; Kwon, Soohyun; Wang, Ching-I Anderson; Huang, Yen-Hua; Chan, Lai Y.; Tan, Chia Chia; Rosengren, K. Johan; Mulvenna, Jason P.; Schroeder, Christina I.; Craik, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide-rich cyclic peptides have generated great interest in the development of peptide-based therapeutics due to their exceptional stability toward chemical, enzymatic, or thermal attack. In particular, they have been used as scaffolds onto which bioactive epitopes can be grafted to take advantage of the favorable biophysical properties of disulfide-rich cyclic peptides. To date, the most commonly used method for the head-to-tail cyclization of peptides has been native chemical ligation. In recent years, however, enzyme-mediated cyclization has become a promising new technology due to its efficiency, safety, and cost-effectiveness. Sortase A (SrtA) is a bacterial enzyme with transpeptidase activity. It recognizes a C-terminal penta-amino acid motif, LPXTG, and cleaves the amide bond between Thr and Gly to form a thioacyl-linked intermediate. This intermediate undergoes nucleophilic attack by an N-terminal poly-Gly sequence to form an amide bond between the Thr and N-terminal Gly. Here, we demonstrate that sortase A can successfully be used to cyclize a variety of small disulfide-rich peptides, including the cyclotide kalata B1, α-conotoxin Vc1.1, and sunflower trypsin inhibitor 1. These peptides range in size from 14 to 29 amino acids and contain three, two, or one disulfide bond, respectively, within their head-to-tail cyclic backbones. Our findings provide proof of concept for the potential broad applicability of enzymatic cyclization of disulfide-rich peptides with therapeutic potential. PMID:24425873

  18. Interactions of Methylene Blue with Human Disulfide Reductases and Their Orthologues from Plasmodium falciparum▿

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Kathrin; Schirmer, R. Heiner; Eubel, Jana K.; Akoachere, Monique B.; Dandekar, Thomas; Becker, Katja; Gromer, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) has experienced a renaissance mainly as a component of drug combinations against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, we report biochemically relevant pharmacological data on MB such as rate constants for the uncatalyzed reaction of MB at pH 7.4 with cellular reductants like NAD(P)H (k = 4 M−1 s−1), thioredoxins (k = 8.5 to 26 M−1 s−1), dihydrolipoamide (k = 53 M−1 s−1), and slowly reacting glutathione. As the disulfide reductases are prominent targets of MB, optical tests for enzymes reducing MB at the expense of NAD(P)H under aerobic conditions were developed. The product leucomethylene blue (leucoMB) is auto-oxidized back to MB at pH 7 but can be stabilized by enzymes at pH 5.0, which makes this colorless compound an interesting drug candidate. MB was found to be an inhibitor and/or a redox-cycling substrate of mammalian and P. falciparum disulfide reductases, with the kcat values ranging from 0.03 s−1 to 10 s−1 at 25°C. Kinetic spectroscopy of mutagenized glutathione reductase indicates that MB reduction is conducted by enzyme-bound reduced flavin rather than by the active-site dithiol Cys58/Cys63. The enzyme-catalyzed reduction of MB and subsequent auto-oxidation of the product leucoMB mean that MB is a redox-cycling agent which produces H2O2 at the expense of O2 and of NAD(P)H in each cycle, turning the antioxidant disulfide reductases into pro-oxidant enzymes. This explains the terms subversive substrate or turncoat inhibitor for MB. The results are discussed in cell-pathological and clinical contexts. PMID:17967916

  19. Disarming Burkholderia pseudomallei: Structural and Functional Characterization of a Disulfide Oxidoreductase (DsbA) Required for Virulence In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Róisín M.; Marshall, Laura E.; Halili, Maria; Furlong, Emily; Tay, Stephanie; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei causes the disease melioidosis, a major source of morbidity and mortality in southeast Asia and northern Australia. The need to develop novel antimicrobials is compounded by the absence of a licensed vaccine and the bacterium's resistance to multiple antibiotics. In a number of clinically relevant Gram-negative pathogens, DsbA is the primary disulfide oxidoreductase responsible for catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds in secreted and membrane-associated proteins. In this study, a putative B. pseudomallei dsbA gene was evaluated functionally and structurally and its contribution to infection assessed. Results: Biochemical studies confirmed the dsbA gene encodes a protein disulfide oxidoreductase. A dsbA deletion strain of B. pseudomallei was attenuated in both macrophages and a BALB/c mouse model of infection and displayed pleiotropic phenotypes that included defects in both secretion and motility. The 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of BpsDsbA revealed differences from the classic member of this family Escherichia coli DsbA, in particular within the region surrounding the active site disulfide where EcDsbA engages with its partner protein E. coli DsbB, indicating that the interaction of BpsDsbA with its proposed partner BpsDsbB may be distinct from that of EcDsbA-EcDsbB. Innovation: This study has characterized BpsDsbA biochemically and structurally and determined that it is required for virulence of B. pseudomallei. Conclusion: These data establish a critical role for BpsDsbA in B. pseudomallei infection, which in combination with our structural characterization of BpsDsbA will facilitate the future development of rationally designed inhibitors against this drug-resistant organism. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 606–617. PMID:23901809

  20. [Lys(-2)-Arg(-1)]endothelin-1 solution structure by two-dimensional 1H-NMR: possible involvement of electrostatic interactions in native disulfide bridge formation and in biological activity decrease.

    PubMed

    Aumelas, A; Chiche, L; Kubo, S; Chino, N; Tamaoki, H; Kobayashi, Y

    1995-04-11

    Addition of the Lys(-2)-Arg(-1) dipeptide, present in the precursor protein, to the N-terminus of endothelin-1 (ET-1), to form a 23-residue peptide (KR-ET-1) has been shown to greatly improve formation of native disulfide bridges and to dramatically decrease biological activity. Conformational analysis was carried out on this peptide. During protonation of the carboxyl groups, CD spectra showed a decrease in the helical contribution, and NMR spectra displayed strong chemical shift modifications, suggesting the importance of electrostatic interactions in the KR-ET-1 conformation. CD spectra and two-dimensional NMR experiments were performed to investigate the KR-ET-1 three-dimensional structure in water in the carboxylic acid and carboxylate states. Distance and angle constraints were used as input for distance geometry calculations. The KR-ET-1 carboxylic acid conformation was found to be very similar to ET-1, with a helix spanning residues 9-15 and an unconstrained C-terminal part. In contrast, in the carboxylate state, large changes in Arg(-1) and Phe14 chemical shifts and long-range NOEs were consistent with a conformation characterized by a helix extension to Leu17 and a stabilized C-terminal section folded back toward the N-terminus. In addition, thanks to NOEs with Cys11 and Phe14, the Arg(-1) side chain appeared well-defined. Simulated annealing and molecular dynamics calculations, supported an Arg(-1)-Glu10 salt bridge and an electrostatic network involving the charged groups of Trp21, Asp18, and Lys(-2). Moreover, stabilization of the KR-ET-1 C-terminal part is probably reinforced by hydrophobic interactions involving the Val12, Tyr13, Phe14, Leu17, Ile19, Ile20, and Trp21 side chains. In vitro, native disulfide bond formation improvement observed for KR-ET-1 could be ascribed to electrostatic interactions and more specifically to the Arg(-1)-Glu10 salt bridge. In vivo, similar interactions could play an important role in the native folding of the ET-1

  1. An in vivo pathway for disulfide bond isomerization in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rietsch, A; Belin, D; Martin, N; Beckwith, J

    1996-11-12

    Biochemical studies have shown that the periplasmic protein disulfide oxidoreductase DsbC can isomerize aberrant disulfide bonds. Here we present the first evidence for an in vivo role of DsbC in disulfide bond isomerization. Furthermore, our data suggest that the enzymes DsbA and DsbC play distinct roles in the cell in disulfide bond formation and isomerization, respectively. We have shown that mutants in dsbC display a defect in disulfide bond formation specific for proteins with multiple disulfide bonds. The defect can be complemented by the addition of reduced dithiothreitol to the medium, suggesting that absence of DsbC results in accumulation of misoxidized proteins. Mutations in the dipZ and trxA genes have similar phenotypes. We propose that DipZ, a cytoplasmic membrane protein with a thioredoxin-like domain, and thioredoxin, the product of the trxA gene, are components of a pathway for maintaining DsbC active as a protein disulfide bond isomerase.

  2. Thermodynamic and mechanical effects of disulfide bonds in CXCLl7 chemokine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Christopher

    Chemokines are a family of signaling proteins mainly responsible for the chemotaxis of leukocytes, where their biological activity is modulated by their oligomerization state. Here, the dynamics and thermodynamic stability are characterized in monomer and homodimer structures of CXCL7, one of the most abundant platelet chemokines. The effects of dimerization and disulfide bond formation are investigated using computational methods that include molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the Distance Constraint Model (DCM). A consistent picture emerges for the effect of dimerization and role of the Cys5-Cys31 and Cys7- Cys47 disulfide bonds. Surprisingly, neither disulfide bond is critical for maintaining structural stability in the monomer or dimer, although the monomer is destabilized more than the dimer upon removal of disulfide bonds. Instead, it is found that disulfide bonds influence the native state dynamics as well as modulates the relative stability between monomer and dimer. The combined analysis elucidates how CXCL7 is mechanically stable as a monomer, and how upon dimerization flexibly correlated motions are induced between the 30s and 50s loop within each monomer and across the dimer interface. Interestingly, the greatest gain in flexibility upon dimerization occurs when both disulfide bonds are present in each domain, and the homodimer is least stable relative to its two monomers. These results suggest the highly conserved disulfide bonds in chemokines facilitate a structural mechanism for distinguishing functional characteristics between monomer and dimer.

  3. Structure of PEP carboxykinase from the succinate-producing Actinobacillus succinogenes: a new conserved active-site motif.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Yvonne A; Prasad, Lata; Laivenieks, Maris; Zeikus, J Gregory; Delbaere, Louis T J

    2005-07-01

    Actinobacillus succinogenes can produce, via fermentation, high concentrations of succinate, an important industrial commodity. A key enzyme in this pathway is phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK), which catalyzes the production of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide, with the concomitant conversion of adenosine 5'-diphosphate to adenosine 5'-triphosphate. 1.85 and 1.70 A resolution structures of the native and a pyruvate/Mn(2+)/phosphate complex have been solved, respectively. The structure of the complex contains sulfhydryl reducing agents covalently bound to three cysteine residues via disulfide bonds. One of these cysteine residues (Cys285) is located in the active-site cleft and may be analogous to the putative reactive cysteine of PCK from Trypanosoma cruzi. Cys285 is also part of a previously unreported conserved motif comprising residues 280-287 and containing the pattern NXEXGXY(/F)A(/G); this new motif appears to have a structural role in stabilizing and positioning side chains that bind substrates and metal ions. The first few residues of this motif connect the two domains of the enzyme and a fulcrum point appears to be located near Asn280. In addition, an active-site Asp residue forms two coordinate bonds with the Mn(2+) ion present in the structure of the complex in a symmetrical bidentate manner, unlike in other PCK structures that contain a manganese ion.

  4. Dashboard applications to monitor experiment activities at sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Belforte, Stefano; Boehm, Max; Casajus, Adrian; Flix, Josep; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Grigoras, Costin; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Santinelli, Roberto; Sidorova, Irina; Sciabà, Andrea; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of a distributed computing environment, such as WLCG, monitoring has a key role in order to keep under control activities going on in sites located in different countries and involving people based in many different sites. To be able to cope with such a large scale heterogeneous infrastructure, it is necessary to have monitoring tools providing a complete and reliable view of the overall performance of the sites. Moreover, the structure of a monitoring system critically depends on the object to monitor and on the users it is addressed to. In this article we will describe two different monitoring systems both aimed to monitor activities and services provided in the WLCG framework, but designed in order to meet the requirements of different users: Site Status Board has an overall view of the services available in all the sites supporting an experiment, whereas Siteview provides a complete view of all the activities going on at a site, for all the experiments supported by the site.

  5. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide. PMID:26908655

  6. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-04-20

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide.

  7. Identification of putative active site residues of ACAT enzymes.

    PubMed

    Das, Akash; Davis, Matthew A; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2008-08-01

    In this report, we sought to determine the putative active site residues of ACAT enzymes. For experimental purposes, a particular region of the C-terminal end of the ACAT protein was selected as the putative active site domain due to its high degree of sequence conservation from yeast to humans. Because ACAT enzymes have an intrinsic thioesterase activity, we hypothesized that by analogy with the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase, the active site of ACAT enzymes may comprise a catalytic triad of ser-his-asp (S-H-D) amino acid residues. Mutagenesis studies revealed that in ACAT1, S456, H460, and D400 were essential for activity. In ACAT2, H438 was required for enzymatic activity. However, mutation of D378 destabilized the enzyme. Surprisingly, we were unable to identify any S mutations of ACAT2 that abolished catalytic activity. Moreover, ACAT2 was insensitive to serine-modifying reagents, whereas ACAT1 was not. Further studies indicated that tyrosine residues may be important for ACAT activity. Mutational analysis showed that the tyrosine residue of the highly conserved FYXDWWN motif was important for ACAT activity. Furthermore, Y518 was necessary for ACAT1 activity, whereas the analogous residue in ACAT2, Y496, was not. The available data suggest that the amino acid requirement for ACAT activity may be different for the two ACAT isozymes.

  8. Disulfide bonding patterns and protein topologies.

    PubMed Central

    Benham, C. J.; Jafri, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the topological properties of protein disulfide bonding patterns. First, a description of these patterns in terms of partially directed graphs is developed. The topologically distinct disulfide bonding patterns available to a polypeptide chain containing n disulfide bonds are enumerated, and their symmetry and reducibility properties are examined. The theoretical probabilities are calculated that a randomly chosen pattern of n bonds will have any combination of symmetry and reducibility properties, given that all patterns have equal probability of being chosen. Next, the National Biomedical Research Foundation protein sequence and Brookhaven National Laboratories protein structure (PDB) databases are examined, and the occurrences of disulfide bonding patterns in them are determined. The frequencies of symmetric and/or reducible patterns are found to exceed theoretical predictions based on equiprobable pattern selection. Kauzmann's model, in which disulfide bonds form during random encounters as the chain assumes random coil conformations, finds that bonds are more likely to form with near neighbor cysteines than with remote cysteines. The observed frequencies of occurrence of disulfide patterns are found here to be virtually uncorrelated with the predictions of this alternative random bonding model. These results strongly suggest that disulfide bond pattern formation is not the result of random factors, but instead is a directed process. Finally, the PDB structure database is examined to determine the extrinsic topologies of polypeptides containing disulfide bonds. A complete survey of all structures in the database found no instances in which two loops formed by disulfide bonds within the same polypeptide chain are topologically linked. Similarly, no instances are found in which two loops present on different polypeptide chains in a structure are catenated. Further, no examples of topologically knotted loops occur. In contrast, pseudolinking

  9. Chemical modification of chalcone isomerase by mercurials and tetrathionate. Evidence for a single cysteine residue in the active site

    SciTech Connect

    Bednar, R.A.; Fried, W.B.; Lock, Y.W.; Pramanik, B. )

    1989-08-25

    Chalcone isomerase from soybean is inactivated by stoichiometric amounts of p-mercuribenzoate or HgCl{sub 2}. Spectral titration of the enzyme with p-mercuribenzoate indicates that a single thiol group is modified. Treatment of modified enzyme with KCN or thiols results in a complete restoration of enzyme activity demonstrating that the inactivation is not due to irreversible protein denaturation. A product of the enzymatic reaction, naringenin, provides complete kinetic protection against inactivation by both mercurials. The binding constant (33 microM) for naringenin determined from the concentration dependence of the protection agrees with the inhibition constant (34 microM) for naringenin as a competitive inhibitor of the catalytic reaction. This agreement demonstrates that the observed kinetic protection results from the specific binding of naringenin to the active site. Incubation of native chalcone isomerase with sodium tetrathionate (0.1 M) results in a slow time-dependent loss of enzymatic activity. The inactivation of chalcone isomerase by tetrathionate and N-ethylmaleimide becomes very rapid in the presence of 6 M urea, indicating that the native tertiary structure is responsible for the low reactivity of the enzymatic thiol. The stoichiometric modification of reduced and denatured chalcone isomerase by ({sup 3}H) N-ethylmaleimide indicates that the enzyme contains only a single cysteine residue and does not contain any disulfides. The evidence presented suggests that the only half-cystine residue in chalcone isomerase is located in the active site and thereby provides the first clue to the location of the active site in chalcone isomerase.

  10. Structural Elucidation of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Compound libraries provide a starting point for multiple biological investigations, but the structural integrity of compounds is rarely assessed experimentally until a late stage in the research process. Here, we describe the discovery of a neuroprotective small molecule that was originally incorrectly annotated with a chemical structure. We elucidated the correct structure of the active compound using analytical chemistry, revealing it to be the natural product securinine. We show that securinine is protective in a cell model of Huntington disease and identify the binding site of securinine to its target, protein disulfide isomerase using NMR chemical shift perturbation studies. We show that securinine displays favorable pharmaceutical properties, making it a promising compound for in vivo studies in neurodegenerative disease models. In addition to finding this unexpected activity of securinine, this study provides a systematic roadmap to those who encounter compounds with incorrect structural annotation in the course of screening campaigns. PMID:26500720

  11. Overexpression of the rhodanese PspE, a single cysteine-containing protein, restores disulfide bond formation to an Escherichia coli strain lacking DsbA

    PubMed Central

    Chng, Shu-Sin; Dutton, Rachel J.; Denoncin, Katleen; Vertommen, Didier; Collet, Jean-Francois; Kadokura, Hiroshi; Beckwith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Escherichia coli uses the DsbA/DsbB system for introducing disulfide bonds into proteins in the cell envelope. Deleting either dsbA or dsbB or both reduces disulfide bond formation but does not entirely eliminate it. Whether such background disulfide bond forming activity is enzyme-catalyzed is not known. To identify possible cellular factors that might contribute to the background activity, we studied the effects of overexpressing endogenous proteins on disulfide bond formation in the periplasm. We find that overexpressing PspE, a periplasmic rhodanese, partially restores substantial disulfide bond formation to a dsbA strain. This activity depends on DsbC, the bacterial disulfide bond isomerase, but not on DsbB. We show that overexpressed PspE is oxidized to the sulfenic acid form and reacts with substrate proteins to form mixed disulfide adducts. DsbC either prevents the formation of these mixed disulfides or resolves these adducts subsequently. In the process, DsbC itself gets oxidized and proceeds to catalyze disulfide bond formation. Although this PspE/DsbC system is not responsible for the background disulfide bond forming activity, we suggest that it might be utilized in other organisms lacking the DsbA/DsbB system. PMID:22809289

  12. Activation of Membrane Fusion by Murine Leukemia Viruses Is Controlled in cis or in trans by Interactions between the Receptor-Binding Domain and a Conserved Disulfide Loop of the Carboxy Terminus of the Surface Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Lavillette, Dimitri; Boson, Bertrand; Russell, Stephen J.; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2001-01-01

    Cell entry of retroviruses is initiated by the recognition of cellular receptors and the subsequent membrane fusion between viral and cellular membranes. These two steps are mediated by the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits of the retroviral envelope glycoprotein (Env), respectively. Determinants regulating membrane fusion have been described throughout SU and TM, but the processes coupling receptor recognition to fusion are still elusive. Here we establish that a critical interaction is formed between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the major disulfide loop of the carboxy-terminal domain (C domain) of the murine leukemia virus SU. Receptor binding causes an alteration of this interaction and, in turn, promotes further events of Env fusion activation. We characterize mutations which, by lowering this interaction and reducing the compatibility between the RBD and C domains of Env glycoprotein chimeras, affect both Env fusogenicity and sensitivity to receptor interference. Additionally, we demonstrate that suboptimal interactions in such mutant Env proteins can be compensated in trans by soluble RBDs in a manner that depends on their compatibility with the C domain. Our results therefore indicate that RBD/C domain interactions may occur in cis, via the proper RBD of the viral Env itself, or in trans, via a distinct RBD expressed by virion-free Env glycoproteins expressed endogenously by the infected cells or provided by neighboring Env trimers. PMID:11264358

  13. A Primary Role for Disulfide Formation in the Productive Folding of Prokaryotic Cu,Zn-superoxide Dismutase*

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Yasuyuki; Anzai, Itsuki; Furukawa, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic activation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) requires not only binding of a catalytic copper ion but also formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond. Indeed, the disulfide bond is completely conserved among all species possessing SOD1; however, it remains obscure how disulfide formation controls the enzymatic activity of SOD1. Here, we show that disulfide formation is a primary event in the folding process of prokaryotic SOD1 (SodC) localized to the periplasmic space. Escherichia coli SodC was found to attain β-sheet structure upon formation of the disulfide bond, whereas disulfide-reduced SodC assumed little secondary structure even in the presence of copper and zinc ions. Moreover, reduction of the disulfide bond made SodC highly susceptible to proteolytic degradation. We thus propose that the thiol-disulfide status in SodC controls the intracellular stability of this antioxidant enzyme and that the oxidizing environment of the periplasm is required for the enzymatic activation of SodC. PMID:24917671

  14. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  15. Promoter-proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Pia K.; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites on transcription requires promoter proximity, as demonstrated using artificial constructs and supported by a genome-wide data set. Importantly, transcription down-regulation can be recapitulated in a gene context devoid of splice sites by placing a functional bona fide pA site/transcription terminator within ∼500 base pairs of the promoter. In contrast, promoter-proximal positioning of a pA site-independent histone gene terminator supports high transcription levels. We propose that optimal communication between a pA site-dependent gene terminator and its promoter critically depends on gene length and that short RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes use specialized termination mechanisms to maintain high transcription levels. PMID:23028143

  16. Iron Binding Properties of Recombinant Class A Protein Disulfide Isomerase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Remelli, William; Santabarbara, Stefano; Carbonera, Donatella; Bonomi, Francesco; Ceriotti, Aldo; Casazza, Anna Paola

    2017-04-07

    The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family comprises a wide set of enzymes mainly involved in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum. Class A PDIs (PDI-A) constitute the smallest members of the family, consisting of a single thioredoxin (TRX) module without any additional domains. To date, their catalytic activity and cellular function are still poorly understood. To gain insight into the role of higher-plant class A PDIs, the biochemical properties of rAtPDI-A, the recombinant form of Arabidopsis thaliana PDI-A, have been investigated. As expressed, rAtPDI-A has only little oxidoreductase activity, but it appears to be capable of binding an iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster, most likely a [2Fe-2S] center, at the interface between two protein monomers. A mutational survey of all cysteine residues of rAtPDI-A indicates that only the second and third cysteines of the CXXXCKHC stretch, containing the putative catalytic site CKHC, are primarily involved in cluster coordination. A key role is also played by the lysine residue. Its substitution with glycine, which restores the canonical PDI active site CGHC, does not influence the oxidoreductase activity of the protein, which remains marginal, but strongly affects the binding of the cluster. It is therefore proposed that the unexpected ability of rAtPDI-A to accommodate an Fe-S cluster is due to its very unique CKHC motif, which is conserved in all higher-plant class A PDIs, differentiating them from all other members of the PDI family.

  17. De novo active sites for resurrected Precambrian enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Valeria A.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Candel, Adela M.; Krüger, Dennis M.; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Ortega-Muñoz, Mariano; Santoyo-Gonzalez, Francisco; Gaucher, Eric A.; Kamerlin, Shina C. L.; Bruix, Marta; Gavira, Jose A.; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2017-01-01

    Protein engineering studies often suggest the emergence of completely new enzyme functionalities to be highly improbable. However, enzymes likely catalysed many different reactions already in the last universal common ancestor. Mechanisms for the emergence of completely new active sites must therefore either plausibly exist or at least have existed at the primordial protein stage. Here, we use resurrected Precambrian proteins as scaffolds for protein engineering and demonstrate that a new active site can be generated through a single hydrophobic-to-ionizable amino acid replacement that generates a partially buried group with perturbed physico-chemical properties. We provide experimental and computational evidence that conformational flexibility can assist the emergence and subsequent evolution of new active sites by improving substrate and transition-state binding, through the sampling of many potentially productive conformations. Our results suggest a mechanism for the emergence of primordial enzymes and highlight the potential of ancestral reconstruction as a tool for protein engineering. PMID:28719578

  18. De novo active sites for resurrected Precambrian enzymes.

    PubMed

    Risso, Valeria A; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Candel, Adela M; Krüger, Dennis M; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Ortega-Muñoz, Mariano; Santoyo-Gonzalez, Francisco; Gaucher, Eric A; Kamerlin, Shina C L; Bruix, Marta; Gavira, Jose A; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2017-07-18

    Protein engineering studies often suggest the emergence of completely new enzyme functionalities to be highly improbable. However, enzymes likely catalysed many different reactions already in the last universal common ancestor. Mechanisms for the emergence of completely new active sites must therefore either plausibly exist or at least have existed at the primordial protein stage. Here, we use resurrected Precambrian proteins as scaffolds for protein engineering and demonstrate that a new active site can be generated through a single hydrophobic-to-ionizable amino acid replacement that generates a partially buried group with perturbed physico-chemical properties. We provide experimental and computational evidence that conformational flexibility can assist the emergence and subsequent evolution of new active sites by improving substrate and transition-state binding, through the sampling of many potentially productive conformations. Our results suggest a mechanism for the emergence of primordial enzymes and highlight the potential of ancestral reconstruction as a tool for protein engineering.

  19. De novo active sites for resurrected Precambrian enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risso, Valeria A.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Candel, Adela M.; Krüger, Dennis M.; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Ortega-Muñoz, Mariano; Santoyo-Gonzalez, Francisco; Gaucher, Eric A.; Kamerlin, Shina C. L.; Bruix, Marta; Gavira, Jose A.; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2017-07-01

    Protein engineering studies often suggest the emergence of completely new enzyme functionalities to be highly improbable. However, enzymes likely catalysed many different reactions already in the last universal common ancestor. Mechanisms for the emergence of completely new active sites must therefore either plausibly exist or at least have existed at the primordial protein stage. Here, we use resurrected Precambrian proteins as scaffolds for protein engineering and demonstrate that a new active site can be generated through a single hydrophobic-to-ionizable amino acid replacement that generates a partially buried group with perturbed physico-chemical properties. We provide experimental and computational evidence that conformational flexibility can assist the emergence and subsequent evolution of new active sites by improving substrate and transition-state binding, through the sampling of many potentially productive conformations. Our results suggest a mechanism for the emergence of primordial enzymes and highlight the potential of ancestral reconstruction as a tool for protein engineering.

  20. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  1. Glutaredoxin catalysis requires two distinct glutathione interaction sites

    PubMed Central

    Begas, Patricia; Liedgens, Linda; Moseler, Anna; Meyer, Andreas J.; Deponte, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Glutaredoxins are key players in cellular redox homoeostasis and exert a variety of essential functions ranging from glutathione-dependent catalysis to iron metabolism. The exact structure–function relationships and mechanistic differences among glutaredoxins that are active or inactive in standard enzyme assays have so far remained elusive despite numerous kinetic and structural studies. Here, we elucidate the enzymatic mechanism showing that glutaredoxins require two distinct glutathione interaction sites for efficient redox catalysis. The first site interacts with the glutathione moiety of glutathionylated disulfide substrates. The second site activates glutathione as the reducing agent. We propose that the requirement of two distinct glutathione interaction sites for the efficient reduction of glutathionylated disulfide substrates explains the deviating structure–function relationships, activities and substrate preferences of different glutaredoxin subfamilies as well as thioredoxins. Our model also provides crucial insights for the design or optimization of artificial glutaredoxins, transition-state inhibitors and glutaredoxin-coupled redox sensors. PMID:28374771

  2. Arginine Residues on the Opposite Side of the Active Site Stimulate the Catalysis of Ribosome Depurination by Ricin A Chain by Interacting with the P-protein Stalk*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Ping; Kahn, Peter C.; Kahn, Jennifer Nielsen; Grela, Przemysław; Tumer, Nilgun E.

    2013-01-01

    Ricin inhibits protein synthesis by depurinating the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL). Ricin holotoxin does not inhibit translation unless the disulfide bond between the A (RTA) and B (RTB) subunits is reduced. Ricin holotoxin did not bind ribosomes or depurinate them but could depurinate free RNA. When RTA is separated from RTB, arginine residues located at the interface are exposed to the solvent. Because this positively charged region, but not the active site, is blocked by RTB, we mutated arginine residues at or near the interface of RTB to determine if they are critical for ribosome binding. These variants were structurally similar to wild type RTA but could not bind ribosomes. Their Km values and catalytic rates (kcat) for an SRL mimic RNA were similar to those of wild type, indicating that their activity was not altered. However, they showed an up to 5-fold increase in Km and up to 38-fold decrease in kcat toward ribosomes. These results suggest that the stalk binding stimulates the catalysis of ribosome depurination by RTA. The mutated arginines have side chains behind the active site cleft, indicating that the ribosome binding surface of RTA is on the opposite side of the surface that interacts with the SRL. We propose that stalk binding stimulates the catalysis of ribosome depurination by orienting the active site of RTA toward the SRL and thereby allows docking of the target adenine into the active site. This model may apply to the translation factors that interact with the stalk. PMID:24003229

  3. A redox active site containing murrel cytosolic thioredoxin: analysis of immunological properties.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have reported the immunological properties of cDNA encoding thioredoxin which is obtained from the database of Channa striatus (named as CsTRx) cDNA library. The analysis showed that the CsTRx polypeptide contains a thioredoxin domain between Val(2) and Asn(106). The domain possessed a thioredoxin active family at 24–42 along with a redox active site (also known as catalytic center) at (31)WCGPC(35). The analysis showed that the catalytic center is responsible for the control of protein function. Phylogenetic study showed that CsTRx clustered together with vertebrate TRx-1. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and other bioinformatics analysis, it is confirmed that the characterized CsTRx belongs to TRx-1 family. In addition, the sub-cellular localization prediction analysis showed that CsTRx is a cytosol thioredoxin. The highest gene expression was observed in gill (P < 0.05). Further, its transcriptional modulation was evaluated under fungal (Aphanomyces invadans), bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) and H2O2 challenges. The recombinant CsTRx protein was over-expressed and purified using an Escherichia coli expression vector system. We conducted a H2O2 peroxidase assay using recombinant CsTRx protein under various pH and temperature. Further, we studied the influence of recombinant CsTRx protein on C. striatus spleen leukocyte activation. The recombinant CsTRx protein enhanced the cell proliferation in a concentration dependant manner. The results of antioxidant analysis showed that the antioxidant capacity of recombinant CsTRx protein was determined to be 4.2 U/mg protein. We conducted an insulin disulfides assay to study the enzymatic oxidoreductase activity of CsTRx and we observed no activity in the control group. But the recombinant CsTRx protein addition rapidly increased the enzymatic oxidoreductase activity. Over all, the results showed that the CsTRx may contain potential antioxidant properties, which could regulate the oxidative stress

  4. Discriminative structural approaches for enzyme active-site prediction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Predicting enzyme active-sites in proteins is an important issue not only for protein sciences but also for a variety of practical applications such as drug design. Because enzyme reaction mechanisms are based on the local structures of enzyme active-sites, various template-based methods that compare local structures in proteins have been developed to date. In comparing such local sites, a simple measurement, RMSD, has been used so far. Results This paper introduces new machine learning algorithms that refine the similarity/deviation for comparison of local structures. The similarity/deviation is applied to two types of applications, single template analysis and multiple template analysis. In the single template analysis, a single template is used as a query to search proteins for active sites, whereas a protein structure is examined as a query to discover the possible active-sites using a set of templates in the multiple template analysis. Conclusions This paper experimentally illustrates that the machine learning algorithms effectively improve the similarity/deviation measurements for both the analyses. PMID:21342581

  5. Structure-based approach to the prediction of disulfide bonds in proteins.

    PubMed

    Salam, Noeris K; Adzhigirey, Matvey; Sherman, Woody; Pearlman, David A

    2014-10-01

    Protein engineering remains an area of growing importance in pharmaceutical and biotechnology research. Stabilization of a folded protein conformation is a frequent goal in projects that deal with affinity optimization, enzyme design, protein construct design, and reducing the size of functional proteins. Indeed, it can be desirable to assess and improve protein stability in order to avoid liabilities such as aggregation, degradation, and immunogenic response that may arise during development. One way to stabilize a protein is through the introduction of disulfide bonds. Here, we describe a method to predict pairs of protein residues that can be mutated to form a disulfide bond. We combine a physics-based approach that incorporates implicit solvent molecular mechanics with a knowledge-based approach. We first assign relative weights to the terms that comprise our scoring function using a genetic algorithm applied to a set of 75 wild-type structures that each contains a disulfide bond. The method is then tested on a separate set of 13 engineered proteins comprising 15 artificial stabilizing disulfides introduced via site-directed mutagenesis. We find that the native disulfide in the wild-type proteins is scored well, on average (within the top 6% of the reasonable pairs of residues that could form a disulfide bond) while 6 out of the 15 artificial stabilizing disulfides scored within the top 13% of ranked predictions. Overall, this suggests that the physics-based approach presented here can be useful for triaging possible pairs of mutations for disulfide bond formation to improve protein stability.

  6. Active and regulatory sites of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase.

    PubMed

    Pesi, Rossana; Allegrini, Simone; Careddu, Maria Giovanna; Filoni, Daniela Nicole; Camici, Marcella; Tozzi, Maria Grazia

    2010-12-01

    Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase (cN-II), which acts preferentially on 6-hydroxypurine nucleotides, is essential for the survival of several cell types. cN-II catalyses both the hydrolysis of nucleotides and transfer of their phosphate moiety to a nucleoside acceptor through formation of a covalent phospho-intermediate. Both activities are regulated by a number of phosphorylated compounds, such as diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap₄A), ADP, ATP, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) and phosphate. On the basis of a partial crystal structure of cN-II, we mutated two residues located in the active site, Y55 and T56. We ascertained that the ability to catalyse the transfer of phosphate depends on the presence of a bulky residue in the active site very close to the aspartate residue that forms the covalent phospho-intermediate. The molecular model indicates two possible sites at which adenylic compounds may interact. We mutated three residues that mediate interaction in the first activation site (R144, N154, I152) and three in the second (F127, M436 and H428), and found that Ap₄A and ADP interact with the same site, but the sites for ATP and BPG remain uncertain. The structural model indicates that cN-II is a homotetrameric protein that results from interaction through a specific interface B of two identical dimers that have arisen from interaction of two identical subunits through interface A. Point mutations in the two interfaces and gel-filtration experiments indicated that the dimer is the smallest active oligomerization state. Finally, gel-filtration and light-scattering experiments demonstrated that the native enzyme exists as a tetramer, and no further oligomerization is required for enzyme activation.

  7. Transfer of molybdenum disulfide to various metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, G. C.; Pepper, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with molybdenum disulfide single crystals in contact with sputter cleaned surfaces of copper, nickel, gold, and 304 stainless steel. Transfer of the molybdenum disulfide to the metals was monitored with Auger electron spectroscopy. Results of the investigation indicate molybdenum disulfide transfers to all clean metal surfaces after a single pass over the metal surface with film thickness observed to increase with repeated passes over the same surfaces. Large particle transfer occurs when the orientation of the crystallites is other than basal. This is frequently accompanied by abrasion of the metal. Adhesion of molybdenum disulfide films occurred readily to copper and nickel, less readily to 304 stainless steel, and even less effectively to the gold, which indicates a chemical effect.

  8. Soft Computing Methods for Disulfide Connectivity Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Chamorro, Alfonso E.; Aguilar-Ruiz, Jesús S.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of protein structure prediction (PSP) is one of the main challenges in structural bioinformatics. To tackle this problem, PSP can be divided into several subproblems. One of these subproblems is the prediction of disulfide bonds. The disulfide connectivity prediction problem consists in identifying which nonadjacent cysteines would be cross-linked from all possible candidates. Determining the disulfide bond connectivity between the cysteines of a protein is desirable as a previous step of the 3D PSP, as the protein conformational search space is highly reduced. The most representative soft computing approaches for the disulfide bonds connectivity prediction problem of the last decade are summarized in this paper. Certain aspects, such as the different methodologies based on soft computing approaches (artificial neural network or support vector machine) or features of the algorithms, are used for the classification of these methods. PMID:26523116

  9. Unexpectedly fast cis/trans isomerization of Xaa-Pro peptide bonds in disulfide-constrained cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tiesheng; Spain, Stephen M; Rabenstein, Dallas L

    2004-01-28

    Acyclic dithiol and cyclic disulfide forms of the peptides Ac-Cys-Pro-Xaa-Cys-NH2 (Xaa = Phe, His, Tyr, Gly, and Thr) and Ac-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-NH2 and the peptide Ac-Ala-Gly-Pro-Ala-NH2 were synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Rate constants kct and ktc for cis-to-trans and trans-to-cis isomerization, respectively, across the Cys-Pro or Gly-Pro peptide bonds were determined by magnetization transfer NMR techniques over a range of temperatures, and activation parameters were derived from the temperature dependence of the rate constants. It was found that constraints imposed by the disulfide bond confer an unexpected rate enhancement for cis/trans isomerization, ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. It is proposed that the rate enhancements are a result of an intramolecular catalysis mechanism in which the NH proton of the Pro-Xaa peptide bond hydrogen bonds to the proline nitrogen in the transition state. The peptides Ac-Cys-Pro-Xaa-Cys-NH2 and Ac-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-NH2 are model compounds for proline-containing active sites of the thioredoxin superfamily of oxidoreductase enzymes; the results suggest that the backbones of the active sites of the oxidized form of these enzymes may have unusual conformational flexibility.

  10. Active Site and Remote Contributions to Catalysis in Methylthioadenosine Nucleosidases

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Keisha; Cameron, Scott A.; Almo, Steven C.; Burgos, Emmanuel S.; Gulab, Shivali A.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2015-03-25

    5'-Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine nucleosidases (MTANs) catalyze the hydrolysis of 5'-methylthioadenosine to adenine and 5-methylthioribose. The amino acid sequences of the MTANs from Vibrio cholerae (VcMTAN) and Escherichia coli (EcMTAN) are 60% identical and 75% similar. Protein structure folds and kinetic properties are similar. However, binding of transition-state analogues is dominated by favorable entropy in VcMTAN and by enthalpy in EcMTAN. Catalytic sites of VcMTAN and EcMTAN in contact with reactants differ by two residues; Ala113 and Val153 in VcMTAN are Pro113 and Ile152, respectively, in EcMTAN. Here, we mutated the VcMTAN catalytic site residues to match those of EcMTAN in anticipation of altering its properties toward EcMTAN. Inhibition of VcMTAN by transition-state analogues required filling both active sites of the homodimer. However, in the Val153Ile mutant or double mutants, transition-state analogue binding at one site caused complete inhibition. Therefore, a single amino acid, Val153, alters the catalytic site cooperativity in VcMTAN. The transition-state analogue affinity and thermodynamics in mutant VcMTAN became even more unlike those of EcMTAN, the opposite of expectations from catalytic site similarity; thus, catalytic site contacts in VcMTAN are unable to recapitulate the properties of EcMTAN. X-ray crystal structures of EcMTAN, VcMTAN, and a multiple-site mutant of VcMTAN most closely resembling EcMTAN in catalytic site contacts show no major protein conformational differences. In conclusion, the overall protein architectures of these closely related proteins are implicated in contributing to the catalytic site differences.

  11. Active Site and Remote Contributions to Catalysis in Methylthioadenosine Nucleosidases

    DOE PAGES

    Thomas, Keisha; Cameron, Scott A.; Almo, Steven C.; ...

    2015-03-25

    5'-Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine nucleosidases (MTANs) catalyze the hydrolysis of 5'-methylthioadenosine to adenine and 5-methylthioribose. The amino acid sequences of the MTANs from Vibrio cholerae (VcMTAN) and Escherichia coli (EcMTAN) are 60% identical and 75% similar. Protein structure folds and kinetic properties are similar. However, binding of transition-state analogues is dominated by favorable entropy in VcMTAN and by enthalpy in EcMTAN. Catalytic sites of VcMTAN and EcMTAN in contact with reactants differ by two residues; Ala113 and Val153 in VcMTAN are Pro113 and Ile152, respectively, in EcMTAN. Here, we mutated the VcMTAN catalytic site residues to match those of EcMTAN in anticipation ofmore » altering its properties toward EcMTAN. Inhibition of VcMTAN by transition-state analogues required filling both active sites of the homodimer. However, in the Val153Ile mutant or double mutants, transition-state analogue binding at one site caused complete inhibition. Therefore, a single amino acid, Val153, alters the catalytic site cooperativity in VcMTAN. The transition-state analogue affinity and thermodynamics in mutant VcMTAN became even more unlike those of EcMTAN, the opposite of expectations from catalytic site similarity; thus, catalytic site contacts in VcMTAN are unable to recapitulate the properties of EcMTAN. X-ray crystal structures of EcMTAN, VcMTAN, and a multiple-site mutant of VcMTAN most closely resembling EcMTAN in catalytic site contacts show no major protein conformational differences. In conclusion, the overall protein architectures of these closely related proteins are implicated in contributing to the catalytic site differences.« less

  12. Active site and remote contributions to catalysis in methylthioadenosine nucleosidases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Keisha; Cameron, Scott A; Almo, Steven C; Burgos, Emmanuel S; Gulab, Shivali A; Schramm, Vern L

    2015-04-21

    5'-Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine nucleosidases (MTANs) catalyze the hydrolysis of 5'-methylthioadenosine to adenine and 5-methylthioribose. The amino acid sequences of the MTANs from Vibrio cholerae (VcMTAN) and Escherichia coli (EcMTAN) are 60% identical and 75% similar. Protein structure folds and kinetic properties are similar. However, binding of transition-state analogues is dominated by favorable entropy in VcMTAN and by enthalpy in EcMTAN. Catalytic sites of VcMTAN and EcMTAN in contact with reactants differ by two residues; Ala113 and Val153 in VcMTAN are Pro113 and Ile152, respectively, in EcMTAN. We mutated the VcMTAN catalytic site residues to match those of EcMTAN in anticipation of altering its properties toward EcMTAN. Inhibition of VcMTAN by transition-state analogues required filling both active sites of the homodimer. However, in the Val153Ile mutant or double mutants, transition-state analogue binding at one site caused complete inhibition. Therefore, a single amino acid, Val153, alters the catalytic site cooperativity in VcMTAN. The transition-state analogue affinity and thermodynamics in mutant VcMTAN became even more unlike those of EcMTAN, the opposite of expectations from catalytic site similarity; thus, catalytic site contacts in VcMTAN are unable to recapitulate the properties of EcMTAN. X-ray crystal structures of EcMTAN, VcMTAN, and a multiple-site mutant of VcMTAN most closely resembling EcMTAN in catalytic site contacts show no major protein conformational differences. The overall protein architectures of these closely related proteins are implicated in contributing to the catalytic site differences.

  13. Viscoelastic Properties of Some Alkyl Disulfide Copolymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-12-01

    disulfide polymer in this paper. Polymer sheets were prepared by molding the rubber crumb in a hydraulic press. Ten second torsion modulus...DISULFIDE COPOLYMERS by ¥. J. MacKnight, M. Takahashi and A. V. Tobolsky Introduction Polysulfide polymers were the first synthetic rubbers produced in...Gaylord, ed., Interscience, New York, 1962, Chap. XIII, contains many references to the original literature. 2. Gee, G., Trans. Inst. Rubber Ind

  14. Interface confined hydrogen evolution reaction in zero valent metal nanoparticles-intercalated molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongxin; Leng, Kai; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Malkhandi, Souradip; Tang, Wei; Tian, Bingbing; Dong, Lei; Zheng, Lirong; Lin, Ming; Yeo, Boon Siang; Loh, Kian Ping

    2017-02-01

    Interface confined reactions, which can modulate the bonding of reactants with catalytic centres and influence the rate of the mass transport from bulk solution, have emerged as a viable strategy for achieving highly stable and selective catalysis. Here we demonstrate that 1T'-enriched lithiated molybdenum disulfide is a highly powerful reducing agent, which can be exploited for the in-situ reduction of metal ions within the inner planes of lithiated molybdenum disulfide to form a zero valent metal-intercalated molybdenum disulfide. The confinement of platinum nanoparticles within the molybdenum disulfide layered structure leads to enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction activity and stability compared to catalysts dispersed on carbon support. In particular, the inner platinum surface is accessible to charged species like proton and metal ions, while blocking poisoning by larger sized pollutants or neutral molecules. This points a way forward for using bulk intercalated compounds for energy related applications.

  15. Interface confined hydrogen evolution reaction in zero valent metal nanoparticles-intercalated molybdenum disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongxin; Leng, Kai; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Malkhandi, Souradip; Tang, Wei; Tian, Bingbing; Dong, Lei; Zheng, Lirong; Lin, Ming; Yeo, Boon Siang; Loh, Kian Ping

    2017-01-01

    Interface confined reactions, which can modulate the bonding of reactants with catalytic centres and influence the rate of the mass transport from bulk solution, have emerged as a viable strategy for achieving highly stable and selective catalysis. Here we demonstrate that 1T′-enriched lithiated molybdenum disulfide is a highly powerful reducing agent, which can be exploited for the in-situ reduction of metal ions within the inner planes of lithiated molybdenum disulfide to form a zero valent metal-intercalated molybdenum disulfide. The confinement of platinum nanoparticles within the molybdenum disulfide layered structure leads to enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction activity and stability compared to catalysts dispersed on carbon support. In particular, the inner platinum surface is accessible to charged species like proton and metal ions, while blocking poisoning by larger sized pollutants or neutral molecules. This points a way forward for using bulk intercalated compounds for energy related applications. PMID:28230105

  16. Catalysis of Protein Folding by Protein Disulfide Isomerase and Small-Molecule Mimics

    PubMed Central

    KERSTEEN, ELIZABETH A.; RAINES, RONALD T.

    2010-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes the formation of native disulfide pairings in secretory proteins. The ability of PDI to act as a disulfide isomerase makes it an essential enzyme in eukaryotes. PDI also fulfills other important roles. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of PDI as an oxidant in the endoplasmic reticulum. Intriguing questions remain regarding how PDI is able to catalyze both isomerization and oxidation in vivo. Studies of PDI and its homologs have led to the development of small-molecule folding catalysts that are able to accelerate disulfide isomerization in vitro and in vivo. PDI will continue to provide both an inspiration for the design of such artificial foldases and a benchmark with which to gauge the success of those designs. Here, we review current understanding of the chemistry and biology of PDI, its homologs, and small molecules that mimic its catalytic activity. PMID:13678529

  17. BAX Activation is Initiated at a Novel Interaction Site

    PubMed Central

    Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Suzuki, Motoshi; Davis, Marguerite L.; Pitter, Kenneth; Bird, Gregory H.; Katz, Samuel G.; Tu, Ho-Chou; Kim, Hyungjin; Cheng, Emily H.-Y.; Tjandra, Nico; Walensky, Loren D.

    2008-01-01

    BAX is a pro-apoptotic protein of the BCL-2 family stationed in the cytosol until activated by a diversity of stress stimuli to induce cell death. Anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-2 counteract BAX-mediated cell death. Although an interaction site that confers survival functionality has been defined for anti-apoptotic proteins, an activation site has not been identified for BAX, rendering its explicit trigger mechanism unknown. We previously developed Stabilized Alpha-Helix of BCL-2 domains (SAHBs) that directly initiate BAX-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. Here we demonstrate by NMR analysis that BIM SAHB binds BAX at an interaction site that is distinct from the canonical binding groove characterized for anti-apoptotic proteins. The specificity of the BIM SAHB-BAX interaction is highlighted by point mutagenesis that abrogates functional activity, confirming that BAX activation is initiated at this novel structural location. Thus, we have now defined a BAX interaction site for direct activation, establishing a new target for therapeutic modulation of apoptosis. PMID:18948948

  18. Targeting Bax interaction sites reveals that only homo-oligomerization sites are essential for its activation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, R; Tong, J-S; Li, H; Yue, B; Zou, F; Yu, J; Zhang, L

    2013-01-01

    Bax is a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member that has a central role in the initiation of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. However, the mechanism of Bax activation during apoptosis remains unsettled. It is believed that the activation of Bax is mediated by either dissociation from prosurvival Bcl-2 family members, or direct association with BH3-only members. Several interaction sites on Bax that mediate its interactions with other Bcl-2 family members, as well as its proapoptotic activity, have been identified in previous studies by other groups. To rigorously investigate the functional role of these interaction sites, we knocked in their respective mutants using HCT116 colon cancer cells, in which apoptosis induced by several stimuli is strictly Bax-dependent. Bax-mediated apoptosis was intact upon knock-in (KI) of K21E and D33A, which were shown to block the interaction of Bax with BH3-only activators. Apoptosis was partially reduced by KI of D68R, which impairs the interaction of Bax with prosurvival members, and S184V, a constitutively mitochondria-targeting mutant. In contrast, apoptosis was largely suppressed by KI of L70A/D71A, which blocks homo-oligomerization of Bax and its binding to prosurvival Bcl-2 family proteins. Collectively, our results suggest that the activation of endogenous Bax in HCT116 cells is dependent on its homo-oligomerization sites, but not those previously shown to interact with BH3-only activators or prosurvival proteins only. We therefore postulate that critical interaction sites yet to be identified, or mechanisms other than protein-protein interactions, need to be pursued to delineate the mechanism of Bax activation during apoptosis. PMID:23392123

  19. Scorpion venom peptides with no disulfide bridges: a review.

    PubMed

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Albalas, Qosay

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venoms are rich sources of biologically active peptides that are classified into disulfide-bridged peptides (DBPs) and non-disulfide-bridged peptides (NDBPs). DBPs are the main scorpion venom components responsible for the neurotoxic effects observed during scorpion envenomation as they usually target membrane bound ion channels of excitable and non-excitable cells. Several hundred DBPs have been identified and functionally characterized in the past two decades. The NDBPs represent a novel group of molecules that have gained great interest only recently due to their high diversity both in their primary structures and bioactivities. This review provides an overview of scorpion NDBPs focusing on their therapeutic applications, modes of discovery, mechanisms of NDBPs genetic diversity and structural properties. It also provides a simple classification for NDBPs that could be adopted and applied to other NDBPs identified in future studies.

  20. Automatic determination of disulfide bridges in proteins.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, Izabela; Ngounou Wetie, Armand G; Woods, Alisa G; Darie, Costel C

    2012-12-01

    Precise determination of disulfide linkages between cysteine (Cys) residues in proteins is essential in the determination of protein structure. Therefore, a reliable automated method for the identification of disulfide bridges can serve as an important tool in the analysis of the tertiary structure of proteins of interest. Here, we describe the current and past methods used to identify disulfide bridges in proteins, with a focus on mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods and a particular emphasis on nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS)-based methods. We also show the development of an easy method based on the separation of disulfide-linked proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing and nonreducing conditions and selective in-gel digestion of proteins using reducing and nonreducing conditions, followed by analysis of the resulting peptide mixture by nanoACQUITY UPLC coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) Micro mass spectrometer (nanoLC-MS/MS). Data-dependent analysis (DDA) nanoLC-MS/MS and information-dependent analysis (IDA) nanoLC-MS/MS were used for random and targeted identification of disulfide-linked peptides. Finally, an example of electrospray-MS (ESI-MS) and ESI-MS/MS-based determination of disulfide-linked peptides is shown.

  1. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, V; Kurdoglu, Z; Alisik, M; Turgut, E; Sezgın, O O; Korkmaz, H; Ergun, Y; Erel, O

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of postmenopausal osteoporosis on thiol/disulfide homeostasis. A total of 75 participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 40) was composed of healthy postmenopausal women, and group 2 (n = 35) was composed of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Clinical findings and thiol/disulfide homeostasis were compared between the two groups. The disulfide/native thiol ratio was 8.6% ± 3.6 in group 1 and 12.7% ± 8.4 in group 2 (p = 0.04). The disulfide/native thiol percent ratio was significantly higher in group 2 after adjustment for the years since menopause and age (p < 0.05). The native thiol/total thiol percent ratio was 85.6% ± 4.8 in group 1 and 73.8% ± 24.9 in group 2 (p = 0.01). The native thiol/total thiol percent ratio was significantly lower in group 2 after adjustment for the years since menopause and age (p < 0.05). Thiol/disulfide homeostasis shifted to the disulfide side independent of age and years since menopause in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  2. Involvement of novel autophosphorylation sites in ATM activation.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Graham, Mark E; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Philip; Robinson, Phillip J; Lavin, Martin F

    2006-08-09

    ATM kinase plays a central role in signaling DNA double-strand breaks to cell cycle checkpoints and to the DNA repair machinery. Although the exact mechanism of ATM activation remains unknown, efficient activation requires the Mre11 complex, autophosphorylation on S1981 and the involvement of protein phosphatases and acetylases. We report here the identification of several additional phosphorylation sites on ATM in response to DNA damage, including autophosphorylation on pS367 and pS1893. ATM autophosphorylates all these sites in vitro in response to DNA damage. Antibodies against phosphoserine 1893 revealed rapid and persistent phosphorylation at this site after in vivo activation of ATM kinase by ionizing radiation, paralleling that observed for S1981 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation was dependent on functional ATM and on the Mre11 complex. All three autophosphorylation sites are physiologically important parts of the DNA damage response, as phosphorylation site mutants (S367A, S1893A and S1981A) were each defective in ATM signaling in vivo and each failed to correct radiosensitivity, genome instability and cell cycle checkpoint defects in ataxia-telangiectasia cells. We conclude that there are at least three functionally important radiation-induced autophosphorylation events in ATM.

  3. Resonant active sites in catalytic ammonia synthesis: A structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholach, Alexander R.; Bryliakova, Anna A.; Matveev, Andrey V.; Bulgakov, Nikolai N.

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption sites Mn consisted of n adjacent atoms M, each bound to the adsorbed species, are considered within a realistic model. The sum of bonds Σ lost by atoms in a site in comparison with the bulk atoms was used for evaluation of the local surface imperfection, while the reaction enthalpy at that site was used as a measure of activity. The comparative study of Mn sites (n = 1-5) at basal planes of Pt, Rh, Ir, Fe, Re and Ru with respect to heat of N2 dissociative adsorption QN and heat of Nad + Had → NHad reaction QNH was performed using semi-empirical calculations. Linear QN(Σ) increase and QNH(Σ) decrease allowed to specify the resonant Σ for each surface in catalytic ammonia synthesis at equilibrium Nad coverage. Optimal Σ are realizable for Ru2, Re2 and Ir4 only, whereas other centers meet steric inhibition or unreal crystal structure. Relative activity of the most active sites in proportion 5.0 × 10- 5: 4.5 × 10- 3: 1: 2.5: 3.0: 1080: 2270 for a sequence of Pt4, Rh4, Fe4(fcc), Ir4, Fe2-5(bcc), Ru2, Re2, respectively, is in agreement with relevant experimental data. Similar approach can be applied to other adsorption or catalytic processes exhibiting structure sensitivity.

  4. Labile disulfide bonds are common at the leucocyte cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Clive; Cresswell, Peter; Ciaccia, Laura; Thomas, Benjamin; Barclay, A. Neil

    2011-01-01

    Redox conditions change in events such as immune and platelet activation, and during viral infection, but the biochemical consequences are not well characterized. There is evidence that some disulfide bonds in membrane proteins are labile while others that are probably structurally important are not exposed at the protein surface. We have developed a proteomic/mass spectrometry method to screen for and identify non-structural, redox-labile disulfide bonds in leucocyte cell-surface proteins. These labile disulfide bonds are common, with several classes of proteins being identified and around 30 membrane proteins regularly identified under different reducing conditions including using enzymes such as thioredoxin. The proteins identified include integrins, receptors, transporters and cell–cell recognition proteins. In many cases, at least one cysteine residue was identified by mass spectrometry as being modified by the reduction process. In some cases, functional changes are predicted (e.g. in integrins and cytokine receptors) but the scale of molecular changes in membrane proteins observed suggests that widespread effects are likely on many different types of proteins including enzymes, adhesion proteins and transporters. The results imply that membrane protein activity is being modulated by a ‘redox regulator’ mechanism. PMID:22645650

  5. Chemical Modification of Papain and Subtilisin: An Active Site Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Vincent, Mireille; Dickman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An experiment using methyle methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) and phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride (PMSF) to specifically modify the cysteine and serine residues in the active sites of papain and subtilism respectively is demonstrated. The covalent modification of these enzymes and subsequent rescue of papain shows the beginning biochemist that proteins…

  6. Energy transfer at the active sites of heme proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dlott, D.D.; Hill, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments using a picosecond pump-probe apparatus at the Picosecond Free-electron Laser Center at Stanford University, were performed to investigate the relaxation of carbon monoxide bound to the active sites of heme proteins. The significance of these experiments is two-fold: (1) they provide detailed information about molecular dynamics occurring at the active sites of proteins; and (2) they provide insight into the nature of vibrational relaxation processes in condensed matter. Molecular engineering is used to construct various molecular systems which are studied with the FEL. We have studied native proteins, mainly myoglobin obtained from different species, mutant proteins produced by genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques, and a variety of model systems which mimic the structures of the active sites of native proteins, which are produced using molecular synthesis. Use of these different systems permits us to investigate how specific molecular structural changes affect dynamical processes occurring at the active sites. This research provides insight into the problems of how different species needs are fulfilled by heme proteins which have greatly different functionality, which is induced by rather small structural changes.

  7. Spectroscopic studies of the active site of galactose oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, P.F.; Brown, R.D. III; Koenig, S.H.

    1995-07-19

    X-ray absorption and EPR spectroscopy have been used to probe the copper site structure in galactose oxidase at pH 4.5 and 7.0. the results suggest that there are no major differences in the structure of the tetragonal Cu(II) site at these pH values. Analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicates that four N,O scatterers are present at approximately 2 {Angstrom}; these are presumably the equatorial ligands. In addition, the EXAFS data establish that oxidative activation to produce the active-site tyrosine radical does not cause major changes in the copper coordination environment. Therefore results obtained on the one-electron reduced enzyme, containing Cu(II) but not the tyrosine radical, probably also apply to the catalytically active Cu(II)/tyrosine radical state. Solvent water exchange, inhibitor binding, and substrate binding have been probed via nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) measurements. The NMRD profile of galactose oxidase is quantitatively consistent with the rapid exchange of a single, equatorial water ligand with a Cu(II)-O separation of about 2.4 {Angstrom}. Azide and cyanide displace this coordinated water. The binding of azide and the substrate dihydroxyacetone produce very similar effects on the NMRD profile of galactose oxidase, indicating that substrates also bind to the active site Cu(II) in an equatorial position.

  8. Chemical Modification of Papain and Subtilisin: An Active Site Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Vincent, Mireille; Dickman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An experiment using methyle methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) and phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride (PMSF) to specifically modify the cysteine and serine residues in the active sites of papain and subtilism respectively is demonstrated. The covalent modification of these enzymes and subsequent rescue of papain shows the beginning biochemist that proteins…

  9. Electronic properties of monolayer tungsten disulfide grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Abdullah; Shahrjerdi, Davood

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate chemical vapor deposition of large monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2) (>200 μm). Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy provide insight into the structural and strain heterogeneity of the flakes. We observe exciton quenching at grain boundaries that originate from the nucleation site at the center of the WS2 flakes. Temperature variable transport measurements of top-gated WS2 transistors show an apparent metal-to-insulator transition. Variable range and thermally activated hopping mechanisms can explain the carrier transport in the insulating phase at low and intermediate temperatures. The devices exhibit room-temperature field-effect electron mobility as high as 48 cm2/V.s. The mobility increases with decreasing temperature and begins to saturate at below 100 °K, possibly due to Coulomb scattering or defects.

  10. A Ferredoxin Disulfide Reductase Delivers Electrons to the Methanosarcina barkeri Class III Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two subtypes of class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied so far couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to the oxidation of formate, or the oxidation of NADPH via thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Certain methanogenic archaea contain a phylogenetically distinct third subtype of class III RNR, with distinct active-site residues. Here we report the cloning and recombinant expression of the Methanosarcina barkeri class III RNR and show that the electrons required for ribonucleotide reduction can be delivered by a [4Fe-4S] protein ferredoxin disulfide reductase, and a conserved thioredoxin-like protein NrdH present in the RNR operon. The diversity of class III RNRs reflects the diversity of electron carriers used in anaerobic metabolism. PMID:26536144

  11. Direct instrumental identification of catalytically active surface sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Liang, Yunchang; Schneider, Oliver; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S.

    2017-09-01

    The activity of heterogeneous catalysts—which are involved in some 80 per cent of processes in the chemical and energy industries—is determined by the electronic structure of specific surface sites that offer optimal binding of reaction intermediates. Directly identifying and monitoring these sites during a reaction should therefore provide insight that might aid the targeted development of heterogeneous catalysts and electrocatalysts (those that participate in electrochemical reactions) for practical applications. The invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the electrochemical STM promised to deliver such imaging capabilities, and both have indeed contributed greatly to our atomistic understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. But although the STM has been used to probe and initiate surface reactions, and has even enabled local measurements of reactivity in some systems, it is not generally thought to be suited to the direct identification of catalytically active surface sites under reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate, however, that common STMs can readily map the catalytic activity of surfaces with high spatial resolution: we show that by monitoring relative changes in the tunnelling current noise, active sites can be distinguished in an almost quantitative fashion according to their ability to catalyse the hydrogen-evolution reaction or the oxygen-reduction reaction. These data allow us to evaluate directly the importance and relative contribution to overall catalyst activity of different defects and sites at the boundaries between two materials. With its ability to deliver such information and its ready applicability to different systems, we anticipate that our method will aid the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  12. Active sites environmental monitoring program. Annual report FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, C.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Hicks, D.S.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) at ORNL from October 1991 through September 1992. Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division established ASEMP in 1989 to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by Chapter 2 and 3 of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. The Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF) began operation in December 1991. Monitoring results from the tumulus and IWMF disposal pads continue to indicate that no LLW is leaching from the storage vaults. Storm water falling on the IWMF active pad was collected and transported to the Process Waste Treatment Plant while operators awaited approval of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Several of the recent samples collected from the active IWMF pad had pH levels above the NPDES limit of 9.0 because of alkali leached from the concrete. The increase in gross beta activity has been slight; only 1 of the 21 samples collected contained activity above the 5.0 Bq/L action level. Automated sample-collection and flow-measurement equipment has been installed at IWMF and is being tested. The flume designed to electronically measure flow from the IWMF pads and underpads is too large to be of practical value for measuring most flows at this site. Modification of this system will be necessary. A CO{sub 2} bubbler system designed to reduce the pH of water from the pads is being tested at IWMF.

  13. Activation of phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine does not require binding in the active site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth M; Khan, Crystal A; Hinck, Cynthia S; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2014-12-16

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH), a liver enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine, is activated by phenylalanine. The lack of activity at low levels of phenylalanine has been attributed to the N-terminus of the protein's regulatory domain acting as an inhibitory peptide by blocking substrate access to the active site. The location of the site at which phenylalanine binds to activate the enzyme is unknown, and both the active site in the catalytic domain and a separate site in the N-terminal regulatory domain have been proposed. Binding of catecholamines to the active-site iron was used to probe the accessibility of the active site. Removal of the regulatory domain increases the rate constants for association of several catecholamines with the wild-type enzyme by ∼2-fold. Binding of phenylalanine in the active site is effectively abolished by mutating the active-site residue Arg270 to lysine. The k(cat)/K(phe) value is down 10⁴ for the mutant enzyme, and the K(m) value for phenylalanine for the mutant enzyme is >0.5 M. Incubation of the R270K enzyme with phenylalanine also results in a 2-fold increase in the rate constants for catecholamine binding. The change in the tryptophan fluorescence emission spectrum seen in the wild-type enzyme upon activation by phenylalanine is also seen with the R270K mutant enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine. Both results establish that activation of PheH by phenylalanine does not require binding of the amino acid in the active site. This is consistent with a separate allosteric site, likely in the regulatory domain.

  14. Combined use of ion mobility and collision-induced dissociation to investigate the opening of disulfide bridges by electron-transfer dissociation in peptides bearing two disulfide bonds.

    PubMed

    Massonnet, Philippe; Upert, Gregory; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Gilles, Nicolas; Quinton, Loïc; De Pauw, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are post-translational modifications (PTMs) often found in peptides and proteins. They increase their stability toward enzymatic degradations and provide the structure and (consequently) the activity of such folded proteins. The characterization of disulfide patterns, i.e., the cysteine connectivity, is crucial to achieve a global picture of the active conformation of the protein of interest. Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) constitutes a valuable tool to cleave the disulfide bonds in the gas phase, avoiding chemical reduction/alkylation in solution. To characterize the cysteine pairing, the present work proposes (i) to reduce by ETD one of the two disulfide bridges of model peptides, resulting in the opening of the cyclic structures, (ii) to separate the generated species by ion mobility, and (iii) to characterize the species using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Results of this strategy applied to several peptides show different behaviors depending on the connectivity. The loss of SH· radical species, observed for all the peptides, confirms the cleavage of the disulfides during the ETD process.

  15. Changes in active site histidine hydrogen bonding trigger cryptochrome activation.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Abir; Manahan, Craig C; Top, Deniz; Yee, Estella F; Lin, Changfan; Young, Michael W; Thiel, Walter; Crane, Brian R

    2016-09-06

    Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations indicate that flavin reduction substantially increases the His378 pKa Consistent with coupling between ASQ formation and His378 protonation, dCRY displays reduced photoreduction rates with increasing pH; however, His378Asn/Arg variants show no such pH dependence. Replica-exchange MD simulations also support CTT release mediated by changes in His378 hydrogen bonding and verify other responsive regions of the protein previously identified by proteolytic sensitivity assays. His378 dCRY variants show varying abilities to light-activate TIM and undergo self-degradation in cellular assays. Surprisingly, His378Arg/Lys variants do not degrade in light despite maintaining reactivity toward TIM, thereby implicating different conformational responses in these two functions. Thus, the dCRY photosensory mechanism involves flavin photoreduction coupled to protonation of His378, whose perturbed hydrogen-bonding pattern alters the CTT and surrounding regions.

  16. Changes in active site histidine hydrogen bonding trigger cryptochrome activation

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Abir; Manahan, Craig C.; Top, Deniz; Yee, Estella F.; Lin, Changfan; Young, Michael W.; Thiel, Walter; Crane, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations indicate that flavin reduction substantially increases the His378 pKa. Consistent with coupling between ASQ formation and His378 protonation, dCRY displays reduced photoreduction rates with increasing pH; however, His378Asn/Arg variants show no such pH dependence. Replica-exchange MD simulations also support CTT release mediated by changes in His378 hydrogen bonding and verify other responsive regions of the protein previously identified by proteolytic sensitivity assays. His378 dCRY variants show varying abilities to light-activate TIM and undergo self-degradation in cellular assays. Surprisingly, His378Arg/Lys variants do not degrade in light despite maintaining reactivity toward TIM, thereby implicating different conformational responses in these two functions. Thus, the dCRY photosensory mechanism involves flavin photoreduction coupled to protonation of His378, whose perturbed hydrogen-bonding pattern alters the CTT and surrounding regions. PMID:27551082

  17. The α-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis protein disulfide machinery has a regulatory mechanism absent in γ-proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Walden, Patricia M; Halili, Maria A; Archbold, Julia K; Lindahl, Fredrik; Fairlie, David P; Inaba, Kenji; Martin, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The α-proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis infects more than 65% of insect species worldwide and manipulates the host reproductive machinery to enable its own survival. It can live in mutualistic relationships with hosts that cause human disease, including mosquitoes that carry the Dengue virus. Like many other bacteria, Wolbachia contains disulfide bond forming (Dsb) proteins that introduce disulfide bonds into secreted effector proteins. The genome of the Wolbachia strain wMel encodes two DsbA-like proteins sharing just 21% sequence identity to each other, α-DsbA1 and α-DsbA2, and an integral membrane protein, α-DsbB. α-DsbA1 and α-DsbA2 both have a Cys-X-X-Cys active site that, by analogy with Escherichia coli DsbA, would need to be oxidized to the disulfide form to serve as a disulfide bond donor toward substrate proteins. Here we show that the integral membrane protein α-DsbB oxidizes α-DsbA1, but not α-DsbA2. The interaction between α-DsbA1 and α-DsbB is very specific, involving four essential cysteines located in the two periplasmic loops of α-DsbB. In the electron flow cascade, oxidation of α-DsbA1 by α-DsbB is initiated by an oxidizing quinone cofactor that interacts with the cysteine pair in the first periplasmic loop. Oxidizing power is transferred to the second cysteine pair, which directly interacts with α-DsbA1. This reaction is inhibited by a non-catalytic disulfide present in α-DsbA1, conserved in other α-proteobacterial DsbAs but not in γ-proteobacterial DsbAs. This is the first characterization of the integral membrane protein α-DsbB from Wolbachia and reveals that the non-catalytic cysteines of α-DsbA1 regulate the redox relay system in cooperation with α-DsbB.

  18. Probing the promiscuous active site of myo-inositol dehydrogenase using synthetic substrates, homology modeling, and active site modification.

    PubMed

    Daniellou, Richard; Zheng, Hongyan; Langill, David M; Sanders, David A R; Palmer, David R J

    2007-06-26

    The active site of myo-inositol dehydrogenase (IDH, EC 1.1.1.18) from Bacillus subtilis recognizes a variety of mono- and disaccharides, as well as 1l-4-O-substituted inositol derivatives. It catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of the axial alcohol of these substrates with comparable kinetic constants. We have found that 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol does not act as a substrate for IDH, in contrast to structurally similar compounds such as those bearing substituted benzyl substituents in the same position. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol and 4-O-(2-naphthyl)methyl-myo-inositol, which is a substrate for IDH, shows a distinct difference in the preferred conformation of the aryl substituent. Conformational analysis of known substrates of IDH suggests that this conformational difference may account for the difference in reactivity of 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol in the presence of IDH. A sequence alignment of IDH with the homologous glucose-fructose oxidoreductase allowed the construction of an homology model of inositol dehydrogenase, to which NADH and 4-O-benzyl-scyllo-inosose were docked and the active site energy minimized. The active site model is consistent with all experimental results and suggests that a conserved tyrosine-glycine-tyrosine motif forms the hydrophobic pocket adjoining the site of inositol recognition. Y233F and Y235F retain activity, while Y233R and Y235R do not. A histidine-aspartate pair, H176 and D172, are proposed to act as a dyad in which H176 is the active site acid/base. The enzyme is inactivated by diethyl pyrocarbonate, and the mutants H176A and D172N show a marked loss of activity. Kinetic isotope effect experiments with D172N indicate that chemistry is rate-determining for this mutant.

  19. The active site structure and mechanism of phosphoenolpyruvate utilizing enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    Arginine specific reagents showed irreversible inhibition of avian liver mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Potent protection against modification was elicited by CO{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} in the presence of other substrates. Labeling of enzyme with (7-{sup 14}C) phenylglyoxal showed that 1 or 2 arginines are involved in CO{sub 2} binding and activation. Peptide map studies showed this active site arginine residues is located at position 289. Histidine specific reagents showed pseudo first order inhibition of avian mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity. The best protection against modification was elicited by IDP or IDP and Mn{sup +2}. One histidine residue is at or near the phosphoenolpyruvate binding site as demonstrated in the increased absorbance at 240 nm and proton relaxation rate studies. Circular dichroism studies reveal that enzyme structure was perturbed by diethylpyrocarbonate modification. Metal binding studies suggest that this enzyme has only one metal binding site. The putative binding sites from several GTP and phosphoenolpyruvate utilizing enzymes are observed in P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase from different species.

  20. Disulfide bridge reorganization induced by proline mutations in maurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Carlier, E; Fajloun, Z; Mansuelle, P; Fathallah, M; Mosbah, A; Oughideni, R; Sandoz, G; Di Luccio, E; Geib, S; Regaya, I; Brocard, J; Rochat, H; Darbon, H; Devaux, C; Sabatier, J M; de Waard, M

    2001-02-02

    Maurotoxin (MTX) is a 34-residue toxin that has been isolated from the venom of the chactidae scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus, and characterized. Together with Pi1 and HsTx1, MTX belongs to a family of short-chain four-disulfide-bridged scorpion toxins acting on potassium channels. However, contrary to other members of this family, MTX exhibits an uncommon disulfide bridge organization of the type C1-C5, C2-C6, C3-C4 and C7-C8, versus C1-C5, C2-C6, C3-C7 and C4-C8 for both Pi1 and HsTx1. Here, we report that the substitution of MTX proline residues located at positions 12 and/or 20, adjacent to C3 (Cys(13)) and C4 (Cys(19)), results in conventional Pi1- and HsTx1-like arrangement of the half-cystine pairings. In this case, this novel disulfide bridge arrangement is without obvious incidence on the overall three-dimensional structure of the toxin. Pharmacological assays of this structural analog, [A(12),A(20)]MTX, reveal that the blocking activities on Shaker B and rat Kv1.2 channels remain potent whereas the peptide becomes inactive on rat Kv1.3. These data indicate, for the first time, that discrete point mutations in MTX can result in a marked reorganization of the half-cystine pairings, accompanied with a novel pharmacological profile for the analog.

  1. Tissue factor de-encryption, thrombus formation, and thiol-disulfide exchange.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vivien M Y

    2013-02-01

    Tissue factor (TF) by forming a complex with factor VIIa (FVIIa) initiates blood coagulation. It was traditionally believed that the separation of FVIIa in circulation from subendothelial TF was the main control that was preventing spontaneous initiation of thrombosis and that circulating cells and endothelium did not express TF protein at rest in healthy individuals. However, TF has been detected in healthy human plasma and animal models of thrombosis, which indicate that TF in circulation can contribute to thrombin generation and fibrin formation after an activation event. Circulating TF-and indeed, most of the TF on the cell surface-is "encrypted" or coagulation inactive. The de-encryption step involves exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), but PS exposure alone is insufficient for full TF activity. Allosteric disulfide bonds control protein function by mediating conformal change through the formation and breaking of disulfide bonds. TF contains a typical surface exposed allosteric bond in the membrane proximal fibronectin type III domain. Thiol-disulfide exchange involving this disulfide is implicated in TF activation with the formation of the disulfide bond corresponding with the active conformation of TF and free thiol or thiol-modified forms corresponding with encryption. Although the exact mechanism by which TF de-encryption occurs remains a subject of debate, thiol blockade and inhibition of oxidoreductases show an important role for thiol-disulfide reactions in platelet-independent pathways of coagulation in vitro and in vivo. In particular, redox active extracellular protein disulfide isomerase is involved in the earliest stages of thrombus initiation and has proven to be a potential target for antithrombotic drug development.

  2. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling: A common pathway for interactions between prooxidants and extracellular disulfide high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein-coupled activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Karki, Rajendra; Igwe, Orisa J

    2015-11-01

    Necrotic cells passively release HMGB1, which can stimulate TLR4 in an autocrine fashion to potentially initiate "sterile" inflammation that maintains different disease states. We have shown that prooxidants can induce NF-κB activation through TLR4 stimulation. We examined whether prooxidants enhance HMGB1-induced TLR4 signaling through NF-κB activation. We used LPS-EK as a specific agonist for TLR4, and PPC and SIN-1 as in situ sources for ROS. As model systems, we used HEK-Blue cells (stably transfected with mouse TLR4), RAW-Blue™ cells (derived from murine RAW 264.7 macrophages) and primary murine macrophages from TLR4-KO mice. Both HEK-Blue and RAW-Blue 264.7 cells express optimized secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter under the control of a promoter inducible by NF-κB. We treated cells with HMGB1 alone and/or in conjunction with prooxidants and/or inhibitors using SEAP release as a measure of TLR4 stimulation. HMGB1 alone and/or in conjunction with prooxidants increased TNFα and IL-6 released from TLR4-WT, but not from TLR4-KO macrophages. Pro-oxidants increased HMGB1 release, which we quantified by ELISA. We used both fluorescence microscopy imaging and flow cytometry to quantify the expression of intracellular ROS. TLR4-neutralizing antibody decreased prooxidant-induced HMGB1 release. Prooxidants promoted HMGB1-induced NF-κB activation as determined by increased release of SEAP and TNF-α, and accumulation of iROS. HMGB1 (Box A), anti-HMGB1 and anti-TLR4-neutralizing pAbs inhibited HMGB1-induced NF-κB activation, but HMGB1 (Box A) and anti-HMGB1 pAb had no effect on prooxidant-induced SEAP release. The present results confirm that prooxidants enhance proinflammatory effects of HMGB1 by activating NF-κB through TLR4 signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on the biotin-binding site of avidin. Tryptophan residues involved in the active site.

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, G; Bayer, E A; Wilchek, M

    1988-01-01

    Egg-white avidin was modified with the tryptophan-specific reagent 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide. The complete loss of biotin-binding activity was achieved upon modification of an average of one tryptophan residue per avidin subunit. The identity of the modified residues was determined by isolating the relevant tryptic and chymotryptic peptides from CNBr-cleaved avidin fragments. The results demonstrate that Trp-70 and Trp-110 are modified in approximately equivalent proportions. It is believed that these residues are located in the active site of avidin and take part in the binding of biotin. PMID:3355517

  4. Studies on the biotin-binding site of avidin. Tryptophan residues involved in the active site.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, G; Bayer, E A; Wilchek, M

    1988-02-15

    Egg-white avidin was modified with the tryptophan-specific reagent 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide. The complete loss of biotin-binding activity was achieved upon modification of an average of one tryptophan residue per avidin subunit. The identity of the modified residues was determined by isolating the relevant tryptic and chymotryptic peptides from CNBr-cleaved avidin fragments. The results demonstrate that Trp-70 and Trp-110 are modified in approximately equivalent proportions. It is believed that these residues are located in the active site of avidin and take part in the binding of biotin.

  5. Reduction of the internal disulfide bond between Cys 38 and 83 switches the ligand migration pathway in cytoglobin.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, Luisana; Bernad, Sophie; Derrien, Valérie; Sebban, Pierre; Miksovska, Jaroslava

    2013-12-01

    Despite the similar tertiary structure between cytoglobin (Cygb) and myoglobin, several structural features indicate a distinct mechanism of Cygb interactions with exogenous ligands. Here we present a spectroscopic investigation of the dynamics and thermodynamics of structural changes associated with the exogenous ligand migration between the solvent and the heme active site in Cygb with reduced and oxidized Cys 38 and Cys 83 side-chains (Cygb(ox) and Cygb(red), respectively). Photo-acoustic and transient absorption data show that disulfide bond formation alters the ligand migration pathway(s) as evident from the distinct geminate quantum yields (Φgem=0.35 for Cygb(ox) and Φgem=0.63 for Cygb(red)) and rate constants for bimolecular CO rebinding. Moreover, ligand escape from the protein matrix is fast (<40ns) and coupled with an enthalpy change of 18±2kcalmol(-1) in Cygb(red), whereas the disulfide bridge formation promotes a biphasic ligand escape associated with an overall enthalpy change of 9±4kcalmol(-1). These results demonstrate that the disulfide bond connecting helix E and helix B modulates the conformational dynamics in Cygb including the size and energy barrier between the internal hydrophobic sites. Based on the comparison of the thermodynamic profiles for CO photo-dissociation from Cygb, myoglobin, and neuroglobin we propose that in Cygb(red) the photo-dissociated ligand escapes through the hydrophobic tunnel, whereas the CO preferably migrates through the His64 gate in Cygb(ox) suggesting that Cygb's physiological role may vary in response to intracellular redox conditions. © 2013.

  6. Metric learning for enzyme active-site search

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Nagano, Nozomi

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Finding functionally analogous enzymes based on the local structures of active sites is an important problem. Conventional methods use templates of local structures to search for analogous sites, but their performance depends on the selection of atoms for inclusion in the templates. Results: The automatic selection of atoms so that site matches can be discriminated from mismatches. The algorithm provides not only good predictions, but also some insights into which atoms are important for the prediction. Our experimental results suggest that the metric learning automatically provides more effective templates than those whose atoms are selected manually. Availability: Online software is available at http://www.net-machine.net/∼kato/lpmetric1/ Contact: kato-tsuyoshi@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20870642

  7. The KIM-family protein-tyrosine phosphatases use distinct reversible oxidation intermediates: Intramolecular or intermolecular disulfide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Machado, Luciana E S F; Shen, Tun-Li; Page, Rebecca; Peti, Wolfgang

    2017-05-26

    The kinase interaction motif (KIM) family of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) includes hematopoietic protein-tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP), striatal-enriched protein-tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), and protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type R (PTPRR). KIM-PTPs bind and dephosphorylate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and thereby critically modulate cell proliferation and differentiation. PTP activity can readily be diminished by reactive oxygen species (ROS), e.g. H2O2, which oxidize the catalytically indispensable active-site cysteine. This initial oxidation generates an unstable sulfenic acid intermediate that is quickly converted into either a sulfinic/sulfonic acid (catalytically dead and irreversible inactivation) or a stable sulfenamide or disulfide bond intermediate (reversible inactivation). Critically, our understanding of ROS-mediated PTP oxidation is not yet sufficient to predict the molecular responses of PTPs to oxidative stress. However, identifying distinct responses will enable novel routes for PTP-selective drug design, important for managing diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we performed a detailed biochemical and molecular study of all KIM-PTP family members to determine their H2O2 oxidation profiles and identify their reversible inactivation mechanism(s). We show that despite having nearly identical 3D structures and sequences, each KIM-PTP family member has a unique oxidation profile. Furthermore, we also show that whereas STEP and PTPRR stabilize their reversibly oxidized state by forming an intramolecular disulfide bond, HePTP uses an unexpected mechanism, namely, formation of a reversible intermolecular disulfide bond. In summary, despite being closely related, KIM-PTPs significantly differ in oxidation profiles. These findings highlight that oxidation protection is critical when analyzing PTPs, for example, in drug screening. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Active-Site-Accessible, Porphyrinic Metal;#8722;Organic Framework Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Farha, Omar K.; Shultz, Abraham M.; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-02-06

    On account of their structural similarity to cofactors found in many metallo-enzymes, metalloporphyrins are obvious potential building blocks for catalytically active, metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. While numerous porphyrin-based MOFs have already been described, versions featuring highly accessible active sites and permanent microporosity are remarkably scarce. Indeed, of the more than 70 previously reported porphyrinic MOFs, only one has been shown to be both permanently microporous and contain internally accessible active sites for chemical catalysis. Attempts to generalize the design approach used in this single successful case have failed. Reported here, however, is the synthesis of an extended family of MOFs that directly incorporate a variety of metalloporphyrins (specifically Al{sup 3+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 3+}, and Fe{sup 3+} complexes). These robust porphyrinic materials (RPMs) feature large channels and readily accessible active sites. As an illustrative example, one of the manganese-containing RPMs is shown to be catalytically competent for the oxidation of alkenes and alkanes.

  9. Biochemical characterization of the chondroitinase ABC I active site

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    cABC I (chondroitinase ABC I) from Proteus vulgaris is a GalAG (galactosaminoglycan) depolymerizing lyase that cleaves its substrates at the glycosidic bond via β-elimination. cABC I cleaves a particularly broad range of GalAG substrates, including CS (chondroitin sulphate), DS (dermatan sulphate) and hyaluronic acid. We recently cloned and recombinantly expressed cABC I in Escherichia coli, and completed a preliminary biochemical characterization of the enzyme. In the present study, we have coupled site-directed mutagenesis of the recombinant cABC I with a structural model of the enzyme–substrate complex in order to investigate in detail the roles of active site amino acids in the catalytic action of the enzyme. The putative catalytic residues His-501, Tyr-508, Arg-560 and Glu-653 were probed systematically via mutagenesis. Assessment of these mutants in kinetic and end-point assays provided direct evidence on the catalytic roles of these active-site residues. The crystal structure of the native enzyme provided a framework for molecular docking of representative CS and DS substrates. This enabled us to construct recombinant enzyme–substrate structural complexes. These studies together provided structural insights into the effects of the mutations on the catalytic mechanism of cABC I and the differences in its processing of CS and DS substrates. All His-501 mutants were essentially inactive and thereby implicating this amino acid to play the critical role of proton abstraction during catalysis. The kinetic data for Glu-653 mutants indicated that it is involved in a hydrogen bonding network in the active site. The proximity of Tyr-508 to the glycosidic oxygen of the substrate at the site of cleavage suggested its potential role in protonating the leaving group. Arg-560 was proximal to the uronic acid C-5 proton, suggesting its possible role in the stabilization of the carbanion intermediate formed during catalysis. PMID:16108757

  10. Biochemical characterization of the chondroitinase ABC I active site.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Vikas; Raman, Rahul; Capila, Ishan; Bosques, Carlos J; Pojasek, Kevin; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2005-09-01

    cABC I (chondroitinase ABC I) from Proteus vulgaris is a GalAG (galactosaminoglycan) depolymerizing lyase that cleaves its substrates at the glycosidic bond via beta-elimination. cABC I cleaves a particularly broad range of GalAG substrates, including CS (chondroitin sulphate), DS (dermatan sulphate) and hyaluronic acid. We recently cloned and recombinantly expressed cABC I in Escherichia coli, and completed a preliminary biochemical characterization of the enzyme. In the present study, we have coupled site-directed mutagenesis of the recombinant cABC I with a structural model of the enzyme-substrate complex in order to investigate in detail the roles of active site amino acids in the catalytic action of the enzyme. The putative catalytic residues His-501, Tyr-508, Arg-560 and Glu-653 were probed systematically via mutagenesis. Assessment of these mutants in kinetic and end-point assays provided direct evidence on the catalytic roles of these active-site residues. The crystal structure of the native enzyme provided a framework for molecular docking of representative CS and DS substrates. This enabled us to construct recombinant enzyme-substrate structural complexes. These studies together provided structural insights into the effects of the mutations on the catalytic mechanism of cABC I and the differences in its processing of CS and DS substrates. All His-501 mutants were essentially inactive and thereby implicating this amino acid to play the critical role of proton abstraction during catalysis. The kinetic data for Glu-653 mutants indicated that it is involved in a hydrogen bonding network in the active site. The proximity of Tyr-508 to the glycosidic oxygen of the substrate at the site of cleavage suggested its potential role in protonating the leaving group. Arg-560 was proximal to the uronic acid C-5 proton, suggesting its possible role in the stabilization of the carbanion intermediate formed during catalysis.

  11. An Active MammoSite for Breast Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Alice

    2007-03-01

    Breast brachytherapy using the MammoSite balloon catheter is one of the latest developments in breast cancer treatment and is the most performed method of brachytherapy. A high activity ^192Ir radioactive source is pushed inside the shaft of the device until it reaches the center of the balloon. The latest involvement of the Brachytherapy research group of the medical physics program at Hampton University is in the development of a scintillating fiber based detector for the breast cancer specific MammoSite balloon catheter from Cytyc, Inc. During the summer 2006, data were acquired at a local hospital (Bon Secours DePaul Medical Center) to evaluate the possibility of measuring the source location and dose distribution during breast brachytherapy cancer treatments with this device. Two 0.5 mm^2 and 1.0 mm^2 scintillating fibers were used for these experiments. We used two modified MammoSite devices, each housing an extra tubing within which the fibers were inserted. The results from these runs confirm the possibility of an active MammoSite to monitor the location of the source as well its dose distribution during patient treatment. We will describe the experimental setup and discuss the data.

  12. Cellular disulfide bond formation in bioactive peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nitin A; Tailhades, Julien; Hughes, Richard Anthony; Separovic, Frances; Wade, John D; Hossain, Mohammed Akhter

    2015-01-14

    Bioactive peptides play important roles in metabolic regulation and modulation and many are used as therapeutics. These peptides often possess disulfide bonds, which are important for their structure, function and stability. A systematic network of enzymes--a disulfide bond generating enzyme, a disulfide bond donor enzyme and a redox cofactor--that function inside the cell dictates the formation and maintenance of disulfide bonds. The main pathways that catalyze disulfide bond formation in peptides and proteins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are remarkably similar and share several mechanistic features. This review summarizes the formation of disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins by cellular and recombinant machinery.

  13. Cellular Disulfide Bond Formation in Bioactive Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Nitin A.; Tailhades, Julien; Hughes, Richard Anthony; Separovic, Frances; Wade, John D.; Hossain, Mohammed Akhter

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides play important roles in metabolic regulation and modulation and many are used as therapeutics. These peptides often possess disulfide bonds, which are important for their structure, function and stability. A systematic network of enzymes—a disulfide bond generating enzyme, a disulfide bond donor enzyme and a redox cofactor—that function inside the cell dictates the formation and maintenance of disulfide bonds. The main pathways that catalyze disulfide bond formation in peptides and proteins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are remarkably similar and share several mechanistic features. This review summarizes the formation of disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins by cellular and recombinant machinery. PMID:25594871

  14. Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Silicate Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolles, Tobias; Burkart, Julia; Häusler, Thomas; Pummer, Bernhard; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Mineral dusts originating from Earth's crust are known to be important atmospheric ice nuclei. In agreement with earlier studies, feldspar was found as the most active of the tested natural mineral dusts [1-3]. Nevertheless, among those structures K-feldspar showed by far the highest ice nucleation activity. In this study, the reasons for its activity and the difference in the activity of the different feldspars were investigated in closer details. Conclusions are drawn from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and oil-immersion freezing experiments. We give a potential explanation of the increased ice nucleation activity of K-feldspar. The ice nucleating sites are very much dependent on the alkali ion present by altering the water structure and the feldspar surface. The higher activity of K-feldspar can be attributed to the presence of potassium ions on the surface and surface bilayer. The alkali-ions have different hydration shells and thus an influence on the ice nucleation activity of feldspar. Chaotropic behavior of Calcium and Sodium ions are lowering the ice nucleation potential of the other feldspars, while kosmotropic Potassium has a neutral or even positive effect. Furthermore we investigated the influence of milling onto the ice nucleation of quartz particles. The ice nucleation activity can be increased by mechanical milling, by introducing more molecular, nucleation active defects to the particle surface. This effect is larger than expected by plane surface increase. [1] Atkinson et al. The Importance of Feldspar for Ice Nucleation by Mineral Dust in Mixed-Phase Clouds. Nature 2013, 498, 355-358. [2] Yakobi-Hancock et al.. Feldspar Minerals as Efficient Deposition Ice Nuclei. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013, 13, 11175-11185. [3] Zolles et al. Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Feldspar Dust Particles. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015 accepted.

  15. Face the Edges: Catalytic Active Sites of Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Edges are special sites in nanomaterials. The atoms residing on the edges have different environments compared to those in other parts of a nanomaterial and, therefore, they may have different properties. Here, recent progress in nanomaterial fields is summarized from the viewpoint of the edges. Typically, edge sites in MoS2 or metals, other than surface atoms, can perform as active centers for catalytic reactions, so the method to enhance performance lies in the optimization of the edge structures. The edges of multicomponent interfaces present even more possibilities to enhance the activities of nanomaterials. Nanoframes and ultrathin nanowires have similarities to conventional edges of nanoparticles, the application of which as catalysts can help to reduce the use of costly materials. Looking beyond this, the edge structures of graphene are also essential for their properties. In short, the edge structure can influence many properties of materials. PMID:27980960

  16. Active sites in char gasification: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtowicz, M.; Lilly, W.D.; Perkins, M.T.; Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    Among the key variables in the design of gasifiers and combustors is the reactivity of the chars which must be gasified or combusted. Significant loss of unburned char is unacceptable in virtually any process; the provision of sufficient residence time for complete conversion is essential. A very wide range of reactivities are observed, depending upon the nature of the char in a process. The current work focuses on furthering the understanding of gasification reactivities of chars. It has been well established that the reactivity of char to gasification generally depends upon three principal factors: (1) the concentration of ''active sites'' in the char; (2) mass transfer within the char; and (3) the type and concentration of catalytic impurities in the char. The present study primarily addresses the first factor. The subject of this research is the origin, nature, and fate of active sites in chars derived from parent hydrocarbons with coal-like structure. The nature and number of the active sites and their reactivity towards oxygen are examined in ''model'' chars derived from phenol-formaldehyde type resins. How the active sites are lost by the process of thermal annealing during heat treatment of chars are studied, and actual rate for the annealing process is derived. Since intrinsic char reactivities are of primary interest in the present study, a fair amount of attention was given to the model char synthesis and handling so that the effect of catalytic impurities and oxygen-containing functional groups in the chemical structure of the material were minimized, if not completely eliminated. The project would not be considered complete without comparing characteristic features of synthetic chars with kinetic behavior exhibited by natural chars, including coal chars.

  17. The inhibition of proinsulin-processing endopeptidase activities by active-site-directed peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, C J; Zumbrunn, A; Bailyes, E M; Shaw, E; Hutton, J C

    1989-01-01

    Inhibitor studies were performed on the two endopeptidase activities involved in proinsulin conversion in isolated insulin secretory granules [Davidson, Rhodes & Hutton (1988) Nature (London) 333, 93-96]. The active-site-directed peptides L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-arginylmethyldimethylsulphonium and L-alanyl-L-lysyl-L-arginylmethyldimethylsulphonium inhibited these activities in accordance with the observed cleavage pattern, suggesting that the primary amino acid sequence of the dibasic site was an important determinant of the endopeptidase substrate specificities. PMID:2649090

  18. [Mechanism of arginine deiminase activity by site-directed mutagenesis].

    PubMed

    Li, Lifeng; Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Arginine deiminase (ADI) has been studied as a potential anti-cancer agent for inhibiting arginine-auxotrophic tumors (such as melanomas and hepatocellular carcinomas) in phase III clinical trials. In this work, we studied the molecular mechanism of arginine deiminase activity by site-directed mutagenesis. Three mutation sites, A128, H404 and 1410, were introduced into wild-type ADI gene by QuikChange site-directed mutagenesis method, and four ADI mutants M1 (A128T), M2 (H404R), M3 (I410L), and M4 (A128T, H404R) were obtained. The ADI mutants were individually expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the enzymatic properties of the purified mutant proteins were determined. The results show that both A128T and H404R had enhanced optimum pH, higher activity and stability of ADI under physiological condition (pH 7.4), as well as reduced K(m) value. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanism of the ADI activity, and also the experimental evidence for the rational protein evolution in the future.

  19. Brownian aggregation rate of colloid particles with several active sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Polshchitsin, Alexey A.; Yakovleva, Galina E.; Maltsev, Valeri P.

    2014-08-14

    We theoretically analyze the aggregation kinetics of colloid particles with several active sites. Such particles (so-called “patchy particles”) are well known as chemically anisotropic reactants, but the corresponding rate constant of their aggregation has not yet been established in a convenient analytical form. Using kinematic approximation for the diffusion problem, we derived an analytical formula for the diffusion-controlled reaction rate constant between two colloid particles (or clusters) with several small active sites under the following assumptions: the relative translational motion is Brownian diffusion, and the isotropic stochastic reorientation of each particle is Markovian and arbitrarily correlated. This formula was shown to produce accurate results in comparison with more sophisticated approaches. Also, to account for the case of a low number of active sites per particle we used Monte Carlo stochastic algorithm based on Gillespie method. Simulations showed that such discrete model is required when this number is less than 10. Finally, we applied the developed approach to the simulation of immunoagglutination, assuming that the formed clusters have fractal structure.

  20. Active site amino acid sequence of human factor D.

    PubMed

    Davis, A E

    1980-08-01

    Factor D was isolated from human plasma by chromatography on CM-Sephadex C50, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxylapatite. Digestion of reduced, S-carboxymethylated factor D with cyanogen bromide resulted in three peptides which were isolated by chromatography on Sephadex G-75 (superfine) equilibrated in 20% formic acid. NH2-Terminal sequences were determined by automated Edman degradation with a Beckman 890C sequencer using a 0.1 M Quadrol program. The smallest peptide (CNBr III) consisted of the NH2-terminal 14 amino acids. The other two peptides had molecular weights of 17,000 (CNBr I) and 7000 (CNBr II). Overlap of the NH2-terminal sequence of factor D with the NH2-terminal sequence of CNBr I established the order of the peptides. The NH2-terminal 53 residues of factor D are somewhat more homologous with the group-specific protease of rat intestine than with other serine proteases. The NH2-terminal sequence of CNBr II revealed the active site serine of factor D. The typical serine protease active site sequence (Gly-Asp-Ser-Gly-Gly-Pro was found at residues 12-17. The region surrounding the active site serine does not appear to be more highly homologous with any one of the other serine proteases. The structural data obtained point out the similarities between factor D and the other proteases. However, complete definition of the degree of relationship between factor D and other proteases will require determination of the remainder of the primary structure.

  1. Terminal Uranium(V/VI) Nitride Activation of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Disulfide: Factors Governing Diverse and Well-Defined Cleavage and Redox Reactions.

    PubMed

    Cleaves, Peter A; Kefalidis, Christos E; Gardner, Benedict M; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; Lewis, William; Maron, Laurent; Liddle, Stephen T

    2017-02-24

    The reactivity of terminal uranium(V/VI) nitrides with CE2 (E=O, S) is presented. Well-defined C=E cleavage followed by zero-, one-, and two-electron redox events is observed. The uranium(V) nitride [U(Tren(TIPS) )(N)][K(B15C5)2 ] (1, Tren(TIPS) =N(CH2 CH2 NSiiPr3 )3 ; B15C5=benzo-15-crown-5) reacts with CO2 to give [U(Tren(TIPS) )(O)(NCO)][K(B15C5)2 ] (3), whereas the uranium(VI) nitride [U(Tren(TIPS) )(N)] (2) reacts with CO2 to give isolable [U(Tren(TIPS) )(O)(NCO)] (4); complex 4 rapidly decomposes to known [U(Tren(TIPS) )(O)] (5) with concomitant formation of N2 and CO proposed, with the latter trapped as a vanadocene adduct. In contrast, 1 reacts with CS2 to give [U(Tren(TIPS) )(κ(2) -CS3 )][K(B15C5)2 ] (6), 2, and [K(B15C5)2 ][NCS] (7), whereas 2 reacts with CS2 to give [U(Tren(TIPS) )(NCS)] (8) and "S", with the latter trapped as Ph3 PS. Calculated reaction profiles reveal outer-sphere reactivity for uranium(V) but inner-sphere mechanisms for uranium(VI); despite the wide divergence of products the initial activation of CE2 follows mechanistically related pathways, providing insight into the factors of uranium oxidation state, chalcogen, and NCE groups that govern the subsequent divergent redox reactions that include common one-electron reactions and a less-common two-electron redox event. Caution, we suggest, is warranted when utilising CS2 as a reactivity surrogate for CO2 .

  2. Oxygen-induced maturation of SOD1: a key role for disulfide formation by the copper chaperone CCS.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Torres, Andrew S; O'Halloran, Thomas V

    2004-07-21

    The antioxidant enzyme Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has the distinction of being one of the most abundant disulfide-containing protein known in the eukaryotic cytosol; however, neither catalytic nor physiological roles for the conserved disulfide are known. Here we show that the disulfide status of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SOD1 significantly affects the monomer-dimer equilibrium, the interaction with the copper chaperone CCS, and the activity of the enzyme itself. Disulfide formation in SOD1 by O2 is slow but is greatly accelerated by the Cu-bound form of CCS (Cu-CCS) in vivo and in vitro even in the presence of excess reductants; once formed, this disulfide is kinetically stable. Biochemical assays reveal that Cu-CCS facilitates Cys oxidation and disulfide isomerization in the stepwise conversion of the immature form of the enzyme to the active state. The immature form of SOD1 is most susceptible to oxidative insult and to aggregation reminiscent of that observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Thus Cu-CCS mediation of correct disulfide formation in SOD1 is important for regulation of enzyme activity and for prevention of misfolding or aggregation.

  3. Potential sites of CFTR activation by tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Billet, Arnaud; Jia, Yanlin; Jensen, Timothy J.; Hou, Yue-Xian; Chang, Xiu-Bao; Riordan, John R.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The CFTR chloride channel is tightly regulated by phosphorylation at multiple serine residues. Recently it has been proposed that its activity is also regulated by tyrosine kinases, however the tyrosine phosphorylation sites remain to be identified. In this study we examined 2 candidate tyrosine residues near the boundary between the first nucleotide binding domain and the R domain, a region which is important for channel function but devoid of PKA consensus sequences. Mutating tyrosines at positions 625 and 627 dramatically reduced responses to Src or Pyk2 without altering the activation by PKA, suggesting they may contribute to CFTR regulation. PMID:26645934

  4. Interactive flare sites within an active region complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poletto, G.; Gary, G. A.; Machado, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    We examine here a set of images of an active region complex, acquired on June 24-25, 1980, by the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer on SMM, with the purpose of establishing whether there was any interplay between the frequent activity observed at different sites in the activity center and, in such a case, how the interaction was established. By analyzing both quiet and active orbits we show that, as a rule, activity originating in one region triggers the other region's activity. However, we find little unambiguous evidence for the presence of large-scale interconnecting loops. A comparison of X-ray images with magnetic field observations suggested that we interpret the active region behavior in terms of the interaction between different loop systems, in a scenario quite analogous to the interacting bipole representation of individual flares. We conclude that active region interplay provides an easily observable case to study the time-dependent topology and the mechanisms for the spreading of activity in transient events over all energy scales.

  5. Nest predation increases with parental activity: separating nest site and parental activity effects.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection. PMID:11413645

  6. Nest predation increases with parental activity: Separating nest site and parental activity effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.; Scott, J.; Menge, C.

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection.

  7. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    DOE PAGES

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; ...

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates throughmore » a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XB’s characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using λpump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains from the dissociation of exciton XA is involved in the creation of this trion with a binding energy ~ 10 meV with respect to XA. The absorption peak that corresponds to trion T2 appears when λpump > 2.4 eV, which is just

  8. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates through a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XB’s characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using λpump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains

  9. Disulfide by Design 2.0: a web-based tool for disulfide engineering in proteins.

    PubMed

    Craig, Douglas B; Dombkowski, Alan A

    2013-12-01

    Disulfide engineering is an important biotechnological tool that has advanced a wide range of research. The introduction of novel disulfide bonds into proteins has been used extensively to improve protein stability, modify functional characteristics, and to assist in the study of protein dynamics. Successful use of this technology is greatly enhanced by software that can predict pairs of residues that will likely form a disulfide bond if mutated to cysteines. We had previously developed and distributed software for this purpose: Disulfide by Design (DbD). The original DbD program has been widely used; however, it has a number of limitations including a Windows platform dependency. Here, we introduce Disulfide by Design 2.0 (DbD2), a web-based, platform-independent application that significantly extends functionality, visualization, and analysis capabilities beyond the original program. Among the enhancements to the software is the ability to analyze the B-factor of protein regions involved in predicted disulfide bonds. Importantly, this feature facilitates the identification of potential disulfides that are not only likely to form but are also expected to provide improved thermal stability to the protein. DbD2 provides platform-independent access and significantly extends the original functionality of DbD. A web server hosting DbD2 is provided at http://cptweb.cpt.wayne.edu/DbD2/.

  10. MSK1 activity is controlled by multiple phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    McCOY, Claire E.; Campbell, David G.; Deak, Maria; Bloomberg, Graham B.; Arthur, J. Simon C.

    2004-01-01

    MSK1 (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase) is a kinase activated in cells downstream of both the ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. In the present study, we show that, in addition to being phosphorylated on Thr-581 and Ser-360 by ERK1/2 or p38, MSK1 can autophosphorylate on at least six sites: Ser-212, Ser-376, Ser-381, Ser-750, Ser-752 and Ser-758. Of these sites, the N-terminal T-loop residue Ser-212 and the ‘hydrophobic motif’ Ser-376 are phosphorylated by the C-terminal kinase domain of MSK1, and their phosphorylation is essential for the catalytic activity of the N-terminal kinase domain of MSK1 and therefore for the phosphorylation of MSK1 substrates in vitro. Ser-381 is also phosphorylated by the C-terminal kinase domain, and mutation of Ser-381 decreases MSK1 activity, probably through the inhibition of Ser-376 phosphorylation. Ser-750, Ser-752 and Ser-758 are phosphorylated by the N-terminal kinase domain; however, their function is not known. The activation of MSK1 in cells therefore requires the activation of the ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK cascades and does not appear to require additional signalling inputs. This is in contrast with the closely related RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) proteins, whose activity requires phosphorylation by PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1) in addition to phosphorylation by ERK1/2. PMID:15568999

  11. Rv2969c, essential for optimal growth in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a DsbA-like enzyme that interacts with VKOR-derived peptides and has atypical features of DsbA-like disulfide oxidases

    SciTech Connect

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane Heras, Begoña; Duprez, Wilko; Walden, Patricia; Halili, Maria; Kurth, Fabian; Fairlie, David P.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2013-10-01

    The gene product of M. tuberculosis Rv2969c is shown to be a disulfide oxidase enzyme that has a canonical DsbA-like fold with novel structural and functional characteristics. The bacterial disulfide machinery is an attractive molecular target for developing new antibacterials because it is required for the production of multiple virulence factors. The archetypal disulfide oxidase proteins in Escherichia coli (Ec) are DsbA and DsbB, which together form a functional unit: DsbA introduces disulfides into folding proteins and DsbB reoxidizes DsbA to maintain it in the active form. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), no DsbB homologue is encoded but a functionally similar but structurally divergent protein, MtbVKOR, has been identified. Here, the Mtb protein Rv2969c is investigated and it is shown that it is the DsbA-like partner protein of MtbVKOR. It is found that it has the characteristic redox features of a DsbA-like protein: a highly acidic catalytic cysteine, a highly oxidizing potential and a destabilizing active-site disulfide bond. Rv2969c also has peptide-oxidizing activity and recognizes peptide segments derived from the periplasmic loops of MtbVKOR. Unlike the archetypal EcDsbA enzyme, Rv2969c has little or no activity in disulfide-reducing and disulfide-isomerase assays. The crystal structure of Rv2969c reveals a canonical DsbA fold comprising a thioredoxin domain with an embedded helical domain. However, Rv2969c diverges considerably from other DsbAs, including having an additional C-terminal helix (H8) that may restrain the mobility of the catalytic helix H1. The enzyme is also characterized by a very shallow hydrophobic binding surface and a negative electrostatic surface potential surrounding the catalytic cysteine. The structure of Rv2969c was also used to model the structure of a paralogous DsbA-like domain of the Ser/Thr protein kinase PknE. Together, these results show that Rv2969c is a DsbA-like protein with unique properties and a limited

  12. Disulfide-Functionalized Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels.

    PubMed

    Warren, Nicholas J; Rosselgong, Julien; Madsen, Jeppe; Armes, Steven P

    2015-08-10

    Two strategies for introducing disulfide groups at the outer surface of RAFT-synthesized poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA, or Gx-Hy for brevity) diblock copolymer worms are investigated. The first approach involved statistical copolymerization of GMA with a small amount of disulfide dimethacrylate (DSDMA, or D) comonomer to afford a G54-D0.50 macromolecular chain transfer agent (macro-CTA); this synthesis was conducted in relatively dilute solution in order to ensure mainly intramolecular cyclization and hence the formation of linear chains. Alternatively, a new disulfide-based bifunctional RAFT agent (DSDB) was used to prepare a G45-S-S-G45 (or (G45-S)2) macro-CTA. A binary mixture of a non-functionalized G55 macro-CTA was utilized with each of these two disulfide-based macro-CTAs in turn for the RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA). By targeting a PHPMA DP of 130 and systematically varying the molar ratio of the two macro-CTAs, a series of disulfide-functionalized diblock copolymer worm gels were obtained. For both formulations, oscillatory rheology studies confirmed that higher disulfide contents led to stronger gels, presumably as a result of inter-worm covalent bond formation via disulfide/thiol exchange. Using the DSDB-based macro-CTA led to the strongest worm gels, and this formulation also proved to be more effective in suppressing the thermosensitive behavior that is observed for the nondisulfide-functionalized control worm gel. However, macroscopic precipitation occurred when the proportion of DSDB-based macro-CTA was increased to 50 mol %, whereas the DSDMA-based macro-CTA could be utilized at up to 80 mol %. Finally, the worm gel modulus could be reduced to that of a nondisulfide-containing worm gel by reductive cleavage of the inter-worm disulfide bonds using excess tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) to yield thiol groups. These new biomimetic worm gels are

  13. Druggability analysis and classification of protein tyrosine phosphatase active sites

    PubMed Central

    Ghattas, Mohammad A; Raslan, Noor; Sadeq, Asil; Al Sorkhy, Mohammad; Atatreh, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases. The fact that no PTP inhibitors have reached the market so far has raised many questions about their druggability. In this study, the active sites of 17 PTPs were characterized and assessed for its ability to bind drug-like molecules. Consequently, PTPs were classified according to their druggability scores into four main categories. Only four members showed intermediate to very druggable pocket; interestingly, the rest of them exhibited poor druggability. Particularly focusing on PTP1B, we also demonstrated the influence of several factors on the druggability of PTP active site. For instance, the open conformation showed better druggability than the closed conformation, while the tight-bound water molecules appeared to have minimal effect on the PTP1B druggability. Finally, the allosteric site of PTP1B was found to exhibit superior druggability compared to the catalytic pocket. This analysis can prove useful in the discovery of new PTP inhibitors by assisting researchers in predicting hit rates from high throughput or virtual screening and saving unnecessary cost, time, and efforts via prioritizing PTP targets according to their predicted druggability. PMID:27757011

  14. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified.

  15. Contributions of Unique Active Site Residues of Eukaryotic UDP-Galactopyranose Mutases to Substrate Recognition and Active Site Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) catalyzes the interconversion between UDP-galactopyranose and UDP-galactofuranose. Absent in humans, galactofuranose is found in bacterial and fungal cell walls and is a cell surface virulence factor in protozoan parasites. For these reasons, UGMs are targets for drug discovery. Here, we report a mutagenesis and structural study of the UGMs from Aspergillus fumigatus and Trypanosoma cruzi focused on active site residues that are conserved in eukaryotic UGMs but are absent or different in bacterial UGMs. Kinetic analysis of the variants F66A, Y104A, Q107A, N207A, and Y317A (A. fumigatus numbering) show decreases in kcat/KM values of 200–1000-fold for the mutase reaction. In contrast, none of the mutations significantly affect the kinetics of enzyme activation by NADPH. These results indicate that the targeted residues are important for promoting the transition state conformation for UDP-galactofuranose formation. Crystal structures of the A. fumigatus mutant enzymes were determined in the presence and absence of UDP to understand the structural consequences of the mutations. The structures suggest important roles for Asn207 in stabilizing the closed active site, and Tyr317 in positioning of the uridine ring. Phe66 and the corresponding residue in Mycobacterium tuberculosis UGM (His68) play a role as the backstop, stabilizing the galactopyranose group for nucleophilic attack. Together, these results provide insight into the essentiality of the targeted residues for realizing maximal catalytic activity and a proposal for how conformational changes that close the active site are temporally related and coupled together. PMID:25412209

  16. Contributions of unique active site residues of eukaryotic UDP-galactopyranose mutases to substrate recognition and active site dynamics.

    PubMed

    Da Fonseca, Isabel; Qureshi, Insaf A; Mehra-Chaudhary, Ritcha; Kizjakina, Karina; Tanner, John J; Sobrado, Pablo

    2014-12-16

    UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) catalyzes the interconversion between UDP-galactopyranose and UDP-galactofuranose. Absent in humans, galactofuranose is found in bacterial and fungal cell walls and is a cell surface virulence factor in protozoan parasites. For these reasons, UGMs are targets for drug discovery. Here, we report a mutagenesis and structural study of the UGMs from Aspergillus fumigatus and Trypanosoma cruzi focused on active site residues that are conserved in eukaryotic UGMs but are absent or different in bacterial UGMs. Kinetic analysis of the variants F66A, Y104A, Q107A, N207A, and Y317A (A. fumigatus numbering) show decreases in k(cat)/K(M) values of 200-1000-fold for the mutase reaction. In contrast, none of the mutations significantly affect the kinetics of enzyme activation by NADPH. These results indicate that the targeted residues are important for promoting the transition state conformation for UDP-galactofuranose formation. Crystal structures of the A. fumigatus mutant enzymes were determined in the presence and absence of UDP to understand the structural consequences of the mutations. The structures suggest important roles for Asn207 in stabilizing the closed active site, and Tyr317 in positioning of the uridine ring. Phe66 and the corresponding residue in Mycobacterium tuberculosis UGM (His68) play a role as the backstop, stabilizing the galactopyranose group for nucleophilic attack. Together, these results provide insight into the essentiality of the targeted residues for realizing maximal catalytic activity and a proposal for how conformational changes that close the active site are temporally related and coupled together.

  17. Molybdenum disulfide/pyrolytic carbon hybrid electrodes for scalable hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Hugo; McEvoy, Niall; O'Brien, Maria; Berner, Nina C.; Yim, Chanyoung; Hallam, Toby; McDonald, Aidan R.; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2014-06-01

    The electrochemical generation of hydrogen fuel via the proton reduction in the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER) in aqueous media is currently dependent on the use expensive noble metal catalysts for which alternatives must be sought. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has shown great promise as a suitable electrocatalyst in this regard. While many lab-scale experiments on the HER activity of this material have demonstrated its viability and explored some fundamental mechanistic features of HER at MoS2, these experimental techniques are often ill-suited to large scale production of such electrodes. In this study we present work on the fabrication of MoS2/pyrolytic carbon (PyC) electrodes via vapour phase sulfurization of Mo thin films. These hybrid electrodes combine the catalytic activity of MoS2 with the conductivity and stability of PyC, whilst using industrially compatible processing techniques. Structural defects in the sulfur lattice were found to be key catalytically active sites for HER and thinner MoS2 films displayed a higher quantity of these defects and, hence, an improved HER activity. The observed Tafel slope of 95 mV decade-1 is comparable to previous literature works on MoS2 HER performance.The electrochemical generation of hydrogen fuel via the proton reduction in the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER) in aqueous media is currently dependent on the use expensive noble metal catalysts for which alternatives must be sought. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has shown great promise as a suitable electrocatalyst in this regard. While many lab-scale experiments on the HER activity of this material have demonstrated its viability and explored some fundamental mechanistic features of HER at MoS2, these experimental techniques are often ill-suited to large scale production of such electrodes. In this study we present work on the fabrication of MoS2/pyrolytic carbon (PyC) electrodes via vapour phase sulfurization of Mo thin films. These hybrid electrodes combine the

  18. Diaryl Disulfides as Novel Stabilizers of Tumor Suppressor Pdcd4

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Tobias; Blees, Johanna S.; Bajer, Magdalena M.; Wild, Janine; Pescatori, Luca; Cuzzucoli Crucitti, Giuliana; Scipione, Luigi; Costi, Roberta; Henrich, Curtis J.; Brüne, Bernhard; Colburn, Nancy H.; Di Santo, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The translation inhibitor and tumor suppressor Pdcd4 was reported to be lost in various tumors and put forward as prognostic marker in tumorigenesis. Decreased Pdcd4 protein stability due to PI3K-mTOR-p70S6K1 dependent phosphorylation of Pdcd4 followed by β-TrCP1-mediated ubiquitination, and proteasomal destruction of the protein was characterized as a major mechanism contributing to the loss of Pdcd4 expression in tumors. In an attempt to identify stabilizers of Pdcd4, we used a luciferase-based high-throughput compatible cellular assay to monitor phosphorylation-dependent proteasomal degradation of Pdcd4 in response to mitogen stimulation. Following a screen of approximately 2000 compounds, we identified 1,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)disulfide as a novel Pdcd4 stabilizer. To determine an initial structure-activity relationship, we used 3 additional compounds, synthesized according to previous reports, and 2 commercially available compounds for further testing, in which either the linker between the aryls was modified (compounds 2–4) or the chlorine residues were replaced by groups with different electronic properties (compounds 5 and 6). We observed that those compounds with alterations in the sulfide linker completely lost the Pdcd4 stabilizing potential. In contrast, modifications in the chlorine residues showed only minor effects on the Pdcd4 stabilizing activity. A reporter with a mutated phospho-degron verified the specificity of the compounds for stabilizing the Pdcd4 reporter. Interestingly, the active diaryl disulfides inhibited proliferation and viability at concentrations where they stabilized Pdcd4, suggesting that Pdcd4 stabilization might contribute to the anti-proliferative properties. Finally, computational modelling indicated that the flexibility of the disulfide linker might be necessary to exert the biological functions of the compounds, as the inactive compound appeared to be energetically more restricted. PMID:26982744

  19. The active site of melanopsin: the biological clock photoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Sekharan, Sivakumar; Wei, Jennifer N; Batista, Victor S

    2012-12-05

    The nonvisual ocular photoreceptor melanopsin, found in the neurons of vertebrate inner retina, absorbs blue light and triggers the "biological clock" of mammals by activating the suprachiasmatic nuclei (a small region of the brain that regulates the circadian rhythms of neuronal and hormonal activities over 24 h cycles). The structure of melanopsin, however, has yet to be established. Here, we propose for the first time a structural model of the active site of mouse melanopsin. The homology model is based on the crystal structure of squid rhodopsin (λ(max) = 490 nm) and shows a maximal absorbance (λ(max) = 447 nm) consistent with the observed absorption of the photoreceptor. The 43 nm spectral shift is due to an increased bond-length alternation of the protonated Schiff base of 11-cis-retinal chromophore, induced by N87Q mutation and water-mediated H-bonding interactions with the Schiff base linkage. These findings, analogous to spectral changes observed in the G89Q bovine rhodopsin mutant, suggest that single site mutations can convert photopigments into visual light sensors or nonvisual sensory photoreceptors.

  20. Linear array of conserved sequence motifs to discriminate protein subfamilies: study on pyridine nucleotide-disulfide reductases

    PubMed Central

    Avila, César L; Rapisarda, Viviana A; Farías, Ricardo N; De Las Rivas, Javier; Chehín, Rosana

    2007-01-01

    Background The pyridine nucleotide disulfide reductase (PNDR) is a large and heterogeneous protein family divided into two classes (I and II), which reflect the divergent evolution of its characteristic disulfide redox active site. However, not all the PNDR members fit into these categories and this suggests the need of further studies to achieve a more comprehensive classification of this complex family. Results A workflow to improve the clusterization of protein families based on the array of linear conserved motifs is designed. The method is applied to the PNDR large family finding two main groups, which correspond to PNDR classes I and II. However, two other separate protein clusters, previously classified as class I in most databases, are outgrouped: the peroxide reductases (NAOX, NAPE) and the type II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2). In this way, two novel PNDR classes III and IV for NAOX/NAPE and NDH-2 respectively are proposed. By knowledge-driven biochemical and functional data analyses done on the new class IV, a linear array of motifs putatively related to Cu(II)-reductase activity is detected in a specific subset of NDH-2. Conclusion The results presented are a novel contribution to the classification of the complex and large PNDR protein family, supporting its reclusterization into four classes. The linear array of motifs detected within the class IV PNDR subfamily could be useful as a signature for a particular subgroup of NDH-2. PMID:17367536

  1. 46 CFR 153.520 - Special requirements for carbon disulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special requirements for carbon disulfide. 153.520... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.520 Special requirements for carbon disulfide. A containment system carrying carbon disulfide must meet the following: (a) Each cargo pump must be of the intank type...

  2. 40 CFR 180.467 - Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon disulfide; tolerances for... § 180.467 Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for the nematicide, insecticide, and fungicide carbon disulfide, from the application of sodium tetrathiocarbonate, in or on...

  3. 40 CFR 180.467 - Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon disulfide; tolerances for... § 180.467 Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for the nematicide, insecticide, and fungicide carbon disulfide, from the application of sodium tetrathiocarbonate, in or on...

  4. 46 CFR 153.520 - Special requirements for carbon disulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special requirements for carbon disulfide. 153.520... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.520 Special requirements for carbon disulfide. A containment system carrying carbon disulfide must meet the following: (a) Each cargo pump must be of the intank type...

  5. 40 CFR 180.467 - Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon disulfide; tolerances for... § 180.467 Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for the nematicide, insecticide, and fungicide carbon disulfide, from the application of sodium tetrathiocarbonate, in or on...

  6. 40 CFR 180.467 - Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon disulfide; tolerances for... § 180.467 Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for the nematicide, insecticide, and fungicide carbon disulfide, from the application of sodium tetrathiocarbonate, in or on...

  7. 40 CFR 180.467 - Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon disulfide; tolerances for... § 180.467 Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for the nematicide, insecticide, and fungicide carbon disulfide, from the application of sodium tetrathiocarbonate, in or on...

  8. 46 CFR 153.520 - Special requirements for carbon disulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special requirements for carbon disulfide. 153.520... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.520 Special requirements for carbon disulfide. A containment system carrying carbon disulfide must meet the following: (a) Each cargo pump must be of the intank type...

  9. 46 CFR 153.520 - Special requirements for carbon disulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special requirements for carbon disulfide. 153.520... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.520 Special requirements for carbon disulfide. A containment system carrying carbon disulfide must meet the following: (a) Each cargo pump must be of the intank type...

  10. 21 CFR 524.2101 - Selenium disulfide suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selenium disulfide suspension. 524.2101 Section... § 524.2101 Selenium disulfide suspension. (a) Specifications. The product contains 0.9-percent weight in weight (w/w) selenium disulfide (1-percent weight in volume (w/v)). (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061,...

  11. 21 CFR 524.2101 - Selenium disulfide suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Selenium disulfide suspension. 524.2101 Section... § 524.2101 Selenium disulfide suspension. (a) Specifications. The product contains 0.9-percent weight in weight (w/w) selenium disulfide (1-percent weight in volume (w/v)). (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061,...

  12. 21 CFR 524.2101 - Selenium disulfide suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selenium disulfide suspension. 524.2101 Section... § 524.2101 Selenium disulfide suspension. (a) Specifications. The product contains 0.9-percent weight in weight (w/w) selenium disulfide (1-percent weight in volume (w/v)). (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061,...

  13. 21 CFR 524.2101 - Selenium disulfide suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selenium disulfide suspension. 524.2101 Section... § 524.2101 Selenium disulfide suspension. (a) Specifications. The product contains 0.9-percent weight in weight (w/w) selenium disulfide (1-percent weight in volume (w/v)). (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061,...

  14. 21 CFR 524.2101 - Selenium disulfide suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selenium disulfide suspension. 524.2101 Section... § 524.2101 Selenium disulfide suspension. (a) Specifications. The product contains 0.9-percent weight in weight (w/w) selenium disulfide (1-percent weight in volume (w/v)). (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061,...

  15. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-03-09

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ~30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Furthermore, application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties.

  16. Identification of covalent active site inhibitors of dengue virus protease

    PubMed Central

    Koh-Stenta, Xiaoying; Joy, Joma; Wang, Si Fang; Kwek, Perlyn Zekui; Wee, John Liang Kuan; Wan, Kah Fei; Gayen, Shovanlal; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Kang, CongBao; Lee, May Ann; Poulsen, Anders; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Hill, Jeffrey; Nacro, Kassoum

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) protease is an attractive target for drug development; however, no compounds have reached clinical development to date. In this study, we utilized a potent West Nile virus protease inhibitor of the pyrazole ester derivative class as a chemical starting point for DENV protease drug development. Compound potency and selectivity for DENV protease were improved through structure-guided small molecule optimization, and protease-inhibitor binding interactions were validated biophysically using nuclear magnetic resonance. Our work strongly suggests that this class of compounds inhibits flavivirus protease through targeted covalent modification of active site serine, contrary to an allosteric binding mechanism as previously described. PMID:26677315

  17. The nature of the active site in heterogeneous metal catalysis.

    PubMed

    Nørskov, Jens K; Bligaard, Thomas; Hvolbaek, Britt; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Chorkendorff, Ib; Christensen, Claus H

    2008-10-01

    This tutorial review, of relevance for the surface science and heterogeneous catalysis communities, provides a molecular-level discussion of the nature of the active sites in metal catalysis. Fundamental concepts such as "Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relations" and "volcano curves" are introduced, and are used to establish a strict partitioning between the so-called "electronic" and "geometrical" effects. This partitioning is subsequently employed as the basis for defining the concept "degree of structure sensitivity" which can be used when analyzing the structure sensitivity of catalytic reactions.

  18. Preliminary Hazards Assessment: Iron disulfide purification system

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-30

    A process for the purification (washing) of iron disulfide (FeS{sub 2}) powder is conducted in the Northeast corner (Area 353) of the main plant building (Building 100). This location is about 130 feet from the fenced boundary of the Partnership School/Child Development Center. In the first steps of the process, raw iron disulfide powder is ground and separated by particle size. The ground and sized powder is then purified in a three-step acid washing process using both hydrochloric acid (HCI) and hydrofluoric (HF) acid. The iron disulfide process is an intermittent batch process conducted four to eight times a year. This study is a Preliminary Hazards Assessment (PHA) to assess the hazards associated with the iron disulfide process. This is a preliminary study and will be used to determine if additional safety analysis is necessary. The scope of the PHA includes assessment of the process steps of grinding, size classification, and purification. The purpose is to identify major hazards and determine if the current and newly added safeguards are adequate for operation. The PHA also lists recommendations for additional safety features that should be added to reduce the risks of operation.

  19. Mutations in domain a′ of protein disulfide isomerase affect the folding pathway of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A

    PubMed Central

    Ruoppolo, Margherita; Orrù, Stefania; Talamo, Fabio; Ljung, Johanna; Pirneskoski, Annamari; Kivirikko, Kari I.; Marino, Gennaro; Koivunen, Peppi

    2003-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, EC 5.3.4.1), an enzyme and chaperone, catalyses disulfide bond formation and rearrangements in protein folding. It is also a subunit in two proteins, the enzyme collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase and the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. It consists of two catalytically active domains, a and a′, and two inactive ones, b and b′, all four domains having the thioredoxin fold. Domain b′ contains the primary peptide binding site, but a′ is also critical for several of the major PDI functions. Mass spectrometry was used here to follow the folding pathway of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) in the presence of three PDI mutants, F449R, Δ455–457, and abb′, and the individual domains a and a′. The first two mutants contained alterations in the last α helix of domain a′, while the third lacked the entire domain a′. All mutants produced genuine, correctly folded RNase A, but the appearance rate of 50% of the product, as compared to wild-type PDI, was reduced 2.5-fold in the case of PDI Δ455–457, 7.5-fold to eightfold in the cases of PDI F449R and PDI abb′, and over 15-fold in the cases of the individual domains a and a′. In addition, PDI F449R and PDI abb′ affected the distribution of folding intermediates. Domains a and a′ catalyzed the early steps in the folding but no disulfide rearrangements, and therefore the rate observed in the presence of these individual domains was similar to that of the spontaneous process. PMID:12717017

  20. Structure of Coenzyme A-Disulfide Reductase from Staphylococcus aureus at 1.54 Angstrom Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett,T.; Wallen, J.; Karplus, P.; Sakai, H.; Tsukihara, T.; Claiborne, A.

    2006-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoASH) replaces glutathione as the major low molecular weight thiol in Staphylococcus aureus; it is maintained in the reduced state by coenzyme A-disulfide reductase (CoADR), a homodimeric enzyme similar to NADH peroxidase but containing a novel Cys43-SSCoA redox center. The crystal structure of S. aureus CoADR has been solved using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion data and refined at a resolution of 1.54 {angstrom}. The resulting electron density maps define the Cys43-SSCoA disulfide conformation, with Cys43-S{gamma} located at the flavin si face, 3.2 {angstrom} from FAD-C4aF, and the CoAS- moiety lying in an extended conformation within a cleft at the dimer interface. A well-ordered chloride ion is positioned adjacent to the Cys43-SSCoA disulfide and receives a hydrogen bond from Tyr361'-OH of the complementary subunit, suggesting a role for Tyr361' as an acid-base catalyst during the reduction of CoAS-disulfide. Tyr419'-OH is located 3.2 {angstrom} from Tyr361'-OH as well and, based on its conservation in known functional CoADRs, also appears to be important for activity. Identification of residues involved in recognition of the CoAS-disulfide substrate and in formation and stabilization of the Cys43-SSCoA redox center has allowed development of a CoAS-binding motif. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that CoADR enzymes are broadly distributed in both bacterial and archaeal kingdoms, suggesting an even broader significance for the CoASH/CoAS-disulfide redox system in prokaryotic thiol/disulfide homeostasis.

  1. Characterization of the active site of monkey sperm hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Yudin, A I; Li, M W; Robertson, K R; Cherr, G N; Overstreet, J W

    2001-05-01

    The mammalian sperm hyaluronidase, PH-20, is active in macaque spermatozoa at neutral and acid pH. Antibodies were produced to synthesized peptides representing regions of PH-20 that may be involved in hyaluronidase activity and designated peptide 1 (amino acid sequence 142-172) and peptide 3 (amino acid sequence 277-297). Western blotting of proteins extracted from the surface of acrosome-intact spermatozoa showed that the two peptide-specific, affinity-purified IgGs label a 64 kDa band corresponding to the PH-20 molecule. Western blots of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa showed that, under reducing conditions, the two anti-peptide IgGs label the 44 kDa band only, which represents the N-terminal fragment of PH-20. Anti-peptide 3 IgG also labels the 53 kDa form of PH-20 in extracts of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Peptide-specific, affinity-purified Fab fragments from both IgGs were shown by fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to label the sperm plasma membrane, fused acrosomal vesicles, acrosomal matrix and inner acrosomal membrane. Fab fragments of anti-peptide 1 IgG, but not anti-peptide 3 IgG, inhibited hyaluronidase activity of PH-20 from the sperm surface and from extracts of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa at pH 7.0. Fab fragments of both anti-peptide IgGs inhibited sperm hyaluronidase activity at pH 5.0. It is concluded that the region of PH-20 encompassed by the amino acid sequence 142-172 is essential for hyaluronidase activity at neutral pH, whereas the region of amino acid sequence 277-297 may be more important at a lower pH. It is likely that these two regions are the acid/base catalyst site and the nucleophilic site, respectively, of PH-20 hyaluronidases.

  2. Interplay between disulfide bonding and N-glycosylation defines SLC4 Na+-coupled transporter extracellular topography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Quansheng; Kao, Liyo; Azimov, Rustam; Abuladze, Natalia; Newman, Debra; Kurtz, Ira

    2015-02-27

    The extracellular loop 3 (EL-3) of SLC4 Na(+)-coupled transporters contains 4 highly conserved cysteines and multiple N-glycosylation consensus sites. In the electrogenic Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCe1-A, EL-3 is the largest extracellular loop and is predicted to consist of 82 amino acids. To determine the structural-functional importance of the conserved cysteines and the N-glycosylation sites in NBCe1-A EL-3, we analyzed the potential interplay between EL-3 disulfide bonding and N-glycosylation and their roles in EL-3 topological folding. Our results demonstrate that the 4 highly conserved cysteines form two intramolecular disulfide bonds, Cys(583)-Cys(585) and Cys(617)-Cys(642), respectively, that constrain EL-3 in a folded conformation. The formation of the second disulfide bond is spontaneous and unaffected by the N-glycosylation state of EL-3 or the first disulfide bond, whereas formation of the first disulfide bond relies on the presence of the second disulfide bond and is affected by N-glycosylation. Importantly, EL-3 from each monomer is adjacently located at the NBCe1-A dimeric interface. When the two disulfide bonds are missing, EL-3 adopts an extended conformation highly accessible to protease digestion. This unique adjacent parallel location of two symmetrically folded EL-3 loops from each monomer resembles a domain-like structure that is potentially important for NBCe1-A function in vivo. Moreover, the formation of this unique structure is critically dependent on the finely tuned interplay between disulfide bonding and N-glycosylation in the membrane processed NBCe1-A dimer.

  3. Spectroscopic Definition of the Ferroxidase Site in M Ferritin: Comparison of Binuclear Substrate vs. Cofactor Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jennifer K.; Liu, Xiaofeng S.; Tosha, Takehiko; Theil, Elizabeth C.; Solomon, Edward I.

    2008-01-01

    Maxi ferritins, 24 subunit protein nanocages, are essential in humans, plants, bacteria, and other animals for the concentration and storage of iron as hydrated ferric oxide, while minimizing free radical generation or use by pathogens. Formation of the precursors to these ferric oxides is catalyzed at a non-heme biferrous substrate site, which has some parallels with the cofactor sites in other biferrous enzymes. A combination of circular dichroism (CD), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and variable-temperature, variable-field MCD (VTVH MCD) has been used to probe Fe(II) binding to the substrate active site in frog M ferritin. These data determined that the active site within each subunit consists of two inequivalent five-coordinate (5C) ferrous centers that are weakly anti-ferromagnetically coupled, consistent with a μ-1,3 carboxylate bridge. The active site ligand set is unusual and likely includes a terminal water bound to each Fe(II) center. The Fe(II) ions bind to the active sites in a concerted manner, and cooperativity among the sites in each subunit is observed, potentially providing a mechanism for the control of ferritin iron loading. Differences in geometric and electronic structure – including a weak ligand field, availability of two water ligands at the biferrous substrate site, and the single carboxylate bridge in ferritin – coincide with the divergent reaction pathways observed between this substrate site and the previously studied cofactor active sites. PMID:18576633

  4. Spectroscopic definition of the ferroxidase site in M ferritin: comparison of binuclear substrate vs cofactor active sites.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jennifer K; Liu, Xiaofeng S; Tosha, Takehiko; Theil, Elizabeth C; Solomon, Edward I

    2008-07-23

    Maxi ferritins, 24 subunit protein nanocages, are essential in humans, plants, bacteria, and other animals for the concentration and storage of iron as hydrated ferric oxide, while minimizing free radical generation or use by pathogens. Formation of the precursors to these ferric oxides is catalyzed at a nonheme biferrous substrate site, which has some parallels with the cofactor sites in other biferrous enzymes. A combination of circular dichroism (CD), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and variable-temperature, variable-field MCD (VTVH MCD) has been used to probe Fe(II) binding to the substrate active site in frog M ferritin. These data determined that the active site within each subunit consists of two inequivalent five-coordinate (5C) ferrous centers that are weakly antiferromagnetically coupled, consistent with a mu-1,3 carboxylate bridge. The active site ligand set is unusual and likely includes a terminal water bound to each Fe(II) center. The Fe(II) ions bind to the active sites in a concerted manner, and cooperativity among the sites in each subunit is observed, potentially providing a mechanism for the control of ferritin iron loading. Differences in geometric and electronic structure--including a weak ligand field, availability of two water ligands at the biferrous substrate site, and the single carboxylate bridge in ferritin--coincide with the divergent reaction pathways observed between this substrate site and the previously studied cofactor active sites.

  5. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris*

    PubMed Central

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. PMID:26170452

  6. The Copper Active Site of CBM33 Polysaccharide Oxygenases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of metal-dependent fungal and bacterial polysaccharide oxygenases, termed GH61 and CBM33, respectively, to potentiate the enzymatic degradation of cellulose opens new possibilities for the conversion of recalcitrant biomass to biofuels. GH61s have already been shown to be unique metalloenzymes containing an active site with a mononuclear copper ion coordinated by two histidines, one of which is an unusual τ-N-methylated N-terminal histidine. We now report the structural and spectroscopic characterization of the corresponding copper CBM33 enzymes. CBM33 binds copper with high affinity at a mononuclear site, significantly stabilizing the enzyme. X-band EPR spectroscopy of Cu(II)-CBM33 shows a mononuclear type 2 copper site with the copper ion in a distorted axial coordination sphere, into which azide will coordinate as evidenced by the concomitant formation of a new absorption band in the UV/vis spectrum at 390 nm. The enzyme’s three-dimensional structure contains copper, which has been photoreduced to Cu(I) by the incident X-rays, confirmed by X-ray absorption/fluorescence studies of both aqueous solution and intact crystals of Cu-CBM33. The single copper(I) ion is ligated in a T-shaped configuration by three nitrogen atoms from two histidine side chains and the amino terminus, similar to the endogenous copper coordination geometry found in fungal GH61. PMID:23540833

  7. Formation of methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide in crushed tissues of broccoli florets and their inhibition by freeze-thawing.

    PubMed

    Tulio, Artemio Z; Yamanaka, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yoshinori; Imahori, Yoshihiro

    2002-03-13

    The formation of methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide in crushed, homogenized, and frozen-thawed tissues of broccoli florets was investigated. These volatile sulfur compounds were produced in crushed florets, but their formation was inhibited in frozen-thawed tissues. Only dimethyl disulfide was formed in homogenized tissues. High pH treatment triggered the release of dimethyl disulfide in frozen-thawed tissues and also enhanced the action of cysteine sulfoxide lyase in all disrupted tissues. Methyl methanethiosulfinate and methyl methanethiosulfonate were not detected in crushed florets; thus, the favored mechanism for the formation of methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide is the chemical disproportionation of methanesulfenic acid. In contrast, the formation of dimethyl disulfide in frozen-thawed and homogenized tissues occurs from the chemical disproportionation of methyl methanethiosulfinate that was detected in these tissues. The inhibition of dimethyl disulfide production during freeze-thawing must be caused by a sudden drop in the pH of the tissue, adherence of dimethyl disulfide on the tissue surfaces, and weakening of the cysteine sulfoxide lyase activity under acidic conditions.

  8. Identification of disulfide bond formation between MitoNEET and glutamate dehydrogenase 1.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Morgan E; Crail, Jacquelyn P; Laffoon, Megan M; Fernandez, William G; Menze, Michael A; Konkle, Mary E

    2013-12-17

    MitoNEET is a protein that was identified as a drug target for diabetes, but its cellular function as well as its role in diabetes remains elusive. Protein pull-down experiments identified glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) as a potential binding partner. GDH1 is a key metabolic enzyme with emerging roles in insulin regulation. MitoNEET forms a covalent complex with GDH1 through disulfide bond formation and acts as an activator. Proteomic analysis identified the specific cysteine residues that participate in the disulfide bond. This is the first report that effectively links mitoNEET to activation of the insulin regulator GDH1.

  9. New analogs of the CART peptide with anorexigenic potency: the importance of individual disulfide bridges.

    PubMed

    Blechová, Miroslava; Nagelová, Veronika; Záková, Lenka; Demianová, Zuzana; Zelezná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide is an anorexigenic neuropeptide that acts in the hypothalamus. The receptor and the mechanism of action of this peptide are still unknown. In our previous study, we showed that the CART peptide binds specifically to PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells in both the native and differentiated into neuronal phenotype. Two biologically active forms, CART(55-102) and CART(61-102), with equal biological activity, contain three disulfide bridges. To clarify the importance of each of these disulfide bridges in maintaining the biological activity of CART(61-102), an Ala scan at particular S-S bridges forming cysteines was performed, and analogs with only one or two disulfide bridges were synthesized. In this study, a stabilized CART(61-102) analog with norleucine instead of methionine at position 67 was also prepared and was found to bind to PC12 cells with an anorexigenic potency similar to that of CART(61-102). The binding study revealed that out of all analogs tested, [Ala(68,86)]CART(61-102), which contains two disulfide bridges (positions 74-94 and 88-101), preserved a high affinity to both native PC12 cells and those that had been differentiated into neurons. In food intake and behavioral tests with mice after intracerebroventricular administration, this analog showed strong and long-lasting anorexigenic potency. Therefore, the disulfide bridge between cysteines 68 and 86 in CART(61-102) can be omitted without a loss of biological activity, but the preservation of two other disulfide bridges and the full-length peptide are essential for biological activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Target-classification approach applied to active UXO sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubitidze, F.; Fernández, J. P.; Shamatava, Irma; Barrowes, B. E.; O'Neill, K.

    2013-06-01

    This study is designed to illustrate the discrimination performance at two UXO active sites (Oklahoma's Fort Sill and the Massachusetts Military Reservation) of a set of advanced electromagnetic induction (EMI) inversion/discrimination models which include the orthonormalized volume magnetic source (ONVMS), joint diagonalization (JD), and differential evolution (DE) approaches and whose power and flexibility greatly exceed those of the simple dipole model. The Fort Sill site is highly contaminated by a mix of the following types of munitions: 37-mm target practice tracers, 60-mm illumination mortars, 75-mm and 4.5'' projectiles, 3.5'', 2.36'', and LAAW rockets, antitank mine fuzes with and without hex nuts, practice MK2 and M67 grenades, 2.5'' ballistic windshields, M2A1-mines with/without bases, M19-14 time fuzes, and 40-mm practice grenades with/without cartridges. The site at the MMR site contains targets of yet different sizes. In this work we apply our models to EMI data collected using the MetalMapper (MM) and 2 × 2 TEMTADS sensors. The data for each anomaly are inverted to extract estimates of the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters associated with each buried target. (The latter include the total volume magnetic source or NVMS, which relates to size, shape, and material properties; the former includes location, depth, and orientation). The estimated intrinsic parameters are then used for classification performed via library matching and the use of statistical classification algorithms; this process yielded prioritized dig-lists that were submitted to the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) for independent scoring. The models' classification performance is illustrated and assessed based on these independent evaluations.

  11. Legionella pneumophila utilizes a single-player disulfide-bond oxidoreductase system to manage disulfide bond formation and isomerization.

    PubMed

    Kpadeh, Zegbeh Z; Day, Shandra R; Mills, Brandy W; Hoffman, Paul S

    2015-03-01

    Legionella pneumophila uses a single homodimeric disulfide bond (DSB) oxidoreductase DsbA2 to catalyze extracytoplasmic protein folding and to correct DSB errors through protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) activity. In Escherichia coli, these functions are separated to avoid futile cycling. In L. pneumophila, DsbA2 is maintained as a mixture of disulfides (S-S) and free thiols (SH), but when expressed in E. coli, only the SH form is observed. We provide evidence to suggest that structural differences in DsbB oxidases (LpDsbB1 and LpDsbB2) and DsbD reductases (LpDsbD1 and LpDsbD2) (compared with E. coli) permit bifunctional activities without creating a futile cycle. LpdsbB1 and LpdsbB2 partially complemented an EcdsbB mutant while neither LpdsbD1 nor LpdsbD2 complemented an EcdsbD mutant unless DsbA2 was also expressed. When the dsb genes of E. coli were replaced with those of L. pneumophila, motility was restored and DsbA2 was present as a mixture of redox forms. A dominant-negative approach to interfere with DsbA2 function in L. pneumophila determined that DSB oxidase activity was necessary for intracellular multiplication and assembly/function of the Dot/Icm Type IVb secretion system. Our studies show that a single-player system may escape the futile cycle trap by limiting transfer of reducing equivalents from LpDsbDs to DsbA2.

  12. Assigning Peptide Disulfide Linkage Pattern Among Regio-Isomers via Methoxy Addition to Disulfide and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Kirt L.; Tan, Lei; Stinson, Craig A.; Love-Nkansah, Chasity B.; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Yu

    2017-02-01

    Pinpointing disulfide linkage pattern is critical in the characterization of proteins and peptides consisting of multiple disulfide bonds. Herein, we report a method based on coupling online disulfide modification and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to distinguish peptide disulfide regio-isomers. Such a method relies on a new disulfide bond cleavage reaction in solution, involving methanol as a reactant and 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. This reaction leads to selective cleavage of a disulfide bond and formation of sulfenic methyl ester (-SOCH3) at one cysteine residue and a thiol (-SH) at the other. Under low energy collision-induced dissociation (CID), cysteine sulfenic methyl ester motif produces a signature methanol loss (-32 Da), allowing its identification from other possible isomeric structures such as S-hydroxylmethyl (-SCH2OH) and methyl sulfoxide (-S(O)-CH3). Since disulfide bond can be selectively cleaved and modified upon methoxy addition, subsequent MS2 CID of the methoxy addition product provides enhanced sequence coverage as demonstrated by the analysis of bovine insulin. More importantly, this reaction does not induce disulfide scrambling, likely due to the fact that radical intermediates are not involved in the process. An approach based on methoxy addition followed by MS3 CID has been developed for assigning disulfide linkage patterns in peptide disulfide regio-isomers. This methodology was successfully applied to characterizing peptide systems having two disulfide bonds and three disulfide linkage isomers: side-by-side, overlapped, and looped-within-a-loop configurations.

  13. Assigning Peptide Disulfide Linkage Pattern Among Regio-Isomers via Methoxy Addition to Disulfide and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Kirt L.; Tan, Lei; Stinson, Craig A.; Love-Nkansah, Chasity B.; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Pinpointing disulfide linkage pattern is critical in the characterization of proteins and peptides consisting of multiple disulfide bonds. Herein, we report a method based on coupling online disulfide modification and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to distinguish peptide disulfide regio-isomers. Such a method relies on a new disulfide bond cleavage reaction in solution, involving methanol as a reactant and 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. This reaction leads to selective cleavage of a disulfide bond and formation of sulfenic methyl ester (-SOCH3) at one cysteine residue and a thiol (-SH) at the other. Under low energy collision-induced dissociation (CID), cysteine sulfenic methyl ester motif produces a signature methanol loss (-32 Da), allowing its identification from other possible isomeric structures such as S-hydroxylmethyl (-SCH2OH) and methyl sulfoxide (-S(O)-CH3). Since disulfide bond can be selectively cleaved and modified upon methoxy addition, subsequent MS2 CID of the methoxy addition product provides enhanced sequence coverage as demonstrated by the analysis of bovine insulin. More importantly, this reaction does not induce disulfide scrambling, likely due to the fact that radical intermediates are not involved in the process. An approach based on methoxy addition followed by MS3 CID has been developed for assigning disulfide linkage patterns in peptide disulfide regio-isomers. This methodology was successfully applied to characterizing peptide systems having two disulfide bonds and three disulfide linkage isomers: side-by-side, overlapped, and looped-within-a-loop configurations. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Protein stabilization by introduction of cross-strand disulfides.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kausik; Thakurela, Sudhir; Prajapati, Ravindra Singh; Indu, S; Ali, P Shaik Syed; Ramakrishnan, C; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2005-11-08

    Disulfides cross-link residues in a protein that are separated in primary sequence and stabilize the protein through entropic destabilization of the unfolded state. While the removal of naturally occurring disulfides leads to protein destabilization, introduction of engineered disulfides does not always lead to significant stabilization of a protein. We have analyzed naturally occurring disulfides that span adjacent antiparallel strands of beta sheets (cross-strand disulfides). Cross-strand disulfides have recently been implicated as redox-based conformational switches in proteins such as gp120 and CD4. The propensity of these disulfides to act as conformational switches was postulated on the basis of the hypothesis that this class of disulfide is conformationally strained. In the present analysis, there was no evidence to suggest that cross-strand disulfides are more strained compared to other disulfides as assessed by their torsional energy. It was also observed that these disulfides occur solely at non-hydrogen-bonded (NHB) registered pairs of adjacent antiparallel strands and not at hydrogen-bonded (HB) positions as suggested previously. One of the half-cystines involved in cross-strand disulfide formation often occurs at an edge strand. Experimental confirmation of the stabilizing effects of such disulfides was carried out in Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Four pairs of cross-strand cysteines were introduced, two at HB and two at NHB pairs. Disulfides were formed in all four cases. However, as predicted from our analysis, disulfides at NHB positions resulted in an increase in melting temperature of 7-10 degrees C, while at HB positions there was a corresponding decrease of -7 degrees C. The reduced state of all proteins had similar stability.

  15. Identification of Phosphorylation Sites Altering Pollen Soluble Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Activity.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Deborah J; Haque, Tamanna; Tudor, Richard L; Barron, Yoshimi; Zampronio, Cleidiane G; Cotton, Nicholas P J; de Graaf, Barend H J; White, Scott A; Cooper, Helen J; Franklin, F Christopher H; Harper, Jeffery F; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2017-03-01

    Protein phosphorylation regulates numerous cellular processes. Identifying the substrates and protein kinases involved is vital to understand how these important posttranslational modifications modulate biological function in eukaryotic cells. Pyrophosphatases catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic phosphate (PPi) to inorganic phosphate Pi, driving biosynthetic reactions; they are essential for low cytosolic inorganic phosphate. It was suggested recently that posttranslational regulation of Family I soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (sPPases) may affect their activity. We previously demonstrated that two pollen-expressed sPPases, Pr-p26.1a and Pr-p26.1b, from the flowering plant Papaver rhoeas were inhibited by phosphorylation. Despite the potential significance, there is a paucity of data on sPPase phosphorylation and regulation. Here, we used liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry to map phosphorylation sites to the otherwise divergent amino-terminal extensions on these pollen sPPases. Despite the absence of reports in the literature on mapping phosphorylation sites on sPPases, a database survey of various proteomes identified a number of examples, suggesting that phosphorylation may be a more widely used mechanism to regulate these enzymes. Phosphomimetic mutants of Pr-p26.1a/b significantly and differentially reduced PPase activities by up to 2.5-fold at pH 6.8 and 52% in the presence of Ca(2+) and hydrogen peroxide over unmodified proteins. This indicates that phosphoregulation of key sites can inhibit the catalytic responsiveness of these proteins in concert with key intracellular events. As sPPases are essential for many metabolic pathways in eukaryotic cells, our findings identify the phosphorylation of sPPases as a potential master regulatory mechanism that could be used to attenuate metabolism.

  16. Perchlorate Reductase Is Distinguished by Active Site Aromatic Gate Residues*

    PubMed Central

    Youngblut, Matthew D.; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Clark, Iain C.; Carlson, Hans K.; Maglaqui, Adrian P.; Gau-Pan, Phonchien S.; Redford, Steven A.; Wong, Alan; Tainer, John A.; Coates, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Perchlorate is an important ion on both Earth and Mars. Perchlorate reductase (PcrAB), a specialized member of the dimethylsulfoxide reductase superfamily, catalyzes the first step of microbial perchlorate respiration, but little is known about the biochemistry, specificity, structure, and mechanism of PcrAB. Here we characterize the biophysics and phylogeny of this enzyme and report the 1.86-Å resolution PcrAB complex crystal structure. Biochemical analysis revealed a relatively high perchlorate affinity (Km = 6 μm) and a characteristic substrate inhibition compared with the highly similar respiratory nitrate reductase NarGHI, which has a relatively much lower affinity for perchlorate (Km = 1.1 mm) and no substrate inhibition. Structural analysis of oxidized and reduced PcrAB with and without the substrate analog SeO32− bound to the active site identified key residues in the positively charged and funnel-shaped substrate access tunnel that gated substrate entrance and product release while trapping transiently produced chlorate. The structures suggest gating was associated with shifts of a Phe residue between open and closed conformations plus an Asp residue carboxylate shift between monodentate and bidentate coordination to the active site molybdenum atom. Taken together, structural and mutational analyses of gate residues suggest key roles of these gate residues for substrate entrance and product release. Our combined results provide the first detailed structural insight into the mechanism of biological perchlorate reduction, a critical component of the chlorine redox cycle on Earth. PMID:26940877

  17. Evidence for segmental mobility in the active site of pepsin

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, J.; Strop, P.; Senn, H.; Foundling, S.; Kostka, V.

    1986-05-01

    The low hydrolytic activity (k/sub cat/ < 0.001 s/sup -1/) of chicken pepsin (CP) towards tri- and tetrapeptides is enhanced at least 100 times by modification of its single sulfhydryl group of Cys-115, with little effect on K/sub m/-values. Modification thus simulates the effect of secondary substrate binding on pepsin catalysis. The rate of Cys-115 modification is substantially decreased in the presence of some competitive inhibitors, suggesting its active site location. Experiments with CP alkylated at Cys-115 with Acrylodan as a fluorescent probe or with N-iodoacetyl-(4-fluoro)-aniline as a /sup 19/F-nmr probe suggest conformation change around Cys-115 to occur on substrate or substrate analog binding. The difference /sup 1/H-nmr spectra (500 MHz) of unmodified free and inhibitor-complexed CP reveal chemical shifts almost exclusively in the aromatic region. The effects of Cu/sup + +/ on /sup 19/F- and /sup 1/H-nmr spectra have been studied. Examination of a computer graphics model of CP based on E. parasitica pepsin-inhibitor complex X-ray coordinates suggests that Cys-115 is located near the S/sub 3//S/sub 5/ binding site. The results are interpreted in favor of segmental mobility of this region important for pepsin substrate binding and catalysis.

  18. First Principles Computational Study of the Active Site of Arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Ivaylo; Klien, Micheal

    2004-01-14

    Ab initio density functional theory (DFT) methods were used to investigate the structural features of the active site of the binuclear enzyme rat liver arginase. Special emphasis was placed on the crucial role of the second shell ligand interactions. These interactions were systematically studied by performing calculations on models of varying size. It was determined that a water molecule, and not hydroxide, is the bridging exogenous ligand. The carboxylate ligands facilitate the close approach of the Mn (II) ions by attenuating the metal-metal electrostatic repulsion. Of the two metals, MnA was shown to carry a larger positive charge. Analysis of the electronic properties of the active site revealed that orbitals involving the terminal Asp234 residue, as well as the flexible -1,1 bridging Asp232, lie at high energies, suggesting weaker coordination. This is reflected in certain structural variability present in our models and is also consistent with recent experimental findings. Finally, implications of our findings for the biological function of the enzyme are delineated.

  19. C-H Activation on Co,O Sites: Isolated Surface Sites versus Molecular Analogs.

    PubMed

    Estes, Deven P; Siddiqi, Georges; Allouche, Florian; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Safonova, Olga V; Trigub, Alexander L; Koptyug, Igor V; Copéret, Christophe

    2016-11-16

    The activation and conversion of hydrocarbons is one of the most important challenges in chemistry. Transition-metal ions (V, Cr, Fe, Co, etc.) isolated on silica surfaces are known to catalyze such processes. The mechanisms of these processes are currently unknown but are thought to involve C-H activation as the rate-determining step. Here, we synthesize well-defined Co(II) ions on a silica surface using a metal siloxide precursor followed by thermal treatment under vacuum at 500 °C. We show that these isolated Co(II) sites are catalysts for a number of hydrocarbon conversion reactions, such as the dehydrogenation of propane, the hydrogenation of propene, and the trimerization of terminal alkynes. We then investigate the mechanisms of these processes using kinetics, kinetic isotope effects, isotopic labeling experiments, parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) NMR, and comparison with a molecular analog. The data are consistent with all of these reactions occurring by a common mechanism, involving heterolytic C-H or H-H activation via a 1,2 addition across a Co-O bond.

  20. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  1. Polarizability of the active site of cytochrome c reduces the activation barrier for electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes in biology’s energy chains operate with low energy input distributed through multiple electron transfer steps between protein active sites. The general challenge of biological design is how to lower the activation barrier without sacrificing a large negative reaction free energy. We show that this goal is achieved through a large polarizability of the active site. It is polarized by allowing a large number of excited states, which are populated quantum mechanically by electrostatic fluctuations of the protein and hydration water shells. This perspective is achieved by extensive mixed quantum mechanical/molecular dynamics simulations of the half reaction of reduction of cytochrome c. The barrier for electron transfer is consistently lowered by increasing the number of excited states included in the Hamiltonian of the active site diagonalized along the classical trajectory. We suggest that molecular polarizability, in addition to much studied electrostatics of permanent charges, is a key parameter to consider in order to understand how enzymes work. PMID:27306204

  2. Functional Analysis of Paralogous Thiol-disulfide Oxidoreductases in Streptococcus gordonii*

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Lauren; Ng, Crystal K. W.; Halperin, Scott A.; Lee, Song F.

    2013-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are important for the stability of many extracellular proteins, including bacterial virulence factors. Formation of these bonds is catalyzed by thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases (TDORs). Little is known about their formation in Gram-positive bacteria, particularly among facultative anaerobic Firmicutes, such as streptococci. To investigate disulfide bond formation in Streptococcus gordonii, we identified five putative TDORs from the sequenced genome. Each of the putative TDOR genes was insertionally inactivated with an erythromycin resistance cassette, and the mutants were analyzed for autolysis, extracellular DNA release, biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, and genetic competence. This analysis revealed a single TDOR, SdbA, which exhibited a pleiotropic mutant phenotype. Using an in silico analysis approach, we identified the major autolysin AtlS as a natural substrate of SdbA and showed that SdbA is critical to the formation of a disulfide bond that is required for autolytic activity. Analysis by BLAST search revealed homologs to SdbA in other Gram-positive species. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of an oxidoreductase, SdbA, that affects multiple phenotypes in a Gram-positive bacterium. SdbA shows low sequence homology to previously identified oxidoreductases, suggesting that it may belong to a different class of enzymes. Our results demonstrate that SdbA is required for disulfide bond formation in S. gordonii and indicate that this enzyme may represent a novel type of oxidoreductase in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23615907

  3. Delicate balance of electrostatic interactions and disulfide bridges in thermostability of firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Somayeh; Moradi, Maryam; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2012-12-01

    The wild type Photinus pyralis luciferase does not have any disulfide bridge. Disulfide bridges are determinant in inherent stability of protein at moderate temperatures. Meanwhile, arginin is responsible for thermostability at higher temperatures. In this study, by concomitant introduction of disulfide bridge and a surface arginin in a mutant (A296C-A326C/I232R), the contribution of disulfide bridge introduction and surface hydrophilic residue on activity and global stability of P. pyralis luciferase is investigated. In addition to the mentioned mutant; I232R, A296C-A326C and wild type luciferases are characterized. Though addition of Arg caused stability against proteolysis but in combination with disulfide bridge resulted in decreased thermal stability compared to A296C-A326C mutant. In spite of long distance of two different mutations (A296C-A326C and I232R) from each other in the three-dimensional structure, combination of their effects on the stability of luciferase was not cumulative.

  4. Active Site and Laminarin Binding in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100–10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  5. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55

    DOE PAGES

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; ...

    2015-03-09

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define themore » active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ~30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Furthermore, application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties.« less

  6. Characterization of the active sites in decay-accelerating factor.

    PubMed

    Kuttner-Kondo, L A; Mitchell, L; Hourcade, D E; Medof, M E

    2001-08-15

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a complement regulator that dissociates autologous C3 convertases, which assemble on self cell surfaces. Its activity resides in the last three of its four complement control protein repeats (CCP2-4). Previous modeling on the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of CCP15-16 in the serum C3 convertase regulator factor H proposed a positively charged surface area on CCP2 extending into CCP3, and hydrophobic moieties between CCPs 2 and 3 as being primary convertase-interactive sites. To map the residues providing for the activity of DAF, we analyzed the functions of 31 primarily alanine substitution mutants based in part on this model. Replacing R69, R96, R100, and K127 in the positively charged CCP2-3 groove or hydrophobic F148 and L171 in CCP3 markedly impaired the function of DAF in both activation pathways. Significantly, mutations of K126 and F169 and of R206 and R212 in downstream CCP4 selectively reduced alternative pathway activity without affecting classical pathway activity. Rhesus macaque DAF has all the above human critical residues except for F169, which is an L, and its CCPs exhibited full activity against the human classical pathway C3 convertase. The recombina