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Sample records for active site histidine

  1. Histidine at the active site of Neurospora tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Pfiffner, E; Lerch, K

    1981-10-13

    The involvement of histidyl residues as potential ligands to the binuclear active-site copper of Neurospora tyrosinase was explored by dye-sensitized photooxidation. The enzymatic activity of the holoenzyme was shown to be unaffected by exposure to light in the presence of methylene blue; however, irradiation of the apoenzyme under the same conditions led to a progressive loss of its ability to be reactivated with Cu2+. This photoinactivation was paralleled by a decrease in the histidine content whereas the number of histidyl residues in the holoenzyme remained constant. Copper measurements of photooxidized, reconstituted apoenzyme demonstrated the loss of binding of one copper atom per mole of enzyme as a consequence of photosensitized oxidation of three out of nine histidine residues. Their sequence positions were determined by a comparison of the relative yields of the histidine containing peptides of photooxidized holo- and apotyrosinases. The data obtained show the preferential modification of histidyl residues 188, 193, and 289 and suggest that they constitute metal ligands to one of the two active-site copper atoms. Substitution of copper by cobalt was found to afford complete protection of the histidyl residues from being modified by dye-sensitized photooxidation. PMID:6458322

  2. Changes in active site histidine hydrogen bonding trigger cryptochrome activation.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Abir; Manahan, Craig C; Top, Deniz; Yee, Estella F; Lin, Changfan; Young, Michael W; Thiel, Walter; Crane, Brian R

    2016-09-01

    Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations indicate that flavin reduction substantially increases the His378 pKa Consistent with coupling between ASQ formation and His378 protonation, dCRY displays reduced photoreduction rates with increasing pH; however, His378Asn/Arg variants show no such pH dependence. Replica-exchange MD simulations also support CTT release mediated by changes in His378 hydrogen bonding and verify other responsive regions of the protein previously identified by proteolytic sensitivity assays. His378 dCRY variants show varying abilities to light-activate TIM and undergo self-degradation in cellular assays. Surprisingly, His378Arg/Lys variants do not degrade in light despite maintaining reactivity toward TIM, thereby implicating different conformational responses in these two functions. Thus, the dCRY photosensory mechanism involves flavin photoreduction coupled to protonation of His378, whose perturbed hydrogen-bonding pattern alters the CTT and surrounding regions. PMID:27551082

  3. Active site histidine in spinach ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase modified by diethyl pyrocarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Y.; McFadden, B.A.; el-Gul, T.

    1985-07-16

    (TH) Diethyl pyrocarbonate was synthesized from (TH) ethanol prepared by the reduction of acetaldehyde by NaB3H4. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) from spinach was inactivated with this reagent at pH 7.0 the presence of 20 mM MgS , and tryptic peptides that contained modified histidine residues were isolated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Labeling of the enzyme was conducted in the presence and absence of the competitive inhibitor sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate. The amount of one peptide that was heavily labeled in the absence of this compound was reduced 10-fold in its presence. The labeled residue was histidine-298. This result, in combination with earlier experiments, suggests that His-298 in spinach RuBisCO is located in the active site domain and is essential to enzyme activity. This region of the primary structure is strongly conserved in seven other ribulosebisphosphate carboxylases from divergent sources.

  4. Affinity labeling and characterization of the active site histidine of glucosephosphate isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.R.; Gracy, R.W.; Hartman, F.C.

    1980-10-10

    N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate was found to act as a specific affinity label for the active center of glucosephosphate isomerase. The inactivation process followed pseudo-first order kinetics, was irreversible, and exhibited rate saturation kinetics with minimal half-lives of inactivation of 4.5 and 6.3 min for the enzyme isolated from human placenta and rabbit muscle, respectively. The pH dependence of the inactivation process closely paralleled the pH dependence of the overall catalytic process with pK/sub a/ values at pH 6.4 and 9.0. The stoichiometry of labeling of either enzyme, as determined with N-bromo(/sup 14/C/sub 2/)acetylethanolamine phosphate, was 1 eq of the affinity label/subunit of enzyme. After acid hydrolysis and amino acid analysis of the radioactive affinity-labeled human enzyme, only radioactive 3-carboxymethyl histidine was found. In the case of the rabbit enzyme, the only radioactive derivative obtained was 1-carboxymethyl histidine. Active site tryptic peptides were isolated by solvent extraction, thin layer peptide fingerprinting, and ion exchange chromatography before and after removal of the phosphate from the active site peptide. Amino acid analysis of the labeled peptides from the two species were very similar. Using high sensitivity methods for sequence analysis, the primary structure of the active site was established as Val-Leu-His-Ala-Glu-Asn-Val-Asp (Gly,Thr,Ser) Glu-Ile (Thr-Gly-His-Lys-Glx)-Tyr-Phe. Apparent sequence homology between the catalytic center of glucosephosphate isomerase and triosephosphate isomerase suggest that the two enzymes may have evolved from a common ancestral gene.

  5. Identification of essential histidine residues in the active site of Escherichia coli xylose (glucose) isomerase.

    PubMed

    Batt, C A; Jamieson, A C; Vandeyar, M A

    1990-01-01

    Two conserved histidine residues (His-101 and His-271) appear to be essential components in the active site of the enzyme xylose (glucose) isomerase (EC 5.3.1.5). These amino acid residues were targeted for mutagenesis on the basis of sequence homology among xylose isomerases isolated from Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Ampullariella sp. strain 3876, and Streptomyces violaceus-niger. Each residue was selectively replaced by site-directed mutagenesis and shown to be essential for activity. No measurable activity was observed for any mutations replacing either His-101 or His-271. Circular dichroism measurements revealed no significant change in the overall conformation of the mutant enzymes, and all formed dimers similar to the wild-type enzyme. Mutations at His-271 could be distinguished from those at His-101, since the former resulted in a thermolabile protein whereas no significant change in heat stability was observed for the latter. Based upon these results and structural data recently reported, we speculate that His-101 is the catalytic base mediating the reaction. Replacement of His-271 may render the enzyme thermolabile, since this residue appears to be a ligand for one of the metal ions in the active site of the enzyme. PMID:2405386

  6. Multiple active site histidine protonation states in Acetobacter aceti N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutase detected by REDOR NMR.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jacob; Jiang, Hong; Ransome, Aaron E; Kappock, T Joseph

    2007-08-21

    Class I PurE (N5-carboxyaminoimidazole mutase) catalyzes a chemically unique mutase reaction. A working mechanistic hypothesis involves a histidine (His45 in Escherichia coli PurE) functioning as a general acid, but no evidence for multiple protonation states has been obtained. Solution NMR is a peerless tool for this task but has had limited application to enzymes, most of which are larger than its effective molecular size limit. Solid-state NMR is not subject to this limit. REDOR NMR studies of a 151 kDa complex of uniformly 15N-labeled Acetobacter aceti PurE (AaPurE) and the active site ligand [6-13C]citrate probed a single ionization equilibrium associated with the key histidine (AaPurE His59). In the AaPurE complex, the citrate central carboxylate C6 13C peak moves upfield, indicating diminution of negative charge, and broadens, indicating heterogeneity. Histidine 15N chemical shifts indicate His59 exists in approximately equimolar amounts of an Ndelta-unprotonated (pyridine-like) form and an Ndelta-protonated (pyrrole-like) form, each of which is approximately 4 A from citrate C6. The spectroscopic data are consistent with proton transfers involving His59 Ndelta that are invoked in the class I PurE mechanism.

  7. Understanding the Role of Histidine in the GHSxG Acyltransferase Active Site Motif: Evidence for Histidine Stabilization of the Malonyl-Enzyme Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; Katz, Leonard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. The ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-like subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate. PMID:25286165

  8. Understanding the role of histidine in the GHSxG acyltransferase active site motif: Evidence for histidine stabilization of the malonyl-enzyme intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; Katz, Leonard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2014-10-06

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. Thus, the ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-like subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate.

  9. Understanding the role of histidine in the GHSxG acyltransferase active site motif: Evidence for histidine stabilization of the malonyl-enzyme intermediate

    DOE PAGES

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; Katz, Leonard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2014-10-06

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. Thus, the ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-likemore » subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate.« less

  10. Active site structure in cytochrome c peroxidase and myoglobin mutants: effects of altered hydrogen bonding to the proximal histidine.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Hallam, S; Chen, M; Chance, B; Powers, L

    1996-11-26

    The globins and peroxidases, while performing completely different chemistry, share features of the iron heme active site: a protoporphyrin IX prosthetic group is linked to the protein by the proximal histidine residue. X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides a method to determine the local structure of iron heme active sites in proteins. Our previous studies using X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed a significant difference in the Fe-N epsilon bond length between the peroxidases and the globins [for a review, see Powers, L. (1994) Molecular Electronics and Molecular Electronic Devices, Vol. 3, p 211 CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL]. Globins typically have an Fe-N epsilon distance close to 2.1 A while the Fe-N epsilon distance in the peroxidases is closer to 1.9 A. We have proposed [Sinclair, R., Powers, L., Bumpus, J., Albo, A., & Brock, B. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 4892] that strong hydrogen bonding to the proximal histidine is responsible for the shorter bond length in the peroxidases. Here we use site-specific mutagenesis to eliminate the strong proximal hydrogen bonding in cytochrome c peroxidase and to introduce strong proximal hydrogen bonding in myoglobin. Consistent with our hypothesis, elimination of the Asp235-His175 hydrogen bond in CcP results in elongation of Fe-N epsilon from approximately 1.9 to approximately 2.1 A. Conversely, introduction of a similar strong proximal hydrogen bond in myoglobin shortens Fe-N epsilon from approximately 2.1 to approximately 1.9 A. These results correlate well with other biochemical data.

  11. Roles of histidines 154 and 189 and aspartate 139 in the active site of serine acetyltransferase from Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rong; Roderick, Steven L; Huang, Bin; Cook, Paul F

    2008-06-17

    A crystal structure of serine acetyltransferase (SAT) with cysteine bound in the serine subsite of the active site shows that both H154 and H189 are within hydrogen-bonding distance to the cysteine thiol [Olsen, L. R., Huang, B., Vetting, M. W., and Roderick, S. L. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 6013 -6019]. In addition, H154 is in an apparent dyad linkage with D139. The structure suggests that H154 is the most likely catalytic general base and that H189 and D139 may also play important roles during the catalytic reaction. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to mutate each of these three residues to Asn, one at a time. The V1/Et value of all of the single mutant enzymes decreased, with the largest decrease (approximately 1240-fold) exhibited by the H154N mutant enzyme. Mutation of both histidines, H154N/H189N, gave a V1/Et approximately 23700-fold lower than that of the wild-type enzyme. An increase in K Ser was observed for the H189N, D139N, and H154N/H189N mutant enzymes, while the H154N mutant enzyme gave an 8-fold decrease in K Ser. For all three single mutant enzymes, V1/Et and V1/K Ser Et decrease at low pH and give a pKa of about 7, while the V1/Et of the double mutant enzyme was pH independent. The solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effects on V 1 and V1/K Ser decreased compared to wild type for the H154N mutant enzyme and increased for the H189N mutant enzyme but was about the same as that of wild type for D139N and H154N/H189N. Data suggest that H154, H189, and D139 play different catalytic roles for SAT. H154 likely serves as a general base, accepting a proton from the beta-hydroxyl of serine as the tetrahedral intermediate is formed upon nucleophilic attack on the thioester carbonyl of acetyl-CoA. However, activity is not completely lost upon elimination of H154, and thus, H189 may be able to serve as a backup general base at a lower efficiency compared to H154; it also aids in binding and orienting the serine substrate. Aspartate 139, in dyad linkage with

  12. Affinity alkylators, 11. cap alpha. -bromoacetoxyprogesterone and estrone 3-bromoacetate, modify a common active site-histidine in human placental 17. beta. ,20-. cap alpha. -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.L.; Asibey-Berko, E.; Strickler, R.C.

    1986-03-01

    Purified human placental 17..beta..,20..cap alpha..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17,20-HSD), after complete inactivation by estrone 3-bromoacetate (3-BAE) in the presence of NADPH, was reactivated to 100% activity by base-catalyzed hydrolysis of the steroidal ester-enzyme conjugate and then repurified. Computer modeling predicted that 3-BAE and 11..cap alpha..-bromoacetoxyprogesterone (11-BAP) alkylate a common region of the enzyme active site. Kinetic studies argued that reactivated enzyme (RE) and native enzyme (NE) bind 11-BAP in the same orientation. 11-/sup 14/C-BAP produced 5-fold less radiolabeled 3-(carboxymethyl)histidine (3-CM-His) in RE than in NE. Despite having the same affinity for RE and NE, 11-BAP re-inactivated RE5-fold slower than NE. These results demonstrate that the nonradiolabeled 3-CM-His originally produced by 3-BAE in the enzyme active site hindered radioalkylation of this histidyl reside in RE by 11-/sup 14/C-BAP. Thus, 11-BAP and 3-BAE modify a common histidine in the enzyme active site, and this is direct evidence that the estradiol 17..beta..-dehydrogenase and 20..cap alpha..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities of 17,20-HSD reside at a single locus on one protein.

  13. Probing the location and function of the conserved histidine residue of phosphoglucose isomerase by using an active site directed inhibitor N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Meng, M.; Chane, T. L.; Sun, Y. J.; Hsiao, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9) catalyzes the interconversion of D-glucopyranose-6-phosphate and D-fructofuranose-6-phosphate by promoting an intrahydrogen transfer between C1 and C2. A conserved histidine exists throughout all phosphoglucose isomerases and was hypothesized to be the base catalyzing the isomerization reaction. In the present study, this conserved histidine, His311, of the enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus was subjected to mutational analysis, and the mutational effect on the inactivation kinetics by N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate was investigated. The substitution of His311 with alanine, asparagine, or glutamine resulted in the decrease of activity, in k(cat)/K(M), by a factor of 10(3), indicating the importance of this residue. N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate inactivated irreversibly the activity of wild-type phosphoglucose isomerase; however, His311 --> Ala became resistant to this inhibitor, indicating that His311 is located in the active site and is responsible for the inactivation of the enzyme by this active site-directed inhibitor. The pKa of His311 was estimated to be 6.31 according to the pH dependence of the inactivation. The proximity of this value with the pKa value of 6.35, determined from the pH dependence of k(cat)/K(M), supports a role of His311 as a general base in the catalysis. PMID:10595547

  14. Structural Basis for Substrate and Oxygen Activation in Homoprotocatechuate 2,3-Dioxygenase: Roles of Conserved Active Site Histidine 200.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Elena G; Rogers, Melanie S; Lipscomb, John D

    2015-09-01

    Kinetic and spectroscopic studies have shown that the conserved active site residue His200 of the extradiol ring-cleaving homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (FeHPCD) from Brevibacterium fuscum is critical for efficient catalysis. The roles played by this residue are probed here by analysis of the steady-state kinetics, pH dependence, and X-ray crystal structures of the FeHPCD position 200 variants His200Asn, His200Gln, and His200Glu alone and in complex with three catecholic substrates (homoprotocatechuate, 4-sulfonylcatechol, and 4-nitrocatechol) possessing substituents with different inductive capacity. Structures determined at 1.35-1.75 Å resolution show that there is essentially no change in overall active site architecture or substrate binding mode for these variants when compared to the structures of the wild-type enzyme and its analogous complexes. This shows that the maximal 50-fold decrease in kcat for ring cleavage, the dramatic changes in pH dependence, and the switch from ring cleavage to ring oxidation of 4-nitrocatechol by the FeHPCD variants can be attributed specifically to the properties of the altered second-sphere residue and the substrate. The results suggest that proton transfer is necessary for catalysis, and that it occurs most efficiently when the substrate provides the proton and His200 serves as a catalyst. However, in the absence of an available substrate proton, a defined proton-transfer pathway in the protein can be utilized. Changes in the steric bulk and charge of the residue at position 200 appear to be capable of altering the rate-limiting step in catalysis and, perhaps, the nature of the reactive species.

  15. Structural Basis for Substrate and Oxygen Activation in Homoprotocatechuate 2,3-Dioxygenase: Roles of Conserved Active Site Histidine-200

    PubMed Central

    Kovaleva, Elena G.; Rogers, Melanie S.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic and spectroscopic studies have shown that the conserved active site residue His200 of the extradiol ring-cleaving homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (FeHPCD) from Brevibacterium fuscum is critical for efficient catalysis. The roles played by this residue are probed here by analysis of the steady state kinetics, pH dependence, and X-ray crystal structures of the FeHPCD position 200 variants His200Asn, His200Gln, and His200Glu alone and in complex with three catecholic substrates (homoprotocatechuate, 4-sulfonylcatechol, and 4-nitrocatechol) possessing substituents with different inductive capacity. Structures solved at 1.35 –1.75 Å resolution show that there is essentially no change in overall active site architecture or substrate binding mode for these variants when compared to the structures of the wild type enzyme and its analogous complexes. This shows that the maximal 50-fold decrease in kcat for ring cleavage, the dramatic changes in pH dependence, and the switch from ring cleavage to ring oxidation of 4-nitrocatechol by the FeHPCD variants can be attributed specifically to the properties of the altered second sphere residue and the substrate. The results suggest that proton transfer is necessary for catalysis, and that it occurs most efficiently when the substrate provides the proton and His200 serves as a catalyst. However, in the absence of an available substrate proton, a defined proton-transfer pathway in the protein can be utilized. Changes in steric bulk and charge of the residue at position 200 appear capable of altering the rate-limiting step in catalysis, and perhaps, the nature of the reactive species. PMID:26267790

  16. Evidence for a Dual Role of an Active Site Histidine in [alpha]-Amino-[beta]-carboxymuconate-[epsilon]-semialdehyde Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Lu; Fielding, Andrew J.; Chen, Yan; Li, Tingfeng; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Chen, Lirong; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Que, Jr., Lawrence; Liu, Aimin

    2012-10-09

    The previously reported crystal structures of {alpha}-amino-{beta}-carboxymuconate-{epsilon}-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) show a five-coordinate Zn(II)(His){sub 3}(Asp)(OH{sub 2}) active site. The water ligand is H-bonded to a conserved His228 residue adjacent to the metal center in ACMSD from Pseudomonas fluorescens (PfACMSD). Site-directed mutagenesis of His228 to tyrosine and glycine in this study results in a complete or significant loss of activity. Metal analysis shows that H228Y and H228G contain iron rather than zinc, indicating that this residue plays a role in the metal selectivity of the protein. As-isolated H228Y displays a blue color, which is not seen in wild-type ACMSD. Quinone staining and resonance Raman analyses indicate that the blue color originates from Fe(III)-tyrosinate ligand-to-metal charge transfer. Co(II)-substituted H228Y ACMSD is brown in color and exhibits an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum showing a high-spin Co(II) center with a well-resolved {sup 59}Co (I = 7/2) eight-line hyperfine splitting pattern. The X-ray crystal structures of as-isolated Fe-H228Y (2.8 {angstrom}) and Co-substituted (2.4 {angstrom}) and Zn-substituted H228Y (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) support the spectroscopic assignment of metal ligation of the Tyr228 residue. The crystal structure of Zn-H228G (2.6 {angstrom}) was also determined. These four structures show that the water ligand present in WT Zn-ACMSD is either missing (Fe-H228Y, Co-H228Y, and Zn-H228G) or disrupted (Zn-H228Y) in response to the His228 mutation. Together, these results highlight the importance of His228 for PfACMSD's metal specificity as well as maintaining a water molecule as a ligand of the metal center. His228 is thus proposed to play a role in activating the metal-bound water ligand for subsequent nucleophilic attack on the substrate.

  17. Dissemination of lipid A deacylases (pagL) among gram-negative bacteria: identification of active-site histidine and serine residues.

    PubMed

    Geurtsen, Jeroen; Steeghs, Liana; Hove, Jan Ten; van der Ley, Peter; Tommassen, Jan

    2005-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the main constituents of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. It usually consists of a highly variable O-antigen, a less variable core oligosaccharide, and a highly conserved lipid moiety, designated lipid A. Several bacteria are capable of modifying their lipid A architecture in response to external stimuli. The outer membrane-localized lipid A 3-O-deacylase, encoded by the pagL gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, removes the fatty acyl chain from the 3 position of lipid A. Although a similar activity was reported in some other Gram-negative bacteria, the corresponding genes could not be identified. Here, we describe the presence of pagL homologs in a variety of Gram-negative bacteria. Although the overall sequence similarity is rather low, a conserved domain could be distinguished in the C-terminal region. The activity of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bordetella bronchiseptica pagL homologs was confirmed upon expression in Escherichia coli, which resulted in the removal of an R-3-hydroxymyristoyl group from lipid A. Upon deacylation by PagL, E. coli lipid A underwent another modification, which was the result of the activity of the endogenous palmitoyl transferase PagP. Furthermore, we identified a conserved histidine-serine couple as active site residues, suggesting a catalytic mechanism similar to serine hydrolases. The biological function of PagL remains unclear. However, because PagL homologs were found in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic species, PagL-mediated deacylation of lipid A probably does not have a dedicated role in pathogenicity.

  18. Enthalpy and enzyme activity of modified histidine residues of adenosine deaminase and diethyl pyrocarbonate complexes.

    PubMed

    Ataie, G; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Saboury, A A; Hakimelahi, G H; Hwu, J R; Tsay, S C

    2000-03-16

    Kinetic and thermodynamic studies have been made on the effect of diethyl pyrocarbonate as a histidine modifier on the active site of adenosine deaminase in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.8, at 27 degrees C using UV spectrophotometry and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Inactivation of adenosine deaminase by diethyl pyrocarbonate is correlated with modification of histidyl residues. The number of modified histidine residues complexed to active site of adenosine deaminase are equivalent to 4. The number and energy of histidine binding sets are determined by enthalpy curve, which represents triple stages. These stages are composed of 3,1 and 1 sites of histidyl modified residues at diethyl pyrocarbonate concentrations, 0.63, 1.8, 3.3 mM. The heat contents corresponding to the first, second and third sets are found to be 18000, 22000 and 21900 kJ mol(-1) respectively.

  19. NMR studies of active-site properties of human carbonic anhydrase II by using (15) N-labeled 4-methylimidazole as a local probe and histidine hydrogen-bond correlations.

    PubMed

    Shenderovich, Ilya G; Lesnichin, Stepan B; Tu, Chingkuang; Silverman, David N; Tolstoy, Peter M; Denisov, Gleb S; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2015-02-01

    By using a combination of liquid and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, (15) N-labeled 4-methylimidazole (4-MI) as a local probe of the environment has been studied: 1) in the polar, wet Freon CDF3 /CDF2 Cl down to 130 K, 2) in water at pH 12, and 3) in solid samples of the mutant H64A of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). In the latter, the active-site His64 residue is replaced by alanine; the catalytic activity is, however, rescued by the presence of 4-MI. For the Freon solution, it is demonstrated that addition of water molecules not only catalyzes proton tautomerism but also lifts its quasidegeneracy. The possible hydrogen-bond clusters formed and the mechanism of the tautomerism are discussed. Information about the imidazole hydrogen-bond geometries is obtained by establishing a correlation between published (1) H and (15) N chemical shifts of the imidazole rings of histidines in proteins. This correlation is useful to distinguish histidines embedded in the interior of proteins and those at the surface, embedded in water. Moreover, evidence is obtained that the hydrogen-bond geometries of His64 in the active site of HCA II and of 4-MI in H64A HCA II are similar. Finally, the degeneracy of the rapid tautomerism of the neutral imidazole ring His64 reported by Shimahara et al. (J. Biol. Chem.- 2007, 282, 9646) can be explained with a wet, polar, nonaqueous active-site conformation in the inward conformation, similar to the properties of 4-MI in the Freon solution. The biological implications for the enzyme mechanism are discussed. PMID:25521423

  20. NMR studies of active-site properties of human carbonic anhydrase II by using (15) N-labeled 4-methylimidazole as a local probe and histidine hydrogen-bond correlations.

    PubMed

    Shenderovich, Ilya G; Lesnichin, Stepan B; Tu, Chingkuang; Silverman, David N; Tolstoy, Peter M; Denisov, Gleb S; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2015-02-01

    By using a combination of liquid and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, (15) N-labeled 4-methylimidazole (4-MI) as a local probe of the environment has been studied: 1) in the polar, wet Freon CDF3 /CDF2 Cl down to 130 K, 2) in water at pH 12, and 3) in solid samples of the mutant H64A of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). In the latter, the active-site His64 residue is replaced by alanine; the catalytic activity is, however, rescued by the presence of 4-MI. For the Freon solution, it is demonstrated that addition of water molecules not only catalyzes proton tautomerism but also lifts its quasidegeneracy. The possible hydrogen-bond clusters formed and the mechanism of the tautomerism are discussed. Information about the imidazole hydrogen-bond geometries is obtained by establishing a correlation between published (1) H and (15) N chemical shifts of the imidazole rings of histidines in proteins. This correlation is useful to distinguish histidines embedded in the interior of proteins and those at the surface, embedded in water. Moreover, evidence is obtained that the hydrogen-bond geometries of His64 in the active site of HCA II and of 4-MI in H64A HCA II are similar. Finally, the degeneracy of the rapid tautomerism of the neutral imidazole ring His64 reported by Shimahara et al. (J. Biol. Chem.- 2007, 282, 9646) can be explained with a wet, polar, nonaqueous active-site conformation in the inward conformation, similar to the properties of 4-MI in the Freon solution. The biological implications for the enzyme mechanism are discussed.

  1. Tautomeric states of the active-site histidines of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated IIIGlc, a signal-transducing protein from Escherichia coli, using two-dimensional heteronuclear NMR techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, J. G.; Torchia, D. A.; Meadow, N. D.; Roseman, S.

    1993-01-01

    IIIGlc is an 18.1-kDa signal-transducing phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system from Escherichia coli. The 1H, 15N, and 13C histidine ring NMR signals of both the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of IIIGlc have been assigned using two-dimensional 1H-15N and 1H-13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments and a two-dimensional 13C-13C-1H correlation spectroscopy via JCC coupling experiment. The data were acquired on uniformly 15N-labeled and uniformly 15N/13C-labeled protein samples. The experiments rely on one-bond and two-bond J couplings that allowed for assignment of the signals without the need for the analysis of through-space (nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy) correlations. The 15N and 13C chemical shifts were used to determine that His-75 exists predominantly in the N epsilon 2-H tautomeric state in both the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of IIIGlc, and that His-90 exists primarily in the N delta 1-H state in the unphosphorylated protein. Upon phosphorylation of the N epsilon 2 nitrogen of His-90, the N delta 1 nitrogen remains protonated, resulting in the formation of a charged phospho-His-90 moiety. The 1H, 15N, and 13C signals of the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated proteins showed only minor shifts in the pH range from 6.0 to 9.0. These data indicate that the pK alpha values for both His-75 and His-90 in IIIGlc and His-75 in phospho-IIIGlc are less than 5.0, and that the pK alpha value for phospho-His-90 is greater than 10. The results are presented in relation to previously obtained structural data on IIIGlc, and implications for proposed mechanisms of phosphoryl transfer are discussed. PMID:8518729

  2. Proton transfer roles of lysine 64 and glutamic acid 64 replacing histidine 64 in the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Engstrand, C; Forsman, C; Liang, Z; Lindskog, S

    1992-08-21

    The CO2 hydration activities of cloned human carbonic anhydrase II (carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1) and variants with Lys, Glu, Gln or Ala replacing His at sequence position 64 have been measured in a variety of different buffers in the pH range 6-9. The variants with Lys-64, Gln-64 and Ala-64 showed non-Michaelis-Menten behavior under some conditions, apparent substrate inhibition being prominent near pH 9. However, asymptotic Michaelis-Menten parameters could be estimated for the limit of low substrate concentrations. All variants show distinct buffer specificities, and imidazole derivatives, Ches and phosphate buffers yield higher kcat values that Bicine, Taps and Mops buffers under otherwise similar conditions. These results are interpreted in terms of different pathways for a rate-limiting proton transfer. In unmodified enzyme, the very high catalytic activity depends on His-64 functioning as an efficient proton transfer group, but this pathway is not available in the variants with Gln-64 and Ala-64. Imidazoles, Ches and phosphate are thought to participate in a metal center-to-buffer proton transfer pathway, whereas Bicine, Taps, Mops and Mes appear to lack this capacity, so that the rate-limiting proton transfer occurs in a metal center-to-bulk water pathway for these variants. The Lys-64 and Glu-64 variants give significantly higher kcat values in Taps, Mops and Mes buffers than the Ala-64 and Gln-64 variants. The pH dependencies of these kcat values are compatible with the hypothesis that Lys-64 and Glu-64 can function as proton transfer groups. Thus, at pH near 9, Lys-64 appears to be only 5-times less efficient than His-64, while Glu-64 is inefficient. At pH 6, Lys-64 is an inefficient proton transfer group, but Glu-64 is only 2-3-times less efficient than His-64. The data indicate that Lys-64 and Glu-64 have pKa values near 8 and below 6, respectively.

  3. Metal-activated histidine carbon donor hydrogen bonds contribute to metalloprotein folding and function.

    PubMed

    Schmiedekamp, Ann; Nanda, Vikas

    2009-07-01

    Carbon donor hydrogen bonds are typically weak interactions that contribute less than 2 kcal/mol, and provide only modest stabilization in proteins. One exception is the class of hydrogen bonds donated by heterocyclic side chain carbons. Histidine is capable of particularly strong interactions through the Cepsilon(1) and Cdelta(2) carbons when the imidazole is protonated or bound to metal. Given the frequent occurrence of metal-bound histidines in metalloproteins, we characterized the energies of these interactions through DFT calculations on model compounds. Imidazole-water hydrogen bonding could vary from -11.0 to -17.0 kcal/mol, depending on the metal identity and oxidation state. A geometric search of metalloprotein structures in the PDB identified a number of candidate His C-H...O hydrogen bonds which may be important for folding or function. DFT calculations on model complexes of superoxide reductase show a carbon donor hydrogen bond positioning a water molecule above the active site.

  4. Determination of pKa values of the histidine side chains of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus by NMR spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, T.; Ryan, M.; Dahlquist, F. W.; Griffith, O. H.

    1997-01-01

    Two active site histidine residues have been implicated in the catalysis of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). In this report, we present the first study of the pKa values of histidines of a PI-PLC. All six histidines of Bacillus cereus PI-PLC were studied by 2D NMR spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis. The protein was selectively labeled with 13C epsilon 1-histidine. A series of 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectra were acquired over a pH range of 4.0-9.0. Five of the six histidines have been individually substituted with alanine to aid the resonance assignments in the NMR spectra. Overall, the remaining histidines in the mutants show little chemical shift changes in the 1H-13C HSQC spectra, indicating that the alanine substitution has no effect on the tertiary structure of the protein. H32A and H82A mutants are inactive enzymes, while H92A and H61A are fully active, and H81A retains about 15% of the wild-type activity. The active site histidines, His32 and His82, display pKa values of 7.6 and 6.9, respectively. His92 and His227 exhibit pKa values of 5.4 and 6.9. His61 and His81 do not titrate over the pH range studied. These values are consistent with the crystal structure data, which shows that His92 and His227 are on the surface of the protein, whereas His61 and His81 are buried. The pKa value of 6.9 corroborates the hypothesis of His82 acting as a general acid in the catalysis. His32 is essential to enzyme activity, but its putative role as the general base is in question due to its relatively high pKa. PMID:9300493

  5. Histidine kinase activity in nuclei of Physarum polycephalum

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, H.R.; Pesis, K. Wei, Y.

    1987-05-01

    Nuclei of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum, contain a kinase that specifically phosphorylates the 1-nitrogen of histidine-75 of histone H4, in vitro. Phosphohistidine is alkali stable and acid labile. Similar alkali stable phosphorylation has been observed with beef heart extracts and S-100 extracts from S. cerevisiae. The activity may be similar to that previously reported by R.A. Smith and his colleagues in several mammalian tissues. They have begun a search for nuclear proteins that contain phosphohistidine. Cultures of Physarum were grown in the presence of /sup 32/P-phosphate using several different labeling protocols. Labeled nuclear proteins were fractionated on a Superose-12 column. Alkali stable phosphate label eluted close to the position of histone H1, although it was not on H1 itself. No alkali stable phosphate eluted at the position of histone H4, which was obtained in high yield by this procedure. The absence of alkali-stable phosphorylation of histone H4 was confirmed by gel electrophoresis of the crude nuclear proteins. The fraction containing alkali-stable phosphate was shown to contain phosphohistidine by amino acid analysis of a total alkaline hydrolysate. They conclude that Physarum nuclei possess at least one protein that contains phosphohistidine in vivo and that histone H4 does not contain phosphohistidine in this system.

  6. Derepression and repression of the histidine operon: role of the feedback site of the first enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, V M; Martíndelrío, R; Tébar, A R; Guisán, J M; Ballesteros, A O

    1975-01-01

    Thiazolealanine, a false feedback inhibitor, causes transient repression of the his operon previously derepressed by a severe histidine limitation in strains with a wild-type or feedback-hypersensitive first enzyme but not in feedback-resistant mutants. Since experiments reported here clearly demonstrate that thiazolealanine is not transferred to tRNAHis, it is proposed that this "transient repression" is effected through the interaction of thiazolealanine with the feedback site of the enzyme. Experiments in the presence of rifampin indicate that this thiazolealanine-mediated effect is exerted at the level of translation. We conclude that histidine (free), in addition to forming co-repressor, also represses the operon at the level of translation through feedback interaction with the first enzyme of the pathway (adenosine 5'-triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase). Rates of derepression in feedback-resistant strains are roughly half of those observed in controls, suggesting a positive role played by a first enzyme with a normal but unoccupied feedback site. Some feedback-resistant mutants, in contrast to the wild type, were unable to exhibit derepression under histidine limitation caused by aminotriazole. PMID:1104584

  7. Autophosphorylation Activity of a Soluble Hexameric Histidine Kinase Correlates with the Shift in Protein Conformational Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Wojnowska, Marta; Yan, Jun; Sivalingam, Ganesh N.; Cryar, Adam; Gor, Jayesh; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Djordjevic, Snezana

    2013-01-01

    Summary In a commonly accepted model, in response to stimuli, bacterial histidine kinases undergo a conformational transition between an active and inactive form. Structural information on histidine kinases is limited. By using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), we demonstrate an exchange between two conformational populations of histidine kinase ExsG that are linked to different levels of kinase activity. ExsG is an atypical signaling protein that incorporates an uncommon histidine kinase catalytic core at the C terminus preceded by an N-terminal “receiver domain” that is normally associated with the response regulator proteins in two-component signal transduction systems. IM-MS analysis and enzymatic assays indicate that phosphorylation of the ExsG receiver domain stabilizes the “compact” form of the protein and inhibits kinase core activity; in contrast, nucleotide binding required for kinase activity is associated with the more open conformation of ExsG. PMID:24210218

  8. Analysis of Mammalian Histidine Decarboxylase Dimerization Interface Reveals an Electrostatic Hotspot Important for Catalytic Site Topology and Function.

    PubMed

    Moya-García, Aurelio A; Rodríguez-Agudo, Daniel; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Medina, Miguel Angel; Urdiales, José Luis; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca

    2011-06-14

    Selective intervention of mammalian histidine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.22) could provide a useful antihistaminic strategy against many different pathologies. It is known that global conformational changes must occur during reaction that involves the monomer-monomer interface of the enzyme. Thus, the dimerization surface is a promising target for histidine decarboxylase inhibition. In this work, a rat apoenzyme structural model is used to analyze the interface of the dimeric active HDC. The dimerization surface mainly involves the fragments 1-213 and 308-371 from both subunits. Part of the overlapping surfaces conforms each catalytic site entrance and the substrate-binding sites. In addition, a cluster of charged residues is located in each overlapping surface, so that both electrostatic hotspots mediate in the interaction between the catalytic sites of the dimeric enzyme. It is experimentally demonstrated that the carboxyl group of aspartate 315 is critical for the proper conformation of the holoenzyme and the progression of the reaction. Comparison to the available information on other evolutionary related enzymes also provides new insights for characterization and intervention of homologous l-amino acid decarboxylases. PMID:26596454

  9. Effect of the distal histidine on the peroxidatic activity of monomeric cytoglobin.

    PubMed

    Beckerson, Penny; Svistunenko, Dimitri; Reeder, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferric human cytoglobin and a number of distal histidine variants were studied. The peroxidase activity of the monomeric wildtype protein with an internal disulfide bond, likely to be the form of the protein in vivo, exhibits a high peroxidase-like activity above that of other globins such as myoglobin. Furthermore, the peroxidatic activity of wildtype cytoglobin shows increased resistance to radical-based degradation compared to myoglobin. The ferryl form of wildtype cytoglobin is unstable, but is able to readily oxidize substrates such as guaiacol. In contrast distal histidine mutants of cytoglobin (H81Y and H81V) show very low peroxidase activity but enhanced radical-induced degradation. Therefore, the weakly bound distal histidine appears to modulate ferryl stability and limit haem degradation. These data are consistent with a role of a peroxidase activity of cytoglobin in cell stress response mechanisms. PMID:26069730

  10. Effect of the distal histidine on the peroxidatic activity of monomeric cytoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Beckerson, Penny; Svistunenko, Dimitri; Reeder, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferric human cytoglobin and a number of distal histidine variants were studied. The peroxidase activity of the monomeric wildtype protein with an internal disulfide bond, likely to be the form of the protein in vivo, exhibits a high peroxidase-like activity above that of other globins such as myoglobin. Furthermore, the peroxidatic activity of wildtype cytoglobin shows increased resistance to radical-based degradation compared to myoglobin. The ferryl form of wildtype cytoglobin is unstable, but is able to readily oxidize substrates such as guaiacol. In contrast distal histidine mutants of cytoglobin (H81Y and H81V) show very low peroxidase activity but enhanced radical-induced degradation. Therefore, the weakly bound distal histidine appears to modulate ferryl stability and limit haem degradation. These data are consistent with a role of a peroxidase activity of cytoglobin in cell stress response mechanisms. PMID:26069730

  11. Substitution of valine for histidine 265 in carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum affects activity and spectroscopic states.

    PubMed

    Spangler, N J; Meyers, M R; Gierke, K L; Kerby, R L; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1998-02-13

    In carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum, histidine 265 was replaced with valine by site-directed mutagenesis of the cooS gene. The altered form of CODH (H265V) had a low nickel content and a dramatically reduced level of catalytic activity. Although treatment with NiCl2 and CoCl2 increased the activity of H265V CODH by severalfold, activity levels remained more than 1000-fold lower than that of wild-type CODH. Histidine 265 was not essential for the formation and stability of the Fe4S4 clusters. The Km and KD for CO as well as the KD for cyanide were relatively unchanged as a result of the amino acid substitution in CODH. The time-dependent reduction of the [Fe4S4]2+ clusters by CO occurred on a time scale of hours, suggesting that, as a consequence of the mutation, a rate-limiting step had been introduced prior to the transfer of electrons from CO to the cubanes in centers B and C. EPR spectra of H265V CODH lacked the gav = 1.86 and gav = 1.87 signals characteristic of reduced forms of the active site (center C) of wild-type CODH. This indicates that the electronic properties of center C have been modified possibly by the disruption or alteration of the ligand-mediated interaction between the nickel site and Fe4S4 chromophore. PMID:9461598

  12. l-Histidine Induces Resistance in Plants to the Bacterial Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum Partially Through the Activation of Ethylene Signaling.

    PubMed

    Seo, Shigemi; Nakaho, Kazuhiro; Hong, Si Won; Takahashi, Hideki; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Wilt disease in plants, which is caused by the soil-borne bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, is one of the most devastating plant diseases. We previously detected bacterial wilt disease-inhibiting activity in an extract from yeast cells. In the present study, we purified this activity and identified one of the substances responsible for the activity as the amino acid histidine. The exogenous application of l-histidine, but not d-histidine, inhibited wilt disease in tomato and Arabidopsis plants without exhibiting any antibacterial activity. l-Histidine induced the expression of genes related to ethylene (ET) biosynthesis and signaling as well as the production of ET in tomato and Arabidopsis plants. l-Histidine-induced resistance to R. solanacearum was partially abolished in ein3-1, an ET-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant line. Resistance to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, which is known to require ET biosynthesis or signaling, was also induced by exogenously applied l-histidine. These results suggest that l-histidine induces resistance to R. solanacearum and B. cinerea partially through the activation of ET signaling in plants. PMID:27335353

  13. l-Histidine Induces Resistance in Plants to the Bacterial Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum Partially Through the Activation of Ethylene Signaling.

    PubMed

    Seo, Shigemi; Nakaho, Kazuhiro; Hong, Si Won; Takahashi, Hideki; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Wilt disease in plants, which is caused by the soil-borne bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, is one of the most devastating plant diseases. We previously detected bacterial wilt disease-inhibiting activity in an extract from yeast cells. In the present study, we purified this activity and identified one of the substances responsible for the activity as the amino acid histidine. The exogenous application of l-histidine, but not d-histidine, inhibited wilt disease in tomato and Arabidopsis plants without exhibiting any antibacterial activity. l-Histidine induced the expression of genes related to ethylene (ET) biosynthesis and signaling as well as the production of ET in tomato and Arabidopsis plants. l-Histidine-induced resistance to R. solanacearum was partially abolished in ein3-1, an ET-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant line. Resistance to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, which is known to require ET biosynthesis or signaling, was also induced by exogenously applied l-histidine. These results suggest that l-histidine induces resistance to R. solanacearum and B. cinerea partially through the activation of ET signaling in plants.

  14. protonation behavior of histidine during HSF1 activation by physiological acidification.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Park, Jang-Su

    2015-06-01

    The expression of eukaryotic molecular chaperones (heat shock proteins, HSPs) is triggered in response to a wide range of environmental stresses, including: heat shock, hydrogen peroxide, heavy metal, low-pH, or virus infection. Biochemical and genetic studies have clearly shown the fundamental roles of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in stress-inducible HSP gene expression, resistance to stress-induced cell death, carcinogenesis, and other biological phenomena. Previous studies show that acidic pH changes within the physiological range directly activate the HSF1 function in vitro. However, the detailed mechanism is unclear. Though computational pKa-predications of the amino acid side-chain, acidic-pH induced protonation of a histidine residue was found to be most-likely involved in this process. The histidine 83 (His83) residue, which could be protonated by mild decrease in pH, causes mild acidic-induced HSF1 activation (including in-vitro trimerization, DNA binding, in-vivo nuclear accumulation, and HSPs expression). His83, which is located in the loop region of the HSF1 DNA binding domain, was suggested to enhance the intermolecular force with Arginine 79, which helps HSF1 form a DNA-binding competent. Therefore, low-pH-induced activation of HSF1 by the protonation of histidine can help us better to understand the HSF1 mechanism and develop more therapeutic applications (particularly in cancer therapy). J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 977-984, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Heterogeneity in the Histidine-brace Copper Coordination Sphere in Auxiliary Activity Family 10 (AA10) Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Amanda K; Wilson, Michael T; Hough, Michael A; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Hemsworth, Glyn R; Walton, Paul H; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2016-06-10

    Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are enzymes that oxidatively deconstruct polysaccharides. The active site copper in LPMOs is coordinated by a histidine-brace. This utilizes the amino group and side chain of the N-terminal His residue with the side chain of a second His residue to create a T-shaped arrangement of nitrogen ligands. We report a structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic appraisal of copper binding to the histidine-brace in an auxiliary activity family 10 (AA10) LPMO from Streptomyces lividans (SliLPMO10E). Unexpectedly, we discovered the existence of two apo-SliLPMO10E species in solution that can each bind copper at a single site with distinct kinetic and thermodynamic (exothermic and endothermic) properties. The experimental EPR spectrum of copper-bound SliLPMO10E requires the simulation of two different line shapes, implying two different copper-bound species, indicative of three and two nitrogen ligands coordinating the copper. Amino group coordination was probed through the creation of an N-terminal extension variant (SliLPMO10E-Ext). The kinetics and thermodynamics of copper binding to SliLPMO10E-Ext are in accord with copper binding to one of the apo-forms in the wild-type protein, suggesting that amino group coordination is absent in the two-nitrogen coordinate form of SliLPMO10E. Copper binding to SliLPMO10B was also investigated, and again it revealed the presence of two apo-forms with kinetics and stoichiometry of copper binding identical to that of SliLPMO10E. Our findings highlight that heterogeneity exists in the active site copper coordination sphere of LPMOs that may have implications for the mechanism of loading copper in the cell. PMID:27129229

  16. Identification by site-directed mutagenesis of three essential histidine residues in membrane dipeptidase, a novel mammalian zinc peptidase.

    PubMed

    Keynan, S; Hooper, N M; Turner, A J

    1997-08-15

    Membrane dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.19) is a plasma membrane zinc peptidase that is involved in the renal metabolism of glutathione and its conjugates, such as leukotriene D4. The enzyme lacks the classical signatures of other zinc-dependent hydrolases and shows no homology with any other mammalian protein. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to explore the roles of five histidine residues in pig membrane dipeptidase that are conserved among mammalian species. When expressed in COS-1 cells, the mutants H49K and H128L exhibited a specific activity and Km for the substrate Gly-D-Phe comparable with those of the wild-type enzyme. However, the mutants H20L, H152L and H198K were inactive, but were expressed at the cell surface at equivalent levels to the wild-type, as assessed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. These three mutants were compared with regard to their ability to bind to the competitive inhibitor cilastatin, which binds with equal efficacy to native and EDTA-treated pig kidney membrane dipeptidase. Expressed wild-type enzyme and mutants H20L and H198K were efficiently bound by cilastatin-Sepharose, but H152L failed to bind. Thus His-152 appears to be involved in the binding of substrate or inhibitor, whereas His-20 and His-198 appear to be involved in catalysis. Membrane dipeptidase shares some similarity with a dipeptidase recently cloned from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. In particular, His-20 and His-198 of membrane dipeptidase are conserved in the bacterial enzyme, as are Glu-125 and His-219, previously shown to be required for catalytic activity.

  17. Crystal Structures of Trypanosoma cruzi UDP-Galactopyranose Mutase Implicate Flexibility of the Histidine Loop in Enzyme Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Dhatwalia, Richa; Singh, Harkewal; Oppenheimer, Michelle; Sobrado, Pablo; Tanner, John J.

    2012-11-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we report crystal structures of the galactofuranose biosynthetic enzyme UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) from T. cruzi, which are the first structures of this enzyme from a protozoan parasite. UGM is an attractive target for drug design because galactofuranose is absent in humans but is an essential component of key glycoproteins and glycolipids in trypanosomatids. Analysis of the enzyme-UDP noncovalent interactions and sequence alignments suggests that substrate recognition is exquisitely conserved among eukaryotic UGMs and distinct from that of bacterial UGMs. This observation has implications for inhibitor design. Activation of the enzyme via reduction of the FAD induces profound conformational changes, including a 2.3 {angstrom} movement of the histidine loop (Gly60-Gly61-His62), rotation and protonation of the imidazole of His62, and cooperative movement of residues located on the si face of the FAD. Interestingly, these changes are substantially different from those described for Aspergillus fumigatus UGM, which is 45% identical to T. cruzi UGM. The importance of Gly61 and His62 for enzymatic activity was studied with the site-directed mutant enzymes G61A, G61P, and H62A. These mutations lower the catalytic efficiency by factors of 10-50, primarily by decreasing k{sub cat}. Considered together, the structural, kinetic, and sequence data suggest that the middle Gly of the histidine loop imparts flexibility that is essential for activation of eukaryotic UGMs. Our results provide new information about UGM biochemistry and suggest a unified strategy for designing inhibitors of UGMs from the eukaryotic pathogens.

  18. Investigation of the Copper Binding Site and the Role of Histidine as a Ligand in Riboflavin Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sheila R.; Bencze, Krisztina Z.; Russ, Kristen A.; Wasiukanis, Kristen; Benore-Parsons, Marilee; Stemmler, Timothy L.

    2008-01-01

    Riboflavin Binding Protein (RBP) binds copper in a 1:1 molar ratio, forming a distinct well-ordered type II site. The nature of this site has been examined using X-ray absorption and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies, revealing a four coordinate oxygen/nitrogen rich environment. On the basis of analysis of the Cambridge Structural Database, the average protein bound copper-ligand bond length of 1.96 Å, obtained by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), is consistent with four coordinate Cu(I) and Cu(II) models that utilize mixed oxygen and nitrogen ligand distributions. These data suggest a Cu–O3N coordination state for copper bound to RBP. While pulsed EPR studies including hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy and electron nuclear double resonance show clear spectroscopic evidence for a histidine bound to the copper, inclusion of a histidine in the EXAFS simulation did not lead to any significant improvement in the fit. PMID:18593109

  19. Novel Organotin(IV) Schiff Base Complexes with Histidine Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Garza-Ortiz, Ariadna; Camacho-Camacho, Carlos; Sainz-Espuñes, Teresita; Rojas-Oviedo, Irma; Gutiérrez-Lucas, Luis Raúl; Gutierrez Carrillo, Atilano; Vera Ramirez, Marco A.

    2013-01-01

    Five novel tin Schiff base complexes with histidine analogues (derived from the condensation reaction between L-histidine and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) have been synthesized and characterized. Characterization has been completed by IR and high-resolution mass spectroscopy, 1D and 2D solution NMR (1H, 13C  and 119Sn), as well as solid state 119Sn NMR. The spectroscopic evidence shows two types of structures: a trigonal bipyramidal stereochemistry with the tin atom coordinated to five donating atoms (two oxygen atoms, one nitrogen atom, and two carbon atoms belonging to the alkyl moieties), where one molecule of ligand is coordinated in a three dentate fashion. The second structure is spectroscopically described as a tetrahedral tin complex with four donating atoms (one oxygen atom coordinated to the metal and three carbon atoms belonging to the alkyl or aryl substituents), with one molecule of ligand attached. The antimicrobial activity of the tin compounds has been tested against the growth of bacteria in vitro to assess their bactericidal properties. While pentacoordinated compounds 1, 2, and 3 are described as moderate effective to noneffective drugs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, tetracoordinated tin(IV) compounds 4 and 5 are considered as moderate effective and most effective compounds, respectively, against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (Gram-positive). PMID:23864839

  20. Dual Mode Fluorophore-Doped Nickel Nitrilotriacetic Acid-Modified Silica Nanoparticles Combine Histidine-Tagged Protein Purification with Site-Specific Fluorophore Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Jeyakumar, M.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first example of a fluorophore-doped nickel chelate surface- modified silica nanoparticle that functions in a dual mode, combining histidine-tagged protein purification with site-specific fluorophore labeling. Tetramethylrhodamine (TMR)-doped silica nanoparticles, estimated to contain 700–900 TMRs per ca. 23-nm particle, were surface modified with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), producing TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni+2. Silica-embedded TMR retains very high quantum yield, is resistant to quenching by buffer components and is modestly quenched and only to a certain depth (ca. 2 nm) by surface-attached Ni+2. When exposed to a bacterial lysate containing estrogen receptor α ligand binding domain (ERα) as a minor component, these beads showed very high specificity binding, enabling protein purification in one step. The capacity and specificity of these beads for binding a his-tagged protein were characterized by electrophoresis, radiometric counting, and MALDI-TOF MS. ERα, bound to TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni++ beads in a site-specific manner, exhibited good activity for ligand binding and for ligand-induced binding to coactivators in solution FRET experiments and protein microarray fluorometric and FRET assays. This dual-mode type TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni++ system represents a powerful combination of one-step histidine-tagged protein purification and site-specific labeling with multiple fluorophore species. BRIEFS Tetramethylrhodamine-doped silica nanoparticles surface modified with nitrilotriacetic acid are dual-mode agents that can be used to purify and site-specifically fluorophore label his-tagged proteins in one step for fluorometric and FRET experiments. PMID:17910454

  1. Histidine Triad-Like Motif of the Rotavirus NSP2 Octamer Mediates Both RTPase and NTPase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Carpio, Rodrigo Vasquez-Del; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando D.; Riadi, Gonzalo; Taraporewala, Zenobia F.; Patton., John T.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Rotavirus NSP2 is an abundant nonstructural RNA-binding protein essential for forming the viral factories that support replication of the double-stranded RNA genome. NSP2 exists as stable doughnut-shaped octamers within the infected cell, representing the tail-to-tail interaction of two tetramers. Extending diagonally across the surface of each octamer are four highly basic grooves that function as binding sites for single-stranded RNA. Between the N and C-terminal domains of each monomer is a deep electropositive cleft containing a catalytic site that hydrolyzes the γ-β phosphoanhydride bond of any NTP. The catalytic site has similarity to those of the histidine triad (HIT) family of nucleotide-binding proteins. Due to the close proximity of the grooves and clefts, we investigated the possibility that the RNA-binding activity of the groove promoted the insertion of the 5′-triphosphate moiety of the RNA into the cleft, and the subsequent hydrolysis of its γ-β phosphoanhydride bond. Our results show that NSP2 hydrolyzes the γP from RNAs and NTPs through Mg2+-dependent activities that proceed with similar reaction velocities, that require the catalytic His225 residue, and that produce a phosphorylated intermediate. Competition assays indicate that although both substrates enter the active site, RNA is the preferred substrate due to its higher affinity for the octamer. The RTPase activity of NSP2 may account for the absence of 5′-terminal γP on the (−) strands of the dsRNA genome segments. This is the first report of a HIT-like protein with a multifunctional catalytic site, capable of accommodating both NTPs and RNAs during γP hydrolysis. PMID:16934294

  2. Isolation of a highly active photosystem II preparation from Synechocystis 6803 using a histidine-tagged mutant of CP 47.

    PubMed

    Bricker, T M; Morvant, J; Masri, N; Sutton, H M; Frankel, L K

    1998-11-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis was used to produce a Synechocystis mutant containing a histidine tag at the C terminus of the CP 47 protein of Photosystem II. This mutant cell line, designated HT-3, exhibited slightly above normal rates of oxygen evolution and appeared to accumulate somewhat more Photosystem II reaction centers than a control strain. A rapidly isolatable (<7 h) oxygen-evolving Photosystem II preparation was prepared from HT-3 using dodecyl-beta-d-maltoside solubilization and Co2+ metal affinity chromatography. This histidine-tagged Photosystem II preparation stably evolved oxygen at a high rate (2440 micromol O2 (mg chl)-1 h-1), exhibited an alpha-band absorption maximum at 674 nm, and was highly enriched in a number of Photosystem II components including cytochrome c550. Fluorescence yield analysis using water or hydroxylamine as an electron donor to the Photosystem II preparation indicated that virtually all of the Photosystem II reaction centers were capable of evolving oxygen. Proteins associated with Photosystem II were highly enriched in this preparation. 3,3',5, 5'-Tetramethylbenzidine staining indicated that the histidine-tagged preparation was enriched in cytochromes c550 and b559 and depleted of cytochrome f. This result was confirmed by optical difference spectroscopy. This histidine-tagged Photosystem II preparation may be very useful for the isolation of Photosystem II preparations from mutants containing lesions in other Photosystem II proteins. PMID:9804889

  3. A systematic survey of conserved histidines in the core subunits of Photosystem I by site-directed mutagenesis reveals the likely axial ligands of P700.

    PubMed Central

    Redding, K; MacMillan, F; Leibl, W; Brettel, K; Hanley, J; Rutherford, A W; Breton, J; Rochaix, J D

    1998-01-01

    The Photosystem I complex catalyses the transfer of an electron from lumenal plastocyanin to stromal ferredoxin, using the energy of an absorbed photon. The initial photochemical event is the transfer of an electron from the excited state of P700, a pair of chlorophylls, to a monomer chlorophyll serving as the primary electron acceptor. We have performed a systematic survey of conserved histidines in the last six transmembrane segments of the related polytopic membrane proteins PsaA and PsaB in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These histidines, which are present in analogous positions in both proteins, were changed to glutamine or leucine by site-directed mutagenesis. Double mutants in which both histidines had been changed to glutamine were screened for changes in the characteristics of P700 using electron paramagnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared and visible spectroscopy. Only mutations in the histidines of helix 10 (PsaA-His676 and PsaB-His656) resulted in changes in spectroscopic properties of P700, leading us to conclude that these histidines are most likely the axial ligands to the P700 chlorophylls. PMID:9427740

  4. Allosteric Activation of Bacterial Response Regulators: the Role of the Cognate Histidine Kinase Beyond Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Trajtenberg, Felipe; Albanesi, Daniela; Ruétalo, Natalia; Botti, Horacio; Mechaly, Ariel E.; Nieves, Marcos; Aguilar, Pablo S.; Cybulski, Larisa; Larrieux, Nicole; de Mendoza, Diego

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Response regulators are proteins that undergo transient phosphorylation, connecting specific signals to adaptive responses. Remarkably, the molecular mechanism of response regulator activation remains elusive, largely because of the scarcity of structural data on multidomain response regulators and histidine kinase/response regulator complexes. We now address this question by using a combination of crystallographic data and functional analyses in vitro and in vivo, studying DesR and its cognate sensor kinase DesK, a two-component system that controls membrane fluidity in Bacillus subtilis. We establish that phosphorylation of the receiver domain of DesR is allosterically coupled to two distinct exposed surfaces of the protein, controlling noncanonical dimerization/tetramerization, cooperative activation, and DesK binding. One of these surfaces is critical for both homodimerization- and kinase-triggered allosteric activations. Moreover, DesK induces a phosphorylation-independent activation of DesR in vivo, uncovering a novel and stringent level of specificity among kinases and regulators. Our results support a model that helps to explain how response regulators restrict phosphorylation by small-molecule phosphoryl donors, as well as cross talk with noncognate sensors. PMID:25406381

  5. Substitution of arginine for histidine-47 in the coenzyme binding site of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, R.M.; Plapp, B.V. )

    1990-06-12

    Molecular modeling of alcohol dehydrogenases suggests that His-47 in the yeast enzyme (His-44 in the protein sequence, corresponding to Arg-47 in the horse liver enzyme) binds the pyrophosphate of the NAD coenzyme. His-47 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isoenzyme I was substituted with an arginine by a directed mutation. Steady-state kinetic results at pH 7.3 and 30{degree}C of the mutant and wild-type enzymes were consistent with an ordered Bi-Bi mechanism. The substitution decreased dissociation constants by 4-fold for NAD{sup +} and 2-fold for NADH while turnover numbers were decreased by 4-fold for ethanol oxidation and 6-fold for acetaldehyde reduction. The magnitudes of these effects are smaller than those found for the same mutation in the human liver {beta} enzyme, suggesting that other amino acid residues in the active site modulate the effects of the substitution. The pH dependencies of dissociation constants and other kinetic constants were similar in the two yeast enzymes. Thus, it appears that His-47 is not solely responsible for a pK value near 7 that controls activity and coenzyme binding rates in the wild-type enzyme. The small substrate deuterium isotope effect above pH 7 and the single exponential phase of NADH production during the transient oxidation of ethanol by the Arg-47 enzyme suggest that the mutation makes an isomerization of the enzyme-NAD{sup +} complex limiting for turnover with ethanol.

  6. Glucocorticoid hormones downregulate histidine decarboxylase mRNA and enzyme activity in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Zahnow, C A; Panula, P; Yamatodani, A; Millhorn, D E

    1998-08-01

    Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is the primary enzyme regulating histamine biosynthesis. Histamine contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders such as asthma. Because glucocorticoids are effective in the treatment of asthma, we examined the effects of 6 h of exogenously administered dexamethasone (0.5-3,000 microg/kg ip), corticosterone (0.2-200 mg/kg ip), or endogenously elevated corticosterone (via exposure of rats to 10% oxygen) on HDC expression in the rat lung. HDC transcripts were decreased approximately 73% with dexamethasone treatment, 57% with corticosterone treatment, and 50% with exposure to 10% oxygen. Likewise, HDC enzyme activity was decreased 80% by treatment with dexamethasone and corticosterone and 60% by exposure to 10% oxygen. Adrenalectomy prevented the decreases in HDC mRNA and enzyme activity observed in rats exposed to 10% oxygen, suggesting that the adrenal gland is necessary for the mediation of hypoxic effects on HDC gene expression. These results demonstrate that corticosteroids initiate a process that leads to the decrease of HDC mRNA levels and enzyme activity in rat lung. PMID:9700103

  7. Tautomerism in neutral histidine.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-01

    Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. In this work, neutral histidine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples and its N(ε)H tautomeric form unraveled through its rotational spectrum. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three (14)N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid.

  8. Mechanisms of mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase and the key roles played by cysteines and histidine of the heme attachment site, Cys-XX-Cys-His.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Shalon E; San Francisco, Brian; Mendez, Deanna L; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; Rodgers, Kenton R; Bretsnyder, Eric C; Kranz, Robert G

    2014-10-17

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c assembly requires the covalent attachment of heme by thioether bonds between heme vinyl groups and a conserved CXXCH motif of cytochrome c/c1. The enzyme holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS) binds heme and apocytochrome c substrate to catalyze this attachment, subsequently releasing holocytochrome c for proper folding to its native structure. We address mechanisms of assembly using a functional Escherichia coli recombinant system expressing human HCCS. Human cytochrome c variants with individual cysteine, histidine, double cysteine, and triple cysteine/histidine substitutions (of CXXCH) were co-purified with HCCS. Single and double mutants form a complex with HCCS but not the triple mutant. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy support the proposal that heme puckering induced by both thioether bonds facilitate release of holocytochrome c from the complex. His-19 (of CXXCH) supplies the second axial ligand to heme in the complex, the first axial ligand was previously shown to be from HCCS residue His-154. Substitutions of His-19 in cytochrome c to seven other residues (Gly, Ala, Met, Arg, Lys, Cys, and Tyr) were used with various approaches to establish other roles played by His-19. Three roles for His-19 in HCCS-mediated assembly are suggested: (i) to provide the second axial ligand to the heme iron in preparation for covalent attachment; (ii) to spatially position the two cysteinyl sulfurs adjacent to the two heme vinyl groups for thioether formation; and (iii) to aid in release of the holocytochrome c from the HCCS active site. Only H19M is able to carry out these three roles, albeit at lower efficiencies than the natural His-19.

  9. Structural insights into the role of iron-histidine bond cleavage in nitric oxide-induced activation of H-NOX gas sensor proteins.

    PubMed

    Herzik, Mark A; Jonnalagadda, Rohan; Kuriyan, John; Marletta, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Heme-nitric oxide/oxygen (H-NOX) binding domains are a recently discovered family of heme-based gas sensor proteins that are conserved across eukaryotes and bacteria. Nitric oxide (NO) binding to the heme cofactor of H-NOX proteins has been implicated as a regulatory mechanism for processes ranging from vasodilation in mammals to communal behavior in bacteria. A key molecular event during NO-dependent activation of H-NOX proteins is rupture of the heme-histidine bond and formation of a five-coordinate nitrosyl complex. Although extensive biochemical studies have provided insight into the NO activation mechanism, precise molecular-level details have remained elusive. In the present study, high-resolution crystal structures of the H-NOX protein from Shewanella oneidensis in the unligated, intermediate six-coordinate and activated five-coordinate, NO-bound states are reported. From these structures, it is evident that several structural features in the heme pocket of the unligated protein function to maintain the heme distorted from planarity. NO-induced scission of the iron-histidine bond triggers structural rearrangements in the heme pocket that permit the heme to relax toward planarity, yielding the signaling-competent NO-bound conformation. Here, we also provide characterization of a nonheme metal coordination site occupied by zinc in an H-NOX protein.

  10. The Receiver of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirA Histidine Kinase Forms a Stable Interaction with VirG to Activate Virulence Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Wise, Arlene A; Binns, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens carries a virulence gene system that is required for the initiation of crown gall tumors on susceptible plants. Expression of the vir genes is activated by the VirA/VirG two component regulatory system. VirA is a histidine kinase which signals the presence of certain chemicals found at the site of a plant wound. The receiver domain located at its carboxyl terminus defines VirA as a hybrid histidine kinase. Here, we show that the VirA receiver interacts with the DNA-binding domain of VirG. This finding supports the hypothesis that the receiver acts as a recruiting factor for VirG. In addition, we show that removal of the VirA receiver allowed vir gene expression in response to glucose in a dose dependent manner, indicating that the receiver controls VirG activation and suggesting that the supplementary ChvE-sugar signal increases this activity. PMID:26779177

  11. The Receiver of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirA Histidine Kinase Forms a Stable Interaction with VirG to Activate Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Arlene A.; Binns, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens carries a virulence gene system that is required for the initiation of crown gall tumors on susceptible plants. Expression of the vir genes is activated by the VirA/VirG two component regulatory system. VirA is a histidine kinase which signals the presence of certain chemicals found at the site of a plant wound. The receiver domain located at its carboxyl terminus defines VirA as a hybrid histidine kinase. Here, we show that the VirA receiver interacts with the DNA-binding domain of VirG. This finding supports the hypothesis that the receiver acts as a recruiting factor for VirG. In addition, we show that removal of the VirA receiver allowed vir gene expression in response to glucose in a dose dependent manner, indicating that the receiver controls VirG activation and suggesting that the supplementary ChvE-sugar signal increases this activity. PMID:26779177

  12. Structural insights into the role of iron–histidine bond cleavage in nitric oxide-induced activation of H-NOX gas sensor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Herzik, Mark A.; Jonnalagadda, Rohan; Kuriyan, John; Marletta, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Heme-nitric oxide/oxygen (H-NOX) binding domains are a recently discovered family of heme-based gas sensor proteins that are conserved across eukaryotes and bacteria. Nitric oxide (NO) binding to the heme cofactor of H-NOX proteins has been implicated as a regulatory mechanism for processes ranging from vasodilation in mammals to communal behavior in bacteria. A key molecular event during NO-dependent activation of H-NOX proteins is rupture of the heme–histidine bond and formation of a five-coordinate nitrosyl complex. Although extensive biochemical studies have provided insight into the NO activation mechanism, precise molecular-level details have remained elusive. In the present study, high-resolution crystal structures of the H-NOX protein from Shewanella oneidensis in the unligated, intermediate six-coordinate and activated five-coordinate, NO-bound states are reported. From these structures, it is evident that several structural features in the heme pocket of the unligated protein function to maintain the heme distorted from planarity. NO-induced scission of the iron–histidine bond triggers structural rearrangements in the heme pocket that permit the heme to relax toward planarity, yielding the signaling-competent NO-bound conformation. Here, we also provide characterization of a nonheme metal coordination site occupied by zinc in an H-NOX protein. PMID:25253889

  13. Roles of the redox-active disulfide and histidine residues forming a catalytic dyad in reactions catalyzed by 2-ketopropyl coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Melissa A; Wampler, David A; Pandey, Arti S; Peters, John W; Ensign, Scott A

    2011-09-01

    NADPH:2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase (2-KPCC), an atypical member of the disulfide oxidoreductase (DSOR) family of enzymes, catalyzes the reductive cleavage and carboxylation of 2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M [2-(2-ketopropylthio)ethanesulfonate; 2-KPC] to form acetoacetate and coenzyme M (CoM) in the bacterial pathway of propylene metabolism. Structural studies of 2-KPCC from Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 have revealed a distinctive active-site architecture that includes a putative catalytic triad consisting of two histidine residues that are hydrogen bonded to an ordered water molecule proposed to stabilize enolacetone formed from dithiol-mediated 2-KPC thioether bond cleavage. Site-directed mutants of 2-KPCC were constructed to test the tenets of the mechanism proposed from studies of the native enzyme. Mutagenesis of the interchange thiol of 2-KPCC (C82A) abolished all redox-dependent reactions of 2-KPCC (2-KPC carboxylation or protonation). The air-oxidized C82A mutant, as well as wild-type 2-KPCC, exhibited the characteristic charge transfer absorbance seen in site-directed variants of other DSOR enzymes but with a pK(a) value for C87 (8.8) four units higher (i.e., four orders of magnitude less acidic) than that for the flavin thiol of canonical DSOR enzymes. The same higher pK(a) value was observed in native 2-KPCC when the interchange thiol was alkylated by the CoM analog 2-bromoethanesulfonate. Mutagenesis of the flavin thiol (C87A) also resulted in an inactive enzyme for steady-state redox-dependent reactions, but this variant catalyzed a single-turnover reaction producing a 0.8:1 ratio of product to enzyme. Mutagenesis of the histidine proximal to the ordered water (H137A) led to nearly complete loss of redox-dependent 2-KPCC reactions, while mutagenesis of the distal histidine (H84A) reduced these activities by 58 to 76%. A redox-independent reaction of 2-KPCC (acetoacetate decarboxylation) was not decreased for any of the

  14. Effect of linking allyl and aromatic chains to histidine 170 in horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Urrutigoïty, M; Baboulène, M; Lattes, A; Souppe, J; Seris, J L

    1991-08-30

    Histidine residues in horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were modified chemically with diethyl pyrocarbonate, 4,omega-dibromoacetophenone or diallylpyrocarbonate. Histidines were chosen as His-170, the fifth ligand of the heme iron atom, forms part of the active site of this enzyme. Good yields of hemoprotein were obtained in all cases. Analysis by HPLC of peptides obtained after tryptic digestion showed that His-170 of HRP was in fact modified. The specific activity remained satisfactory after chemical modification of the histidine residues, and so the active site of HRP can thus be altered without a dramatic loss of hemoprotein or peroxidase activity. This may open routes to the preparation of novel biocatalysts.

  15. Hog1p activation by marasmic acid through inhibition of the histidine kinase Sln1p

    PubMed Central

    Schüffler, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND The histidine kinase (HK) MoHik1p within the high‐osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is known to be the target of the fungicide fludioxonil. Treatment of the fungus with fludioxonil causes an uncontrolled hyperactivation of the pathway and cell death. In this study, we used a target‐based in vivo test system with mutant strains of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae to search for new fungicidal compounds having various target locations within the HOG pathway. Mutants with inactivated HOG signalling are resistant to fungicides having the target located in the HOG pathway. RESULTS The HK MoSln1p was identified as being involved in the new antifungal mode of action of marasmic acid, as single inactivation of the genes MoSLN1, MoSSK1, MoSSK2, MoPBS2 and MoHOG1 resulted in mutant strains resistant against the sesquiterpenoid, whereas the wild‐type strain and the ΔMohik1 mutant were susceptible. Western blot analysis of phosphorylated MoHog1p confirmed the hypothesis that marasmic acid interferes with the HOG pathway, as a strong phosphorylation of MoHog1p was detectable after sesquiterpenoid treatment in the wild‐type strain but not in the ΔMosln1 mutant. CONCLUSION This study provides evidence for marasmic acid activating the HOG pathway via the HK MoSln1p, and we propose that the sesquiterpenoid has a new mode of action in M. oryzae that differs from that of known HOG inhibitors, e.g. fludioxonil. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26888741

  16. Substitution of a single amino acid (aspartic acid for histidine) converts the functional activity of human complement C4B to C4A

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, M.C.; Fathallah, D.M.; Bergamaschini, L.; Alicot, E.M. ); Isenman, D.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The C4B isotype of the fourth component of human complement (C4) displays 3- to 4-fold greater hemolytic activity than does its other isotype C4A. This correlates with differences in their covalent binding efficiencies to erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement C1. C4A binds to a greater extent when C1 is on IgG immune aggregates. The differences in covalent binding properties correlate only with amino acid changes between residues 1101 and 1106 (pro-C4 numbering)-namely, Pro-1101, Cys-1102, Leu-1105, and Asp-1106 in C4A and Leu-1101, Ser-1102, Ile-1105, and His-1106 in C4B, which are located in the C4d region of the {alpha} chain. To more precisely identify the residues that are important for the functional differences, C4A-C4B hybrid proteins were constructed by using recombinant DNA techniques. Comparison of these by hemolytic assay and binding to IgG aggregates showed that the single substitution of aspartic acid for histidine at position 1106 largely accounted for the change in functional activity and nature of the chemical bond formed. Surprisingly, substitution of a neutral residue, alanine, for histidine at position 1106 resulted in an increase in binding to immune aggregates without subsequent reduction in the hemolytic activity. This result strongly suggests that position 1106 is not catalytic as previously proposed but interacts sterically/electrostatically with potential acceptor sites and serves to select binding sites on potential acceptor molecules.

  17. Mutations of fumarase that distinguish between the active site and a nearby dicarboxylic acid binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, T.; Lees, M.; Banaszak, L.

    1997-01-01

    Two mutant forms of fumarase C from E. coli have been made using PCR and recombinant DNA. The recombinant form of the protein included a histidine arm on the C-terminal facilitating purification. Based on earlier studies, two different carboxylic acid binding sites, labeled A- and B-, were observed in crystal structures of the wild type and inhibited forms of the enzyme. A histidine at each of the sites was mutated to an asparagine. H188N at the A-site resulted in a large decrease in specific activity, while the H129N mutation at the B-site had essentially no effect. From the results, we conclude that the A-site is indeed the active site, and a dual role for H188 as a potential catalytic base is proposed. Crystal structures of the two mutant proteins produced some unexpected results. Both mutations reduced the affinity for the carboxylic acids at their respective sites. The H129N mutant should be particularly useful in future kinetic studies because it sterically blocks the B-site with the carboxyamide of asparagine assuming the position of the ligand's carboxylate. In the H188N mutation at the active site, the new asparagine side chain still interacts with an active site water that appears to have moved slightly as a result of the mutation. PMID:9098893

  18. Histidine 407, a phantom residue in the E1 subunit of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, activates reductive acetylation of lipoamide on the E2 subunit. An explanation for conservation of active sites between the E1 subunit and transketolase.

    PubMed

    Nemeria, Natalia; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Brunskill, Andrew; Sheibani, Farzad; Wei, Wen; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Sheng; Jordan, Frank; Furey, William

    2002-12-31

    Least squares alignment of the E. coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex E1 subunit and yeast transketolase crystal structures indicates a general structural similarity between the two enzymes and provides a plausible location for a short-loop region in the E1 structure that was unobserved due to disorder. The residue H407, located in this region, is shown to be able to penetrate the active site. Suggested by this comparison, the H407A E1 variant was created, and H407 was shown to participate in the reductive acetylation of both an independently expressed lipoyl domain and the intact 1-lipoyl E2 subunit. While the H407A substitution only modestly affected the reaction through pyruvate decarboxylation (ca. 14% activity compared to parental E1), the overall complex has a much impaired activity, at most 0.15% compared to parental E1. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements show that the binding of the lipoyl domain to the H407A E1 variant is much weaker than that to parental E1. At the same time, mass spectrometric measurements clearly demonstrate much impaired reductive acetylation of the independently expressed lipoyl domain and of the intact 1-lipoyl E2 by the H407A variant compared to the parental E1. A proposal is presented to explain the remarkable conservation of the three-dimensional structure at the active centers of the E. coli E1 subunit and transketolase on the basis of the parallels in the ligation-type reactions carried out and the need to protonate a very weak acid, a dithiolane sulfur atom in the former, and a carbonyl oxygen atom in the latter. PMID:12501174

  19. Inhibition of Morganella morganii Histidine Decarboxylase Activity and Histamine Accumulation in Mackerel Muscle Derived from Filipendula ulumaria Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Yoko; Yasukata, Fumiko; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Ito, Mikiko; Sakaue, Motoyoshi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Ueno, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Filipendula ulmaria, also known as meadowsweet, is an herb; its extract was examined for the prevention of histamine production, primarily that caused by contaminated fish. The efficacy of meadowsweet was assessed using two parameters: inhibition of Morganella morganii histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and inhibition of histamine accumulation in mackerel. Ellagitannins from F. ulmaria (rugosin D, rugosin A methyl ester, tellimagrandin II, and rugosin A) were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of human HDC; and in the present work, these compounds inhibited M. morganii HDC, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 1.5, 4.4, 6.1, and 6.8 μM, respectively. Application of the extracts (at 2 wt%) to mackerel meat yielded significantly decreased histamine accumulation compared with treatment with phosphate-buffered saline as a control. Hence, F. ulmaria exhibits inhibitory activity against bacterial HDC and might be effective for preventing food poisoning caused by histamine.

  20. The copper active site of CBM33 polysaccharide oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, Glyn R; Taylor, Edward J; Kim, Robbert Q; Gregory, Rebecca C; Lewis, Sally J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Parkin, Alison; Davies, Gideon J; Walton, Paul H

    2013-04-24

    The capacity of metal-dependent fungal and bacterial polysaccharide oxygenases, termed GH61 and CBM33, respectively, to potentiate the enzymatic degradation of cellulose opens new possibilities for the conversion of recalcitrant biomass to biofuels. GH61s have already been shown to be unique metalloenzymes containing an active site with a mononuclear copper ion coordinated by two histidines, one of which is an unusual τ-N-methylated N-terminal histidine. We now report the structural and spectroscopic characterization of the corresponding copper CBM33 enzymes. CBM33 binds copper with high affinity at a mononuclear site, significantly stabilizing the enzyme. X-band EPR spectroscopy of Cu(II)-CBM33 shows a mononuclear type 2 copper site with the copper ion in a distorted axial coordination sphere, into which azide will coordinate as evidenced by the concomitant formation of a new absorption band in the UV/vis spectrum at 390 nm. The enzyme's three-dimensional structure contains copper, which has been photoreduced to Cu(I) by the incident X-rays, confirmed by X-ray absorption/fluorescence studies of both aqueous solution and intact crystals of Cu-CBM33. The single copper(I) ion is ligated in a T-shaped configuration by three nitrogen atoms from two histidine side chains and the amino terminus, similar to the endogenous copper coordination geometry found in fungal GH61. PMID:23540833

  1. A KS-type dehydrin and its related domains reduce Cu-promoted radical generation and the histidine residues contribute to the radical-reducing activities

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    Dehydrin is a plant disordered protein whose functions are not yet totally understood. Here it is reported that a KS-type dehydrin can reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from Cu. AtHIRD11, which is the Arabidopsis KS-type dehydrin, inhibited generation of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in the Cu–ascorbate system. The radical-reducing activity of AtHIRD11 was stronger than those of radical-silencing peptides such as glutathione and serum albumin. The addition of Cu2+ reduced the disordered state, decreased the trypsin susceptibility, and promoted the self-association of AtHIRD11. Domain analyses indicated that the five domains containing histidine showed ROS-reducing activities. Histidine/alanine substitutions indicated that histidine is a crucial residue for reducing ROS generation. Using the 27 peptides which are related to the KnS-type dehydrins of 14 plant species, it was found that the strengths of ROS-reducing activities can be determined by two factors, namely the histidine contents and the length of the peptides. The degree of ROS-reducing activities of a dehydrin can be predicted using these indices. PMID:23382551

  2. Activation and Inhibition of the Receptor Histidine Kinase AgrC Occurs Through Opposite Helical Transduction Motions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Boyuan; Zhao, Aishan; Novick, Richard; Muir, Tom W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Staphylococcus aureus virulence is regulated when secreted autoinducing peptides (AIPs) are recognized by a membrane-bound receptor histidine kinase (RHK), AgrC. Some AIPs are agonists of virulence gene expression, while others are antagonists. It is unclear how AIP binding regulates AgrC activity. Here, we reconstitute an AgrC family member, AgrC-I, using nanometer-scale lipid bilayer discs. We show that AgrC-I requires membranes rich in anionic lipids to function. The agonist, AIP-I, binds AgrC-I non-cooperatively in a 2:2 stoichiometry, while an antagonist ligand, AIP-II, functions as an inverse agonist of the kinase activity. We also demonstrate the kinase and sensor domains in AgrC are connected by a helical linker whose conformational state exercises rheostat-like control over the kinase activity. Binding of agonist or inverse-agonist peptides results in twisting of the linker in different directions. These two observations provide a view of the molecular motions triggered by ligand binding in an intact membrane-bound RHK. PMID:24656130

  3. Crystal structure of Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA and effects of phosphorylated histidines on multimerization and activity

    PubMed Central

    Hammerstrom, Troy G.; Horton, Lori B.; Swick, Michelle C.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA controls transcription of the anthrax toxin genes and capsule biosynthesis operon. AtxA activity is elevated during growth in media containing glucose and CO2/bicarbonate, and there is a positive correlation between the CO2/bicarbonate signal, AtxA activity, and homomultimerization. AtxA activity is also affected by phosphorylation at specific histidines. We show that AtxA crystallizes as a dimer. Distinct folds associated with predicted DNA-binding domains (HTH1 and HTH2) and phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system-regulated domains (PRD1 and PRD2) are apparent. We tested AtxA variants containing single and double phosphomimetic (His → Asp) and phosphoablative (His → Ala) amino acid changes for activity in B. anthracis cultures and for protein-protein interactions in cell lysates. Reduced activity of AtxA H199A, lack of multimerization and activity of AtxAH379D variants, and predicted structural changes associated with phosphorylation support a model for control of AtxA function. We propose that (1) in the AtxA dimer, phosphorylation of H199 in PRD1 affects HTH2 positioning, influencing DNA-binding; and (2) phosphorylation of H379 in PRD2 disrupts dimer formation. The AtxA structure is the first reported high-resolution full-length structure of a PRD-containing regulator and can serve as a model for proteins of this family, especially those that link virulence to bacterial metabolism. PMID:25402841

  4. Crystal structure of Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA and effects of phosphorylated histidines on multimerization and activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Troy G.; Horton, Lori B.; Swick, Michelle C.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2014-12-30

    The Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA controls transcription of the anthrax toxin genes and capsule biosynthesis operon. AtxA activity is elevated during growth in media containing glucose and CO2/bicarbonate, and there is a positive correlation between the CO2/bicarbonate signal, AtxA activity, and homomultimerization. AtxA activity is also affected by phosphorylation at specific histidines. We show that AtxA crystallizes as a dimer. Distinct folds associated with predicted DNA-binding domains (HTH1 and HTH2) and phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system-regulated domains (PRD1 and PRD2) are apparent. We tested AtxA variants containing single and double phosphomimetic (His → Asp) and phosphoablative (His → Ala) amino acid changes for activity in B. anthracis cultures and for protein-protein interactions in cell lysates. Reduced activity of AtxA H199A, lack of multimerization and activity of AtxAH379D variants, and predicted structural changes associated with phosphorylation support a model for control of AtxA function. We propose that (1) in the AtxA dimer, phosphorylation of H199 in PRD1 affects HTH2 positioning, influencing DNA-binding; and (2) phosphorylation of H379 in PRD2 disrupts dimer formation. In conclusion, the AtxA structure is the first reported high-resolution full-length structure of a PRD-containing regulator and can serve as a model for proteins of this family, especially those that link virulence to bacterial metabolism.

  5. Crystal structure of Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA and effects of phosphorylated histidines on multimerization and activity

    DOE PAGES

    Hammerstrom, Troy G.; Horton, Lori B.; Swick, Michelle C.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2014-12-30

    The Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA controls transcription of the anthrax toxin genes and capsule biosynthesis operon. AtxA activity is elevated during growth in media containing glucose and CO2/bicarbonate, and there is a positive correlation between the CO2/bicarbonate signal, AtxA activity, and homomultimerization. AtxA activity is also affected by phosphorylation at specific histidines. We show that AtxA crystallizes as a dimer. Distinct folds associated with predicted DNA-binding domains (HTH1 and HTH2) and phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system-regulated domains (PRD1 and PRD2) are apparent. We tested AtxA variants containing single and double phosphomimetic (His → Asp) and phosphoablative (His → Ala) aminomore » acid changes for activity in B. anthracis cultures and for protein-protein interactions in cell lysates. Reduced activity of AtxA H199A, lack of multimerization and activity of AtxAH379D variants, and predicted structural changes associated with phosphorylation support a model for control of AtxA function. We propose that (1) in the AtxA dimer, phosphorylation of H199 in PRD1 affects HTH2 positioning, influencing DNA-binding; and (2) phosphorylation of H379 in PRD2 disrupts dimer formation. In conclusion, the AtxA structure is the first reported high-resolution full-length structure of a PRD-containing regulator and can serve as a model for proteins of this family, especially those that link virulence to bacterial metabolism.« less

  6. Two Independent Histidines One in Human Prolactin and One in Its Receptor Are Critical for pH-dependent Receptor Recognition and Activation

    SciTech Connect

    M Kulkarni; M Tettamanzi; J Murphy; C Keeler; D Myszka; N Chayen; E Lolis; M Hodsdon

    2011-12-31

    Human prolactin (hPRL), a member of the family of hematopoietic cytokines, functions as both an endocrine hormone and autocrine/paracrine growth factor. We have previously demonstrated that recognition of the hPRL-receptor depends strongly on solution acidity over the physiologic range from pH 6 to pH 8. The hPRL-receptor binding interface contains four histidines whose protonation is hypothesized to regulate pH-dependent receptor recognition. Here, we systematically dissect its molecular origin by characterizing the consequences of His to Ala mutations on pH-dependent receptor binding kinetics, site-specific histidine protonation, and high resolution structures of the intermolecular interface. Thermodynamic modeling of the pH dependence to receptor binding affinity reveals large changes in site-specific protonation constants for a majority of interface histidines upon complexation. Removal of individual His imidazoles reduces these perturbations in protonation constants, which is most likely explained by the introduction of solvent-filled, buried cavities in the crystallographic structures without inducing significant conformational rearrangements.

  7. Two Independent Histidines, One in Human Prolactin and One in Its Receptor, Are Critical for pH-dependent Receptor Recognition and Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Mandar V.; Tettamanzi, M. Cristina; Murphy, James W.; Keeler, Camille; Myszka, David G.; Chayen, Naomi E.; Lolis, Elias J.; Hodsdon, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Human prolactin (hPRL), a member of the family of hematopoietic cytokines, functions as both an endocrine hormone and autocrine/paracrine growth factor. We have previously demonstrated that recognition of the hPRL·receptor depends strongly on solution acidity over the physiologic range from pH 6 to pH 8. The hPRL·receptor binding interface contains four histidines whose protonation is hypothesized to regulate pH-dependent receptor recognition. Here, we systematically dissect its molecular origin by characterizing the consequences of His to Ala mutations on pH-dependent receptor binding kinetics, site-specific histidine protonation, and high resolution structures of the intermolecular interface. Thermodynamic modeling of the pH dependence to receptor binding affinity reveals large changes in site-specific protonation constants for a majority of interface histidines upon complexation. Removal of individual His imidazoles reduces these perturbations in protonation constants, which is most likely explained by the introduction of solvent-filled, buried cavities in the crystallographic structures without inducing significant conformational rearrangements. PMID:20889499

  8. Contribution of two conserved histidines to the dual activity of archaeal RNA guide-dependent and -independent pseudouridine synthase Cbf5.

    PubMed

    Tillault, Anne-Sophie; Fourmann, Jean-Baptiste; Loegler, Christine; Wieden, Hans-Joachim; Kothe, Ute; Charpentier, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    In all organisms, several distinct stand-alone pseudouridine synthase (PUS) family enzymes are expressed to isomerize uridine into pseudouridine (Ψ) by specific recognition of RNAs. In addition, Ψs are generated in Archaea and Eukaryotes by PUS enzymes which are organized as ribonucleoprotein particles (RNP)--the box H/ACA s/snoRNPs. For this modification system, a unique TruB-like catalytic PUS subunit is associated with various RNA guides which specifically target and secure substrate RNAs by base-pairing. The archaeal Cbf5 PUS displays the special feature of exhibiting both RNA guide-dependent and -independent activities. Structures of substrate-bound TruB and H/ACA sRNP revealed the importance of histidines in positioning the target uridine in the active site. To analyze the respective role of H60 and H77, we have generated variants carrying alanine substitutions at these positions. The impact of the mutations was analyzed for unguided modifications U(55) in tRNA and U2603 in 23S rRNA, and for activity of the box H/ACA Pab91 sRNP enzyme. H77 (H43 in TruB), but not H60, appeared to be crucial for the RNA guide-independent activity. In contrast to earlier suggestions, H60 was found to be noncritical for the activity of the H/ACA sRNP, but contributes together with H77 to the full activity of H/ACA sRNPs. The data suggest that a similar catalytic process was conserved in the two divergent pseudouridylation systems.

  9. Contribution of two conserved histidines to the dual activity of archaeal RNA guide-dependent and -independent pseudouridine synthase Cbf5

    PubMed Central

    Tillault, Anne-Sophie; Fourmann, Jean-Baptiste; Loegler, Christine; Wieden, Hans-Joachim; Kothe, Ute

    2015-01-01

    In all organisms, several distinct stand-alone pseudouridine synthase (PUS) family enzymes are expressed to isomerize uridine into pseudouridine (Ψ) by specific recognition of RNAs. In addition, Ψs are generated in Archaea and Eukaryotes by PUS enzymes which are organized as ribonucleoprotein particles (RNP)—the box H/ACA s/snoRNPs. For this modification system, a unique TruB-like catalytic PUS subunit is associated with various RNA guides which specifically target and secure substrate RNAs by base-pairing. The archaeal Cbf5 PUS displays the special feature of exhibiting both RNA guide-dependent and -independent activities. Structures of substrate-bound TruB and H/ACA sRNP revealed the importance of histidines in positioning the target uridine in the active site. To analyze the respective role of H60 and H77, we have generated variants carrying alanine substitutions at these positions. The impact of the mutations was analyzed for unguided modifications U55 in tRNA and U2603 in 23S rRNA, and for activity of the box H/ACA Pab91 sRNP enzyme. H77 (H43 in TruB), but not H60, appeared to be crucial for the RNA guide-independent activity. In contrast to earlier suggestions, H60 was found to be noncritical for the activity of the H/ACA sRNP, but contributes together with H77 to the full activity of H/ACA sRNPs. The data suggest that a similar catalytic process was conserved in the two divergent pseudouridylation systems. PMID:25990001

  10. Histidine-41 of the cytochrome b5 domain of the borage delta6 fatty acid desaturase is essential for enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Sayanova, O; Shewry, P R; Napier, J A

    1999-10-01

    Unlike most other plant microsomal desaturases, the Delta6-fatty acid desaturase from borage (Borago officinalis) contains an N-terminal extension that shows homology to the small hemoprotein cytochrome (Cyt) b5. To determine if this domain serves as a functional electron donor for the Delta6-fatty acid desaturase, mutagenesis and functional analysis by expression in transgenic Arabidopsis was carried out. Although expression of the wild-type borage Delta6-fatty acid desaturase resulted in the synthesis and accumulation of Delta6-unsaturated fatty acids, this was not observed in plants transformed with N-terminally deleted forms of the desaturase. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to disrupt one of the axial heme-binding residues (histidine-41) of the Cyt b5 domain; expression of this mutant form of the Delta6-desaturase in transgenic plants failed to produce Delta6-unsaturated fatty acids. These data indicate that the Cyt b5 domain of the borage Delta6-fatty acid desaturase is essential for enzymatic activity.

  11. Histidine-41 of the Cytochrome b5 Domain of the Borage Δ6 Fatty Acid Desaturase Is Essential for Enzyme Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Sayanova, Olga; Shewry, Peter R.; Napier, Johnathan A.

    1999-01-01

    Unlike most other plant microsomal desaturases, the Δ6-fatty acid desaturase from borage (Borago officinalis) contains an N-terminal extension that shows homology to the small hemoprotein cytochrome (Cyt) b5. To determine if this domain serves as a functional electron donor for the Δ6-fatty acid desaturase, mutagenesis and functional analysis by expression in transgenic Arabidopsis was carried out. Although expression of the wild-type borage Δ6-fatty acid desaturase resulted in the synthesis and accumulation of Δ6-unsaturated fatty acids, this was not observed in plants transformed with N-terminally deleted forms of the desaturase. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to disrupt one of the axial heme-binding residues (histidine-41) of the Cyt b5 domain; expression of this mutant form of the Δ6-desaturase in transgenic plants failed to produce Δ6-unsaturated fatty acids. These data indicate that the Cyt b5 domain of the borage Δ6-fatty acid desaturase is essential for enzymatic activity. PMID:10517856

  12. Three histidine residues of amyloid-beta peptide control the redox activity of copper and iron.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Shishido, N; Nunomura, Akihiko; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George; Hayashi, Y; Nakayama, K; Hayashi, T

    2007-11-01

    Zinc, iron and copper are concentrated in senile plaques of Alzheimer disease. Copper and iron catalyze the Fenton-Haber-Weiss reaction, which likely contributes to oxidative stress in neuronal cells. In this study, we found that ascorbate oxidase activity and the intensity of ascorbate radicals measured using ESR spectroscopy, generated by free Cu(II), was decreased in the presence of amyloid-beta (Abeta), the major component of senile plaques. Specifically, the ascorbate oxidase activity was strongly inhibited (85% decrease) in the presence of Abeta1-16 or Abeta1-42, whereas it was only slightly inhibited in the presence of Abeta1-12 or Abeta25-35 (<20% inhibition). Ascorbate-dependent hydroxyl radical generation by free Cu(II) decreased in the presence of Abeta in the identical order of Abeta1-42, Abeta1-16 > Abeta1-12 and was abolished in the presence of 2-fold molar excess glycylhystidyllysine (GHK). Ascorbate oxidase activity and ascorbate-dependent hydroxyl radical generation by free Fe(III) were inhibited by Abeta1-42, Abeta1-16, and Abeta1-12. Although Cu(II)-Abeta shows a significant SOD-like activity, the rate constant for the reaction of superoxide with Cu(II)-Abeta was much slower than that with SOD. Overall, our results suggest that His6, His13, and His14 residues of Abeta1-42 control the redox activity of transition metals present in senile plaques. PMID:17929832

  13. High-affinity Manganese Coordination by Human Calprotectin is Calcium-dependent and Requires the Histidine-rich Site Formed at the Dimer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Joshua A.; Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Cunden, Lisa S.; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Calprotectin (CP) is a transition metal-chelating antimicrobial protein of the calcium-binding S100 family that is produced and released by neutrophils. It inhibits the growth of various pathogenic microorganisms by sequestering the transition metal ions manganese and zinc. In this work, we investigate the manganese-binding properties of calprotectin. We demonstrate that the unusual His4 motif (site 2) formed at the S100A8/S100A9 dimer interface is the site of high-affinity Mn(II) coordination. We identify a low-temperature Mn(II) spectroscopic signal for this site consistent with an octahedral Mn(II) coordination sphere with simulated zero-field splitting parameters D = 270 MHz and E/D = 0.33 (E = 81 MHz). This analysis, combined with studies of mutant proteins, suggests that four histidine residues (H17 and H27 of S100A8; H91 and H95 of S100A9) coordinate Mn(II) in addition to two as-yet unidentified ligands. The His3Asp motif (site 1), which is also formed at the S100A8/S100A9 dimer interface, does not provide a high-affinity Mn(II) binding site. Calcium binding to the EF-hand domains of CP increases the Mn(II) affinity of the His4 site from the low-micromolar to the mid-nanomolar range. Metal-ion selectivity studies demonstrate that CP prefers to coordinate Zn(II) over Mn(II). Nevertheless, the specificity of Mn(II) for the His4 site provides CP with the propensity to form mixed Zn:Mn:CP complexes where one Zn(II) ion occupies site 1 and one Mn(II) ion occupies site 2. These studies support the notion that CP responds to physiological calcium ion gradients to become a high-affinity transition metal ion chelator in the extracellular space where it inhibits microbial growth. PMID:23276281

  14. N-Glycosylation Improves the Pepsin Resistance of Histidine Acid Phosphatase Phytases by Enhancing Their Stability at Acidic pHs and Reducing Pepsin's Accessibility to Its Cleavage Sites.

    PubMed

    Niu, Canfang; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2015-12-04

    N-Glycosylation can modulate enzyme structure and function. In this study, we identified two pepsin-resistant histidine acid phosphatase (HAP) phytases from Yersinia kristensenii (YkAPPA) and Yersinia rohdei (YrAPPA), each having an N-glycosylation motif, and one pepsin-sensitive HAP phytase from Yersinia enterocolitica (YeAPPA) that lacked an N-glycosylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to construct mutants by altering the N-glycosylation status of each enzyme, and the mutant and wild-type enzymes were expressed in Pichia pastoris for biochemical characterization. Compared with those of the N-glycosylation site deletion mutants and N-deglycosylated enzymes, all N-glycosylated counterparts exhibited enhanced pepsin resistance. Introduction of the N-glycosylation site into YeAPPA as YkAPPA and YrAPPA conferred pepsin resistance, shifted the pH optimum (0.5 and 1.5 pH units downward, respectively) and improved stability at acidic pH (83.2 and 98.8% residual activities at pH 2.0 for 1 h). Replacing the pepsin cleavage sites L197 and L396 in the immediate vicinity of the N-glycosylation motifs of YkAPPA and YrAPPA with V promoted their resistance to pepsin digestion when produced in Escherichia coli but had no effect on the pepsin resistance of N-glycosylated enzymes produced in P. pastoris. Thus, N-glycosylation may improve pepsin resistance by enhancing the stability at acidic pH and reducing pepsin's accessibility to peptic cleavage sites. This study provides a strategy, namely, the manipulation of N-glycosylation, for improvement of phytase properties for use in animal feed.

  15. N-Glycosylation Improves the Pepsin Resistance of Histidine Acid Phosphatase Phytases by Enhancing Their Stability at Acidic pHs and Reducing Pepsin's Accessibility to Its Cleavage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Canfang; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong

    2015-01-01

    N-Glycosylation can modulate enzyme structure and function. In this study, we identified two pepsin-resistant histidine acid phosphatase (HAP) phytases from Yersinia kristensenii (YkAPPA) and Yersinia rohdei (YrAPPA), each having an N-glycosylation motif, and one pepsin-sensitive HAP phytase from Yersinia enterocolitica (YeAPPA) that lacked an N-glycosylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to construct mutants by altering the N-glycosylation status of each enzyme, and the mutant and wild-type enzymes were expressed in Pichia pastoris for biochemical characterization. Compared with those of the N-glycosylation site deletion mutants and N-deglycosylated enzymes, all N-glycosylated counterparts exhibited enhanced pepsin resistance. Introduction of the N-glycosylation site into YeAPPA as YkAPPA and YrAPPA conferred pepsin resistance, shifted the pH optimum (0.5 and 1.5 pH units downward, respectively) and improved stability at acidic pH (83.2 and 98.8% residual activities at pH 2.0 for 1 h). Replacing the pepsin cleavage sites L197 and L396 in the immediate vicinity of the N-glycosylation motifs of YkAPPA and YrAPPA with V promoted their resistance to pepsin digestion when produced in Escherichia coli but had no effect on the pepsin resistance of N-glycosylated enzymes produced in P. pastoris. Thus, N-glycosylation may improve pepsin resistance by enhancing the stability at acidic pH and reducing pepsin's accessibility to peptic cleavage sites. This study provides a strategy, namely, the manipulation of N-glycosylation, for improvement of phytase properties for use in animal feed. PMID:26637601

  16. Hyperfine and Nuclear Quadrupole Tensors of Nitrogen Donors in the QA Site of Bacterial Reaction Centers: Correlation of the Histidine Nδ Tensors with Hydrogen Bond Strength

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    X- and Q-band pulsed EPR spectroscopy was applied to study the interaction of the QA site semiquinone (SQA) with nitrogens from the local protein environment in natural abundance 14N and in 15N uniformly labeled photosynthetic reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The hyperfine and nuclear quadrupole tensors for His-M219 Nδ and Ala-M260 peptide nitrogen (Np) were estimated through simultaneous simulation of the Q-band 15N Davies ENDOR, X- and Q-band 14,15N HYSCORE, and X-band 14N three-pulse ESEEM spectra, with support from DFT calculations. The hyperfine coupling constants were found to be a(14N) = 2.3 MHz, T = 0.3 MHz for His-M219 Nδ and a(14N) = 2.6 MHz, T = 0.3 MHz for Ala-M260 Np. Despite that His-M219 Nδ is established as the stronger of the two H-bond donors, Ala-M260 Np is found to have the larger value of a(14N). The nuclear quadrupole coupling constants were estimated as e2Qq/4h = 0.38 MHz, η = 0.97 and e2Qq/4h = 0.74 MHz, η = 0.59 for His-M219 Nδ and Ala-M260 Np, respectively. An analysis of the available data on nuclear quadrupole tensors for imidazole nitrogens found in semiquinone-binding proteins and copper complexes reveals these systems share similar electron occupancies of the protonated nitrogen orbitals. By applying the Townes–Dailey model, developed previously for copper complexes, to the semiquinones, we find the asymmetry parameter η to be a sensitive probe of the histidine Nδ–semiquinone hydrogen bond strength. This is supported by a strong correlation observed between η and the isotropic coupling constant a(14N) and is consistent with previous computational works and our own semiquinone-histidine model calculations. The empirical relationship presented here for a(14N) and η will provide an important structural characterization tool in future studies of semiquinone-binding proteins. PMID:25026433

  17. Investigations on the activation of recombinant microbial pro-transglutaminase: in contrast to proteinase K, dispase removes the histidine-tag.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Christian; Hertel, Thomas C; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Pietzsch, Markus

    2012-02-01

    In order to produce recombinant microbial transglutaminase (rMTG) which is free of the activating protease, dispase was used to activate the pro-rMTG followed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). As shown by MALDI-MS, the dispase does not only cleave the pro-sequence, but unfortunately also cleaves within the C-terminal histidine-tag. Hence, the active rMTG cannot properly bind to the IMAC material. As an alternative, proteinase K was investigated. This protease was successfully applied for the activation of purified pro-rMTG either as free or immobilized enzyme and the free enzyme was also applicable directly in the crude cell extract of E. coli. Thus, it enables a simple two-step activation/purification procedure resulting in protease-free and almost pure transglutaminase preparations. The protocol has been successfully applied to both, wild-type transglutaminase of Streptomyces mobaraensis as well as to the highly active variant S2P. Proteinase K activates the pro-rMTG without unwanted degradation of the histidine-tag. It turned out to be very important to inhibit proteinase K activity, e.g., by PMSF, prior to protein separation by SDS-PAGE.

  18. Histidine phosphorylation relieves copper inhibition in the mammalian potassium channel KCa3.1.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shekhar; Panda, Saswati; Li, Zhai; Fuhs, Stephen R; Hunter, Tony; Thiele, Dennis J; Hubbard, Stevan R; Skolnik, Edward Y

    2016-01-01

    KCa2.1, KCa2.2, KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 constitute a family of mammalian small- to intermediate-conductance potassium channels that are activated by calcium-calmodulin. KCa3.1 is unique among these four channels in that activation requires, in addition to calcium, phosphorylation of a single histidine residue (His358) in the cytoplasmic region, by nucleoside diphosphate kinase-B (NDPK-B). The mechanism by which KCa3.1 is activated by histidine phosphorylation is unknown. Histidine phosphorylation is well characterized in prokaryotes but poorly understood in eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of His358 activates KCa3.1 by antagonizing copper-mediated inhibition of the channel. Furthermore, we show that activated CD4(+) T cells deficient in intracellular copper exhibit increased KCa3.1 histidine phosphorylation and channel activity, leading to increased calcium flux and cytokine production. These findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for a mammalian potassium channel and for T-cell activation, and highlight a unique feature of histidine versus serine/threonine and tyrosine as a regulatory phosphorylation site. PMID:27542194

  19. Histidine phosphorylation relieves copper inhibition in the mammalian potassium channel KCa3.1

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shekhar; Panda, Saswati; Li, Zhai; Fuhs, Stephen R; Hunter, Tony; Thiele, Dennis J; Hubbard, Stevan R; Skolnik, Edward Y

    2016-01-01

    KCa2.1, KCa2.2, KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 constitute a family of mammalian small- to intermediate-conductance potassium channels that are activated by calcium-calmodulin. KCa3.1 is unique among these four channels in that activation requires, in addition to calcium, phosphorylation of a single histidine residue (His358) in the cytoplasmic region, by nucleoside diphosphate kinase-B (NDPK-B). The mechanism by which KCa3.1 is activated by histidine phosphorylation is unknown. Histidine phosphorylation is well characterized in prokaryotes but poorly understood in eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of His358 activates KCa3.1 by antagonizing copper-mediated inhibition of the channel. Furthermore, we show that activated CD4+ T cells deficient in intracellular copper exhibit increased KCa3.1 histidine phosphorylation and channel activity, leading to increased calcium flux and cytokine production. These findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for a mammalian potassium channel and for T-cell activation, and highlight a unique feature of histidine versus serine/threonine and tyrosine as a regulatory phosphorylation site. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16093.001 PMID:27542194

  20. Cell fate regulation governed by a repurposed bacterial histidine kinase

    DOE PAGES

    Childers, W. Seth; Xu, Qingping; Mann, Thomas H.; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Blair, Jimmy A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy; Stock, Ann M.

    2014-10-28

    One of the simplest organisms to divide asymmetrically is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The DivL pseudo-histidine kinase, positioned at one cell pole, regulates cell-fate by controlling the activation of the global transcription factor CtrA via an interaction with the response regulator (RR) DivK. DivL uniquely contains a tyrosine at the histidine phosphorylation site, and can achieve these regulatory functions in vivo without kinase activity. Determination of the DivL crystal structure and biochemical analysis of wild-type and site-specific DivL mutants revealed that the DivL PAS domains regulate binding specificity for DivK~P over DivK, which is modulated by an allosteric intramolecular interactionmore » between adjacent domains. We discovered that DivL's catalytic domains have been repurposed as a phosphospecific RR input sensor, thereby reversing the flow of information observed in conventional histidine kinase (HK)-RR systems and coupling a complex network of signaling proteins for cell-fate regulation.« less

  1. Cell fate regulation governed by a repurposed bacterial histidine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, W. Seth; Xu, Qingping; Mann, Thomas H.; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Blair, Jimmy A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy; Stock, Ann M.

    2014-10-28

    One of the simplest organisms to divide asymmetrically is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The DivL pseudo-histidine kinase, positioned at one cell pole, regulates cell-fate by controlling the activation of the global transcription factor CtrA via an interaction with the response regulator (RR) DivK. DivL uniquely contains a tyrosine at the histidine phosphorylation site, and can achieve these regulatory functions in vivo without kinase activity. Determination of the DivL crystal structure and biochemical analysis of wild-type and site-specific DivL mutants revealed that the DivL PAS domains regulate binding specificity for DivK~P over DivK, which is modulated by an allosteric intramolecular interaction between adjacent domains. We discovered that DivL's catalytic domains have been repurposed as a phosphospecific RR input sensor, thereby reversing the flow of information observed in conventional histidine kinase (HK)-RR systems and coupling a complex network of signaling proteins for cell-fate regulation.

  2. Evidence for an essential histidine residue in 4S-limonene synthase and other terpene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Rajaonarivony, J I; Gershenzon, J; Miyazaki, J; Croteau, R

    1992-11-15

    (4S)-Limonene synthase, isolated from glandular trichome secretory cell preparations of Mentha x piperita (peppermint) leaves, catalyzes the metal ion-dependent cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate, via 3S-linalyl pyrophosphate, to (-)-(4S)-limonene as the principal product. Treatment of this terpene cyclase with the histidine-directed reagent diethyl pyrocarbonate at a concentration of 0.25 mM resulted in 50% loss of enzyme activity, and this activity could be completely restored by treatment of the preparation with 5 mM hydroxylamine. Inhibition with diethyl pyrocarbonate was distinguished from inhibition with thiol-directed reagents by protection studies with histidine and cysteine carried out at varying pH. Inactivation of the cyclase by dye-sensitized photooxidation in the presence of rose bengal gave further indication of the presence of a readily modified histidine residue. Protection of the enzyme against inhibition with diethyl pyrocarbonate was afforded by the substrate geranyl pyrophosphate in the presence of Mn2+, and by the sulfonium ion analog of the linalyl carbocation intermediate of the reaction in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate plus Mn2+, suggesting that an essential histidine residue is located at or near the active site. Similar studies on the inhibition of other monoterpene and sesquiterpene cyclases with diethyl pyrocarbonate suggest that a histidine residue (or residues) may play an important role in catalysis by this class of enzymes. PMID:1444454

  3. Improved cyclopropanation activity of histidine-ligated cytochrome P450 enables the enantioselective formal synthesis of levomilnacipran.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Jane; Renata, Hans; Peck, Nicole E; Farwell, Christopher C; Coelho, Pedro S; Arnold, Frances H

    2014-06-23

    Engineering enzymes capable of modes of activation unprecedented in nature will increase the range of industrially important molecules that can be synthesized through biocatalysis. However, low activity for a new function is often a limitation in adopting enzymes for preparative-scale synthesis, reaction with demanding substrates, or when a natural substrate is also present. By mutating the proximal ligand and other key active-site residues of the cytochrome P450 enzyme from Bacillus megaterium (P450-BM3), a highly active His-ligated variant of P450-BM3 that can be employed for the enantioselective synthesis of the levomilnacipran core was engineered. This enzyme, BM3-Hstar, catalyzes the cyclopropanation of N,N-diethyl-2-phenylacrylamide with an estimated initial rate of over 1000 turnovers per minute and can be used under aerobic conditions. Cyclopropanation activity is highly dependent on the electronic properties of the P450 proximal ligand, which can be used to tune this non-natural enzyme activity. PMID:24802161

  4. Visualizing autophosphorylation in histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Casino, Patricia; Miguel-Romero, Laura; Marina, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the most widespread regulatory mechanism in signal transduction. Autophosphorylation in a dimeric sensor histidine kinase is the first step in two-component signalling, the predominant signal-transduction device in bacteria. Despite being the most abundant sensor kinases in nature, the molecular bases of the histidine kinase autophosphorylation mechanism are still unknown. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that autophosphorylation can occur in two directions, cis (intrasubunit) or trans (intersubunit) within the dimeric histidine kinase. Here, we present the crystal structure of the complete catalytic machinery of a chimeric histidine kinase. The structure shows an asymmetric histidine kinase dimer where one subunit is caught performing the autophosphorylation reaction. A structure-guided functional analysis on HK853 and EnvZ, two prototypical cis- and trans-phosphorylating histidine kinases, has allowed us to decipher the catalytic mechanism of histidine kinase autophosphorylation, which seems to be common independently of the reaction directionality.

  5. Activation of Histidine Kinase SpaK Is Mediated by the N-Terminal Portion of Subtilin-Like Lantibiotics and Is Independent of Lipid II.

    PubMed

    Spieß, Tobias; Korn, Sophie Marianne; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2015-08-15

    The biosynthesis of the lantibiotic subtilin is autoinduced in a quorum-sensing mechanism via histidine kinase SpaK. Subtilin-like lantibiotics, such as entianin, ericin S, and subtilin, specifically activated SpaK in a comparable manner, whereas the structurally similar nisin did not provide the signal for SpaK activation at nontoxic concentrations. Surprisingly, nevertheless, nisin if applied together with entianin partly quenched SpaK activation. The N-terminal entianin1-20 fragment (comprising N-terminal amino acids 1 to 20) was sufficient for SpaK activation, although higher concentrations were needed. The N-terminal nisin1-20 fragment also interfered with entianin-mediated activation of SpaK and, remarkably, at extremely high concentrations also activated SpaK. Our data show that the N-terminal entianin1-20 fragment is sufficient for SpaK activation. However, if present, the C-terminal part of the molecule further strongly enhances the activation, possibly by its interference with the cellular membrane. As shown by using lipid II-interfering substances and a lipid II-deficient mutant strain, lipid II is not needed for the sensing mechanism. PMID:26025904

  6. Activation of Histidine Kinase SpaK Is Mediated by the N-Terminal Portion of Subtilin-Like Lantibiotics and Is Independent of Lipid II

    PubMed Central

    Spieß, Tobias; Korn, Sophie Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the lantibiotic subtilin is autoinduced in a quorum-sensing mechanism via histidine kinase SpaK. Subtilin-like lantibiotics, such as entianin, ericin S, and subtilin, specifically activated SpaK in a comparable manner, whereas the structurally similar nisin did not provide the signal for SpaK activation at nontoxic concentrations. Surprisingly, nevertheless, nisin if applied together with entianin partly quenched SpaK activation. The N-terminal entianin1–20 fragment (comprising N-terminal amino acids 1 to 20) was sufficient for SpaK activation, although higher concentrations were needed. The N-terminal nisin1–20 fragment also interfered with entianin-mediated activation of SpaK and, remarkably, at extremely high concentrations also activated SpaK. Our data show that the N-terminal entianin1–20 fragment is sufficient for SpaK activation. However, if present, the C-terminal part of the molecule further strongly enhances the activation, possibly by its interference with the cellular membrane. As shown by using lipid II-interfering substances and a lipid II-deficient mutant strain, lipid II is not needed for the sensing mechanism. PMID:26025904

  7. Genetic Analysis of the Histidine Utilization (hut) Genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Xian; Rainey, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    The histidine utilization (hut) locus of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 confers the ability to utilize histidine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. Genetic analysis using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and chromosomally integrated lacZ fusions showed the hut locus to be composed of 13 genes organized in 3 transcriptional units: hutF, hutCD, and 10 genes from hutU to hutG (which includes 2 copies of hutH, 1 of which is nonfunctional). Inactivation of hutF eliminated the ability to grow on histidine, indicating that SBW25 degrades histidine by the five-step enzymatic pathway. The 3 hut operons are negatively regulated by the HutC repressor with urocanate (the first intermediate of the histidine degradation pathway) as the physiological inducer. 5′-RACE analysis of transcriptional start sites revealed involvement of both σ54 (for the hutU–G operon) and σ70 (for hutF); the involvement of σ54 was experimentally demonstrated. CbrB (an enhancer binding protein for σ54 recruitment) was required for bacterial growth on histidine, indicating positive control of hut gene expression by CbrB. Recognition that a gene (named hutD) encoding a widely distributed conserved hypothetical protein is transcribed along with hutC led to analysis of its role. Mutational and gene fusion studies showed that HutD functions independently of HutC. Growth and fitness assays in laboratory media and on sugar beet seedlings suggest that HutD acts as a governor that sets an upper bound to the level of hut activity. PMID:17717196

  8. Genetic analysis of the histidine utilization (hut) genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Xian; Rainey, Paul B

    2007-08-01

    The histidine utilization (hut) locus of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 confers the ability to utilize histidine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. Genetic analysis using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and chromosomally integrated lacZ fusions showed the hut locus to be composed of 13 genes organized in 3 transcriptional units: hutF, hutCD, and 10 genes from hutU to hutG (which includes 2 copies of hutH, 1 of which is nonfunctional). Inactivation of hutF eliminated the ability to grow on histidine, indicating that SBW25 degrades histidine by the five-step enzymatic pathway. The 3 hut operons are negatively regulated by the HutC repressor with urocanate (the first intermediate of the histidine degradation pathway) as the physiological inducer. 5'-RACE analysis of transcriptional start sites revealed involvement of both sigma(54) (for the hutU-G operon) and sigma(70) (for hutF); the involvement of sigma(54) was experimentally demonstrated. CbrB (an enhancer binding protein for sigma(54) recruitment) was required for bacterial growth on histidine, indicating positive control of hut gene expression by CbrB. Recognition that a gene (named hutD) encoding a widely distributed conserved hypothetical protein is transcribed along with hutC led to analysis of its role. Mutational and gene fusion studies showed that HutD functions independently of HutC. Growth and fitness assays in laboratory media and on sugar beet seedlings suggest that HutD acts as a governor that sets an upper bound to the level of hut activity.

  9. Prebiotic synthesis of histidyl-histidine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, C.; Mills, T.; Oro, J.

    1990-01-01

    Histidyl-histidine (His-His) has been synthesized in a yield of up to 14.4% under plausible prebiotic conditions using histidine (His), cyanamide, and 4-amino-5-imidazole carboxamide. A trace amount of His trimer was also detected. Because the imidazole group of His is involved in a number of important enzymatic reactions, and His-His has been shown to catalyze the prebiotic synthesis of glycyl-glycine, we expect this work will stimulate further studies on the catalytic activities of simple His-containing peptides in prebiotic reactions.

  10. Biological functions of histidine-dipeptides and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Song, Byeng Chun; Joo, Nam-Seok; Aldini, Giancarlo; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2014-02-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which is associated with a state of elevated systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, is expected to cause future increases in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars produces reactive carbonyl species, which, due to their electrophilic nature, react with the nucleophilic sites of certain amino acids. This leads to formation of protein adducts such as advanced glycoxidation/lipoxidation end products (AGEs/ALEs), resulting in cellular dysfunction. Therefore, an effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering agent may be able to prevent such cellular dysfunction. There is accumulating evidence that histidine containing dipeptides such as carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) and anserine (β-alanyl-methyl-L-histidine) detoxify cytotoxic reactive carbonyls by forming unreactive adducts and are able to reverse glycated protein. In this review, 1) reaction mechanism of oxidative stress and certain chronic diseases, 2) interrelation between oxidative stress and inflammation, 3) effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering actions of histidine-dipeptides and their metabolism, 4) effects of carnosinase encoding gene on the effectiveness of histidine-dipeptides, and 5) protective effects of histidine-dipeptides against progression of metabolic syndrome are discussed. Overall, this review highlights the potential beneficial effects of histidine-dipeptides against metabolic syndrome. Randomized controlled human studies may provide essential information regarding whether histidine-dipeptides attenuate metabolic syndrome in humans. PMID:24611099

  11. A cis/trans Test of the Effect of the First Enzyme for Histidine Biosynthesis on Regulation of the Histidine Operon

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, John S.; Ballesteros, Antonio O.; Meyers, Marilyn; Soria, Marco; Goldberger, Robert F.

    1973-01-01

    Previous studies showed that when triazolalanine was added to a derepressed culture of a histidine auxotroph, repression of the histidine operon occurred as though histidine had been added (6). However, when triazolalanine was added to a derepressed culture of a strain with a mutation in the first gene of the histidine operon which rendered the first enzyme for histidine biosynthesis resistant to inhibition by histidine, repression did not occur. The studies reported here represent a cis/trans test of this effect of mutations to feedback resistance. Using specially constructed merodiploid strains, we were able to show that the wild-type allele is dominant to the mutant (feedback resistant) allele and that the effect operates in trans. We conclude that the enzyme encoded by the first gene of the histidine operon exerts its regulatory effect on the operon not by acting locally at its site of synthesis, but by acting as a freely diffusible protein. PMID:4572718

  12. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  13. A single mutation in the hepta-peptide active site of Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase leads to myriad of biochemical changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The active site motif of proteins belonging to ‘Histidine Acid Phosphatase’ (HAP) contains a hepta-peptide region, RHGXRXP. A close comparison among fungal and yeast HAPs has revealed the fourth residue of the hepta-peptide to be E instead of A, which is the case with A. niger phyA phytase. However,...

  14. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of the catalytic residues of the papain family protease bleomycin hydrolase: new insights into active-site structure

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, Paul A.; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2006-01-01

    Bleomycin hydrolase (BH) is a hexameric papain family cysteine protease which is involved in preparing peptides for antigen presentation and has been implicated in tumour cell resistance to bleomycin chemotherapy. Structures of active-site mutants of yeast BH yielded unexpected results. Replacement of the active-site asparagine with alanine, valine or leucine results in the destabilization of the histidine side chain, demonstrating unambiguously the role of the asparagine residue in correctly positioning the histidine for catalysis. Replacement of the histidine with alanine or leucine destabilizes the asparagine position, indicating a delicate arrangement of the active-site residues. In all of the mutants, the C-terminus of the protein, which lies in the active site, protrudes further into the active site. All mutants were compromised in their catalytic activity. The structures also revealed the importance of a tightly bound water molecule which stabilizes a loop near the active site and which is conserved throughout the papain family. It is displaced in a number of the mutants, causing destabilization of this loop and a nearby loop, resulting in a large movement of the active-site cysteine. The results imply that this water molecule plays a key structural role in this family of enzymes. PMID:17007609

  15. Fabrication of Nanometer- and Micrometer-Scale Protein Structures by Site-Specific Immobilization of Histidine-Tagged Proteins to Aminosiloxane Films with Photoremovable Protein-Resistant Protecting Groups.

    PubMed

    Xia, Sijing; Cartron, Michaël; Morby, James; Bryant, Donald A; Hunter, C Neil; Leggett, Graham J

    2016-02-23

    The site-specific immobilization of histidine-tagged proteins to patterns formed by far-field and near-field exposure of films of aminosilanes with protein-resistant photolabile protecting groups is demonstrated. After deprotection of the aminosilane, either through a mask or using a scanning near-field optical microscope, the amine terminal groups are derivatized first with glutaraldehyde and then with N-(5-amino-1-carboxypentyl)iminodiacetic acid to yield a nitrilo-triacetic-acid-terminated surface. After complexation with Ni(2+), this surface binds histidine-tagged GFP and CpcA-PEB in a site-specific fashion. The chemistry is simple and reliable and leads to extensive surface functionalization. Bright fluorescence is observed in fluorescence microscopy images of micrometer- and nanometer-scale patterns. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study quantitatively the efficiency of photodeprotection and the reactivity of the modified surfaces. The efficiency of the protein binding process is investigated quantitatively by ellipsometry and by fluorescence microscopy. We find that regions of the surface not exposed to UV light bind negligible amounts of His-tagged proteins, indicating that the oligo(ethylene glycol) adduct on the nitrophenyl protecting group confers excellent protein resistance; in contrast, exposed regions bind His-GFP very effectively, yielding strong fluorescence that is almost completely removed on treatment of the surface with imidazole, confirming a degree of site-specific binding in excess of 90%. This simple strategy offers a versatile generic route to the spatially selective site-specific immobilization of proteins at surfaces. PMID:26820378

  16. Fabrication of Nanometer- and Micrometer-Scale Protein Structures by Site-Specific Immobilization of Histidine-Tagged Proteins to Aminosiloxane Films with Photoremovable Protein-Resistant Protecting Groups

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The site-specific immobilization of histidine-tagged proteins to patterns formed by far-field and near-field exposure of films of aminosilanes with protein-resistant photolabile protecting groups is demonstrated. After deprotection of the aminosilane, either through a mask or using a scanning near-field optical microscope, the amine terminal groups are derivatized first with glutaraldehyde and then with N-(5-amino-1-carboxypentyl)iminodiacetic acid to yield a nitrilo-triacetic-acid-terminated surface. After complexation with Ni2+, this surface binds histidine-tagged GFP and CpcA-PEB in a site-specific fashion. The chemistry is simple and reliable and leads to extensive surface functionalization. Bright fluorescence is observed in fluorescence microscopy images of micrometer- and nanometer-scale patterns. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study quantitatively the efficiency of photodeprotection and the reactivity of the modified surfaces. The efficiency of the protein binding process is investigated quantitatively by ellipsometry and by fluorescence microscopy. We find that regions of the surface not exposed to UV light bind negligible amounts of His-tagged proteins, indicating that the oligo(ethylene glycol) adduct on the nitrophenyl protecting group confers excellent protein resistance; in contrast, exposed regions bind His-GFP very effectively, yielding strong fluorescence that is almost completely removed on treatment of the surface with imidazole, confirming a degree of site-specific binding in excess of 90%. This simple strategy offers a versatile generic route to the spatially selective site-specific immobilization of proteins at surfaces. PMID:26820378

  17. Carboplatin binding to histidine

    SciTech Connect

    Tanley, Simon W. M.; Diederichs, Kay; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J.; Levy, Colin; Schreurs, Antoine M. M.; Helliwell, John R.

    2014-08-29

    An X-ray crystal structure showing the binding of purely carboplatin to histidine in a model protein has finally been obtained. This required extensive crystallization trials and various novel crystal structure analyses. Carboplatin is a second-generation platinum anticancer agent used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. Previous X-ray crystallographic studies of carboplatin binding to histidine (in hen egg-white lysozyme; HEWL) showed the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin owing to the high NaCl concentration used in the crystallization conditions. HEWL co-crystallizations with carboplatin in NaBr conditions have now been carried out to confirm whether carboplatin converts to the bromine form and whether this takes place in a similar way to the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin observed previously in NaCl conditions. Here, it is reported that a partial chemical transformation takes place but to a transplatin form. Thus, to attempt to resolve purely carboplatin binding at histidine, this study utilized co-crystallization of HEWL with carboplatin without NaCl to eliminate the partial chemical conversion of carboplatin. Tetragonal HEWL crystals co-crystallized with carboplatin were successfully obtained in four different conditions, each at a different pH value. The structural results obtained show carboplatin bound to either one or both of the N atoms of His15 of HEWL, and this particular variation was dependent on the concentration of anions in the crystallization mixture and the elapsed time, as well as the pH used. The structural details of the bound carboplatin molecule also differed between them. Overall, the most detailed crystal structure showed the majority of the carboplatin atoms bound to the platinum centre; however, the four-carbon ring structure of the cyclobutanedicarboxylate moiety (CBDC) remained elusive. The potential impact of the results for the administration of carboplatin as an anticancer agent are described.

  18. Brain histaminergic system in mast cell-deficient (Ws/Ws) rats: histamine content, histidine decarboxylase activity, and effects of (S) alpha-fluoromethylhistidine.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, K; Maeyama, K; Alam, K; Sakurai, E; Onoue, H; Kasugai, T; Kitamura, Y; Watanabe, T

    1995-08-01

    The mast cell-deficient [Ws/Ws (White spotting in the skin)] rat was investigated with regard to the origin of histamine in the brain. No mast cells were detected in the pia mater and the perivascular region of the thalamus of Ws/Ws rats by Alcian Blue staining. The histamine contents and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activities of various brain regions of Ws/Ws rats were similar to those of +/+ rats except the histamine contents of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. As the cerebral cortex and cerebellum have meninges that are difficult to remove completely, the histamine contents of these two regions may be different between Ws/Ws and +/+ rats. We assume that the histamine content of whole brain with meninges in Ws/Ws rats is < 60% of that in +/+ rats. So we conclude that approximately half of the histamine content of rat brain is derived from mast cells. Next, the effects of (S) alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (FMH), a specific inhibitor of HDC, on the histamine contents and HDC activities of various regions of the brain were examined in Ws/Ws rats. In the whole brain of Ws/Ws rats, 51 and 37% of the histamine content of the control group remained 2 and 6 h, respectively, after FMH administration (100 mg/kg of body weight). Therefore, we suggest that there might be other histamine pools including histaminergic neurons in rat brain.

  19. Molecular insight in the purification of immunoglobulin by pseudobiospecific ligand l-histidine and histidyl moieties in histidine ligand affinity chromatography (HLAC) by molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Savane, Tushar S; Kumar, Sanjit; Janakiraman, Vignesh Narasimhan; Kamalanathan, Agamudi S; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A

    2016-05-15

    Pseudobiospecific ligand l-histidine is an inexpensive, highly stable, non-toxic ligand explored successfully over the last twenty years for the purification of immunoglobulins in immobilised histidine ligand affinity chromatography. It is of great interest to know the molecular recognition sites of IgG to immobilized l-histidine. Here, we have used an in silico approach to explore the molecular recognition of l-histidine by IgG. We have assessed the feasible binding modes of histidine and its moieties at different sites of IgG and considered only those binding conformations which are exhibited via the imidazole ring NH group or any other OH donating group apart from the ones which are terminally conjugated with the support matrix. We categorised binding site into two categories; category I: inner binding groove and category II: surface binding groove and observed that the hinge region of IgG has most favourable binding pocket for l-histidine and histidyl moieties. Ser and Tyr residues on the hinge region make several significant interactions with l-histidine and histidyl moieties. In case of Fc region of IgG, l-histidine and histidyl moieties closely resemble the binding modes of Protein A, biomimetic ligand 22/8 and B domain of SpA to IgG. In addition to these we have also observed a significant binding site for l-histidine and histidyl moieties at Fab region of IgG. PMID:26476866

  20. An artificial CO-releasing metalloprotein built by histidine-selective metallation.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Inês S; Jeremias, Hélia F; Chaves-Ferreira, Miguel; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Boutureira, Omar; Romão, Carlos C; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L

    2015-03-01

    We report the design and synthesis of an aquacarbonyl Ru(II) dication cis-[Ru(CO)2(H2O)4](2+) reagent for histidine (His)-selective metallation of interleukin (IL)-8 at site 33. The artificial, non-toxic interleukin (IL)-8-Ru(II)(CO)2 metalloprotein retained IL-8-dependent neutrophil chemotactic activity and was shown to spontaneously release CO in live cells.

  1. Inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle via inhibition of growth and histidine decarboxylase activity of Morganella morganii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri; Cho, Ji Young; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2014-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle. First, antimicrobial activities of brown algae extracts against Morganella morganii were investigated using a disk diffusion method. An ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (ECEE) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ECEE was 2 mg/ml. Furthermore, the brown algae extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit crude histidine decarboxylase (HDC) of M. morganii. The ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (EBEE) and ECEE exhibited significant inhibitory activities (19.82% and 33.79%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. To obtain the phlorotannin dieckol, ECEE and EBEE were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and HPLC. Dieckol exhibited substantial inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.61 mg/ml, and exhibited competitive inhibition. These extracts were also tested on mackerel muscle. The viable cell counts and histamine production in mackerel muscle inoculated with M. morganii treated with ≥2.5 MIC of ECEE (weight basis) were highly inhibited compared with the untreated sample. Furthermore, treatment of crude HDC-inoculated mackerel muscle with 0.5% ECEE and 0.5% EBEE (weight basis), which exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against crude HDC, reduced the overall histamine production by 46.29% and 56.89%, respectively, compared with the untreated sample. Thus, these inhibitory effects of ECEE and EBEE should be helpful in enhancing the safety of mackerel by suppressing histamine production in this fish species.

  2. Prebiotic synthesis of histidine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, C.; Yang, L.; Miller, S. L.; Oro, J.

    1990-01-01

    The prebiotic formation of histidine (His) has been accomplished experimentally by the reaction of erythrose with formamidine followed by a Strecker synthesis. In the first step of this reaction sequence, the formation of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde took place by the condensation of erythrose and formamidine, two compounds that are known to be formed under prebiotic conditions. In a second step, the imidazole-4-acetaldehyde was converted to His, without isolation of the reaction products by adding HCN and ammonia to the reaction mixture. LC, HPLC, thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the product, which was obtained in a yield of 3.5% based on the ratio of His/erythrose. This is a new chemical synthesis of one of the basic amino acids which had not been synthesized prebiotically until now.

  3. Carboplatin binding to histidine.

    PubMed

    Tanley, Simon W M; Diederichs, Kay; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Levy, Colin; Schreurs, Antoine M M; Helliwell, John R

    2014-09-01

    Carboplatin is a second-generation platinum anticancer agent used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. Previous X-ray crystallographic studies of carboplatin binding to histidine (in hen egg-white lysozyme; HEWL) showed the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin owing to the high NaCl concentration used in the crystallization conditions. HEWL co-crystallizations with carboplatin in NaBr conditions have now been carried out to confirm whether carboplatin converts to the bromine form and whether this takes place in a similar way to the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin observed previously in NaCl conditions. Here, it is reported that a partial chemical transformation takes place but to a transplatin form. Thus, to attempt to resolve purely carboplatin binding at histidine, this study utilized co-crystallization of HEWL with carboplatin without NaCl to eliminate the partial chemical conversion of carboplatin. Tetragonal HEWL crystals co-crystallized with carboplatin were successfully obtained in four different conditions, each at a different pH value. The structural results obtained show carboplatin bound to either one or both of the N atoms of His15 of HEWL, and this particular variation was dependent on the concentration of anions in the crystallization mixture and the elapsed time, as well as the pH used. The structural details of the bound carboplatin molecule also differed between them. Overall, the most detailed crystal structure showed the majority of the carboplatin atoms bound to the platinum centre; however, the four-carbon ring structure of the cyclobutanedicarboxylate moiety (CBDC) remained elusive. The potential impact of the results for the administration of carboplatin as an anticancer agent are described.

  4. Crystal Structure of a Histidine Kinase Sensor Domain with Similarity to Periplasmic Binding Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, J.; Le-Khac, M; Hendrickson, W

    2009-01-01

    Histidine kinase receptors are elements of the two-component signal transduction systems commonly found in bacteria and lower eukaryotes, where they are crucial for environmental adaption through the coupling of extracellular changes to intracellular responses. The typical two-component system consists of a membrane-spanning histidine kinase sensor and a cytoplasmic response regulator. In the calssic system, extracellular signals such as small molecule ligands and ions are detected by the periplasmic sensor domain of the histidine kinase receptor, which modulates the catalytic activity of the cytoplasmic histidine kinase domain and promotes ATP-dependent autophosphorylation of a conserved histidine residue. G. sulfurreducens genomic DNA was used.

  5. Formation and Operation of the Histidine-degrading Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lessie, Thomas G.; Neidhardt, Frederick C.

    1967-01-01

    Histidine ammonia lyase (histidase), urocanase, and the capacity to degrade formiminoglutamate, which are respectively involved in steps I, II, and IV in the catabolism of histidine, were induced during growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on histidine or urocanate, and were formed gratuitously in the presence of dihydro-urocanate. Urocanase-deficient bacteria formed enzymes I and IV constitutively; presumably they accumulate enough urocanate from the breakdown of endogenous histidine to induce formation of the pathway. Urocanate did not satisfy the histidine requirement of a histidine auxotroph, indicating that it probably acted as an inducer without being converted to histidine. The results imply that urocanate is the physiological inducer of the histidine-degrading enzymes in P. aeruginosa. Enzymes of the pathway were extremely sensitive to catabolite repression; enzymes I and II, but not IV, were coordinately repressed. Our results suggest a specific involvement of nitrogenous metabolites in the repression. Mutant bacteria with altered sensitivity to repression were obtained. The molecular weight of partially purified histidase was estimated at 210,000 by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Its Km for histidine was 2 × 10−3 m in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane chloride buffer. Sigmoid saturation curves were obtained in pyrophosphate buffer, indicating that the enzyme might have multiple binding sites for histidine. Under certain conditions, histidase appeared to be partially inactive in vivo. These findings suggest that some sort of allosteric interaction involving histidase may play a role in governing the operation of the pathway of histidine catabolism. PMID:4290562

  6. Histidine-rich glycoprotein binds DNA and RNA and attenuates their capacity to activate the intrinsic coagulation pathway.

    PubMed

    Vu, Trang T; Leslie, Beverly A; Stafford, Alan R; Zhou, Ji; Fredenburgh, James C; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2016-01-01

    When triggered by factor (F) XII and nucleic acids, we showed that thrombosis in HRG-deficient mice is accelerated compared with that in wild-type mice. In this study, we set out to identify the mechanisms by which nucleic acids promote contact activation, and to determine whether HRG attenuates their effects. DNA or RNA addition to human plasma enhances thrombin generation via the intrinsic pathway and shortens the clotting time. Their effect on the clotting time is seven- to 14-fold greater in HRG-deficient plasma than in control plasma. Investigations into the mechanisms of activation reveal that nucleic acids a) promote FXII activation in the presence of prekallikrein- and high molecular weight kininogen (HK), and b) enhance thrombin-mediated FXI activation by 10- to 12-fold. Surface plasmon resonance studies show that DNA and RNA bind FXII, FXIIa, HK, FXI, FXIa and thrombin with high affinity. HRG attenuates DNA- and RNA-mediated FXII activation, and FXI activation by FXIIa or by thrombin, suggesting that HRG down regulates the capacity of DNA and RNA to activate the intrinsic pathway. Therefore, HRG attenuates the procoagulant activity of nucleic acids at multiple levels.

  7. The Active Site of Oligogalacturonate Lyase Provides Unique Insights into Cytoplasmic Oligogalacturonate β-Elimination*

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, D. Wade; Gilbert, Harry J.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2010-01-01

    Oligogalacturonate lyases (OGLs; now also classified as pectate lyase family 22) are cytoplasmic enzymes found in pectinolytic members of Enterobacteriaceae, such as the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. OGLs utilize a β-elimination mechanism to preferentially catalyze the conversion of saturated and unsaturated digalacturonate into monogalacturonate and the 4,5-unsaturated monogalacturonate-like molecule, 5-keto-4-deoxyuronate. To provide mechanistic insights into the specificity of this enzyme activity, we have characterized the OGL from Y. enterocolitica, YeOGL, on oligogalacturonides and determined its three-dimensional x-ray structure to 1.65 Å. The model contains a Mn2+ atom in the active site, which is coordinated by three histidines, one glutamine, and an acetate ion. The acetate mimics the binding of the uronate group of galactourono-configured substrates. These findings, in combination with enzyme kinetics and metal supplementation assays, provide a framework for modeling the active site architecture of OGL. This enzyme appears to contain a histidine for the abstraction of the α-proton in the −1 subsite, a residue that is highly conserved throughout the OGL family and represents a unique catalytic base among pectic active lyases. In addition, we present a hypothesis for an emerging relationship observed between the cellular distribution of pectate lyase folding and the distinct metal coordination chemistries of pectate lyases. PMID:20851883

  8. Zn2+ binding to human calbindin D28k and the role of histidine residues

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Mikael C.; Nilsson, Hanna; Thulin, Eva; Frohm, Birgitta; Malm, Johan; Linse, Sara

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the binding of Zn2+ to the hexa EF-hand protein, calbindin D28k—a strong Ca2+-binder involved in apoptosis regulation—which is highly expressed in brain tissue. By use of radioblots, isothermal titration calorimetry, and competition with a fluorescent Zn2+ chelator, we find that calbindin D28k binds Zn2+ to three rather strong sites with dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Furthermore, we conclude based on spectroscopic investigations that the Zn2+-bound state is structurally distinct from the Ca2+-bound state and that the two forms are incompatible, yielding negative allosteric interaction between the zinc- and calcium-binding events. ANS titrations reveal a change in hydrophobicity upon binding Zn2+. The binding of Zn2+ is compatible with the ability of calbindin to activate myo-inositol monophosphatase, one of the known targets of calbindin. Through site-directed mutagenesis, we address the role of cysteine and histidine residues in the binding of Zn2+. Mutation of all five cysteines into serines has no effect on Zn2+-binding affinity or stoichiometry. However, mutating histidine 80 into a glutamine reduces the binding affinity of the strongest Zn2+ site, indicating that this residue is involved in coordinating the Zn2+ ion in this site. Mutating histidines 5, 22, or 114 has significantly smaller effects on Zn2+-binding affinity. PMID:18359862

  9. A three-dimensional model of mammalian tyrosinase active site accounting for loss of function mutations.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, Thorsten; Olivares, Concepción; Solano, Francisco; Jaenicke, Elmar; García-Borrón, José Carlos; Decker, Heinz

    2007-10-01

    Tyrosinases are the first and rate-limiting enzymes in the synthesis of melanin pigments responsible for colouring hair, skin and eyes. Mutation of tyrosinases often decreases melanin production resulting in albinism, but the effects are not always understood at the molecular level. Homology modelling of mouse tyrosinase based on recently published crystal structures of non-mammalian tyrosinases provides an active site model accounting for loss-of-function mutations. According to the model, the copper-binding histidines are located in a helix bundle comprising four densely packed helices. A loop containing residues M374, S375 and V377 connects the CuA and CuB centres, with the peptide oxygens of M374 and V377 serving as hydrogen acceptors for the NH-groups of the imidazole rings of the copper-binding His367 and His180. Therefore, this loop is essential for the stability of the active site architecture. A double substitution (374)MS(375) --> (374)GG(375) or a single M374G mutation lead to a local perturbation of the protein matrix at the active site affecting the orientation of the H367 side chain, that may be unable to bind CuB reliably, resulting in loss of activity. The model also accounts for loss of function in two naturally occurring albino mutations, S380P and V393F. The hydroxyl group in S380 contributes to the correct orientation of M374, and the substitution of V393 for a bulkier phenylalanine sterically impedes correct side chain packing at the active site. Therefore, our model explains the mechanistic necessity for conservation of not only active site histidines but also adjacent amino acids in tyrosinase. PMID:17850513

  10. Thiamin Pyrimidine Biosynthesis in Candida albicans: A Remarkable Reaction between Histidine and Pyridoxal Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Rung-Yi; Huang, Siyu; Fenwick, Michael K.; Hazra, Amrita; Zhang, Yang; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Philmus, Benjamin; Kinsland, Cynthia; Sanders, Jennie Mansell; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2012-06-26

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thiamin pyrimidine is formed from histidine and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). The origin of all of the pyrimidine atoms has been previously determined using labeling studies and suggests that the pyrimidine is formed using remarkable chemistry that is without chemical or biochemical precedent. Here we report the overexpression of the closely related Candida albicans pyrimidine synthase (THI5p) and the reconstitution and preliminary characterization of the enzymatic activity. A structure of the C. albicans THI5p shows PLP bound at the active site via an imine with Lys62 and His66 in close proximity to the PLP. Our data suggest that His66 of the THI5 protein is the histidine source for pyrimidine formation and that the pyrimidine synthase is a single-turnover enzyme.

  11. Role of the Transporter-Like Sensor Kinase CbrA in Histidine Uptake and Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Gauntlett, Jonathan C.; Oldenburg, Darby G.; Cook, Gregory M.; Rainey, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT CbrA is an atypical sensor kinase found in Pseudomonas. The autokinase domain is connected to a putative transporter of the sodium/solute symporter family (SSSF). CbrA functions together with its cognate response regulator, CbrB, and plays an important role in nutrient acquisition, including regulation of hut genes for the utilization of histidine and its derivative, urocanate. Here we report on the findings of a genetic and biochemical analysis of CbrA with a focus on the function of the putative transporter domain. The work was initiated with mutagenesis of histidine uptake-proficient strains to identify histidine-specific transport genes located outside the hut operon. Genes encoding transporters were not identified, but mutations were repeatedly found in cbrA. This, coupled with the findings of [3H]histidine transport assays and further mutagenesis, implicated CbrA in histidine uptake. In addition, mutations in different regions of the SSSF domain abolished signal transduction. Site-specific mutations were made at four conserved residues: W55 and G172 (SSSF domain), H766 (H box), and N876 (N box). The mutations W55G, G172H, and N876G compromised histidine transport but had minimal effects on signal transduction. The H766G mutation abolished both transport and signal transduction, but the capacity to transport histidine was restored upon complementation with a transport-defective allele of CbrA, most likely due to interdomain interactions. Our combined data implicate the SSSF domain of CbrA in histidine transport and suggest that transport is coupled to signal transduction. IMPORTANCE Nutrient acquisition in bacteria typically involves membrane-bound sensors that, via cognate response regulators, determine the activity of specific transporters. However, nutrient perception and uptake are often coupled processes. Thus, from a physiological perspective, it would make sense for systems that couple the process of signaling and transport within a single

  12. The Role of Histidine-Proline-Rich Glycoprotein as Zinc Chaperone for Skeletal Muscle AMP Deaminase

    PubMed Central

    Ranieri-Raggi, Maria; Moir, Arthur J. G.; Raggi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Metallochaperones function as intracellular shuttles for metal ions. At present, no evidence for the existence of any eukaryotic zinc-chaperone has been provided although metallochaperones could be critical for the physiological functions of Zn2+ metalloenzymes. We propose that the complex formed in skeletal muscle by the Zn2+ metalloenzyme AMP deaminase (AMPD) and the metal binding protein histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG) acts in this manner. HPRG is a major plasma protein. Recent investigations have reported that skeletal muscle cells do not synthesize HPRG but instead actively internalize plasma HPRG. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) performed on fresh preparations of rabbit skeletal muscle AMPD provided evidence for a dinuclear zinc site in the enzyme compatible with a (μ-aqua)(μ-carboxylato)dizinc(II) core with two histidine residues at each metal site. XAS on HPRG isolated from the AMPD complex showed that zinc is bound to the protein in a dinuclear cluster where each Zn2+ ion is coordinated by three histidine and one heavier ligand, likely sulfur from cysteine. We describe the existence in mammalian HPRG of a specific zinc binding site distinct from the His-Pro-rich region. The participation of HPRG in the assembly and maintenance of skeletal muscle AMPD by acting as a zinc chaperone is also demonstrated. PMID:24970226

  13. Mechanism of regulation of receptor histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Hedda U; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Hornig, Nora; Hulko, Michael; Martin, Jörg; Schultz, Joachim E; Zeth, Kornelius; Lupas, Andrei N; Coles, Murray

    2012-01-11

    Bacterial transmembrane receptors regulate an intracellular catalytic output in response to extracellular sensory input. To investigate the conformational changes that relay the regulatory signal, we have studied the HAMP domain, a ubiquitous intracellular module connecting input to output domains. HAMP forms a parallel, dimeric, four-helical coiled coil, and rational substitutions in our model domain (Af1503 HAMP) induce a transition in its interhelical packing, characterized by axial rotation of all four helices (the gearbox signaling model). We now illustrate how these conformational changes are propagated to a downstream domain by fusing Af1503 HAMP variants to the DHp domain of EnvZ, a bacterial histidine kinase. Structures of wild-type and mutant constructs are correlated with ligand response in vivo, clearly associating them with distinct signaling states. We propose that altered recognition of the catalytic domain by DHp, rather than a shift in position of the phospho-accepting histidine, forms the basis for regulation of kinase activity.

  14. The bifunctional active site of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Roles of the basic residues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Markham, G D

    2000-02-11

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthetase catalyzes a unique two-step enzymatic reaction leading to formation of the primary biological alkylating agent. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli AdoMet synthetase shows that the active site, which lies between two subunits, contains four lysines and one histidine as basic residues. In order to test the proposed charge and hydrogen bonding roles in catalytic function, each lysine has been changed to an uncharged methionine or alanine, and the histidine has been altered to asparagine. The resultant enzyme variants are all tetramers like the wild type enzyme; however, circular dichroism spectra show reductions in helix content for the K245*M and K269M mutants. (The asterisk denotes that the residue is in the second subunit.) Four mutants have k(cat) reductions of approximately 10(3)-10(4)-fold in AdoMet synthesis; however, the k(cat) of K165*M variant is only reduced 2-fold. In each mutant, there is a smaller catalytic impairment in the partial reaction of tripolyphosphate hydrolysis. The K165*A enzyme has a 100-fold greater k(cat) for tripolyphosphate hydrolysis than the wild type enzyme, but this mutant is not activated by AdoMet in contrast to the wild type enzyme. The properties of these mutants require reassessment of the catalytic roles of these residues. PMID:10660564

  15. A Dynamic Zn Site in Helicobacter pylori HypA: A Potential Mechanism for Metal-Specific Protein Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy,D.; Herbst, R.; Iwig, J.; Chivers, P.; Maroney, M.

    2007-01-01

    HypA is an accessory protein and putative metallochaperone that is critical for supplying nickel to the active site of NiFe hydrogenases. In addition to binding Ni(II), HypA is known to contain a Zn site that has been suggested to play a structural role. X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been used to show that the Zn site changes structure upon binding nickel, from a S{sub 3}(O/N)-donor ligand environment to an S{sub 4}-donor ligand environment. This provides a potential mechanism for discriminating Ni(II) from other divalent metal ions. The Ni(II) site is shown to be a six-coordinate complex composed of O/N-donors including two histidines. As such, it resembles the nickel site in UreE, a nickel metallochaperone involved in nickel incorporation into urease.

  16. Evidence of histidine phosphorylation in isocitrate lyase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Roberston, E.F.; Hoyt, J.C.; Reeves, H.C.

    1987-05-01

    Escherichia coli isocitrate lyase can be phosphorylated in vitro in an ATP-dependent reaction. Partially purified extracts were incubated with ..gamma..-/sup 32/P-ATP and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by a Western blot and autoradiography. Radioactivity was associated with the lyase only when blotting was performed under alkaline conditions. This suggests that phosphate groups are attached to the lyase via an acid-labile P-N bond rather than a more stable P-O bond. Treatment of the lyase with diethyl pyrocarbonate, a histidine modifying agent, blocks incorporation of /sup 32/P-phosphate. Treatment with phosphoramidate, a histidine phosphorylating agent, alters the isoelectric point of the lyase suggesting that the enzyme can be phosphorylated at histidine residues. Loss of catalytic activity after treatment with potato acid phosphatase indicates that isocitrate lyase activity may be modulated by phosphorylation.

  17. Catalysis: Elusive active site in focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labinger, Jay A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification of the active site of an iron-containing catalyst raises hopes of designing practically useful catalysts for the room-temperature conversion of methane to methanol, a potential fuel for vehicles. See Letter p.317

  18. Comparison of histidine recognition in human and trypanosomatid histidyl-tRNA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cho Yeow; Wetzel, Allan B; de van der Schueren, Will J.; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a project aimed at obtaining selective inhibitors and drug-like compounds targeting tRNA synthetases from trypanosomatids, we have elucidated the crystal structure of human cytosolic histidyl-tRNA synthetase (Hs-cHisRS) in complex with histidine in order to be able to compare human and parasite enzymes. The resultant structure of Hs-cHisRS·His represents the substrate-bound state (H-state) of the enzyme. It provides an interesting opportunity to compare with ligand-free and imidazole-bound structures Hs-cHisRS published recently, both of which represent the ligand-free state (F-state) of the enzyme. The H-state Hs-cHisRS undergoes conformational changes in active site residues and several conserved motif of HisRS, compared to F-state structures. The histidine forms eight hydrogen bonds with HisRS of which six engage the amino and carboxylate groups of this amino acid. The availability of published imidazole-bound structure provides a unique opportunity to dissect the structural roles of individual chemical groups of histidine. Remarkably, the analysis revealed the importance of the amino and carboxylate groups, of the histidine in leading to these dramatic conformational changes of the H-state. Further, comparison with previously published trypanosomatid HisRS structures reveals a pocket in the F-state of the parasite enzyme that may provide opportunities for developing specific inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei HisRS. PMID:25151410

  19. Kβ Valence to Core X-ray Emission Studies of Cu(I) Binding Proteins with Mixed Methionine - Histidine Coordination. Relevance to the Reactivity of the M- and H-sites of Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Martin-Diaconescu, Vlad; Chacón, Kelly N; Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; DeBeer, Serena; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2016-04-01

    Biological systems use copper as a redox center in many metalloproteins, where the role of the metal is to cycle between its +1 and +2 oxidation states. This chemistry requires the redox potential to be in a range that can stabilize both Cu(I) and Cu(II) states and often involves protein-derived ligand sets involving mixed histidine-methionine coordination that balance the preferences of both oxidation states. Transport proteins, on the other hand, utilize copper in the Cu(I) state and often contain sites comprised predominately of the cuprophilic residue methionine. The electronic factors that allow enzymes and transporters to balance their redox requirements are complex and are often elusive due to the dearth of spectroscopic probes of the Cu(I) state. Here we present the novel application of X-ray emission spectroscopy to copper proteins via a study of a series of mixed His-Met copper sites where the ligand set varies in a systematic way between the His3 and Met3 limits. The sites are derived from the wild-type peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM), two single-site variants which replicate each of its two copper sites (CuM-site and CuH-site), and the transporters CusF and CusB. Clear differences are observed in the Kβ2,5 region at the Met3 and His3 limits. CusB (Met3) has a distinct peak at 8978.4 eV with a broad shoulder at 8975.6 eV, whereas CuH (His3) has two well-resolved features: a more intense feature at 8974.8 eV and a second at 8977.2 eV. The mixed coordination sphere CusF (Met2His) and the PHM CuM variant (Met1His2) have very similar spectra consisting of two features at 8975.2 and 8977.8 eV. An analysis of DFT calculated spectra indicate that the intensity of the higher energy peak near 8978 eV is mediated by mixing of ligand-based orbitals into the Cu d(10) manifold, with S from Met providing more intensity by facilitating increased Cu p-d mixing. Furthermore, reaction of WT PHM with CO (an oxygen analogue) produced the M site CO complex, which showed

  20. Oxidation of the His-52 --> Leu mutant of cytochrome c peroxidase by p-nitroperoxybenzoic acid: role of the distal histidine in hydroperoxide activation.

    PubMed

    Palamakumbura, A H; Vitello, L B; Erman, J E

    1999-11-23

    Both cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) and a mutant cytochrome c peroxidase in which the distal histidine has been replaced by leucine, CcP(H52L), are converted to hydroxy-ligated derivatives at alkaline pH. In CcP, the hydroxy-ligated derivative is subsequently converted to a bis-imidazole species prior to protein denaturation while the initial hydroxy-ligated CcP(H52L) is converted to a second, spectroscopically distinct hydroxy-ligated species prior to denaturation. The spectra of the alkaline forms of CcP and CcP(H52L) have been determined between 310 and 700 nm. The pH dependence of the rate of reaction between CcP(H52L) and hydrogen peroxide has been extended to pH 10. The hydroxy-ligated form of CcP(H52L) reacts with hydrogen peroxide 4 times more rapidly than the pentacoordinate, high-spin form of CcP(H52L) that exists at neutral pH. The rate of the reaction between p-nitroperoxybenzoic acid and CcP(H52L) has been measured between pH 4 and pH 8. Neutral p-nitroperoxybenzoic acid reacts with CcP(H52L) 10(5) times more slowly than with CcP while the negatively charged p-nitroperoxybenzoate reacts with CcP(H52L) 10(3) times more slowly than with CcP. These data indicate that the role of the distal histidine during the initial formation of the peroxy anion/heme iron complex is not simply base catalysis. PMID:10569951

  1. Proton nuclear Overhauser effect study of the heme active site structure of Coprinus macrorhizus peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Dugad, L B; Goff, H M

    1992-07-13

    Proton nuclear Overhauser effect and paramagnetic relaxation measurements have been used to define more extensively the heme active site structure of Coprinus macrorhizus peroxidase, CMP (previously known as Coprinus cinereus peroxidase), as the ferric low-spin cyanide ligated complex. The results are compared with other well-characterized peroxidase enzymes. The NMR spectrum of CMPCN shows changes in the paramagnetically shifted resonances as a function of time, suggesting a significant heme disorder for CMP. The presence of proximal and distal histidine amino acid residues are common to the heme environments of both CMPCN and HRPCN. However, the upfield distal arginine signals of HRPCN are not evident in the 1H-NMR spectra of CMPCN.

  2. Histidine 352 (His352) and Tryptophan 355 (Trp355) Are Essential for Flax UGT74S1 Glucosylation Activity toward Secoisolariciresinol

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Kaushik; McCallum, Jason; Sweeney-Nixon, Marva; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2015-01-01

    Flax secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan is a natural phytoestrogen for which a positive role in metabolic diseases is emerging. Until recently however, much less was known about SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG) biosynthesis. Lately, flax UGT74S1 was identified and characterized as an enzyme sequentially glucosylating secoisolariciresinol (SECO) into SMG and SDG when expressed in yeast. However, the amino acids critical for UGT74S1 glucosyltransferase activity were unknown. A 3D structural modeling and docking, site-directed mutagenesis of five amino acids in the plant secondary product glycosyltransferase (PSPG) motif, and enzyme assays were conducted. UGT74S1 appeared to be structurally similar to the Arabidopsis thaliana UGT72B1 model. The ligand docking predicted Ser357 and Trp355 as binding to the phosphate and hydroxyl groups of UDP-glucose, whereas Cys335, Gln337 and Trp355 were predicted to bind the 7-OH, 2-OCH3 and 17-OCH3 of SECO. Site-directed mutagenesis of Cys335, Gln337, His352, Trp355 and Ser357, and enzyme assays revealed an alteration of these binding sites and a significant reduction of UGT74S1 glucosyltransferase catalytic activity towards SECO and UDP-glucose in all mutants. A complete abolition of UGT74S1 activity was observed when Trp355 was substituted to Ala355 and Gly355 or when changing His352 to Asp352, and an altered metabolite profile was observed in Cys335Ala, Gln337Ala, and Ser357Ala mutants. This study provided for the first time evidence that Trp355 and His352 are critical for UGT74S1’s glucosylation activity toward SECO and suggested the possibility for SMG production in vitro. PMID:25714779

  3. Histidine 352 (His352) and tryptophan 355 (Trp355) are essential for flax UGT74S1 glucosylation activity toward secoisolariciresinol.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Kaushik; McCallum, Jason; Sweeney-Nixon, Marva; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2015-01-01

    Flax secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan is a natural phytoestrogen for which a positive role in metabolic diseases is emerging. Until recently however, much less was known about SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG) biosynthesis. Lately, flax UGT74S1 was identified and characterized as an enzyme sequentially glucosylating secoisolariciresinol (SECO) into SMG and SDG when expressed in yeast. However, the amino acids critical for UGT74S1 glucosyltransferase activity were unknown. A 3D structural modeling and docking, site-directed mutagenesis of five amino acids in the plant secondary product glycosyltransferase (PSPG) motif, and enzyme assays were conducted. UGT74S1 appeared to be structurally similar to the Arabidopsis thaliana UGT72B1 model. The ligand docking predicted Ser357 and Trp355 as binding to the phosphate and hydroxyl groups of UDP-glucose, whereas Cys335, Gln337 and Trp355 were predicted to bind the 7-OH, 2-OCH3 and 17-OCH3 of SECO. Site-directed mutagenesis of Cys335, Gln337, His352, Trp355 and Ser357, and enzyme assays revealed an alteration of these binding sites and a significant reduction of UGT74S1 glucosyltransferase catalytic activity towards SECO and UDP-glucose in all mutants. A complete abolition of UGT74S1 activity was observed when Trp355 was substituted to Ala355 and Gly355 or when changing His352 to Asp352, and an altered metabolite profile was observed in Cys335Ala, Gln337Ala, and Ser357Ala mutants. This study provided for the first time evidence that Trp355 and His352 are critical for UGT74S1's glucosylation activity toward SECO and suggested the possibility for SMG production in vitro.

  4. Low dielectric response in enzyme active site

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Edward L.; Krishtalik, Lev I.

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of charge transfer depend crucially on the dielectric reorganization of the medium. In enzymatic reactions that involve charge transfer, atomic dielectric response of the active site and of its surroundings determines the efficiency of the protein as a catalyst. We report direct spectroscopic measurements of the reorganization energy associated with the dielectric response in the active site of α-chymotrypsin. A chromophoric inhibitor of the enzyme is used as a spectroscopic probe. We find that water strongly affects the dielectric reorganization in the active site of the enzyme in solution. The reorganization energy of the protein matrix in the vicinity of the active site is similar to that of low-polarity solvents. Surprisingly, water exhibits an anomalously high dielectric response that cannot be described in terms of the dielectric continuum theory. As a result, sequestering the active site from the aqueous environment inside low-dielectric enzyme body dramatically reduces the dielectric reorganization. This reduction is particularly important for controlling the rate of enzymatic reactions. PMID:10681440

  5. Contribution of active-site glutamine to rate enhancement in ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Boudreaux, David; Chaney, Joseph; Maiti, Tushar K.; Das, Chittaranjan

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolases (UCHs) are cysteine proteases featuring a classical cysteine-histidine-aspartate catalytic triad, also a highly conserved glutamine thought to be a part of the oxyanion hole. However, the contribution of this side chain to the catalysis by UCH enzymes is not known. Herein, we demonstrate that the glutamine side chain contributes to rate enhancement in UCHL1, UCHL3 and UCHL5. Mutation of the glutamine to alanine in these enzymes impairs the catalytic efficiency mainly due to a 16 to 30-fold reduction in kcat, which is consistent with a loss of approximately 2 kcal/mol in transition-state stabilization. However, the contribution to transition-state stabilization observed here is rather modest for the side chain’s role in oxyanion stabilization. Interestingly, we discovered that the carbonyl oxygen of this side chain is engaged in a C—H•••O hydrogen-bonding contact with the CεH group of the catalytic histidine. Upon further analysis, we found that this interaction is a common active-site structural feature in most cysteine proteases, including papain, belonging to families with the QCH(N/D) type of active-site configuration. It is possible that removal of the glutamine side chain might have abolished the C—H•••O interaction, which typically accounts for 2 kcal/mol of stabilization, leading to the effect on catalysis observed here. Additional studies performed on UCHL3 by mutating the glutamine to glutamate (strong C—H•••O acceptor but oxyanion destabilizer) and to lysine (strong oxyanion stabilizer but lacking C—H•••O hydrogen-bonding property) suggest that the C—H•••O hydrogen bond could contribute to catalysis. PMID:22284438

  6. Structure of a Berberine Bridge Enzyme-Like Enzyme with an Active Site Specific to the Plant Family Brassicaceae

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Bastian; Wallner, Silvia; Steiner, Barbara; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Kumar, Prashant; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas; Sensen, Christoph W.; Gruber, Karl; Macheroux, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBE-like) proteins form a multigene family (pfam 08031), which is present in plants, fungi and bacteria. They adopt the vanillyl alcohol-oxidase fold and predominantly show bi-covalent tethering of the FAD cofactor to a cysteine and histidine residue, respectively. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome was recently shown to contain genes coding for 28 BBE-like proteins, while featuring four distinct active site compositions. We determined the structure of a member of the AtBBE-like protein family (termed AtBBE-like 28), which has an active site composition that has not been structurally and biochemically characterized thus far. The most salient and distinguishing features of the active site found in AtBBE-like 28 are a mono-covalent linkage of a histidine to the 8α-position of the flavin-isoalloxazine ring and the lack of a second covalent linkage to the 6-position, owing to the replacement of a cysteine with a histidine. In addition, the structure reveals the interaction of a glutamic acid (Glu426) with an aspartic acid (Asp369) at the active site, which appear to share a proton. This arrangement leads to the delocalization of a negative charge at the active site that may be exploited for catalysis. The structure also indicates a shift of the position of the isoalloxazine ring in comparison to other members of the BBE-like family. The dioxygen surrogate chloride was found near the C(4a) position of the isoalloxazine ring in the oxygen pocket, pointing to a rapid reoxidation of reduced enzyme by dioxygen. A T-DNA insertional mutant line for AtBBE-like 28 results in a phenotype, that is characterized by reduced biomass and lower salt stress tolerance. Multiple sequence analysis showed that the active site composition found in AtBBE-like 28 is only present in the Brassicaceae, suggesting that it plays a specific role in the metabolism of this plant family. PMID:27276217

  7. Structure of a Berberine Bridge Enzyme-Like Enzyme with an Active Site Specific to the Plant Family Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Bastian; Wallner, Silvia; Steiner, Barbara; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Kumar, Prashant; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas; Sensen, Christoph W; Gruber, Karl; Macheroux, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBE-like) proteins form a multigene family (pfam 08031), which is present in plants, fungi and bacteria. They adopt the vanillyl alcohol-oxidase fold and predominantly show bi-covalent tethering of the FAD cofactor to a cysteine and histidine residue, respectively. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome was recently shown to contain genes coding for 28 BBE-like proteins, while featuring four distinct active site compositions. We determined the structure of a member of the AtBBE-like protein family (termed AtBBE-like 28), which has an active site composition that has not been structurally and biochemically characterized thus far. The most salient and distinguishing features of the active site found in AtBBE-like 28 are a mono-covalent linkage of a histidine to the 8α-position of the flavin-isoalloxazine ring and the lack of a second covalent linkage to the 6-position, owing to the replacement of a cysteine with a histidine. In addition, the structure reveals the interaction of a glutamic acid (Glu426) with an aspartic acid (Asp369) at the active site, which appear to share a proton. This arrangement leads to the delocalization of a negative charge at the active site that may be exploited for catalysis. The structure also indicates a shift of the position of the isoalloxazine ring in comparison to other members of the BBE-like family. The dioxygen surrogate chloride was found near the C(4a) position of the isoalloxazine ring in the oxygen pocket, pointing to a rapid reoxidation of reduced enzyme by dioxygen. A T-DNA insertional mutant line for AtBBE-like 28 results in a phenotype, that is characterized by reduced biomass and lower salt stress tolerance. Multiple sequence analysis showed that the active site composition found in AtBBE-like 28 is only present in the Brassicaceae, suggesting that it plays a specific role in the metabolism of this plant family. PMID:27276217

  8. Identification of a target gene and activating stimulus for the YpdA/YpdB histidine kinase/response regulator system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fried, Luitpold; Behr, Stefan; Jung, Kirsten

    2013-02-01

    Escherichia coli contains 30 two-component systems (TCSs), each consisting of a histidine kinase and a response regulator. Whereas most TCSs are well characterized in this model organism, little is known about the YpdA/YpdB system. To identify YpdB-regulated genes, we compared the transcriptomes of E. coli cells overproducing either YpdB or a control protein. Expression levels of 15 genes differed by more than 1.9-fold between the two strains. A comprehensive evaluation of these genes identified yhjX as the sole target of YpdB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified YpdB confirmed its interaction with the yhjX promoter. Specifically, YpdB binds to two direct repeats of the motif GGCATTTCAT separated by an 11-bp spacer in the yhjX promoter. yhjX encodes a cytoplasmic membrane protein of unknown function that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. Finally, we characterized the pattern of yhjX expression and identified extracellular pyruvate as a stimulus for the YpdA/YpdB system. It is suggested that YpdA/YpdB contributes to nutrient scavenging before entry into stationary phase.

  9. Evidence that three histidine residues of a base non-specific and adenylic acid preferential ribonuclease from Rhizopus niveus are involved in the catalytic function.

    PubMed

    Ohgi, K; Horiuchi, H; Watanabe, H; Iwama, M; Takagi, M; Irie, M

    1992-07-01

    In order to study the structure-function relationship of an RNase T2 family enzyme, RNase Rh, from Rhizopus niveus, we investigated the roles of three histidine residues by means of site-specific mutagenesis. One of the three histidine residues of RNase RNAP Rh produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by recombinant DNA technology was substituted to a phenylalanine or alanine residue. A Phe or Ala mutant enzyme at His46 or His109 showed less than 0.03%, but a mutant enzyme at His104 showed 0.54% of the enzymatic activity of the wild-type enzyme with RNA as a substrate. Similar results were obtained, when ApU was used as a substrate. The binding constant of a Phe mutant enzyme at His46 or His109 towards 2'-AMP decreased twofold, but that at His104 decreased more markedly. Therefore, we assumed that these three histidine residues are components of the active site of RNase Rh, that His104 contributes to some extent to the binding and less to the catalysis, and that the other two histidine residues and one carboxyl group not yet identified are probably involved in the catalysis. We assigned the C-2 proton resonances of His46, His104, and His109 by comparison of the 1H-NMR spectra of the three mutant enzymes containing Phe in place of His with that of the native enzyme, and also determined the individual pKa values for His46 and His104 to be 6.70 and 5.94. His109 was not titrated in a regular way, but the apparent pKa value was estimated to be around 6.3. The fact that addition of 2'-AMP caused a greater effect on the chemical shift of His104 in the 1NMR spectra as compared with those of the other histidine residues, may support the idea described above on the role of His104.

  10. Muricidal suppression by histidine and its antagonism by alpha-fluoromethylhistidine in thiamine deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Onodera, K; Ogura, Y

    1985-05-01

    Male Wistar rats maintained on a thiamine deficient diet showed mouse-killing behavior (muricide). On the 30th day of experimental feeding, the incidence of muricide was 70%. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of L-histidine, a precursor of brain histamine, suppressed the muricide induced by thiamine deficiency in a dose dependent manner. The ED50 for muricidal suppression by histidine alone was 155 mg/kg (95% confidence limits; 107.6-223.2 mg/kg). Rotarod performance was concurrently examined as an index of behavioral toxicity. High doses of histidine produced insignificant changes in rotarod performance except at 30 min after administration. Histidine exhibited a specific inhibitory activity on the muricide induced by thiamine deficiency. Pretreatment with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (alpha FMH), a potent and specific inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, produced a reduction in the effects of histidine. The ED50 was 400 mg/kg ip (95% confidence limits; 169.5-944 mg/kg) by histidine in combination with alpha FMH 50 mg/kg ip. However, alpha FMH also exhibited specific inhibitory activity on muricide. Either activation or inhibition of the central histaminergic system resulted in muricidal suppression in thiamine deficient rats. These data support the view that muricide induced by thiamine deficiency is not mediated by the central histaminergic system.

  11. Substituent Effects in π-Stacking of Histidine on Functionalized-SWNT and Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ge; Li, Huifang; Ma, Wanyong; Wang, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Adsorptions of histidine on the functionalized (10,0) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene were investigated using density function theory methods, M05-2x and DFT-D. The results show that the binding of the histidine ring to the functionalized SWNT is weaker than that to the pristine SWNT for both singlet and triplet complexes, regardless of the electron-donating (-OH, -NH2) or electron-withdrawing (-COOH) character and their attached sites. The present decreased binding is opposite to the well-known enhanced binding in the substituted benzene dimers. Since the atoms of the histidine are distant from the substituent atoms by over 6Å, there would be no direct interaction between histidine and the substituent as in the case of the substituted benzene systems. The decreased binding can be mainly driven by the aromaticity of the functionalized SWNT. The nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) index analysis for the functionalized SWNTs in deed shows that local aromaticity of SWNT is decreased because of the electron redistribution induced by functional groups, and the π-π stacking between the histidine ring and functionalized-SWNT is therefore decreased as compared to the pristine SWNT. However, the above trend does not remain for the binding between the histidine and graphene. The binding of the histidine to the functionalized graphene with -OH and -NH2 is just slightly weaker than that to the pristine graphene, while its binding to COOH-SWNT becomes a little bit stronger. PMID:25914869

  12. Crystal Structures of the Histidine Acid Phosphatase from Francisella tularensis Provide Insight into Substrate Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harkewal; Felts, Richard L.; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Tanner, John J.

    2009-12-01

    Histidine acid phosphatases catalyze the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphomonoesters to water at acidic pH using an active-site histidine. The histidine acid phosphatase from the category A pathogen Francisella tularensis (FtHAP) has been implicated in intramacrophage survival and virulence, motivating interest in understanding the structure and mechanism of this enzyme. Here, we report a structure-based study of ligand recognition by FtHAP. The 1.70-{angstrom}-resolution structure of FtHAP complexed with the competitive inhibitor L(+)-tartrate was solved using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing. Structures of the ligand-free enzyme and the complex with inorganic phosphate were determined at resolutions of 1.85 and 1.70 {angstrom}, respectively. The structure of the Asp261Ala mutant enzyme complexed with the substrate 3'-AMP was determined at 1.50 {angstrom} resolution to gain insight into substrate recognition. FtHAP exhibits a two-domain fold similar to that of human prostatic acid phosphatase, consisting of an {alpha}/{beta} core domain and a smaller domain that caps the core domain. The structures show that the core domain supplies the phosphoryl binding site, catalytic histidine (His17), and an aspartic acid residue (Asp261) that protonates the leaving group, while the cap domain contributes residues that enforce substrate preference. FtHAP and human prostatic acid phosphatase differ in the orientation of the crucial first helix of the cap domain, implying differences in the substrate preferences of the two enzymes. 3'-AMP binds in one end of a 15-{angstrom}-long tunnel, with the adenine clamped between Phe23 and Tyr135, and the ribose 2'-hydroxyl interacting with Gln132. The importance of the clamp is confirmed with site-directed mutagenesis; mutation of Phe23 and Tyr135 individually to Ala increases K{sub m} by factors of 7 and 10, respectively. The structural data are consistent with a role for FtHAP in scavenging phosphate from small

  13. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, J.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide for early leak detection and to monitor performance of the active low-level waste disposal facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and the transuranic waste storage areas in SWSA 5 North. Early leak detection is accomplished by sampling runoff, groundwater, and perched water in burial trenches. Sample results are compared to action levels that represent background contamination by naturally occurring and fallout-derived radionuclides. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. DNA damage induced by phorbol ester-stimulated neutrophils is augmented by extracellular cofactors. Role of histidine and metals.

    PubMed

    Shacter, E; Lopez, R L; Beecham, E J; Janz, S

    1990-04-25

    Activated neutrophils cause extensive DNA damage in neighboring nonphagocytic cells. To determine whether compounds in the extracellular milieu participate in the DNA damage process, murine neutrophils were cocultivated with target tumor cells in media of varying composition. Using the alkaline elution assay, it was found that the level of strand breaks induced was significantly higher (2.8-fold) in complex cell culture media than in minimal phosphate-buffered saline. Addition of amino acids in general and of histidine in particular increased the level of damage nearly to that observed in complete media (2.7- and 2.1-fold, respectively). The histidine stimulation was concentration-dependent and reached a maximum at 100-400 microM. The mechanism whereby this occurred is not proven but probably derived from chelation of metals and participation in a site-specific Fenton reaction. Addition of the cell-impermeable chelator EDTA dramatically inhibited induction of strand breaks by neutrophils in complete media and prevented the enhancement of damage induced by histidine in phosphate-buffered saline. None of the effects on neutrophil-induced damage could be attributed to modulation of the oxidative burst activity of the cells (O2- and H2O2 production). Histidine also enhanced induction of strand breaks by reagent H2O2. However, EDTA had no effect or actually increased the level of damage induced by both a bolus of H2O2 and a flux of H2O2 generated by glucose oxidase. The cell-permeable chelator o-phenanthroline inhibited both neutrophil- and H2O2-induced damage. The results indicate that secondary reactions involving extracellular amino acids and metals contribute significantly to neutrophil-induced DNA damage to neighboring cells. Moreover, the data show that the mechanism whereby neutrophils induce this damage cannot be attributed solely to secretion of H2O2.

  15. Characterization of active sites in zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, J.; Bug, A.; Nicol, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Atomic-level details of the interaction of adsorbed molecules with active sites in catalysts are urgently needed to facilitate development of more effective and/or environmentally benign catalysts. To this end the authors have carried out neutron scattering studies combined with theoretical calculations of the dynamics of small molecules inside the cavities of zeolite catalysts. The authors have developed the use of H{sub 2} as a probe of adsorption sites by observing the hindered rotations of the adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule, and they were able to show that an area near the four-rings is the most likely adsorption site for H{sub 2} in zeolite A while adsorption of H{sub 2} near cations located on six-ring sites decreases in strength as Ni {approximately} Co > Ca > Zn {approximately} Na. Vibrational and rotational motions of ethylene and cyclopropane adsorption complexes were used as a measure for zeolite-adsorbate interactions. Preliminary studies of the binding of water, ammonia, and methylamines were carried out in a number of related guest-host materials.

  16. Intramembrane Proton Binding Site Linked to Activation of Bacterial Pentameric Ion Channel*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Long; Cheng, Xiaolin; Sine, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Prokaryotic orthologs of eukaryotic Cys-loop receptor channels recently emerged as structural and mechanistic surrogates to investigate this superfamily of intercellular signaling proteins. Here, we examine proton activation of the prokaryotic ortholog GLIC using patch clamp electrophysiology, mutagenesis, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Whole-cell current recordings from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing GLIC show half-maximal activation at pH 6, close to the pKa of histidine, implicating the three native His residues in proton sensing linked to activation. The mutation H235F abolishes proton activation, H277Y is without effect, and all nine mutations of His-127 prevent expression on the cell surface. In the GLIC crystal structure, His-235 on transmembrane (TM) α-helix 2, hydrogen bonds to the main chain carbonyl oxygen of Ile-259 on TM α-helix 3. MD simulations show that when His-235 is protonated, the hydrogen bond persists, and the channel remains in the open conformation, whereas when His-235 is deprotonated, the hydrogen bond dissociates, and the channel closes. Mutations of the proximal Tyr-263, which also links TM α-helices 2 and 3 via a hydrogen bond, alter proton sensitivity over a 1.5 pH unit range. MD simulations show that mutations of Tyr-263 alter the hydrogen bonding capacity of His-235. The overall findings show that His-235 in the TM region of GLIC is a novel proton binding site linked to channel activation. PMID:22084238

  17. Investigation of the Role of the Histidine-Aspartate Pair in the Human Exonuclease III-like Abasic Endonuclease, Ape1

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, David F. ); Hoyt, David W. ); Khazi, Fayaz A.; Bagu, John R. ); Lindsey, Andrea G.; Wilson, David M.

    2003-05-30

    Hydrogen bonded histidine-aspartate (His-Asp) pairs are critical constituents in several key enzymatic reactions. To date, the role that these pairs play in catalysis is best understood in serine and trypsin-like proteases, where structural and biochemical NMR studies have revealed important pKa values and hydrogen-bonding patterns within the catalytic pocket. However, the role of the His-Asp pair in metal-assisted catalysis is less clear. Here, we apply liquid state NMR to investigate the role of a critical histidine of apurinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1), a human DNA repair enzyme that cleaves adjacent to abasic sites in DNA using one or more divalent cations and an active site His-Asp pair. The studies within suggest that the Ape1 His- Asp pair functions as neither a general base catalyst nor a metal ligand. Rather, the pair likely stabilizes the pentavalent transition state necessary for phospho-transfer.

  18. Chemically crosslinked nanogels of PEGylated poly ethyleneimine (l-histidine substituted) synthesized via metal ion coordinated self-assembly for delivery of methotrexate: Cytocompatibility, cellular delivery and antitumor activity in resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Abolmaali, Samira Sadat; Tamaddon, Ali Mohammad; Mohammadi, Samaneh; Amoozgar, Zohreh; Dinarvand, Rasoul

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembled nanogels were engineered by forming Zn(2+)-coordinated micellar templates of PEGylated poly ethyleneimine (PEG-g-PEI), chemical crosslinking and subsequent removal of the metal ion. Creation of stable micellar templates is a crucial step for preparing the nanogels. To this aim, imidazole moieties were introduced to the polymer by Fmoc-l-histidine using carbodiimide chemistry. It was hypothesized the nanogels loaded with methotrexate (MTX), a chemotherapeutic agent, circumvent impaired carrier activity in HepG2 cells (MTX-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma). So, the nanogels were post-loaded with MTX and characterized by (1)H-NMR, FTIR, dynamic light scattering-zeta potential, atomic force microscopy, and drug release experiments. Cellular uptake and the antitumor activity of MTX-loaded nanogels were investigated by flow cytometry and MTT assay. Discrete, spherical and uniform nanogels, with sizes about 77-83 nm and a relatively high drug loading (54 ± 4% w/w), showed a low polydispersity and neutral surface charges. The MTX-loaded nanogels, unlike empty nanogels, lowered viability of HepG2 cells; the nanogels demonstrated cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis comparably higher than MTX as free drug that was shown to be through i) cellular uptake of the nanogels by clathrin-mediated transport and ii) endosomolytic activity of the nanogels in HepG2 cells. These findings indicate the potential antitumor application of this preparation, which has to be investigated in-vivo. PMID:26952497

  19. L-histidine inhibits biofilm formation and FLO11-associated phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeasts.

    PubMed

    Bou Zeidan, Marc; Zara, Giacomo; Viti, Carlo; Decorosi, Francesca; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Budroni, Marilena; Giovannetti, Luciana; Zara, Severino

    2014-01-01

    Flor yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have an innate diversity of Flo11p which codes for a highly hydrophobic and anionic cell-wall glycoprotein with a fundamental role in biofilm formation. In this study, 380 nitrogen compounds were administered to three S. cerevisiae flor strains handling Flo11p alleles with different expression levels. S. cerevisiae strain S288c was used as the reference strain as it cannot produce Flo11p. The flor strains generally metabolized amino acids and dipeptides as the sole nitrogen source, although with some exceptions regarding L-histidine and histidine containing dipeptides. L-histidine completely inhibited growth and its effect on viability was inversely related to Flo11p expression. Accordingly, L-histidine did not affect the viability of the Δflo11 and S288c strains. Also, L-histidine dramatically decreased air-liquid biofilm formation and adhesion to polystyrene of the flor yeasts with no effect on the transcription level of the Flo11p gene. Moreover, L-histidine modified the chitin and glycans content on the cell-wall of flor yeasts. These findings reveal a novel biological activity of L-histidine in controlling the multicellular behavior of yeasts [corrected]. PMID:25369456

  20. L-Histidine Inhibits Biofilm Formation and FLO11-Associated Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flor Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Bou Zeidan, Marc; Zara, Giacomo; Viti, Carlo; Decorosi, Francesca; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Budroni, Marilena; Giovannetti, Luciana; Zara, Severino

    2014-01-01

    Flor yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have an innate diversity of FLO11 which codes for a highly hydrophobic and anionic cell-wall glycoprotein with a fundamental role in biofilm formation. In this study, 380 nitrogen compounds were administered to three S. cerevisiae flor strains handling FLO11 alleles with different expression levels. S. cerevisiae strain S288c was used as the reference strain as it cannot produce FLO11p. The flor strains generally metabolized amino acids and dipeptides as the sole nitrogen source, although with some exceptions regarding L-histidine and histidine containing dipeptides. L-histidine completely inhibited growth and its effect on viability was inversely related to FLO11 expression. Accordingly, L-histidine did not affect the viability of the Δflo11 and S288c strains. Also, L-histidine dramatically decreased air–liquid biofilm formation and adhesion to polystyrene of the flor yeasts with no effect on the transcription level of the FLO11 gene. Moreover, L-histidine modified the chitin and glycans content on the cell-wall of flor yeasts. These findings reveal a novel biological activity of L-histidine in controlling the multicellular behavior of yeasts. PMID:25369456

  1. Single Residue Mutation in Active Site of Serine Acetyltransferase Isoform 3 from Entamoeba histolytica Assists in Partial Regaining of Feedback Inhibition by Cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Mazumder, Mohit; Dharavath, Sudhaker; Gourinath, S.

    2013-01-01

    The cysteine biosynthetic pathway is essential for survival of the protist pathogen Entamoeba histolytica, and functions by producing cysteine for countering oxidative attack during infection in human hosts. Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS) are involved in cysteine biosynthesis and are present in three isoforms each. While EhSAT1 and EhSAT2 are feedback inhibited by end product cysteine, EhSAT3 is nearly insensitive to such inhibition. The active site residues of EhSAT1 and of EhSAT3 are identical except for position 208, which is a histidine residue in EhSAT1 and a serine residue in EhSAT3. A combination of comparative modeling, multiple molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculation studies showed a difference in binding energies of native EhSAT3 and of a S208H-EhSAT3 mutant for cysteine. Mutants have also been generated in vitro, replacing serine with histidine at position 208 in EhSAT3 and replacing histidine 208 with serine in EhSAT1. These mutants showed decreased affinity for substrate serine, as indicated by Km, compared to the native enzymes. Inhibition kinetics in the presence of physiological concentrations of serine show that IC50 of EhSAT1 increases by about 18 folds from 9.59 µM for native to 169.88 µM for H208S-EhSAT1 mutant. Similar measurements with EhSAT3 confirm it to be insensitive to cysteine inhibition while its mutant (S208H-EhSAT3) shows a gain of cysteine inhibition by 36% and the IC50 of 3.5 mM. Histidine 208 appears to be one of the important residues that distinguish the serine substrate from the cysteine inhibitor. PMID:23437075

  2. Active site of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.; Stringer, C.D.; Milanez, S.; Lee, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Previous affinity labeling studies and comparative sequence analyses have identified two different lysines at the active site of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and have suggested their essentiality to function. The essential lysines occupy positions 166 and 329 in the Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme and positions 175 and 334 in the spinach enzyme. Based on the pH-dependencies of inactivations of the two enzymes by trinitrobenzene sulfonate, Lys-166 (R. rubrum enzyme) exhibits a pK/sub a/ of 7.9 and Lys-334 (spinach enzyme) exhibits a pK/sub a/ of 9.0. These low pK/sub a/ values as well as the enhanced nucleophilicities of the lysyl residues argue that both are important to catalysis rather than to substrate binding. Lys-166 may correspond to the essential base that initiates catalysis and that displays a pK/sub a/ of 7.5 in the pH-curve for V/sub max//K/sub m/. Cross-linking experiments with 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonate stilbene demonstrate that the two active-site lysines are within 12 A. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The Molybdenum Active Site of Formate Dehydrogenase Is Capable of Catalyzing C-H Bond Cleavage and Oxygen Atom Transfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Tobias; Schrapers, Peer; Utesch, Tillmann; Nimtz, Manfred; Rippers, Yvonne; Dau, Holger; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Haumann, Michael; Leimkühler, Silke

    2016-04-26

    Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are capable of performing the reversible oxidation of formate and are enzymes of great interest for fuel cell applications and for the production of reduced carbon compounds as energy sources from CO2. Metal-containing FDHs in general contain a highly conserved active site, comprising a molybdenum (or tungsten) center coordinated by two molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide molecules, a sulfido and a (seleno-)cysteine ligand, in addition to a histidine and arginine residue in the second coordination sphere. So far, the role of these amino acids in catalysis has not been studied in detail, because of the lack of suitable expression systems and the lability or oxygen sensitivity of the enzymes. Here, the roles of these active site residues is revealed using the Mo-containing FDH from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Our results show that the cysteine ligand at the Mo ion is displaced by the formate substrate during the reaction, the arginine has a direct role in substrate binding and stabilization, and the histidine elevates the pKa of the active site cysteine. We further found that in addition to reversible formate oxidation, the enzyme is further capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite. We propose a mechanistic scheme that combines both functionalities and provides important insights into the distinct mechanisms of C-H bond cleavage and oxygen atom transfer catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase. PMID:27054466

  4. Epsilon glutathione transferases possess a unique class-conserved subunit interface motif that directly interacts with glutathione in the active site.

    PubMed

    Wongsantichon, Jantana; Robinson, Robert C; Ketterman, Albert J

    2015-10-20

    Epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been shown to contribute significantly to insecticide resistance. We report a new Epsilon class protein crystal structure from Drosophila melanogaster for the glutathione transferase DmGSTE6. The structure reveals a novel Epsilon clasp motif that is conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution of the insect Diptera order. This histidine-serine motif lies in the subunit interface and appears to contribute to quaternary stability as well as directly connecting the two glutathiones in the active sites of this dimeric enzyme.

  5. Epsilon glutathione transferases possess a unique class-conserved subunit interface motif that directly interacts with glutathione in the active site

    PubMed Central

    Wongsantichon, Jantana; Robinson, Robert C.; Ketterman, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been shown to contribute significantly to insecticide resistance. We report a new Epsilon class protein crystal structure from Drosophila melanogaster for the glutathione transferase DmGSTE6. The structure reveals a novel Epsilon clasp motif that is conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution of the insect Diptera order. This histidine-serine motif lies in the subunit interface and appears to contribute to quaternary stability as well as directly connecting the two glutathiones in the active sites of this dimeric enzyme. PMID:26487708

  6. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  7. Structural basis for cytokinin recognition by Arabidopsis thaliana histidine kinase 4

    PubMed Central

    Hothorn, Michael; Dabi, Tsegaye; Chory, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Cytokinins are classic plant hormones that orchestrate growth, development and the integrity of stem cell populations. Cytokinin receptors are eukaryotic sensor histidine kinases that are activated both by naturally occurring adenine-type cytokinins and by urea-based synthetic compounds. Crystal structures of the Arabidopsis histidine kinase 4 sensor domain in complex with different cytokinin ligands now rationalize the hormone-binding specificity of the receptor and may spur the design of novel cytokinin ligands. PMID:21964459

  8. Replacement of the proximal heme thiolate ligand in chloroperoxidase with a histidine residue

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianwen; Mroczko, Mark; Manoj, Kelath M.; Wang, Xiaotang; Hager, Lowell P.

    1999-01-01

    Chloroperoxidase is a versatile heme enzyme which can cross over the catalytic boundaries of other oxidative hemoproteins and perform multiple functions. Chloroperoxidase, in addition to catalyzing classical peroxidative reactions, also acts as a P450 cytochrome and a potent catalase. The multiple functions of chloroperoxidase must be derived from its unique active site structure. Chloroperoxidase possesses a proximal cysteine thiolate heme iron ligand analogous to the P450 cytochromes; however, unlike the P450 enzymes, chloroperoxidase possesses a very polar environment distal to its heme prosthetic group and contains a glutamic acid residue in close proximity to the heme iron. The presence of a thiolate ligand in chloroperoxidase has long been thought to play an essential role in its chlorination and epoxidation activities; however, the research reported in this paper proves that hypothesis to be invalid. To explore the role of Cys-29, the amino acid residue supplying the thiolate ligand in chloroperoxidase, Cys-29 has been replaced with a histidine residue. Mutant clones of the chloroperoxidase genome have been expressed in a Caldariomyces fumago expression system by using gene replacement rather than gene insertion technology. C. fumago produces wild-type chloroperoxidase, thus requiring gene replacement of the wild type by the mutant gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that gene replacement has been reported for this type of fungus. The recombinant histidine mutants retain most of their chlorination, peroxidation, epoxidation, and catalase activities. These results downplay the importance of a thiolate ligand in chloroperoxidase and suggest that the distal environment of the heme active site plays the major role in maintaining the diverse activities of this enzyme. PMID:10535936

  9. Characterization of a benzyladenine binding-site peptide isolated from a wheat cytokinin-binding protein: Sequence analysis and identification of a single affinity-labeled histidine residue by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brinegar, A.C.; Cooper, G.; Stevens, A.; Hauer, C.R.; Shabanowitz, J.; Hunt, D.F.; Fox, J.E. )

    1988-08-01

    A wheat embryo cytokinin-binding protein was covalently modified with the radiolabeled photoaffinity ligand 2-azido-N{sup 6}-({sup 14}C)benzyladenine. A single labeled peptide was obtained after proteolytic digestion and isolation by reversed-phase and anion-exchange HPLC. Sequencing by classical Edman degradation identified 11 of the 12 residues but failed to identify the labeled amino acid. Analysis by laser photodissociation Fourier-transform mass spectrometry of 10 pmol of the peptide independently confirmed the Edman data and also demonstrated that the histidine residue nearest the C terminus (underlined) was modified by the reagent in the sequence Ala-Phe-Leu-Gln-Pro-Ser-His-His{und His}-Asp-Ala-Asp-Glu.

  10. Ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester binding orients the misaligned active site of the ubiquitin hydrolase UCHL1 into productive conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, David A.; Maiti, Tushar K.; Davies, Christopher W.; Das, Chittaranjan

    2010-07-06

    Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a Parkinson disease-associated, putative cysteine protease found abundantly and selectively expressed in neurons. The crystal structure of apo UCHL1 showed that the active-site residues are not aligned in a canonical form, with the nucleophilic cysteine being 7.7 {angstrom} from the general base histidine, an arrangement consistent with an inactive form of the enzyme. Here we report the crystal structures of the wild type and two Parkinson disease-associated variants of the enzyme, S18Y and I93M, bound to a ubiquitin-based suicide substrate, ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester. These structures reveal that ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester binds primarily at two sites on the enzyme, with its carboxy terminus at the active site and with its amino-terminal {beta}-hairpin at the distal site - a surface-exposed hydrophobic crevice 17 {angstrom} away from the active site. Binding at the distal site initiates a cascade of side-chain movements in the enzyme that starts at a highly conserved, surface-exposed phenylalanine and is relayed to the active site resulting in the reorientation and proximal placement of the general base within 4 {angstrom} of the catalytic cysteine, an arrangement found in productive cysteine proteases. Mutation of the distal-site, surface-exposed phenylalanine to alanine reduces ubiquitin binding and severely impairs the catalytic activity of the enzyme. These results suggest that the activity of UCHL1 may be regulated by its own substrate.

  11. Crystal structure and tartrate inhibition of Legionella pneumophila histidine acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Dhatwalia, Richa; Singh, Harkewal; Reilly, Thomas J; Tanner, John J

    2015-11-01

    Histidine acid phosphatases (HAPs) utilize a nucleophilic histidine residue to catalyze the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphomonoesters to water. HAPs function as protein phosphatases and pain suppressors in mammals, are essential for Giardia lamblia excystation, and contribute to virulence of the category A pathogen Francisella tularensis. Herein we report the first crystal structure and steady-state kinetics measurements of the HAP from Legionella pneumophila (LpHAP), also known as Legionella major acid phosphatase. The structure of LpHAP complexed with the inhibitor l(+)-tartrate was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. Kinetics assays show that l(+)-tartrate is a 50-fold more potent inhibitor of LpHAP than of other HAPs. Electrostatic potential calculations provide insight into the basis for the enhanced tartrate potency: the tartrate pocket of LpHAP is more positive than other HAPs because of the absence of an ion pair partner for the second Arg of the conserved RHGXRXP HAP signature sequence. The structure also reveals that LpHAP has an atypically expansive active site entrance and lacks the nucleotide substrate base clamp found in other HAPs. These features imply that nucleoside monophosphates may not be preferred substrates. Kinetics measurements confirm that AMP is a relatively inefficient in vitro substrate of LpHAP. PMID:26380880

  12. Mutational and Structural Analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B Reveal Novel Active Site Residues for Family 5 Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both β-1,4-mannosidic and β-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity. PMID:24278284

  13. The role of amino acid residues in the active site of L-methionine γ-lyase from Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Mitsuki; Kudou, Daizou; Murano, Shouko; Shiba, Tomoo; Sato, Dan; Tamura, Takashi; Harada, Shigeharu; Inagaki, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Cys116, Lys240*, and Asp241* (asterisks indicate residues from the second subunit of the active dimer) at the active site of L-methionine γ-lyase of Pseudomonas putida (MGL_Pp) are highly conserved among heterologous MGLs. In a previous study, we found that substitution of Cys116 for His led to a drastic increase in activity toward L-cysteine and a decrease in that toward L-methionine. In this study, we examined some properties of the C116H mutant by kinetic analysis and 3D structural analysis. We assumed that substitution of Cys116 for His broke the original hydrogen-bond network and that this induced a significant effect of Tyr114 as a general acid catalyst, possibly due to the narrow space in the active site. The C116H mutant acquired a novel β-elimination activity and lead a drastic conformation change in the histidine residue at position 116 by binding the substrate, suggesting that this His residue affects the reaction specificity of C116H. Furthermore, we suggest that Lys240* is important for substrate recognition and structural stability and that Asp241* is also involved in substrate specificity in the elimination reaction. Based on this, we suggest that the hydrogen-bond network among Cys116, Lys240*, and Asp241* contributes to substrate specificity that is, to L-methionine recognition at the active site in MGL_Pp.

  14. Histidine-Based Lipopeptides Enhance Cleavage of Nucleic Acids: Interactions with DNA and Hydrolytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Bélières, M; Déjugnat, C; Chouini-Lalanne, N

    2015-12-16

    Interaction studies and cleavage activity experiments were carried out between plasmid DNA and a series of histidine-based lipopeptides. Specific fluorescent probes (ethidium bromide, Hoechst 33342, and pyrene) were used to monitor intercalation, minor groove binding, and self-assembly of lipopeptides, respectively. Association between DNA and lipopeptides was thus evidenced, highlighting the importance of both histidine and hydrophobic tail in the interaction process. DNA cleavage in the presence of lipopeptides was then detected by gel electrophoresis and quantified, showing the importance of histidine and the involvement of its side-chain imidazole in the hydrolysis mechanism. These systems could then be developed as synthetic nucleases while raising concern of introducing histidine in the design of lipopeptide-based transfection vectors.

  15. Analyses of the Large Subunit Histidine-Rich Motif Expose an Alternative Proton Transfer Pathway in [NiFe] Hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Szőri-Dorogházi, Emma; Maróti, Gergely; Szőri, Milán; Nyilasi, Andrea; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L.

    2012-01-01

    A highly conserved histidine-rich region with unknown function was recognized in the large subunit of [NiFe] hydrogenases. The HxHxxHxxHxH sequence occurs in most membrane-bound hydrogenases, but only two of these histidines are present in the cytoplasmic ones. Site-directed mutagenesis of the His-rich region of the T. roseopersicina membrane-attached Hyn hydrogenase disclosed that the enzyme activity was significantly affected only by the replacement of the His104 residue. Computational analysis of the hydrogen bond network in the large subunits indicated that the second histidine of this motif might be a component of a proton transfer pathway including Arg487, Asp103, His104 and Glu436. Substitutions of the conserved amino acids of the presumed transfer route impaired the activity of the Hyn hydrogenase. Western hybridization was applied to demonstrate that the cellular level of the mutant hydrogenases was similar to that of the wild type. Mostly based on theoretical modeling, few proton transfer pathways have already been suggested for [NiFe] hydrogenases. Our results propose an alternative route for proton transfer between the [NiFe] active center and the surface of the protein. A novel feature of this model is that this proton pathway is located on the opposite side of the large subunit relative to the position of the small subunit. This is the first study presenting a systematic analysis of an in silico predicted proton translocation pathway in [NiFe] hydrogenases by site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:22511957

  16. Active site of mycobacterial dUTPase: Structural characteristics and a built-in sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Balazs; Barabas, Orsolya; Takacs, Eniko; Nagy, Nikolett; Nagy, Peter; Vertessy, Beata G.

    2008-08-15

    dUTPases are essential to eliminate dUTP for DNA integrity and provide dUMP for thymidylate biosynthesis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis apparently lacks any other thymidylate biosynthesis pathway, therefore dUTPase is a promising antituberculotic drug target. Crystal structure of the mycobacterial enzyme in complex with the isosteric substrate analog, {alpha},{beta}-imido-dUTP and Mg{sup 2+} at 1.5 A resolution was determined that visualizes the full-length C-terminus, previously not localized. Interactions of a conserved motif important in catalysis, the Mycobacterium-specific five-residue-loop insert and C-terminal tetrapeptide could now be described in detail. Stacking of C-terminal histidine upon the uracil moiety prompted replacement with tryptophan. The resulting sensitive fluorescent sensor enables fast screening for binding of potential inhibitors to the active site. K{sub d} for {alpha},{beta}-imido-dUTP binding to mycobacterial dUTPase is determined to be 10-fold less than for human dUTPase, which is to be considered in drug optimization. A robust continuous activity assay for kinetic screening is proposed.

  17. Locating Active-site Hydrogen Atoms in D-Xylose Isomerase: Time-of-Flight Neutron Diffraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Bunick, G J

    2006-01-01

    Time-of-flight neutron diffraction has been used to locate hydrogen atoms that define the ionization states of amino acids in crystals of D-xylose isomerase. This enzyme, from Streptomyces rubiginosus, is one of the largest enzymes studied to date at high resolution (1.8 ) by this method. We have determined the position and orientation of a metal ion-bound water molecule that is located in the active site of the enzyme; this water has been thought to be involved in the isomerization step in which D-xylose is converted to D-xylulose or D-glucose to D-fructose. It is shown to be water (rather than a hydroxyl group) under the conditions of measurement (pH 8.0). Our analyses also reveal that one lysine probably has an -NH2 terminal group (rather than NH3+). The ionization state of each histidine residue was also determined.

  18. Staphylococcus haemolyticus prophage ΦSH2 endolysin relies on Cysteine, Histidine-dependent Amidohydrolases/Peptidases activity for lysis ‘from without’

    PubMed Central

    Schmelcher, Mathias; Korobova, Olga; Schischkova, Nina; Kiseleva, Natalia; Kopylov, Paul; Pryamchuk, Sergey; Donovan, David M.; Abaev, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen, with methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and multi-drug resistant strains becoming increasingly prevalent in both human and veterinary clinics. S. aureus causing bovine mastitis yields high annual losses to the dairy industry. Conventional treatment of mastitis by broad range antibiotics is often not successful and may contribute to development of antibiotic resistance. Bacteriophage endolysins present a promising new source of antimicrobials. The endolysin of prophage ΦSH2 of Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain JCSC1435 (ΦSH2 lysin) is a peptidoglycan hydrolase consisting of two catalytic domains (CHAP and amidase) and an SH3b cell wall binding domain. In this work, we demonstrated its lytic activity against live staphylococcal cells and investigated the contribution of each functional module to bacterial lysis by testing a series of deletion constructs in zymograms and turbidity reduction assays. The CHAP domain exhibited three-fold higher activity than the full length protein and optimum activity in physiological saline. This activity was further enhanced by the presence of bivalent calcium ions. The SH3b domain was shown to be required for full activity of the complete ΦSH2 lysin. The full length enzyme and the CHAP domain showed activity against multiple staphylococcal strains, including MRSA strains, mastitis isolates, and CoNS. PMID:23026556

  19. Effects of histidine and N-acetylcysteine on diclofenac-induced anti-inflammatory response in acute inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Yahyaee, Fatere

    2010-11-01

    The intra-plantar injection of carrageenan elicited an inflammatory response characterized by increase of the paw thickness and infiltration of neutrophils in paw tissues. Histidine, n-acetylcysteine and diclofenac decreased paw thickness, and neutrophil infiltration in the paw tissues. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by co-administration of histidine and n-acetylcysteine with diclofenac, was more than that obtained from histidine and n-acetylcysteine administered alone. The results suggested that histidine, n-acetylcysteine and diclofenac produced anti-inflammatory activities by reducing paw edema and neutrophil infiltrationin induced by carrageenan. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase products such as prostaglandins may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effects induced by histidine and n-acetylcysteine.

  20. Effect of dietary histidine on contents of carnosine and anserine in muscles of broilers.

    PubMed

    Kai, Shinichi; Watanabe, Genya; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2015-05-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) and anserine (β-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) are dipeptides mainly found in skeletal muscle and brain of many vertebrates, and particularly high concentrations are observed in chicken pectoral muscles. It was reported that these peptides have many functions, such as antioxidant activity. In this study, we examined the effect of different levels of dietary histidine on carnosine and anserine contents in broiler muscles. The 14-days-old female Chunky strain broilers were given feeds containing three different levels of histidine; 67% (Low-His), 100% (Control) and 200% (High-His) of histidine requirement according to the NRC (1994). Chicks were fed experimental diets for 10 days. Both dipeptides in muscle were significantly decreased. In particular, carnosine was not detected at all in the Low-His group and was significantly increased in the High-His group. Both dipeptides were not detected in plasma. These results indicated the possibility to produce chicken meat with enhanced amount of these dipeptides by high histidine feeding. PMID:25521014

  1. New insight into transmembrane topology of Staphylococcus aureus histidine kinase AgrC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Quan, Chunshan; Xiong, Wen; Qu, Xiaojing; Fan, Shengdi; Hu, Wenzhong

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator (agr) locus controls the expression of virulence factors through a classical two-component signal transduction system that consists of a receptor histidine protein kinase AgrC and a cytoplasmic response regulator AgrA. An autoinducing peptide (AIP) encoded by agr locus activates AgrC, which transduces extracellular signals into the cytoplasm. Despite extensive investigations to identify AgrC-AIP interaction sites, precise signal recognition mechanisms remain unknown. This study aims to clarify the membrane topology of AgrC by applying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion technique and the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM). However, our findings were inconsistent with profile obtained previously by alkaline phosphatase. We report the topology of AgrC shows seven transmembrane segments, a periplasmic N-terminus, and a cytoplasmic C-terminus.

  2. Molecular characterization of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases. Consensus sequence, comparison with related enzymes and the role of conserved histidine residues.

    PubMed

    Britsch, L; Dedio, J; Saedler, H; Forkmann, G

    1993-10-15

    A heterologous cDNA probe from Petunia hybrida was used to isolate flavanone-3 beta-hydroxylase-encoding cDNA clones from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), china aster (Callistephus chinensis) and stock (Matthiola incana). The deduced protein sequences together with the known sequences of the enzyme from P. hybrida, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) enabled the determination of a consensus sequence which revealed an overall 84% similarity (53% identity) of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases from the different sources. Alignment with the sequences of other known enzymes of the same class and to related non-heme iron-(II) enzymes demonstrated the strict genetic conservation of 14 amino acids, in particular, of three histidines and an aspartic acid. The conservation of the histidine motifs provides strong support for the possible conservation of structurally similar iron-binding sites in these enzymes. The putative role of histidines as chelators of ferrous ions in the active site of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases was corroborated by diethyl-pyrocarbonate modification of the partially purified recombinant Petunia enzyme.

  3. Control of active sites in flocculation: Concept of equivalent active sites''

    SciTech Connect

    Behl, S.; Moudgil, B.M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Flocculation and dispersion of solids are strong functions of the amount and conformation of the adsorbed polymer. Regions of dispersion and flocculation of solids with particular polymer molecules may be deduced from saturation adsorption data. The concept of equivalent active sites'' is proposed to explain flocculation and dispersion behavior irrespective of the amount or conformation of the adsorbed polymer. The concept has been further extended to study the selective flocculation process.

  4. Analysis of the Active-Site Mechanism of Tyrosyl-DNA Phosphodiesterase I: A Member of the Phospholipase D Superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, Stefan; Comeaux, Evan Q.; Jafari, Nauzanene; Bharatham, Nagakumar; Bashford, Donald; White, Stephen W.; van Waardenburg, Robert C.A.M.

    2012-03-15

    Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I (Tdp1) is a member of the phospholipase D superfamily that hydrolyzes 3'-phospho-DNA adducts via two conserved catalytic histidines - one acting as the lead nucleophile and the second acting as a general acid/base. Substitution of the second histidine specifically to arginine contributes to the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1). We investigated the catalytic role of this histidine in the yeast protein (His432) using a combination of X-ray crystallography, biochemistry, yeast genetics, and theoretical chemistry. The structures of wild-type Tdp1 and His432Arg both show a phosphorylated form of the nucleophilic histidine that is not observed in the structure of His432Asn. The phosphohistidine is stabilized in the His432Arg structure by the guanidinium group that also restricts the access of nucleophilic water molecule to the Tdp1-DNA intermediate. Biochemical analyses confirm that His432Arg forms an observable and unique Tdp1-DNA adduct during catalysis. Substitution of His432 by Lys does not affect catalytic activity or yeast phenotype, but substitutions with Asn, Gln, Leu, Ala, Ser, and Thr all result in severely compromised enzymes and DNA topoisomerase I-camptothecin dependent lethality. Surprisingly, His432Asn did not show a stable covalent Tdp1-DNA intermediate that suggests another catalytic defect. Theoretical calculations revealed that the defect resides in the nucleophilic histidine and that the pK{sub a} of this histidine is crucially dependent on the second histidine and on the incoming phosphate of the substrate. This represents a unique example of substrate-activated catalysis that applies to the entire phospholipase D superfamily.

  5. The intrinsic cysteine and histidine residues of the anti-Salmonella antibody Se155-4: a model for the introduction of new functions into antibody-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Young, N Martin; Watson, David C; Cunningham, Anna M; MacKenzie, C Roger

    2014-10-01

    New functions can be incorporated into anti-hapten or anti-protein antibodies by mutating selected residues in the binding-site region either to Cys, to allow alkylation with reagents bearing the desired functional groups, or to His, to create metal-binding sites or to make antigen binding pH-sensitive. However, choosing suitable sites for these mutations has been hampered by the lack of antibodies with these features, to serve as models. Remarkably, the anti-carbohydrate antibody Se155-4, specific for the Salmonella group B lipopolysaccharide, already has a Cys and two pairs of His residues close to the antigen-binding pocket in its structure, and shows pH-dependent antigen binding. We therefore investigated modification of its Cys94L in an scFv version of the antibody with the aims of creating a 'reagentless' fluorescent sensor and attaching a metal-binding group that might confer lyase activity. These groups were successfully introduced, as judged by mass spectrometry, and had only slightly reduced antigen binding in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The fluorescent product was sensitive to addition of antigen in a solution format, unlike a modification of a more distant Cys introduced into the VH CDR4 loop. Two other routes to modulate antigen binding were also explored, metal binding by the His pair alongside the antigen-binding pocket and insertions into CDR4 to extend the antigen-contact area. His residues adjacent to the antigen-binding pocket bound copper, causing a 5-fold decrease in antigen binding. In CDR4 of the VH domain, the preferred insert length was four residues, which gave stable antigen-binding products but did not improve overall antigen affinity.

  6. Infrared Spectroscopy of Hydrogen-Bonded Clusters of Protonated Histidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Makoto; Kasahara, Yasutoshi; Ishikawa, Haruki

    2015-06-01

    Histidine(His), one of the essential amino acids, is involved in active sites in many enzyme proteins, and known to play fundamental roles in human body. Thus, to gain detailed information about intermolecular interactions of His as well as its structure is very important. In the present study, we have recorded IR spectra of hydrogen-bonded clusters of protonated His (HisH^+) in the gas phase to discuss the relation between the molecular structure and intermolecular interaction of HisH^+. Clusters of HisH^+-(MeOH)_n (n = 1, 2) were generated by an electrospray ionization of the MeOH solution of L-His hydrochloride monohydrate. IR photodissociation spectra of HisH^+-(MeOH)1,2 were recorded. By comparing with the results of the DFT calculations, we determined the structures of these clusters. In the case of n = 1 cluster, MeOH is bonded to the imidazole ring as a proton acceptor. The most of vibrational bands observed were well explained by this isomer. However, a free NH stretch band of the imidazole ring was also observed in the spectrum. This indicates an existence of an isomer in which MeOH is bounded to the carboxyl group of HisH^+. Furthermore, it is found that a protonated position of His is influenced by a hydrogen bonding position of MeOH. In the case of n = 2 cluster, one MeOH molecule is bonded to the amino group, while the other MeOH molecule is separately bonded to the carboxyl group in the most stable isomer. However, there is a possibility that other conformers also exist in our experimental condition. The details of the experimental and theoretical results will be presented in the paper.

  7. Thermodynamic and Biophysical Analysis of the Membrane-Association of a Histidine-Rich Peptide with Efficient Antimicrobial and Transfection Activities.

    PubMed

    Voievoda, Nataliia; Schulthess, Therese; Bechinger, Burkhard; Seelig, Joachim

    2015-07-30

    LAH4-L1 is a synthetic amphipathic peptide with antimicrobial activity. The sequence of the 23 amino acid peptide was inspired by naturally occurring frog peptides such as PGLa and magainin. LAH4-L1 also facilitates the transport of nucleic acids through the cell membrane. We have investigated the membrane binding properties and energetics of LAH4-L1 at pH 5.5 with physical-chemical methods. CD spectroscopy was employed to quantitate the membrane-induced random coil-to-helix transition of LAH4-L1. Binding isotherms were obtained with CD spectroscopy as a function of the lipid-to-protein ratio for neutral and negatively charged membranes and were analyzed with both the Langmuir multisite adsorption model and the surface partition/Gouy-Chapman model. According to the Langmuir adsorption model each molecule LAH4-L1 binds 4 POPS molecules, independent of the POPS concentration in the membrane. This is supported by the surface partition/Gouy-Chapman model which predicts an electric charge of LAH4-L1 of z = 4. Binding affinity is dominated by electrostatic attraction. The thermodynamics of the binding process was elucidated with isothermal titration calorimetry. The ITC data revealed that the binding process is composed of at least three different reactions, that is, a coil-to-helix transition with an exothermic enthalpy of about -11 kcal/mol and two endothermic processes with enthalpies of ∼4 and ∼8 kcal/mol, respectively, which partly compensate the exothermic enthalpy of the conformational change. The major endothermic reaction is interpreted as a deprotonation reaction following the insertion of a highly charged cationic peptide into a nonpolar environment. PMID:26134591

  8. An "enigmatic" L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine)? Cell proliferative activity as a fundamental property of a natural dipeptide inherent to traditional antioxidant, anti-aging biological activities: balancing and a hormonally correct agent, novel patented oral therapy dosage formulation for mobility, skeletal muscle power and functional performance, hypothalamic-pituitary- brain relationship in health, aging and stress studies.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent ageing. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle. There is an evidence that the release of carnosine from the skeletal muscle sarcomeres moieties during physical exercise affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological functions. Carnosine released from skeletal muscle during exercise acts as a powerful afferent physiological signaling stimulus for hypothalamus, may be transported into the hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), specifically to TMN-histamine neurons and hydrolyzed herewith via activities of carnosine-degrading enzyme (carnosinase 2) localized in situ. Through the colocalized enzymatic activity of Histidine decarboxylase in the histaminergic neurons, the resulting L-histidine may subsequently be converted into histamine, which could be responsible for the effects of carnosine on neurotransmission and physiological function. Carnosine and its imidazole-containing dipeptide derivatives are renowned for their anti-aging, antioxidant, membrane protective, metal ion chelating, buffering, anti-glycation/ transglycating activities used to prevent and treat a spectrum of age-related and metabolic diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, sight threatening eye diseases, Diabetes mellitus and its complications, cancers and other disorders due to their wide spectrum biological activities. The precursor of carnosine (and related imidazole containing compounds) synthesis in skeletal muscles beta-alanine is used as the

  9. Dissecting the active site of a photoreceptor protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Wouter; Hara, Miwa; Ren, Jie; Moghadam, Farzaneh; Xie, Aihua; Kumauchi, Masato

    While enzymes are quite large molecules, functionally important chemical events are often limited to a small region of the protein: the active site. The physical and chemical properties of residues at such active sites are often strongly altered compared to the same groups dissolved in water. Understanding such effects is important for unraveling the mechanisms underlying protein function and for protein engineering, but has proven challenging. Here we report on our ongoing efforts on using photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a bacterial photoreceptor, as a model system for such effects. We will report on the following questions: How many residues affect active site properties? Are these residues in direct physical contact with the active site? Can functionally important residues be recognized in the crystal structure of a protein? What structural resolution is needed to understand active sites? What spectroscopic techniques are most informative? Which weak interactions dominate active site properties?

  10. The Structure of the Periplasmic Sensor Domain of the Histidine Kinase CusS Shows Unusual Metal Ion Coordination at the Dimeric Interface.

    PubMed

    Affandi, Trisiani; Issaian, Aaron V; McEvoy, Megan M

    2016-09-20

    In bacteria, two-component systems act as signaling systems to respond to environmental stimuli. Two-component systems generally consist of a sensor histidine kinase and a response regulator, which work together through histidyl-aspartyl phosphorelay to result in gene regulation. One of the two-component systems in Escherichia coli, CusS-CusR, is known to induce expression of cusCFBA genes at increased periplasmic Cu(I) and Ag(I) concentrations to help maintain metal ion homeostasis. CusS is a membrane-associated histidine kinase with a periplasmic sensor domain connected to the cytoplasmic ATP binding and catalytic domains through two transmembrane helices. The mechanism of how CusS senses increasing metal ion concentrations and activates CusR is not yet known. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Ag(I)-bound periplasmic sensor domain of CusS at a resolution of 2.15 Å. The structure reveals that CusS forms a homodimer with four Ag(I) binding sites per dimeric complex. Two symmetric metal binding sites are found at the dimeric interface, which are each formed by two histidines and one phenylalanine with an unusual cation-π interaction. The other metal ion binding sites are in a nonconserved region within each monomer. Functional analyses of CusS variants with mutations in the metal sites suggest that the metal ion binding site at the dimer interface is more important for function. The structural and functional data provide support for a model in which metal-induced dimerization results in increases in kinase activity in the cytoplasmic domains of CusS.

  11. The Structure of the Periplasmic Sensor Domain of the Histidine Kinase CusS Shows Unusual Metal Ion Coordination at the Dimeric Interface

    PubMed Central

    Affandi, Trisiani; Issaian, Aaron V.; McEvoy, Megan M.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, two-component systems act as signaling systems to respond to environmental stimuli. Two-component systems generally consist of a sensor histidine kinase and a response regulator, which work together through histidyl-aspartyl phospho-relay to result in gene regulation. One of the two-component systems in Escherichia coli, CusS-CusR, is known to induce expression of cusCFBA genes under increased periplasmic Cu(I) and Ag(I) concentrations to help maintain metal ion homeostasis. CusS is a membrane-associated histidine kinase with a periplasmic sensor domain connected to the cytoplasmic ATP-binding and catalytic domains through two transmembrane helices. The mechanism of how CusS senses increasing metal ion concentrations and activates CusR is not yet known. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Ag(I)-bound periplasmic sensor domain of CusS at a resolution of 2.15 Å. The structure reveals that CusS forms a homodimer with four Ag(I) binding sites per dimeric complex. Two symmetric metal binding sites are found at the dimeric interface, which are each formed by two histidines and one phenylalanine with an unusual cation-π interaction. The other metal ion binding sites are in a non-conserved region within each monomer. Functional analyses of CusS variants with mutations in the metal sites suggest that the metal ion binding site at the dimer interface is more important for function. The structural and functional data provide support for a model in which metal-induced dimerization results in increases in kinase activity in the cytoplasmic domains of CusS. PMID:27583660

  12. Targeting the histidine pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Juleane; Nunes, José Eduardo S; Bizarro, Cristiano V; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago; Machado, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, tuberculosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality due to a single bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The increasing prevalence of this disease, the emergence of multi-, extensively, and totally drug-resistant strains, complicated by co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, and the length of tuberculosis chemotherapy have led to an urgent and continued need for the development of new and more effective antitubercular drugs. Within this context, the L-histidine biosynthetic pathway, which converts 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate to L-histidine in ten enzymatic steps, has been reported as a promising target of antimicrobial agents. This pathway is found in bacteria, archaebacteria, lower eukaryotes, and plants but is absent in mammals, making these enzymes highly attractive targets for the drug design of new antimycobacterial compounds with selective toxicity. Moreover, the biosynthesis of L-histidine has been described as essential for Mtb growth in vitro. Accordingly, a comprehensive overview of Mycobacterium tuberculosis histidine pathway enzymes as attractive targets for the development of new antimycobacterial agents is provided, mainly summarizing the previously reported inhibition data for Mtb or orthologous proteins. PMID:24111909

  13. 21 CFR 582.5361 - Histidine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Histidine. 582.5361 Section 582.5361 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5361 - Histidine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Histidine. 582.5361 Section 582.5361 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5361 - Histidine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Histidine. 582.5361 Section 582.5361 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5361 - Histidine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Histidine. 582.5361 Section 582.5361 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5361 - Histidine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Histidine. 582.5361 Section 582.5361 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  18. Structural Characterization of the Predominant Family of Histidine Kinase Sensor Domains

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Histidine kinase receptors are used ubiquitously by bacteria to monitor environmental changes, and they are also prevalent in plants, fungi and other protists. Typical histidine kinase receptors have an extracellular sensor portion to detect the signal, usually a chemical ligand, and an intracellular transmitter portion that includes both the kinase domain itself and the site for histidine phosphorylation. While the kinase domains are highly conserved, sensor domains are diverse. Histidine kinase receptors function as dimers, but the molecular mechanism for signal transduction across cell membranes remains obscure. In this study, eight crystal structures were determined from five sensor domains representative of the most populated family, Family HK1, found in a bioinformatic analysis of predicted sensor domains from transmembrane histidine kinases. Each structure contains an inserted repeat of PhoQ/DcuS/CitA (PDC) domains, and similarity between sequence and structure is correlated across these and other double-PDC sensor proteins. Three of the five sensors crystallize as dimers that appear to be physiologically relevant, and comparisons between ligated- and apo-state structures provide insights into signal transmission. Some HK1-family proteins prove to be sensors for chemotaxis proteins or for diguanylate cyclase receptors, which implies a combinatorial molecular evolution. PMID:20435045

  19. Conservative Tryptophan Mutants of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase YopH Exhibit Impaired WPD-Loop Function and Crystallize with Divanadate Esters in Their Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    Moise, Gwendolyn; Gallup, Nathan M.; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.; Hengge, Alvan C.; Johnson, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Catalysis in protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) involves movement of a protein loop called the WPD loop that brings a conserved aspartic acid into the active site to function as a general acid. Mutation of the tryptophan in the WPD loop of the PTP YopH to any other residue with a planar, aromatic side chain (phenylalanine, tyrosine, or histidine) disables general acid catalysis. Crystal structures reveal these conservative mutations leave this critical loop in a catalytically unproductive, quasi-open position. Although the loop positions in crystal structures are similar for all three conservative mutants, the reasons inhibiting normal loop closure differ for each mutant. In the W354F and W354Y mutants, steric clashes result from six-membered rings occupying the position of the five-membered ring of the native indole side chain. The histidine mutant dysfunction results from new hydrogen bonds stabilizing the unproductive position. The results demonstrate how even modest modifications can disrupt catalytically important protein dynamics. Crystallization of all the catalytically compromised mutants in the presence of vanadate gave rise to vanadate dimers at the active site. In W354Y and W354H, a divanadate ester with glycerol is observed. Such species have precedence in solution and are known from the small molecule crystal database. Such species have not been observed in the active site of a phosphatase, as a functional phosphatase would rapidly catalyze their decomposition. The compromised functionality of the mutants allows the trapping of species that undoubtedly form in solution and are capable of binding at the active sites of PTPs, and, presumably, other phosphatases. In addition to monomeric vanadate, such higher-order vanadium-based molecules are likely involved in the interaction of vanadate with PTPs in solution. PMID:26445170

  20. Conservative tryptophan mutants of the protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH exhibit impaired WPD-loop function and crystallize with divanadate esters in their active sites.

    PubMed

    Moise, Gwendolyn; Gallup, Nathan M; Alexandrova, Anastassia N; Hengge, Alvan C; Johnson, Sean J

    2015-10-27

    Catalysis in protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) involves movement of a protein loop called the WPD loop that brings a conserved aspartic acid into the active site to function as a general acid. Mutation of the tryptophan in the WPD loop of the PTP YopH to any other residue with a planar, aromatic side chain (phenylalanine, tyrosine, or histidine) disables general acid catalysis. Crystal structures reveal these conservative mutations leave this critical loop in a catalytically unproductive, quasi-open position. Although the loop positions in crystal structures are similar for all three conservative mutants, the reasons inhibiting normal loop closure differ for each mutant. In the W354F and W354Y mutants, steric clashes result from six-membered rings occupying the position of the five-membered ring of the native indole side chain. The histidine mutant dysfunction results from new hydrogen bonds stabilizing the unproductive position. The results demonstrate how even modest modifications can disrupt catalytically important protein dynamics. Crystallization of all the catalytically compromised mutants in the presence of vanadate gave rise to vanadate dimers at the active site. In W354Y and W354H, a divanadate ester with glycerol is observed. Such species have precedence in solution and are known from the small molecule crystal database. Such species have not been observed in the active site of a phosphatase, as a functional phosphatase would rapidly catalyze their decomposition. The compromised functionality of the mutants allows the trapping of species that undoubtedly form in solution and are capable of binding at the active sites of PTPs, and, presumably, other phosphatases. In addition to monomeric vanadate, such higher-order vanadium-based molecules are likely involved in the interaction of vanadate with PTPs in solution. PMID:26445170

  1. Mars Surveyor Project Landing Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Briggs, Geoffrey; Saunders, R. Stephen; Gilmore, Martha; Soderblom, Larry

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program --now a cooperative program led by NASA and CNES along with other international partners -- is underway. It has the primary science objective of furthering our understanding of the biological potential and possible biological history of Mars and has the complementary objective of improving our understanding of martian climate evolution and planetary history The missions will develop technology and acquire data necessary for eventual human Exploration. Launches of orbiters, landers and rovers will take place in 2001 and in 2003; in 2005 a complete system will be launched capable of returning samples to Earth by 2008. A key aspect of the program is the selection of landing sites. This abstract 1) reports on the status of the landing site selection process that begins with the 2001 lander mission and 2) outlines be opportunities for the Mars community to provide input into the landing site selection process.

  2. Mars Surveyor Project Landing Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Briggs, Geoffrey; Saunders, R. Stephen; Gilmore, Martha; Soderblom, Larry

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program -- now a cooperative program led by NASA and CNES along with other international partners -- is underway. It has the primary science objective of furthering our understanding of the biological potential and possible biological history of Mars and has the complementary objective of improving our understanding of martian climate evolution and planetary history. The missions will develop technology and acquire data necessary for eventual human exploration. Launches of orbiters, landers and rovers will take place in 2001 and in 2003; in 2005 a complete system will be launched capable of returning samples to Earth by 2008. A key aspect of the program is the selection of landing sites. This abstract 1) reports on the status of the landing site selection process that begins with the 2001 lander mission and 2) outlines the opportunities for the Mars community to provide input into the landing site selection process.

  3. Identifying Zn-bound histidine residues in metalloproteins using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia; Callahan, Katie L; Borotto, Nicholas B; Vachet, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a method that uses hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) of C2-hydrogens of histidines coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) to identify Zn-bound histidines in metalloproteins. This method relies on differences in HDX reaction rates of Zn-bound and Zn-free His residues. Using several model peptides and proteins, we find that all Zn-bound His residues have substantially lower HDX reaction rates in the presence of the metal. The vast majority of non-Zn-binding His residues undergo no significant changes in HDX reaction rates when their reactivity is compared in the presence and absence of Zn. Using this new approach, we then determined the Zn binding site of β-2-microglobulin, a protein associated with metal-induced amyloidosis. Together, these results suggest that HDX-MS of His C2-hydrogens is a promising new method for identifying Zn-bound histidines in metalloproteins.

  4. Activation of Inhibitors by Sortase Triggers Irreversible Modification of the Active Site*S

    PubMed Central

    Maresso, Anthony W.; Wu, Ruiying; Kern, Justin W.; Zhang, Rongguang; Janik, Dorota; Missiakas, Dominique M.; Duban, Mark-Eugene; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Sortases anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive pathogens through recognition of specific motif sequences. Loss of sortase leads to large reductions in virulence, which identifies sortase as a target for the development of antibacterials. By screening 135,625 small molecules for inhibition, we report here that aryl (β-amino)ethyl ketones inhibit sortase enzymes from staphylococci and bacilli. Inhibition of sortases occurs through an irreversible, covalent modification of their active site cysteine. Sortases specifically activate this class of molecules via β-elimination, generating a reactive olefin intermediate that covalently modifies the cysteine thiol. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of Bacillus anthracis sortase B with and without inhibitor provides insights into the mechanism of inhibition and reveals binding pockets that can be exploited for drug discovery. PMID:17545669

  5. The bifunctional active site of s-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Roles of the active site aspartates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Markham, G D

    1999-11-12

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthetase catalyzes the biosynthesis of AdoMet in a unique enzymatic reaction. Initially the sulfur of methionine displaces the intact tripolyphosphate chain (PPP(i)) from ATP, and subsequently PPP(i) is hydrolyzed to PP(i) and P(i) before product release. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli AdoMet synthetase shows that the active site contains four aspartate residues. Aspartate residues Asp-16* and Asp-271 individually provide the sole protein ligand to one of the two required Mg(2+) ions (* denotes a residue from a second subunit); aspartates Asp-118 and Asp-238* are proposed to interact with methionine. Each aspartate has been changed to an uncharged asparagine, and the metal binding residues were also changed to alanine, to assess the roles of charge and ligation ability on catalytic efficiency. The resultant enzyme variants all structurally resemble the wild type enzyme as indicated by circular dichroism spectra and are tetramers. However, all have k(cat) reductions of approximately 10(3)-fold in AdoMet synthesis, whereas the MgATP and methionine K(m) values change by less than 3- and 8-fold, respectively. In the partial reaction of PPP(i) hydrolysis, mutants of the Mg(2+) binding residues have >700-fold reduced catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)), whereas the D118N and D238*N mutants are impaired less than 35-fold. The catalytic efficiency for PPP(i) hydrolysis by Mg(2+) site mutants is improved by AdoMet, like the wild type enzyme. In contrast AdoMet reduces the catalytic efficiency for PPP(i) hydrolysis by the D118N and D238*N mutants, indicating that the events involved in AdoMet activation are hindered in these methionyl binding site mutants. Ca(2+) uniquely activates the D271A mutant enzyme to 15% of the level of Mg(2+), in contrast to the approximately 1% Ca(2+) activation of the wild type enzyme. This indicates that the Asp-271 side chain size is a discriminator between the activating ability of Ca(2+) and the

  6. Propeptides of eukaryotic proteases encode histidines to exploit organelle pH for regulation

    PubMed Central

    Elferich, Johannes; Williamson, Danielle M.; Krishnamoorthy, Bala; Shinde, Ujwal

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells maintain strict control over protein secretion, in part by using the pH gradient maintained within their secretory pathway. How eukaryotic proteins evolved from prokaryotic orthologs to exploit the pH gradient for biological functions remains a fundamental question in cell biology. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that protein domains located within precursor proteins, propeptides, encode histidine-driven pH sensors to regulate organelle-specific activation of the eukaryotic proteases furin and proprotein convertase-1/3. Similar findings have been reported in other unrelated protease families. By analyzing >10,000 unique proteases within evolutionarily unrelated families, we show that eukaryotic propeptides are enriched in histidines compared with prokaryotic orthologs. On this basis, we hypothesize that eukaryotic proteins evolved to enrich histidines within their propeptides to exploit the tightly controlled pH gradient of the secretory pathway, thereby regulating activation within specific organelles. Enrichment of histidines in propeptides may therefore be used to predict the presence of pH sensors in other proteases or even protease substrates.—Elferich, J., Williamson, D. M., Krishnamoorthy, B., Shinde, U. Propeptides of eukaryotic proteases encode histidines to exploit organelle pH for regulation. PMID:23585398

  7. Cytoplasmic sensing by the inner membrane histidine kinase EnvZ

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Yong Hwee; Gao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Hongfang; Kenney, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Two-component regulatory systems drive signal transduction in bacteria. The simplest of these employs a membrane sensor kinase and a cytoplasmic response regulator. Environmental sensing is typically coupled to gene regulation. The histidine kinase EnvZ and its cognate response regulator OmpR regulate expression of outer membrane proteins (porins) in response to osmotic stress. We used hydrogen:deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to identify conformational changes in the cytoplasmic domain of EnvZ (EnvZc) that were associated with osmosensing. The osmosensor localized to a seventeen amino acid region of the four-helix bundle of the cytoplasmic domain and flanked the His243 autophosphorylation site. High osmolality increased autophosphorylation of His243, suggesting that these two events were linked. The transmembrane domains were not required for osmosensing, but mutants in the transmembrane domains altered EnvZ activity. A photoactivatable fusion protein composed of EnvZc fused to the fluorophore mEos2 (EnvZc-mEos2) was as capable as EnvZc in supporting OmpR-dependent ompF and ompC transcription. Over-expression of EnvZc reduced activity, indicating that the EnvZ/OmpR system is not robust. Our results support a model in which osmolytes stabilize helix one in the four-helix bundle of EnvZ by increased hydrogen bonding of the peptide backbone, increasing autophosphorylation and downstream signaling. The likelihood that additional histidine kinases use similar cytoplasmic sensing mechanisms is discussed. PMID:25937465

  8. Composite active site of chondroitin lyase ABC accepting both epimers of uronic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Shaya, D.; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Bjerkan, Tonje Marita; Kim, Wan Seok; Park, Nam Young; Sim, Joon-Soo; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Cygler, M.

    2008-03-19

    Enzymes have evolved as catalysts with high degrees of stereospecificity. When both enantiomers are biologically important, enzymes with two different folds usually catalyze reactions with the individual enantiomers. In rare cases a single enzyme can process both enantiomers efficiently, but no molecular basis for such catalysis has been established. The family of bacterial chondroitin lyases ABC comprises such enzymes. They can degrade both chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) glycosaminoglycans at the nonreducing end of either glucuronic acid (CS) or its epimer iduronic acid (DS) by a {beta}-elimination mechanism, which commences with the removal of the C-5 proton from the uronic acid. Two other structural folds evolved to perform these reactions in an epimer-specific fashion: ({alpha}/{alpha}){sub 5} for CS (chondroitin lyases AC) and {beta}-helix for DS (chondroitin lyases B); their catalytic mechanisms have been established at the molecular level. The structure of chondroitinase ABC from Proteus vulgaris showed surprising similarity to chondroitinase AC, including the presence of a Tyr-His-Glu-Arg catalytic tetrad, which provided a possible mechanism for CS degradation but not for DS degradation. We determined the structure of a distantly related Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron chondroitinase ABC to identify additional structurally conserved residues potentially involved in catalysis. We found a conserved cluster located {approx}12 {angstrom} from the catalytic tetrad. We demonstrate that a histidine in this cluster is essential for catalysis of DS but not CS. The enzyme utilizes a single substrate-binding site while having two partially overlapping active sites catalyzing the respective reactions. The spatial separation of the two sets of residues suggests a substrate-induced conformational change that brings all catalytically essential residues close together.

  9. The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase requires interacting domains of adjacent, identical subunits. Most active-site residues are located within the loop regions of an eight-stranded {beta}/{alpha}-barrel which constitutes the larger C-terminal domain; additional key residues are located within a segment of the smaller N-terminal domain which partially covers the mouth of the barrel. Site-directed mutagenesis of the gene encoding the enzyme from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been used to delineate functions of active-site residues. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Savannah River Site prioritization of transition activities

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.H.

    1993-11-01

    Effective management of SRS conversion from primarily a production facility to other missions (or Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D)) requires a systematic and consistent method of prioritizing the transition activities. This report discusses the design of a prioritizing method developed to achieve systematic and consistent methods of prioritizing these activities.

  11. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  12. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-15

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites.

  13. α-Lytic protease can exist in two separately stable conformations with different His57 mobilities and catalytic activities

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Kristin Coffman; Sudmeier, James L.; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Bachovchin, William W.

    2005-01-01

    α-Lytic protease is a bacterial serine protease widely studied as a model system of enzyme catalysis. Here we report that lyophilization induces a structural change in the enzyme that is not reversed by redissolution in water. The structural change reduces the mobility of the active-site histidine residue and the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The application of mild pressure to solutions of the altered enzyme reverses the lyophilization-induced structural change and restores the mobility of the histidine residue and the enzyme's catalytic activity. This effect of lyophilization permits a unique opportunity for investigating the relationship between histidine ring dynamics and catalytic activity. The results demonstrate that His57 in resting enzymes is more mobile than previously thought, especially when protonated. The histidine motion and its correlation to enzyme activity lend support to the reaction-driven ring flip hypothesis. PMID:15657134

  14. Ionizable Side Chains at Catalytic Active Sites of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Morales, David; Liang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic active sites of enzymes of known structure can be well defined by a modern program of computational geometry. The CASTp program was used to define and measure the volume of the catalytic active sites of 573 enzymes in the Catalytic Site Atlas database. The active sites are identified as catalytic because the amino acids they contain are known to participate in the chemical reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. Acid and base side chains are reliable markers of catalytic active sites. The catalytic active sites have 4 acid and 5 base side chains, in an average volume of 1072 Å3. The number density of acid side chains is 8.3 M (in chemical units); the number density of basic side chains is 10.6 M. The catalytic active site of these enzymes is an unusual electrostatic and steric environment in which side chains and reactants are crowded together in a mixture more like an ionic liquid than an ideal infinitely dilute solution. The electrostatics and crowding of reactants and side chains seems likely to be important for catalytic function. In three types of analogous ion channels, simulation of crowded charges accounts for the main properties of selectivity measured in a wide range of solutions and concentrations. It seems wise to use mathematics designed to study interacting complex fluids when making models of the catalytic active sites of enzymes. PMID:22484856

  15. Conformationally Constrained Histidines in the Design of Peptidomimetics: Strategies for the χ-Space Control

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Azzurra; Pinnen, Francesco; Feliciani, Federica; Cacciatore, Ivana; Lucente, Gino; Mollica, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    A successful design of peptidomimetics must come to terms with χ-space control. The incorporation of χ-space constrained amino acids into bioactive peptides renders the χ1 and χ2 torsional angles of pharmacophore amino acids critical for activity and selectivity as with other relevant structural features of the template. This review describes histidine analogues characterized by replacement of native α and/or β-hydrogen atoms with alkyl substituents as well as analogues with α, β-didehydro unsaturation or Cα-Cβ cyclopropane insertion (ACC derivatives). Attention is also dedicated to the relevant field of β-aminoacid chemistry by describing the synthesis of β2- and β3-models (β-hHis). Structural modifications leading to cyclic imino derivatives such as spinacine, aza-histidine and analogues with shortening or elongation of the native side chain (nor-histidine and homo-histidine, respectively) are also described. Examples of the use of the described analogues to replace native histidine in bioactive peptides are also given. PMID:21686155

  16. Connection between the taxonomic substates and protonation of histidines 64 and 97 in carbonmonoxy myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, J D; McMahon, B H; Chien, E Y; Sligar, S G; Nienhaus, G U

    1999-01-01

    Infrared spectra of heme-bound CO in sperm whale carbonmonoxy myoglobin and two mutants (H64L and H97F) were studied in the pH range from 4.2 to 9.5. Comparison of the native protein with the mutants shows that the observed pH effects can be traced to protonations of two histidine residues, H64 and H97, near the active site. Their imidazole sidechains experience simple, uncoupled Henderson-Hasselbalch type protonations, giving rise to four different protonation states. Because two of the protonation states are linked by a pH-independent equilibrium, the overall pH dependence of the spectra is described by a linear combination of three independent components. Global analysis, based on singular value decomposition and matrix least-squares algorithms enabled us to extract the pK values of the two histidines and the three basis spectra of the protonating species. The basis spectra were decomposed into the taxonomic substates A(0), A(1), and A(3), previously introduced in a heuristic way to analyze CO stretch spectra in heme proteins at fixed pH (see for instance, Biophys. J. 71:1563-1573). Moreover, an additional, weakly populated substate, called A(x), was identified. Protonation of H97 gives rise to a blue shift of the individual infrared lines by about 2 cm(-1), so that the A substates actually appear in pairs, such as A(0) and A(0)(+). The blue shift can be explained by reduced backbonding from the heme iron to the CO. Protonation of the distal histidine, H64, leads to a change of the infrared absorption from the A(1) or A(3) substate lines to A(0). This behavior can be explained by a conformational change upon protonation that moves the imidazole sidechain of H64 away from the CO into the high-dielectric solvent environment, which avoids the energetically unfavorable situation of an uncompensated electric charge in the apolar, low-dielectric protein interior. Our results suggest that protonation reactions serve as an important mechanism to create taxonomic

  17. Site-directed mutagenesis of the human DNA repair enzyme HAP1: identification of residues important for AP endonuclease and RNase H activity.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, G; Walker, L J; Robson, C N; Hickson, I D

    1995-05-11

    HAP1 protein, the major apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease in human cells, is a member of a homologous family of multifunctional DNA repair enzymes including the Escherichia coli exonuclease III and Drosophila Rrp1 proteins. The most extensively characterised member of this family, exonuclease III, exhibits both DNA- and RNA-specific nuclease activities. Here, we show that the RNase H activity characteristic of exonuclease III has been conserved in the human homologue, although the products resulting from RNA cleavage are dissimilar. To identify residues important for enzymatic activity, five mutant HAP1 proteins containing single amino acid substitutions were purified and analysed in vitro. The substitutions were made at sites of conserved amino acids and targeted either acidic or histidine residues because of their known participation in the active sites of hydrolytic nucleases. One of the mutant proteins (replacement of Asp-219 by alanine) showed a markedly reduced enzymatic activity, consistent with a greatly diminished capacity to bind DNA and RNA. In contrast, replacement of Asp-90, Asp-308 or Glu-96 by alanine led to a reduction in enzymatic activity without significantly compromising nucleic acid binding. Replacement of His-255 by alanine led to only a very small reduction in enzymatic activity. Our data are consistent with the presence of a single catalytic active site for the DNA- and RNA-specific nuclease activities of the HAP1 protein. PMID:7784208

  18. Evidence for histidyl and carboxy groups at the active site of the human placental Na+-H+ exchanger.

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, V; Balkovetz, D F; Ganapathy, M E; Mahesh, V B; Devoe, L D; Leibach, F H

    1987-01-01

    The Na+-H+ exchanger of the human placental brush-border membrane was inhibited by pretreatment of the membrane vesicles with a histidyl-group-specific reagent, diethyl pyrocarbonate and with a carboxy-group-specific reagent, N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline. In both cases the inhibition was irreversible and non-competitive in nature. But, if the membrane vesicles were treated with these reagents in the presence of amiloride, cimetidine or clonidine, there was no inhibition. Since amiloride, cimetidine and clonidine all interact with the active site of the exchanger in a mutually exclusive manner, the findings provide evidence for the presence of essential histidyl and carboxy groups at or near the active site of the human placental Na+-H+ exchanger. This conclusion was further substantiated by the findings that Rose Bengal-catalysed photo-oxidation of histidine residues as well as covalent modification of carboxy residues with NN'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide irreversibly inhibited the Na+-H+ exchanger and that amiloride protected the exchanger from inhibition caused by NN'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide. PMID:2822022

  19. Possible peroxidase active site environment in amyloidogenic proteins: Native monomer or misfolded-oligomer; which one is susceptible to the enzymatic activity, with contribution of heme?

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Reza; Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza; Khodarahmi, Sina; Ghadami, Seyyed Abolghasem; Mostafaie, Ali

    2015-09-01

    Amyloid states of many proteins complex with heme and exhibit significant non-specific peroxidase activity, compared to free heme. Neurotransmitter deficiency, generation of neurotoxins, altered activity/metabolism of key enzymes and cellular DNA damage are possible evidences highlighting the importance of the uncontrollable peroxidase activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-involved brain cells. Despite extensive experimental work was carried out on this field, discrepancy on chronological precedence of amyloid aggregation and oxidative reactions as well as the mechanism involved in the peroxidase-induced oxidative stress is still not completely understood. In this study, we highlight further that heme cofactor readily complexes with structural intermediates of amyloid aggregates of ovalbumin, lactoglobulin and crystallin and report the ability of "heme-amyloid aggregate/oligomer") to produce peroxidase-like active site. Histidine side chains are also proposed as both distal and proximal residues required for proper function of these peroxidase systems. Taking uncontrollable peroxidase activity of "Aβ-heme" complex into account, it appears that this process, as a new opened dimension in AD pathologic research, provides structural/mechanistic basis for more efficient therapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26123814

  20. Formation of RNA phosphodiester bond by histidine-containing dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Rafał; Dörr, Mark; Chotera, Agata; Luisi, Pier Luigi; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2013-01-21

    A new scenario for prebiotic formation of nucleic acid oligomers is presented. Peptide catalysis is applied to achieve condensation of activated RNA monomers into short RNA chains. As catalysts, L-dipeptides containing a histidine residue, primarily Ser-His, were used. Reactions were carried out in self-organised environment, a water-ice eutectic phase, with low concentrations of reactants. Incubation periods up to 30 days resulted in the formation of short oligomers of RNA. During the oligomerisation, an active intermediate (dipeptide-mononucleotide) is produced, which is the reactive species. Details of the mechanism and kinetics, which were elucidated with a set of control experiments, further establish that the imidazole side chain of a histidine at the carboxyl end of the dipeptide plays a crucial role in the catalysis. These results suggest that this oligomerisation catalysis occurs by a transamination mechanism. Because peptides are much more likely products of spontaneous condensation than nucleotide chains, their potential as catalysts for the formation of RNA is interesting from the origin-of-life perspective. Finally, the formation of the dipeptide-mononucleotide intermediate and its significance for catalysis might also be viewed as the tell-tale signs of a new example of organocatalysis. PMID:23255284

  1. Inactivation of Multiple Bacterial Histidine Kinases by Targeting the ATP-Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial agents that exploit new targets will be required to combat the perpetual rise of bacterial resistance to current antibiotics. We are exploring the inhibition of histidine kinases, constituents of two-component systems. Two-component systems are the primary signaling pathways that bacteria utilize to respond to their environment. They are ubiquitous in bacteria and trigger various pathogenic mechanisms. To attenuate these signaling pathways, we sought to broadly target the histidine kinase family by focusing on their highly conserved ATP-binding domain. Development of a fluorescence polarization displacement assay facilitated high-throughput screening of ∼53 000 diverse small molecules for binding to the ATP-binding pocket. Of these compounds, nine inhibited the catalytic activity of two or more histidine kinases. These scaffolds could provide valuable starting points for the design of broadly effective HK inhibitors, global reduction of bacterial signaling, and ultimately, a class of antibiotics that function by a new mechanism of action. PMID:25531939

  2. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting Δ8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Song, Li-Ying; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Yin, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2011-12-01

    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of Δ(8)-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among Δ(8)-sphingolipid desaturases and Δ(6)-fatty acid desaturases from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb(5) (cytochrome b(5)) HPGG motif and three conserved histidine boxes, they share additional 15 completely conserved residues. A series of site-directed mutants were generated using our previously isolated Δ(8)-sphingolipid desaturase gene from Brassica rapa to evaluate the importance of these residues to the enzyme function. The mutants were functionally characterized by heterologous expression in yeast, allowing the identification of the products of the enzymes. The results revealed that residues H63, N203, D208, D210, and G368 were obligatorily required for the enzymatic activity, and substitution of the residues F59, W190, W345, L369 and Q372 markedly decreased the enzyme activity. Among them, replacement of the residues W190, L369 and Q372 also has significant influence on the ratio of the two enzyme products. Information obtained in this work provides the molecular basis for the Δ(8)-sphingolipid desaturase activity and aids in our understanding of the structure-function relationships of the membrane-bound desaturases.

  3. Functional characterization of two members of histidine phosphatase superfamily in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional characterization of genes in important pathogenic bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis is imperative. Rv2135c, which was originally annotated as conserved hypothetical, has been found to be associated with membrane protein fractions of H37Rv strain. The gene appears to contain histidine phosphatase motif common to both cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutases and acid phosphatases in the histidine phosphatase superfamily. The functions of many of the members of this superfamily are annotated based only on similarity to known proteins using automatic annotation systems, which can be erroneous. In addition, the motif at the N-terminal of Rv2135c is ‘RHA’ unlike ‘RHG’ found in most members of histidine phosphatase superfamily. These necessitate the need for its experimental characterization. The crystal structure of Rv0489, another member of the histidine phosphatase superfamily in M. tuberculosis, has been previously reported. However, its biochemical characteristics remain unknown. In this study, Rv2135c and Rv0489 from M. tuberculosis were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with 6 histidine residues tagged at the C terminal. Results Characterization of the purified recombinant proteins revealed that Rv0489 possesses phosphoglycerate mutase activity while Rv2135c does not. However Rv2135c has an acid phosphatase activity with optimal pH of 5.8. Kinetic parameters of Rv2135c and Rv0489 are studied, confirming that Rv0489 is a cofactor dependent phosphoglycerate mutase of M. tuberculosis. Additional characterization showed that Rv2135c exists as a tetramer while Rv0489 as a dimer in solution. Conclusion Most of the proteins orthologous to Rv2135c in other bacteria are annotated as phosphoglycerate mutases or hypothetical proteins. It is possible that they are actually phosphatases. Experimental characterization of a sufficiently large number of bacterial histidine phosphatases will increase the accuracy of the automatic

  4. Role of polymeric endosomolytic agents in gene transfection: a comparative study of poly(L-lysine) grafted with monomeric L-histidine analogue and poly(L-histidine).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hee Sook; Hu, Jun; Na, Kun; Bae, You Han

    2014-10-13

    Endosomal entrapment is one of the main barriers that must be overcome for efficient gene expression along with cell internalization, DNA release, and nuclear import. Introducing pH-sensitive ionizable groups into the polycationic polymers to increase gene transfer efficiency has proven to be a useful method; however, a comparative study of introducing equal numbers of ionizable groups in both polymer and monomer forms, has not been reported. In this study, we prepared two types of histidine-grafted poly(L-lysine) (PLL), a stacking form of poly(L-histidine) (PLL-g-PHis) and a mono-L-histidine (PLL-g-mHis) with the same number of imidazole groups. These two types of histidine-grafted PLL, PLL-g-PHis and PLL-g-mHis, showed profound differences in hemolytic activity, cellular uptake, internalization, and transfection efficiency. Cy3-labeled PLL-g-PHis showed strong fluorescence in the nucleus after internalization, and high hemolytic activity upon pH changes was also observed from PLL-g-PHis. The arrangement of imidazole groups from PHis also provided higher gene expression than mHis due to its ability to escape the endosome. mHis or PHis grafting reduced the cytotoxicity of PLL and changed the rate of cellular uptake by changing the quantity of free ε-amines available for gene condensation. The subcellular localization of PLL-g-PHis/pDNA measured by YOYO1-pDNA intensity was highest inside the nucleus, while the lysotracker, which stains the acidic compartments was lowest among these polymers. Thus, the polymeric histidine arrangement demonstrate the ability to escape the endosome and trigger rapid release of polyplexes into the cytosol, resulting in a greater amount of pDNA available for translocation to the nucleus and enhanced gene expression.

  5. Use of specifically {sup 15}N-labeled histidine to study structures and mechanisms within the active sites of serine proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, W.W.

    1994-12-01

    The current emphasis in biological NMR work is on determining structures of biological macromolecules in solution. This emphasis is appropriate because NMR is the only technique capable of providing high-resolution structures that are comparable to those of x-ray crystallography for molecules in solution. This structural knowledge is immensely valuable and is needed in many areas of investigation. However, as valuable as such structural knowledge is, it never provides all the answers; a structure often reveals more questions than answers.

  6. Characterizations of Metal Binding in the Active Sites of Acireductone Dioxygenase Isoforms from Klebsiella ATCC 8724

    SciTech Connect

    Chai,S.; Ju, T.; Dang, M.; Goldsmith, R.; Maroney, M.; Pochapsky, T.

    2008-01-01

    The two acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) isozymes from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella ATCC 8724 present an unusual case in which two enzymes with different structures and distinct activities toward their common substrates (1, 2-dihydroxy-3-oxo-5-(methylthio)pent-1-ene and dioxygen) are derived from the same polypeptide chain. Structural and functional differences between the two isozymes are determined by the type of M2+ metal ion bound in the active site. The Ni2+-bound NiARD catalyzes an off-pathway shunt from the methionine salvage pathway leading to the production of formate, methylthiopropionate, and carbon monoxide, while the Fe2+-bound FeARD' catalyzes the on-pathway formation of methionine precursor 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate and formate. Four potential protein-based metal ligands were identified by sequence homology and structural considerations. Based on the results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and isothermal calorimetry measurements, it is concluded that the same four residues, His96, His98, Glu102 and His140, provide the protein-based ligands for the metal in both the Ni- and Fe-containing forms of the enzyme, and subtle differences in the local backbone conformations trigger the observed structural and functional differences between the FeARD' and NiARD isozymes. Furthermore, both forms of the enzyme bind their respective metals with pseudo-octahedral geometry, and both may lose a histidine ligand upon binding of substrate under anaerobic conditions. However, mutations at two conserved nonligand acidic residues, Glu95 and Glu100, result in low metal contents for the mutant proteins as isolated, suggesting that some of the conserved charged residues may aid in transfer of metal from in vivo sources or prevent the loss of metal to stronger chelators. The Glu100 mutant reconstitutes readily but has low activity. Mutation of Asp101 results in an active enzyme that incorporates metal in vivo but

  7. Characterization of Metal Binding in the Active Sites of acireductone dioxygenase Isoforms from Klebsiella ATCC 8724

    SciTech Connect

    S Chai; T Ju; M Dang; R Goldsmith; M Maroney; T Pochapsky

    2011-12-31

    The two acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) isozymes from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella ATCC 8724 present an unusual case in which two enzymes with different structures and distinct activities toward their common substrates (1,2-dihydroxy-3-oxo-5-(methylthio)pent-1-ene and dioxygen) are derived from the same polypeptide chain. Structural and functional differences between the two isozymes are determined by the type of M{sup 2+} metal ion bound in the active site. The Ni{sup 2+}-bound NiARD catalyzes an off-pathway shunt from the methionine salvage pathway leading to the production of formate, methylthiopropionate, and carbon monoxide, while the Fe{sup 2+}-bound FeARD catalyzes the on-pathway formation of methionine precursor 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate and formate. Four potential protein-based metal ligands were identified by sequence homology and structural considerations. Based on the results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and isothermal calorimetry measurements, it is concluded that the same four residues, His96, His98, Glu102 and His140, provide the protein-based ligands for the metal in both the Ni- and Fe-containing forms of the enzyme, and subtle differences in the local backbone conformations trigger the observed structural and functional differences between the FeARD and NiARD isozymes. Furthermore, both forms of the enzyme bind their respective metals with pseudo-octahedral geometry, and both may lose a histidine ligand upon binding of substrate under anaerobic conditions. However, mutations at two conserved nonligand acidic residues, Glu95 and Glu100, result in low metal contents for the mutant proteins as isolated, suggesting that some of the conserved charged residues may aid in transfer of metal from in vivo sources or prevent the loss of metal to stronger chelators. The Glu100 mutant reconstitutes readily but has low activity. Mutation of Asp101 results in an active enzyme that incorporates

  8. Monitoring the formation of biosilica catalysed by histidine-tagged silicatein.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Théato, Patrick; Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Janshoff, Andreas; Zhang, Jian; Huth, Joachim; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2004-12-21

    Surface bound silicatein retains its biocatalytic activity, which was demonstrated by monitoring the immobilisation of silicatein using a histidine-tag chelating anchor and the subsequent biosilicification of SiO(2) on surfaces by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Active site - a site of binding of affinity inhibitors in baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Svyato, I.E.; Sklyankina, V.A.; Avaeva, S.M.

    1986-03-20

    The interaction of the enzyme-substrate complex with methyl phosphate, O-phosphoethanolamine, O-phosphopropanolamine, N-acetylphosphoserine, and phosphoglyolic acid, as well as pyrophosphatase, modified by monoesters of phosphoric acid, with pyrophosphate and tripolyphosphate, was investigated. It was shown that the enzyme containing the substrate in the active site does not react with monophosphates, but modified pyrophosphatase entirely retains the ability to bind polyanions to the regulatory site. It is concluded that the inactivation of baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase by monoesters of phosphoric acid, which are affinity inhibitors of it, is the result of modification of the active site of the enzyme.

  10. N-H···N Hydrogen Bonds Involving Histidine Imidazole Nitrogen Atoms: A New Structural Role for Histidine Residues in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Krishna Deepak, R N V; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2016-07-12

    The amino acid histidine can play a significant role in the structure and function of proteins. Its various functions include enzyme catalysis, metal binding activity, and involvement in cation-π, π-π, salt-bridge, and other types of noncovalent interactions. Although histidine's imidazole nitrogens (Nδ and Nε) are known to participate in hydrogen bond (HB) interactions as an acceptor or a donor, a systematic study of N-H···N HBs with the Nδ/Nε atom as the acceptor has not been conducted. In this study, we have examined two data sets of ultra-high-resolution (data set I) and very high-resolution (data set II) protein structures and identified 28 and 4017 examples of HBs of the N-H···Nδ/Nε type from both data sets involving histidine imidazole nitrogen as the acceptor. In nearly 70% of them, the main-chain N-H bond is the HB donor, and a majority of the examples are from the N-H group separated by two residues (Ni+2-Hi+2) from histidine. Quantum chemical calculations using model compounds were performed with imidazole and N-methylacetamide, and they assumed conformations from 19 examples from data set I with N-H···Nδ/Nε HBs. Basis set superposition error-corrected interaction energies varied from -5.0 to -6.78 kcal/mol. We also found that the imidazole nitrogen of 9% of histidine residues forming N-H···Nδ/Nε interactions in data set II participate in bifurcated HBs. Natural bond orbital analyses of model compounds indicate that the strength of each HB is mutually influenced by the other. Histidine residues involved in Ni+2-Hi+2···Nδi/Nεi HBs are frequently observed in a specific N-terminal capping position giving rise to a novel helix-capping motif. Along with their predominant occurrence in loop segments, we propose a new structural role for histidines in protein structures. PMID:27305350

  11. A novel approach to predict active sites of enzyme molecules.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kuo-Chen; Cai, Yu-dong

    2004-04-01

    Enzymes are critical in many cellular signaling cascades. With many enzyme structures being solved, there is an increasing need to develop an automated method for identifying their active sites. However, given the atomic coordinates of an enzyme molecule, how can we predict its active site? This is a vitally important problem because the core of an enzyme molecule is its active site from the viewpoints of both pure scientific research and industrial application. In this article, a topological entity was introduced to characterize the enzymatic active site. Based on such a concept, the covariant discriminant algorithm was formulated for identifying the active site. As a paradigm, the serine hydrolase family was demonstrated. The overall success rate by jackknife test for a data set of 88 enzyme molecules was 99.92%, and that for a data set of 50 independent enzyme molecules was 99.91%. Meanwhile, it was shown through an example that the prediction algorithm can also be used to find any typographic error of a PDB file in annotating the constituent amino acids of catalytic triad and to suggest a possible correction. The very high success rates are due to the introduction of a covariance matrix in the prediction algorithm that makes allowance for taking into account the coupling effects among the key constituent atoms of active site. It is anticipated that the novel approach is quite promising and may become a useful high throughput tool in enzymology, proteomics, and structural bioinformatics. PMID:14997541

  12. An "enigmatic" L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine)? Cell proliferative activity as a fundamental property of a natural dipeptide inherent to traditional antioxidant, anti-aging biological activities: balancing and a hormonally correct agent, novel patented oral therapy dosage formulation for mobility, skeletal muscle power and functional performance, hypothalamic-pituitary- brain relationship in health, aging and stress studies.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent ageing. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle. There is an evidence that the release of carnosine from the skeletal muscle sarcomeres moieties during physical exercise affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological functions. Carnosine released from skeletal muscle during exercise acts as a powerful afferent physiological signaling stimulus for hypothalamus, may be transported into the hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), specifically to TMN-histamine neurons and hydrolyzed herewith via activities of carnosine-degrading enzyme (carnosinase 2) localized in situ. Through the colocalized enzymatic activity of Histidine decarboxylase in the histaminergic neurons, the resulting L-histidine may subsequently be converted into histamine, which could be responsible for the effects of carnosine on neurotransmission and physiological function. Carnosine and its imidazole-containing dipeptide derivatives are renowned for their anti-aging, antioxidant, membrane protective, metal ion chelating, buffering, anti-glycation/ transglycating activities used to prevent and treat a spectrum of age-related and metabolic diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, sight threatening eye diseases, Diabetes mellitus and its complications, cancers and other disorders due to their wide spectrum biological activities. The precursor of carnosine (and related imidazole containing compounds) synthesis in skeletal muscles beta-alanine is used as the

  13. Growth exponents in surface models with non-active sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Figueiredo, W.; Aarão Reis, F. D. A.

    2006-11-01

    In this work, we studied the role played by the inactive sites present on the substrate of a growing surface. In our model, one particle sticks at the surface if the site where it falls is an active site. However, we allow the deposited particle to diffuse along the surface in accordance with some mechanism previously defined. Using Monte Carlo simulations, and some analytical results, we have investigated the model in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions considering different relaxation mechanisms. We show that the consideration of non-active sites is a crucial point in the model. In fact, we have seen that the saturation regime is not observed for any value of the density of inactive sites. Besides, the growth exponent β turns to be one, at long times, whatever the mechanism of diffusion we consider in one and two dimensions.

  14. A small ribozyme with dual-site kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Elisa; Maxwell, Adam W.R.; Burke, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoryl transfer onto backbone hydroxyls is a recognized catalytic activity of nucleic acids. We find that kinase ribozyme K28 possesses an unusually complex active site that promotes (thio)phosphorylation of two residues widely separated in primary sequence. After allowing the ribozyme to radiolabel itself by phosphoryl transfer from [γ-32P]GTP, DNAzyme-mediated cleavage yielded two radiolabeled cleavage fragments, indicating phosphorylation sites within each of the two cleavage fragments. These sites were mapped by alkaline digestion and primer extension pausing. Enzymatic digestion and mutational analysis identified nucleotides important for activity and established the active structure as being a constrained pseudoknot with unusual connectivity that may juxtapose the two reactive sites. Nuclease sensitivities for nucleotides near the pseudoknot core were altered in the presence of GTPγS, indicating donor-induced folding. The 5′ target site was more strongly favored in full-length ribozyme K28 (128 nt) than in truncated RNAs (58 nt). Electrophoretic mobilities of self-thiophosphorylated products on organomercurial gels are distinct from the 5′ mono-thiophosphorylated product produced by reaction with polynucleotide kinase, potentially indicating simultaneous labeling of both sites within individual RNA strands. Our evidence supports a single, compact structure with local dynamics, rather than global rearrangement, as being responsible for dual-site phosphorylation. PMID:22618879

  15. Proton NMR investigation of the heme active site structure of an engineered cytochrome c peroxidase that mimics manganese peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Lu, Y

    1999-07-13

    The heme active site structure of an engineered cytochrome c peroxidase [MnCcP; see Yeung, B. K., et al. (1997) Chem. Biol. 4, 215-221] that closely mimics manganese peroxidase (MnP) has been characterized by both one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. All hyperfine-shifted resonances from the heme pocket as well as resonances from catalytically relevant amino acid residues in the congested diamagnetic envelope have been assigned. From the NMR spectral assignment and the line broadening pattern of specific protons in NOESY spectra of MnCcP, the location of the engineered Mn(II) center is firmly identified. Furthermore, we found that the creation of the Mn(II)-binding site in CcP resulted in no detectable structural changes on the distal heme pocket of the protein. However, notable structural changes are observed at the proximal side of the heme cavity. Both CepsilonH shift of the proximal histidine and (15)N shift of the bound C(15)N(-) suggest a weaker heme Fe(III)-N(His) bond in MnCcP compared to WtCcP. Our results indicate that the engineered Mn(II)-binding site in CcP resulted in not only a similar Mn(II)-binding affinity and improved MnP activity, but also weakened the Fe(III)-N(His) bond strength of the template protein CcP so that its bond strength is similar to that of the target protein MnP. The results presented here help elucidate the impact of designing a metal-binding site on both the local and global structure of the enzyme, and provide a structural basis for engineering the next generation of MnCcP that mimics MnP more closely. PMID:10413489

  16. Promoter- and attenuator-related metabolic regulation of the Salmonella typhimurium histidine operon.

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, M E; Roth, D J; Hartman, P E

    1978-01-01

    Expression of the histidine (his) operon in Salmonella typhimurium was found to be positively correlated with the intracellular level of guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). Limitation for amino acids other than histidine elicited a histidine-independent metabolic regulation of the operon. In bacteria grown at decreased growth rates, his operon expression was metabolically regulated up to a point, after which further decreases in growth rate no longer resulted in further enhancement of operon expression. Studies using strains carrying various regulatory and deletion mutations indicated that metabolic regulation is achieved predominantly by increased RNA chain initiations at the primary (P1) and internal (P2) promoters. Metabolic regulation ordinarly did not involve changes in RNA chain terminations at the attenuator site of the his operon. A model is proposed that involves ppGpp-induced changes in RNA polymerase initiation specificity at particular promoters. A second, special form of metabolic regulation may operate which also is histidine independent, but does involve relief of attenuation. PMID:342509

  17. Dual-histidine kinases in basidiomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Lavín, José L; Sarasola-Puente, Vanessa; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Oguiza, José A

    2014-02-01

    Dual-histidine kinases (HKs) are complex hybrid HKs containing in a single polypeptide two HK transmitter modules (T) and two-response regulator received domains (R) that are combined in a TRTR geometry. In fungi, this protein family is limited to some particular species of the phylum Basidiomycota and absent in the other phyla. This study extends the investigation of dual-HKs to 80 fully sequenced genomes of basidiomycetes, analyzing their distribution, domain architecture and phylogenetic relationships. Moreover, similarly to dual-HKs of basidiomycetes, several species of bacteria were found that contain hybrid HKs with a TRTR domain architecture encoded in a single gene. PMID:24581805

  18. Architecture and active site of particulate methane monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Megen A.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is an integral membrane metalloenzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria, organisms that live on methane gas as their sole carbon source. Understanding pMMO function has important implications for bioremediation applications and for the development of new, environmentally friendly catalysts for the direct conversion of methane to methanol. Crystal structures of pMMOs from three different methanotrophs reveal a trimeric architecture, consisting of three copies each of the pmoB, pmoA, and pmoC subunits. There are three distinct metal centers in each protomer of the trimer, mononuclear and dinuclear copper sites in the periplasmic regions of pmoB and a mononuclear site within the membrane that can be occupied by copper or zinc. Various models for the pMMO active site have been proposed within these structural constraints, including dicopper, tricopper, and diiron centers. Biochemical and spectroscopic data on pMMO and recombinant soluble fragments, denoted spmoB proteins, indicate that the active site involves copper and is located at the site of the dicopper center in the pmoB subunit. Initial spectroscopic evidence for O2 binding at this site has been obtained. Despite these findings, questions remain about the active site identity and nuclearity and will be the focus of future studies. PMID:22725967

  19. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-04-20

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide. PMID:26908655

  20. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide. PMID:26908655

  1. Propeptides of eukaryotic proteases encode histidines to exploit organelle pH for regulation.

    PubMed

    Elferich, Johannes; Williamson, Danielle M; Krishnamoorthy, Bala; Shinde, Ujwal

    2013-08-01

    Eukaryotic cells maintain strict control over protein secretion, in part by using the pH gradient maintained within their secretory pathway. How eukaryotic proteins evolved from prokaryotic orthologs to exploit the pH gradient for biological functions remains a fundamental question in cell biology. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that protein domains located within precursor proteins, propeptides, encode histidine-driven pH sensors to regulate organelle-specific activation of the eukaryotic proteases furin and proprotein convertase-1/3. Similar findings have been reported in other unrelated protease families. By analyzing >10,000 unique proteases within evolutionarily unrelated families, we show that eukaryotic propeptides are enriched in histidines compared with prokaryotic orthologs. On this basis, we hypothesize that eukaryotic proteins evolved to enrich histidines within their propeptides to exploit the tightly controlled pH gradient of the secretory pathway, thereby regulating activation within specific organelles. Enrichment of histidines in propeptides may therefore be used to predict the presence of pH sensors in other proteases or even protease substrates.

  2. Effects of histidine and vitamin C on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Arzeloo, Masoumeh; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of histidine and vitamin C (alone or in combination) treatments against isoproterenol (a β-adrenergic receptor agonist)-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats. We used propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor blocker) to compare the results. Rats were given intraperitoneal injections of histidine (40 mg kg(-1)) and vitamin C (40 mg kg(-1)) alone and combined daily for 21 days. Propranolol (10 mg kg(-1)) was orally administered daily for 10 days (from day 11 to day 21). Myocardial infarction was induced by subcutaneous injections of 150 mg kg(-1) of isoproterenol at an interval of 24 hr on days 20 and 21. Blood and tissue samples were taken for histopathological and biochemical evaluations following electrocardiography recording on day 21. Isoproterenol elevated ST segment, increased heart weight, heart rate, serum activities of aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-MB and heart tissue content of malondialdehyde, and decreased R wave amplitude and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities of heart tissue. Necrosis, edema and inflammatory cells infiltration were observed in myocardial tissue sections. Our results indicated that histidine and vitamin C alone, and especially in combination prevent isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity and have similar protective effects with propranolol. Cardioprotective effects of histidine and vitamin C may be associated with their ability to reduce free radical-induced toxic effects. PMID:27226887

  3. Molecular anatomy of tyrosinase and its related proteins: beyond the histidine-bound metal catalytic center.

    PubMed

    García-Borrón, José C; Solano, Francisco

    2002-06-01

    The structure of tyrosinase (Tyr) is reviewed from a double point of view. On the one hand, by comparison of all Tyr found throughout nature, from prokaryotic organisms to mammals and on the other, by comparison with the tyrosinase related proteins (Tyrps) that appeared late in evolution, and are only found in higher animals. Their structures are reviewed as a whole rather than focused on the histidine (His)-bound metal active site, which is the part of the molecule common to all these proteins. The availability of crystallographic data of hemocyanins and recently of sweet potato catechol oxidase has improved the model of the three-dimensional structure of the Tyr family. Accordingly, Tyr has a higher structural disorder than hemocyanins, particularly at the CuA site. The active site seems to be characterized by the formation of a hydrophobic pocket with a number of conserved aromatic residues sited close to the well-known His. Other regions specific of the mammalian enzymes, such as the cytosolic C-terminal tail, the cysteine clusters, and the N-glycosylation sequons, are also discussed. The complete understanding of the Tyr copper-binding domain and the characterization of the residues determinant of the relative substrate affinities of the Tyrps will improve the design of targeted mutagenesis experiments to understand the different catalytic capabilities of Tyr and Tyrps. This may assist future aims, from the design of more efficient bacterial Tyr for biotechnological applications to the design of inhibitors of undesirable fruit browning in vegetables or of color skin modulators in animals. PMID:12028580

  4. New crystals of L-histidine maleates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, M.; Ghazaryan, V. V.; Bezhanova, L. S.; Atanesyan, A. K.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    Two new crystals were obtained in the system L-histidine (L-His) + maleic acid + H2O: L-His+·maleate-·H2O (I) and L-His2+·2maleate- (II) in addition to two previously known species: L-His+·maleate- (III) and 2L-His+·2maleate-·3H2O (IV). Crystal structures and vibrational spectra of (I) and (II) are determined and compared with structures of (III) and (IV). L-His+·maleate-·H2O is monoclinic (space group P21, Z = 2), L-His2+·2maleate- is triclinic (space group P1, Z = 2). The conformation of the histidine molecules in (I) is closed - as it was found in (III) - whereas in (II) all molecules are in open conformation. Moreover, it is shown that in the structure published for (IV), extremely short Csbnd H⋯O type hydrogen bonds are included, which along with several other data indicate that in this structure N and C atoms in imidazole group of one L-His+ cation have been confused.

  5. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles.

  6. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles. PMID:26574038

  7. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  8. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  9. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined. PMID:27243042

  10. Studies on the active site of pig plasma amine oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Collison, D; Knowles, P F; Mabbs, F E; Rius, F X; Singh, I; Dooley, D M; Cote, C E; McGuirl, M

    1989-01-01

    Amine oxidase from pig plasma (PPAO) has two bound Cu2+ ions and at least one pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) moiety as cofactors. It is shown that recovery of activity by copper-depleted PPAO is linear with respect to added Cu2+ ions. Recovery of e.s.r. and optical spectral characteristics of active-site copper parallel the recovery of catalytic activity. These results are consistent with both Cu2+ ions contributing to catalysis. Further e.s.r. studies indicate that the two copper sites in PPAO, unlike those in amine oxidases from other sources, are chemically distinct. These comparative studies establish that non-identity of the Cu2+ ions in PPAO is not a requirement for amine oxidase activity. It is shown through the use of a new assay procedure that there are two molecules of PQQ bound per molecule of protein in PPAO; only the more reactive of these PQQ moieties is required for activity. PMID:2559715

  11. Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production of Flower-like Cadmium Sulfide Decorated by Histidine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qizhao; Lian, Juhong; Li, Jiajia; Wang, Rongfang; Huang, Haohao; Su, Bitao; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-controlled synthesis of CdS can significantly enhance the efficiency of its photocatalytic hydrogen production. In this study, a novel three-dimensional (3D) flower-like CdS is synthesized via a facile template-free hydrothermal process using Cd(NO3)2•4H2O and thiourea as precursors and L-Histidine as a chelating agent. The morphology, crystal phase, and photoelectrochemical performance of the flower-like CdS and pure CdS nanocrystals are carefully investigated via various characterizations. Superior photocatalytic activity relative to that of pure CdS is observed on the flower-like CdS photocatalyst under visible light irradiation, which is nearly 13 times of pure CdS. On the basis of the results from SEM studies and our analysis, a growth mechanism of flower-like CdS is proposed by capturing the shape evolution. The imidazole ring of L-Histidine captures the Cd ions from the solution, and prevents the growth of the CdS nanoparticles. Furthermore, the photocatalytic contrast experiments illustrate that the as-synthesized flower-like CdS with L-Histidine is more stable than CdS without L-Histidine in the hydrogen generation. PMID:26337119

  12. Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production of Flower-like Cadmium Sulfide Decorated by Histidine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qizhao; Lian, Juhong; Li, Jiajia; Wang, Rongfang; Huang, Haohao; Su, Bitao; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-controlled synthesis of CdS can significantly enhance the efficiency of its photocatalytic hydrogen production. In this study, a novel three-dimensional (3D) flower-like CdS is synthesized via a facile template-free hydrothermal process using Cd(NO3)2•4H2O and thiourea as precursors and L-Histidine as a chelating agent. The morphology, crystal phase, and photoelectrochemical performance of the flower-like CdS and pure CdS nanocrystals are carefully investigated via various characterizations. Superior photocatalytic activity relative to that of pure CdS is observed on the flower-like CdS photocatalyst under visible light irradiation, which is nearly 13 times of pure CdS. On the basis of the results from SEM studies and our analysis, a growth mechanism of flower-like CdS is proposed by capturing the shape evolution. The imidazole ring of L-Histidine captures the Cd ions from the solution, and prevents the growth of the CdS nanoparticles. Furthermore, the photocatalytic contrast experiments illustrate that the as-synthesized flower-like CdS with L-Histidine is more stable than CdS without L-Histidine in the hydrogen generation. PMID:26337119

  13. Computer simulation of the active site of human serum cholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Kefang Jiao; Song Li; Zhengzheng Lu

    1996-12-31

    The first 3D-structure of acetylchelinesterase from Torpedo California electric organ (T.AChE) was published by JL. Sussman in 1991. We have simulated 3D-structure of human serum cholinesterase (H.BuChE) and the active site of H.BuChE. It is discovered by experiment that the residue of H.BuChE is still active site after a part of H.BuChE is cut. For example, the part of 21KD + 20KD is active site of H.BuChE. The 20KD as it is. Studies on these peptides by Hemelogy indicate that two active peptides have same negative electrostatic potential maps diagram. These negative electrostatic areas attached by acetyl choline with positive electrostatic potency. We predict that 147...236 peptide of AChE could be active site because it was as 20KD as with negative electrostatic potential maps. We look forward to proving from other ones.

  14. Resonant active sites in catalytic ammonia synthesis: A structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholach, Alexander R.; Bryliakova, Anna A.; Matveev, Andrey V.; Bulgakov, Nikolai N.

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption sites Mn consisted of n adjacent atoms M, each bound to the adsorbed species, are considered within a realistic model. The sum of bonds Σ lost by atoms in a site in comparison with the bulk atoms was used for evaluation of the local surface imperfection, while the reaction enthalpy at that site was used as a measure of activity. The comparative study of Mn sites (n = 1-5) at basal planes of Pt, Rh, Ir, Fe, Re and Ru with respect to heat of N2 dissociative adsorption QN and heat of Nad + Had → NHad reaction QNH was performed using semi-empirical calculations. Linear QN(Σ) increase and QNH(Σ) decrease allowed to specify the resonant Σ for each surface in catalytic ammonia synthesis at equilibrium Nad coverage. Optimal Σ are realizable for Ru2, Re2 and Ir4 only, whereas other centers meet steric inhibition or unreal crystal structure. Relative activity of the most active sites in proportion 5.0 × 10- 5: 4.5 × 10- 3: 1: 2.5: 3.0: 1080: 2270 for a sequence of Pt4, Rh4, Fe4(fcc), Ir4, Fe2-5(bcc), Ru2, Re2, respectively, is in agreement with relevant experimental data. Similar approach can be applied to other adsorption or catalytic processes exhibiting structure sensitivity.

  15. Combined Use of Residual Dipolar Couplings and Solution X-ray Scattering To Rapidly Probe Rigid-Body Conformational Transitions in a Non-phosphorylatable Active-Site Mutant of the 128 kDa Enzyme I Dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Takayama, Yuki; Schwieters, Charles D.; Grishaev, Alexander; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Clore, G. Marius

    2012-10-23

    The first component of the bacterial phosphotransferase system, enzyme I (EI), is a multidomain 128 kDa dimer that undergoes large rigid-body conformational transitions during the course of its catalytic cycle. Here we investigate the solution structure of a non-phosphorylatable active-site mutant in which the active-site histidine is substituted by glutamine. We show that perturbations in the relative orientations and positions of the domains and subdomains can be rapidly and reliably determined by conjoined rigid-body/torsion angle/Cartesian simulated annealing calculations driven by orientational restraints from residual dipolar couplings and shape and translation information afforded by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Although histidine and glutamine are isosteric, the conformational space available to a Gln side chain is larger than that for the imidazole ring of His. An additional hydrogen bond between the side chain of Gln189 located on the EIN{sup {alpha}/{beta}} subdomain and an aspartate (Asp129) on the EIN{sup {alpha}} subdomain results in a small ({approx}9{sup o}) reorientation of the EIN{sup {alpha}} and EIN{sup {alpha}/{beta}} subdomains that is in turn propagated to a larger reorientation ({approx}26{sup o}) of the EIN domain relative to the EIC dimerization domain, illustrating the positional sensitivity of the EIN domain and its constituent subdomains to small structural perturbations.

  16. Multi-site Phosphorylation Regulates Bim Stability and Apoptotic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Anette; Barrett, Tamera; Flavell, Richard A.; Davis, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim is established to be an important mediator of signaling pathways that induce cell death. Multi-site phosphorylation of Bim by several members of the MAP kinase group is implicated as a regulatory mechanism that controls the apoptotic activity of Bim. To test the role of Bim phosphorylation in vivo, we constructed mice with a series of mutant alleles that express phosphorylation-defective Bim proteins. We show that mutation of the phosphorylation site Thr-112 causes decreased binding of Bim to the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and can increase cell survival. In contrast, mutation of the phosphorylation sites Ser-55, Ser-65, and Ser-73 can cause increased apoptosis because of reduced proteasomal degradation of Bim. Together, these data indicate that phosphorylation can regulate Bim by multiple mechanisms and that the phosphorylation of Bim on different sites can contribute to the sensitivity of cellular apoptotic responses. PMID:18498746

  17. M. truncatula histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein: structural and biochemical insights into cytokinin transduction pathway in plants

    PubMed Central

    Ruszkowski, M.; Brzezinski, K.; Jedrzejczak, R.; Dauter, M.; Dauter, Z.; Sikorski, M.; Jaskolski, M.

    2013-01-01

    Histidine-containing phosphotransfer proteins (HPts) take part in hormone signal transduction in higher plants. The overall pathway of this process is reminiscent of the two-component system initially identified in prokaryotes. HPts function in histidine-aspartate phosphorelays where they mediate the signal from sensory kinases (usually membrane proteins) to response regulators in the nucleus. Here we report the crystal structure of an HPt protein from Medicago truncatula (MtHPt1) determined at 1.45 Å resolution and refined to an R factor of 16.7% using low-temperature synchrotron-radiation X-ray diffraction data. There is one MtHPt1 molecule in the asymmetric unit of the crystal lattice with P212121 symmetry. The protein fold consists of six α-helices, four of which form a C-terminal helix bundle. The coiled-coil structure of the bundle is stabilized by a network of S-aromatic interactions involving highly conserved sulfur-containing residues. The structure reveals a solvent-exposed side chain of His79, which is the phosphorylation site, as demonstrated by autoradiography combined with site-directed mutation. It is surrounded by highly conserved residues present in all plant HPts. These residues form a putative docking interface for either the receiver domain of the sensory kinase, or for the response regulator. The biological activity of MtHPt1 was tested by autoradiography. It demonstrated phosphorylation by the intracellular kinase domain of the cytokinin receptor MtCRE1. Complex formation between MtHPt1 and the intracellular fragment of MtCRE1 was confirmed by thermophoresis, with a dissociation constant Kd of 14 μM. PMID:23721763

  18. A theoretical study of the active sites of papain and S195C rat trypsin: implications for the low reactivity of mutant serine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The serine and cysteine proteinases represent two important classes of enzymes that use a catalytic triad to hydrolyze peptides and esters. The active site of the serine proteinases consists of three key residues, Asp...His...Ser. The hydroxyl group of serine functions as a nucleophile and the imidazole ring of histidine functions as a general acid/general base during catalysis. Similarly, the active site of the cysteine proteinases also involves three key residues: Asn, His, and Cys. The active site of the cysteine proteinases is generally believed to exist as a zwitterion (Asn...His+...Cys-) with the thiolate anion of the cysteine functioning as a nucleophile during the initial stages of catalysis. Curiously, the mutant serine proteinases, thiol subtilisin and thiol trypsin, which have the hybrid Asp...His...Cys triad, are almost catalytically inert. In this study, ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations have been performed on the active sites of papain and the mutant serine proteinase S195C rat trypsin. These calculations predict that the active site of papain exists predominately as a zwitterion (Cys-...His+...Asn). However, similar calculations on S195C rat trypsin demonstrate that the thiol mutant is unable to form a reactive thiolate anion prior to catalysis. Furthermore, structural comparisons between native papain and S195C rat trypsin have demonstrated that the spatial juxtapositions of the triad residues have been inverted in the serine and cysteine proteinases and, on this basis, I argue that it is impossible to convert a serine proteinase to a cysteine proteinase by site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:8819168

  19. Water in the Active Site of Ketosteroid Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Hanoian, Philip; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations were utilized to investigate the structural and dynamical properties of water in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) to provide insight into the role of these water molecules in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. This reaction is thought to proceed via a dienolate intermediate that is stabilized by hydrogen bonding with residues Tyr16 and Asp103. A comparative study was performed for the wild-type (WT) KSI and the Y16F, Y16S, and Y16F/Y32F/Y57F (FFF) mutants. These systems were studied with three different bound ligands: equilenin, which is an intermediate analog, and the intermediate states of two steroid substrates. Several distinct water occupation sites were identified in the active site of KSI for the WT and mutant systems. Three additional sites were identified in the Y16S mutant that were not occupied in WT KSI or the other mutants studied. The number of water molecules directly hydrogen bonded to the ligand oxygen was approximately two waters in the Y16S mutant, one water in the Y16F and FFF mutants, and intermittent hydrogen bonding of one water molecule in WT KSI. The molecular dynamics trajectories of the Y16F and FFF mutants reproduced the small conformational changes of residue 16 observed in the crystal structures of these two mutants. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations of 1H NMR chemical shifts of the protons in the active site hydrogen-bonding network suggest that the presence of water in the active site does not prevent the formation of short hydrogen bonds with far-downfield chemical shifts. The molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the active site water molecules exchange much more frequently for WT KSI and the FFF mutant than for the Y16F and Y16S mutants. This difference is most likely due to the hydrogen-bonding interaction between Tyr57 and an active site water molecule that is persistent in the Y16F and Y16S mutants but absent in the FFF mutant and significantly less

  20. Activation of phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine does not require binding in the active site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth M; Khan, Crystal A; Hinck, Cynthia S; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2014-12-16

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH), a liver enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine, is activated by phenylalanine. The lack of activity at low levels of phenylalanine has been attributed to the N-terminus of the protein's regulatory domain acting as an inhibitory peptide by blocking substrate access to the active site. The location of the site at which phenylalanine binds to activate the enzyme is unknown, and both the active site in the catalytic domain and a separate site in the N-terminal regulatory domain have been proposed. Binding of catecholamines to the active-site iron was used to probe the accessibility of the active site. Removal of the regulatory domain increases the rate constants for association of several catecholamines with the wild-type enzyme by ∼2-fold. Binding of phenylalanine in the active site is effectively abolished by mutating the active-site residue Arg270 to lysine. The k(cat)/K(phe) value is down 10⁴ for the mutant enzyme, and the K(m) value for phenylalanine for the mutant enzyme is >0.5 M. Incubation of the R270K enzyme with phenylalanine also results in a 2-fold increase in the rate constants for catecholamine binding. The change in the tryptophan fluorescence emission spectrum seen in the wild-type enzyme upon activation by phenylalanine is also seen with the R270K mutant enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine. Both results establish that activation of PheH by phenylalanine does not require binding of the amino acid in the active site. This is consistent with a separate allosteric site, likely in the regulatory domain.

  1. Release of halide ions from the buried active site of the haloalkane dehalogenase LinB revealed by stopped-flow fluorescence analysis and free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Hladilkova, Jana; Prokop, Zbynek; Chaloupkova, Radka; Damborsky, Jiri; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2013-11-21

    Release of halide ions is an essential step of the catalytic cycle of haloalkane dehalogenases. Here we describe experimentally and computationally the process of release of a halide anion from the buried active site of the haloalkane dehalogenase LinB. Using stopped-flow fluorescence analysis and umbrella sampling free energy calculations, we show that the anion binding is ion-specific and follows the ordering I(-) > Br(-) > Cl(-). We also address the issue of the protonation state of the catalytic His272 residue and its effect on the process of halide release. While deprotonation of His272 increases binding of anions in the access tunnel, we show that the anionic ordering does not change with the switch of the protonation state. We also demonstrate that a sodium cation could relatively easily enter the active site, provided the His272 residue is singly protonated, and replace thus the missing proton. In contrast, Na(+) is strongly repelled from the active site containing the doubly protonated His272 residue. Our study contributes toward understanding of the reaction mechanism of haloalkane dehalogenase enzyme family. Determination of the protonation state of the catalytic histidine throughout the catalytic cycle remains a challenge for future studies.

  2. The role of the K-channel and the active-site tyrosine in the catalytic mechanism of cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Wikström, Mårten

    2016-08-01

    The active site of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) comprises an oxygen-binding heme, a nearby copper ion (CuB), and a tyrosine residue that is covalently linked to one of the histidine ligands of CuB. Two proton-conducting pathways are observed in CcO, namely the D- and the K-channels, which are used to transfer protons either to the active site of oxygen reduction (substrate protons) or for pumping. Proton transfer through the D-channel is very fast, and its role in efficient transfer of both substrate and pumped protons is well established. However, it has not been fully clear why a separate K-channel is required, apparently for the supply of substrate protons only. In this work, we have analysed the available experimental and computational data, based on which we provide new perspectives on the role of the K-channel. Our analysis suggests that proton transfer in the K-channel may be gated by the protonation state of the active-site tyrosine (Tyr244) and that the neutral radical form of this residue has a more general role in the CcO mechanism than thought previously. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26898520

  3. How active site protonation state influences the reactivity and ligation of the heme in chlorite dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Streit, Bennett R.; Blanc, Béatrice; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S.; Rodgers, Kenton R.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Chlorite dismutase catalyzes O2 release from chlorite with exquisite efficiency and specificity. The spectroscopic properties, ligand binding affinities, and steady state kinetics of chlorite dismutase from Dechloromonas aromatica were examined over pH 3–11.5 to gain insight into how the protonation state of the heme environment influences dioxygen formation. An acid/base transition was observed by UV/visible and resonance Raman spectroscopy with a pKa of 8.7, 2–3 pH units below analogous transitions observed in typical His-ligated peroxidases. This transition marks the conversion of a five coordinate high spin Fe(III) to a mixed high/low spin ferric-hydroxide, as confirmed by resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy. The two Fe–OH stretching frequencies are quite low, consistent with a weak Fe–OH bond, despite the nearly neutral imidazole side chain of the proximal histidine ligand. The hydroxide is proposed to interact strongly with a distal H-bond donor, thereby weakening the Fe–OH bond. The rR spectra of Cld-CO as a function of pH reveal two forms of the complex, one in which there is minimal interaction of distal residues with the carbonyl oxygen and another, acidic form in which the oxygen is under the influence of positive charge. Recent crystallographic data reveal arginine 183 as the lone H-bond donating residue in the distal pocket. It is likely that this Arg is the strong, positively charged H-bond donor implicated by vibrational data to interact with exogenous axial heme ligands. The same Arg in its neutral (pKa ~ 6.5) form also appears to act as the active site base in binding reactions of protonated ligands, such as HCN, to ferric Cld. The steady state profile for the rate of chlorite decomposition is characterized by these same pKas. The 5 coordinate high spin acidic Cld is more active than the alkaline hydroxide-bound form. The acid form decomposes chlorite most efficiently when the distal Arg is protonated/cationic (maximum kcat = 2.0 (±0.6)

  4. Partial purification and characterization of a novel histidine decarboxylase from Enterobacter aerogenes DL-1.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yu; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Aili; Tian, Mixia

    2015-08-18

    Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) from Enterobacter aerogenes DL-1 was purified in a three-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed a single protein band of 52.4 kD on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimum pH for HDC activity was 6.5, and the enzyme was stable between pH 4 and 8. Enterobacter aerogenes HDC had optimal activity at 40°C and retained most of its activity between 4 and 50°C. HDC activity was reduced in the presence of numerous tested compounds. Particularly with SDS, it significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited enzyme activity. Conversely, Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) showed prominent activation effects (p < 0.01) with activity increasing to 117.20% and 123.42%, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot showed that K m and V max values of the enzyme for L-histidine were 0.21 mM and 71.39 µmol/min, respectively. In comparison with most HDCs from other microorganisms and animals, HDC from E. aerogenes DL-1 displayed higher affinity and greater reaction velocity toward L-histidine.

  5. Chemical Modification of Papain and Subtilisin: An Active Site Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Vincent, Mireille; Dickman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An experiment using methyle methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) and phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride (PMSF) to specifically modify the cysteine and serine residues in the active sites of papain and subtilism respectively is demonstrated. The covalent modification of these enzymes and subsequent rescue of papain shows the beginning biochemist that proteins…

  6. Energy transfer at the active sites of heme proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dlott, D.D.; Hill, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments using a picosecond pump-probe apparatus at the Picosecond Free-electron Laser Center at Stanford University, were performed to investigate the relaxation of carbon monoxide bound to the active sites of heme proteins. The significance of these experiments is two-fold: (1) they provide detailed information about molecular dynamics occurring at the active sites of proteins; and (2) they provide insight into the nature of vibrational relaxation processes in condensed matter. Molecular engineering is used to construct various molecular systems which are studied with the FEL. We have studied native proteins, mainly myoglobin obtained from different species, mutant proteins produced by genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques, and a variety of model systems which mimic the structures of the active sites of native proteins, which are produced using molecular synthesis. Use of these different systems permits us to investigate how specific molecular structural changes affect dynamical processes occurring at the active sites. This research provides insight into the problems of how different species needs are fulfilled by heme proteins which have greatly different functionality, which is induced by rather small structural changes.

  7. Conformational Transitions in Human AP Endonuclease 1 and Its Active Site Mutant during Abasic Site Repair†

    PubMed Central

    Kanazhevskaya, Lyubov Yu.; Koval, Vladimir V.; Zharkov, Dmitry O.; Strauss, Phyllis R.; Fedorova, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    AP endonuclease 1 (APE 1) is a crucial enzyme of the base excision repair pathway (BER) in human cells. APE1 recognizes apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and makes a nick in the phosphodiester backbone 5′ to them. The conformational dynamics and presteady-state kinetics of wild-type APE1 and its active site mutant, Y171F-P173L-N174K, have been studied. To observe conformational transitions occurring in the APE1 molecule during the catalytic cycle, we detected intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the enzyme under single turnover conditions. DNA duplexes containing a natural AP site, its tetrahydrofuran analogue, or a 2′-deoxyguanosine residue in the same position were used as specific substrates or ligands. The stopped-flow experiments have revealed high flexibility of the APE1 molecule and the complexity of the catalytic process. The fluorescent traces indicate that wild-type APE1 undergoes at least four conformational transitions during the processing of abasic sites in DNA. In contrast, nonspecific interactions of APE1 with undamaged DNA can be described by a two-step kinetic scheme. Rate and equilibrium constants were extracted from the stopped-flow and fluorescence titration data for all substrates, ligands, and products. A replacement of three residues at the enzymatic active site including the replacement of tyrosine 171 with phenylalanine in the enzyme active site resulted in a 2 × 104-fold decrease in the reaction rate and reduced binding affinity. Our data indicate the important role of conformational changes in APE1 for substrate recognition and catalysis. PMID:20575528

  8. Enhanced silencing and stabilization of siRNA polyplexes by histidine-mediated hydrogen bonds

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Szu-Ting; Hom, Kellie; Zhang, Daoning; Leng, Qixin; Tricoli, Lucas J.; Hustedt, Jason M.; Lee, Amy; Shapiro, Michael J.; Seog, Joonil; Kahn, Jason D.; Mixson, A. James

    2013-01-01

    Branched peptides containing histidines and lysines (HK) have been shown to be effective carriers for DNA and siRNA. We anticipate that elucidation of the binding mechanism of HK with siRNA will provide greater insight into the self-assembly and delivery of the HK:siRNA polyplex. Non-covalent bonds between histidine residues and nucleic acids may enhance the stability of siRNA polyplexes. We first compared the polyplex biophysical properties of a branched HK with those of branched asparagines-lysine peptide (NK). Consistent with siRNA silencing experiments, gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the HK siRNA polyplex maintained its integrity with prolonged incubation in serum, whereas siRNA in complex with NK was degraded in a time-dependent manner. Isothermal titration calorimetry of various peptides binding to siRNA at pH 7.3 showed that branched polylysine, interacted with siRNA was initially endothermic, whereas branched HK exhibited an exothermic reaction at initial binding. The exothermic interaction indicates formation of non-ionic bonds between histidines and siRNA; purely electrostatic interaction is entropy-driven and endothermic. To investigate the type of non-ionic bond, we studied the protonation state of imidazole rings of a selectively 15N labeled branched HK by heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR. The peak of Nδ1-H tautomers of imidazole shifted downfield (in the direction of deprotonation) by 0.5 to 1.0 ppm with addition of siRNA, providing direct evidence that histidines formed hydrogen bonds with siRNA at physiological pH. These results establish that histidine-rich peptides form hydrogen bonds with siRNA, thereby enhancing the stability and biological activity of the polyplex in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24161165

  9. N-methyl-D-aspartate recognition site ligands modulate activity at the coupled glycine recognition site.

    PubMed

    Hood, W F; Compton, R P; Monahan, J B

    1990-03-01

    In synaptic plasma membranes from rat forebrain, the potencies of glycine recognition site agonists and antagonists for modulating [3H]1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine ([3H]TCP) binding and for displacing strychnine-insensitive [3H]glycine binding are altered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) recognition site ligands. The NMDA competitive antagonist, cis-4-phosphonomethyl-2-piperidine carboxylate (CGS 19755), reduces [3H]glycine binding, and the reduction can be fully reversed by the NMDA recognition site agonist, L-glutamate. Scatchard analysis of [3H]glycine binding shows that in the presence of CGS 19755 there is no change in Bmax (8.81 vs. 8.79 pmol/mg of protein), but rather a decrease in the affinity of glycine (KD of 0.202 microM vs. 0.129 microM). Similar decreases in affinity are observed for the glycine site agonists, D-serine and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, in the presence of CGS 19755. In contrast, the affinity of glycine antagonists, 1-hydroxy-3-amino-2-pyrrolidone and 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate, at this [3H]glycine recognition site increases in the presence of CGS 19755. The functional consequence of this change in affinity was addressed using the modulation of [3H]TCP binding. In the presence of L-glutamate, the potency of glycine agonists for the stimulation of [3H]TCP binding increases, whereas the potency of glycine antagonists decreases. These data are consistent with NMDA recognition site ligands, through their interactions at the NMDA recognition site, modulating activity at the associated glycine recognition site.

  10. Inhibition of copper absorption by zinc. Effect of histidine.

    PubMed

    Wapnir, R A; Balkman, C

    1991-06-01

    Copper and zinc interact at the intestinal mucosal level, affecting copper absorption. Amino acids, such as histidine, may affect the absorption of these two elements by chelating these cations. The two mechanisms could have additive potential. This possibility was investigated using a duodenal-jejunal single-pass perfusion procedure in anesthetized rats. Copper absorption and tissue retention from solutions containing 0.1 mM copper were determined in the presence of either no zinc or equimolar zinc, or at a zinc/copper ratio of 10/1, either without histidine or with histidine at a 10/1 or 20/1 ratio to copper. Copper removal from the intestinal lumen was decreased by zinc, and further reduced by increasing concentrations of histidine. There was a greater accumulation of copper in the small intestine, reaching a maximum with a 10-fold excess of histidine. With zinc at a 10/1 ratio to copper, the addition of a 10- or 20-fold molar excess of histidine further decreased the net uptake of copper from the perfusate while greater copper accumulation in the tissue occurred. Histidine thus enhances the inhibitory effects of zinc on copper absorption, suggesting the application of convergent mechanisms for diminishing copper uptake. This could be relevant for the treatment of Wilson's disease.

  11. Characterization of an avian histidine decarboxylase and localization of histaminergic neurons in the chicken brain.

    PubMed

    Bessho, Yuki; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Maejima, Sho; Taniuchi, Shusuke; Masuda, Keiko; Shikano, Kenshiro; Kondo, Kunihiro; Furumitsu, Megumi; Ukena, Kazuyoshi

    2014-08-22

    In mammals, it is established that histamine is a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. It is produced by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus. However, HDC as well as histaminergic neurons have not yet been characterized in the avian brain. We have cloned the cDNA for HDC from the chicken hypothalamus and demonstrated that the chicken HDC sequence is highly homologous to the mammalian counterpart, and that the expressed protein shows high enzymatic activity. The expression of HDC mRNA at various sites in the brain was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the HDC mRNA was highly expressed in the hypothalamic infundibulum. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that the cells containing HDC mRNA were localized in the medial mammillary nucleus of the hypothalamic infundibulum. Intracerebroventricular injection of histamine in chicks resulted in inhibition of feeding behavior. This is the first report of the characterization of histaminergic neurons in the avian brain, and our findings indicate that neuronal histamine exerts anorexigenic effects in chicks.

  12. Characterization of an avian histidine decarboxylase and localization of histaminergic neurons in the chicken brain.

    PubMed

    Bessho, Yuki; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Maejima, Sho; Taniuchi, Shusuke; Masuda, Keiko; Shikano, Kenshiro; Kondo, Kunihiro; Furumitsu, Megumi; Ukena, Kazuyoshi

    2014-08-22

    In mammals, it is established that histamine is a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. It is produced by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus. However, HDC as well as histaminergic neurons have not yet been characterized in the avian brain. We have cloned the cDNA for HDC from the chicken hypothalamus and demonstrated that the chicken HDC sequence is highly homologous to the mammalian counterpart, and that the expressed protein shows high enzymatic activity. The expression of HDC mRNA at various sites in the brain was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the HDC mRNA was highly expressed in the hypothalamic infundibulum. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that the cells containing HDC mRNA were localized in the medial mammillary nucleus of the hypothalamic infundibulum. Intracerebroventricular injection of histamine in chicks resulted in inhibition of feeding behavior. This is the first report of the characterization of histaminergic neurons in the avian brain, and our findings indicate that neuronal histamine exerts anorexigenic effects in chicks. PMID:24993302

  13. Control of active sites in selective flocculation: I -- Mathematical model

    SciTech Connect

    Behl, S.; Moudgil, B.M.; Prakash, T.S. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Heteroflocculation has been determined to be another major reason for loss in selectivity for flocculation process. In a mathematical model developed earlier, conditions for controlling heteroflocculation were discussed. Blocking active sites to control selective adsorption of a flocculant oil a desirable solid surface is discussed. It has been demonstrated that the lower molecular weight fraction of a flocculant which is incapable of flocculating the particles is an efficient site blocking agent. The major application of selective flocculation has been in mineral processing but many potential uses exist in biological and other colloidal systems. These include purification of ceramic powders, separating hazardous solids from chemical waste, and removal of deleterious components from paper pulp.

  14. The site of activation of factor X by cancer procoagulant.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S G; Mourad, A M

    1991-12-01

    Cancer procoagulant (CP) is a cysteine proteinase found in a variety of malignant cells and tissues and in human amnion-chorion tissue. It initiates coagulation by activating factor X. However, the amino acid sequence of the substrate protein that determines the cleavage site of cysteine proteinases is different from that of the serine proteinases that normally activate factor X, such as factor IXa, VIIa and Russell's Viper Venom (RVV). Therefore, it was of interest to determine the site of cleavage of human factor X by CP. Purified CP was incubated with purified factor X and the reaction mixture was electrophoresed on a 10% Tris-tricine SDS-PAGE gel. The proteins were electroeluted on to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane, and stained with Coomassie blue. The heavy chain of activated factor X was cut out of the PVDF membrane and sequenced with an Applied Biosystems 477A with on-line HPLC. The primary cleavage sequence was Asp-Ala-Ala-Asp-Leu-Asp-Pro-; two other secondary sequences Ser-Ile-Thr-Trp-Lys-Pro- and Glu-Asn-Pro-Phe-Asp-Leu were found. The penultimate amino acid on the carbonyl side of the hydrolysed amide bond plays a critical role for the recognition of the cleavage site of cysteine proteinases. These data indicate that the penultimate amino acid for the primary cleavage site of factor X by CP is proline-20 and for the secondary sites, proline-13 and proline-28. This is in contrast to arginine-52 that determines the specificity of the cleavage by normal serine proteinase activation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Effect of including torsional parameters for histidine-metal interactions in classical force fields for metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Mera-Adasme, Raúl; Sadeghian, Keyarash; Sundholm, Dage; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2014-11-20

    Classical force-field parameters of the metal site of metalloproteins usually comprise only the partial charges of the involved atoms, as well as the bond-stretching and bending parameters of the metal-ligand interactions. Although for certain metal ligands such as histidine residues, the torsional motions at the metal site play an important role for the dynamics of the protein, no such terms have been considered to be crucial in the parametrization of the force fields, and they have therefore been omitted in the parametrization. In this work, we have optimized AMBER-compatible force-field parameters for the reduced state of the metal site of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and assessed the effect of including torsional parameters for the histidine-metal interactions in molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of the obtained results, we recommend that torsion parameters of the metal site are included when processes at the metal site are investigated or when free-energy calculations are performed. As the torsion parameters mainly affect the structure of the metal site, other kinds of structural studies can be performed without considering the torsional parameters of the metal site.

  16. Effect of including torsional parameters for histidine-metal interactions in classical force fields for metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Mera-Adasme, Raúl; Sadeghian, Keyarash; Sundholm, Dage; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2014-11-20

    Classical force-field parameters of the metal site of metalloproteins usually comprise only the partial charges of the involved atoms, as well as the bond-stretching and bending parameters of the metal-ligand interactions. Although for certain metal ligands such as histidine residues, the torsional motions at the metal site play an important role for the dynamics of the protein, no such terms have been considered to be crucial in the parametrization of the force fields, and they have therefore been omitted in the parametrization. In this work, we have optimized AMBER-compatible force-field parameters for the reduced state of the metal site of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and assessed the effect of including torsional parameters for the histidine-metal interactions in molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of the obtained results, we recommend that torsion parameters of the metal site are included when processes at the metal site are investigated or when free-energy calculations are performed. As the torsion parameters mainly affect the structure of the metal site, other kinds of structural studies can be performed without considering the torsional parameters of the metal site. PMID:25410708

  17. Coulombic effects of remote subsites on the active site of ribonuclease A.

    PubMed

    Fisher, B M; Schultz, L W; Raines, R T

    1998-12-15

    The active-site cleft of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) is lined with cationic residues that interact with a bound nucleic acid. Those residues interacting with the phosphoryl groups comprise the P0, P1, and P2 subsites, with the scissile P-O5' bond residing in the P1 subsite. Coulombic interactions between the P0 and P2 subsites and phosphoryl groups of the substrate were characterized previously [Fisher, B. M., Ha, J.-H., and Raines, R. T. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 12121-12132]. Here, the interactions between these subsites and the active-site residues His12 and His119 are described in detail. A protein variant in which the cationic residues in these subsites (Lys66 in the P0 subsite and Lys7 and Arg10 in the P2 subsite) were replaced with alanine was crystallized, both free and with bound 3'-uridine monophosphate (3'-UMP). Structures of K7A/R10A/K66A RNase A and the K7A/R10A/K66A RNase A.3'-UMP complex were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis to resolutions of 2.0 and 2.1 A, respectively. There is little observable change between these structures and that of wild-type RNase A, either free or with bound 3'-cytidine monophosphate. K7A/R10A/K66A RNase A was evaluated for its ability to cleave UpA, a dinucleotide substrate that does not span the P0 or the P2 subsites. In comparison to the wild-type enzyme, the value of kcat was decreased by 5-fold and that of kcat/Km was decreased 10-fold, suggesting that these remote subsites interact with the active site. These interactions were characterized by determining the pKa values of His12 and His119 at 0.018 and 0.142 M Na+, both in wild-type RNase A and the K7A/R10A/K66A variant. The side chains of Lys7, Arg10, and Lys66 depress the pKa values of these histidine residues, and this depression is sensitive to the salt concentration. In addition, the P0 and P2 subsites influence the interaction of His12 and His119 with each other, as demonstrated by changes in the cooperativity that gives rise to microscopic

  18. Active-Site-Accessible, Porphyrinic Metal;#8722;Organic Framework Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Farha, Omar K.; Shultz, Abraham M.; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-02-06

    On account of their structural similarity to cofactors found in many metallo-enzymes, metalloporphyrins are obvious potential building blocks for catalytically active, metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. While numerous porphyrin-based MOFs have already been described, versions featuring highly accessible active sites and permanent microporosity are remarkably scarce. Indeed, of the more than 70 previously reported porphyrinic MOFs, only one has been shown to be both permanently microporous and contain internally accessible active sites for chemical catalysis. Attempts to generalize the design approach used in this single successful case have failed. Reported here, however, is the synthesis of an extended family of MOFs that directly incorporate a variety of metalloporphyrins (specifically Al{sup 3+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 3+}, and Fe{sup 3+} complexes). These robust porphyrinic materials (RPMs) feature large channels and readily accessible active sites. As an illustrative example, one of the manganese-containing RPMs is shown to be catalytically competent for the oxidation of alkenes and alkanes.

  19. Functional constituents of the active site of human neutrophil collagenase.

    PubMed

    Mookhtiar, K A; Wang, F; Van Wart, H E

    1986-05-01

    A series of chemical modification reactions has been carried out to identify functional constituents of the active site of human neutrophil collagenase. The enzyme is reversibly inhibited by the transition metal chelating agent 1,10-phenanthroline, and inhibition is fully reversed by zinc. Removal of weakly bound metal ions by gel filtration inactivates collagenase, and activity is fully restored on immediate readdition of calcium. The enzyme is unaffected by reagents that modify serine, cysteine, and arginine residues. However, reaction with the carboxyl reagents cyclohexylmorpholinocarbodiimide and Woodward's Reagent K lowers the activity of the enzyme substantially. Acetylimidazole inactivates the enzyme, but activity is completely restored on addition of hydroxylamine. The enzyme is also inactivated by tetranitromethane, indicating that it contains an essential tyrosine residue. Acylation of collagenase with diethyl pyrocarbonate, diketene, acetic anhydride, or trinitrobenzenesulfonate inactivates the enzyme, and activity is not restored on addition of hydroxylamine, indicating the presence of an essential lysine residue.

  20. Nest predation increases with parental activity: Separating nest site and parental activity effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.; Scott, J.; Menge, C.

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection.

  1. Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Neiditch,M.; Federle, M.; Pompeani, A.; Kelly, R.; Swem, D.; Jeffrey, P.; Bassler, B.; Hughson, F.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode.

  2. Active sites in char gasification: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtowicz, M.; Lilly, W.D.; Perkins, M.T.; Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    Among the key variables in the design of gasifiers and combustors is the reactivity of the chars which must be gasified or combusted. Significant loss of unburned char is unacceptable in virtually any process; the provision of sufficient residence time for complete conversion is essential. A very wide range of reactivities are observed, depending upon the nature of the char in a process. The current work focuses on furthering the understanding of gasification reactivities of chars. It has been well established that the reactivity of char to gasification generally depends upon three principal factors: (1) the concentration of ''active sites'' in the char; (2) mass transfer within the char; and (3) the type and concentration of catalytic impurities in the char. The present study primarily addresses the first factor. The subject of this research is the origin, nature, and fate of active sites in chars derived from parent hydrocarbons with coal-like structure. The nature and number of the active sites and their reactivity towards oxygen are examined in ''model'' chars derived from phenol-formaldehyde type resins. How the active sites are lost by the process of thermal annealing during heat treatment of chars are studied, and actual rate for the annealing process is derived. Since intrinsic char reactivities are of primary interest in the present study, a fair amount of attention was given to the model char synthesis and handling so that the effect of catalytic impurities and oxygen-containing functional groups in the chemical structure of the material were minimized, if not completely eliminated. The project would not be considered complete without comparing characteristic features of synthetic chars with kinetic behavior exhibited by natural chars, including coal chars.

  3. Brownian aggregation rate of colloid particles with several active sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Polshchitsin, Alexey A.; Yakovleva, Galina E.; Maltsev, Valeri P.

    2014-08-14

    We theoretically analyze the aggregation kinetics of colloid particles with several active sites. Such particles (so-called “patchy particles”) are well known as chemically anisotropic reactants, but the corresponding rate constant of their aggregation has not yet been established in a convenient analytical form. Using kinematic approximation for the diffusion problem, we derived an analytical formula for the diffusion-controlled reaction rate constant between two colloid particles (or clusters) with several small active sites under the following assumptions: the relative translational motion is Brownian diffusion, and the isotropic stochastic reorientation of each particle is Markovian and arbitrarily correlated. This formula was shown to produce accurate results in comparison with more sophisticated approaches. Also, to account for the case of a low number of active sites per particle we used Monte Carlo stochastic algorithm based on Gillespie method. Simulations showed that such discrete model is required when this number is less than 10. Finally, we applied the developed approach to the simulation of immunoagglutination, assuming that the formed clusters have fractal structure.

  4. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Hicks, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from April 1991 through September 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations (SWO) and the Environmental Sciences Division, both of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level (radioactive) waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. A new set of action levels was developed on the basis of a statistical analysis of background contamination. These new action levels have been used to evaluate results in this report. Results of ASEMP monitoring continue to demonstrate that no LLW (except [sup 3]H) is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II, which began in early FY 1991, was >90% complete at the end of September 1991. Results of sampling of groundwater and surface waters is presented.

  5. Inhibition and active-site modelling of prolidase.

    PubMed

    King, G F; Crossley, M J; Kuchel, P W

    1989-03-15

    Consideration of the active-site model of prolidase led us to examine azetidine, pyrrolidine and piperidine substrate analogs as potential in vivo inhibitors of the enzyme. One of these, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-proline, was shown to be a potent competitive inhibitor of porcine kidney prolidase (Ki = 90 microM); its rapid protein-mediated permeation of human and sheep erythrocytes suggests that it may be effective in vivo. The higher homolog, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-pipecolic acid, was also a potent inhibitor of the enzyme while the antihypertensive drugs, captopril and enalaprilat, were shown to have mild and no inhibitory effects, respectively. Analysis of inhibitor action and consideration of X-ray crystallographic data of relevant Mn2+ complexes allowed the active-site model of prolidase to be further refined; a new model is presented in which the substrate acts as a bidentate ligand towards the active-site manganous ion. Various aspects of the new model help to explain why Mn2+ has been 'chosen' by the enzyme in preference to other biologically available metal ions. PMID:2924773

  6. Insufficient intake of L-histidine reduces brain histamine and causes anxiety-like behaviors in male mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takeo; Nakamura, Tadaho; Shibakusa, Tetsuro; Sugita, Mayu; Naganuma, Fumito; Iida, Tomomitsu; Miura, Yamato; Mohsen, Attayeb; Harada, Ryuichi; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2014-10-01

    L-histidine is one of the essential amino acids for humans, and it plays a critical role as a component of proteins. L-histidine is also important as a precursor of histamine. Brain histamine is synthesized from L-histidine in the presence of histidine decarboxylase, which is expressed in histamine neurons. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the importance of dietary L-histidine as a precursor of brain histamine and the histaminergic nervous system. C57BL/6J male mice at 8 wk of age were assigned to 2 different diets for at least 2 wk: the control (Con) diet (5.08 g L-histidine/kg diet) or the low L-histidine diet (LHD) (1.28 g L-histidine/kg diet). We measured the histamine concentration in the brain areas of Con diet-fed mice (Con group) and LHD-fed mice (LHD group). The histamine concentration was significantly lower in the LHD group [Con group vs. LHD group: histamine in cortex (means ± SEs): 13.9 ± 1.25 vs. 9.36 ± 0.549 ng/g tissue; P = 0.002]. Our in vivo microdialysis assays revealed that histamine release stimulated by high K(+) from the hypothalamus in the LHD group was 60% of that in the Con group (P = 0.012). However, the concentrations of other monoamines and their metabolites were not changed by the LHD. The open-field tests showed that the LHD group spent a shorter amount of time in the central zone (87.6 ± 14.1 vs. 50.0 ± 6.03 s/10 min; P = 0.019), and the light/dark box tests demonstrated that the LHD group spent a shorter amount of time in the light box (198 ± 8.19 vs. 162 ± 14.1 s/10 min; P = 0.048), suggesting that the LHD induced anxiety-like behaviors. However, locomotor activity, memory functions, and social interaction did not differ between the 2 groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that insufficient intake of histidine reduced the brain histamine content, leading to anxiety-like behaviors in the mice.

  7. Hybrid histidine kinases in pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Defosse, Tatiana A; Sharma, Anupam; Mondal, Alok K; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Calderone, Richard; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Courdavault, Vincent; Clastre, Marc; Papon, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Histidine kinases (HK) sense and transduce via phosphorylation events many intra- and extracellular signals in bacteria, archaea, slime moulds and plants. HK are also widespread in the fungal kingdom, but their precise roles in the regulation of physiological processes remain largely obscure. Expanding genomic resources have recently given the opportunity to identify uncharacterised HK family members in yeasts and moulds and now allow proposing a complex classification of Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and lower fungi HK. A growing number of genetic approaches have progressively provided new insight into the role of several groups of HK in prominent fungal pathogens. In particular, a series of studies have revealed that members of group III HK, which occur in the highest number of fungal species and contain a unique N-terminus region consisting of multiple HAMP domain repeats, regulate morphogenesis and virulence in various human, plant and insect pathogenic fungi. This research field is further supported by recent shape-function studies providing clear correlation between structural properties and signalling states in group III HK. Since HK are absent in mammals, these represent interesting fungal target for the discovery of new antifungal drugs.

  8. Hybrid histidine kinases in pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Defosse, Tatiana A; Sharma, Anupam; Mondal, Alok K; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Calderone, Richard; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Courdavault, Vincent; Clastre, Marc; Papon, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Histidine kinases (HK) sense and transduce via phosphorylation events many intra- and extracellular signals in bacteria, archaea, slime moulds and plants. HK are also widespread in the fungal kingdom, but their precise roles in the regulation of physiological processes remain largely obscure. Expanding genomic resources have recently given the opportunity to identify uncharacterised HK family members in yeasts and moulds and now allow proposing a complex classification of Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and lower fungi HK. A growing number of genetic approaches have progressively provided new insight into the role of several groups of HK in prominent fungal pathogens. In particular, a series of studies have revealed that members of group III HK, which occur in the highest number of fungal species and contain a unique N-terminus region consisting of multiple HAMP domain repeats, regulate morphogenesis and virulence in various human, plant and insect pathogenic fungi. This research field is further supported by recent shape-function studies providing clear correlation between structural properties and signalling states in group III HK. Since HK are absent in mammals, these represent interesting fungal target for the discovery of new antifungal drugs. PMID:25560420

  9. Hemoglobin istanbul: substitution of glutamine for histidine in a proximal histidine (F8(92)β)

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, M.; Erdem, S.; Efremov, G. D.; Wilson, J. B.; Huisman, T. H. J.; Schroeder, W. A.; Shelton, J. R.; Shelton, J. B.; Ulitin, O. N.; Müftüoğlu, A.

    1972-01-01

    A presumably spontaneous mutation has resulted in the formation of Hemoglobin (Hb) Istanbul in which glutamine is substituted for histidine in the proximal position of the β-chain (F8(92)). The anemia and other physiological effects that occur in the presence of Hb Istanbul were much ameliorated by splenectomy. Hb Istanbul is a relatively unstable molecule which produces a rather moderate case of “unstable hemoglobin hemolytic anemia.” In the determination of structure, a method of preferential cleavage of an aspartyl-proline bond at residues 99-100 of the β-chain was used. Images PMID:4639022

  10. Differentiation of histidine tautomeric states using 15N selectively filtered 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yimin; Cross, Timothy A.; Fu, Riqiang

    2014-08-01

    The histidine imidazole ring in proteins usually contains a mixture of three possible tautomeric states (two neutral - τ and π states and a charged state) at physiological pHs. Differentiating the tautomeric states is critical for understanding how the histidine residue participates in many structurally and functionally important proteins. In this work, one dimensional 15N selectively filtered 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy is proposed to differentiate histidine tautomeric states and to identify all 13C resonances of the individual imidazole rings in a mixture of tautomeric states. When 15N selective 180° pulses are applied to the protonated or non-protonated nitrogen region, the 13C sites that are bonded to the non-protonated or protonated nitrogen sites can be identified, respectively. A sample of 13C, 15N labeled histidine powder lyophilized from a solution at pH 6.3 has been used to illustrate the usefulness of this scheme by uniquely assigning resonances of the neutral τ and charged states from the mixture.

  11. Druggability analysis and classification of protein tyrosine phosphatase active sites

    PubMed Central

    Ghattas, Mohammad A; Raslan, Noor; Sadeq, Asil; Al Sorkhy, Mohammad; Atatreh, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases. The fact that no PTP inhibitors have reached the market so far has raised many questions about their druggability. In this study, the active sites of 17 PTPs were characterized and assessed for its ability to bind drug-like molecules. Consequently, PTPs were classified according to their druggability scores into four main categories. Only four members showed intermediate to very druggable pocket; interestingly, the rest of them exhibited poor druggability. Particularly focusing on PTP1B, we also demonstrated the influence of several factors on the druggability of PTP active site. For instance, the open conformation showed better druggability than the closed conformation, while the tight-bound water molecules appeared to have minimal effect on the PTP1B druggability. Finally, the allosteric site of PTP1B was found to exhibit superior druggability compared to the catalytic pocket. This analysis can prove useful in the discovery of new PTP inhibitors by assisting researchers in predicting hit rates from high throughput or virtual screening and saving unnecessary cost, time, and efforts via prioritizing PTP targets according to their predicted druggability. PMID:27757011

  12. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified.

  13. A semisynthetic strategy leads to alteration of the backbone amidate ligand in the NiSOD active site

    SciTech Connect

    Campeciño, Julius O.; Dudycz, Lech W.; Tumelty, David; Berg, Volker; Cabelli, Diane E.; Maroney, Michael J.

    2015-07-01

    Computational investigations have implicated the amidate ligand in nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) in stabilizing Ni-centered redox catalysis and in preventing cysteine thiolate ligand oxidation. To test these predictions, we have used an experimental approach utilizing a semisynthetic scheme that employs native chemical ligation of a pentapeptide (HCDLP) to recombinant S. coelicolor NiSOD lacking these N-terminal residues, NΔ5-NiSOD. Wild-type enzyme produced in this manner exhibits the characteristic spectral properties of recombinant WT-NiSOD and is as catalytically active. The semisynthetic scheme was also employed to construct a variant where the amidate ligand was converted to a secondary amine, H1*-NiSOD, a novel strategy that retains a backbone N-donor atom. The H1*-NiSOD variant was found to have only ~1% of the catalytic activity of the recombinant wild-type enzyme, and had altered spectroscopic properties. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals a four-coordinate planar site with N2S2-donor ligands, consistent with electronic absorption spectroscopic results indicating that the Ni center in H1*-NiSOD is mostly reduced in the as-isolated sample, as opposed to 50:50 Ni(II)/Ni(III) mixture that is typical for the recombinant wild-type enzyme. The EPR spectrum of as-isolated H1*-NiSOD accounts for ~11% of the Ni in the sample and is similar to WT-NiSOD, but more axial, with gz < gx,y. 14N-hyperfine is observed on gzhistidine ligand in the Ni(III) complex. As a result, the altered electronic properties and implications for redox catalysis are discussed in light of predictions based on synthetic and computational models.

  14. Electrostatic fields in the active sites of lysozymes.

    PubMed

    Sun, D P; Liao, D I; Remington, S J

    1989-07-01

    Considerable experimental evidence is in support of several aspects of the mechanism that has been proposed for the catalytic activity of lysozyme. However, the enzymatically catalyzed hydrolysis of polysaccharides proceeds over 5 orders of magnitude faster than that of model compounds that mimic the configuration of the substrate in the active site of the enzyme. Although several possible explanations for this rate enhancement have been discussed elsewhere, a definitive mechanism has not emerged. Here we report striking results obtained by classical electrodynamics, which suggest that bond breakage and the consequent separation of charge in lysozyme is promoted by a large electrostatic field across the active site cleft, produced in part by a very asymmetric distribution of charged residues on the enzyme surface. Lysozymes unrelated in amino acid sequence have similar distributions of charged residues and electric fields. The results reported here suggest that the electrostatic component of the rate enhancement is greater than 9 kcal.mol-1. Thus, electrostatic interactions may play a more important role in the enzymatic mechanism than has generally been appreciated.

  15. Oxygen activation by the noncoupled binuclear copper site in peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase. Spectroscopic definition of the resting sites and the putative CuIIM-OOH intermediate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Bell, Joseph; Eipper, Betty A; Solomon, Edward I

    2004-05-18

    Spectroscopic methods, density functional calculations, and ligand field analyses are combined to define the geometric models and electronic structure descriptions of the Cu(M) and Cu(H) sites in the oxidized form of the noncoupled binuclear copper protein peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM). The Cu(M) site has a square pyramidal geometry with a long axial Cu-methionine bond and two histidines, H(2)O, and OH(-) as equatorial ligands. The Cu(H) site has a slightly D(2)(d) distorted square planar geometry with three histidines and H(2)O ligands. The structurally inequivalent Cu(M) and Cu(H) sites do not exhibit measurable differences in optical and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, which result from their similar ligand field transition energies and ground-state Cu covalencies. The additional axial methionine ligand interaction and associated square pyramidal distortion of the Cu(M) site have the opposite effect of the strong equatorial OH(-) donor ligand on the Cu d orbital splitting pattern relative to the Cu(H) site leading to similar ligand field transition energies for both sites. The small molecule NO(2)(-) binds in different coordination modes to the Cu(M) and Cu(H) site because of differences in their exchangeable coordination positions resulting in these Cu(II) sites being spectroscopically distinguishable. Azide binding to PHM is used as a spectroscopic and electronic structure analogue to OOH(-) binding to provide a starting point for developing a geometric and electronic structural model for the putative Cu(II)(M)-OOH intermediate in the H-atom abstraction reaction of PHM. Possible electronic structure contributions of the Cu(II)(M)-OOH intermediate to reactivity are considered by correlation to the well-studied L3Cu(II)-OOH model complex (L3 = [HB[3-tBu-5-iPrpz](3)]). The Met-S ligand of the Cu(M) site is found to contribute to the stabilization of the Cu(II)(M)-oxyl species, which would be a product of Cu(II)(M)-OOH H

  16. Trichodiene synthase. Identification of active site residues by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Cane, D E; Shim, J H; Xue, Q; Fitzsimons, B C; Hohn, T M

    1995-02-28

    Derivatization of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-treated trichodiene synthase with [methyl-14C]methyl methanethiosulfonate and analysis of the derived tryptic peptides suggested the presence of two cysteine residues at the active site. The corresponding C146A and C190A mutants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The C190A mutant displayed partial but significantly reduced activity, with a reduction in kcat/Km of 3000 compared to the wild-type trichodiene synthase, while the C146A mutant was essentially inactive. A hybrid trichodiene synthase, constructed from amino acids 1-309 of the Fusarium sporotrichioides enzyme and amino acids 310-383 of the Gibberella pulicaris cyclase, had steady state kinetic parameters nearly identical to those of the wild-type F. sporotrichioides enzyme. From this parent hybrid, a series of mutants was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in which the amino acids in the base-rich region, 302-306 (DRRYR), were systematically modified. Three of these mutants were overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. The importance of Arg304 for catalysis was established by the observation that the R304K mutant showed a more than 25-fold increase in Km, as well as a 200-fold reduction in kcat. In addition, analysis of the incubation products of the R304K mutant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) indicated that farnesyl diphosphate was converted not only to trichodiene but to at least two additional C15H24 hydrocarbons, mle 204. Replacement of the Tyr305 residue of trichodiene synthase with Phe had little effect on kcat, while increasing the Km by a factor of ca. 7-8.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7873527

  17. Glassin, a histidine-rich protein from the siliceous skeletal system of the marine sponge Euplectella, directs silica polycondensation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Amano, Taro; Bari, Md Rezaul; Weaver, James C; Arima, Jiro; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-15

    The hexactinellids are a diverse group of predominantly deep sea sponges that synthesize elaborate fibrous skeletal systems of amorphous hydrated silica. As a representative example, members of the genus Euplectella have proved to be useful model systems for investigating structure-function relationships in these hierarchically ordered siliceous network-like composites. Despite recent advances in understanding the mechanistic origins of damage tolerance in these complex skeletal systems, the details of their synthesis have remained largely unexplored. Here, we describe a previously unidentified protein, named "glassin," the main constituent in the water-soluble fraction of the demineralized skeletal elements of Euplectella. When combined with silicic acid solutions, glassin rapidly accelerates silica polycondensation over a pH range of 6-8. Glassin is characterized by high histidine content, and cDNA sequence analysis reveals that glassin shares no significant similarity with any other known proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals that glassin consists of two similar histidine-rich domains and a connecting domain. Each of the histidine-rich domains is composed of three segments: an amino-terminal histidine and aspartic acid-rich sequence, a proline-rich sequence in the middle, and a histidine and threonine-rich sequence at the carboxyl terminus. Histidine always forms HX or HHX repeats, in which most of X positions are occupied by glycine, aspartic acid, or threonine. Recombinant glassin reproduces the silica precipitation activity observed in the native proteins. The highly modular composition of glassin, composed of imidazole, acidic, and hydroxyl residues, favors silica polycondensation and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of skeletal formation in hexactinellid sponges.

  18. Glassin, a histidine-rich protein from the siliceous skeletal system of the marine sponge Euplectella, directs silica polycondensation

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Amano, Taro; Bari, Md. Rezaul; Weaver, James C.; Arima, Jiro; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The hexactinellids are a diverse group of predominantly deep sea sponges that synthesize elaborate fibrous skeletal systems of amorphous hydrated silica. As a representative example, members of the genus Euplectella have proved to be useful model systems for investigating structure–function relationships in these hierarchically ordered siliceous network-like composites. Despite recent advances in understanding the mechanistic origins of damage tolerance in these complex skeletal systems, the details of their synthesis have remained largely unexplored. Here, we describe a previously unidentified protein, named “glassin,” the main constituent in the water-soluble fraction of the demineralized skeletal elements of Euplectella. When combined with silicic acid solutions, glassin rapidly accelerates silica polycondensation over a pH range of 6–8. Glassin is characterized by high histidine content, and cDNA sequence analysis reveals that glassin shares no significant similarity with any other known proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals that glassin consists of two similar histidine-rich domains and a connecting domain. Each of the histidine-rich domains is composed of three segments: an amino-terminal histidine and aspartic acid-rich sequence, a proline-rich sequence in the middle, and a histidine and threonine-rich sequence at the carboxyl terminus. Histidine always forms HX or HHX repeats, in which most of X positions are occupied by glycine, aspartic acid, or threonine. Recombinant glassin reproduces the silica precipitation activity observed in the native proteins. The highly modular composition of glassin, composed of imidazole, acidic, and hydroxyl residues, favors silica polycondensation and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of skeletal formation in hexactinellid sponges. PMID:26261346

  19. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors via their allosteric binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubík, J; Bacáková, L; Lisá, V; el-Fakahany, E E; Tucek, S

    1996-01-01

    Ligands that bind to the allosteric-binding sites on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors alter the conformation of the classical-binding sites of these receptors and either diminish or increase their affinity for muscarinic agonists and classical antagonists. It is not known whether the resulting conformational change also affects the interaction between the receptors and the G proteins. We have now found that the muscarinic receptor allosteric modulators alcuronium, gallamine, and strychnine (acting in the absence of an agonist) alter the synthesis of cAMP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the M2 or the M4 subtype of muscarinic receptors in the same direction as the agonist carbachol. In addition, most of their effects on the production of inositol phosphates in CHO cells expressing the M1 or the M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes are also similar to (although much weaker than) those of carbachol. The agonist-like effects of the allosteric modulators are not observed in CHO cells that have not been transfected with the gene for any of the subtypes of muscarinic receptors. The effects of alcuronium on the formation of cAMP and inositol phosphates are not prevented by the classical muscarinic antagonist quinuclidinyl benzilate. These observations demonstrate for the first time that the G protein-mediated functional responses of muscarinic receptors can be evoked not only from their classical, but also from their allosteric, binding sites. This represents a new mechanism of receptor activation. PMID:8710935

  20. Radiation inactivation study of aminopeptidase: probing the active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamadar, V. K.; Jamdar, S. N.; Mohan, Hari; Dandekar, S. P.; Harikumar, P.

    2004-04-01

    Ionizing radiation inactivated purified chicken intestinal aminopeptidase in media saturated with gases in the order N 2O>N 2>air. The D 37 values in the above conditions were 281, 210 and 198 Gy, respectively. OH radical scavengers such as t-butanol and isopropanol effectively nullified the radiation-induced damage in N 2O. The radicals (SCN) 2•-, Br 2•- and I 2•- inactivated the enzyme, pointing to the involvement of aromatic amino acids and cysteine in its catalytic activity. The enzyme exhibited fluorescence emission at 340 nm which is characteristic of tryptophan. The radiation-induced loss of activity was accompanied by a decrease in the fluorescence of the enzyme suggesting a predominant influence on tryptophan residues. The enzyme inhibition was associated with a marked increase in the Km and a decrease in the Vmax and kcat values, suggesting an irreversible alteration in the catalytic site. The above observations were confirmed by pulse radiolysis studies.

  1. Mimicking enzymatic active sites on surfaces for energy conversion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gutzler, Rico; Stepanow, Sebastian; Grumelli, Doris; Lingenfelder, Magalí; Kern, Klaus

    2015-07-21

    Metal-organic supramolecular chemistry on surfaces has matured to a point where its underlying growth mechanisms are well understood and structures of defined coordination environments of metal atoms can be synthesized in a controlled and reproducible procedure. With surface-confined molecular self-assembly, scientists have a tool box at hand which can be used to prepare structures with desired properties, as for example a defined oxidation number and spin state of the transition metal atoms within the organic matrix. From a structural point of view, these coordination sites in the supramolecular structure resemble the catalytically active sites of metallo-enzymes, both characterized by metal centers coordinated to organic ligands. Several chemical reactions take place at these embedded metal ions in enzymes and the question arises whether these reactions also take place using metal-organic networks as catalysts. Mimicking the active site of metal atoms and organic ligands of enzymes in artificial systems is the key to understanding the selectivity and efficiency of enzymatic reactions. Their catalytic activity depends on various parameters including the charge and spin configuration in the metal ion, but also on the organic environment, which can stabilize intermediate reaction products, inhibits catalytic deactivation, and serves mostly as a transport channel for the reactants and products and therefore ensures the selectivity of the enzyme. Charge and spin on the transition metal in enzymes depend on the one hand on the specific metal element, and on the other hand on its organic coordination environment. These two parameters can carefully be adjusted in surface confined metal-organic networks, which can be synthesized by virtue of combinatorial mixing of building synthons. Different organic ligands with varying functional groups can be combined with several transition metals and spontaneously assemble into ordered networks. The catalytically active metal

  2. Polarizability of the active site of cytochrome c reduces the activation barrier for electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-06-01

    Enzymes in biology’s energy chains operate with low energy input distributed through multiple electron transfer steps between protein active sites. The general challenge of biological design is how to lower the activation barrier without sacrificing a large negative reaction free energy. We show that this goal is achieved through a large polarizability of the active site. It is polarized by allowing a large number of excited states, which are populated quantum mechanically by electrostatic fluctuations of the protein and hydration water shells. This perspective is achieved by extensive mixed quantum mechanical/molecular dynamics simulations of the half reaction of reduction of cytochrome c. The barrier for electron transfer is consistently lowered by increasing the number of excited states included in the Hamiltonian of the active site diagonalized along the classical trajectory. We suggest that molecular polarizability, in addition to much studied electrostatics of permanent charges, is a key parameter to consider in order to understand how enzymes work.

  3. Polarizability of the active site of cytochrome c reduces the activation barrier for electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes in biology’s energy chains operate with low energy input distributed through multiple electron transfer steps between protein active sites. The general challenge of biological design is how to lower the activation barrier without sacrificing a large negative reaction free energy. We show that this goal is achieved through a large polarizability of the active site. It is polarized by allowing a large number of excited states, which are populated quantum mechanically by electrostatic fluctuations of the protein and hydration water shells. This perspective is achieved by extensive mixed quantum mechanical/molecular dynamics simulations of the half reaction of reduction of cytochrome c. The barrier for electron transfer is consistently lowered by increasing the number of excited states included in the Hamiltonian of the active site diagonalized along the classical trajectory. We suggest that molecular polarizability, in addition to much studied electrostatics of permanent charges, is a key parameter to consider in order to understand how enzymes work. PMID:27306204

  4. Spectroscopic Definition of the Ferroxidase Site in M Ferritin: Comparison of Binuclear Substrate vs. Cofactor Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jennifer K.; Liu, Xiaofeng S.; Tosha, Takehiko; Theil, Elizabeth C.; Solomon, Edward I.

    2008-01-01

    Maxi ferritins, 24 subunit protein nanocages, are essential in humans, plants, bacteria, and other animals for the concentration and storage of iron as hydrated ferric oxide, while minimizing free radical generation or use by pathogens. Formation of the precursors to these ferric oxides is catalyzed at a non-heme biferrous substrate site, which has some parallels with the cofactor sites in other biferrous enzymes. A combination of circular dichroism (CD), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and variable-temperature, variable-field MCD (VTVH MCD) has been used to probe Fe(II) binding to the substrate active site in frog M ferritin. These data determined that the active site within each subunit consists of two inequivalent five-coordinate (5C) ferrous centers that are weakly anti-ferromagnetically coupled, consistent with a μ-1,3 carboxylate bridge. The active site ligand set is unusual and likely includes a terminal water bound to each Fe(II) center. The Fe(II) ions bind to the active sites in a concerted manner, and cooperativity among the sites in each subunit is observed, potentially providing a mechanism for the control of ferritin iron loading. Differences in geometric and electronic structure – including a weak ligand field, availability of two water ligands at the biferrous substrate site, and the single carboxylate bridge in ferritin – coincide with the divergent reaction pathways observed between this substrate site and the previously studied cofactor active sites. PMID:18576633

  5. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase: amino acid substitution in the beta 2 beta 2 Oriental isozyme explains functional properties, establishes an active site structure, and parallels mutational exchanges in the yeast enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Jörnvall, H; Hempel, J; Vallee, B L; Bosron, W F; Li, T K

    1984-01-01

    The homodimeric Oriental beta 2 beta 2 isozyme of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase, corresponding to an allelic variant at the ADH2 gene locus, was studied in order to define the amino acid exchange in relation to the beta 1 beta 1 isozyme, the predominant allelic form among Caucasians. Sequence analysis reveals that the amino acid substitution occurs at position 7 of the largest CNBr fragment, corresponding to position 47 of the whole protein chain. Here, the beta 2 form has a histidine residue, while, in common with other characterized mammalian liver alcohol dehydrogenases, the beta 1 form has an arginine residue. This exchange does not affect the adjacent cysteine-46 residue, which is a protein ligand to the active-site zinc atom, thus clarifying previously inconsistent results. The histidine/arginine-47 mutational replacement corresponds to a position that binds the pyrophosphate group of the coenzyme NAD(H); this explains the functional differences between the beta 1 beta 1 and beta 2 beta 2 isozymes, including both a lower pH optimum and higher turnover number of beta 2 beta 2, which is likely to be the mutant form. The exchange demonstrates the existence of parallel but separate mutations in the evolution of alcohol dehydrogenases because these mammalian enzymes differ at exactly the same position by the same type of substitution as is found between a mutant and the wild-type constitutive forms of the corresponding yeast enzyme. PMID:6374651

  6. An active-site lysine in avian liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

    SciTech Connect

    Guidinger, P.F.; Nowak, T. )

    1991-09-10

    The participation of lysine in the catalysis by avian liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was studied by chemical modification and by a characterization of the modified enzyme. The rate of inactivation by 2,4-pentanedione is pseudo-first-order and linearly dependent on reagent concentration with a second-order rate constant of 0.36 {plus minus} 0.025 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}. Inactivation by pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate of the reversible reaction catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase follows bimolecular kinetics with a second-order rate constant of 7,700 {plus minus} 860 m{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}. Treatment of the enzyme or one lysine residue modified concomitant with 100% loss in activity. A stoichiometry of 1:1 is observed when either the reversible or the irreversible reactions catalyzed by the enzyme are monitored. A study of k{sub obs} vs pH suggests this active-site lysine has a pK{sub a} of 8.1 and a pH-independent rate constant of inactivation of 47,700 m{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}. Proton relaxation rate measurements suggest that pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate modification alters binding of the phosphate-containing substrates. {sup 31}P NMR relaxation rate measurements show altered binding of the substrates in the ternary enzyme {center dot}Mn{sup 2+}{center dot}substrate complex. Circular dichroism studies show little change in secondary structure of pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate modified phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. These results indicate that avian liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase has one reactive lysine at the active site and it is involved in the binding and activation of the phosphate-containing substrates.

  7. Perchlorate Reductase Is Distinguished by Active Site Aromatic Gate Residues.

    PubMed

    Youngblut, Matthew D; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Clark, Iain C; Carlson, Hans K; Maglaqui, Adrian P; Gau-Pan, Phonchien S; Redford, Steven A; Wong, Alan; Tainer, John A; Coates, John D

    2016-04-22

    Perchlorate is an important ion on both Earth and Mars. Perchlorate reductase (PcrAB), a specialized member of the dimethylsulfoxide reductase superfamily, catalyzes the first step of microbial perchlorate respiration, but little is known about the biochemistry, specificity, structure, and mechanism of PcrAB. Here we characterize the biophysics and phylogeny of this enzyme and report the 1.86-Å resolution PcrAB complex crystal structure. Biochemical analysis revealed a relatively high perchlorate affinity (Km = 6 μm) and a characteristic substrate inhibition compared with the highly similar respiratory nitrate reductase NarGHI, which has a relatively much lower affinity for perchlorate (Km = 1.1 mm) and no substrate inhibition. Structural analysis of oxidized and reduced PcrAB with and without the substrate analog SeO3 (2-) bound to the active site identified key residues in the positively charged and funnel-shaped substrate access tunnel that gated substrate entrance and product release while trapping transiently produced chlorate. The structures suggest gating was associated with shifts of a Phe residue between open and closed conformations plus an Asp residue carboxylate shift between monodentate and bidentate coordination to the active site molybdenum atom. Taken together, structural and mutational analyses of gate residues suggest key roles of these gate residues for substrate entrance and product release. Our combined results provide the first detailed structural insight into the mechanism of biological perchlorate reduction, a critical component of the chlorine redox cycle on Earth.

  8. Eel calcitonin binding site distribution and antinociceptive activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Guidobono, F.; Netti, C.; Sibilia, V.; Villa, I.; Zamboni, A.; Pecile, A.

    1986-03-01

    The distribution of binding site for (/sup 125/I)-eel-calcitonin (ECT) to rat central nervous system, studied by an autoradiographic technique, showed concentrations of binding in the diencephalon, the brain stem and the spinal cord. Large accumulations of grains were seen in the hypothalamus, the amygdala, in the fasciculus medialis prosencephali, in the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, in the ventrolateral part of the periventricular gray matter, in the lemniscus medialis and in the raphe nuclei. The density of grains in the reticular formation and in the nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini was more moderate. In the spinal cord, grains were scattered throughout the dorsal horns. Binding of the ligand was displaced equally by cold ECT and by salmon CT(sCT), indicating that both peptides bind to the same receptors. Human CT was much weaker than sCT in displacing (/sup 125/I)-ECT binding. The administration of ECT into the brain ventricles of rats dose-dependently induced a significant and long-lasting enhancement of hot-plate latencies comparable with that obtained with sCT. The antinociceptive activity induced by ECT is compatible with the topographical distribution of binding sites for the peptide and is a further indication that fish CTs are active in the mammalian brain.

  9. Perchlorate Reductase Is Distinguished by Active Site Aromatic Gate Residues.

    PubMed

    Youngblut, Matthew D; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Clark, Iain C; Carlson, Hans K; Maglaqui, Adrian P; Gau-Pan, Phonchien S; Redford, Steven A; Wong, Alan; Tainer, John A; Coates, John D

    2016-04-22

    Perchlorate is an important ion on both Earth and Mars. Perchlorate reductase (PcrAB), a specialized member of the dimethylsulfoxide reductase superfamily, catalyzes the first step of microbial perchlorate respiration, but little is known about the biochemistry, specificity, structure, and mechanism of PcrAB. Here we characterize the biophysics and phylogeny of this enzyme and report the 1.86-Å resolution PcrAB complex crystal structure. Biochemical analysis revealed a relatively high perchlorate affinity (Km = 6 μm) and a characteristic substrate inhibition compared with the highly similar respiratory nitrate reductase NarGHI, which has a relatively much lower affinity for perchlorate (Km = 1.1 mm) and no substrate inhibition. Structural analysis of oxidized and reduced PcrAB with and without the substrate analog SeO3 (2-) bound to the active site identified key residues in the positively charged and funnel-shaped substrate access tunnel that gated substrate entrance and product release while trapping transiently produced chlorate. The structures suggest gating was associated with shifts of a Phe residue between open and closed conformations plus an Asp residue carboxylate shift between monodentate and bidentate coordination to the active site molybdenum atom. Taken together, structural and mutational analyses of gate residues suggest key roles of these gate residues for substrate entrance and product release. Our combined results provide the first detailed structural insight into the mechanism of biological perchlorate reduction, a critical component of the chlorine redox cycle on Earth. PMID:26940877

  10. Histidine 51 facilitates proton transfer in alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, R.M.; Plapp, B.V.

    1987-05-01

    Operating through a proton relay system, His-51 has been proposed to serve as a base during ethanol oxidation by alcohol dehydrogenase. This residue is highly conserved in alcohol dehydrogenases. They have used mutamer directed mutagenesis to change this residue to Gln-51. Diethyl pyrocarbonate treatment decreases the activity of the wild type enzyme 60-fold, whereas the Gln-51 enzyme is inactivated by only 5-fold. The rate of inactivation is also much slower with the mutant enzyme. They conclude that His-51 is the reactive residue in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. The mutation also alters the Km for acetaldehyde and the pH dependence of several kinetic constants. At pH 7.0 the Km for acetaldehyde is 18-fold higher in the Gln-51 enzyme, whereas Vmax for acetaldehyde reduction is the same as with the wild type enzyme. For ethanol oxidation the pH dependence of the log of Vmax and V/K shows a linear dependence with a slope of 0.5 and no discernible pK. They propose a mechanism that can explain these data. For the Gln-51 enzyme, after the ternary complex has formed in an Ordered Bi mechanism, a random component for proton release and hydride transfer occurs. With histidine at position 51, serving as a base, a more rapid proton release from the enzyme-NAD-ethanol complex precedes product formation.

  11. Effects of Protonation State on a Tyrosine-Histidine Bioinspired Redox Mediator

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Gary F.; Hambourger, Michael; Kodis, Gerdenis; Michl, Weston; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.

    2010-11-18

    The conversion of tyrosine to the corresponding tyrosyl radical in photosytem II (PSII) is an example of proton-coupled electron transfer. Although the tyrosine moiety (TyrZ) is known to function as a redox mediator between the photo-oxidized primary donor (P680 •+) and the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex, the protonation states involved in the course of the reaction remain an active area of investigation. Herein, we report on the optical, structural, and electrochemical properties of tyrosine-histidine constructs, which model the function of their naturally occurring counterparts in PSII. Electrochemical studies show that the phenoxyl/phenol couple of the model is chemically reversible and thermodynamically capable of water oxidation. Studies under acidic and basic conditions provide clear evidence that an ionizable proton controls the electrochemical potential of the tyrosine-histidine mimic and that an exogenous base or acid can be used to generate a low-potential or high-potential mediator, respectively. The phenoxyl/phenoxide couple associated with the low-potential mediator is thermodynamically incapable of water oxidation, whereas the relay associated with the high-potential mediator is thermodynamically incapable of reducing an attached photoexcited porphyrin. These studies provide insight regarding the mechanistic role of the tyrosine-histidine complex in water oxidation and strategies for making use of hydrogen bonds to affect the coupling between proton and electron transfer in artificial photosynthetic systems.

  12. An Active Site Water Network in the Plasminogen Activator Pla from Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Eren, Elif; Murphy, Megan; Goguen, Jon; van den Berg, Bert

    2010-08-13

    The plasminogen activator Pla from Yersinia pestis is an outer membrane protease (omptin) that is important for the virulence of plague. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of wild-type, enzymatically active Pla at 1.9 {angstrom}. The structure shows a water molecule located between active site residues D84 and H208, which likely corresponds to the nucleophilic water. A number of other water molecules are present in the active site, linking residues important for enzymatic activity. The R211 sidechain in loop L4 is close to the nucleophilic water and possibly involved in the stabilization of the oxyanion intermediate. Subtle conformational changes of H208 result from the binding of lipopolysaccharide to the outside of the barrel, explaining the unusual dependence of omptins on lipopolysaccharide for activity. The Pla structure suggests a model for the interaction with plasminogen substrate and provides a more detailed understanding of the catalytic mechanism of omptin proteases.

  13. Metal active site elasticity linked to activation of homocysteine in methionine synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Koutmos, Markos; Pejchal, Robert; Bomer, Theresa M.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Smith, Janet L.; Ludwig, Martha L.

    2008-04-02

    Enzymes possessing catalytic zinc centers perform a variety of fundamental processes in nature, including methyl transfer to thiols. Cobalamin-independent (MetE) and cobalamin-dependent (MetH) methionine synthases are two such enzyme families. Although they perform the same net reaction, transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine (Hcy) to form methionine, they display markedly different catalytic strategies, modular organization, and active site zinc centers. Here we report crystal structures of zinc-replete MetE and MetH, both in the presence and absence of Hcy. Structural investigation of the catalytic zinc sites of these two methyltransferases reveals an unexpected inversion of zinc geometry upon binding of Hcy and displacement of an endogenous ligand in both enzymes. In both cases a significant movement of the zinc relative to the protein scaffold accompanies inversion. These structures provide new information on the activation of thiols by zinc-containing enzymes and have led us to propose a paradigm for the mechanism of action of the catalytic zinc sites in these and related methyltransferases. Specifically, zinc is mobile in the active sites of MetE and MetH, and its dynamic nature helps facilitate the active site conformational changes necessary for thiol activation and methyl transfer.

  14. HYSCORE Analysis of the Effects of Substrates on Coordination of Water to the Active Site Iron in Tyrosine Hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    McCracken, John; Eser, Bekir E; Mannikko, Donald; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2015-06-23

    Tyrosine hydroxylase is a mononuclear non-heme iron monooxygenase found in the central nervous system that catalyzes the hydroxylation of tyrosine to yield L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Catalysis requires the binding of tyrosine, a tetrahydropterin, and O₂ at an active site that consists of a ferrous ion coordinated facially by the side chains of two histidines and a glutamate. We used nitric oxide as a surrogate for O₂ to poise the active site iron in an S = ³/₂ {FeNO}⁷ form that is amenable to electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The pulsed EPR method of hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy was then used to probe the ligands at the remaining labile coordination sites on iron. For the complex formed by the addition of tyrosine and nitric oxide, TyrH/NO/Tyr, orientation-selective HYSCORE studies provided evidence of the coordination of one H₂O molecule characterized by proton isotropic hyperfine couplings (A(iso) = 0.0 ± 0.3 MHz) and dipolar couplings (T = 4.4 and 4.5 ± 0.2 MHz). These data show complex HYSCORE cross peak contours that required the addition of a third coupled proton, characterized by an A(iso) of 2.0 MHz and a T of 3.8 MHz, to the analysis. This proton hyperfine coupling differed from those measured previously for H₂O bound to {FeNO}⁷ model complexes and was assigned to a hydroxide ligand. For the complex formed by the addition of tyrosine, 6-methyltetrahydropterin, and NO, TyrH/NO/Tyr/6-MPH₄, the HYSCORE cross peaks attributed to H₂O and OH⁻ for the TyrH/NO/Tyr complex were replaced by a cross peak due to a single proton characterized by an A(iso) of 0.0 MHz and a dipolar coupling (T = 3.8 MHz). This interaction was assigned to the N₅ proton of the reduced pterin.

  15. The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Durmus, A; Eicken, C; Sift, B H; Kratel, A; Kappl, R; Hüttermann, J; Krebs, B

    1999-03-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis. PMID:10102999

  16. The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Durmus, A; Eicken, C; Sift, B H; Kratel, A; Kappl, R; Hüttermann, J; Krebs, B

    1999-03-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis.

  17. Β-alanine and l-histidine transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier: potential involvement in L-carnosine supply.

    PubMed

    Usui, Takuya; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The supply of L-carnosine, a bioactive dipeptide of β-alanine and l-histidine, to the retina across the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was studied. The in vivo and in vitro studies revealed low uptake activities for [(3)H]Gly-Sar, a representative dipeptide, suggesting that l-carnosine transport plays only a minor role at the BRB. The in vivo study using rats showed approximately 18- and 23-fold greater retinal uptake indexes (RUI) for [(3)H]β-alanine and [(3)H]l-histidine compared with that of a paracellular marker, respectively. The RUI of [(3)H]β-alanine was taurine- and γ-aminobutyric acid-sensitive, and the in vitro uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells showed time- concentration- and temperature-dependent [(3)H]β-alanine uptake, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved in β-alanine transport across the inner BRB. [(3)H]β-Alanine uptake was inhibited by taurine and β-guanidinopropionic acid, suggesting that taurine transporter (TAUT/SLC6A6) is responsible for the influx transport of β-alanine across the inner BRB. Regarding l-histidine, the l-leucine-sensitive RUI of [(3)H]l-histidine was identified, and the in vitro [(3)H]l-histidine uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells suggested that a carrier-mediated process was involved in l-histidine transport across the inner BRB. The inhibition profile suggested that L-type amino acid transporter (LAT1/SLC7A5) is responsible for the influx transport of l-histidine across the inner BRB. These results show that the influx transports of β-alanine and l-histidine across the inner BRB is carried out by TAUT and LAT1, respectively, suggesting that the retinal l-carnosine is supplied by enzymatic synthesis from two kinds of amino acids transported across the inner BRB.

  18. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  19. Poly(L-histidine) based copolymers: Effect of the chemically substituted L-histidine on the physio-chemical properties of the micelles and in vivo biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Dawei; Ba, Shuang; Chang, Jing; Zhou, Jiaying; Zhao, Haixia; Zhu, Jia; Zhao, Xiuli; Hu, Haiyang; Qiao, Mingxi

    2016-04-01

    Even though the Poly(l-histidine) (PHis) based copolymers have been well studied, the effect of the chemically substituted l-histidine on the physio-chemical and biological properties of the micelles has never been elucidated to date. To address this issue, triblock copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide)-poly(2,4-dinitrophenol-L-histidine)(mPEG-b-PLA-b-DNP-PHis) with DNP group substituted to the saturated nitrogen of l-histidine were synthesized. The pH sensitive properties of the copolymer micelles were characterized using an acid-base titration method, fluorescene probe technique, DLS observation, in vitro drug release and cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells under different pH conditions, respectively. The results suggest that mPEG-b-PLA-b-DNP-PHis copolymers showed similar micellar stability for DOX loaded micelles, increased particle size, and similar pH responsive properties with mPEG-b-PLA-b-PHis copolymers. The subcellular distribution observation demonstrated that mPEG-b-PLA-b-DNP-PHis micelles showed a slightly compromised endo-lysosmal escape of doxorubicin as compared to mPEG-b-PLA-b-PHis micelles. The mPEG-b-PLA-b-DNP-PHis micelles showed higher cellular uptake by MCF-7 cells than mPEG-b-PLA-b-PHis micelles due to the different uptake pathways. Effect of DNP substitution on the in vivo distribution of the copolymer micelles was studied using non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging with mPEG-b-PLA-b-PHis micelles as control. The results indicate that the mPEG-b-PLA-b-DNP-PHis micelles showed a reduced passive targeting to the tumor due to the larger particle size. These results suggest that saturated nitrogen of PHis may serve as a valuable site for chemical modification of the PHis based copolymers because of the little effect on the pH responsive properties. However, selection of the substitution group needs to be considered due to the possible increase of micellar particle size of the micelles, leading to compromised passive

  20. Active Site and Laminarin Binding in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100–10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  1. Structure and synthesis of histopine, a histidine derivative produced by crown gall tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, H.A.; Kaushal, A.; Deng, P.N.; Sciaky, D.

    1984-07-03

    Histopine, an unusual amino acid derivative of histidine isolated from crown gall tumors of sunflowers (Helianthus annus) inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B/sub 6/, was previously assigned the gross structure N-(1-carboxyethyl)histidine. A diastereomeric mixture containing histopine was readily prepared by reductive alkylation of (S)-histidine with pyruvic acid and sodium cyanoborohydride. The individual diastereomers were prepared by reaction of (S)-histidine with (R)- and (S)-2-bromopropionic acid. (R)-N-(1-Carboxyethyl)-(S)-histidine supports the growth of A. tumefaciens whereas (S)-N-(1-carboxyethyl)-(S)-histidine is inactive.

  2. Active site loop conformation regulates promiscuous activity in a lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; An, Jiao; Yang, Guang-Yu; Bai, Aixi; Zheng, Baisong; Lou, Zhiyong; Wu, Geng; Ye, Wei; Chen, Hai-Feng; Feng, Yan; Manco, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme promiscuity is a prerequisite for fast divergent evolution of biocatalysts. A phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) exhibits main lactonase and promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. To understand its catalytic and evolutionary mechanisms, we investigated a "hot spot" in the active site by saturation mutagenesis as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses. We found that position 99 in the active site was involved in substrate discrimination. One mutant, Y99L, exhibited 11-fold improvement over wild-type in reactivity (kcat/Km) toward the phosphotriesterase substrate ethyl-paraoxon, but showed 15-fold decrease toward the lactonase substrate δ-decanolactone, resulting in a 157-fold inversion of the substrate specificity. Structural analysis of Y99L revealed that the mutation causes a ∼6.6 Å outward shift of adjacent loop 7, which may cause increased flexibility of the active site and facilitate accommodation and/or catalysis of organophosphate substrate. This study provides for the PLL family an example of how the evolutionary route from promiscuity to specificity can derive from very few mutations, which promotes alteration in the conformational adjustment of the active site loops, in turn draws the capacity of substrate binding and activity.

  3. Active Site Loop Conformation Regulates Promiscuous Activity in a Lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; An, Jiao; Yang, Guang-Yu; Bai, Aixi; Zheng, Baisong; Lou, Zhiyong; Wu, Geng; Ye, Wei; Chen, Hai-Feng; Feng, Yan; Manco, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme promiscuity is a prerequisite for fast divergent evolution of biocatalysts. A phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) exhibits main lactonase and promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. To understand its catalytic and evolutionary mechanisms, we investigated a “hot spot” in the active site by saturation mutagenesis as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses. We found that position 99 in the active site was involved in substrate discrimination. One mutant, Y99L, exhibited 11-fold improvement over wild-type in reactivity (kcat/Km) toward the phosphotriesterase substrate ethyl-paraoxon, but showed 15-fold decrease toward the lactonase substrate δ-decanolactone, resulting in a 157-fold inversion of the substrate specificity. Structural analysis of Y99L revealed that the mutation causes a ∼6.6 Å outward shift of adjacent loop 7, which may cause increased flexibility of the active site and facilitate accommodation and/or catalysis of organophosphate substrate. This study provides for the PLL family an example of how the evolutionary route from promiscuity to specificity can derive from very few mutations, which promotes alteration in the conformational adjustment of the active site loops, in turn draws the capacity of substrate binding and activity. PMID:25706379

  4. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis reveals interconnected functional units in the alkaline phosphatase active site.

    PubMed

    Sunden, Fanny; Peck, Ariana; Salzman, Julia; Ressl, Susanne; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes enable life by accelerating reaction rates to biological timescales. Conventional studies have focused on identifying the residues that have a direct involvement in an enzymatic reaction, but these so-called 'catalytic residues' are embedded in extensive interaction networks. Although fundamental to our understanding of enzyme function, evolution, and engineering, the properties of these networks have yet to be quantitatively and systematically explored. We dissected an interaction network of five residues in the active site of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. Analysis of the complex catalytic interdependence of specific residues identified three energetically independent but structurally interconnected functional units with distinct modes of cooperativity. From an evolutionary perspective, this network is orders of magnitude more probable to arise than a fully cooperative network. From a functional perspective, new catalytic insights emerge. Further, such comprehensive energetic characterization will be necessary to benchmark the algorithms required to rationally engineer highly efficient enzymes. PMID:25902402

  5. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis reveals interconnected functional units in the alkaline phosphatase active site.

    PubMed

    Sunden, Fanny; Peck, Ariana; Salzman, Julia; Ressl, Susanne; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes enable life by accelerating reaction rates to biological timescales. Conventional studies have focused on identifying the residues that have a direct involvement in an enzymatic reaction, but these so-called 'catalytic residues' are embedded in extensive interaction networks. Although fundamental to our understanding of enzyme function, evolution, and engineering, the properties of these networks have yet to be quantitatively and systematically explored. We dissected an interaction network of five residues in the active site of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. Analysis of the complex catalytic interdependence of specific residues identified three energetically independent but structurally interconnected functional units with distinct modes of cooperativity. From an evolutionary perspective, this network is orders of magnitude more probable to arise than a fully cooperative network. From a functional perspective, new catalytic insights emerge. Further, such comprehensive energetic characterization will be necessary to benchmark the algorithms required to rationally engineer highly efficient enzymes.

  6. Metals in the active site of native protein phosphatase-1.

    PubMed

    Heroes, Ewald; Rip, Jens; Beullens, Monique; Van Meervelt, Luc; De Gendt, Stefan; Bollen, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is a major protein Ser/Thr phosphatase in eukaryotic cells. Its activity depends on two metal ions in the catalytic site, which were identified as manganese in the bacterially expressed phosphatase. However, the identity of the metal ions in native PP1 is unknown. In this study, total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to detect iron and zinc in PP1 that was purified from rabbit skeletal muscle. Metal exchange experiments confirmed that the distinct substrate specificity of recombinant and native PP1 is determined by the nature of their associated metals. We also found that the iron level associated with native PP1 is decreased by incubation with inhibitor-2, consistent with a function of inhibitor-2 as a PP1 chaperone. PMID:25890482

  7. Metavanadate at the active site of the phosphatase VHZ.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav I; Alexandrova, Anastassia N; Hengge, Alvan C

    2012-09-01

    Vanadate is a potent modulator of a number of biological processes and has been shown by crystal structures and NMR spectroscopy to interact with numerous enzymes. Although these effects often occur under conditions where oligomeric forms dominate, the crystal structures and NMR data suggest that the inhibitory form is usually monomeric orthovanadate, a particularly good inhibitor of phosphatases because of its ability to form stable trigonal-bipyramidal complexes. We performed a computational analysis of a 1.14 Å structure of the phosphatase VHZ in complex with an unusual metavanadate species and compared it with two classical trigonal-bipyramidal vanadate-phosphatase complexes. The results support extensive delocalized bonding to the apical ligands in the classical structures. In contrast, in the VHZ metavanadate complex, the central, planar VO(3)(-) moiety has only one apical ligand, the nucleophilic Cys95, and a gap in electron density between V and S. A computational analysis showed that the V-S interaction is primarily ionic. A mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of metavanadate in the active site from a dimeric vanadate species that previous crystallographic evidence has shown to be able to bind to the active sites of phosphatases related to VHZ. Together, the results show that the interaction of vanadate with biological systems is not solely reliant upon the prior formation of a particular inhibitory form in solution. The catalytic properties of an enzyme may act upon the oligomeric forms primarily present in solution to generate species such as the metavanadate ion observed in the VHZ structure. PMID:22876963

  8. Zymogen Activation and Subcellular Activity of Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme 1/Site 1 Protease*

    PubMed Central

    da Palma, Joel Ramos; Burri, Dominique Julien; Oppliger, Joël; Salamina, Marco; Cendron, Laura; de Laureto, Patrizia Polverino; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Kunz, Stefan; Pasquato, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P) plays crucial roles in cellular homeostatic functions and is hijacked by pathogenic viruses for the processing of their envelope glycoproteins. Zymogen activation of SKI-1/S1P involves sequential autocatalytic processing of its N-terminal prodomain at sites B′/B followed by the herein newly identified C′/C sites. We found that SKI-1/S1P autoprocessing results in intermediates whose catalytic domain remains associated with prodomain fragments of different lengths. In contrast to other zymogen proprotein convertases, all incompletely matured intermediates of SKI-1/S1P showed full catalytic activity toward cellular substrates, whereas optimal cleavage of viral glycoproteins depended on B′/B processing. Incompletely matured forms of SKI-1/S1P further process cellular and viral substrates in distinct subcellular compartments. Using a cell-based sensor for SKI-1/S1P activity, we found that 9 amino acid residues at the cleavage site (P1–P8) and P1′ are necessary and sufficient to define the subcellular location of processing and to determine to what extent processing of a substrate depends on SKI-1/S1P maturation. In sum, our study reveals novel and unexpected features of SKI-1/S1P zymogen activation and subcellular specificity of activity toward cellular and pathogen-derived substrates. PMID:25378398

  9. Virulence Effects and Signaling Partners Modulated by Brucella melitensis Light-sensing Histidine Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Christopher R.

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis utilizes diverse virulence factors. A Brucella light sensing histidine kinase can influence in vitro virulence of the bacteria during intracellular infection. First, we demonstrated that the B. melitensis light sensing kinase (BM-LOV-HK) affects virulence in an IRF-1-/- mouse model of infection. Infection with a Δ BM-LOV-HK strain resulted in less bacterial colonization of IRF-1-/- spleens and extended survivorship compared to mice infected with wild type B. melitensis 16M. Second, using PCR arrays, we observed less expression of innate and adaptive immune system activation markers in ΔBM-LOV-HK infected mouse spleens than wild type B. melitensis 16M infected mouse spleens 6 days after infection. Third, we demonstrated by microarray analysis of B. melitensis that deletion of BM-LOV-HK alters bacterial gene expression. Downregulation of genes involved in control of the general stress response system included the alternative sigma factor RpoE1 and its anti-anti sigma factor PhyR. Conversely, genes involved in flagella production, quorum sensing, and the type IV secretion system (VirB operon) were upregulated in the Δ BM-LOV-HK strain compared to the wild type B. melitensis 16M. Analysis of genes differentially regulated in Δ BM-LOV-HK versus the wild type strain indicated an overlap of 110 genes with data from previous quorum sensing regulator studies of Δ vjbR and/ΔblxR(babR) strains. Also, several predicted RpoE1 binding sites located upstream of genes were differentially regulated in the ΔBM-LOV-HK strain. Our results suggest BM-LOV-HK is important for in vivo Brucella virulence, and reveals that BM-LOV-HK directly or indirect regulates members of the Brucella quorum sensing, type IV secretion, and general stress systems.

  10. Combination treatment for allergic conjunctivitis - Plant derived histidine decarboxylase inhibitor and H1 antihistaminic drug.

    PubMed

    Bakrania, Anita K; Patel, Snehal S

    2015-08-01

    Aim of present investigation was to study the effect of catechin and the combination of catechin and cetirizine in ovalbumin induced animal model of allergic conjunctivitis. Guinea pigs were divided into 5 groups: normal control, disease control, disease treated with catechin 100 mg/kg, disease treated with cetirizine 10 mg/kg, disease treated with combination of catechin and cetirizine, 50 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg respectively. Sensitization was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin for the period of 14 day. Simultaneously, catechin was administered orally for 14 days while, cetirizine was administered at the day of experiment. Determination of clinical scoring, mast cell and blood histamine content, histidine decarboxylase activity from stomach was carried out. Vascular permeability was measured by dye leakage after secondary challenge of allergen and conjunctival tissues were subjected for histopathological examinations. Treatment with catechin, cetirizine and combination showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in clinical scoring and vascular permeability. While, catechin 100 mg/kg and catechin 50 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in histamine content in mast and blood. The treatment also showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the histidine decarboxylase enzyme activity. However, cetirizine group did not show any difference in enzyme activity as well as histamine content. Histopathological examination also showed improvement in ulceration and decrease in edema and inflammation in all treatment groups. From the present study, we can conclude that catechin exhibits potent anti-allergic activity by histidine decarboxylase enzyme inhibition and combination shown significant anti-allergic activity at reduced dose by both enzyme inhibition as well as inhibition of histamine receptors.

  11. Site-specific PEGylation of lidamycin and its antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Shang, Boyang; Hu, Lei; Shao, Rongguang; Zhen, Yongsu

    2015-05-01

    In this study, N-terminal site-specific mono-PEGylation of the recombinant lidamycin apoprotein (rLDP) of lidamycin (LDM) was prepared using a polyethyleneglycol (PEG) derivative (M w 20 kDa) through a reactive terminal aldehyde group under weak acidic conditions (pH 5.5). The biochemical properties of mPEG-rLDP-AE, an enediyne-integrated conjugate, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC, SEC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF. Meanwhile, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of mPEG-rLDP-AE was evaluated by MTT assays and in xenograft model. The results indicated that mPEG-rLDP-AE showed significant antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. After PEGylation, mPEG-rLDP still retained the binding capability to the enediyne AE and presented the physicochemical characteristics similar to that of native LDP. It is of interest that the PEGylation did not diminish the antitumor efficacy of LDM, implying the possibility that this derivative may function as a payload to deliver novel tumor-targeted drugs. PMID:26579455

  12. Hybrid [FeFe]-hydrogenases with modified active sites show remarkable residual enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Siebel, Judith F; Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Weber, Katharina; Rumpel, Sigrun; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-02-24

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases are to date the only enzymes for which it has been demonstrated that the native inorganic binuclear cofactor of the active site Fe2(adt)(CO)3(CN)2 (adt = azadithiolate = [S-CH2-NH-CH2-S](2-)) can be synthesized on the laboratory bench and subsequently inserted into the unmaturated enzyme to yield fully functional holo-enzyme (Berggren, G. et al. (2013) Nature 499, 66-70; Esselborn, J. et al. (2013) Nat. Chem. Biol. 9, 607-610). In the current study, we exploit this procedure to introduce non-native cofactors into the enzyme. Mimics of the binuclear subcluster with a modified bridging dithiolate ligand (thiodithiolate, N-methylazadithiolate, dimethyl-azadithiolate) and three variants containing only one CN(-) ligand were inserted into the active site of the enzyme. We investigated the activity of these variants for hydrogen oxidation as well as proton reduction and their structural accommodation within the active site was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Interestingly, the monocyanide variant with the azadithiolate bridge showed ∼50% of the native enzyme activity. This would suggest that the CN(-) ligands are not essential for catalytic activity, but rather serve to anchor the binuclear subsite inside the protein pocket through hydrogen bonding. The inserted artificial cofactors with a propanedithiolate and an N-methylazadithiolate bridge as well as their monocyanide variants also showed residual activity. However, these activities were less than 1% of the native enzyme. Our findings indicate that even small changes in the dithiolate bridge of the binuclear subsite lead to a rather strong decrease of the catalytic activity. We conclude that both the Brønsted base function and the conformational flexibility of the native azadithiolate amine moiety are essential for the high catalytic activity of the native enzyme. PMID:25633077

  13. Models for Copper Dynamic Behavior in Doped Cadmium dl-Histidine Crystals: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Crystallographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Colaneri, Michael J; Teat, Simon J; Vitali, Jacqueline

    2015-11-12

    Electron paramagnetic resonance and crystallographic studies of copper-doped cadmium dl-histidine, abbreviated as CdDLHis, were undertaken to gain further understanding on the relationship between site structure and dynamic behavior in biological model complexes. X-ray diffraction measurements determined the crystal structure of CdDLHis at 100 and 298 K. CdDLHis crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with two cadmium complexes per asymmetric unit. In each complex, the Cd is hexacoordinated to two histidine molecules. Both histidines are l in one complex and d in the other. Additionally, each complex contains multiple waters of varying disorder. Single crystal EPR spectroscopic splitting (g) and copper hyperfine (A(Cu)) tensors at room temperature (principal values: g = 2.249, 2.089, 2.050; A(Cu) = -453, -30.5, -0.08 MHz) were determined from rotational experiments. Alignments of the tensor directions with the host structure were used to position the copper unpaired dx(2)-y(2) orbital in an approximate plane made by four proposed ligand atoms: the N-imidazole and N-amino of one histidine, and the N-amino and O-carboxyl of the other. Each complex has two such planes related by noncrystallographic symmetry, which make an angle of 65° and have a 1.56 Å distance between their midpoints. These findings are consistent with three interpretations that can adequately explain previous temperature-dependent EPR powder spectra of this system: (1) a local structural distortion (static strain) at the copper site has a temperature dependence significant enough to affect the EPR pattern, (2) the copper can hop between the two sites in each complex at high temperature, and (3) there exists a dynamic Jahn-Teller effect involving the copper ligands. PMID:26501364

  14. Impact of histidine residue on chelating ability of 2'-deoxyriboadenosine.

    PubMed

    Lodyga-Chruścińska, Elżbieta; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Sochacka, Elżbieta; Korzycka, Karolina; Chruściński, Longin; Micera, Giovanni; Sanna, Daniele; Turek, Monika; Pawlak, Justyna

    2011-09-01

    Copper(II) complexes with a new chelator-type nucleoside-histidine modified 2'-deoxyriboadenosine (N-[(9-β-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosylpurin-6-yl)-carbamoyl]histidine) were studied by potentiometric and spectroscopic (UV-visible, CD, EPR) techniques, in conjunction with computer modeling optimization. The ligand can act as bidentate or tridentate depending on pH range. In acidic pH a very stable dimeric complex Cu(2)L(2) predominates with coordination spheres of both metal ions composed of oxygen atoms from carboxylic groups, one oxygen atom from ureido group and two nitrogen atoms derived from purine base and histidine ring. Above pH 5, deprotonation of carbamoyl nitrogens leads to the formation of CuL(2), Cu(2)L(2)H(-1) and Cu(2)L(2)H(-2) species. The CuL(2)H(-1) and CuL(2)H(-2) complexes with three or four nitrogens in Cu(II) coordination sphere have been detected in alkaline medium. Our findings suggest that N-[(9-beta-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosylpurin-6-yl)-carbamoyl]histidine chelates copper(II) ions very efficiently. The resulting complex might be used as an alternative base-pairing mode in which hydrogen-bonded base pairs present in natural DNA are replaced by metal-mediated ones. PMID:21723807

  15. Impact of histidine residue on chelating ability of 2'-deoxyriboadenosine.

    PubMed

    Lodyga-Chruścińska, Elżbieta; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Sochacka, Elżbieta; Korzycka, Karolina; Chruściński, Longin; Micera, Giovanni; Sanna, Daniele; Turek, Monika; Pawlak, Justyna

    2011-09-01

    Copper(II) complexes with a new chelator-type nucleoside-histidine modified 2'-deoxyriboadenosine (N-[(9-β-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosylpurin-6-yl)-carbamoyl]histidine) were studied by potentiometric and spectroscopic (UV-visible, CD, EPR) techniques, in conjunction with computer modeling optimization. The ligand can act as bidentate or tridentate depending on pH range. In acidic pH a very stable dimeric complex Cu(2)L(2) predominates with coordination spheres of both metal ions composed of oxygen atoms from carboxylic groups, one oxygen atom from ureido group and two nitrogen atoms derived from purine base and histidine ring. Above pH 5, deprotonation of carbamoyl nitrogens leads to the formation of CuL(2), Cu(2)L(2)H(-1) and Cu(2)L(2)H(-2) species. The CuL(2)H(-1) and CuL(2)H(-2) complexes with three or four nitrogens in Cu(II) coordination sphere have been detected in alkaline medium. Our findings suggest that N-[(9-beta-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosylpurin-6-yl)-carbamoyl]histidine chelates copper(II) ions very efficiently. The resulting complex might be used as an alternative base-pairing mode in which hydrogen-bonded base pairs present in natural DNA are replaced by metal-mediated ones.

  16. Safety, absorption, and antioxidant effects of chromium histidine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental chromium has been shown to be involved in the alleviation of the metabolic syndrome, glucose intolerance, polycystic ovary syndrome, depression, excess body fat, and gestational, steroid-induced, and type 2 diabetes. Chromium amino acid complexes that contained histidine displayed cons...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1375 - Histidine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Histidine test system. 862.1375 Section 862.1375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  18. Magnetic resonance spectral characterization of the heme active site of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Lukat, G.S.; Rodgers, K.R.; Jabro, M.N.; Goff, H.M. )

    1989-04-18

    Examination of the peroxidase isolated from the inkcap Basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus shows that the 42,000-dalton enzyme contains a protoheme IX prosthetic group. Reactivity assays and the electronic absorption spectra of native Coprinus peroxidase and several of its ligand complexes indicate that this enzyme has characteristics similar to those reported for horseradish peroxidase. In this paper, the authors characterize the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-oxidized forms of Coprinus peroxidase compounds I, II, and III by electronic absorption and magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of this Coprinus peroxidase indicate the presence of high-spin Fe(III) in the native protein and a number of differences between the heme site of Coprinus peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase. Carbon-13 (of the ferrous CO adduct) and nitrogen-15 (of the cyanide complex) NMR studies together with proton NMR studies of the native and cyanide-complexed Caprinus peroxidase are consistent with coordination of a proximal histidine ligand. The EPR spectrum of the ferrous NO complex is also reported. Protein reconstitution with deuterated hemin has facilitated the assignment of the heme methyl resonances in the proton NMR spectrum.

  19. Magnetic resonance spectral characterization of the heme active site of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Lukat, G S; Rodgers, K R; Jabro, M N; Goff, H M

    1989-04-18

    Examination of the peroxidase isolated from the inkcap Basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus shows that the 42,000-dalton enzyme contains a protoheme IX prosthetic group. Reactivity assays and the electronic absorption spectra of native Coprinus peroxidase and several of its ligand complexes indicate that this enzyme has characteristics similar to those reported for horseradish peroxidase. In this paper, we characterize the H2O2-oxidized forms of Coprinus peroxidase compounds I, II, and III by electronic absorption and magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of this Coprinus peroxidase indicate the presence of high-spin Fe(III) in the native protein and a number of differences between the heme site of Coprinus peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase. Carbon-13 (of the ferrous CO adduct) and nitrogen-15 (of the cyanide complex) NMR studies together with proton NMR studies of the native and cyanide-complexed Coprinus peroxidase are consistent with coordination of a proximal histidine ligand. The EPR spectrum of the ferrous NO complex is also reported. Protein reconstitution with deuterated hemin has facilitated the assignment of the heme methyl resonances in the proton NMR spectrum.

  20. Characterization of the active site of chloroperoxidase using physical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Chloroperoxidase (CPO) and Cytochrome P-450, two very different hemeproteins, have been shown to have similar active sites by several techniques. Recent work has demonstrated thiolate ligation from a cysteine residue to the iron in P-450. A major portion of this research has been devoted to obtaining direct evidence that CPO also has a thiolate 5th ligand from a cysteine residue. This information will provide the framework for a detailed analysis of the structure-function relationships between peroxidases, catalase and cytochrome P-450 hemeproteins. To determine whether the 5th ligand is a cysteine, methionine or a unique amino acid, specific isotope enrichment experiments were used. Preliminary /sup 1/H-NMR studies show that the carbon monoxide-CPO complex has a peak in the upfield region corresponding to alpha-protons of a thiolate amino acid. C. fumago was grown on 95% D/sub 2/O media with a small amount of /sup 1/H-cysteine added. Under these conditions C. fumago slows down the biosynthesis of cysteine by at least 50% and utilizes the exogenous cysteine in the media. GC-MS was able to show that the methylene protons next to the sulfur atom in cysteine are 80-90% protonated while these positions in methionine are approximately 73% deuterated. Comparison of the /sup 1/H-NMR spectra of CO-CPO and CO-CPO indicate the presence of a cysteine ligand in chloroperoxidase.

  1. N6-Methyldeoxyadenosine Marks Active Transcription Start Sites in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Deng, Xin; Yu, Miao; Han, Dali; Hao, Ziyang; Liu, Jianzhao; Lu, Xingyu; Dore, Louis C; Weng, Xiaocheng; Ji, Quanjiang; Mets, Laurens; He, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY N6-methyldeoxyadenosine (6mA or m6A) is a DNA modification preserved in prokaryotes to eukaryotes. It is widespread in bacteria, and functions in DNA mismatch repair, chromosome segregation, and virulence regulation. In contrast, the distribution and function of 6mA in eukaryotes have been unclear. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the 6mA landscape in the genome of Chlamydomonas using new sequencing approaches. We identified the 6mA modification in 84% of genes in Chlamydomonas. We found that 6mA mainly locates at ApT dinucleotides around transcription start sites (TSS) with a bimodal distribution, and appears to mark active genes. A periodic pattern of 6mA deposition was also observed at base resolution, which is associated with nucleosome distribution near the TSS, suggesting a possible role in nucleosome positioning. The new genome-wide mapping of 6mA and its unique distribution in the Chlamydomonas genome suggest potential regulatory roles of 6mA in gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25936837

  2. Detection limit for activation measurements in ultralow background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trache, Livius; Chesneanu, D.; Margineanu, R.; Pantelica, A.; Ghita, D. G.; Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Tang, X. D.

    2014-09-01

    We used 12C +13C fusion at the beam energies E = 6, 7 and 8 MeV to determine the sensitivity and the limits of activation method measurements in ultralow background sites. A 13C beam of 0.5 μA from the 3 MV Tandem accelerator of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH impinged on thick graphite targets. After about 24 hrs of irradiation targets were measured in two different laboratories: one with a heavy shielded Ge detector in the institute (at the surface) and one located underground in the microBequerel laboratory, in the salt mine of Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The 1369- and 2754 keV peaks from 24Na deactivation were clearly observed in the γ-ray spectra obtained for acquisitions lasting a few hours, or a few days. Determination of the detection limit in evaluating the cross sections for the target irradiated at Ec . m = 3 MeV indicates the fact that it is possible to measure gamma spectrum in underground laboratory down to Ec . m = 2 . 6 MeV. Cleaning the spectra with beta-gamma coincidences and increasing beam intensity 20 times will take as further down. The measurements are motivated by the study of the 12 C +12 C reaction at astrophysical energies.

  3. Disturbance opens recruitment sites for bacterial colonization in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Vuono, David C; Munakata-Marr, Junko; Spear, John R; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the role of immigration in shaping bacterial communities or the factors that may dictate success or failure of colonization by bacteria from regional species pools. To address these knowledge gaps, the influence of bacterial colonization into an ecosystem (activated sludge bioreactor) was measured through a disturbance gradient (successive decreases in the parameter solids retention time) relative to stable operational conditions. Through a DNA sequencing approach, we show that the most abundant bacteria within the immigrant community have a greater probability of colonizing the receiving ecosystem, but mostly as low abundance community members. Only during the disturbance do some of these bacterial populations significantly increase in abundance beyond background levels and in few cases become dominant community members post-disturbance. Two mechanisms facilitate the enhanced enrichment of immigrant populations during disturbance: (i) the availability of resources left unconsumed by established species and (ii) the increased availability of niche space for colonizers to establish and displace resident populations. Thus, as a disturbance decreases local diversity, recruitment sites become available to promote colonization. This work advances our understanding of microbial resource management and diversity maintenance in complex ecosystems. PMID:25727891

  4. Active Site Characterization of Proteases Sequences from Different Species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Morya, V K; Yadav, Virendra K; Yadav, Sangeeta; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    A total of 129 proteases sequences comprising 43 serine proteases, 36 aspartic proteases, 24 cysteine protease, 21 metalloproteases, and 05 neutral proteases from different Aspergillus species were analyzed for the catalytically active site residues using MEROPS database and various bioinformatics tools. Different proteases have predominance of variable active site residues. In case of 24 cysteine proteases of Aspergilli, the predominant active site residues observed were Gln193, Cys199, His364, Asn384 while for 43 serine proteases, the active site residues namely Asp164, His193, Asn284, Ser349 and Asp325, His357, Asn454, Ser519 were frequently observed. The analysis of 21 metalloproteases of Aspergilli revealed Glu298 and Glu388, Tyr476 as predominant active site residues. In general, Aspergilli species-specific active site residues were observed for different types of protease sequences analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis of these 129 proteases sequences revealed 14 different clans representing different types of proteases with diverse active site residues.

  5. A proposed definition of the 'activity' of surface sites on lactose carriers for dry powder inhalation.

    PubMed

    Grasmeijer, Floris; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-06-01

    A new definition of the activity of surface sites on lactose carriers for dry powder inhalation is proposed which relates to drug detachment during dispersion. The new definition is expected to improve the understanding of 'carrier surface site activity', which stimulates the unambiguous communication about this subject and may aid in the rational design and interpretation of future formulation studies. In contrast to the currently prevailing view on carrier surface site activity, it follows from the newly proposed definition that carrier surface site activity depends on more variables than just the physicochemical properties of the carrier surface. Because the term 'active sites' is ambiguous, it is recommended to use the term 'highly active sites' instead to denote carrier surface sites with a relatively high activity. PMID:24613490

  6. Influence of different histidine sources and zinc supplementation of broiler diets on dipeptide content and antioxidant status of blood and meat.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate how a diet containing spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) (4%) with or without zinc (Zn) would affect the concentration of two histidine heterodipeptides and the antioxidant status of broiler blood and breast muscles. 2. The study was carried out on 920 male Flex chickens randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: I - control, II - diet I with SDBC, III - diet I with SDBC and supplemented with Zn and IV - diet I supplemented with L-histidine. Birds were raised on floor littered with wood shavings, given free access to water and fed ad libitum. Performance indices were measured on d 1, 21 and 42. 3. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was analysed in plasma, erythrocytes and muscle tissue. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and breast muscles was measured by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, as well as by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Carnosine/anserine content of meat and plasma were determined using HPLC. Diets and breast muscles were analysed for amino acid profile and selected microelement content. 4. Histidine supplementation of the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, the addition of SDBC or pure histidine in the diet increased histidine dipeptide content and activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chicken blood and muscles. However, it led to lower growth performance indices. 5. The enrichment of broiler diets with Zn increased the antioxidant potential and the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma, which was independent of the histidine dipeptide concentration. Zn supplementation combined with SDBC in a broiler diet led to the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but it did not affect the radical

  7. NMR Structures of the Histidine-Rich Peptide LAH4 in Micellar Environments: Membrane Insertion, pH-Dependent Mode of Antimicrobial Action, and DNA Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Julia; Munhoz, Victor H.O.; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    The LAH4 family of histidine-rich peptides exhibits potent antimicrobial and DNA transfection activities, both of which require interactions with cellular membranes. The bilayer association of the peptides has been shown to be strongly pH-dependent, with in-planar alignments under acidic conditions and transmembrane orientations when the histidines are discharged. Therefore, we investigated the pH- and temperature-dependent conformations of LAH4 in DPC micellar solutions and in a TFE/PBS solvent mixture. In the presence of detergent and at pH 4.1, LAH4 adopts helical conformations between residues 9 and 24 concomitantly with a high hydrophobic moment. At pH 6.1, a helix-loop-helix structure forms with a hinge encompassing residues His10–Ala13. The data suggest that the high density of histidine residues and the resulting electrostatic repulsion lead to both a decrease in the pK values of the histidines and a less stable α-helical conformation of this region. The hinged structure at pH 6.1 facilitates membrane anchoring and insertion. At pH 7.8, the histidines are uncharged and an extended helical conformation including residues 4–21 is again obtained. LAH4 thus exhibits a high degree of conformational plasticity. The structures provide a stroboscopic view of the conformational changes that occur during membrane insertion, and are discussed in the context of antimicrobial activity and DNA transfection. PMID:20959091

  8. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  9. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  10. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  11. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  12. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  13. The receiver domain of hybrid histidine kinase VirA: an enhancing factor for vir gene expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Wise, Arlene A; Fang, Fang; Lin, Yi-Han; He, Fanglian; Lynn, David G; Binns, Andrew N

    2010-03-01

    The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens expresses virulence (vir) genes in response to chemical signals found at the site of a plant wound. VirA, a hybrid histidine kinase, and its cognate response regulator, VirG, regulate vir gene expression. The receiver domain at the carboxyl end of VirA has been described as an inhibitory element because its removal increased vir gene expression relative to that of full-length VirA. However, experiments that characterized the receiver region as an inhibitory element were performed in the presence of constitutively expressed virG. We show here that VirA's receiver domain is an activating factor if virG is expressed from its native promoter on the Ti plasmid. When virADeltaR was expressed from a multicopy plasmid, both sugar and the phenolic inducer were essential for vir gene expression. Replacement of wild-type virA on pTi with virADeltaR precluded vir gene induction, and the cells did not accumulate VirG or induce transcription of a virG-lacZ fusion in response to acetosyringone. These phenotypes were corrected if the virG copy number was increased. In addition, we show that the VirA receiver domain can interact with the VirG DNA-binding domain. PMID:20081031

  14. GAS HYDRATES AT TWO SITES OF AN ACTIVE CONTINENTAL MARGIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart on the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m.

  15. Control of active sites in selective flocculation: III -- Mechanism of site blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Behl, S.; Moudgil, B.M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    It has been shown in Parts I and II of this paper that heteroflocculation can be controlled by poisoning the sites for flocculant adsorption using a site blocking agent (SBA). An efficient SBA was determined to be the lower molecular weight fraction of the flocculant. In this paper, the underlying mechanism of SBA action is described. Also, the mathematical model detailed in Part I is used to determine the effect of different SBAs on apatite-dolomite separation efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the depression in flocculation is directly related to the site blocking parameter ([bar [Phi

  16. Dynamically achieved active site precision in enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Klinman, Judith P

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: The grand challenge in enzymology is to define and understand all of the parameters that contribute to enzymes' enormous rate accelerations. The property of hydrogen tunneling in enzyme reactions has moved the focus of research away from an exclusive focus on transition state stabilization toward the importance of the motions of the heavy atoms of the protein, a role for reduced barrier width in catalysis, and the sampling of a protein conformational landscape to achieve a family of protein substates that optimize enzyme-substrate interactions and beyond. This Account focuses on a thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase for which the chemical step of hydride transfer is rate determining across a wide range of experimental conditions. The properties of the chemical coordinate have been probed using kinetic isotope effects, indicating a transition in behavior below 30 °C that distinguishes nonoptimal from optimal C-H activation. Further, the introduction of single site mutants has the impact of either enhancing or eliminating the temperature dependent transition in catalysis. Biophysical probes, which include time dependent hydrogen/deuterium exchange and fluorescent lifetimes and Stokes shifts, have also been pursued. These studies allow the correlation of spatially resolved transitions in protein motions with catalysis. It is now possible to define a long-range network of protein motions in ht-ADH that extends from a dimer interface to the substrate binding domain across to the cofactor binding domain, over a distance of ca. 30 Å. The ongoing challenge to obtaining spatial and temporal resolution of catalysis-linked protein motions is discussed.

  17. Lethal Factor Active-Site Mutations Affect Catalytic Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, S. E.; Hanna, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    The lethal factor (LF) protein of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin contains the thermolysin-like active-site and zinc-binding consensus motif HEXXH (K. R. Klimpel, N. Arora, and S. H. Leppla, Mol. Microbiol. 13:1093–1100, 1994). LF is hypothesized to act as a Zn2+ metalloprotease in the cytoplasm of macrophages, but no proteolytic activities have been previously shown on any target substrate. Here, synthetic peptides are hydrolyzed by LF in vitro. Mass spectroscopy and peptide sequencing of isolated cleavage products separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography indicate that LF seems to prefer proline-containing substrates. Substitution mutations within the consensus active-site residues completely abolish all in vitro catalytic functions, as does addition of 1,10-phenanthroline, EDTA, and certain amino acid hydroxamates, including the novel zinc metalloprotease inhibitor ZINCOV. In contrast, the protease inhibitors bestatin and lysine CMK, previously shown to block LF activity on macrophages, did not block LF activity in vitro. These data provide the first direct evidence that LF may act as an endopeptidase. PMID:9573135

  18. Monoclonal antibody against the active site of caeruloplasmin and the ELISA system detecting active caeruloplasmin.

    PubMed

    Hiyamuta, S; Ito, K

    1994-04-01

    Serum caeruloplasmin deficiency is a characteristic biochemical abnormality found in patients with Wilson's disease, but the mechanism of this disease is unknown. Although the phenylenediamine oxidase activity of serum caeruloplasmin is markedly low in patients with Wilson's disease, mRNA of caeruloplasmin exists to some extent. To investigate the deficiency of caeruloplasmin oxidase activity in Wilson's disease, we generated 14 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and selected ID1, which had the strongest reactivity, and ID2, which had neutralizing ability. We also established a system to measure active caeruloplasmin specifically using these MAbs. These MAbs and the system will be useful tools in analyzing the active site of caeruloplasmin in patients with Wilson's disease.

  19. Robotics and Automation Activities at the Savannah River Site: A Site Report for SUBWOG 39F

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.

    1995-09-28

    The Savannah River Site has successfully used robots, teleoperators, and remote video to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation, improve worker safety, and improve the quality of operations. Previous reports have described the use of mobile teleoperators in coping with a high level liquid waste spill, the removal of highly contaminated equipment, and the inspection of nuclear reactor vessels. This report will cover recent applications at the Savannah River, as well as systems which SRS has delivered to other DOE site customers.

  20. Control of active sites in selective flocculation: II -- Role of site blocking agents

    SciTech Connect

    Behl, S.; Moudgil, B.M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Control of heteroflocculation using a lower molecular weight fraction of the flocculant as a site blocking agent is demonstrated in the apatite-dolomite-polyethylene oxide system. The most effective SBA (site blocking agent) was determined to be the highest molecular weight fraction of the flocculant itself which was not capable of flocculating any of the components of the mixture. In the presence of the SBA, flocculant adsorption decreased significantly on apatite particles, thereby inhibiting coflocculation.

  1. Interactions between the histidine stimulation of cadmium and zinc influx into human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Horn, N M; Thomas, A L

    1996-01-01

    1. Histidine (2-40 mM) stimulated cadmium uptake into human erythrocytes incubated in the presence of 1% bovine serum albumin to ensure that the free, ionic cadmium concentration was low. 2. The histidine-stimulated cadmium uptake correlated with the calculated concentration of the cadmium-bis-histidine complex rather than the cadmium-mono-histidine complex or free ionic cadmium. 3. The histidine stimulation of cadmium uptake was saturable and stereospecific. D-Histidine (10 mM) had no effect. 4. Cadmium and zinc were both able to inhibit 65Zn2+ uptake into erythrocytes incubated in the presence of 40 mM L-histidine. The relationships between the percentage inhibition of 65Zn2+ uptake and the calculated concentrations of cadmium-bis-histidine and zinc-bis-histidine were very similar, which suggests that the metal histidine complexes compete for a common transport mechanism. 5. Pretreatment of the erythrocytes with N-ethylmaleimide using a protocol which is known to inhibit the system y+ amino acid transport mechanism had no effect on the histidine stimulation of metal transport. PMID:8930838

  2. Site-directed mutagenesis around the CuA site of a polyphenol oxidase from Coreopsis grandiflora (cgAUS1).

    PubMed

    Kaintz, Cornelia; Mayer, Rupert L; Jirsa, Franz; Halbwirth, Heidi; Rompel, Annette

    2015-03-24

    Aurone synthase from Coreopsis grandiflora (cgAUS1), catalyzing conversion of butein to sulfuretin in a type-3 copper center, is a rare example of a polyphenol oxidase involved in anabolism. Site-directed mutagenesis around the CuA site of AUS1 was performed, and recombinant enzymes were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Replacement of the coordinating CuA histidines with alanine resulted in the presence of a single copper and loss of diphenolase activity. The thioether bridge-building cysteine and a phenylalanine over the CuA site, exchanged to alanine, have no influence on copper content but appear to play an important role in substrate binding.

  3. A Photochromic Histidine Kinase Rhodopsin (HKR1) That Is Bimodally Switched by Ultraviolet and Blue Light*

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Meike; Mathes, Tilo; Bruun, Sara; Fudim, Roman; Hagedorn, Rolf; Tran Nguyen, Tra My; Kateriya, Suneel; Kennis, John T. M.; Hildebrandt, Peter; Hegemann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Rhodopsins are light-activated chromoproteins that mediate signaling processes via transducer proteins or promote active or passive ion transport as ion pumps or directly light-activated channels. Here, we provide spectroscopic characterization of a rhodopsin from the Chlamydomonas eyespot. It belongs to a recently discovered but so far uncharacterized family of histidine kinase rhodopsins (HKRs). These are modular proteins consisting of rhodopsin, a histidine kinase, a response regulator, and in some cases an effector domain such as an adenylyl or guanylyl cyclase, all encoded in a single protein as a two-component system. The recombinant rhodopsin fragment, Rh, of HKR1 is a UVA receptor (λmax = 380 nm) that is photoconverted by UV light into a stable blue light-absorbing meta state Rh-Bl (λmax = 490 nm). Rh-Bl is converted back to Rh-UV by blue light. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the Rh-UV chromophore is in an unusual 13-cis,15-anti configuration, which explains why the chromophore is deprotonated. The excited state lifetime of Rh-UV is exceptionally stable, probably caused by a relatively unpolar retinal binding pocket, converting into the photoproduct within about 100 ps, whereas the blue form reacts 100 times faster. We propose that the photochromic HKR1 plays a role in the adaptation of behavioral responses in the presence of UVA light. PMID:23027869

  4. Structural Characterization of the Predominant Family of Histidine Kinase Sensor Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Hendrickson, W

    2010-01-01

    Histidine kinase (HK) receptors are used ubiquitously by bacteria to monitor environmental changes, and they are also prevalent in plants, fungi, and other protists. Typical HK receptors have an extracellular sensor portion that detects a signal, usually a chemical ligand, and an intracellular transmitter portion that includes both the kinase domain itself and the site for histidine phosphorylation. While kinase domains are highly conserved, sensor domains are diverse. HK receptors function as dimers, but the molecular mechanism for signal transduction across cell membranes remains obscure. In this study, eight crystal structures were determined from five sensor domains representative of the most populated family, family HK1, found in a bioinformatic analysis of predicted sensor domains from transmembrane HKs. Each structure contains an inserted repeat of PhoQ/DcuS/CitA (PDC) domains, and similarity between sequence and structure is correlated across these and other double-PDC sensor proteins. Three of the five sensors crystallize as dimers that appear to be physiologically relevant, and comparisons between ligated structures and apo-state structures provide insights into signal transmission. Some HK1 family proteins prove to be sensors for chemotaxis proteins or diguanylate cyclase receptors, implying a combinatorial molecular evolution.

  5. Structural characterization of the predominant family of histidine kinase sensor domains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Hendrickson, Wayne A

    2010-07-16

    Histidine kinase (HK) receptors are used ubiquitously by bacteria to monitor environmental changes, and they are also prevalent in plants, fungi, and other protists. Typical HK receptors have an extracellular sensor portion that detects a signal, usually a chemical ligand, and an intracellular transmitter portion that includes both the kinase domain itself and the site for histidine phosphorylation. While kinase domains are highly conserved, sensor domains are diverse. HK receptors function as dimers, but the molecular mechanism for signal transduction across cell membranes remains obscure. In this study, eight crystal structures were determined from five sensor domains representative of the most populated family, family HK1, found in a bioinformatic analysis of predicted sensor domains from transmembrane HKs. Each structure contains an inserted repeat of PhoQ/DcuS/CitA (PDC) domains, and similarity between sequence and structure is correlated across these and other double-PDC sensor proteins. Three of the five sensors crystallize as dimers that appear to be physiologically relevant, and comparisons between ligated structures and apo-state structures provide insights into signal transmission. Some HK1 family proteins prove to be sensors for chemotaxis proteins or diguanylate cyclase receptors, implying a combinatorial molecular evolution.

  6. Identification of PGAM5 as a Mammalian Protein Histidine Phosphatase that Plays a Central Role to Negatively Regulate CD4(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Panda, Saswati; Srivastava, Shekhar; Li, Zhai; Vaeth, Martin; Fuhs, Stephen R; Hunter, Tony; Skolnik, Edward Y

    2016-08-01

    Whereas phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine is exceedingly well characterized, the role of histidine phosphorylation in mammalian signaling is largely unexplored. Here we show that phosphoglycerate mutase family 5 (PGAM5) functions as a phosphohistidine phosphatase that specifically associates with and dephosphorylates the catalytic histidine on nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B). By dephosphorylating NDPK-B, PGAM5 negatively regulates CD4(+) T cells by inhibiting NDPK-B-mediated histidine phosphorylation and activation of the K(+) channel KCa3.1, which is required for TCR-stimulated Ca(2+) influx and cytokine production. Using recently developed monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize phosphorylation of nitrogens at the N1 (1-pHis) or N3 (3-pHis) positions of the imidazole ring, we detect for the first time phosphoisoform-specific regulation of histidine-phosphorylated proteins in vivo, and we link these modifications to TCR signaling. These results represent an important step forward in studying the role of histidine phosphorylation in mammalian biology and disease. PMID:27453048

  7. HCN, A Triple-Resonance NMR Technique for Selective Observation of Histidine and Tryptophan Side Chains in 13C/ 15N-Labeled Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudmeier, James L.; Ash, Elissa L.; Günther, Ulrich L.; Luo, Xuelian; Bullock, Peter A.; Bachovchin, William W.

    1996-12-01

    HCN, a new 3D NMR technique for stepwise coherence transfer from1H to13C to15N and reverse through direct spin couplings1JCHand1JCN, is presented as a method for detection and assignment of histidine and tryptophan side-chain1H,13C, and15N resonances in uniformly13C/15N-labeled proteins. Product-operator calculations of cross-peak volumes vs adjustable delay τ3were employed for determination of optimal τ3. For the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K SH3 domain, MW = 9.6 kD) at pH 6, H(C)N, the1H/15N projection, produced observable cross peaks within 20 min. and was completely selective for the single tryptophan and single histidine. The 3D HCN experiment yielded well-defined cross peaks in 20 h for the13C/15N-labeled origin-specific DNA binding domain from simian virus 40 T-antigen (T-ag-OBD131-259, MW = 15.4 kD) at pH 5.5. Resonances from all six histidines in T-ag-OBD were observed, and 11 of the 121H and13C chemical shifts and 10 of the 1215N chemical shifts were determined. The13C dimension proved essential in assignment of the multiply overlapping1H and15N resonances. From the spectra recorded at a single pH, three of the imidazoles were essentially neutral and the other three were partially protonated (22-37%). HCN yielded strong cross peaks after 18 h on a 2.0 mMsample of phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF)-inhibited α-lytic protease (MW = 19.8 kD) at pH 4.4. No spectra have been obtained, however, of native or boronic acid-inhibited α-lytic protease after 18 h at various temperatures ranging from 5 to 55°C, probably due to efficient relaxation of active-site imidazole1H and/or15N nuclei.

  8. Signal Transduction in Histidine Kinases: Insights from New Structures

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Manasi P.; Molnar, Kathleen S.; Goulian, Mark; DeGrado, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Histidine kinases (HKs) are major players in bacterial signaling. There has been an explosion of new HK crystal structures in the last five years. We globally analyze the structures of HKs to yield insights into the mechanisms by which signals are transmitted to and across protein structures in this family. We interpret known enzymological data in the context of new structural data to show how asymmetry across the dimer interface is a key feature of signal transduction in HKs, and discuss how different HK domains undergo asymmetric-to-symmetric transitions during signal transduction and catalysis. A thermodynamic framework for signaling that encompasses these various properties is presented and the consequences of weak thermodynamic coupling are discussed. The synthesis of observations from enzymology, structural biology, protein engineering and thermodynamics paves the way for a deeper molecular understanding of histidine kinase signal transduction. PMID:25982528

  9. Formation of intersubunit disulfide bonds and properties of the single histidine and cysteine residues in each subunit relative to the decameric structure of cyanase.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P M; Korte, J J; Holcomb, T A; Cho, Y G; Son, C M; Sung, Y C

    1994-05-27

    Reaction of the single cysteine residue in each subunit of cyanase with certain SH reagents gives an active decameric derivative that dissociates reversibly to an inactive dimer derivative (Anderson, P. M., Johnson, W. V., Korte, J. J., Xiong, X., Sung, Y.-c., and Fuchs, J. A. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 5674-5680). Reaction of mixed disulfide dimer derivatives of cyanase with dithiothreitol at 0 degree C results in formation of a disulfide bond between the subunits in the dimer. The disulfide dimer was inactive and did not associate to a decamer; the intersubunit disulfide bond could not be formed when the dimers were associated as a decamer. The two SH groups apparently are in close proximity to each other in the dissociated dimer but not when the dimer is associated to a decamer. Substitution of glycine for the cysteine residue or of tyrosine, asparagine, glycine, valine, or leucine for the single histidine residue in each subunit gave mutant enzymes that were active. However, H113N, H113Y, and C83G were unstable at low temperature and/or ionic strength, dissociating reversibly to an inactive dimer. Efficient reassociation required the presence of bicarbonate or cyanate analog. The results are consistent with a proposed single site per subunit model explaining apparent half-site binding of substrates and the requirement of decameric structure for activity.

  10. Histidine-lysine peptides as carriers of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Leng, Qixin; Goldgeier, Lisa; Zhu, Jingsong; Cambell, Patricia; Ambulos, Nicholas; Mixson, A James

    2007-03-01

    With their biodegradability and diversity of permutations, peptides have significant potential as carriers of nucleic acids. This review will focus on the sequence and branching patterns of peptide carriers composed primarily of histidines and lysines. While lysines within peptides are important for binding to the negatively charged phosphates, histidines are critical for endosomal lysis enabling nucleic acids to reach the cytosol. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymers by either covalent or ionic bonds with liposomes augment transfection compared to liposome carriers alone. More recently, we have examined peptides as sole carriers of nucleic acids because of their intrinsic advantages compared to the bipartite HK/liposome carriers. With a protocol change and addition of a histidine-rich tail, HK peptides as sole carriers were more effective than liposomes alone in several cell lines. While four-branched polymers with a primary repeating sequence pattern of -HHK- were more effective as carriers of plasmids, eight-branched polymers with a sequence pattern of -HHHK- were more effective as carriers of siRNA. Compared to polyethylenimine, HK carriers of siRNA and plasmids had reduced toxicity. When injected intravenously, HK polymers in complex with plasmids encoding antiangiogenic proteins significantly decreased tumor growth. Furthermore, modification of HK polymers with polyethylene glycol and vascular-specific ligands increased specificity of the polyplex to the tumor by more than 40-fold. Together with further development and insight on the structure of HK polyplexes, HK peptides may prove to be useful as carriers of different forms of nucleic acids both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17440630

  11. Mutation at a Strictly Conserved, Active Site Tyrosine in the Copper Amine Oxidase Leads to Uncontrolled Oxygenase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhi-wei; Datta, Saumen; DuBois, Jennifer L.; Klinman, Judith P.; Mathews, F. Scott

    2010-09-07

    The copper amine oxidases carry out two copper-dependent processes: production of their own redox-active cofactor (2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone, TPQ) and the subsequent oxidative deamination of substrate amines. Because the same active site pocket must facilitate both reactions, individual active site residues may serve multiple roles. We have examined the roles of a strictly conserved active site tyrosine Y305 in the copper amine oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha kinetically, spetroscopically (Dubois and Klinman (2006) Biochemistry 45, 3178), and, in the present work, structurally. While the Y305A enzyme is almost identical to the wild type, a novel, highly oxygenated species replaces TPQ in the Y305F active sites. This new structure not only provides the first direct detection of peroxy intermediates in cofactor biogenesis but also indicates the critical control of oxidation chemistry that can be conferred by a single active site residue.

  12. Design and production of peptides mimicking the active site of serine esterases with covalent binding to the organophosphorous poison soman. Annual report, 1 July 1984-30 June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzman, H.H.

    1985-12-09

    The objective of this research program is to design, synthesize, and test peptides and peptide mimics that will scavange soman in vivo and thereby provide protection against this CW agent. The test compounds were designed to mimic the active site of serine esterases (AChE), which are the natural targets of soman, enabling them to react with soman and thus protect endogenous AChE. Cyclodextrins derivatized with peptide functional groups and their equivalents such as imidazole, histamine, ethylene diamine, diethylene triamine, catechol, and ethane dithiol were synthesized for testing. The synthesis of precursors to cyclohexapeptides containing histidine, serine, and aspartic acid, which are amino acids that have been implicated in the active site of numerous esterases, were pursued. Testing of the ability of alpha-, beta, and gamma-cyclodextrins to protect AChE frominactivation by soman was carried out in vitro. From this group of compounds, beta-cyclodextrin was observed to preserve the activity of AChE in a dose response manner achieving a 72.1% preservation of activity when present in 200,000 fold excess versus soman after only ten minutes incubation time (beta-cyclodextrin + soman). Neither alpha, nor gamma-cyclodextrin showed any protective effect at the same doses. The test results suggest that beta cyclodextrin is uniquely suited to scavange soman. Improved scavanging might be achieved with the modified cyclodextrins prepared above for testing.

  13. The CKI1 Histidine Kinase Specifies the Female Gametic Precursor of the Endosperm.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Liu, Zhenning; Song, Xiaoya; Johnson, Cameron; Yu, Xiaolin; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2016-04-01

    Since the discovery of double fertilization, it has been recognized that flowering plants produce two highly dimorphic female gametes, the egg cell and central cell. These give rise, respectively, to the embryo and the endosperm, a nourishing tissue unique to flowering plants. Here we show that in Arabidopsis, endosperm formation requires the CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT 1 (CKI1) histidine kinase, an activator of the cytokinin signaling pathway, which specifies central cells and restricts egg cell fate. Dimorphism of the two adjacent gametes is mechanistically established in the syncytial embryo sac by spatially restricted CKI1 expression, followed by translocation of ER-localized CKI1 protein via nuclear migration. Cell specification by CKI1 likely involves activation of the cytokinin signaling pathway mediated by histidine phosphotransferases. Ectopic CKI1 expression generates non-propagating seeds with dual fertilized endosperms and no embryos. We conclude that CKI1-directed specification of the endosperm precursor central cell results in seeds containing an embryo and an endosperm. PMID:27046830

  14. An Analysis of the Solution Structure and Signaling Mechanism of LovK, a Sensor Histidine Kinase Integrating Light and Redox Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, Erin B.; McDonald, Claudia A.; Palfey, Bruce A.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-12-07

    Flavin-binding LOV domains are broadly conserved in plants, fungi, archaea, and bacteria. These {approx}100-residue photosensory modules are generally encoded within larger, multidomain proteins that control a range of blue light-dependent physiologies. The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus encodes a soluble LOV-histidine kinase, LovK, that regulates the adhesive properties of the cell. Full-length LovK is dimeric as are a series of systematically truncated LovK constructs containing only the N-terminal LOV sensory domain. Nonconserved sequence flanking the LOV domain functions to tune the signaling lifetime of the protein. Size exclusion chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) demonstrate that the LOV sensor domain does not undergo a large conformational change in response to photon absorption. However, limited proteolysis identifies a sequence flanking the C-terminus of the LOV domain as a site of light-induced change in protein conformation and dynamics. On the basis of SAXS envelope reconstruction and bioinformatic prediction, we propose this dynamic region of structure is an extended C-terminal coiled coil that links the LOV domain to the histidine kinase domain. To test the hypothesis that LOV domain signaling is affected by cellular redox state in addition to light, we measured the reduction potential of the LovK FMN cofactor. The measured potential of -258 mV is congruent with the redox potential of Gram-negative cytoplasm during logarithmic growth (-260 to -280 mV). Thus, a fraction of LovK in the cytosol may be in the reduced state under typical growth conditions. Chemical reduction of the FMN cofactor of LovK attenuates the light-dependent ATPase activity of the protein in vitro, demonstrating that LovK can function as a conditional photosensor that is regulated by the oxidative state of the cellular environment.

  15. The Abi-domain Protein Abx1 Interacts with the CovS Histidine Kinase to Control Virulence Gene Expression in Group B Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Firon, Arnaud; Tazi, Asmaa; Da Cunha, Violette; Brinster, Sophie; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Glaser, Philippe; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a common commensal of the female genital tract, is the leading cause of invasive infections in neonates. Expression of major GBS virulence factors, such as the hemolysin operon cyl, is regulated directly at the transcriptional level by the CovSR two-component system. Using a random genetic approach, we identified a multi-spanning transmembrane protein, Abx1, essential for the production of the GBS hemolysin. Despite its similarity to eukaryotic CaaX proteases, the Abx1 function is not involved in a post-translational modification of the GBS hemolysin. Instead, we demonstrate that Abx1 regulates transcription of several virulence genes, including those comprising the hemolysin operon, by a CovSR-dependent mechanism. By combining genetic analyses, transcriptome profiling, and site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that Abx1 is a regulator of the histidine kinase CovS. Overexpression of Abx1 is sufficient to activate virulence gene expression through CovS, overcoming the need for an additional signal. Conversely, the absence of Abx1 has the opposite effect on virulence gene expression consistent with CovS locked in a kinase-competent state. Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, direct interaction between Abx1 and CovS was mapped specifically to CovS domains involved in signal processing. We demonstrate that the CovSR two-component system is the core of a signaling pathway integrating the regulation of CovS by Abx1 in addition to the regulation of CovR by the serine/threonine kinase Stk1. In conclusion, our study reports a regulatory function for Abx1, a member of a large protein family with a characteristic Abi-domain, which forms a signaling complex with the histidine kinase CovS in GBS. PMID:23436996

  16. [Functional groups in the alpha-galactosidase active site in Cladosporium cladosporioides].

    PubMed

    Malanchuk, V M; Buglova, T T; Varbanets, L D; Zakharova, I Ia

    2000-01-01

    The activity of alpha-galactosidase isolated from culture fluid of micromycete Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries 16,038 has been studied as affected by cations, anions and specific chemical reagents (p-chlormercurybenzoate (p-ChMB), iodacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, L-cysteine, dithiotreitol, beta-mercaptoethanol, EDTA, o-phenanthroline, sodium azide). It has been established that Ag+ ions inhibited competitively alpha-galactosidase at pH 4.0 and 6.0, the inhibition constants (Ki) made 3.6 x 10(-5) M and 4.3 x 10(-6) M, respectively. Galactose in concentration of 1 mM to 5 mM preserved the enzyme from the negative effect of Ag+ ions, while L-cysteine did not manifest the protective effect. Ions of Hg2+ p-ChMB inhibited noncompetitively the activity of alpha-galactosidase, Ki for Hg2+ and p-ChMB made 5.7 x 10(-7) M and 4.7 x 10(-6) M, respectively. Preincubation with galactose does not preserve alpha-galactosidase from the inhibiting effect of Ag+ and p-ChMB, but th[not readable: see text] compounds (L-cysteine, dithiotreitol, beta-mercaptoethanol) restore the enzyme activity. Participation of histidine imidazole group in the catalytic action is supposed on the basis of the inhibitory and kinetic analysis. Sulphydryl groups do not take part in the catalysis but play an important role in supporting the active conformation of the protein molecule. The groups containing the atoms of metals are absent in the alpha-galactosidase molecule.

  17. Temperature dependence of histidine ionization constants in myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, S; Lecomte, J T

    1997-01-01

    The standard enthalpy of ionization of six titratable histidines in horse metaquomyoglobin was determined by repeating proton NMR titrations as a function of temperature and using the van't Hoff relationship. It was found that deltaH degrees varies between 16 and 37 kJ mol(-1) in the protein, compared with a value of 29 kJ mol(-1) in free histidine. The standard entropy change was evaluated by combining the enthalpy and free energy changes derived from the pKa values. Although the entropy change could not be precisely and accurately obtained by this method, it could be established that it spans a wide range, from -60 to 0 J K(-1) mol(-1), about the value of -23 J K(-1) mol(-1) for the free histidine. The entropy change was used within the framework of enthalpy-entropy compensation to partition the solvation component from the standard thermodynamic quantities for each of the titrating residues. It was shown that the partitioning of the values in the protein is not readily understood in terms of solvent accessibility or electrostatic interactions. The contribution of solvation effects to the temperature response appeared to be significant only in the case of His-119 and His-48. The standard quantities were also used to explore the energetics of proton binding in the native state at temperatures below the onset of thermal denaturation. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:9414235

  18. Effects of grain, fructose, and histidine feeding on endotoxin and oxidative stress measures in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Lean, I J; Rabiee, A R; King, R; Celi, P

    2013-01-01

    Ruminal endotoxin and plasma oxidative stress biomarker concentrations were studied in dairy heifers challenged with grain, fructose, and histidine in a partial factorial study. Holstein-Friesian heifers [n=30; average body weight (BW) of 359.3±47.3 kg] were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: (1) control (no grain); (2) grain [crushed triticale at 1.2% of BW dry matter intake (DMI)]; (3) grain (0.8% of BW DMI) + fructose (0.4% of BW DMI); (4) grain (1.2% of BW DMI) + histidine (6g/head); and (5) grain (0.8% of BW DMI) + fructose (0.4% of BW DMI) + histidine (6 g/head). Rumen samples were collected by stomach tube 5, 65, 115, 165, and 215 min after diet consumption and blood samples at 5 and 215 min after consumption. Rumen fluid was analyzed for endotoxin concentrations. Plasma was analyzed for concentrations of the following oxidative stress biomarkers: reactive oxygen metabolites (dROM), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), advanced oxidation protein products, and ceruloplasmin, and activity of glutathione peroxidase. Dietary treatment had no effect on concentrations of endotoxin or oxidative stress biomarkers. We observed no interactions of treatment by time. Ruminal concentrations of endotoxin decreased during the sampling period from 1.12×10(5) ± 0.06 to 0.92×10(5) endotoxin units/mL ± 0.05 (5 and 215 min after diet consumption, respectively). Concentrations of dROM and the oxidative stress index (dROM/BAP × 100) increased over the sampling period, from 108.7 to 123.5 Carratelli units (Carr U), and from 4.1 to 4.8, respectively. Ceruloplasmin concentrations markedly declined 5 min after the consumption of diets, from 190 to 90 mg/L over the 215-min sampling period. Overall, a single feeding challenge for dairy cattle with grain, fructose, and histidine, and combinations thereof, may not be sufficient to induce marked changes in endotoxin or oxidative stress biomarker concentrations.

  19. Identification of promiscuous ene-reductase activity by mining structural databases using active site constellations

    PubMed Central

    Steinkellner, Georg; Gruber, Christian C.; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Binter, Alexandra; Steiner, Kerstin; Winkler, Christoph; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Schwamberger, Orsolya; Oberer, Monika; Schwab, Helmut; Faber, Kurt; Macheroux, Peter; Gruber, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of catalytic promiscuity and the application of de novo design have recently opened the access to novel, non-natural enzymatic activities. Here we describe a structural bioinformatic method for predicting catalytic activities of enzymes based on three-dimensional constellations of functional groups in active sites (‘catalophores’). As a proof-of-concept we identify two enzymes with predicted promiscuous ene-reductase activity (reduction of activated C–C double bonds) and compare them with known ene-reductases, that is, members of the Old Yellow Enzyme family. Despite completely different amino acid sequences, overall structures and protein folds, high-resolution crystal structures reveal equivalent binding modes of typical Old Yellow Enzyme substrates and ligands. Biochemical and biocatalytic data show that the two enzymes indeed possess ene-reductase activity and reveal an inverted stereopreference compared with Old Yellow Enzymes for some substrates. This method could thus be a tool for the identification of viable starting points for the development and engineering of novel biocatalysts. PMID:24954722

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Histidine Decarboxylase Gene (hdcA) Transcription and Histamine Production by Streptococcus thermophilus PRI60 under Conditions Relevant to Cheese Making▿†

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Franca; Gardini, Fausto; Rizzotti, Lucia; La Gioia, Federica; Tabanelli, Giulia; Torriani, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of parameters relevant for cheese making on histamine formation by Streptococcus thermophilus. Strains possessing a histidine decarboxylase (hdcA) gene represented 6% of the dairy isolates screened. The most histaminogenic, S. thermophilus PRI60, exhibited in skim milk a high basal level of expression of hdcA, upregulation in the presence of free histidine and salt, and repression after thermization. HdcA activity persisted in cell extracts, indicating that histamine might accumulate after cell lysis in cheese. PMID:21378060

  1. Quantitative analysis of histidine decarboxylase gene (hdcA) transcription and histamine production by Streptococcus thermophilus PRI60 under conditions relevant to cheese making.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Franca; Gardini, Fausto; Rizzotti, Lucia; La Gioia, Federica; Tabanelli, Giulia; Torriani, Sandra

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of parameters relevant for cheese making on histamine formation by Streptococcus thermophilus. Strains possessing a histidine decarboxylase (hdcA) gene represented 6% of the dairy isolates screened. The most histaminogenic, S. thermophilus PRI60, exhibited in skim milk a high basal level of expression of hdcA, upregulation in the presence of free histidine and salt, and repression after thermization. HdcA activity persisted in cell extracts, indicating that histamine might accumulate after cell lysis in cheese.

  2. Structural heterogeneity of the Fe(2+)-N epsilon (HisF8) bond in various hemoglobin and myoglobin derivatives probed by the Raman-active iron histidine stretching mode.

    PubMed Central

    Gilch, H.; Schweitzer-Stenner, R.; Dreybrodt, W.

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the Fe(2+)-N epsilon (HisF8) complex in hemoglobin A (HbA) by measuring the band profile of its Raman-active nu Fe-His stretching mode at pH 6.4, 7.0, and 8.0 using the 441-nm line of a HeCd laser. A line shape analysis revealed that the band can be decomposed into five different sublines at omega 1 = 195 cm-1, omega 2 = 203 cm-1, omega 3 = 212 cm-1, omega 4 = 218 cm-1, and omega 5 = 226 cm-1. To identify these to the contributions from the different subunits we have reanalyzed the nu Fe-His band of the HbA hybrids alpha(Fe)2 beta(Co)2 and alpha(Co)2 beta(Fe)2 reported earlier by Rousseau and Friedman (D. Rousseau and J. M. Friedman. 1988. In Biological Application on Raman Spectroscopy. T. G. Spiro, editor, 133-216). Moreover we have reanalyzed other Raman bands from the literature, namely the nu Fe-His band of the isolated hemoglobin subunits alpha SH- and beta SH-HbA, various hemoglobin mutants (i.e., Hb(TyrC7 alpha-->Phe), Hb(TyrC7 alpha-->His), Hb M-Boston and Hb M-Iwate), N-ethylmaleimide-des(Arg141 alpha) hemoglobin (NES-des(Arg141 alpha)HbA) and photolyzed carbonmonoxide hemoglobin (Hb*CO) measured 25 ps and 10 ns after photolysis. These molecules are known to exist in different quaternary states. All bands can be decomposed into a set of sublines exhibiting frequencies which are nearly identical to those found for deoxyhemoglobin A. Additional sublines were found to contribute to the nu Fe-His band of NES-des(Arg141 alpha) HbA and the Hb*CO species. The peak frequencies of the bands are determined by the most intensive sublines. Moreover we have measured the nu Fe-His band of deoxyHbA at 10 K in an aqueous solution and in a 80% glycerol/water mixture. Its subline composition at this temperature depends on the solvent and parallels that of more R-like hemoglobin derivatives. We have also measured the optical charge transfer band III of deoxyHbA at room temperature and found, that at least three subbands are required to fit its asymmetric

  3. An ionizable active-site tryptophan imparts catalase activity to a peroxidase core.

    PubMed

    Loewen, Peter C; Carpena, Xavi; Vidossich, Pietro; Fita, Ignacio; Rovira, Carme

    2014-05-21

    Catalase peroxidases (KatG's) are bifunctional heme proteins that can disproportionate hydrogen peroxide (catalatic reaction) despite their structural dissimilarity with monofunctional catalases. Using X-ray crystallography and QM/MM calculations, we demonstrate that the catalatic reaction of KatG's involves deprotonation of the active-site Trp, which plays a role similar to that of the distal His in monofunctional catalases. The interaction of a nearby mobile arginine with the distal Met-Tyr-Trp essential adduct (in/out) acts as an electronic switch, triggering deprotonation of the adduct Trp.

  4. Nuclear Site Security in the Event of Terrorist Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, M.L.; Sims, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented as a poster, identifies why ballistic protection should now be considered at nuclear sites to counter terrorist threats. A proven and flexible form of multi purpose protection is described in detail with identification of trial results that show its suitability for this role. (authors)

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Fe(II) β-diketonato complexes with relevance to acetylacetone dioxygenase: insights into the electronic properties of the 3-histidine facial triad.

    PubMed

    Park, Heaweon; Baus, Jacob S; Lindeman, Sergey V; Fiedler, Adam T

    2011-12-01

    A series of high-spin iron(II) β-diketonato complexes have been prepared and characterized with the intent of modeling the substrate-bound form of the enzyme acetylacetone dioxygenase (Dke1). The Dke1 active site features an Fe(II) center coordinated by three histidine residues in a facial geometry--a departure from the standard 2-histidine-1-carboxylate (2H1C) facial triad dominant among nonheme monoiron enzymes. The deprotonated β-diketone substrate binds to the Fe center in a bidentate fashion. To better understand the implications of subtle changes in coordination environment for the electronic structures of nonheme Fe active sites, synthetic models were prepared with three different supporting ligands (L(N3)): the anionic (Me2)Tp and (Ph2)Tp ligands ((R2)Tp = hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate substituted with R-groups at the 3- and 5-pyrazole positions) and the neutral (Ph)TIP ligand ((Ph)TIP = tris(2-phenylimidazol-4-yl)phosphine). The resulting [(L(N3))Fe(acac(X))](0/+) complexes (acac(X) = substituted β-diketonates) were analyzed with a combination of experimental and computational methods, namely, X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry, spectroscopic techniques (UV-vis absorption and (1)H NMR), and density functional theory (DFT). X-ray diffraction results for complexes with the (Me2)Tp ligand revealed six-coordinate Fe(II) centers with a bound MeCN molecule, while structures of the (Ph2)Tp and (Ph)TIP complexes generally exhibited five-coordinate geometries. Each [(L(N3))Fe(acac(X))](0/+) complex displays two broad absorption features in the visible region that arise from Fe(II)→acac(X) charge transfer and acac(X)-based transitions, consistent with UV-vis data reported for Dke1. These absorption bands, along with the Fe redox potentials, are highly sensitive to the identity of L(N3) and substitution of the β-diketonates. By interpreting the experimental results in conjunction with DFT calculations, detailed electronic-structure descriptions of the

  6. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  7. Active Layer and Moisture Measurements for Intensive Site 0 and 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Peterson

    2015-04-17

    These are measurements of Active Layer Thickness collected along several lines beginning in September, 2011 to the present. The data were collected at several time periods along the Site0 L2 Line, the Site1 AB Line, and an ERT Monitoring Line near Area A in Site1.

  8. N-Acetylglucosaminidases from CAZy Family GH3 Are Really Glycoside Phosphorylases, Thereby Explaining Their Use of Histidine as an Acid/Base Catalyst in Place of Glutamic Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Spencer S.; Blaukopf, Markus; Withers, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    CAZy glycoside hydrolase family GH3 consists primarily of stereochemistry-retaining β-glucosidases but also contains a subfamily of β-N-acetylglucosaminidases. Enzymes from this subfamily were recently shown to use a histidine residue within a His-Asp dyad contained in a signature sequence as their catalytic acid/base residue. Reasons for their use of His rather than the Glu or Asp found in other glycosidases were not apparent. Through studies on a representative member, the Nag3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Cellulomonas fimi, we now show that these enzymes act preferentially as glycoside phosphorylases. Their need to accommodate an anionic nucleophile within the enzyme active site explains why histidine is used as an acid/base catalyst in place of the anionic glutamate seen in other GH3 family members. Kinetic and mechanistic studies reveal that these enzymes also employ a double-displacement mechanism involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, which was directly detected by mass spectrometry. Phosphate has no effect on the rates of formation of the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, but it accelerates turnover of the N-acetylglucosaminyl-enzyme intermediate ∼3-fold, while accelerating turnover of the glucosyl-enzyme intermediate several hundredfold. These represent the first reported examples of retaining β-glycoside phosphorylases, and the first instance of free β-GlcNAc-1-phosphate in a biological context. PMID:25533455

  9. N-acetylglucosaminidases from CAZy family GH3 are really glycoside phosphorylases, thereby explaining their use of histidine as an acid/base catalyst in place of glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Spencer S; Blaukopf, Markus; Withers, Stephen G

    2015-02-20

    CAZy glycoside hydrolase family GH3 consists primarily of stereochemistry-retaining β-glucosidases but also contains a subfamily of β-N-acetylglucosaminidases. Enzymes from this subfamily were recently shown to use a histidine residue within a His-Asp dyad contained in a signature sequence as their catalytic acid/base residue. Reasons for their use of His rather than the Glu or Asp found in other glycosidases were not apparent. Through studies on a representative member, the Nag3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Cellulomonas fimi, we now show that these enzymes act preferentially as glycoside phosphorylases. Their need to accommodate an anionic nucleophile within the enzyme active site explains why histidine is used as an acid/base catalyst in place of the anionic glutamate seen in other GH3 family members. Kinetic and mechanistic studies reveal that these enzymes also employ a double-displacement mechanism involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, which was directly detected by mass spectrometry. Phosphate has no effect on the rates of formation of the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, but it accelerates turnover of the N-acetylglucosaminyl-enzyme intermediate ∼3-fold, while accelerating turnover of the glucosyl-enzyme intermediate several hundredfold. These represent the first reported examples of retaining β-glycoside phosphorylases, and the first instance of free β-GlcNAc-1-phosphate in a biological context.

  10. Structural mechanism of RuBisCO activation by carbamylation of the active site lysine

    PubMed Central

    Stec, Boguslaw

    2012-01-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is a crucial enzyme in carbon fixation and the most abundant protein on earth. It has been studied extensively by biochemical and structural methods; however, the most essential activation step has not yet been described. Here, we describe the mechanistic details of Lys carbamylation that leads to RuBisCO activation by atmospheric CO2. We report two crystal structures of nitrosylated RuBisCO from the red algae Galdieria sulphuraria with O2 and CO2 bound at the active site. G. sulphuraria RuBisCO is inhibited by cysteine nitrosylation that results in trapping of these gaseous ligands. The structure with CO2 defines an elusive, preactivation complex that contains a metal cation Mg2+ surrounded by three H2O/OH molecules. Both structures suggest the mechanism for discriminating gaseous ligands by their quadrupole electric moments. We describe conformational changes that allow for intermittent binding of the metal ion required for activation. On the basis of these structures we propose the individual steps of the activation mechanism. Knowledge of all these elements is indispensable for engineering RuBisCO into a more efficient enzyme for crop enhancement or as a remedy to global warming. PMID:23112176

  11. Structural insights into ChpT, an essential dimeric histidine phosphotransferase regulating the cell cycle in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Clantin, Bernard; Dewitte, Frédérique; Lens, Zoé; Verger, Alexis; Biondi, Emanuele G; Villeret, Vincent

    2012-09-01

    Two-component and phosphorelay signal-transduction proteins are crucial for bacterial cell-cycle regulation in Caulobacter crescentus. ChpT is an essential histidine phosphotransferase that controls the activity of the master cell-cycle regulator CtrA by phosphorylation. Here, the 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of ChpT is reported. ChpT is a homodimer and adopts the domain architecture of the intracellular part of class I histidine kinases. Each subunit consists of two distinct domains: an N-terminal helical hairpin domain and a C-terminal α/β domain. The two N-terminal domains are adjacent within the dimer, forming a four-helix bundle. The ChpT C-terminal domain adopts an atypical Bergerat ATP-binding fold.

  12. A Rhizobium radiobacter Histidine Kinase Can Employ Both Boolean AND and OR Logic Gates to Initiate Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Lin, Yi-Han; Pierce, B Daniel; Lynn, David G

    2015-10-12

    The molecular logic gates that regulate gene circuits are necessarily intricate and highly regulated, particularly in the critical commitments necessary for pathogenesis. We now report simple AND and OR logic gates to be accessible within a single protein receptor. Pathogenesis by the bacterium Rhizobium radiobacter is mediated by a single histidine kinase, VirA, which processes multiple small molecule host signals (phenol and sugar). Mutagenesis analyses converged on a single signal integration node, and finer functional analyses revealed that a single residue could switch VirA from a functional AND logic gate to an OR gate where each of two signals activate independently. Host range preferences among natural strains of R. radiobacter correlate with these gate logic strategies. Although the precise mechanism for the signal integration node requires further analyses, long-range signal transmission through this histidine kinase can now be exploited for synthetic signaling circuits.

  13. Using catalytic atom maps to predict the catalytic functions present in enzyme active sites.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Geoffrey R; Houk, K N

    2012-09-18

    Catalytic atom maps (CAMs) are minimal models of enzyme active sites. The structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) were examined to determine if proteins with CAM-like geometries in their active sites all share the same catalytic function. We combined the CAM-based search protocol with a filter based on the weighted contact number (WCN) of the catalytic residues, a measure of the "crowdedness" of the microenvironment around a protein residue. Using this technique, a CAM based on the Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad of trypsin was able to correctly identify catalytic triads in other enzymes within 0.5 Å rmsd of the CAM with 96% accuracy. A CAM based on the Cys-Arg-(Asp/Glu) active site residues from the tyrosine phosphatase active site achieved 89% accuracy in identifying this type of catalytic functionality. Both of these CAMs were able to identify active sites across different fold types. Finally, the PDB was searched to locate proteins with catalytic functionality similar to that present in the active site of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase), whose mechanism is not known with certainty. A CAM, based on the conserved Lys-Asp-Lys-Asp tetrad in the ODCase active site, was used to search the PDB for enzymes with similar active sites. The ODCase active site has a geometry similar to that of Schiff base-forming Class I aldolases, with lowest aldolase rmsd to the ODCase CAM at 0.48 Å. The similarity between this CAM and the aldolase active site suggests that ODCase has the correct catalytic functionality present in its active site for the generation of a nucleophilic lysine. PMID:22909276

  14. Using Catalytic Atom Maps to Predict the Catalytic Functions Present in Enzyme Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    Nosrati, Geoffrey R.; Houk, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic Atom Maps (CAMs) are minimal models of enzyme active sites. The structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) were examined to determine if proteins with CAM-like geometries in their active sites all share the same catalytic function. We combined the CAM-based search protocol with a filter based on the weighted contact number (WCN) of the catalytic residues, a measure of the “crowdedness” of the microenvironment around a protein residue. Using this technique, a CAM based on the Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad of trypsin was able to correctly identify catalytic triads in other enzymes within 0.5 Å RMSD of the Catalytic Atom Map with 96% accuracy. A CAM based on the Cys-Arg-(Asp/Glu) active site residues from the tyrosine phosphatase active site achieved 89% accuracy in identifying this type of catalytic functionality. Both of these Catalytic Atom Maps were able to identify active sites across different fold types. Finally, the PDB was searched to locate proteins with catalytic functionality similar to that present in the active site of orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase), whose mechanism is not known with certainty. A CAM, based on the conserved Lys-Asp-Lys-Asp tetrad in the ODCase active site, was used to search the PDB for enzymes with similar active sites. The ODCase active site has a geometry similar to that of Schiff base-forming Class I aldolases, with lowest aldolase RMSD to the ODCase CAM at 0.48 Å. The similarity between this CAM and the aldolase active site suggests that ODCase has the correct catalytic functionality present in its active site for the generation of a nucleophilic lysine. PMID:22909276

  15. Histidine 450 plays a critical role in catalysis and, with Ca2+, contributes to the substrate specificity of aminopeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Iturrioz, X; Vazeux, G; Célérier, J; Corvol, P; Llorens-Cortès, C

    2000-03-21

    Aminopeptidase A (EC 3.4.11.7, APA) is a 130 kDa membrane-bound protease that contains the HEXXH consensus sequence found in the zinc metalloprotease family, the zincins. In addition to the catalytic zinc atom, APA contains a Ca2+ ion that increases its enzymatic activity. Aligning the sequences of the mouse APA, APN, and other monozinc aminopeptidases led to the identification of a conserved histidine (His 450 in mouse APA). Replacing this residue with a phenylalanine (Phe 450) by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in markedly lower levels of APA activity and in a change in the sensitivity of APA to Ca2+ (the EC50 for Ca2+ was 25 microM in the wild type and only 279 microM in the mutant). Kinetic studies, with a supramaximal Ca2+ concentration (4 mM), showed that the Km of the mutant enzyme for the substrate alpha-L-glutamyl-beta-naphthylamide was 25 times higher than that of the wild type, whereas the kcat value was much lower (factor of 22). Thus, overall, the wild-type enzyme had a cleavage efficiency that was 571 times higher than that of the mutant. The inhibitory potencies of two different classes of inhibitors, a glutamate thiol and a glutamate phosphonate compound, were significantly lower (factors of 19 and 22, respectively) for the mutated enzyme than for the wild-type enzyme. In contrast, inhibition by lysine thiol was unaffected. These data strongly suggest that His 450 is critical for catalytic activity and is involved in substrate binding via interaction with the P1 carboxylate side chain of the substrate. Furthermore, His 450, together with Ca2+, may contribute to the substrate specificity of APA for N-terminal acidic amino acid residues.

  16. Cyclic di-GMP mediates a histidine kinase/phosphatase switch by noncovalent domain cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Badri N; Lori, Christian; Ozaki, Shogo; Fucile, Geoffrey; Plaza-Menacho, Ivan; Jenal, Urs; Schirmer, Tilman

    2016-09-01

    Histidine kinases are key components of regulatory networks in bacteria. Although many of these enzymes are bifunctional, mediating both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of downstream targets, the molecular details of this central regulatory switch are unclear. We showed recently that the universal second messenger cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) drives Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle progression by forcing the cell cycle kinase CckA from its default kinase into phosphatase mode. We use a combination of structure determination, modeling, and functional analysis to demonstrate that c-di-GMP reciprocally regulates the two antagonistic CckA activities through noncovalent cross-linking of the catalytic domain with the dimerization histidine phosphotransfer (DHp) domain. We demonstrate that both c-di-GMP and ADP (adenosine diphosphate) promote phosphatase activity and propose that c-di-GMP stabilizes the ADP-bound quaternary structure, which allows the receiver domain to access the dimeric DHp stem for dephosphorylation. In silico analyses predict that c-di-GMP control is widespread among bacterial histidine kinases, arguing that it can replace or modulate canonical transmembrane signaling. PMID:27652341

  17. Cyclic di-GMP mediates a histidine kinase/phosphatase switch by noncovalent domain cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Badri N.; Lori, Christian; Ozaki, Shogo; Fucile, Geoffrey; Plaza-Menacho, Ivan; Jenal, Urs; Schirmer, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    Histidine kinases are key components of regulatory networks in bacteria. Although many of these enzymes are bifunctional, mediating both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of downstream targets, the molecular details of this central regulatory switch are unclear. We showed recently that the universal second messenger cyclic di–guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) drives Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle progression by forcing the cell cycle kinase CckA from its default kinase into phosphatase mode. We use a combination of structure determination, modeling, and functional analysis to demonstrate that c-di-GMP reciprocally regulates the two antagonistic CckA activities through noncovalent cross-linking of the catalytic domain with the dimerization histidine phosphotransfer (DHp) domain. We demonstrate that both c-di-GMP and ADP (adenosine diphosphate) promote phosphatase activity and propose that c-di-GMP stabilizes the ADP-bound quaternary structure, which allows the receiver domain to access the dimeric DHp stem for dephosphorylation. In silico analyses predict that c-di-GMP control is widespread among bacterial histidine kinases, arguing that it can replace or modulate canonical transmembrane signaling. PMID:27652341

  18. Cyclic di-GMP mediates a histidine kinase/phosphatase switch by noncovalent domain cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Badri N.; Lori, Christian; Ozaki, Shogo; Fucile, Geoffrey; Plaza-Menacho, Ivan; Jenal, Urs; Schirmer, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    Histidine kinases are key components of regulatory networks in bacteria. Although many of these enzymes are bifunctional, mediating both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of downstream targets, the molecular details of this central regulatory switch are unclear. We showed recently that the universal second messenger cyclic di–guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) drives Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle progression by forcing the cell cycle kinase CckA from its default kinase into phosphatase mode. We use a combination of structure determination, modeling, and functional analysis to demonstrate that c-di-GMP reciprocally regulates the two antagonistic CckA activities through noncovalent cross-linking of the catalytic domain with the dimerization histidine phosphotransfer (DHp) domain. We demonstrate that both c-di-GMP and ADP (adenosine diphosphate) promote phosphatase activity and propose that c-di-GMP stabilizes the ADP-bound quaternary structure, which allows the receiver domain to access the dimeric DHp stem for dephosphorylation. In silico analyses predict that c-di-GMP control is widespread among bacterial histidine kinases, arguing that it can replace or modulate canonical transmembrane signaling.

  19. Cyclic di-GMP mediates a histidine kinase/phosphatase switch by noncovalent domain cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Badri N; Lori, Christian; Ozaki, Shogo; Fucile, Geoffrey; Plaza-Menacho, Ivan; Jenal, Urs; Schirmer, Tilman

    2016-09-01

    Histidine kinases are key components of regulatory networks in bacteria. Although many of these enzymes are bifunctional, mediating both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of downstream targets, the molecular details of this central regulatory switch are unclear. We showed recently that the universal second messenger cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) drives Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle progression by forcing the cell cycle kinase CckA from its default kinase into phosphatase mode. We use a combination of structure determination, modeling, and functional analysis to demonstrate that c-di-GMP reciprocally regulates the two antagonistic CckA activities through noncovalent cross-linking of the catalytic domain with the dimerization histidine phosphotransfer (DHp) domain. We demonstrate that both c-di-GMP and ADP (adenosine diphosphate) promote phosphatase activity and propose that c-di-GMP stabilizes the ADP-bound quaternary structure, which allows the receiver domain to access the dimeric DHp stem for dephosphorylation. In silico analyses predict that c-di-GMP control is widespread among bacterial histidine kinases, arguing that it can replace or modulate canonical transmembrane signaling.

  20. Active-Site Hydration and Water Diffusion in Cytochrome P450cam: A Highly Dynamic Process

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinglong; Baudry, Jerome Y

    2011-01-01

    Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations (300 ns) are performed on both the apo- (i.e., camphor-free) and camphor-bound cytochrome P450cam (CYP101). Water diffusion into and out of the protein active site is observed without biased sampling methods. During the course of the molecular dynamics simulation, an average of 6.4 water molecules is observed in the camphor-binding site of the apo form, compared to zero water molecules in the binding site of the substrate-bound form, in agreement with the number of water molecules observed in crystal structures of the same species. However, as many as 12 water molecules can be present at a given time in the camphor-binding region of the active site in the case of apo-P450cam, revealing a highly dynamic process for hydration of the protein active site, with water molecules exchanging rapidly with the bulk solvent. Water molecules are also found to exchange locations frequently inside the active site, preferentially clustering in regions surrounding the water molecules observed in the crystal structure. Potential-of-mean-force calculations identify thermodynamically favored trans-protein pathways for the diffusion of water molecules between the protein active site and the bulk solvent. Binding of camphor in the active site modifies the free-energy landscape of P450cam channels toward favoring the diffusion of water molecules out of the protein active site.

  1. Parameterization of an Active Thermal Erosion Site, Caribou Creek, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.; Cherry, J. E.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Thermokarst features are thought to be an important mechanism for landscape change in permafrost-dominated cold regions, but few such features have been incorporated into full featured landscape models. The root of this shortcoming is that historic observations are not detailed enough to parameterize a model, and the models typically do not include the relevant processes for thermal erosion. A new, dynamic thermokarst feature has been identified at the Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed (CPCRW) in the boreal forest of Interior Alaska. Located adjacent to a traditional use trail, this feature terminates directly in Caribou Creek. Erosion within the feature is driven predominantly by fluvial interflow. CPCRW is a Long-Term Ecological Research site underlain by varying degrees of relatively warm, discontinuous permafrost. This poster will describe the suite of measurements that have been undertaken to parameterize the ERODE model for this site, including thorough surveys, time lapse- and aerial photography, and 3-D structure from motion algorithms.

  2. Structure-function relationships in histidine-rich antimicrobial peptides from Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Mark; Mannion, Michael; Pike, Damien; Lewis, Krystina; Flynn, Andrew; Brannan, Alex M; Browne, Mitchell J; Jackman, Donna; Madera, Laurence; Power Coombs, Melanie R; Hoskin, David W; Rise, Matthew L; Booth, Valerie

    2015-07-01

    Gad-1 and Gad-2 are antimicrobial peptide (AMP) sequences encoded by paralogous genes. They are rich in histidine, which suggests that their activity might be pH-dependent. We examined their structure-function relationships with a view to learning how to improve AMP therapeutic ratios. Activity assays with Gram-negative bacteria and cancer cell lines demonstrate that Gad-2 is substantially more active at slightly acidic pH than it is at neutral pH. By contrast, the activity of Gad-1 at lower pH is similar to its activity at pH7. Circular dichroism spectra indicate that the greater functional plasticity of Gad-2 correlates with a greater structural plasticity; Gad-2's percent helicity varies dramatically with altered pH and lipid environment. Interestingly, Gad-2's highest levels of helicity do not correspond to the conditions where it is most active. High resolution solution NMR structures were determined in SDS micelles at pH5, conditions that induce an intermediate level of helicity in the peptides. Gad-1 is more helical than Gad-2, with both peptides exhibiting the greatest helical tendencies in their central region and lowest helicity in their N-termini. The high resolution structures suggest that maximum activity relies on the appropriate balance between an N-terminal region with mixed hydrophobic/hydrophilic structure features and an amphipathic central and C-terminal region. Taken together with previous studies, our results suggest that to improve the therapeutic ratio of AMPs, consideration should be given to including sequential histidine-pairs, keeping the overall charge of the peptide modest, and retaining a degree of structural plasticity and imperfect amphipathicity.

  3. Blogs and Social Network Sites as Activity Systems: Exploring Adult Informal Learning Process through Activity Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Gyeong Mi; Lee, Romee

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to explore adult user activities and informal learning processes as reflected in their blogs and social network sites (SNS). Using the assumption that a web-based space is an activity system in which learning occurs, typical features of the components were investigated and each activity system then…

  4. Structural Analysis of Sensor Domains from the TMAO-Responsive Histidine Kinase Receptor TorS.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.; Hendrickson, W

    2009-01-01

    Histidine kinase receptors respond to diverse signals and mediate signal transduction across the plasma membrane in all prokaryotes and certain eukaryotes. Each receptor is part of a two-component system that regulates a particular cellular process. Organisms that use trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) as a terminal electron acceptor typically control their anaerobic respiration through the TMAO reductase (Tor) pathway, which the TorS histidine kinase activates when sensing TMAO in the environment. We have determined crystal structures for the periplasmic sensor domains of TorS receptors from Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. TorS sensor domains have a novel fold consisting of a membrane-proximal right-handed four-helical bundle and a membrane-distal left-handed four-helical bundle, but conformational dispositions differ significantly in the two structures. Isolated TorS sensor domains dimerize in solution; and from comparisons with dimeric NarX and Tar sensors, we postulate that signaling through TorS dimers involves a piston-type displacement between helices.

  5. N-acetyl-l-histidine, a Prominent Biomolecule in Brain and Eye of Poikilothermic Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Baslow, Morris H.; Guilfoyle, David N.

    2015-01-01

    N-acetyl-l-histidine (NAH) is a prominent biomolecule in brain, retina and lens of poikilothermic vertebrates. In fish lens, NAH exhibits an unusual compartmentalized metabolism. It is synthesized from l-histidine (His) and acetyl Co-enzyme A. However, NAH cannot be catabolized by lens cells. For its hydrolysis, NAH is exported to ocular fluid where a specific acylase cleaves His which is then actively taken up by lens and re-synthesized into NAH. This energy-dependent cycling suggested a pump mechanism operating at the lens/ocular fluid interface. Additional studies led to the hypothesis that NAH functioned as a molecular water pump (MWP) to maintain a highly dehydrated lens and avoid cataract formation. In this process, each NAH molecule released to ocular fluid down its gradient carries with it 33 molecules of bound water, effectively transporting the water against a water gradient. In ocular fluid the bound water is released for removal from the eye by the action of NAH acylase. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the identification of NAH in fish brain using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and describe recent evidence supporting the NAH MWP hypothesis. Using MRS, we also document a phylogenetic transition in brain metabolism between poikilothermic and homeothermic vertebrates. PMID:25919898

  6. An asymmetry-to-symmetry switch in signal transmission by the histidine kinase receptor for TMAO.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jason O; Hendrickson, Wayne A

    2012-04-01

    The osmoregulator trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), commonplace in aquatic organisms, is used as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration in many bacterial species. The TMAO reductase (Tor) pathway for respiratory catalysis is controlled by a receptor system that comprises the TMAO-binding protein TorT, the sensor histidine kinase TorS, and the response regulator TorR. Here we study the TorS/TorT sensor system to gain mechanistic insight into signaling by histidine kinase receptors. We determined crystal structures for complexes of TorS sensor domains with apo TorT and with TorT (TMAO); we characterized TorS sensor associations with TorT in solution; we analyzed the thermodynamics of TMAO binding to TorT-TorS complexes; and we analyzed in vivo responses to TMAO through the TorT/TorS/TorR system to test structure-inspired hypotheses. TorS-TorT(apo) is an asymmetric 2:2 complex that binds TMAO with negative cooperativity to form a symmetric active kinase.

  7. Histidine Decarboxylases and Their Role in Accumulation of Histamine in Tuna and Dried Saury▿

    PubMed Central

    Kanki, Masashi; Yoda, Tomoko; Tsukamoto, Teizo; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2007-01-01

    Histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) such as Photobacterium phosphoreum and Raoultella planticola possess histidine decarboxylase (HDC), which converts histidine into histamine. Histamine fish poisoning (HFP) is attributable to the ingestion of fish containing high levels of histamine produced by HPB. Because freezing greatly decreases the histamine-producing ability of HPB, especially of P. phosphoreum, it has been speculated that HFP is caused by HDC itself from HPB cells autolyzing during frozen storage, even when HPB survive frozen storage. Here we constructed recombinant HDCs of P. phosphoreum, Photobacterium damselae, R. planticola, and Morganella morganii and investigated the ability of HDCs to produce sufficient histamine to cause HFP. To elucidate the character of these HDCs, we examined the specific activity of each recombinant HDC at various temperatures, pH levels, and NaCl concentrations. Further, we also investigated the stability of each HDC under different conditions (in reaction buffer, tuna, and dried saury) at various temperatures. P. damselae HDC readily produced sufficient histamine to cause HFP in fish samples. We consider that if HDC is implicated as an independent cause of HFP in frozen-thawed fish, the most likely causative agent is HDC of P. damselae. PMID:17220267

  8. An Asymmetry-to-Symmetry Switch in Signal Transmission by the Histidine Kinase Receptor for TMAO

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Jason O.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2012-06-28

    The osmoregulator trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), commonplace in aquatic organisms, is used as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration in many bacterial species. The TMAO reductase (Tor) pathway for respiratory catalysis is controlled by a receptor system that comprises the TMAO-binding protein TorT, the sensor histidine kinase TorS, and the response regulator TorR. Here we study the TorS/TorT sensor system to gain mechanistic insight into signaling by histidine kinase receptors. We determined crystal structures for complexes of TorS sensor domains with apo TorT and with TorT (TMAO); we characterized TorS sensor associations with TorT in solution; we analyzed the thermodynamics of TMAO binding to TorT-TorS complexes; and we analyzed in vivo responses to TMAO through the TorT/TorS/TorR system to test structure-inspired hypotheses. TorS-TorT(apo) is an asymmetric 2:2 complex that binds TMAO with negative cooperativity to form a symmetric active kinase.

  9. Histidine 103 in Fra2 Is an Iron-Sulfur Cluster Ligand in the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3 Complex and Is Required for in Vivo Iron Signaling in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoran; Mapolelo, Daphne T.; Dingra, Nin N.; Keller, Greg; Riggs-Gelasco, Pamela J.; Winge, Dennis R.; Johnson, Michael K.; Outten, Caryn E.

    2011-01-01

    The BolA homologue Fra2 and the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins Grx3 and Grx4 together play a key role in regulating iron homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic studies indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 regulate activity of the iron-responsive transcription factors Aft1 and Aft2 in response to mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. We have previously shown that Fra2 and Grx3/4 form a [2Fe-2S]2+-bridged heterodimeric complex with iron ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. To further characterize this unusual Fe-S-binding complex, site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify specific residues in Fra2 that influence Fe-S cluster binding and regulation of Aft1 activity in vivo. Here, we present spectroscopic evidence that His-103 in Fra2 is an Fe-S cluster ligand in the Fra2-Grx3 complex. Replacement of this residue does not abolish Fe-S cluster binding, but it does lead to a change in cluster coordination and destabilization of the [2Fe-2S] cluster. In vivo genetic studies further confirm that Fra2 His-103 is critical for control of Aft1 activity in response to the cellular iron status. Using CD spectroscopy, we find that ∼1 mol eq of apo-Fra2 binds tightly to the [2Fe-2S] Grx3 homodimer to form the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3 heterodimer, suggesting a mechanism for formation of the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3 heterodimer in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the histidine coordination and stability of the [2Fe-2S] cluster in the Fra2-Grx3 complex are essential for iron regulation in yeast. PMID:20978135

  10. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Recommendations for communication activities and public participation in the Early Site Permit Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-27

    On October 24, 1992, President Bush signed into law the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The bill is a sweeping, comprehensive overhaul of the Nation`s energy laws, the first in more than a decade. Among other provisions, the National Energy Policy Act reforms the licensing process for new nuclear power plants by adopting a new approach developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989, and upheld in court in 1992. The NRC 10 CFR Part 52 rule is a three-step process that guarantees public participation at each step. The steps are: early site permit approval; standard design certifications; and, combined construction/operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. Licensing reform increases an organization`s ability to respond to future baseload electricity generation needs with less financial risk for ratepayers and the organization. Costly delays can be avoided because design, safety and siting issues will be resolved before a company starts to build a plant. Specifically, early site permit approval allows for site suitability and acceptability issues to be addressed prior to an organization`s commitment to build a plant. Responsibility for site-specific activities, including communications and public participation, rests with those organizations selected to try out early site approval. This plan has been prepared to assist those companies (referred to as sponsoring organizations) in planning their communications and public involvement programs. It provides research findings, information and recommendations to be used by organizations as a resource and starting point in developing their own plans.

  11. Active Site Structure and Peroxidase Activity of Oxidatively Modified Cytochrome c Species in Complexes with Cardiolipin.

    PubMed

    Capdevila, Daiana A; Oviedo Rouco, Santiago; Tomasina, Florencia; Tortora, Verónica; Demicheli, Verónica; Radi, Rafael; Murgida, Daniel H

    2015-12-29

    We report a resonance Raman and UV-vis characterization of the active site structure of oxidatively modified forms of cytochrome c (Cyt-c) free in solution and in complexes with cardiolipin (CL). The studied post-translational modifications of Cyt-c include methionine sulfoxidation and tyrosine nitration, which lead to altered heme axial ligation and increased peroxidase activity with respect to those of the wild-type protein. In spite of the structural and activity differences between the protein variants free in solution, binding to CL liposomes induces in all cases the formation of a spectroscopically identical bis-His axial coordination conformer that more efficiently promotes lipid peroxidation. The spectroscopic results indicate that the bis-His form is in equilibrium with small amounts of high-spin species, thus suggesting a labile distal His ligand as the basis for the CL-induced increase in enzymatic activity observed for all protein variants. For Cyt-c nitrated at Tyr74 and sulfoxidized at Met80, the measured apparent binding affinities for CL are ∼4 times larger than for wild-type Cyt-c. On the basis of these results, we propose that these post-translational modifications may amplify the pro-apoptotic signal of Cyt-c under oxidative stress conditions at CL concentrations lower than for the unmodified protein.

  12. Identification of ice nucleation active sites on feldspar dust particles.

    PubMed

    Zolles, Tobias; Burkart, Julia; Häusler, Thomas; Pummer, Bernhard; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-03-19

    Mineral dusts originating from Earth's crust are known to be important atmospheric ice nuclei. In agreement with earlier studies, feldspar was found as the most active of the tested natural mineral dusts. Here we investigated in closer detail the reasons for its activity and the difference in the activity of the different feldspars. Conclusions are drawn from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and oil-immersion freezing experiments. K-feldspar showed by far the highest ice nucleation activity. Finally, we give a potential explanation of this effect, finding alkali-metal ions having different hydration shells and thus an influence on the ice nucleation activity of feldspar surfaces. PMID:25584435

  13. Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Feldspar Dust Particles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mineral dusts originating from Earth’s crust are known to be important atmospheric ice nuclei. In agreement with earlier studies, feldspar was found as the most active of the tested natural mineral dusts. Here we investigated in closer detail the reasons for its activity and the difference in the activity of the different feldspars. Conclusions are drawn from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and oil-immersion freezing experiments. K-feldspar showed by far the highest ice nucleation activity. Finally, we give a potential explanation of this effect, finding alkali-metal ions having different hydration shells and thus an influence on the ice nucleation activity of feldspar surfaces. PMID:25584435

  14. Stereospecific suppression of active site mutants by methylphosphonate substituted substrates reveals the stereochemical course of site-specific DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Paul A; Kachroo, Aashiq H; Ma, Chien-Hui; Maciaszek, Anna D; Guga, Piotr; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-07-13

    Tyrosine site-specific recombinases, which promote one class of biologically important phosphoryl transfer reactions in DNA, exemplify active site mechanisms for stabilizing the phosphate transition state. A highly conserved arginine duo (Arg-I; Arg-II) of the recombinase active site plays a crucial role in this function. Cre and Flp recombinase mutants lacking either arginine can be rescued by compensatory charge neutralization of the scissile phosphate via methylphosphonate (MeP) modification. The chemical chirality of MeP, in conjunction with mutant recombinases, reveals the stereochemical contributions of Arg-I and Arg-II. The SP preference of the native reaction is specified primarily by Arg-I. MeP reaction supported by Arg-II is nearly bias-free or RP-biased, depending on the Arg-I substituent. Positional conservation of the arginines does not translate into strict functional conservation. Charge reversal by glutamic acid substitution at Arg-I or Arg-II has opposite effects on Cre and Flp in MeP reactions. In Flp, the base immediately 5' to the scissile MeP strongly influences the choice between the catalytic tyrosine and water as the nucleophile for strand scission, thus between productive recombination and futile hydrolysis. The recombinase active site embodies the evolutionary optimization of interactions that not only favor the normal reaction but also proscribe antithetical side reactions. PMID:25999343

  15. Stereospecific suppression of active site mutants by methylphosphonate substituted substrates reveals the stereochemical course of site-specific DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Paul A; Kachroo, Aashiq H; Ma, Chien-Hui; Maciaszek, Anna D; Guga, Piotr; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-07-13

    Tyrosine site-specific recombinases, which promote one class of biologically important phosphoryl transfer reactions in DNA, exemplify active site mechanisms for stabilizing the phosphate transition state. A highly conserved arginine duo (Arg-I; Arg-II) of the recombinase active site plays a crucial role in this function. Cre and Flp recombinase mutants lacking either arginine can be rescued by compensatory charge neutralization of the scissile phosphate via methylphosphonate (MeP) modification. The chemical chirality of MeP, in conjunction with mutant recombinases, reveals the stereochemical contributions of Arg-I and Arg-II. The SP preference of the native reaction is specified primarily by Arg-I. MeP reaction supported by Arg-II is nearly bias-free or RP-biased, depending on the Arg-I substituent. Positional conservation of the arginines does not translate into strict functional conservation. Charge reversal by glutamic acid substitution at Arg-I or Arg-II has opposite effects on Cre and Flp in MeP reactions. In Flp, the base immediately 5' to the scissile MeP strongly influences the choice between the catalytic tyrosine and water as the nucleophile for strand scission, thus between productive recombination and futile hydrolysis. The recombinase active site embodies the evolutionary optimization of interactions that not only favor the normal reaction but also proscribe antithetical side reactions.

  16. Active site densities, oxygen activation and adsorbed reactive oxygen in alcohol activation on npAu catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Cun; Friend, C M; Fushimi, Rebecca; Madix, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    The activation of molecular O2 as well as the reactivity of adsorbed oxygen species is of central importance in aerobic selective oxidation chemistry on Au-based catalysts. Herein, we address the issue of O2 activation on unsupported nanoporous gold (npAu) catalysts by applying a transient pressure technique, a temporal analysis of products (TAP) reactor, to measure the saturation coverage of atomic oxygen, its collisional dissociation probability, the activation barrier for O2 dissociation, and the facility with which adsorbed O species activate methanol, the initial step in the catalytic cycle of esterification. The results from these experiments indicate that molecular O2 dissociation is associated with surface silver, that the density of reactive sites is quite low, that adsorbed oxygen atoms do not spill over from the sites of activation onto the surrounding surface, and that methanol reacts quite facilely with the adsorbed oxygen atoms. In addition, the O species from O2 dissociation exhibits reactivity for the selective oxidation of methanol but not for CO. The TAP experiments also revealed that the surface of the npAu catalyst is saturated with adsorbed O under steady state reaction conditions, at least for the pulse reaction. PMID:27376884

  17. Dual involvement of CbrAB and NtrBC in the regulation of histidine utilization in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Xian; Rainey, Paul B

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 is capable of growing on histidine as a sole source of carbon and/or nitrogen. Previous work showed that the two-component regulatory system CbrAB is required for expression of the histidine utilization (hut) locus when histidine is the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Here, using mutational analysis and transcriptional assays, we demonstrate involvement of a second two-component system, NtrBC. When histidine is the sole carbon source, transcription of the hutU operon is initiated from a sigma54-type promoter and requires CbrB (an enhancer binding protein for sigma54-recruitment). However, when histidine is the sole nitrogen source, the hutU operon is transcribed from a sigma70-type promoter and requires either CbrB or the nitrogen regulator, NtrC. No role was found for the SBW25 homolog of the nitrogen assimilation control protein (NAC). Biolog phenotypic microarray analysis of the ability of the three mutants (DeltacbrB, DeltantrC, and DeltacbrB DeltantrC) to utilize 190 carbon and 95 nitrogen substrates confirmed the central regulatory roles of CbrAB and NtrBC in cellular carbon and nitrogen catabolism: deletion of cbrB abolished growth on 20 carbon substrates; deletion of ntrC eliminated growth on 28 nitrogen substrates. A double cbrB-ntrC mutant was unable to utilize a further 14 nitrogen substrates (including histidine, proline, leucine, isoleucine, and valine). Our data show that CbrAB plays a role in regulation of both carbon and nitrogen catabolism and maintains activity of catabolic pathways under different C:N ratios.

  18. Possible active site of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin.

    PubMed

    Slootstra, J W; De Geus, P; Haas, H; Verrips, C T; Meloen, R H

    1995-10-01

    Epitopes on thaumatin and monellin were studied using the PEPSCAN-technology. The antibodies used were raised against thaumatin. Only antibodies that, in an ELISA, both recognized thaumatin and monellin were used in the PEPSCAN-analyses. On thaumatin two major overlapping epitopes were identified. On monellin no epitopes could be identified. The identified epitope region on thaumatin shares structural features with various peptide and protein sweeteners. It contains an aspartame-like site which is formed by Asp21 and Phe80, tips of the two extruding loops KGDAALDAGGR19-29 and CKRFGRPP77-84, which are spatially positioned next to each other. Furthermore, sub-sequences of the KGDAALDAGGR19-29 loop are similar to peptide-sweeteners such as L-Asp-D-Ala-L-Ala-methyl ester and L-Asp-D-Ala-Gly-methyl ester. Since the aspartame-like Asp21-Phe80 site and the peptide-sweetener-like sequences are also not present in non-sweet thaumatin-like proteins it is postulated that the KGDAALDAGGR19-29- and CKRFGRPP77-84 loop contain important sweet-taste determinants. This region has previously not been implicated as a sweet-taste determinant of thaumatin.

  19. Structural role of two histidines in the (6-4) photolyase reaction

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Daichi; Iwata, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Junpei; Hitomi, Kenichi; Todo, Takeshi; Iwai, Shigenori; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Kandori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Photolyases (PHRs) are DNA repair enzymes that revert UV-induced photoproducts, either cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) or (6-4) photoproducts (PPs), into normal bases to maintain genetic integrity. (6-4) PHR must catalyze not only covalent bond cleavage, but also hydroxyl or amino group transfer, yielding a more complex mechanism than that postulated for CPD PHR. Previous mutation analysis revealed the importance of two histidines in the active center, H354 and H358 for Xenopus (6-4) PHR, whose mutations significantly lowered the enzymatic activity. Based upon highly sensitive FTIR analysis of the repair function, here we report that both H354A and H358A mutants of Xenopus (6-4) PHR still maintain their repair activity, although the efficiency is much lower than that of the wild type. Similar difference FTIR spectra between the wild type and mutant proteins suggest a common mechanism of repair in which (6-4) PP binds to the active center of each mutant, and is released after repair, as occurs in the wild type. Similar FTIR spectra also suggest that a decrease in volume by the H-to-A mutation is possibly compensated by the addition of water molecule( s). Such a modified environment is sufficient for the repair function that is probably controlled by proton-coupled electron transfer between the enzyme and substrate. On the other hand, two histidines must work in a concerted manner in the active center of the wild-type enzyme, which significantly raises the repair efficiency. PMID:27493863

  20. Iridium(III) Luminescent Probe for Detection of the Malarial Protein Biomarker Histidine Rich Protein-II.

    PubMed

    Davis, Keersten M; Bitting, Anna L; Markwalter, Christine F; Bauer, Westley S; Wright, David W

    2015-07-07

    This work outlines the synthesis of a non-emissive, cyclometalated Ir(III) complex, Ir(ppy)2(H2O)2(+) (Ir1), which elicits a rapid, long-lived phosphorescent signal when coordinated to a histidine-containing protein immobilized on the surface of a magnetic particle. Synthesis of Ir1, in high yields,is complete O/N and involves splitting of the parent cyclometalated Ir(III) chloro-bridged dimer into two equivalents of the solvated complex. To confirm specificity, several amino acids were probed for coordination activity when added to the synthesized probe, and only histidine elicited a signal response. Using BNT-II, a branched peptide mimic of the malarial biomarker Histidine Rich Protein II (pfHRP-II), the iridium probe was validated as a tool for HRP-II detection. Quenching effects were noted in the BNT-II/Ir1 titration when compared to L-Histidine/Ir1, but these were attributed to steric hindrance and triplet state quenching. Biolayer interferometry was used to determine real-time kinetics of interaction of Ir1 with BNT-II. Once the system was optimized, the limit of detection of rcHRP-II using the probe was found to be 12.8 nM in solution. When this protein was immobilized on the surface of a 50 µm magnetic agarose particle, the limit of detection was 14.5 nM. The robust signal response of this inorganic probe, as well as its flexibility of use in solution or immobilized on a surface, can lend itself toward a variety of applications, from diagnostic use to imaging.

  1. Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    1996-07-01

    This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 60}C, and {sup 65}Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated.

  2. How to Switch Off a Histidine Kinase: Crystal Structure of Geobacillus Stearothermophilus KinB with the Inhibitor Sda

    SciTech Connect

    Bick, M.; Lamour, V; Rajashankar, K; Gordiyenko, Y; Robinson, C; Darst, S

    2009-01-01

    Entry to sporulation in bacilli is governed by a histidine kinase phosphorelay, a variation of the predominant signal transduction mechanism in prokaryotes. Sda directly inhibits sporulation histidine kinases in response to DNA damage and replication defects. We determined a 2.0-Angstroms-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the intact cytoplasmic catalytic core [comprising the dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer domain (DHp domain), connected to the ATP binding catalytic domain] of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus sporulation kinase KinB complexed with Sda. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that Sda binds to the base of the DHp domain and prevents molecular transactions with the DHp domain to which it is bound by acting as a simple molecular barricade. Sda acts to sterically block communication between the catalytic domain and the DHp domain, which is required for autophosphorylation, as well as to sterically block communication between the response regulator Spo0F and the DHp domain, which is required for phosphotransfer and phosphatase activities.

  3. Serum tolerance and endosomal escape capacity of histidine-modified pDNA-loaded complexes based on polyamidoamine dendrimer derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yuting; Guo, Zhenhuan; Du, Zhuo; Fang, Rong; Wu, Hongmei; Zeng, Xin; Wang, Chi; Feng, Min; Pan, Shirong

    2012-11-01

    Aiming to aid polyamidoamine (PAMAM, generation 4, PG4) to overcome gene delivery barriers like extrinsic serum inhibition, intrinsic cytotoxicity and lysosome digestion, histidine motifs modified PAMAM was prepared. The histidine activated PAMAM generation 4 (HPG4) was synthesized via aminolysis reaction and characterized by 1H NMR spectrum and MALDI-TOF-MS. Cytotoxicity profiles of HPG4 on MD-MB-231 cells were significantly improved in the form of polymer and polymer/DNA complexes comparing to PG4. The luciferase protein expression level of HPG4 was 20-, 2.7- and 1.2- fold higher than that of PG4, SuperFect and PEI 25k. Most importantly, flow cytometry and gene transfection studies showed that histidine motifs of HPG4 not only acted as enhancer for faster cellular uptake, but also played an important role on enhancing serum tolerance of the system on cellular uptake and transfection. Among the serum concentrations of 10%-50%, HPG4 showed 10-100 folds higher transfection efficiency than PG4. Intracellular fate observation conducted by confocal microscope provided visual and quantitative evidence that endsomal escape efficiency of HPG4 system was higher than that of PG4. Lastly, the endosomal escape mechanism of HPG4 system was analyzed by endosome destabilization and proton pump inhibition treatment. Collectively, compared to PG4/pDNA, HPG4/pDNA showed improvement on cellular uptake, serum tolerance, cytotoxicity profile, and endosomal escape.

  4. Histidines, heart of the hydrogen ion channel from influenza A virus: Toward an understanding of conductance and proton selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Fu, Riqiang; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Busath, David D.; Vijayvergiya, Viksita; Cross, Timothy A.

    2006-05-01

    The heart of the H+ conductance mechanism in the homotetrameric M2 H+ channel from influenza A is a set of four histidine side chains. Here, we show that protonation of the third of these imidazoles coincides with acid activation of this transmembrane channel and that, at physiological pH, the channel is closed by two imidazole-imidazolium dimers, each sharing a low-barrier hydrogen bond. This unique construct succeeds in distributing a pair of charges over four rings and many atoms in a low dielectric environment to minimize charge repulsion. These dimers form with identical pKas of 8.2 ± 0.2, suggesting cooperative H+ binding and clearly illustrating high H+ affinity for this channel. The protonation behavior of the histidine side chains has been characterized by using solid-state NMR spectroscopy on the M2 transmembrane domain in fully hydrated lipid bilayers where the tetrameric backbone structure is known. Furthermore, electrophysiological measurements of multichannel and single-channel experiments confirm that these protein constructs are functional. M2 channel | proton channel | solid-state NMR | low-barrier hydrogen bond | histidine ionization constants

  5. Histidine-iridium(III) coordination-based peptide luminogenic cyclization and cyclo-RGD peptides for cancer-cell targeting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaochuan; Jia, Junli; Cao, Rui; Wang, Xiaobo; Fei, Hao

    2014-12-24

    In the field of peptide drug discovery, structural constraining and fluorescent labeling are two sought-after techniques important for both basic research and pharmaceutical development. In this work, we describe an easy-to-use approach for simultaneous peptide cyclization and luminescent labeling based on iridium(III)-histidine coordination (Ir-HH cyclization). Using a series of model peptides with histidine flanking each terminus, the binding activity and reaction kinetics of Ir-HH cyclization of different ring sizes were characterized. In the series, Ir-HAnH (n = 2, 3) with moderate ring sizes provides appropriate flexibility and proper distance between histidines for cyclic formation, which leads to the best binding affinity and structural stability in physiological conditions, as compared to other Ir-HH-cyclized peptides with smaller (n = 0, 1) or larger (n = 4, 5) ring sizes. Ir-HRGDH, an Ir-HH-cyclized peptide containing integrin targeting motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), showed better targeting affinity than its linear form and enhanced membrane permeability in comparison with fluorescein-labeled cyclic RGDyK peptide. Cell death inducing peptide KLA-linked Ir-HRGDH (Ir-HRGDH-KLA) showed dramatically enhanced cytotoxicity and high selectivity for cancer cells versus noncancer cells. These data demonstrate that the method conveniently combines structural constraining of peptides with luminescent imaging capabilities, which facilitates functional and intracellular characterization of potential peptide-based drug leads, thus introducing a new tool to meet emerging needs in medicinal research.

  6. Histidyl-histidine catalysis of glycine condensation in fluctuating clay environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Erickson, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Histidyl-histidine is a remarkably effective catalyst of peptide bond formation in the reaction of glycine in a fluctuating (hot-dry, cold-wet) clay environment. It has shown turnover numbers (molecules of glycine incorporated in oligoglycines per molecule of catalyst) as high as 18 in a single cycle and as high as 52 overall. A number of other dipeptides were tested, as well as monomeric histidine, N-acetyl histidine, and imidazole, none of which showed turnover numbers greater than one. Histidyl-histidine is a model for a prebiotic protoenzyme, and implications for the development of a simple translation mechanism are discussed.

  7. Quantifying the density and utilization of active sites in non-precious metal oxygen electroreduction catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Sahraie, Nastaran Ranjbar; Kramm, Ulrike I.; Steinberg, Julian; Zhang, Yuanjian; Thomas, Arne; Reier, Tobias; Paraknowitsch, Jens-Peter; Strasser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Carbon materials doped with transition metal and nitrogen are highly active, non-precious metal catalysts for the electrochemical conversion of molecular oxygen in fuel cells, metal air batteries, and electrolytic processes. However, accurate measurement of their intrinsic turn-over frequency and active-site density based on metal centres in bulk and surface has remained difficult to date, which has hampered a more rational catalyst design. Here we report a successful quantification of bulk and surface-based active-site density and associated turn-over frequency values of mono- and bimetallic Fe/N-doped carbons using a combination of chemisorption, desorption and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. Our general approach yields an experimental descriptor for the intrinsic activity and the active-site utilization, aiding in the catalyst development process and enabling a previously unachieved level of understanding of reactivity trends owing to a deconvolution of site density and intrinsic activity. PMID:26486465

  8. Characterization of an Active Thermal Erosion Site, Caribou Creek, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.; Cherry, J. E.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this project is to estimate volume loss of soil over time from this site, provide parameterizations on erodibility of ice rich permafrost and serve as a baseline for future landscape evolution simulations. Located in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the interior region of Alaska (USA) is home to a large quantity of warm, unstable permafrost that is both high in ice content and has soil temperatures near the freezing point. Much of this permafrost maintains a frozen state despite the general warming air temperature trend in the region due to the presence of a thick insulating organic mat and a dense root network in the upper sub-surface of the soil column. At a rapidly evolving thermo-erosion site, located within the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (part of the Bonanza Creek LTER) near Chatanika, Alaska (N65.140, W147.570), the protective organic layer and associated plants were disturbed by an adjacent traditional use trail and the shifting of a groundwater spring. These triggers have led to rapid geomorphological change on the landscape as the soil thaws and sediment is transported into the creek at the valley bottom. Since 2006 (approximately the time of initiation), the thermal erosion has grown to 170 meters length, 3 meters max depth, and 15 meters maximum width. This research combines several data sets: DGPS survey, imagery from an extremely low altitude pole-based remote sensing (3 to 5 meters above ground level), and imagery from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) at about 60m altitude.

  9. Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei; Enemark, John; Kappler, Ulrike

    2008-11-10

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 2-3 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (~;;60 and 200 s-1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH.

  10. Active Site Metal Occupancy and Cyclic Di-GMP Phosphodiesterase Activity of Thermotoga maritima HD-GYP.

    PubMed

    Miner, Kyle D; Kurtz, Donald M

    2016-02-16

    HD-GYPs make up a subclass of the metal-dependent HD phosphohydrolase superfamily and catalyze conversion of cyclic di(3',5')-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) to 5'-phosphoguanylyl-(3'→5')-guanosine (pGpG) and GMP. Until now, the only reported crystal structure of an HD-GYP that also exhibits c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity contains a His/carboxylate ligated triiron active site. However, other structural and phylogenetic correlations indicate that some HD-GYPs contain dimetal active sites. Here we provide evidence that an HD-GYP c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, TM0186, from Thermotoga maritima can accommodate both di- and trimetal active sites. We show that an as-isolated iron-containing TM0186 has an oxo/carboxylato-bridged diferric site, and that the reduced (diferrous) form is necessary and sufficient to catalyze conversion of c-di-GMP to pGpG, but that conversion of pGpG to GMP requires more than two metals per active site. Similar c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activities were obtained with divalent iron or manganese. On the basis of activity correlations with several putative metal ligand residue variants and molecular dynamics simulations, we propose that TM0186 can accommodate both di- and trimetal active sites. Our results also suggest that a Glu residue conserved in a subset of HD-GYPs is required for formation of the trimetal site and can also serve as a labile ligand to the dimetal site. Given the anaerobic growth requirement of T. maritima, we suggest that this HD-GYP can function in vivo with either divalent iron or manganese occupying di- and trimetal sites.

  11. Prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and histidine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Chun; Oro, J.; Yang, Lily; Miller, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose and formamidine has been demonstrated as well as the prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-ethanol and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose, formaldehyde, and ammonia. The maximum yields of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde, imidazole-4-ethanol, and imidazole-4-glycol obtained in these reactions are 1.6, 5.4, and 6.8 percent respectively, based on the erythrose. Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde would have been converted to histidine on the primitive earth by a Strecker synthesis, and several prebiotic reactions would convert imidazole-4-glycol and imidazole-4-ethanol to imidazole-4-acetaldehyde.

  12. A rapid and direct method for the determination of active site accessibility in proteins based on ESI-MS and active site titrations.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, Norah; Kreiner, Michaela; Moore, Barry D; Parker, Marie-Claire

    2006-11-01

    We have developed an electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) technique that can be applied to rapidly determine the number of intact active sites in proteins. The methodology relies on inhibiting the protein with an active-site irreversible inhibitor and then using ESI-MS to determine the extent of inhibition. We have applied this methodology to a test system: a serine protease, subtilisin Carlsberg, and monitored the extent of inhibition by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), an irreversible serine hydrolase inhibitor as a function of the changes in immobilisation and hydration conditions. Two types of enzyme preparation were investigated, lyophilised enzymes and protein-coated microcrystals (PCMC).

  13. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Abhinav; Venkatachalam, Avanthika; Gideon, Daniel Andrew; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2014-12-12

    The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins' active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes.

  14. Marine Biology Field Trip Sites. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  15. Endolysosomes Are the Principal Intracellular Sites of Acid Hydrolase Activity.

    PubMed

    Bright, Nicholas A; Davis, Luther J; Luzio, J Paul

    2016-09-12

    The endocytic delivery of macromolecules from the mammalian cell surface for degradation by lysosomal acid hydrolases requires traffic through early endosomes to late endosomes followed by transient (kissing) or complete fusions between late endosomes and lysosomes. Transient or complete fusion results in the formation of endolysosomes, which are hybrid organelles from which lysosomes are re-formed. We have used synthetic membrane-permeable cathepsin substrates, which liberate fluorescent reporters upon proteolytic cleavage, as well as acid phosphatase cytochemistry to identify which endocytic compartments are acid hydrolase active. We found that endolysosomes are the principal organelles in which acid hydrolase substrates are cleaved. Endolysosomes also accumulated acidotropic probes and could be distinguished from terminal storage lysosomes, which were acid hydrolase inactive and did not accumulate acidotropic probes. Using live-cell microscopy, we have demonstrated that fusion events, which form endolysosomes, precede the onset of acid hydrolase activity. By means of sucrose and invertase uptake experiments, we have also shown that acid-hydrolase-active endolysosomes and acid-hydrolase-inactive, terminal storage lysosomes exist in dynamic equilibrium. We conclude that the terminal endocytic compartment is composed of acid-hydrolase-active, acidic endolysosomes and acid hydrolase-inactive, non-acidic, terminal storage lysosomes, which are linked and function in a lysosome regeneration cycle. PMID:27498570

  16. Outside-binding site mutations modify the active site's shapes in neuraminidase from influenza A H1N1.

    PubMed

    Tolentino-Lopez, Luis; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Reyes-Loyola, Paola; Zimic, Mirko; Quiliano, Miguel; Briz, Veronica; Muñoz-Fernández, Angeles; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario; Ilizaliturri-Flores, Ian; Correa-Basurto, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The recent occurrence of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic as well as others has raised concern of a far more dangerous outcome should this virus becomes resistant to current drug therapies. The number of clinical cases that are resistant to oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) is larger than the limited number of neuraminidase (NA) mutations (H275Y, N295S, and I223R) that have been identified at the active site and that are associated to oseltamivir resistance. In this study, we have performed a comparative analysis between a set of NAs that have the most representative mutations located outside the active site. The recently crystallized NA-oseltamivir complex (PDB ID: 3NSS) was used as a wild-type structure. After selecting the target NA sequences, their three-dimensional (3D) structure was built using 3NSS as a template by homology modeling. The 3D NA models were refined by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The refined models were used to perform a docking study, using oseltamivir as a ligand. Furthermore, the docking results were refined by free-energy analysis using the MM-PBSA method. The analysis of the MD simulation results showed that the NA models reached convergence during the first 10 ns. Visual inspection and structural measures showed that the mutated NA active sites show structural variations. The docking and MM-PBSA results from the complexes showed different binding modes and free energy values. These results suggest that distant mutations located outside the active site of NA affect its structure and could be considered to be a new source of resistance to oseltamivir, which agrees with reports in the clinical literature.

  17. Kinetic isotope effects for concerted multiple proton transfer: a direct dynamics study of an active-site model of carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Smedarchina, Zorka; Siebrand, Willem; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio; Cui, Qiang

    2003-01-01

    The rate constant of the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase II, which removes carbon dioxide from body fluids, is calculated for a model of the active site. The rate-determining step is proton transfer from a zinc-bound water molecule to a histidine residue via a bridge of two or more water molecules. The structure of the active site is known from X-ray studies except for the number and location of the water molecules. Model calculations are reported for a system of 58 atoms including a four-coordinated zinc ion connected to a methylimidazole molecule by a chain of two waters, constrained to reproduce the size of the active site. The structure and vibrational force field are calculated by an approximate density functional treatment of the proton-transfer step at the Self-Consistent-Charge Density Functional Tight Binding (SCC-DFTB) level. A single transition state is found indicating concerted triple proton transfer. Direct-dynamics calculations for proton and deuteron transfer and combinations thereof, based on the Approximate Instanton Method and on Variational Transition State Theory with Tunneling Corrections, are in fair agreement and yield rates that are considerably higher and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) that are somewhat higher than experiment. Classical rate constants obtained from Transition State Theory are smaller than the quantum values but the corresponding KIEs are five times larger. For multiple proton transfer along water bridges classical KIEs are shown to be generally larger than quantum KIEs, which invalidates the standard method to distinguish tunneling and over-barrier transfer. In the present case, a three-way comparison of classical and quantum results with the observed data is necessary to conclude that proton transfer along the bridge proceeds by tunneling. The results suggest that the two-water bridge is present in low concentrations but makes a substantial contribution to proton transport because of its high

  18. Active site proton delivery and the lyase activity of human CYP17A1

    SciTech Connect

    Khatri, Yogan; Gregory, Michael C.; Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2014-01-03

    equivalents and protons are funneled into non-productive pathways. This is similar to previous work with other P450 catalyzed hydroxylation. However, catalysis of carbon–carbon bond scission by the T306A mutant was largely unimpeded by disruption of the CYP17A1 acid-alcohol pair. The unique response of CYP17A1 lyase activity to mutation of Thr306 is consistent with a reactive intermediate formed independently of proton delivery in the active site, and supports involvement of a nucleophilic peroxo-anion rather than the traditional Compound I in catalysis.

  19. Identification of inhibitors against the potential ligandable sites in the active cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Aditi; Datta, Abhijit

    2015-04-01

    The active cholera toxin responsible for the massive loss of water and ions in cholera patients via its ADP ribosylation activity is a heterodimer of the A1 subunit of the bacterial holotoxin and the human cytosolic ARF6 (ADP Ribosylation Factor 6). The active toxin is a potential target for the design of inhibitors against cholera. In this study we identified the potential ligandable sites of the active cholera toxin which can serve as binding sites for drug-like molecules. By employing an energy-based approach to identify ligand binding sites, and comparison with the results of computational solvent mapping, we identified two potential ligandable sites in the active toxin which can be targeted during structure-based drug design against cholera. Based on the probe affinities of the identified ligandable regions, docking-based virtual screening was employed to identify probable inhibitors against these sites. Several indole-based alkaloids and phosphates showed strong interactions to the important residues of the ligandable region at the A1 active site. On the other hand, 26 top scoring hits were identified against the ligandable region at the A1 ARF6 interface which showed strong hydrogen bonding interactions, including guanidines, phosphates, Leucopterin and Aristolochic acid VIa. This study has important implications in the application of hybrid structure-based and ligand-based methods against the identified ligandable sites using the identified inhibitors as reference ligands, for drug design against the active cholera toxin.

  20. Encroachment of Human Activity on Sea Turtle Nesting Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziskin, D.; Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C.; Tuttle, B.; Baugh, K.; Ghosh, T.

    2008-12-01

    The encroachment of anthropogenic lighting on sea turtle nesting sites poses a serious threat to the survival of these animals [Nicholas, 2001]. This danger is quantified by combining two established data sets. The first is the Nighttime Lights data produced by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center [Elvidge et al., 1997]. The second is the Marine Turtle Database produced by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). The technique used to quantify the threat of encroachment is an adaptation of the method described in Aubrecht et al. [2008], which analyzes the stress on coral reef systems by proximity to nighttime lights near the shore. Nighttime lights near beaches have both a direct impact on turtle reproductive success since they disorient hatchlings when they mistake land-based lights for the sky-lit surf [Lorne and Salmon, 2007] and the lights are also a proxy for other anthropogenic threats. The identification of turtle nesting sites with high rates of encroachment will hopefully steer conservation efforts to mitigate their effects [Witherington, 1999]. Aubrecht, C, CD Elvidge, T Longcore, C Rich, J Safran, A Strong, M Eakin, KE Baugh, BT Tuttle, AT Howard, EH Erwin, 2008, A global inventory of coral reef stressors based on satellite observed nighttime lights, Geocarto International, London, England: Taylor and Francis. In press. Elvidge, CD, KE Baugh, EA Kihn, HW Kroehl, ER Davis, 1997, Mapping City Lights with Nighttime Data from the DMSP Operational Linescan System, Photogrammatic Engineering and Remote Sensing, 63:6, pp. 727-734. Lorne, JK, M Salmon, 2007, Effects of exposure to artificial lighting on orientation of hatchling sea turtles on the beach and in the ocean, Endangered Species Research, Vol. 3: 23-30. Nicholas, M, 2001, Light Pollution and Marine Turtle Hatchlings: The Straw that Breaks the Camel's Back?, George Wright Forum, 18:4, p77-82. Witherington, BE, 1999, Reducing Threats To Nesting Habitat, Research and Management Techniques for

  1. Reduction of Urease Activity by Interaction with the Flap Covering the Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Macomber, Lee; Minkara, Mona S.; Hausinger, Robert P.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation for the human microbiome coupled with the global rise of antibiotic resistant organisms, it is imperative that new methods be developed to specifically target pathogens. To that end, a novel computational approach was devised to identify compounds that reduce the activity of urease, a medically important enzyme of Helicobacter pylori, Proteus mirabilis, and many other microorganisms. Urease contains a flexible loop that covers its active site; Glide was used to identify small molecules predicted to lock this loop in an open conformation. These compounds were screened against the model urease from Klebsiella aerogenes and the natural products epigallocatechin and quercetin were shown to inhibit at low and high micromolar concentrations, respectively. These molecules exhibit a strong time-dependent inactivation of urease that was not due to their oxygen sensitivity. Rather, these compounds appear to inactivate urease by reacting with a specific Cys residue located on the flexible loop. Substitution of this cysteine by alanine in the C319A variant increased the urease resistance to both epigallocatechin and quercetin, as predicted by the computational studies. Protein dynamics are integral to the function of many enzymes; thus, identification of compounds that lock an enzyme into a single conformation presents a useful approach to define potential inhibitors. PMID:25594724

  2. Biosynthesis of prodigiosin by non-proliferating wild-type Serratia marcescens and mutants deficient in catabolism of alanine, histidine, and proline.

    PubMed

    Lim, D V; Qadri, S M; Nichols, C; Williams, R P

    1977-01-01

    Mutants of Serratia marcescens Nima, designated as Aut, Hut, or Put, did not utilize L-alanine, L-histidine, or L-proline, respectively, as a sole carbon source but did utilize other amino acids or glycerol as carbon sources. The bacteria were permeable to alanine, histidine, and proline but lacked the enzymes responsible for degradation of these amino acids. The Aut mutant contained no L-alanine dehydrogenase activity, whereas the Hut and Put mutants contained only 7 and 4% of the histidase and proline oxidase activities, respectively, found in the wild-type strain. Rates of oxygen uptake and protein synthesis were significantly lower when the mutants were incubated in the presence of amino acids they could not degrade. Studies of L-[14C]alanine, L-[14C]histidine, and L-[14C]proline incorporation into prodigiosin synthesized by these mutants and the wild-type strain revealed that proline was incorporated intact, whereas all of alanine except the carboxyl group was incorporated into the pigment molecule. Histidine did not enter prodigiosin directly. These data suggested that the presence of unique biosynthetic pathways, independent of primary metabolism, leads to formation of prodigiosin from specific amino acids.

  3. Genomic organization, structure and possible function of histidine-rich proteins of malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Y D

    1988-01-01

    The current status of histidine-rich proteins in malaria parasites with regard to their genomic organization, protein structure and function is discussed, one of such protein present in an avian malaria parasite Plasmodium lophurae contains about 73% histidine and called as HRP (histidine-rich protein). Among human malaria parasites, in Plasmodium falciparum, only three such proteins have been described, namely knob protein also known as knob associated histidine-rich protein (KP or KAHRP), soluble histidine-alanine rich protein (soluble HARP or PfHRP II) and small histidine-alanine rich protein (SHARP) containing 8, 35 and 30% histidine contents respectively. With rapid emergence of powerful tools in molecular biology the genes of all these histidine-rich proteins have been cloned and sequenced within a short period of time. The genomic organizations of all these proteins are very much similar to each other, in each case the gene contains a signal peptide coding sequence (exon 1) followed by an intron. This intron is followed by the main coding region (exon 2) which has no further intervening sequences. In the main coding region of each gene, the histidine-rich sequences start after 25-30 amino acids from N-terminal end (75-90 nucleotides from 5' in exon 2). All the three histidine-rich proteins of P. falciparum share some homology with the HRP of P. lophurae; they all cross react with anti HRP and incorporate higher amount of exogenous histidine. The relationship between KP and HRP resides in the repeated polyhistidine sequences, (His) 6-9, from the core of the multiple tandem repeats of HRP, whereas, the peptide Ala-His-His is commonly shared by HRP and two other proteins of P. falciparum (soluble HARP and SHARP).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Spectroscopic definition of the copper active sites in mordenite: selective methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Vanelderen, Pieter; Snyder, Benjamin E R; Tsai, Ming-Li; Hadt, Ryan G; Vancauwenbergh, Julie; Coussens, Olivier; Schoonheydt, Robert A; Sels, Bert F; Solomon, Edward I

    2015-05-20

    Two distinct [Cu-O-Cu](2+) sites with methane monooxygenase activity are identified in the zeolite Cu-MOR, emphasizing that this Cu-O-Cu active site geometry, having a ∠Cu-O-Cu ∼140°, is particularly formed and stabilized in zeolite topologies. Whereas in ZSM-5 a similar [Cu-O-Cu](2+) active site is located in the intersection of the two 10 membered rings, Cu-MOR provides two distinct local structures, situated in the 8 membered ring windows of the side pockets. Despite their structural similarity, as ascertained by electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy, the two Cu-O-Cu active sites in Cu-MOR clearly show different kinetic behaviors in selective methane oxidation. This difference in reactivity is too large to be ascribed to subtle differences in the ground states of the Cu-O-Cu sites, indicating the zeolite lattice tunes their reactivity through second-sphere effects. The MOR lattice is therefore functionally analogous to the active site pocket of a metalloenzyme, demonstrating that both the active site and its framework environment contribute to and direct reactivity in transition metal ion-zeolites.

  5. School Pharmacist/School Environmental Hygienic Activities at School Site.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The "School Health and Safety Act" was enforced in April 2009 in Japan, and "school environmental health standards" were established by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In Article 24 of the Enforcement Regulations, the duties of the school pharmacist have been clarified; school pharmacists have charged with promoting health activities in schools and carrying out complete and regular checks based on the "school environmental health standards" in order to protect the health of students and staff. In supported of this, the school pharmacist group of Japan Pharmaceutical Association has created and distributed digital video discs (DVDs) on "check methods of school environmental health standards" as support material. We use the DVD to ensure the basic issues that school pharmacists deal with, such as objectives, criteria, and methods for each item to be checked, advice, and post-measures. We conduct various workshops and classes, and set up Q&A committees so that inquiries from members are answered with the help of such activities. In addition, school pharmacists try to improve the knowledge of the school staff on environmental hygiene during their in-service training. They also conduct "drug abuse prevention classes" at school and seek to improve knowledge and recognition of drugs, including "dangerous drugs". PMID:27252053

  6. Distal histidine conformational flexibility in dehaloperoxidase from Amphitrite ornata

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zuxu; de Serrano, Vesna; Betts, Laurie; Franzen, Stefan

    2009-01-28

    The enzyme dehaloperoxidase (DHP) from the terebellid polychaete Amphitrite ornata is a heme protein which has a globin fold but can function as both a hemoglobin and a peroxidase. As a peroxidase, DHP is capable of converting 2,4,6-trihalophenols to the corresponding 2,6-dihaloquinones in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. As a hemoglobin, DHP cycles between the oxy and deoxy states as it reversibly binds oxygen for storage. Here, it is reported that the distal histidine, His55, exhibits conformational flexibility in the deoxy form and is consequently observed in two solvent-exposed conformations more than 9.5 {angstrom} away from the heme. These conformations are analogous to the open conformation of sperm whale myoglobin. The heme iron in deoxy ferrous DHP is five-coordinate and has an out-of-plane displacement of 0.25 {angstrom} from the heme plane. The observation of five-coordinate heme iron with His55 in a remote solvent-exposed conformation is consistent with the hypothesis that His55 interacts with heme iron ligands through hydrogen bonding in the closed conformation. Since His55 is also displaced by the binding of 4-iodophenol in an internal pocket, these results provide new insight into the correlation between heme iron ligation, molecular binding in the distal pocket and the conformation of the distal histidine in DHP.

  7. Sensor Domain of Histidine Kinase KinB of Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kemin; Chhor, Gekleng; Binkowski, T. Andrew; Jedrzejczak, Robert P.; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The overproduction of polysaccharide alginate is responsible for the formation of mucus in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Histidine kinase KinB of the KinB-AlgB two-component system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa acts as a negative regulator of alginate biosynthesis. The modular architecture of KinB is similar to other histidine kinases. However, its periplasmic signal sensor domain is unique and is found only in the Pseudomonas genus. Here, we present the first crystal structures of the KinB sensor domain. The domain is a dimer in solution, and in the crystal it shows an atypical dimer of a helix-swapped four-helix bundle. A positively charged cavity is formed on the dimer interface and involves several strictly conserved residues, including Arg-60. A phosphate anion is bound asymmetrically in one of the structures. In silico docking identified several monophosphorylated sugars, including β-d-fructose 6-phosphate and β-d-mannose 6-phosphate, a precursor and an intermediate of alginate synthesis, respectively, as potential KinB ligands. Ligand binding was confirmed experimentally. Conformational transition from a symmetric to an asymmetric structure and decreasing dimer stability caused by ligand binding may be a part of the signal transduction mechanism of the KinB-AlgB two-component system. PMID:24573685

  8. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets.

  9. Isolated metal active site concentration and stability control catalytic CO2 reduction selectivity.

    PubMed

    Matsubu, John C; Yang, Vanessa N; Christopher, Phillip

    2015-03-01

    CO2 reduction by H2 on heterogeneous catalysts is an important class of reactions that has been studied for decades. However, atomic scale details of structure-function relationships are still poorly understood. Particularly, it has been suggested that metal particle size plays a unique role in controlling the stability of CO2 hydrogenation catalysts and the distribution of active sites, which dictates reactivity and selectivity. These studies often have not considered the possible role of isolated metal active sites in the observed dependences. Here, we utilize probe molecule diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) with known site-specific extinction coefficients to quantify the fraction of Rh sites residing as atomically dispersed isolated sites (Rhiso), as well as Rh sites on the surface of Rh nanoparticles (RhNP) for a series of TiO2 supported Rh catalysts. Strong correlations were observed between the catalytic reverse water gas shift turn over frequency (TOF) and the fraction of Rhiso sites and between catalytic methanation TOF and the fraction of RhNP sites. Furthermore, it was observed that reaction condition-induced disintegration of Rh nanoparticles, forming Rhiso active sites, controls the changing reactivity with time on stream. This work demonstrates that isolated atoms and nanoparticles of the same metal on the same support can exhibit uniquely different catalytic selectivity in competing parallel reaction pathways and that disintegration of nanoparticles under reaction conditions can play a significant role in controlling stability.

  10. Isolated metal active site concentration and stability control catalytic CO2 reduction selectivity.

    PubMed

    Matsubu, John C; Yang, Vanessa N; Christopher, Phillip

    2015-03-01

    CO2 reduction by H2 on heterogeneous catalysts is an important class of reactions that has been studied for decades. However, atomic scale details of structure-function relationships are still poorly understood. Particularly, it has been suggested that metal particle size plays a unique role in controlling the stability of CO2 hydrogenation catalysts and the distribution of active sites, which dictates reactivity and selectivity. These studies often have not considered the possible role of isolated metal active sites in the observed dependences. Here, we utilize probe molecule diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) with known site-specific extinction coefficients to quantify the fraction of Rh sites residing as atomically dispersed isolated sites (Rhiso), as well as Rh sites on the surface of Rh nanoparticles (RhNP) for a series of TiO2 supported Rh catalysts. Strong correlations were observed between the catalytic reverse water gas shift turn over frequency (TOF) and the fraction of Rhiso sites and between catalytic methanation TOF and the fraction of RhNP sites. Furthermore, it was observed that reaction condition-induced disintegration of Rh nanoparticles, forming Rhiso active sites, controls the changing reactivity with time on stream. This work demonstrates that isolated atoms and nanoparticles of the same metal on the same support can exhibit uniquely different catalytic selectivity in competing parallel reaction pathways and that disintegration of nanoparticles under reaction conditions can play a significant role in controlling stability. PMID:25671686

  11. Site specific rationale for technical impracticability of active groundwater restoration at a former manufactured gas plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, C.M.; Walden, R.H.; MacFarlane, I.D.

    1995-12-31

    The National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300 ) requires that remedial strategies must, at minimum, protect human health and the environment and meet applicable and relevant or appropriate requirements (ARARs). Where groundwater is impacted, maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and maximum contaminant level goals (MCLGs) set under the Safe Drinking Water Act are often used as ARARs, whether or not the aquifer is a reasonably anticipated future source of drinking water. The US Environmental Protection Agency now recognizes the difficulty of groundwater restoration at sites where dense nonaqueous phase liquids are present, particularly in certain complex hydrogeological settings (EPA 1993). However, demonstration of impracticability generally does not occur until active remediation (e.g., pump and treat) has been shown to be ineffective. A case study of a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) is used to demonstrate how physical and chemical properties of the aquifer and coal tar, the major waste product from MGP sites, influence the feasibility of active restoration. Field characterization investigations, laboratory studies, and groundwater modeling are integrated into a demonstration following EPA guidelines. Laboratory studies included microbiological characterization and natural biodegradation and suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at this site. This work will be useful as EPA continues to develop presumptive remedies for cleanup under Superfund.

  12. Correlations between the Electronic Properties of Shewanella oneidensis Cytochrome c Nitrite Reductase (ccNiR) and Its Structure: Effects of Heme Oxidation State and Active Site Ligation.

    PubMed

    Stein, Natalia; Love, Daniel; Judd, Evan T; Elliott, Sean J; Bennett, Brian; Pacheco, A Andrew

    2015-06-23

    The electrochemical properties of Shewanella oneidensis cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR), a homodimer that contains five hemes per protomer, were investigated by UV-visible and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectropotentiometries. Global analysis of the UV-vis spectropotentiometric results yielded highly reproducible values for the heme midpoint potentials. These midpoint potential values were then assigned to specific hemes in each protomer (as defined in previous X-ray diffraction studies) by comparing the EPR and UV-vis spectropotentiometric results, taking advantage of the high sensitivity of EPR spectra to the structural microenvironment of paramagnetic centers. Addition of the strong-field ligand cyanide led to a 70 mV positive shift of the active site's midpoint potential, as the cyanide bound to the initially five-coordinate high-spin heme and triggered a high-spin to low-spin transition. With cyanide present, three of the remaining hemes gave rise to distinctive and readily assignable EPR spectral changes upon reduction, while a fourth was EPR-silent. At high applied potentials, interpretation of the EPR spectra in the absence of cyanide was complicated by a magnetic interaction that appears to involve three of five hemes in each protomer. At lower applied potentials, the spectra recorded in the presence and absence of cyanide were similar, which aided global assignment of the signals. The midpoint potential of the EPR-silent heme could be assigned by default, but the assignment was also confirmed by UV-vis spectropotentiometric analysis of the H268M mutant of ccNiR, in which one of the EPR-silent heme's histidine axial ligands was replaced with a methionine.

  13. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-11-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  14. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-01-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  15. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Behavior: III. Estimating Bound Site Activity Coefficients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although detailed thermodynamic analyses of the 2-pK diffuse layer surface complexation model generally specify bound site activity coefficients for the purpose of accounting for those non-ideal excess free energies contributing to bound site electrochemical potentials, in applic...

  16. Activity of site-specific endonucleases on complexes of plasmid DNA with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, V. P.; Krylova, H. V.; Lipnevich, I. V.; Veligura, A. A.; Shulitsky, B. G.; Asayonok, A. A.; Vaskovtsev, E. V.

    2016-08-01

    We have synthesized and investigated structural and functional properties of plasmid DNA complexes with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for detection of changes in structural state of the plasmid DNA at its recognition by site-specific endonuclease. It has been also established that the site-specific endonuclease is functionally active on the surface of MWCNTs.

  17. 77 FR 5560 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... project proposals on those leases) in identified Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) on the OCS offshore New Jersey... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment Activities on the... site assessment plans (SAPs) on those leases. BOEM may issue one or more commercial wind energy...

  18. The balance of flexibility and rigidity in the active site residues of hen egg white lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jian-Xun; Jiang, Fan

    2011-05-01

    The crystallographic temperature factors (B factor) of individual atoms contain important information about the thermal motion of the atoms in a macromolecule. Previously the theory of flexibility of active site has been established based on the observation that the enzyme activity is sensitive to low concentration denaturing agents. It has been found that the loss of enzyme activity occurs well before the disruption of the three-dimensional structural scaffold of the enzyme. To test the theory of conformational flexibility of enzyme active site, crystal structures were perturbed by soaking in low concentration guanidine hydrochloride solutions. It was found that many lysozyme crystals tested could still diffract until the concentration of guanidine hydrochloride reached 3 M. It was also found that the B factors averaged over individually collected data sets were more accurate. Thus it suggested that accurate measurement of crystal temperature factors could be achieved for medium-high or even medium resolution crystals by averaging over multiple data sets. Furthermore, we found that the correctly predicted active sites included not only the more flexible residues, but also some more rigid residues. Both the flexible and the rigid residues in the active site played an important role in forming the active site residue network, covering the majority of the substrate binding residues. Therefore, this experimental prediction method may be useful for characterizing the binding site and the function of a protein, such as drug targeting.

  19. Hint, Fhit and GalT: Function, Structure, Evolution and Mechanism of Three Branches of the Histidine Triad Superfamily of Nucleotide Hydrolases and Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    HIT (histidine triad)1 proteins, named for a motif related to the sequence HφHφHφφ, (φ a hydrophobic amino acid) are a superfamily of nucleotide hydrolases and transferases, which act on the α-phosphate of ribonucleotides, and contain a ∼30 kDa domain that is typically either a homodimer of ∼15 kDa polypeptides with two active-sites or an internally, imperfectly repeated polypeptide that retains a single HIT active site. On the basis of sequence, substrate specificity, structure, evolution and mechanism, HIT proteins can be classified into the Hint branch, which consists of adenosine 5′-monophosphoramide hydrolases, the Fhit branch, which consists of diadenosine polyphosphate hydrolases, and the GalT branch, which consists of specific nucleoside monophosphate transferases including galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, diadenosine tetraphosphate phosphorylase, and adenylylsulfate:phosphate adenylytransferase. At least one human representative of each branch is lost in human diseases. Aprataxin, a Hint branch hydrolase, is mutated in ataxia-oculomotor apraxia syndrome. Fhit is lost early in development of many epithelially derived tumors. GalT is deficient in galactosemia. Additionally, ASW is an avian Hint family member that has evolved to have unusual gene expression properties and the complete loss of its nucleotide binding-site. The potential roles of ASW and Hint in avian sexual development are discussed in an accompanying manuscript. Here we review what is known about biological activities of HIT proteins, the structural and biochemical bases for their functions, and propose a new enzyme mechanism for Hint and Fhit that may account for the differences between HIT hydrolases and transferases. PMID:12119013

  20. Chemical modification studies on arginine kinase: essential cysteine and arginine residues at the active site.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Jing; Li, Miao; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2007-12-01

    Chemical modification was used to elucidate the essential amino acids in the catalytic activity of arginine kinase (AK) from Migratoria manilensis. Among six cysteine (Cys) residues only one Cys residue was determined to be essential in the active site by Tsou's method. Furthermore, the AK modified by DTNB can be fully reactivated by dithiothreitol (DTT) in a monophasic kinetic course. At the same time, this reactivation can be slowed down in the presence of ATP, suggesting that the essential Cys is located near the ATP binding site. The ionizing groups at the AK active site were studied and the standard dissociation enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ) was 12.38kcal/mol, showing that the dissociation group may be the guanidino of arginine (Arg). Using the specific chemical modifier phenylglyoxal (PG) demonstrated that only one Arg, located near the ATP binding site, is essential for the activity of AK. PMID:17765964

  1. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  2. Anisotropic Covalency Contributions to Superexchange Pathways in Type One Copper Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Type one (T1) Cu sites deliver electrons to catalytic Cu active sites: the mononuclear type two (T2) Cu site in nitrite reductases (NiRs) and the trinuclear Cu cluster in the multicopper oxidases (MCOs). The T1 Cu and the remote catalytic sites are connected via a Cys-His intramolecular electron-transfer (ET) bridge, which contains two potential ET pathways: P1 through the protein backbone and P2 through the H-bond between the Cys and the His. The high covalency of the T1 Cu–S(Cys) bond is shown here to activate the T1 Cu site for hole superexchange via occupied valence orbitals of the bridge. This covalency-activated electronic coupling (HDA) facilitates long-range ET through both pathways. These pathways can be selectively activated depending on the geometric and electronic structure of the T1 Cu site and thus the anisotropic covalency of the T1 Cu–S(Cys) bond. In NiRs, blue (π-type) T1 sites utilize P1 and green (σ-type) T1 sites utilize P2, with P2 being more efficient. Comparing the MCOs to NiRs, the second-sphere environment changes the conformation of the Cys-His pathway, which selectively activates HDA for superexchange by blue π sites for efficient turnover in catalysis. These studies show that a given protein bridge, here Cys-His, provides different superexchange pathways and electronic couplings depending on the anisotropic covalencies of the donor and acceptor metal sites. PMID:25310460

  3. Probing impact of active site residue mutations on stability and activity of Neisseria polysaccharea amylosucrase.

    PubMed

    Daudé, David; Topham, Christopher M; Remaud-Siméon, Magali; André, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    The amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea is a transglucosidase from the GH13 family of glycoside-hydrolases that naturally catalyzes the synthesis of α-glucans from the widely available donor sucrose. Interestingly, natural molecular evolution has modeled a dense hydrogen bond network at subsite -1 responsible for the specific recognition of sucrose and conversely, it has loosened interactions at the subsite +1 creating a highly promiscuous subsite +1. The residues forming these subsites are considered to be likely involved in the activity as well as the overall stability of the enzyme. To assess their role, a structure-based approach was followed to reshape the subsite -1. A strategy based on stability change predictions, using the FoldX algorithm, was considered to identify the best candidates for site-directed mutagenesis and guide the construction of a small targeted library. A miniaturized purification protocol was developed and both mutant stability and substrate promiscuity were explored. A range of 8 °C between extreme melting temperature values was observed and some variants were able to synthesize series of oligosaccharides with distributions differing from that of the parental enzyme. The crucial role of subsite -1 was thus highlighted and the biocatalysts generated can now be considered as starting points for further engineering purposes.

  4. 'Unconventional' coordination chemistry by metal chelating fragments in a metalloprotein active site.

    PubMed

    Martin, David P; Blachly, Patrick G; Marts, Amy R; Woodruff, Tessa M; de Oliveira, César A F; McCammon, J Andrew; Tierney, David L; Cohen, Seth M

    2014-04-01

    The binding of three closely related chelators: 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (allothiomaltol, ATM), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiomaltol, TM), and 3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiopyromeconic acid, TPMA) to the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) has been investigated. Two of these ligands display a monodentate mode of coordination to the active site Zn(2+) ion in hCAII that is not recapitulated in model complexes of the enzyme active site. This unprecedented binding mode in the hCAII-thiomaltol complex has been characterized by both X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, the steric restrictions of the active site force the ligands into a 'flattened' mode of coordination compared with inorganic model complexes. This change in geometry has been shown by density functional computations to significantly decrease the strength of the metal-ligand binding. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the mode of binding by small metal-binding groups can be significantly influenced by the protein active site. Diminishing the strength of the metal-ligand bond results in unconventional modes of metal coordination not found in typical coordination compounds or even carefully engineered active site models, and understanding these effects is critical to the rational design of inhibitors that target clinically relevant metalloproteins.

  5. Site-directed mutagenesis and high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of the active site of porphobilinogen deaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.I.; Roessner, C.A.; Stolowich, N.J.; Karuso, P.; Williams, H.J.; Grant, S.K.; Gonzalez, M.D.; Hoshino, T. )

    1988-10-18

    The active site of porphobilinogen (PBG){sup 1} deaminase from Escherichia coli has been found to contain an unusual dipyrromethane derived from four molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) covalently linked to Cys-242, one of the two cysteine residues conserved in E. coli and human deaminase. By use of a hemA{sup {minus}} strain of E. coli the enzyme was enriched from (5-{sup 13}C)ALA and examined by {sup 1}H-detected multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy, which revealed all of the salient features of a dipyrromethane composed of two PBG units linked heat to tail and terminating in a CH{sub 2}-S bond to a cysteine residue. Site-specific mutagenesis of Cys-99 and Cys-242, respectively, has shown that substitution of Ser for Cys-99 does not affect the enzymatic activity, whereas substitution of Ser for Cys-242 removes essentially all of the catalytic activity as measured by the conversion of the substrate PBG to uro'gen I. The NMR spectrum of the covalent complex of deaminase with the suicide inhibitor 2-bromo-(2,11-{sup 13}C{sub 2})PBG reveals that the aminomethyl terminus of the inhibitor reacts with the enzyme's cofactor at the {alpha}-free pyrrole. NMR spectroscopy of the ES{sub 2} complex confirmed a PBG-derived head-to-tail dipyrromethane attached to the {alpha}-free pyrrole position of the enzyme. A mechanistic rationale for deaminase is presented.

  6. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE`s nuclear waste site characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-31

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE`s relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult.

  7. XAFS Study of the Photo-Active Site of Mo/MCM-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Ichikuni, Nobuyuki; Shimazu, Shogo

    2007-02-01

    An Mo/MCM-41 catalyst was prepared and used for study of propene and 1-butene photo-metathesis reactions. XAFS analysis revealed that hydrogen reduction leads to a decreased role for the Mo=O site. The Mo-O site plays an important role for the olefin photo-metathesis reaction on the H2 reduced Mo/MCM-41. From EXAFS analysis, the active site of photo-metathesis reaction is the Mo=O part for oxidized Mo/MCM-41, whereas it is the Mo-O site for reduced Mo/MCM-41.

  8. [The directed modification of Escherichia coli MG1655 to obtain histidine-producing mutants].

    PubMed

    Doroshenko, V G; Lobanov, A O; Fedorina, E A

    2013-01-01

    Strain MG 1655+hisGr hisL'-Delta, purR, which produces histidine with a weight yield of approximately 12% from glucose, was constructed through directed chromosomal modifications of the laboratory Escherichia coli strain MG 1655+, which has a known genome sequence. A feedback-resistant ATP-phosphoribosyl transferase encoded by the mutant hisGr (E271 K) was the main determinant of histidine production. A further increase in histidine production was achieved by the expression enhance of a mutant his operon containing hisGr through the deleting attenuator region (hisL'-Delta). An increase in the expression of the wildtype his operon did not result in histidine accumulation. Deletion of the transcriptional regulator gene purR increased the biomass produced and maintained the level of histidine production per cell under the fermentation conditions used.

  9. Insights into the Binding Sites of Organometallic Ruthenium Anticancer Compounds on Peptides Using Ultra-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Rebecca H.; Habtemariam, Abraha; Lopez-Clavijo, Andrea F.; Barrow, Mark P.; Sadler, Peter J.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2014-04-01

    The binding sites of two ruthenium(II) organometallic complexes of the form [(η6-arene)Ru( N, N)Cl]+, where arene/ N, N = biphenyl (bip)/bipyridine (bipy) for complex AH076, and biphenyl (bip)/ o-phenylenediamine ( o-pda) for complex AH078, on the peptides angiotensin and bombesin have been investigated using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry. Fragmentation was performed using collisionally activated dissociation (CAD), with, in some cases, additional data being provided by electron capture dissociation (ECD). The primary binding sites were identified as methionine and histidine, with further coordination to phenylalanine, potentially through a π-stacking interaction, which has been observed here for the first time. This initial peptide study was expanded to investigate protein binding through reaction with insulin, on which the binding sites proposed are histidine, glutamic acid, and tyrosine. Further reaction of the ruthenium complexes with the oxidized B chain of insulin, in which two cysteine residues are oxidized to cysteine sulfonic acid (Cys-SO3H), and glutathione, which had been oxidized with hydrogen peroxide to convert the cysteine to cysteine sulfonic acid, provided further support for histidine and glutamic acid binding, respectively.

  10. The Three Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen 85 Isoforms Have Unique Substrates and Activities Determined by Non-active Site Regions*

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Keriann M.; Dolan, Michael A.; Barry, Conor S.; Joe, Maju; McPhie, Peter; Boshoff, Helena I. M.; Lowary, Todd L.; Davis, Benjamin G.; Barry, Clifton E.

    2014-01-01

    The three isoforms of antigen 85 (A, B, and C) are the most abundant secreted mycobacterial proteins and catalyze transesterification reactions that synthesize mycolated arabinogalactan, trehalose monomycolate (TMM), and trehalose dimycolate (TDM), important constituents of the outermost layer of the cellular envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These three enzymes are nearly identical at the active site and have therefore been postulated to exist to evade host immunity. Distal to the active site is a second putative carbohydrate-binding site of lower homology. Mutagenesis of the three isoforms at this second site affected both substrate selectivity and overall catalytic activity in vitro. Using synthetic and natural substrates, we show that these three enzymes exhibit unique selectivity; antigen 85A more efficiently mycolates TMM to form TDM, whereas C (and to a lesser extent B) has a higher rate of activity using free trehalose to form TMM. This difference in substrate selectivity extends to the hexasaccharide fragment of cell wall arabinan. Mutation of secondary site residues from the most active isoform (C) into those present in A or B partially interconverts this substrate selectivity. These experiments in combination with molecular dynamics simulations reveal that differences in the N-terminal helix α9, the adjacent Pro216–Phe228 loop, and helix α5 are the likely cause of changes in activity and substrate selectivity. These differences explain the existence of three isoforms and will allow for future work in developing inhibitors. PMID:25028517

  11. Transcriptional activation through ETS domain binding sites in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV gene

    SciTech Connect

    Virbasius, J.V.; Scarpulla, R.C. )

    1991-11-01

    A mutational analysis of the rat cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (RCO4) promoter region revealed the presence of a major control element consisting of a tandemly repeated pair of binding sites for a nuclear factor from HeLa cells. This factor was designated NRF-2 (nuclear respiratory factor 2) because a functional recognition site was also found in the human ATP synthase {beta}-subunit gene. Deletion or site-directed point mutations of the NRF-2 binding sites in the RCO4 promoter resulted in substantial loss of transcriptional activity, and synthetic oligomers of the NRF-2 binding sites from both genes stimulated a heterologous promoter when cloned in cis. NRF-2 binding a transcriptional activation required a purine-rich core sequence, GGAA. This motif is characteristic of the recognition site for a family of activators referred to as ETS domain proteins because of the similarity within their DNA-binding domains to the ets-1 proto-oncogene product. NRF-2 recognized an authentic Ets-1 site within the Moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat, and this site was able to compete for NRF-2 binding to the RCO4 promoter sequence. However, in contrast to Ets-1, which appears to be exclusive to lymphoid tissues, NRF-2 has the broad tissue distribution expected of a regulator of respiratory chain expression.

  12. Structures and activities of archaeal members of the LigD 3′-phosphoesterase DNA repair enzyme superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul; Nair, Pravin A.; Das, Ushati; Zhu, Hui; Shuman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    LigD 3′-phosphoesterase (PE) is a component of the bacterial NHEJ apparatus that performs 3′-end-healing reactions at DNA breaks. The tertiary structure, active site and substrate specificity of bacterial PE are unique vis–à-vis other end-healing enzymes. PE homologs are present in archaea, but their properties are uncharted. Here, we demonstrate the end-healing activities of two archaeal PEs—Candidatus Korarchaeum cryptofilum PE (CkoPE; 117 amino acids) and Methanosarcina barkeri PE (MbaPE; 151 amino acids)—and we report their atomic structures at 1.1 and 2.1 Å, respectively. Archaeal PEs are minimized versions of bacterial PE, consisting of an eight-stranded β barrel and a 310 helix. Their active sites are located in a crescent-shaped groove on the barrel’s outer surface, wherein two histidines and an aspartate coordinate manganese in an octahedral complex that includes two waters and a phosphate anion. The phosphate is in turn coordinated by arginine and histidine side chains. The conservation of active site architecture in bacterial and archaeal PEs, and the concordant effects of active site mutations, underscore a common catalytic mechanism, entailing transition state stabilization by manganese and the phosphate-binding arginine and histidine. Our results fortify the proposal that PEs comprise a DNA repair superfamily distributed widely among taxa. PMID:21208981

  13. Structures and Activities of Archaeal Members of the LigD 3-Phosphoesterase DNA Repair Enzyme Superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    P Smith; P Nair; U Das; H Zhu; S Shuman

    2011-12-31

    LigD 3'-phosphoesterase (PE) is a component of the bacterial NHEJ apparatus that performs 3'-end-healing reactions at DNA breaks. The tertiary structure, active site and substrate specificity of bacterial PE are unique vis-a-vis other end-healing enzymes. PE homologs are present in archaea, but their properties are uncharted. Here, we demonstrate the end-healing activities of two archaeal PEs - Candidatus Korarchaeum cryptofilum PE (CkoPE; 117 amino acids) and Methanosarcina barkeri PE (MbaPE; 151 amino acids) - and we report their atomic structures at 1.1 and 2.1 {angstrom}, respectively. Archaeal PEs are minimized versions of bacterial PE, consisting of an eight-stranded {beta} barrel and a 3{sub 10} helix. Their active sites are located in a crescent-shaped groove on the barrel's outer surface, wherein two histidines and an aspartate coordinate manganese in an octahedral complex that includes two waters and a phosphate anion. The phosphate is in turn coordinated by arginine and histidine side chains. The conservation of active site architecture in bacterial and archaeal PEs, and the concordant effects of active site mutations, underscore a common catalytic mechanism, entailing transition state stabilization by manganese and the phosphate-binding arginine and histidine. Our results fortify the proposal that PEs comprise a DNA repair superfamily distributed widely among taxa.

  14. Quantitative, directional measurement of electric field heterogeneity in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase.

    PubMed

    Fafarman, Aaron T; Sigala, Paul A; Schwans, Jason P; Fenn, Timothy D; Herschlag, Daniel; Boxer, Steven G

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the electrostatic forces and features within highly heterogeneous, anisotropic, and chemically complex enzyme active sites and their connection to biological catalysis remains a longstanding challenge, in part due to the paucity of incisive experimental probes of electrostatic properties within proteins. To quantitatively assess the landscape of electrostatic fields at discrete locations and orientations within an enzyme active site, we have incorporated site-specific thiocyanate vibrational probes into multiple positions within bacterial ketosteroid isomerase. A battery of X-ray crystallographic, vibrational Stark spectroscopy, and NMR studies revealed electrostatic field heterogeneity of 8 MV/cm between active site probe locations and widely differing sensitivities of discrete probes to common electrostatic perturbations from mutation, ligand binding, and pH changes. Electrostatic calculations based on active site ionization states assigned by literature precedent and computational pK(a) prediction were unable to quantitatively account for the observed vibrational band shifts. However, electrostatic models of the D40N mutant gave qualitative agreement with the observed vibrational effects when an unusual ionization of an active site tyrosine with a pK(a) near 7 was included. UV-absorbance and (13)C NMR experiments confirmed the presence of a tyrosinate in the active site, in agreement with electrostatic models. This work provides the most direct measure of the heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of the electrostatic environment within an enzyme active site, and these measurements provide incisive benchmarks for further developing accurate computational models and a foundation for future tests of electrostatics in enzymatic catalysis.

  15. Molecular dynamics explorations of active site structure in designed and evolved enzymes.

    PubMed

    Osuna, Sílvia; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Noey, Elizabeth L; Houk, K N

    2015-04-21

    This Account describes the use of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reveal how mutations alter the structure and organization of enzyme active sites. As proposed by Pauling about 70 years ago and elaborated by many others since then, biocatalysis is efficient when functional groups in the active site of an enzyme are in optimal positions for transition state stabilization. Changes in mechanism and covalent interactions are often critical parts of enzyme catalysis. We describe our explorations of the dynamical preorganization of active sites using MD, studying the fluctuations between active and inactive conformations normally concealed to static crystallography. MD shows how the various arrangements of active site residues influence the free energy of the transition state and relates the populations of the catalytic conformational ensemble to the enzyme activity. This Account is organized around three case studies from our laboratory. We first describe the importance of dynamics in evaluating a series of computationally designed and experimentally evolved enzymes for the Kemp elimination, a popular subject in the enzyme design field. We find that the dynamics of the active site is influenced not only by the original sequence design and subsequent mutations but also by the nature of the ligand present in the active site. In the second example, we show how microsecond MD has been used to uncover the role of remote mutations in the active site dynamics and catalysis of a transesterase, LovD. This enzyme was evolved by Tang at UCLA and Codexis, Inc., and is a useful commercial catalyst for the production of the drug simvastatin. X-ray analysis of inactive and active mutants did not reveal differences in the active sites, but relatively long time scale MD in solution showed that the active site of the wild-type enzyme preorganizes only upon binding of the acyl carrier protein (ACP) that delivers the natural acyl group to the active site. In the absence of bound ACP

  16. Sequences flanking the core-binding site modulate glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Schöne, Stefanie; Jurk, Marcel; Helabad, Mahdi Bagherpoor; Dror, Iris; Lebars, Isabelle; Kieffer, Bruno; Imhof, Petra; Rohs, Remo; Vingron, Martin; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2016-09-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds as a homodimer to genomic response elements, which have particular sequence and shape characteristics. Here we show that the nucleotides directly flanking the core-binding site, differ depending on the strength of GR-dependent activation of nearby genes. Our study indicates that these flanking nucleotides change the three-dimensional structure of the DNA-binding site, the DNA-binding domain of GR and the quaternary structure of the dimeric complex. Functional studies in a defined genomic context show that sequence-induced changes in GR activity cannot be explained by differences in GR occupancy. Rather, mutating the dimerization interface mitigates DNA-induced changes in both activity and structure, arguing for a role of DNA-induced structural changes in modulating GR activity. Together, our study shows that DNA sequence identity of genomic binding sites modulates GR activity downstream of binding, which may play a role in achieving regulatory specificity towards individual target genes.

  17. Correlated structural kinetics and retarded solvent dynamics at the metalloprotease active site

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, Moran; Born, Benjamin; Heyden, Matthias; Tworowski, Dmitry; Fields, Gregg B.; Sagi, Irit; Havenith, Martina

    2011-09-18

    Solvent dynamics can play a major role in enzyme activity, but obtaining an accurate, quantitative picture of solvent activity during catalysis is quite challenging. Here, we combine terahertz spectroscopy and X-ray absorption analyses to measure changes in the coupled water-protein motions during peptide hydrolysis by a zinc-dependent human metalloprotease. These changes were tightly correlated with rearrangements at the active site during the formation of productive enzyme-substrate intermediates and were different from those in an enzyme–inhibitor complex. Molecular dynamics simulations showed a steep gradient of fast-to-slow coupled protein-water motions around the protein, active site and substrate. Our results show that water retardation occurs before formation of the functional Michaelis complex. We propose that the observed gradient of coupled protein-water motions may assist enzyme-substrate interactions through water-polarizing mechanisms that are remotely mediated by the catalytic metal ion and the enzyme active site.

  18. An overlapping kinase and phosphatase docking site regulates activity of the retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Hirschi, Alexander; Cecchini, Matthew; Steinhardt, Rachel C; Schamber, Michael R; Dick, Frederick A; Rubin, Seth M

    2010-09-01

    The phosphorylation state and corresponding activity of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) are modulated by a balance of kinase and phosphatase activities. Here we characterize the association of Rb with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c). A crystal structure identifies an enzyme docking site in the Rb C-terminal domain that is required for efficient PP1c activity toward Rb. The phosphatase docking site overlaps with the known docking site for cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk), and PP1 competition with Cdk-cyclins for Rb binding is sufficient to retain Rb activity and block cell-cycle advancement. These results provide the first detailed molecular insights into Rb activation and establish a novel mechanism for Rb regulation in which kinase and phosphatase compete for substrate docking. PMID:20694007

  19. Structural characterization of human histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 2 (hHint2), a member of the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Maize, Kimberly M.; Wagner, Carston R.; Finzel, Barry C.

    2013-01-01

    The histidine triad proteins (HITs) constitute a large and ubiquitous superfamily of nucleotide hydrolases. The human nucleotide binding proteins (hHints) are a distinct class of HITs noted for their acyl-AMP hydrolase and phosphoramidase activity. The first high resolution crystal structures of human Hint2 with and without bound adenosine monophosphate (AMP) are here described. The differences between hHint2 and previously known HIT-family protein structures are discussed. HIT-family enzymes have historically been divided into five classes based on their catalytic specificity: Hint, Fhit, GalT, DcpS, and Aprataxin. However, although several structures exist for enzymes in these classes, the endogenous substrates of many of these enzymes have not been identified or biochemically characterized. In order to better understand the structural relationship of the HIT enzymes, a structure-based phylogeny has been constructed that has resulted in the identification of several new putative HIT clades with potential acyl-AMP hydrolase and phosphoramidase activity. PMID:23659632

  20. Structural and Kinetic Analyses of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Active Site Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Crichlow, G.; Lubetsky, J; Leng, L; Bucala, R; Lolis, E

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a secreted protein expressed in numerous cell types that counters the antiinflammatory effects of glucocorticoids and has been implicated in sepsis, cancer, and certain autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, the structure of MIF contains a catalytic site resembling the tautomerase/isomerase sites of microbial enzymes. While bona fide physiological substrates remain unknown, model substrates have been identified. Selected compounds that bind in the tautomerase active site also inhibit biological functions of MIF. It had previously been shown that the acetaminophen metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), covalently binds to the active site of MIF. In this study, kinetic data indicate that NAPQI inhibits MIF both covalently and noncovalently. The structure of MIF cocrystallized with NAPQI reveals that the NAPQI has undergone a chemical alteration forming an acetaminophen dimer (bi-APAP) and binds noncovalently to MIF at the mouth of the active site. We also find that the commonly used protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), forms a covalent complex with MIF and inhibits the tautomerase activity. Crystallographic analysis reveals the formation of a stable, novel covalent bond for PMSF between the catalytic nitrogen of the N-terminal proline and the sulfur of PMSF with complete, well-defined electron density in all three active sites of the MIF homotrimer. Conclusions are drawn from the structures of these two MIF-inhibitor complexes regarding the design of novel compounds that may provide more potent reversible and irreversible inhibition of MIF.

  1. ATP forms a stable complex with the essential histidine kinase WalK (YycG) domain

    SciTech Connect

    Celikel, Reha; Veldore, Vidya Harini; Mathews, Irimpan; Devine, Kevin M.; Varughese, Kottayil I.

    2012-07-01

    The histidine WalK (YycG) plays a crucial role in coordinating murein synthesis with cell division and the crystal structure of its ATP binding domain has been determined. Interestingly the bound ATP was not hydrolyzed during crystallization and remains intact in the crystal lattice. In Bacillus subtilis, the WalRK (YycFG) two-component system coordinates murein synthesis with cell division. It regulates the expression of autolysins that function in cell-wall remodeling and of proteins that modulate autolysin activity. The transcription factor WalR is activated upon phosphorylation by the histidine kinase WalK, a multi-domain homodimer. It autophosphorylates one of its histidine residues by transferring the γ-phosphate from ATP bound to its ATP-binding domain. Here, the high-resolution crystal structure of the ATP-binding domain of WalK in complex with ATP is presented at 1.61 Å resolution. The bound ATP remains intact in the crystal lattice. It appears that the strong binding interactions and the nature of the binding pocket contribute to its stability. The triphosphate moiety of ATP wraps around an Mg{sup 2+} ion, providing three O atoms for coordination in a near-ideal octahedral geometry. The ATP molecule also makes strong interactions with the protein. In addition, there is a short contact between the exocyclic O3′ of the sugar ring and O2B of the β-phosphate, implying an internal hydrogen bond. The stability of the WalK–ATP complex in the crystal lattice suggests that such a complex may exist in vivo poised for initiation of signal transmission. This feature may therefore be part of the sensing mechanism by which the WalRK two-component system is so rapidly activated when cells encounter conditions conducive for growth.

  2. Enhanced Enzyme Kinetic Stability by Increasing Rigidity within the Active Site*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuan; An, Jiao; Yang, Guangyu; Wu, Geng; Zhang, Yong; Cui, Li; Feng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme stability is an important issue for protein engineers. Understanding how rigidity in the active site affects protein kinetic stability will provide new insight into enzyme stabilization. In this study, we demonstrated enhanced kinetic stability of Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB) by mutating the structurally flexible residues within the active site. Six residues within 10 Å of the catalytic Ser105 residue with a high B factor were selected for iterative saturation mutagenesis. After screening 2200 colonies, we obtained the D223G/L278M mutant, which exhibited a 13-fold increase in half-life at 48 °C and a 12 °C higher T5015, the temperature at which enzyme activity is reduced to 50% after a 15-min heat treatment. Further characterization showed that global unfolding resistance against both thermal and chemical denaturation also improved. Analysis of the crystal structures of wild-type CalB and the D223G/L278M mutant revealed that the latter formed an extra main chain hydrogen bond network with seven structurally coupled residues within the flexible α10 helix that are primarily involved in forming the active site. Further investigation of the relative B factor profile and molecular dynamics simulation confirmed that the enhanced rigidity decreased fluctuation of the active site residues at high temperature. These results indicate that enhancing the rigidity of the flexible segment within the active site may provide an efficient method for improving enzyme kinetic stability. PMID:24448805

  3. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Lewińska, Anna; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites are identified, including the first SBS ever reported in a cellulase. This work demonstrates that combinations of these methods can be used as a part of routine enzyme characterization to identify new binding sites and advance the study of SBSs and CBMs, allowing them to be detected in the absence of structural data. PMID:27504624

  4. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Lewińska, Anna; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites are identified, including the first SBS ever reported in a cellulase. This work demonstrates that combinations of these methods can be used as a part of routine enzyme characterization to identify new binding sites and advance the study of SBSs and CBMs, allowing them to be detected in the absence of structural data. PMID:27504624

  5. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an...

  6. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an...

  7. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an...

  8. 77 FR 39508 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... specific project proposals on those leases) in an identified Wind Energy Area (WEA) on the OCS offshore... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment Activities on the... Activities on the Atlantic OCS Offshore RI and MA'' to: Program Manager, Office of Renewable Energy...

  9. Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.; Rowe, J.

    1980-02-01

    The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases.

  10. Computational approaches to the determination of active site structures and reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Catlow, C R A; French, S A; Sokol, A A; Thomas, J M

    2005-04-15

    We apply quantum chemical methods to the study of active site structures and reaction mechanisms in mesoporous silica and metal oxide catalysts. Our approach is based on the use of both molecular cluster and embedded cluster (QM/MM) techniques, where the active site and molecular complex are described using density functional theory (DFT) and the embedding matrix simulated by shell model potentials. We consider three case studies: alkene epoxidation over the microporous TS-1 catalyst; methanol synthesis on ZnO and Cu/ZnO and C-H bond activation over Li-doped MgO.

  11. Computational approaches to the determination of active site structures and reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Catlow, C R A; French, S A; Sokol, A A; Thomas, J M

    2005-04-15

    We apply quantum chemical methods to the study of active site structures and reaction mechanisms in mesoporous silica and metal oxide catalysts. Our approach is based on the use of both molecular cluster and embedded cluster (QM/MM) techniques, where the active site and molecular complex are described using density functional theory (DFT) and the embedding matrix simulated by shell model potentials. We consider three case studies: alkene epoxidation over the microporous TS-1 catalyst; methanol synthesis on ZnO and Cu/ZnO and C-H bond activation over Li-doped MgO. PMID:15901543

  12. Rapid binding of a cationic active site inhibitor to wild type and mutant mouse acetylcholinesterase: Brownian dynamics simulation including diffusion in the active site gorge.

    PubMed

    Tara, S; Elcock, A H; Kirchhoff, P D; Briggs, J M; Radic, Z; Taylor, P; McCammon, J A

    1998-12-01

    It is known that anionic surface residues play a role in the long-range electrostatic attraction between acetylcholinesterase and cationic ligands. In our current investigation, we show that anionic residues also play an important role in the behavior of the ligand within the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase. Negatively charged residues near the gorge opening not only attract positively charged ligands from solution to the enzyme, but can also restrict the motion of the ligand once it is inside of the gorge. We use Brownian dynamics techniques to calculate the rate constant kon, for wild type and mutant acetylcholinesterase with a positively charged ligand. These calculations are performed by allowing the ligand to diffuse within the active site gorge. This is an extension of previously reported work in which a ligand was allowed to diffuse only to the enzyme surface. By setting the reaction criteria for the ligand closer to the active site, better agreement with experimental data is obtained. Although a number of residues influence the movement of the ligand within the gorge, Asp74 is shown to play a particularly important role in this function. Asp74 traps the ligand within the gorge, and in this way helps to ensure a reaction.

  13. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, Abhinav; Venkatachalam, Avanthika; Gideon, Daniel Andrew; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Cyanide (CN) is a well-studied toxic principle, known to inhibit heme-enzymes. • Inhibition is supposed to result from CN binding at the active site as a ligand. • Diverse heme enzymes’ CN inhibition profiles challenge prevailing mechanism. • Poor binding efficiency of CN at low enzyme concentrations and ligand pressures. • CN-based diffusible radicals cause ‘non-productive electron transfers’ (inhibition). - Abstract: The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins’ active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes.

  14. Denaturation studies of active-site labeled papain using electron paramagnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Z A; Butterfiel, D A

    1991-01-01

    A spin-labeled p-chloromercuribenzoate (SL-PMB) and a fluorescence probe, 6-acryloyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (Acrylodan), both of which bind to the single SH group located in the active site of papain, were used to investigate the interaction of papain (EC 3.4.22.2) with two protein denaturants. It was found that the active site of papain was highly stable in urea solution, but underwent a large conformational change in guanidine hydrochloride solution. Electron paramagnetic resonance and fluorescence results were in agreement and both paralleled enzymatic activity of papain with respect to both the variation in pH and denaturation. These results strongly suggest that SL-PMB and Acrylodan labels can be used to characterize the physical state of the active site of the enzyme. PMID:1657229

  15. Identification of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-histidine adducts that serve as ligands for human lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Kumano-Kuramochi, Miyuki; Shimozu, Yuuki; Wakita, Chika; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Shibata, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko; Watanabe, Jun; Goto, Masao; Xie, Qiuhong; Komba, Shiro; Uchida, Koji; Machida, Sachiko

    2012-02-15

    LOX-1 (lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1) is an endothelial scavenger receptor that is important for the uptake of OxLDL (oxidized low-density lipoprotein) and contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the precise structural motifs of OxLDL that are recognized by LOX-1 are unknown. In the present study, we have identified products of lipid peroxidation of OxLDL that serve as ligands for LOX-1. We used CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells that stably express LOX-1 to evaluate the ability of BSA modified by lipid peroxidation to compete with AcLDL (acetylated low-density lipoprotein). We found that HNE (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal)-modified proteins most potently inhibited the uptake of AcLDL. On the basis of the findings that HNE-modified BSA and oxidation of LDL resulted in the formation of HNE-histidine Michael adducts, we examined whether the HNE-histidine adducts could serve as ligands for LOX-1. The authentic HNE-histidine adduct inhibited the uptake of AcLDL in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found the interaction of LOX-1 with the HNE-histidine adduct to have a dissociation constant of 1.22×10(-8) M using a surface plasmon resonance assay. Finally, we showed that the HNE-histidine adduct stimulated the formation of reactive oxygen species and activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) in HAECs (human aortic endothelial cells); these signals initiate endothelial dysfunction and lead to atherosclerosis. The present study provides intriguing insights into the molecular details of LOX-1 recognition of OxLDL.

  16. Catalysis-dependent selenium incorporation and migration in the nitrogenase active site iron-molybdenum cofactor

    PubMed Central

    Spatzal, Thomas; Perez, Kathryn A; Howard, James B; Rees, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    Dinitrogen reduction in the biological nitrogen cycle is catalyzed by nitrogenase, a two-component metalloenzyme. Understanding of the transformation of the inert resting state of the active site FeMo-cofactor into an activated state capable of reducing dinitrogen remains elusive. Here we report the catalysis dependent, site-selective incorporation of selenium into the FeMo-cofactor from selenocyanate as a newly identified substrate and inhibitor. The 1.60 Å resolution structure reveals selenium occupying the S2B site of FeMo-cofactor in the Azotobacter vinelandii MoFe-protein, a position that was recently identified as the CO-binding site. The Se2B-labeled enzyme retains substrate reduction activity and marks the starting point for a crystallographic pulse-chase experiment of the active site during turnover. Through a series of crystal structures obtained at resolutions of 1.32–1.66 Å, including the CO-inhibited form of Av1-Se2B, the exchangeability of all three belt-sulfur sites is demonstrated, providing direct insights into unforeseen rearrangements of the metal center during catalysis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11620.001 PMID:26673079

  17. Catalysis-dependent selenium incorporation and migration in the nitrogenase active site iron-molybdenum cofactor.

    PubMed

    Spatzal, Thomas; Perez, Kathryn A; Howard, James B; Rees, Douglas C

    2015-12-16

    Dinitrogen reduction in the biological nitrogen cycle is catalyzed by nitrogenase, a two-component metalloenzyme. Understanding of the transformation of the inert resting state of the active site FeMo-cofactor into an activated state capable of reducing dinitrogen remains elusive. Here we report the catalysis dependent, site-selective incorporation of selenium into the FeMo-cofactor from selenocyanate as a newly identified substrate and inhibitor. The 1.60 Å resolution structure reveals selenium occupying the S2B site of FeMo-cofactor in the Azotobacter vinelandii MoFe-protein, a position that was recently identified as the CO-binding site. The Se2B-labeled enzyme retains substrate reduction activity and marks the starting point for a crystallographic pulse-chase experiment of the active site during turnover. Through a series of crystal structures obtained at resolutions of 1.32-1.66 Å, including the CO-inhibited form of Av1-Se2B, the exchangeability of all three belt-sulfur sites is demonstrated, providing direct insights into unforeseen rearrangements of the metal center during catalysis.

  18. Sequencing, characterization, and gene expression analysis of the histidine decarboxylase gene cluster of Morganella morganii.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Chiara; Borgo, Francesca; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Ricci, Giovanni; Fortina, Maria Grazia

    2014-03-01

    The histidine decarboxylase gene cluster of Morganella morganii DSM30146(T) was sequenced, and four open reading frames, named hdcT1, hdc, hdcT2, and hisRS were identified. Two putative histidine/histamine antiporters (hdcT1 and hdcT2) were located upstream and downstream the hdc gene, codifying a pyridoxal-P dependent histidine decarboxylase, and followed by hisRS gene encoding a histidyl-tRNA synthetase. This organization was comparable with the gene cluster of other known Gram negative bacteria, particularly with that of Klebsiella oxytoca. Recombinant Escherichia coli strains harboring plasmids carrying the M. morganii hdc gene were shown to overproduce histidine decarboxylase, after IPTG induction at 37 °C for 4 h. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments revealed the hdc and hisRS genes were highly induced under acidic and histidine-rich conditions. This work represents the first description and identification of the hdc-related genes in M. morganii. Results support the hypothesis that the histidine decarboxylation reaction in this prolific histamine producing species may play a role in acid survival. The knowledge of the role and the regulation of genes involved in histidine decarboxylation should improve the design of rational strategies to avoid toxic histamine production in foods.

  19. Substrate Shuttling Between Active Sites of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase in Not Required to Generate Coproporphyrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.; Warby, C; Whitby, F; Kushner, J; Hill, C

    2009-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D; EC 4.1.1.37), the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is required for the production of heme, vitamin B12, siroheme, and chlorophyll precursors. URO-D catalyzes the sequential decarboxylation of four acetate side chains in the pyrrole groups of uroporphyrinogen to produce coproporphyrinogen. URO-D is a stable homodimer, with the active-site clefts of the two subunits adjacent to each other. It has been hypothesized that the two catalytic centers interact functionally, perhaps by shuttling of reaction intermediates between subunits. We tested this hypothesis by construction of a single-chain protein (single-chain URO-D) in which the two subunits were connected by a flexible linker. The crystal structure of this protein was shown to be superimposable with wild-type activity and to have comparable catalytic activity. Mutations that impaired one or the other of the two active sites of single-chain URO-D resulted in approximately half of wild-type activity. The distributions of reaction intermediates were the same for mutant and wild-type sequences and were unaltered in a competition experiment using I and III isomer substrates. These observations indicate that communication between active sites is not required for enzyme function and suggest that the dimeric structure of URO-D is required to achieve conformational stability and to create a large active-site cleft.

  20. Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA[subscript N] reveals an endonuclease active site

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Puwei; Bartlam, Mark; Lou, Zhiyong; Chen, Shoudeng; Zhou, Ji