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Sample records for active site lysine

  1. MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hua; Rossetto, Dorine; Mellert, Hestia; Dang, Weiwei; Srinivasan, Madhusudan; Johnson, Jamel; Hodawadekar, Santosh; Ding, Emily C; Speicher, Kaye; Abshiru, Nebiyu; Perry, Rocco; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Y George; Speicher, David W; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Johnson, F Bradley; Berger, Shelley L; Sternglanz, Rolf; McMahon, Steven B; Côté, Jacques; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2012-01-04

    The MYST protein lysine acetyltransferases are evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes and acetylate proteins to regulate diverse biological processes including gene regulation, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation, stem cell homeostasis and development. Here, we demonstrate that MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation. The X-ray crystal structures of yeast Esa1 (yEsa1/KAT5) bound to a bisubstrate H4K16CoA inhibitor and human MOF (hMOF/KAT8/MYST1) reveal that they are autoacetylated at a strictly conserved lysine residue in MYST proteins (yEsa1-K262 and hMOF-K274) in the enzyme active site. The structure of hMOF also shows partial occupancy of K274 in the unacetylated form, revealing that the side chain reorients to a position that engages the catalytic glutamate residue and would block cognate protein substrate binding. Consistent with the structural findings, we present mass spectrometry data and biochemical experiments to demonstrate that this lysine autoacetylation on yEsa1, hMOF and its yeast orthologue, ySas2 (KAT8) occurs in solution and is required for acetylation and protein substrate binding in vitro. We also show that this autoacetylation occurs in vivo and is required for the cellular functions of these MYST proteins. These findings provide an avenue for the autoposttranslational regulation of MYST proteins that is distinct from other acetyltransferases but draws similarities to the phosphoregulation of protein kinases.

  2. MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hua; Rossetto, Dorine; Mellert, Hestia; Dang, Weiwei; Srinivasan, Madhusudan; Johnson, Jamel; Hodawadekar, Santosh; Ding, Emily C; Speicher, Kaye; Abshiru, Nebiyu; Perry, Rocco; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Y George; Speicher, David W; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Johnson, F Bradley; Berger, Shelley L; Sternglanz, Rolf; McMahon, Steven B; Côté, Jacques; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2012-01-01

    The MYST protein lysine acetyltransferases are evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes and acetylate proteins to regulate diverse biological processes including gene regulation, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation, stem cell homeostasis and development. Here, we demonstrate that MYST protein acetyltransferase activity requires active site lysine autoacetylation. The X-ray crystal structures of yeast Esa1 (yEsa1/KAT5) bound to a bisubstrate H4K16CoA inhibitor and human MOF (hMOF/KAT8/MYST1) reveal that they are autoacetylated at a strictly conserved lysine residue in MYST proteins (yEsa1-K262 and hMOF-K274) in the enzyme active site. The structure of hMOF also shows partial occupancy of K274 in the unacetylated form, revealing that the side chain reorients to a position that engages the catalytic glutamate residue and would block cognate protein substrate binding. Consistent with the structural findings, we present mass spectrometry data and biochemical experiments to demonstrate that this lysine autoacetylation on yEsa1, hMOF and its yeast orthologue, ySas2 (KAT8) occurs in solution and is required for acetylation and protein substrate binding in vitro. We also show that this autoacetylation occurs in vivo and is required for the cellular functions of these MYST proteins. These findings provide an avenue for the autoposttranslational regulation of MYST proteins that is distinct from other acetyltransferases but draws similarities to the phosphoregulation of protein kinases. PMID:22020126

  3. Distance between two active-site lysines of ribulosebis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.H.; Hartman, F.C.

    1986-05-01

    Previous affinity labeling studies and comparative sequence analyses have identified two different lysines at the active site of the title enzyme (Lys-166 and Lys-329 in the Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme and Lys-175 and Lys-334 in the spinach enzyme). Because the two lysines are mutually exclusive to various reagents, they appear to be in proximity. To challenge this postulate, the authors have explored the reactions of the R. rubrum enzyme (a homodimer) with chemical cross-linking agents. 4,4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonate stilbene, which spans 12 A, rapidly inactivates the enzyme with protection afforded by the competitive inhibitor 2-carboxyribitol-1,5-bisphosphate. The inactivated enzyme was subjected to gel filtration in the presence of urea to remove material arising from intersubunit or intermolecular cross-linking. The monomeric fraction was digested with trypsin; inspection of the digest by HPLC revealed that over-half of the incorporated reagent was associated with a single peptide. This peptide was purified by successive ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The amino acid composition and sequence of the purified peptide demonstrated that it is comprised of two chains, encompassing position 149-168 and 314-337 of the original protein subunit and connected by a cross-link between Lys-166 and Lys-329. Thus, the two active-site lysines can be juxtaposed only 12 A apart.

  4. Structural mechanism of RuBisCO activation by carbamylation of the active site lysine.

    PubMed

    Stec, Boguslaw

    2012-11-13

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is a crucial enzyme in carbon fixation and the most abundant protein on earth. It has been studied extensively by biochemical and structural methods; however, the most essential activation step has not yet been described. Here, we describe the mechanistic details of Lys carbamylation that leads to RuBisCO activation by atmospheric CO(2). We report two crystal structures of nitrosylated RuBisCO from the red algae Galdieria sulphuraria with O(2) and CO(2) bound at the active site. G. sulphuraria RuBisCO is inhibited by cysteine nitrosylation that results in trapping of these gaseous ligands. The structure with CO(2) defines an elusive, preactivation complex that contains a metal cation Mg(2+) surrounded by three H(2)O/OH molecules. Both structures suggest the mechanism for discriminating gaseous ligands by their quadrupole electric moments. We describe conformational changes that allow for intermittent binding of the metal ion required for activation. On the basis of these structures we propose the individual steps of the activation mechanism. Knowledge of all these elements is indispensable for engineering RuBisCO into a more efficient enzyme for crop enhancement or as a remedy to global warming.

  5. MUTATION OF THE ACTIVE SITE CARBOXY-LYSINE (K70) OF OXA-1 β-LACTAMASE RESULTS IN A DEACYLATION-DEFICIENT ENZYME†

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kyle D.; Bethel, Christopher R.; Distler, Anne M.; Hujer, Andrea M.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Leonard, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Class D β-lactamases hydrolyze β-lactam antibiotics by using an active site serine nucleophile to form a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate, and subsequently employ water to deacylate the β-lactam and release product. Class D β-lactamases are carboxylated on the ε-amino group of an active site lysine, with the resulting carbamate functional group serving as a general base. We discovered that substitutions of the active site serine and lysine in OXA-1 β-lactamase, a monomeric class D enzyme, significantly disrupt catalytic turnover. Substitution of glycine for the nucleophilic serine (S67G) results in an enzyme that can still bind substrate but is unable to form a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. Substitution of the carboxylated lysine (K70), on the other hand, results in enzyme that can be acylated by substrate, but is impaired for deacylation. We employed the fluorescent penicillin BOCILLIN FL™ to show that three different substitutions for K70 (alanine, aspartate and glutamate) accumulate significant acyl-enzyme intermediate. Interestingly, BOCILLIN FL™ deacylation rates vary depending on the identity of the substituting residue, from t1/2 ≈ 60 min for K70A to undetectable deacylation for K70D. Tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy was used to confirm that these results are applicable to natural (i.e. non-fluorescent) substrates. Deacylation by K70A, but not K70D or K70E, can be partially restored by the addition of short-chain carboxylic acid mimetics of the lysine carbamate. In conclusion, we establish the functional role of the carboxylated lysine in OXA-1 and highlight its specific role in acylation and deacylation. PMID:19485421

  6. Druggability of methyl-lysine binding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, C.; Nguyen, K.; Schapira, M.

    2011-12-01

    Structural modules that specifically recognize—or read—methylated or acetylated lysine residues on histone peptides are important components of chromatin-mediated signaling and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms is associated with disease conditions, and antagonists of acetyl-lysine binding bromodomains are efficacious in animal models of cancer and inflammation, but little is known regarding the druggability of methyl-lysine binding modules. We conducted a systematic structural analysis of readers of methyl marks and derived a predictive druggability landscape of methyl-lysine binding modules. We show that these target classes are generally less druggable than bromodomains, but that some proteins stand as notable exceptions.

  7. Identification and characterization of lysine-methylated sites on histones and non-histone proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzong-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Lu, Cheng-Tzung; Cheng, Tzu-Hsiu; Chang, Tzu-Hao

    2014-06-01

    Protein methylation is a kind of post-translational modification (PTM), and typically takes place on lysine and arginine amino acid residues. Protein methylation is involved in many important biological processes, and most recent studies focused on lysine methylation of histones due to its critical roles in regulating transcriptional repression and activation. Histones possess highly conserved sequences and are homologous in most species. However, there is much less sequence conservation among non-histone proteins. Therefore, mechanisms for identifying lysine-methylated sites may greatly differ between histones and non-histone proteins. Nevertheless, this point of view was not considered in previous studies. Here we constructed two support vector machine (SVM) models by using lysine-methylated data from histones and non-histone proteins for predictions of lysine-methylated sites. Numerous features, such as the amino acid composition (AAC) and accessible surface area (ASA), were used in the SVM models, and the predictive performance was evaluated using five-fold cross-validations. For histones, the predictive sensitivity was 85.62% and specificity was 80.32%. For non-histone proteins, the predictive sensitivity was 69.1% and specificity was 88.72%. Results showed that our model significantly improved the predictive accuracy of histones compared to previous approaches. In addition, features of the flanking region of lysine-methylated sites on histones and non-histone proteins were also characterized and are discussed. A gene ontology functional analysis of lysine-methylated proteins and correlations of lysine-methylated sites with other PTMs in histones were also analyzed in detail. Finally, a web server, MethyK, was constructed to identify lysine-methylated sites. MethK now is available at http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/MethK/.

  8. The Different Inhibition Mechanisms of OXA-1 and OXA-24 β-Lactamases Are Determined by the Stability of Active Site Carboxylated Lysine*

    PubMed Central

    Che, Tao; Bethel, Christopher R.; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Bonomo, Robert A.; Carey, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic efficiency of class D β-lactamases depends critically on an unusual carboxylated lysine as the general base residue for both the acylation and deacylation steps of the enzyme. Microbiological and biochemical studies on the class D β-lactamases OXA-1 and OXA-24 showed that the two enzymes behave differently when reacting with two 6-methylidene penems (penem 1 and penem 3): the penems are good inhibitors of OXA-1 but act more like substrates for OXA-24. UV difference and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the respective reaction mechanisms are different. The penems form an unusual intermediate, a 1,4-thiazepine derivative in OXA-1, and undergo deacylation followed by the decarboxylation of Lys-70, rendering OXA-1 inactive. This inactivation could not be reversed by the addition of 100 mm NaHCO3. In OXA-24, under mild conditions (enzyme:inhibitor = 1:4), only hydrolyzed products were detected, and the enzyme remained active. However, under harsh conditions (enzyme:inhibitor = 1:2000), OXA-24 was inhibited via decarboxylation of Lys-84; however, the enzyme could be reactivated by the addition of 100 mm NaHCO3. We conclude that OXA-24 not only decarboxylates with difficulty but also recarboxylates with ease; in contrast, OXA-1 decarboxylates easily but recarboxylates with difficulty. Structural analysis of the active site indicates that a crystallographic water molecule may play an important role in carboxylation in OXA-24 (an analogous water molecule is not found in OXA-1), supporting the suggestion that a water molecule in the active site of OXA-24 can lower the energy barrier for carboxylation significantly. PMID:24443569

  9. Lysine-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) modified polyurethane surface with high lysine density and fibrinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Chen, Hong; Wang, Shasha; Wu, Zhaoqiang; Brash, John L

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a potentially fibrinolytic surface in which a bioinert polymer is used as a spacer to immobilize lysine such that the ε-amino group is free to capture plasminogen when in contact with blood. Adsorbed plasminogen can be activated to plasmin and potentially dissolve nascent clots formed on the surface. In previous work lysine was immobilized through a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer; however, the graft density of PEG was limited and the resulting adsorbed quantity of plasminogen was insufficient to dissolve clots efficiently. The aim of the present work was to optimize the surface using graft-polymerized poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly(HEMA)) as a spacer to increase the grafting density of lysine. Such a poly(HEMA)-lysine modified polyurethane (PU) surface is expected to have increased plasminogen binding capacity and clot lysing efficiency compared with PEG-lysine modified PU. A lysine density of 2.81 nmol cm(-2) was measured on the PU-poly(HEMA)-Lys surface vs. 0.76 nmol cm(-2) on a comparable PU-PEG-Lys surface reported previously. The poly(HEMA)-lysine-modified surface was shown to reduce non-specific (fibrinogen) adsorption while binding plasminogen from plasma with high affinity. With increased plasminogen binding capacity these surfaces showed more rapid clot lysis (20 min) in a standard in vitro assay than the corresponding PEG-lysine system (40 min). The data suggest that poly(HEMA) is superior to PEG when used as a spacer in the immobilization of bioactive molecules at high density. This method of modification may also provide a generic approach for preparing bioactive PU surfaces of high activity and low non-specific adsorption of proteins.

  10. Characterization and Prediction of Lysine (K)-Acetyl-Transferase Specific Acetylation Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Du, Yipeng; Wang, Likun; Huang, Lei; Li, Wenlin; Lu, Ming; Zhang, Xuegong; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a well-studied post-translational modification on both histone and nonhistone proteins. More than 2000 acetylated proteins and 4000 lysine acetylation sites have been identified by large scale mass spectrometry or traditional experimental methods. Although over 20 lysine (K)-acetyl-transferases (KATs) have been characterized, which KAT is responsible for a given protein or lysine site acetylation is mostly unknown. In this work, we collected KAT-specific acetylation sites manually and analyzed sequence features surrounding the acetylated lysine of substrates from three main KAT families (CBP/p300, GCN5/PCAF, and the MYST family). We found that each of the three KAT families acetylates lysines with different sequence features. Based on these differences, we developed a computer program, Acetylation Set Enrichment Based method to predict which KAT-families are responsible for acetylation of a given protein or lysine site. Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of our method, and experimentally detected four proteins that were predicted to be acetylated by two KAT families when one representative member of the KAT family is over expressed. We conclude that our approach, combined with more traditional experimental methods, may be useful for identifying KAT families responsible for acetylated substrates proteome-wide. PMID:21964354

  11. [L-lysine-alpha-oxidase activity of some Trichoderma species].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, I P; Khaduev, S Kh

    1984-01-01

    Trichoderma cultures were tested for their ability to produce L-lysine-alpha-oxidase. The highest enzyme activity was manifested by T. harzianum (MGU), T. longibrachiatum Rifai VKM F-2025 and T. aureoviride Rifai VKM F-2026. The biosynthesis of the enzyme did not depend on the growth of the cultures and did not vary among the species.

  12. A noncanonical function of sortase enables site-specific conjugation of small molecules to lysine residues in proteins.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Joseph J; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2015-01-07

    We provide the first demonstration that isopeptide ligation, a noncanonical activity of the enzyme sortase A, can be used to modify recombinant proteins. This reaction was used in vitro to conjugate small molecules to a peptide, an engineered targeting protein, and a full-length monoclonal antibody with an exquisite level of control over the site of conjugation. Attachment to the protein substrate occurred exclusively through isopeptide bonds at a lysine ε-amino group within a specific amino acid sequence. This reaction allows more than one molecule to be site-specifically conjugated to a protein at internal sites, thereby overcoming significant limitations of the canonical native peptide ligation reaction catalyzed by sortase A. Our method provides a unique chemical ligation procedure that is orthogonal to existing methods, supplying a new method to site-specifically modify lysine residues that will be a valuable addition to the protein conjugation toolbox.

  13. Extended amino acid sequences around the active-site lysine residue of class-I fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases from rabbit muscle, sturgeon muscle, trout muscle and ox liver.

    PubMed Central

    Benfield, P A; Forcina, B G; Gibbons, I; Perham, R N

    1979-01-01

    1. Amino acid sequences covering the region between residues 173 and 248 [adopting the numbering system proposed by Lai, Nakai & Chang (1974) Science 183, 1204-1206] were derived for trout (Salmo trutta) muscle aldolase and for ox liver aldolase. A comparable sequence was derived for residues 180-248 of sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) muscle aldolase. The close homology with the rabbit muscle enzyme was used to align the peptides of the other aldolases from which the sequences were derived. The results also allowed a partial sequence for the N-terminal 39 residues for the ox liver enzyme to be deduced. 2. In the light of the strong homology evinced for these enzymes, a re-investigation of the amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle aldolase between residues 181 and 185 was undertaken. This indicated the presence of a hitherto unsuspected -Ile-Val-sequence between residues 181 and 182 and the need to invert the sequence -Glu-Val- to -Val-Glx- at positions 184 and 185. 3. Comparison of the available amino acid sequences of these enzymes suggested an early evolutionary divergence of the genes for muscle and liver aldolases. It was also consistent with other evidence that the central region of the primary structure of these enzymes (which includes the active-site lysine-227) forms part of a conserved folding domain in the protein subunit. 4. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequences proposed has been deposited as Suy Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1978) 169, 5. PMID:534504

  14. Improved Species-Specific Lysine Acetylation Site Prediction Based on a Large Variety of Features Set

    PubMed Central

    Wuyun, Qiqige; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yanping; Ruan, Jishou; Hu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification. It plays a vital role in numerous essential biological processes, such as gene expression and metabolism, and is related to some human diseases. To fully understand the regulatory mechanism of acetylation, identification of acetylation sites is first and most important. However, experimental identification of protein acetylation sites is often time consuming and expensive. Therefore, the alternative computational methods are necessary. Here, we developed a novel tool, KA-predictor, to predict species-specific lysine acetylation sites based on support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We incorporated different types of features and employed an efficient feature selection on each type to form the final optimal feature set for model learning. And our predictor was highly competitive for the majority of species when compared with other methods. Feature contribution analysis indicated that HSE features, which were firstly introduced for lysine acetylation prediction, significantly improved the predictive performance. Particularly, we constructed a high-accurate structure dataset of H.sapiens from PDB to analyze the structural properties around lysine acetylation sites. Our datasets and a user-friendly local tool of KA-predictor can be freely available at http://sourceforge.net/p/ka-predictor. PMID:27183223

  15. Ubiquitination of Lysine 867 of the Human SETDB1 Protein Upregulates Its Histone H3 Lysine 9 (H3K9) Methyltransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, Kenji; Kawamata, Natsuko; Uchihara, Yoshie; Okubo, Moeka; Fujimoto, Reiko; Gotoh, Eiko; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Mizohata, Eiichi; Hino, Nobumasa; Okada, Yoshiaki; Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Tachibana, Keisuke; Doi, Takefumi

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins play a crucial role in regulating protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity, subcellular localization, and stability of the protein. SET domain, bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) is a histone methyltransferase that regulates the methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9), gene silencing, and transcriptional repression. The C-terminal region of SETDB1 is a key site for PTMs, and is essential for its enzyme activity in mammalian and insect cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate more precisely the effect of PTMs on the H3K9 methyltransferase activity of SETDB1. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the C-terminal region of human SETDB1 purified from insect cells is ubiquitinated. We also demonstrate that the ubiquitination of lysine 867 of the human SETDB1 is necessary for full H3K9 methyltransferase activity in mammalian cells. Finally, we show that SETDB1 ubiquitination regulates the expression of its target gene, serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 1 (SERPINE1) by methylating H3K9. These results suggest that the ubiquitination of SETDB1 at lysine 867 controls the expression of its target gene by activating its H3K9 methyltransferase activity. PMID:27798683

  16. Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation marks meiotic recombination initiation sites.

    PubMed

    Borde, Valérie; Robine, Nicolas; Lin, Waka; Bonfils, Sandrine; Géli, Vincent; Nicolas, Alain

    2009-01-21

    The function of histone modifications in initiating and regulating the chromosomal events of the meiotic prophase remains poorly understood. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we examined the genome-wide localization of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) along meiosis and its relationship to gene expression and position of the programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate interhomologue recombination, essential to yield viable haploid gametes. We find that the level of H3K4me3 is constitutively higher close to DSB sites, independently of local gene expression levels. Without Set1, the H3K4 methylase, 84% of the DSB sites exhibit a severely reduced DSB frequency, the reduction being quantitatively correlated with the local level of H3K4me3 in wild-type cells. Further, we show that this differential histone mark is already established in vegetative cells, being higher in DSB-prone regions than in regions with no or little DSB. Taken together, our results demonstrate that H3K4me3 is a prominent and preexisting mark of active meiotic recombination initiation sites. Novel perspectives to dissect the various layers of the controls of meiotic DSB formation are discussed.

  17. Lysine methylation represses p53 activity in teratocarcinoma cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiajun; Dou, Zhixun; Sammons, Morgan A.; Levine, Arnold J.; Berger, Shelley L.

    2016-01-01

    TP53 (which encodes the p53 protein) is the most frequently mutated gene among all human cancers, whereas tumors that retain the wild-type TP53 gene often use alternative mechanisms to repress the p53 tumor-suppressive function. Testicular teratocarcinoma cells rarely contain mutations in TP53, yet the transcriptional activity of wild-type p53 is compromised, despite its high expression level. Here we report that in the teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2, p53 is subject to lysine methylation at its carboxyl terminus, which has been shown to repress p53’s transcriptional activity. We show that reduction of the cognate methyltransferases reactivates p53 and promotes differentiation of the NTera2 cells. Furthermore, reconstitution of methylation-deficient p53 mutants into p53-depleted NTera2 cells results in elevated expression of p53 downstream targets and precocious loss of pluripotent gene expression compared with re-expression of wild-type p53. Our results provide evidence that lysine methylation of endogenous wild-type p53 represses its activity in cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic possibilities of targeting testicular teratocarcinoma. PMID:27535933

  18. Effect of lysine to alanine mutations on the phosphate activation and BPTES inhibition of glutaminase.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Charles J; Acheff, Eric; Kennedy, Ryan; Taylor, Lynn; Curthoys, Norman P

    2015-09-01

    The GLS1 gene encodes a mitochondrial glutaminase that is highly expressed in brain, kidney, small intestine and many transformed cells. Recent studies have identified multiple lysine residues in glutaminase that are sites of N-acetylation. Interestingly, these sites are located within either a loop segment that regulates access of glutamine to the active site or the dimer:dimer interface that participates in the phosphate-dependent oligomerization and activation of the enzyme. These two segments also contain the binding sites for bis-2[5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]ethylsulfide (BPTES), a highly specific and potent uncompetitive inhibitor of this glutaminase. BPTES is also the lead compound for development of novel cancer chemotherapeutic agents. To provide a preliminary assessment of the potential effects of N-acetylation, the corresponding lysine to alanine mutations were constructed in the hGACΔ1 plasmid. The wild type and mutated proteins were purified by Ni(+)-affinity chromatography and their phosphate activation and BPTES inhibition profiles were analyzed. Two of the alanine substitutions in the loop segment (K311A and K328A) and the one in the dimer:dimer interface (K396A) form enzymes that require greater concentrations of phosphate to produce half-maximal activation and exhibit greater sensitivity to BPTES inhibition. By contrast, the K320A mutation results in a glutaminase that exhibits near maximal activity in the absence of phosphate and is not inhibited by BPTES. Thus, lysine N-acetylation may contribute to the acute regulation of glutaminase activity in various tissues and alter the efficacy of BPTES-type inhibitors.

  19. Mapping of anion binding sites on cytochrome c by differential chemical modification of lysine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Osheroff, N; Brautigan, D L; Margoliash, E

    1980-01-01

    The carbonate binding site on horse cytochrome c was mapped by comparing the yields of carboxydinitrophenyl-cytochromes c, each with a single carboxydinitrophenyl-substituted lysine residue per molecule, when the modification reaction was carried out in the presence and absence of carbonate. The site is located on the "left surface" of the protein and consists of lysine residues 72 and/or 73 as well as 86 and/or 87 (Carbonate Site). Although one of the binding sites for phosphate on cytochrome c (Phosphat Site I) is located near the carbonate site, the sites are distinctly different since carbonate does not displace bound phosphate, as monitored by 31P NMR. Furthermore, citrate interacts with Phosphate Site I with high affinity, whereas chloride, acetate, borate, and cacodylate have a much lower affinity for this site, if they bind to it at all. The affinity of phosphate for Phosphate Site I (KD = 2 X 10(-4) M) is at least 1 order of magnitude higher than it is for other sites of interaction. Images PMID:6254024

  20. Mutation of aspartic acid-351, lysine-352, and lysine-515 alters the Ca2+ transport activity of the Ca2+-ATPase expressed in COS-1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, K; MacLennan, D H

    1988-01-01

    Full-length cDNAs encoding neonatal and adult isoforms of the Ca2+-ATPase of rabbit fast-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum were expressed transiently in COS-1 cells. The microsomal fraction isolated from transfected COS-1 cells contained immunoreactive Ca2+-ATPase and catalyzed Ca2+ transport at rates at least 15-fold above controls. No differences were observed in either the rates or Ca2+ dependency of Ca2+ transport catalyzed by the two isoforms. Aspartic acid-351, the site of formation of the catalytic acyl phosphate in the enzyme, was mutated to asparagine, glutamic acid, serine, threonine, histidine, or alanine. In every case, Ca2+ transport activity and Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation were eliminated. Ca2+ transport was also eliminated by mutation of lysine-352 to arginine, glutamine, or glutamic acid or by mutation of Asp351-Lys352 to Lys351-Asp352. Mutation of lysine-515, the site of fluorescein isothiocyanate modification in the enzyme, resulted in diminished Ca2+ transport activity as follows: arginine, 60%; glutamine, 25%; glutamic acid, 5%. These results demonstrate the absolute requirement of acylphosphate formation for the Ca2+ transport function and define a residue important for ATP binding. They also demonstrate the feasibility of a thorough analysis of active sites in the Ca2+-ATPase by expression and site-specific mutagenesis. Images PMID:2966962

  1. Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 has Dual Functions as a Major Regulator of Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Changmeng; He, Housheng Hansen; Gao, Shuai; Chen, Sen; Yu, Ziyang; Gao, Yanfei; Chen, Shaoyong; Chen, Mei Wei; Zhang, Jesse; Ahmed, Musaddeque; Wang, Yang; Metzger, Eric; Schüle, Roland; Liu, X. Shirley; Brown, Myles; Balk, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1, KDM1A) functions as a transcriptional corepressor through demethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4), but has coactivator function on some genes through unclear mechanisms. We show that LSD1, interacting with CoREST, associates with and coactivates androgen receptor (AR) on a large fraction of androgen-stimulated genes. A subset of these AR/LSD1-associated enhancer sites have histone 3 threonine 6 phosphorylation (H3T6ph), and these sites are further enriched for androgen-stimulated genes. Significantly, despite its coactivator activity, LSD1 still mediates H3K4me2 demethylation at these androgen-stimulated enhancers. FOXA1 is also associated with LSD1 at AR regulated enhancer sites, and a FOXA1 interaction with LSD1 enhances binding of both proteins at these sites. These findings show LSD1 functions broadly as a regulator of AR function, that it maintains a transcriptional repression function at AR-regulated enhancers through H3K4 demethylation, and has a distinct AR-linked coactivator function mediated by demethylation of other substrates. PMID:25482560

  2. Oxidation of apolipoprotein(a) inhibits kringle-associated lysine binding: the loss of intrinsic protein fluorescence suggests a role for tryptophan residues in the lysine binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, A.; Laws, W. R.; Harpel, P. C.

    1997-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a low-density lipoprotein complex consisting of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] disulfide-linked to apolipoprotein B-100. Lp(a) has been implicated in atherogenesis and thrombosis through the lysine binding site (LBS) affinity of its kringle domains. We have examined the oxidative effect of 2,2'-azobis-(amidinopropane) HCl (AAPH), a mild hydrophilic free radical initiator, upon the ability of Lp(a) and recombinant apo(a), r-apo(a), to bind through their LBS domains. AAPH treatment caused a time-dependent decrease in the number of functional Lp(a) or r-apo(a) molecules capable of binding to fibrin or lysine-Sepharose and in the intrinsic protein fluorescence of both Lp(a) and r-apo(a). The presence of a lysine analogue during the reaction prevented the loss of lysine binding and provided a partial protection from the loss of tryptophan fluorescence. The partial protection of fluorescence by lysine analogues was observed in other kringle-containing proteins, but not in proteins lacking kringles. No significant aggregation, fragmentation, or change in conformation of Lp(a) or r-apo(a) was observed as assessed by native or SDS-PAGE, light scattering, retention of antigenicity, and protein fluorescence emission spectra. Our results suggest that AAPH destroys amino acids in the kringles of apo(a) that are essential for lysine binding, including one or more tryptophan residues. The present study, therefore, raises the possibility that the biological roles of Lp(a) may be mediated by its state of oxidation, especially in light of our previous study showing that the reductive properties of sulfhydryl-containing compounds increase the LBS affinity of Lp(a) for fibrin. PMID:9385634

  3. Biologically active macromolecular forms of oxytocin. [8-Lysine]oxytocin as a suitable ligand.

    PubMed Central

    Snell, C R; Smyth, D G

    1977-01-01

    [8-Lysine]oxytocin was synthesized on a solid support and possessed an oxytocic activity of 100 +/- 6 units mumol on the isolated rat uterus. The epsilon-carbamoyl, epsilon-3-carboxypropionyl and epsilon-3-carboxybutryl derivatives were prepared and had uterotonic activities of 400, 55 and 50 units/mumol respectively. [8-Lysine]oxytocin was coupled unambiguously through the epsilon-amino group to the carboxyl groups of carboxymethylated dextrans or epsilon-3-carboxypropionly-gelatin. The macromolecular oxytocins were water-soluble and retained signigicant oxytocic activity. [8-Lysine]oxytocin should prove a useful ligand for affinity chromatography of oxytocin-binding proteins. PMID:889573

  4. Expression and purification of histone H3 proteins containing multiple sites of lysine acetylation using nonsense suppression.

    PubMed

    Young, Isaac A; Mittal, Chitvan; Shogren-Knaak, Michael A

    2016-02-01

    Lysine acetylation is a common post-translational modification, which is especially prevalent in histone proteins in chromatin. A number of strategies exist for generating histone proteins containing lysine acetylation, but an especially attractive approach is to genetically encode acetyl-lysine residues using nonsense suppression. This strategy has been successfully applied to single sites of histone acetylation. However, because histone acetylation can often occur at multiple sites simultaneously, we were interested in determining whether this approach could be extended. Here we show that we can express histone H3 proteins that incorporate up to four sites of lysine acetylation on the histone tail. Because the amount of expressed multi-acetylated histone is reduced relative to the wild type, a purification strategy involving affinity purification and ion exchange chromatography was optimized. This expression and purification strategy ultimately generates H3 histone uniformly acetylated at the desired position at levels and purity sufficient to assemble histone octamers. Histone octamers containing four sites of lysine acetylation were assembled into mononucleosomes and enzymatic assays confirmed that this acetylation largely blocks further acetylation by the yeast SAGA acetyltransferase complex.

  5. Stoichiometry of site-specific lysine acetylation in an entire proteome.

    PubMed

    Baeza, Josue; Dowell, James A; Smallegan, Michael J; Fan, Jing; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Khan, Zia; Denu, John M

    2014-08-01

    Acetylation of lysine ϵ-amino groups influences many cellular processes and has been mapped to thousands of sites across many organisms. Stoichiometric information of acetylation is essential to accurately interpret biological significance. Here, we developed and employed a novel method for directly quantifying stoichiometry of site-specific acetylation in the entire proteome of Escherichia coli. By coupling isotopic labeling and a novel pairing algorithm, our approach performs an in silico enrichment of acetyl peptides, circumventing the need for immunoenrichment. We investigated the function of the sole NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, CobB, on both site-specific and global acetylation. We quantified 2206 peptides from 899 proteins and observed a wide distribution of acetyl stoichiometry, ranging from less than 1% up to 98%. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that metabolic enzymes, which either utilize or generate acetyl-CoA, and proteins involved in transcriptional and translational processes displayed the highest degree of acetylation. Loss of CobB led to increased global acetylation at low stoichiometry sites and induced site-specific changes at high stoichiometry sites, and biochemical analysis revealed altered acetyl-CoA metabolism. Thus, this study demonstrates that sirtuin deacetylase deficiency leads to both site-specific and global changes in protein acetylation stoichiometry, affecting central metabolism.

  6. Identification of a cell-active non-peptide sirtuin inhibitor containing N-thioacetyl lysine.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takayoshi; Asaba, Tomomi; Imai, Erika; Tsumoto, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Miyata, Naoki

    2009-10-01

    To identify cell-active sirtuin inhibitors containing N-thioacetyl lysine, we synthesized compound 1, which was designed based on the structure of the reported N-ethoxycarbonylacetyl lysine-based sirtuin inhibitor NCS-12k. Compound 1 selectively inhibited SIRT1 in enzyme assays. Compound 1 also caused a dose-dependent increase in p53 acetylation in human colon cancer HCT116 cells, indicating the inhibition of SIRT1 in these cells.

  7. Identification of lysine-acetylated mitochondrial proteins and their acetylation sites.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Markus; König, Ann-Christine; Finkemeier, Iris

    2015-01-01

    The (ε)N-acetylation of lysine side chains is a highly conserved posttranslational modification of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins. Lysine acetylation not only occurs on histones in the nucleus but also on many mitochondrial proteins in plants and animals. As the transfer of the acetyl group to lysine eliminates its positive charge, lysine acetylation can affect the biological function of proteins. This chapter describes two methods for the identification of lysine-acetylated proteins in plant mitochondria using an anti-acetyllysine antibody. We describe the Western blot analysis of a two-dimensional blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an anti-acetyllysine antibody as well as the immuno-enrichment of lysine-acetylated peptides followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry data acquisition and analysis.

  8. SMYD3-mediated lysine methylation in the PH domain is critical for activation of AKT1

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Takehiro; Matsuo, Yo; Nakakido, Makoto; Tsurita, Giichiro; Simone, Cristiano; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    AKT1 is a cytosolic serine/threonine kinase that is overexpressed in various types of cancer and has a central role in human tumorigenesis. Although it is known that AKT1 is post-translationally modified in various ways including phosphorylation and ubiquitination, methylation has not been reported so far. Here we demonstrate that the protein lysine methyltransferase SMYD3 methylates lysine 14 in the PH domain of AKT1 both in vitro and in vivo. Lysine 14-substituted AKT1 shows significantly lower levels of phosphorylation at threonine 308 than wild-type AKT1, and knockdown of SMYD3 as well as treatment with a SMYD3 inhibitor significantly attenuates this phosphorylation in cancer cells. Furthermore, substitution of lysine 14 diminishes the plasma membrane accumulation of AKT1, and cancer cells overexpressing lysine 14-substiuted AKT1 shows lower growth rate than those overexpressing wild-type AKT1. These results imply that SMYD3-mediated methylation of AKT1 at lysine 14 is essential for AKT1 activation and that SMYD3-mediated AKT1 methylation appears to be a good target for development of anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27626683

  9. CPLM: a database of protein lysine modifications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zexian; Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Tianshun; Pan, Zhicheng; Cheng, Han; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Zhongyi; Guo, Anyuan; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We reported an integrated database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Modifications (CPLM; http://cplm.biocuckoo.org) for protein lysine modifications (PLMs), which occur at active ε-amino groups of specific lysine residues in proteins and are critical for orchestrating various biological processes. The CPLM database was updated from our previously developed database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Acetylation (CPLA), which contained 7151 lysine acetylation sites in 3311 proteins. Here, we manually collected experimentally identified substrates and sites for 12 types of PLMs, including acetylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, methylation, butyrylation, crotonylation, glycation, malonylation, phosphoglycerylation, propionylation, succinylation and pupylation. In total, the CPLM database contained 203 972 modification events on 189 919 modified lysines in 45 748 proteins for 122 species. With the dataset, we totally identified 76 types of co-occurrences of various PLMs on the same lysine residues, and the most abundant PLM crosstalk is between acetylation and ubiquitination. Up to 53.5% of acetylation and 33.1% of ubiquitination events co-occur at 10 746 lysine sites. Thus, the various PLM crosstalks suggested that a considerable proportion of lysines were competitively and dynamically regulated in a complicated manner. Taken together, the CPLM database can serve as a useful resource for further research of PLMs. PMID:24214993

  10. Identification, expression and antibacterial activities of an antimicrobial peptide NK-lysin from a marine fish Larimichthys crocea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi-Jia; Wang, Jun; Liu, Min; Qiao, Ying; Hong, Wan-Shu; Su, Yong-Quan; Han, Kun-Huang; Ke, Qiao-Zhen; Zheng, Wei-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    As fundamental immunologic mechanism, the innate immunity system is more important than the specific immunity system in teleost fishes during pathogens infection. Antimicrobial peptides are integral parts of the innate immune system, and play significant roles against pathogens infection. NK-lysin, the compounds of the natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, are potent and effective antimicrobial peptides widely distributed in animals. In this study, we reported the sequence characteristics, expression profiles and antibacterial activities of a NK-lysin gene (Lc-NK-lysin) from a commercially important marine fish, the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The open reading frame of Lc-NK-lysin cDNA sequence was 447 bp in length, coding 148 amino acids. The genomic DNA of Lc-NK-lysin has the common features of NK-lysin family, consisting of five exons and four introns, and in its deduced mature peptide, there are six well-conserved cysteine residues and a Saposin B domain. Lc-NK-lysin was expressed in all tested tissues (skin, muscle, gill, brain, head kidney, heart, liver, spleen, stomach and intestine) with different expression patterns. In pathogens infection the expression profiles of Lc-NK-lysin varied significantly in gill, head kidney, spleen and liver, indicating its role in immune response. Two peptides (Lc-NK-lysin-1 and Lc-NK-lysin-2) divided from the core region of the Lc-NK-lysin mature polypeptide were chemically synthesized and their antibacterial activities were examined; the potential function on the inhibition of bacteria propagation was revealed. Our results suggested that Lc-NK-lysin is a typical member of the NK-lysin family and as an immune-related gene it involves in the immune response when pathogens invasion.

  11. Characteristics and antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products from psicose-lysine and fructose-lysine model systems.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Guan, Yuping; Sun, Yuanxia

    2011-04-01

    D-Psicose, an epimer of D-fructose isomerized at C-3 position, is a rare ketohexose that is thought to be beneficial for obese people and diabetic patients as a noncaloric sweetener. In the present study, model Maillard reaction products were obtained from D-psicose (or D-fructose) and L-lysine heating at 120 °C up to 8 h with the initial pH 9.0. The changes in pH, UV-vis absorbance, and free amino groups during the reaction were detected. Moreover, the antioxidant potential of the Maillard reaction products at different intervals was investigated. Although there was almost no difference in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity, the Maillard reaction products from psicose performed better than that from fructose in the radical-scavenging activity of 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and 1, 1,-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl. The reducing power of the Maillard reaction products from psicose was also stronger than that from fructose. These results indicated that psicose played an effective role in the Maillard reaction and its Maillard reaction products could act as potential antioxidants in food industry.

  12. Acetyl-lysine Binding Site of Bromodomain-Containing Protein 4 (BRD4) Interacts with Diverse Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Members of the bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) family of proteins are essential for the recognition of acetylated lysine (KAc) residues in histones and have emerged as promising drug targets in cancer, inflammation, and contraception research. In co-crystallization screening campaigns using the first bromodomain of BRD4 (BRD4-1) against kinase inhibitor libraries, we identified and characterized 14 kinase inhibitors (10 distinct chemical scaffolds) as ligands of the KAc binding site. Among these, the PLK1 inhibitor BI2536 and the JAK2 inhibitor TG101209 displayed strongest inhibitory potential against BRD4 (IC50 = 25 nM and 130 nM, respectively) and high selectivity for BET bromodomains. Comparative structural analysis revealed markedly different binding modes of kinase hinge-binding scaffolds in the KAc binding site, suggesting that BET proteins are potential off-targets of diverse kinase inhibitors. Combined, these findings provide a new structural framework for the rational design of next-generation BET-selective and dual-activity BET-kinase inhibitors. PMID:24568369

  13. H3 Lysine 4 Is Acetylated at Active Gene Promoters and Is Regulated by H3 Lysine 4 Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Guillemette, Benoit; Drogaris, Paul; Lin, Hsiu-Hsu Sophia; Armstrong, Harry; Hiragami-Hamada, Kyoko; Imhof, Axel; Bonneil, Éric; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Festenstein, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me) is an evolutionarily conserved modification whose role in the regulation of gene expression has been extensively studied. In contrast, the function of H3K4 acetylation (H3K4ac) has received little attention because of a lack of tools to separate its function from that of H3K4me. Here we show that, in addition to being methylated, H3K4 is also acetylated in budding yeast. Genetic studies reveal that the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) Gcn5 and Rtt109 contribute to H3K4 acetylation in vivo. Whilst removal of H3K4ac from euchromatin mainly requires the histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hst1, Sir2 is needed for H3K4 deacetylation in heterochomatin. Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we show that H3K4ac is enriched at promoters of actively transcribed genes and located just upstream of H3K4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3), a pattern that has been conserved in human cells. We find that the Set1-containing complex (COMPASS), which promotes H3K4me2 and -me3, also serves to limit the abundance of H3K4ac at gene promoters. In addition, we identify a group of genes that have high levels of H3K4ac in their promoters and are inadequately expressed in H3-K4R, but not in set1Δ mutant strains, suggesting that H3K4ac plays a positive role in transcription. Our results reveal a novel regulatory feature of promoter-proximal chromatin, involving mutually exclusive histone modifications of the same histone residue (H3K4ac and H3K4me). PMID:21483810

  14. Multifunctional oligomer incorporation: a potent strategy to enhance the transfection activity of poly(l-lysine).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Yang, Jixiang; Ren, Hongqi; O'Keeffe-Ahern, Jonathan; Zhou, Dezhong; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Jiatong; Guo, Tianying

    2016-03-01

    Natural polycations, such as poly(l-lysine) (PLL) and chitosan (CS), have inherent superiority as non-viral vectors due to their unparalleled biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, the application was constrained by poor transfection efficiency and safety concerns. Since previous modification strategies greatly weakened the inherent advantages of natural polycations, developing a strategy for functional group introduction with broad applicability to enhance the transfection efficiency of natural polycations without compromising their cationic properties is imperative. Herein, two uncharged functional diblock oligomers P(DMAEL-b-NIPAM) and P(DMAEL-b-Vlm) were prepared from a lactose derivative, N-iso-propyl acrylamide (NIPAM) as well as 1-vinylimidazole (Vlm) and further functionalized with four small ligands folate, glutathione, cysteine and arginine, respectively, aiming to enhance the interactions of complexes with cells, which were quantified utilizing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor, circumventing the tedious material screening process of cell transfection. Upon incorporation with PLL and DNA, the multifunctional oligomers endow the formulated ternary complexes with great properties suitable for transfection, such as anti-aggregation in serum, destabilized endosome membrane, numerous functional sites for promoted endocytosis and therefore robust transfection activity. Furthermore, different from the conventional strategy of decreasing cytotoxicity by reducing the charge density, the multifunctional oligomer incorporation strategy maintains the highly positive charge density, which is essential for efficient cellular uptake. This system develops a new platform to modify natural polycations towards clinical gene therapy.

  15. Role of lysine and acidic amino acid residues on the insecticidal activity of Jackbean urease.

    PubMed

    Real-Guerra, Rafael; Carlini, Célia Regina; Stanisçuaski, Fernanda

    2013-09-01

    Canavalia ensiformis has three isoforms of urease: Jackbean urease (JBU), Jackbean urease II and canatoxin. These isoforms present several biological activities, independent from the enzymatic property, such as entomotoxicity and antifungal properties. The entomotoxic activity is a property of the whole protein, as well as of a 10 kDa peptide released by insect digestive enzymes. Here we have used chemical modification to observe the influence of lysines and acidic residues on JBU enzymatic and insecticidal activities. Chemical modification of lysine residues was performed with dimethylamine-borane complex and formaldehyde, and acidic residues were modified by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and ethylenediamine. Derivatized ureases, called JBU-Lys (lysine-modified) and JBU-Ac (acidic residues-modified), were assayed for their biochemical and insecticidal properties. Neither modification altered significantly the kinetic parameters analyzed, indicating that no residue critical for the enzyme activity was affected and that the modifications did not incur in any significant structural alteration. On the other hand, both modifications reduced the toxic activity of the native protein fed to Dysdercus peruvianus. The changes observed in the entomotoxic property of the derivatized proteins reflect alterations in different steps of JBU's toxicity towards insects. JBU-Ac is not susceptible to hydrolysis by insect digestive enzymes, hence impairing the release of toxic peptide(s), while JBU-Lys is processed as the native protein. On the other hand, the antidiuretic effect of JBU on Rhodnius prolixus is altered in JBU-Lys, but not in JBU-Ac. Altogether, these data emphasize the role of lysine and acidic residues on the insecticidal properties of ureases.

  16. Structure activity relationship and modeling studies of inhibitors of lysine specific demethylase 1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lianghao; Wei, Liping; Pai, Eric; Yao, Yuan; Song, Yongcheng

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of histone play important roles in gene transcription. Aberrant methylation of histone lysine sidechains have been often found in cancer. Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), which can demethylate histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) and other proteins, has recently been found to be a drug target for acute myeloid leukemia. To understand structure activity/selectivity relationships of LSD1 inhibitors, several series of cyclopropylamine and related compounds were synthesized and tested for their activities against LSD1 and related monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B. Several cyclopropylamine containing compounds were found to be highly potent and selective inhibitors of LSD1. A novel series cyclopropylimine compounds also exhibited strong inhibitory activity against LSD1. Structure activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds are discussed. Docking studies were performed to provide possible binding models of a representative compound in LSD1 and MAO-A. Moreover, these modeling studies can rationalize the observed SARs and selectivity. PMID:28158205

  17. Role of a helix B lysine residue in the photoactive site in channelrhodopsins.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

    2014-04-15

    In most studied microbial rhodopsins two conserved carboxylic acid residues (the homologs of Asp-85 and Asp-212 in bacteriorhodopsin) and an arginine residue (the homolog of Arg-82) form a complex counterion to the protonated retinylidene Schiff base, and neutralization of the negatively charged carboxylates causes red shifts of the absorption maximum. In contrast, the corresponding neutralizing mutations in some relatively low-efficiency channelrhodopsins (ChRs) result in blue shifts. These ChRs do not contain a lysine residue in the second helix, conserved in higher efficiency ChRs (Lys-132 in the crystallized ChR chimera). By action spectroscopy of photoinduced channel currents in HEK293 cells and absorption spectroscopy of detergent-purified pigments, we found that in tested ChRs the Lys-132 homolog controls the direction of spectral shifts in the mutants of the photoactive site carboxylic acid residues. Analysis of double mutants shows that red spectral shifts occur when this Lys is present, whether naturally or by mutagenesis, and blue shifts occur when it is replaced with a neutral residue. A neutralizing mutation of the Lys-132 homolog alone caused a red spectral shift in high-efficiency ChRs, whereas its introduction into low-efficiency ChR1 from Chlamydomonas augustae (CaChR1) caused a blue shift. Taking into account that the effective charge of the carboxylic acid residues is a key factor in microbial rhodopsin spectral tuning, these findings suggest that the Lys-132 homolog modulates their pKa values. On the other hand, mutation of the Arg-82 homolog that fulfills this role in bacteriorhodopsin caused minimal spectral changes in the tested ChRs. Titration revealed that the pKa of the Asp-85 homolog in CaChR1 lies in the alkaline region unlike in most studied microbial rhodopsins, but is substantially decreased by introduction of a Lys-132 homolog or neutralizing mutation of the Asp-212 homolog. In the three ChRs tested the Lys-132 homolog also alters

  18. CYLD, a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins, accumulates at the postsynaptic density in an activity-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Dosemeci, Ayse; Thein, Soe; Yang, Yijung; Reese, Thomas S.; Tao-Cheng, Jung-Hwa

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYLD is a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of CYLD in PSDs is established by biochemistry and immunoEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYLD accumulates on PSDs upon depolarization of neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation of CYLD at PSDs may regulate trafficking/degradation of synaptic proteins. -- Abstract: Polyubiquitin chains on proteins flag them for distinct fates depending on the type of polyubiquitin linkage. While lysine48-linked polyubiquitination directs proteins to proteasomal degradation, lysine63-linked polyubiquitination promotes different protein trafficking and is involved in autophagy. Here we show that postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions from adult rat brain contain deubiquitinase activity that targets both lysine48 and lysine63-linked polyubiquitins. Comparison of PSD fractions with parent subcellular fractions by Western immunoblotting reveals that CYLD, a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins, is highly enriched in the PSD fraction. Electron microscopic examination of hippocampal neurons in culture under basal conditions shows immunogold label for CYLD at the PSD complex in approximately one in four synapses. Following depolarization by exposure to high K+, the proportion of CYLD-labeled PSDs as well as the labeling intensity of CYLD at the PSD increased by more than eighty percent, indicating that neuronal activity promotes accumulation of CYLD at the PSD. An increase in postsynaptic CYLD following activity would promote removal of lysine63-polyubiquitins from PSD proteins and thus could regulate their trafficking and prevent their autophagic degradation.

  19. Structure-function relationship in the antifreeze activity of synthetic alanine-lysine antifreeze polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, A; Knight, C A; Rutland, T J; Muccio, D D; Pybus, B S; Sikes, C S

    2000-01-01

    Recently antifreeze proteins (AFP) have been the subject of many structure-function relationship studies regarding their antifreeze activity. Attempts have been made to elucidate the structure-function relationship by various amino acid substitutions, but to our knowledge there has been no successful from first principles design of a polypeptide that would bind to designated ice planes along a specific direction. In this paper we show the results of our first attempt on an entirely de novo design of an alanine-lysine-rich antifreeze polypeptide. This 43 residue alanine-lysine peptide exhibits characteristic nonequilibrium freezing point depression and binds to the designated (210) planes of ice along the [122] vector. The structural and thermodynamic properties of this polypeptide were determined using circular dichroism spectroscopy and its nonequilibrium antifreeze properties were investigated using an ice-etching method and nanoliter osmometry.

  20. Garcinol Inhibits GCN5-Mediated Lysine Acetyltransferase Activity and Prevents Replication of the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, Victoria; Gao, Hongyu; Checkley, Lisa A.; Liu, Yunlong; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a critical posttranslational modification that influences protein activity, stability, and binding properties. The acetylation of histone proteins in particular is a well-characterized feature of gene expression regulation. In the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, a number of lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) contribute to gene expression and are essential for parasite viability. The natural product garcinol was recently reported to inhibit enzymatic activities of GCN5 and p300 family KATs in other species. Here we show that garcinol inhibits TgGCN5b, the only nuclear GCN5 family KAT known to be required for Toxoplasma tachyzoite replication. Treatment of tachyzoites with garcinol led to a reduction of global lysine acetylation, particularly on histone H3 and TgGCN5b itself. We also performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), which revealed increasing aberrant gene expression coincident with increasing concentrations of garcinol. The majority of the genes that were most significantly affected by garcinol were also associated with TgGCN5b in a previously reported chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) analysis. The dysregulated gene expression induced by garcinol significantly inhibits Toxoplasma tachyzoite replication, and the concentrations used exhibit no overt toxicity on human host cells. Garcinol also inhibits Plasmodium falciparum asexual replication with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) similar to that for Toxoplasma. Together, these data support that pharmacological inhibition of TgGCN5b leads to a catastrophic failure in gene expression control that prevents parasite replication. PMID:26810649

  1. Evidence that the catalytic activity of prokaryote leader peptidase depends upon the operation of a serine-lysine catalytic dyad.

    PubMed Central

    Black, M T

    1993-01-01

    Leader peptidase (LP) is the enzyme responsible for proteolytic cleavage of the amino acid leader sequence from bacterial preproteins. Recent data indicate that LP may be an unusual serine proteinase which operates without involvement of a histidine residue (M. T. Black, J. G. R. Munn, and A. E. Allsop, Biochem. J. 282:539-543, 1992; M. Sung and R. E. Dalbey, J. Biol. Chem. 267:13154-13159, 1992) and that, therefore, one or more alternative residues must perform the function of a catalytic base. With the aid of sequence alignments, site-specific mutagenesis of the gene encoding LP (lepB) from Escherichia coli has been employed to investigate the mechanism of action of the enzyme. Various mutant forms of plasmid-borne LP were tested for their abilities to complement the temperature-sensitive activity of LP in E. coli IT41. Data are presented which indicate that the only conserved amino acid residue possessing a side chain with the potential to ionize, and therefore with the potential to transfer protons, which cannot be substituted with a neutral side chain is lysine at position 145. The data suggest that the catalytic activity of LP is dependent on the operation of a serine-lysine catalytic dyad. Images PMID:8394311

  2. Construction of a chimeric lysin Ply187N-V12C with extended lytic activity against staphylococci and streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qiuhua; Wang, Jing; Yang, Hang; Wei, Cuihua; Yu, Junping; Zhang, Yun; Huang, Yanling; Zhang, Xian-En; Wei, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    Developing chimeric lysins with a wide lytic spectrum would be important for treating some infections caused by multiple pathogenic bacteria. In the present work, a novel chimeric lysin (Ply187N-V12C) was constructed by fusing the catalytic domain (Ply187N) of the bacteriophage lysin Ply187 with the cell binding domain (146-314aa, V12C) of the lysin PlyV12. The results showed that the chimeric lysin Ply187N-V12C had not only lytic activity similar to Ply187N against staphylococcal strains but also extended its lytic activity to streptococci and enterococci, such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, which Ply187N could not lyse. Our work demonstrated that generating novel chimeric lysins with an extended lytic spectrum was feasible through fusing a catalytic domain with a cell-binding domain from lysins with lytic spectra across multiple genera. PMID:25219798

  3. Multiple roles of the active site lysine of Dopa decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Mariarita; Voltattorni, Carla Borri

    2009-08-15

    The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent-enzyme Dopa decarboxylase, responsible for the irreversible conversion of l-Dopa to dopamine, is an attractive drug target. The contribution of the pyridoxal-Lys303 to the catalytic mechanisms of decarboxylation and oxidative deamination is analyzed. The K303A variant binds the coenzyme with a 100-fold decreased apparent equilibrium binding affinity with respect to the wild-type enzyme. Unlike the wild-type, K303A in the presence of l-Dopa displays a parallel progress course of formation of both dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (plus ammonia) with a burst followed by a linear phase. Moreover, the finding that the catalytic efficiencies of decarboxylation and of oxidative deamination display a decrease of 1500- and 17-fold, respectively, with respect to the wild-type, is indicative of a different impact of Lys303 mutation on these reactions. Kinetic analyses reveal that Lys303 is involved in external aldimine formation and hydrolysis as well as in product release which affects the rate-determining step of decarboxylation.

  4. Reconfiguration of Transcriptional Control of Lysine Biosynthesis in Candida albicans Involves a Central Role for the Gcn4 Transcriptional Activator

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarshini, Yumnam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evolution of transcriptional control is essential for organisms to cope with diversification into a spectrum of environments, including environments with limited nutrients. Lysine biosynthesis in fungi occurs in eight enzymatic steps. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, amino acid starvation elicits the induction of LYS gene expression, mediated by the master regulator Gcn4 and the pathway-specific transcriptional regulator Lys14. Here, we have shown that the activation of LYS gene expression in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is predominantly controlled by Gcn4 under amino acid starvation conditions. Multiple lines of study showed that the four C. albicans LYS14-like genes have no role in the regulation of lysine biosynthesis. Whereas Gcn4 is dispensable for the growth of S. cerevisiae under lysine deprivation conditions, it is an essential regulator required for the growth of C. albicans under these conditions, as gcn4 deletion caused lysine auxotrophy. Gcn4 is required for the induction of increased LYS2 and LYS9 mRNA but not for the induction of increased LYS4 mRNA. Under lysine or isoleucine-valine deprivation conditions, Gcn4 recruitment to LYS2 and LYS9 promoters was induced in C. albicans. Indeed, in contrast to the S. cerevisiae LYS gene promoters, all LYS gene promoters in C. albicans harbored a Gcn4 binding site but not all harbored the S. cerevisiae Lys14 binding site, indicating the evolutionary divergence of cis-regulatory motifs. Thus, the transcriptional rewiring of the lysine biosynthetic pathway in C. albicans involves not only neofunctionalization of the four LYS14-like genes but the attendant strengthening of control by Gcn4, indicating a coordinated response with a much broader scope for control of amino acid biosynthesis in this human pathogen. IMPORTANCE Microbes evolve rapidly so as to reconfigure their gene expression to adapt to the metabolic demands in diverse environmental niches. Here, we explored how conditions

  5. Opposing Chromatin Signals Direct and Regulate the Activity of Lysine Demethylase 4C (KDM4C)*

    PubMed Central

    Pack, Lindsey R.; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Fujimori, Danica Galonić

    2016-01-01

    Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) are epigenetic marks with opposing roles in transcription regulation. Whereas colocalization of these modifications is generally excluded in the genome, how this preclusion is established remains poorly understood. Lysine demethylase 4C (KDM4C), an H3K9me3 demethylase, localizes predominantly to H3K4me3-containing promoters through its hybrid tandem tudor domain (TTD) (1, 2), providing a model for how these modifications might be excluded. We quantitatively investigated the contribution of the TTD to the catalysis of H3K9me3 demethylation by KDM4C and demonstrated that TTD-mediated recognition of H3K4me3 stimulates demethylation of H3K9me3 in cis on peptide and mononucleosome substrates. Our findings support a multivalent interaction mechanism, by which an activating mark, H3K4me3, recruits and stimulates KDM4C to remove the repressive H3K9me3 mark, thus facilitating exclusion. In addition, our work suggests that differential TTD binding properties across the KDM4 demethylase family may differentiate their targets in the genome. PMID:26747609

  6. Biological and chemical assessment of antioxidant activity of sugar-lysine model maillard reaction products.

    PubMed

    Kitts, David D; Hu, Chun

    2005-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) is often associated with increased stability and shelf life of food systems vulnerable to oxidation reactions. In this study, nondialyzed, high-molecular weight (HMW = >3500 Da) MRPs were recovered from three model sugar-lysine (glucose-lysine, Glc-Lys; fructose-lysine, Fru-Lys; and ribose-lysine, Rib-Lys) reactions, heated at 121 degrees C for one hour. Samples were characterized by UV and fluorescence spectra and assessed for antioxidant activity using both standard chemical methods (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl [DPPH] and oxygen radical absorbing capacity [ORAC]). In addition, biochemical (e.g., cell culture for intracellular oxidation in RAW264.7 cells and protection against metal ion-induced cytotoxicity in C3H/10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblast cells) assays were used. Patterns of change for fluorescence and multiple colorimetric parameters corresponded to the recovery yield of HMW MRPs and indicated that Rib was more (P < 0.05) reactive than Glc, which in turn was greater (P < 0.05) than Fru. These characteristics of rate of browning did not parallel the significant (P < 0.05) antioxidant activity noted for different sugar-derived HMW MRPs to scavenge DPPH radical, or exhibit total antioxidant activity using the ORAC (e.g., 800-1000 micromol Trolox/gm MRP) method. Antioxidant activity of Glc-, Fru-, and Rib-Lys HMW-MRPs (50 microg/mL) produced protection (P < 0.05) against both H2O2- and AAPH-induced intracellular oxidation reactions in cultured RAW 264.7 cells. Metal chelating activity of all three sugar-derived HMW MRPs (0.01% w/v) was attributed to similar protection (P < 0.05) against Fe2+ and Cu2+-induced cytotoxicity in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The reducing activity of all three HMW-MRPs indicated the potential for prooxidant activity that could explain enhanced cytotoxicity of Fe3+ in cultured cells.

  7. AF-2 activity and recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator 1 to the estrogen receptor depend on a lysine residue conserved in nuclear receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Henttu, P M; Kalkhoven, E; Parker, M G

    1997-01-01

    Hormone-dependent transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors depends on the presence of a conserved C-terminal amphipathic alpha-helix (helix 12) in the ligand-binding domain. Here we show that a lysine residue, which is conserved in most nuclear receptors in the predicted helix 3, is also required for estrogen-dependent transactivation. The replacement of lysine 366 with alanine appreciably reduced activation function 2 (AF-2) activity without affecting steroid- or DNA-binding activity in the mouse estrogen receptor. The mutation dramatically reduced the ability of the receptor to bind steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) but had no effect on receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP-140) binding, indicating that while their sites of interaction overlap, they are not entirely consistent and in keeping with the proposal that the recruitment of coactivators, such as SRC-1, is required for AF-2 activity. Although the function of RIP-140 remains to be established, RIP-140 appears to be capable of recruiting the basal transcription machinery, since overexpression of the protein markedly increased the transcriptional activity of the mutant receptor. Since the lysine residue is conserved, we propose that it is required, together with residues in helix 12, to form the surface by which members of the nuclear receptor family interact with coactivators. PMID:9121431

  8. Investigating antimicrobial activity in Rheinheimera sp. due to hydrogen peroxide generated by l-lysine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen Ming; Lin, Chang Yi; Sheu, Shih Yi

    2010-05-05

    A greenish yellow pigmented bacterial strain, designated GR5, was recently isolated from a freshwater culture pond for a soft-shell turtle. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate that strain GR5 belongs to the genus Rheinheimera and its only closest neighbor is the type strain of Rheinheimera texasensis (98.2%). Based on the antibiogram assay, strain GR5 possesses a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, algae, and strain GR5 itself. Strain GR5 can synthesize a macromolecule with antimicrobial activity due to the generation of hydrogen peroxide and this antimicrobial effect can be inhibited by catalase. This antimicrobial activity is active only in complex culture media or chemically defined culture media containing l-lysine. This antimicrobial macromolecule in strain GR5 is shown to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 71kDa and isoelectric point of approximately 3.68. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses reveal close similarity of a 19-amino acid fragment derived from this protein to the antibacterial protein, AlpP from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata D2, and to the antibacterial protein, marinocine, from the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea. This study explores the nature of antimicrobial macromolecule such as l-lysine oxidase. This is the first report on a freshwater bacterium producing antimicrobial activity by generating hydrogen peroxide through its enzymatic activity of l-lysine oxidase.

  9. Discovery of A-893, A New Cell-Active Benzoxazinone Inhibitor of Lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A lack of useful small molecule tools has precluded thorough interrogation of the biological function of SMYD2, a lysine methyltransferase with known tumor-suppressor substrates. Systematic exploration of the structure–activity relationships of a previously known benzoxazinone compound led to the synthesis of A-893, a potent and selective SMYD2 inhibitor (IC50: 2.8 nM). A cocrystal structure reveals the origin of enhanced potency, and effective suppression of p53K370 methylation is observed in a lung carcinoma (A549) cell line. PMID:26101576

  10. List 9 - Active CERCLIS Sites:

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The List 9 displays the sequence of activities undertaken at active CERCLIS sites. An active site is one at which site assessment, removal, remedial, enforcement, cost recovery, or oversight activities are being planned or conducted.

  11. Neural crest specification and migration independently require NSD3-related lysine methyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    Jacques-Fricke, Bridget T.; Gammill, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Neural crest precursors express genes that cause them to become migratory, multipotent cells, distinguishing them from adjacent stationary neural progenitors in the neurepithelium. Histone methylation spatiotemporally regulates neural crest gene expression; however, the protein methyltransferases active in neural crest precursors are unknown. Moreover, the regulation of methylation during the dynamic process of neural crest migration is unclear. Here we show that the lysine methyltransferase NSD3 is abundantly and specifically expressed in premigratory and migratory neural crest cells. NSD3 expression commences before up-regulation of neural crest genes, and NSD3 is necessary for expression of the neural plate border gene Msx1, as well as the key neural crest transcription factors Sox10, Snail2, Sox9, and FoxD3, but not gene expression generally. Nevertheless, only Sox10 histone H3 lysine 36 dimethylation requires NSD3, revealing unexpected complexity in NSD3-dependent neural crest gene regulation. In addition, by temporally limiting expression of a dominant negative to migratory stages, we identify a novel, direct requirement for NSD3-related methyltransferase activity in neural crest migration. These results identify NSD3 as the first protein methyltransferase essential for neural crest gene expression during specification and show that NSD3-related methyltransferase activity independently regulates migration. PMID:25318671

  12. SPOTing Acetyl-Lysine Dependent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Sarah; Filippakopoulos, Panagis

    2015-01-01

    Post translational modifications have been recognized as chemical signals that create docking sites for evolutionary conserved effector modules, allowing for signal integration within large networks of interactions. Lysine acetylation in particular has attracted attention as a regulatory modification, affecting chromatin structure and linking to transcriptional activation. Advances in peptide array technologies have facilitated the study of acetyl-lysine-containing linear motifs interacting with the evolutionary conserved bromodomain module, which specifically recognizes and binds to acetylated sequences in histones and other proteins. Here we summarize recent work employing SPOT peptide technology to identify acetyl-lysine dependent interactions and document the protocols adapted in our lab, as well as our efforts to characterize such bromodomain-histone interactions. Our results highlight the versatility of SPOT methods and establish an affordable tool for rapid access to potential protein/modified-peptide interactions involving lysine acetylation. PMID:27600229

  13. The Lysine Acetyltransferase Activator Brpf1 Governs Dentate Gyrus Development through Neural Stem Cells and Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    You, Linya; Yan, Kezhi; Zhou, Jinfeng; Zhao, Hong; Bertos, Nicholas R.; Park, Morag; Wang, Edwin; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification in diverse organisms, but relatively little is known about its roles in mammalian development and stem cells. Bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1) is a multidomain histone binder and a master activator of three lysine acetyltransferases, MOZ, MORF and HBO1, which are also known as KAT6A, KAT6B and KAT7, respectively. While the MOZ and MORF genes are rearranged in leukemia, the MORF gene is also mutated in prostate and other cancers and in four genetic disorders with intellectual disability. Here we show that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene causes hypoplasia in the dentate gyrus, including underdevelopment of the suprapyramidal blade and complete loss of the infrapyramidal blade. We trace the developmental origin to compromised Sox2+ neural stem cells and Tbr2+ intermediate neuronal progenitors. We further demonstrate that Brpf1 loss deregulates neuronal migration, cell cycle progression and transcriptional control, thereby causing abnormal morphogenesis of the hippocampus. These results link histone binding and acetylation control to hippocampus development and identify an important epigenetic regulator for patterning the dentate gyrus, a brain structure critical for learning, memory and adult neurogenesis. PMID:25757017

  14. Isolation and characterization of a novel phage lysin active against Paenibacillus larvae, a honeybee pathogen

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Lucy; Nezami, Sara; Yost, Diane; Tsourkas, Philippos; Amy, Penny S

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease which affects early larval stages during honeybee development. Due to its virulence, transmissibility, capacity to develop antibiotic resistance, and the inherent resilience of its endospores, Paenibacillus larvae is extremely difficult to eradicate from infected hives which often must be burned. AFB contributes to the worldwide decline of honeybee populations, which are crucial for pollination and the food supply. We have isolated a novel bacteriophage lysin, PlyPalA, from the genome of a novel Paenibacillus larvae bacteriophage originally extracted from an environmental sample. PlyPalA has an N-terminal N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase catalytic domain and possesses lytic activity against infectious strains of Paenibacillus larvae without harming commensal bacteria known to compose the honeybee larval microbiota. A single dose of PlyPalA rescued 75% of larvae infected with endospores, showing that it represents a powerful tool for future treatment of AFB. This represents the first time that lysins have been tested for therapeutic use in invertebrates. PMID:26904379

  15. Lysine residues involved in the hysteresis and in the regulatory sites of spinach ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Yokota, A; Tokai, H

    1993-11-01

    Lysine residues have been suggested to be involved in the hysteretic decrease of the activity of spinach ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and the binding of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate to its regulatory sites [Yokota, A. & Tsujimoto, N. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 204, 901-909]. This work identifies the lysine residues and investigates the effects of their chemical modification on the course of RuBisCO reaction. The carbamylated form of RuBisCO reacted with trinitrobenzene sulfonate in three phases; an initial rapid, second slow, and final non-specific reaction. Lys-334 in loop 6, Lys-21, and Lys-128, all from the large subunits, were trinitrophenylated in the first 60-min reaction. Lys-305 of the large subunits was labeled in the next step. The modification of these residues was strongly suppressed in the enzyme form that had undergone hysteretic conformational change after binding 2-carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate at its catalytic sites. Instead, Lys-450 of the large subunits and Lys-71 from the small subunits were newly modified in the quaternary complex. A higher concentration of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate reduced the trinitrophenylation of the two residues to half. The modification of the carbamylated form of the enzyme for 30 min was expected to arylate Lys-21, Lys-128, and Lys-334 at random, and the course of the reaction of the partially modified enzyme was expected to deviate from that of the unmodified enzyme. Experimental results showed that this was the case.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Site-directed mutagenesis of lysine-329 of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, T.S.; Larimer, F.W.; Mural, R.J.; Machanoff, R.; Foote, R.S.; Lee, E.H.; Hartman, F.C.

    1987-05-01

    A variety of data suggest that Lys-329 of the title enzyme serves a catalytic function. To test this postulate, Lys-329 has been replaced with Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Arg, or Glu by a technique of site-directed mutagenesis that utilizes a suitably gapped plasmid carrying the target gene. The mutant proteins were produced in E. coli JM107 and purified to near homogeneity by immunoaffinity chromatography; they were shown to be dimers, like the wild-type enzyme, by gel electrophoresis. Hence, these amino acid substitutions are compatible with proper folding and association of subunits. The purified mutant proteins do not exhibit detectable enzyme activity nor do they form a stable quaternary complex with Mg/sup 2 +/, CO/sub 2/, and a transition-state analog as observed for wild-type enzyme. However, based on ligand-selective elution of the mutant proteins from an affinity matrix (green A agarose) they do retain the ability to bind substrate analogs. These results support an absolute essentiality of Lys-329; its precise function may be illuminated by further characterization of the mutant proteins.

  17. Mouse PRDM9 DNA-binding specificity determines sites of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation for initiation of meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Grey, Corinne; Barthès, Pauline; Chauveau-Le Friec, Gaëlle; Langa, Francina; Baudat, Frédéric; de Massy, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    Meiotic recombination generates reciprocal exchanges between homologous chromosomes (also called crossovers, COs) that are essential for proper chromosome segregation during meiosis and are a major source of genome diversity by generating new allele combinations. COs have two striking properties: they occur at specific sites, called hotspots, and these sites evolve rapidly. In mammals, the Prdm9 gene, which encodes a meiosis-specific histone H3 methyltransferase, has recently been identified as a determinant of CO hotspots. Here, using transgenic mice, we show that the sole modification of PRDM9 zinc fingers leads to changes in hotspot activity, histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) levels, and chromosome-wide distribution of COs. We further demonstrate by an in vitro assay that the PRDM9 variant associated with hotspot activity binds specifically to DNA sequences located at the center of the three hotspots tested. Remarkably, we show that mutations in cis located at hotspot centers and associated with a decrease of hotspot activity affect PRDM9 binding. Taken together, these results provide the direct demonstration that Prdm9 is a master regulator of hotspot localization through the DNA binding specificity of its zinc finger array and that binding of PRDM9 at hotspots promotes local H3K4me3 enrichment.

  18. Identification of the KDM2/7 Histone Lysine Demethylase Subfamily Inhibitor and its Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Histone Nε-methyl lysine demethylases KDM2/7 have been identified as potential targets for cancer therapies. On the basis of the crystal structure of KDM7B, we designed and prepared a series of hydroxamate analogues bearing an alkyl chain. Enzyme assays revealed that compound 9 potently inhibits KDM2A, KDM7A, and KDM7B, with IC50s of 6.8, 0.2, and 1.2 μM, respectively. While inhibitors of KDM4s did not show any effect on cancer cells tested, the KDM2/7-subfamily inhibitor 9 exerted antiproliferative activity, indicating the potential for KDM2/7 inhibitors as anticancer agents. PMID:23964788

  19. GPS-PAIL: prediction of lysine acetyltransferase-specific modification sites from protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wankun; Wang, Chenwei; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Zexian; Xue, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Protein acetylation catalyzed by specific histone acetyltransferases (HATs) is an essential post-translational modification (PTM) and involved in the regulation a broad spectrum of biological processes in eukaryotes. Although several ten thousands of acetylation sites have been experimentally identified, the upstream HATs for most of the sites are unclear. Thus, the identification of HAT-specific acetylation sites is fundamental for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of protein acetylation. In this work, we first collected 702 known HAT-specific acetylation sites of 205 proteins from the literature and public data resources, and a motif-based analysis demonstrated that different types of HATs exhibit similar but considerably distinct sequence preferences for substrate recognition. Using 544 human HAT-specific sites for training, we constructed a highly useful tool of GPS-PAIL for the prediction of HAT-specific sites for up to seven HATs, including CREBBP, EP300, HAT1, KAT2A, KAT2B, KAT5 and KAT8. The prediction accuracy of GPS-PAIL was critically evaluated, with a satisfying performance. Using GPS-PAIL, we also performed a large-scale prediction of potential HATs for known acetylation sites identified from high-throughput experiments in nine eukaryotes. Both online service and local packages were implemented, and GPS-PAIL is freely available at: http://pail.biocuckoo.org. PMID:28004786

  20. GPS-PAIL: prediction of lysine acetyltransferase-specific modification sites from protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wankun; Wang, Chenwei; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Zexian; Xue, Yu

    2016-12-22

    Protein acetylation catalyzed by specific histone acetyltransferases (HATs) is an essential post-translational modification (PTM) and involved in the regulation a broad spectrum of biological processes in eukaryotes. Although several ten thousands of acetylation sites have been experimentally identified, the upstream HATs for most of the sites are unclear. Thus, the identification of HAT-specific acetylation sites is fundamental for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of protein acetylation. In this work, we first collected 702 known HAT-specific acetylation sites of 205 proteins from the literature and public data resources, and a motif-based analysis demonstrated that different types of HATs exhibit similar but considerably distinct sequence preferences for substrate recognition. Using 544 human HAT-specific sites for training, we constructed a highly useful tool of GPS-PAIL for the prediction of HAT-specific sites for up to seven HATs, including CREBBP, EP300, HAT1, KAT2A, KAT2B, KAT5 and KAT8. The prediction accuracy of GPS-PAIL was critically evaluated, with a satisfying performance. Using GPS-PAIL, we also performed a large-scale prediction of potential HATs for known acetylation sites identified from high-throughput experiments in nine eukaryotes. Both online service and local packages were implemented, and GPS-PAIL is freely available at: http://pail.biocuckoo.org.

  1. Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Activity of the Chicken NK-Lysin-Derived Peptide cNK-2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo H.; Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Min, Wongi

    2017-01-01

    Chicken NK-lysin (cNK-lysin), the chicken homologue of human granulysin, is a cationic amphiphilic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that is produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. We previously demonstrated that cNK-lysin and cNK-2, a synthetic peptide incorporating the core α-helical region of cNK-lysin, have antimicrobial activity against apicomplexan parasites such as Eimeria spp., via membrane disruption. In addition to the antimicrobial activity of AMPs, the immunomodulatory activity of AMPs mediated by their interactions with host cells is increasingly recognized. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether cNK-lysin derived peptides modulate the immune response in the chicken macrophage cell line HD11 and in chicken primary monocytes by evaluating the induction of chemokines, anti-inflammatory properties, and activation of signalling pathways. cNK-2 induced the expression of CCL4, CCL5 and interleukin(IL)-1β in HD11 cells and CCL4 and CCL5 in primary monocytes. We also determined that cNK-2 suppresses the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by abrogating IL-1β expression. The immunomodulatory activity of cNK-2 involves the mitogen-activated protein kinases-mediated signalling pathway, including p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, as well as the internalization of cNK-2 into the cells. These results indicate that cNK-2 is a potential novel immunomodulating agent rather than an antimicrobial agent. PMID:28332637

  2. Neither arginine nor histidine can carry out the function of lysine-295 in the ATP-binding site of p60src.

    PubMed Central

    Kamps, M P; Sefton, B M

    1986-01-01

    All 15 protein kinases whose amino acid sequence is known contain a lysine residue at a position homologous to that of lysine-295 in p60src, the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus. The ATP analog p-fluorosulfonyl 5'-benzoyl adenosine inactivates both p60src and the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase by modification of this lysine. We used oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis to examine the possible functions of this residue. Lysine-295 in p60src was replaced with a glutamic acid, an arginine, or a histidine residue, and mutant p60src proteins were characterized in chicken cells infected by mutant viruses. None of these three mutant p60src proteins had tyrosine protein kinase activity in vitro, and none induced morphological transformation of infected cells. Since neither a histidine nor an arginine residue can replace the function of lysine-295, we suggest that it carries out the specialized function of proton transfer in the phosphotransferase reaction. All three mutant viruses underwent reversion to wild type during passage in tissue culture. Because the rate with which this occurred differed significantly among the mutants, reversion appears to have resulted from errors in transcription, rather than from recombination with the cellular src gene. Images PMID:2430174

  3. Systemic antiangiogenic activity of cationic poly-L-lysine dendrimer delays tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.; Al-Jamal, Wafa’ T.; Akerman, Simon; Podesta, Jennifer E.; Yilmazer, Açelya; Turton, John A.; Bianco, Alberto; Vargesson, Neil; Kanthou, Chryso; Florence, Alexander T.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the previously unreported intrinsic capacity of poly-L-lysine (PLL) sixth generation (G6) dendrimer molecules to exhibit systemic antiangiogenic activity that could lead to solid tumor growth arrest. The PLL-dendrimer-inhibited tubule formation of SVEC4-10 murine endothelial cells and neovascularization in the chick embryo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Intravenous administration of the PLL-dendrimer molecules into C57BL/6 mice inhibited vascularisation in Matrigel plugs implanted subcutaneously. Antiangiogenic activity was further evidenced using intravital microscopy of tumors grown within dorsal skinfold window chambers. Reduced vascularization of P22 rat sarcoma implanted in the dorsal window chamber of SCID mice was observed following tail vein administration (i.v.) of the PLL dendrimers. Also, the in vivo toxicological profile of the PLL-dendrimer molecules was shown to be safe at the dose regime studied. The antiangiogenic activity of the PLL dendrimer was further shown to be associated with significant suppression of B16F10 solid tumor volume and delayed tumor growth. Enhanced apoptosis/necrosis within tumors of PLL-dendrimer-treated animals only and reduction in the number of CD31 positive cells were observed in comparison to protamine treatment. This study suggests that PLL-dendrimer molecules can exhibit a systemic antiangiogenic activity that may be used for therapy of solid tumors, and in combination with their capacity to carry other therapeutic or diagnostic agents may potentially offer capabilities for the design of theranostic systems. PMID:20150514

  4. Cationic surfactants derived from lysine: effects of their structure and charge type on antimicrobial and hemolytic activities.

    PubMed

    Colomer, A; Pinazo, A; Manresa, M A; Vinardell, M P; Mitjans, M; Infante, M R; Pérez, L

    2011-02-24

    Three different sets of cationic surfactants from lysine have been synthesized. The first group consists of three monocatenary surfactants with one lysine as the cationic polar head with one cationic charge. The second consists of three monocatenary surfactants with two amino acids as cationic polar head with two positive charges. Finally, four gemini surfactants were synthesized in which the spacer chain and the number and type of cationic charges have been regulated. The micellization process, antimicrobial activity, and hemolytic activity were evaluated. The critical micelle concentration was dependent only on the hydrophobic character of the molecules. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities were related to the structure of the compounds as well as the type of cationic charges. The most active surfactants against the bacteria were those with a cationic charge on the trimethylated amino group, whereas all of these surfactants showed low hemolytic character.

  5. Saturation Mutagenesis of Lysine 12 Leads to the Identification of Derivatives of Nisin A with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Evelyn M.; Field, Des; Connor, Paula M. O'.; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that innovations from the “golden age” of antibiotics are becoming ineffective, resulting in a pressing need for novel therapeutics. The bacteriocin family of antimicrobial peptides has attracted much attention in recent years as a source of potential alternatives. The most intensively studied bacteriocin is nisin, a broad spectrum lantibiotic that inhibits Gram-positive bacteria including important food pathogens and clinically relevant antibiotic resistant bacteria. Nisin is gene-encoded and, as such, is amenable to peptide bioengineering, facilitating the generation of novel derivatives that can be screened for desirable properties. It was to this end that we used a site-saturation mutagenesis approach to create a bank of producers of nisin A derivatives that differ with respect to the identity of residue 12 (normally lysine; K12). A number of these producers exhibited enhanced bioactivity and the nisin A K12A producer was deemed of greatest interest. Subsequent investigations with the purified antimicrobial highlighted the enhanced specific activity of this modified nisin against representative target strains from the genera Streptococcus, Bacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus. PMID:23505531

  6. The E. coli sirtuin CobB shows no preference for enzymatic and nonenzymatic lysine acetylation substrate sites

    PubMed Central

    AbouElfetouh, Alaa; Kuhn, Misty L; Hu, Linda I; Scholle, Michael D; Sorensen, Dylan J; Sahu, Alexandria K; Becher, Dörte; Antelmann, Haike; Mrksich, Milan; Anderson, Wayne F; Gibson, Bradford W; Schilling, Birgit; Wolfe, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Nε-lysine acetylation is an abundant posttranslational modification of thousands of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. In the model bacterium Escherichia coli, the ε-amino group of a lysine residue can be acetylated either catalytically by acetyl-coenzyme A (acCoA) and lysine acetyltransferases, or nonenzymatically by acetyl phosphate (acP). It is well known that catalytic acCoA-dependent Nε-lysine acetylation can be reversed by deacetylases. Here, we provide genetic, mass spectrometric, structural and immunological evidence that CobB, a deacetylase of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, can reverse acetylation regardless of acetyl donor or acetylation mechanism. We analyzed 69 lysines on 51 proteins that we had previously detected as robustly, reproducibly, and significantly more acetylated in a cobB mutant than in its wild-type parent. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses supported the hypothesis that CobB regulates protein function in diverse and often essential cellular processes, most notably translation. Combined mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and protein structural data provided evidence that the accessibility and three-dimensional microenvironment of the target acetyllysine help determine CobB specificity. Finally, we provide evidence that CobB is the predominate deacetylase in E. coli. PMID:25417765

  7. The E. coli sirtuin CobB shows no preference for enzymatic and nonenzymatic lysine acetylation substrate sites.

    PubMed

    AbouElfetouh, Alaa; Kuhn, Misty L; Hu, Linda I; Scholle, Michael D; Sorensen, Dylan J; Sahu, Alexandria K; Becher, Dörte; Antelmann, Haike; Mrksich, Milan; Anderson, Wayne F; Gibson, Bradford W; Schilling, Birgit; Wolfe, Alan J

    2015-02-01

    N(ε) -lysine acetylation is an abundant posttranslational modification of thousands of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. In the model bacterium Escherichia coli, the ε-amino group of a lysine residue can be acetylated either catalytically by acetyl-coenzyme A (acCoA) and lysine acetyltransferases, or nonenzymatically by acetyl phosphate (acP). It is well known that catalytic acCoA-dependent N(ε) -lysine acetylation can be reversed by deacetylases. Here, we provide genetic, mass spectrometric, structural and immunological evidence that CobB, a deacetylase of the sirtuin family of NAD(+) -dependent deacetylases, can reverse acetylation regardless of acetyl donor or acetylation mechanism. We analyzed 69 lysines on 51 proteins that we had previously detected as robustly, reproducibly, and significantly more acetylated in a cobB mutant than in its wild-type parent. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses supported the hypothesis that CobB regulates protein function in diverse and often essential cellular processes, most notably translation. Combined mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and protein structural data provided evidence that the accessibility and three-dimensional microenvironment of the target acetyllysine help determine CobB specificity. Finally, we provide evidence that CobB is the predominate deacetylase in E. coli.

  8. HDAC3-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Sadhana A.; Courson, David S.; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming; Shroff, Sanjeev G.; Rock, Ronald S.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

    2011-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, PCAF, associate with cardiac sarcomeres, and a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study, we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to the A band of sarcomeres and was capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of both α- and β-MHC isoforms. By an in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36%, compared to their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli, independent of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:21177250

  9. HDAC3-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of cardiac myosin heavy chain isoforms modulates their enzymatic and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Courson, David S; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Rock, Ronald S; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2011-02-18

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, PCAF, associate with cardiac sarcomeres, and a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study, we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to the A band of sarcomeres and was capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the K(m) for the actin-activated ATPase activity of both α- and β-MHC isoforms. By an in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36%, compared to their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli, independent of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms.

  10. Expression of the Bovine NK-Lysin Gene Family and Activity against Respiratory Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junfeng; Yang, Chingyuan; Tizioto, Polyana C.; Huang, Huan; Lee, Mi O. K.; Payne, Harold R.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals. The effects of synthetic peptides corresponding to functional region helices 2 and 3 of each gene product were tested on both model membranes and bio-membranes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that these peptides adopted a more helical secondary structure upon binding to an anionic model membrane and liposome leakage assays suggested that these peptides disrupt membranes. Bacterial killing assays further confirmed the antimicrobial effects of these peptides on BRD-associated bacteria, including both Pasteurella multocida and Mannhemia haemolytica and an ultrastructural examination of NK-lysin-treated P. multocida cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the lysis of target membranes. These studies demonstrate that the expanded bovine NK-lysin gene family is potentially important in host defense against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease. PMID:27409794

  11. Catalytic roles of lysines (K9, K27, K31) in the N-terminal domain in human adenylate kinase by random site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ayabe, T; Park, S K; Takenaka, H; Sumida, M; Uesugi, S; Takenaka, O; Hamada, M

    1996-11-01

    To elucidate lysine residues in the N-terminal domain of human cytosolic adenylate kinase (hAK1, EC 2.7.4.3), random site-directed mutagenesis of K9, K27, and K31 residues was performed, and six mutants were analyzed by steady-state kinetics. K9 residue may play an important role in catalysis by interacting with AMP2-. K27 and K31 residues appear to play a functional role in catalysis by interacting with MgATP2-. In human AK, the epsilon-amino group in the side chain of these lysine residues would be essential for phosphoryl transfer between MgATP2- and AMP2- during transition state.

  12. Non-peptidic propargylamines as inhibitors of lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) with cellular activity

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Martin L.; Hauser, Alexander-Thomas; Carlino, Luca; Pippel, Martin; Schulz-Fincke, Johannes; Metzger, Eric; Willmann, Dominica; Yiu, Teresa; Barton, Michelle; Schüle, Roland; Sippl, Wolfgang; Jung, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Lysine demethylases play an important role in epigenetic regulation and thus in the development of diseases like cancer or neurodegenerative disorders. As the lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1) has been strongly connected to androgen and estrogen dependent gene expression, it serves as a promising target for the therapy of hormone dependent cancer. Here, we report on the discovery of new small molecule inhibitors of LSD1 containing a propargylamine warhead, starting out from lysine containing substrate analogues. Based on these substrate mimicking inhibitors we were able to increase potency by a combination of similarity-based virtual screening and subsequent synthetic optimization resulting in more druglike LSD1 inhibitors that lead to histone hypermethylation in breast cancer cells. PMID:24007511

  13. Lysine-specific gingipain promotes lipopolysaccharide- and active-vitamin D3-induced osteoclast differentiation by degrading osteoprotegerin.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Rika; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Takami, Masamichi; Imamura, Takahisa; Potempa, Jan; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2009-04-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the major pathogens of periodontitis, a condition characterized by excessive alveolar bone resorption by osteoclasts. The bacterium produces cysteine proteases called gingipains, which are classified according to their cleavage-site specificity into Kgps (lysine-specific gingipains) and Rgps (arginine-specific gingipains). In the present study we examined the effects of gingipains on osteoclast differentiation. In co-cultures of mouse bone-marrow cells and osteoblasts, formation of multinucleated osteoclasts induced by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) (1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) was augmented by Kgp but not by RgpB. A physiological concentration (0.1 nM) of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) induced the osteoclast formation in the presence of 100 nM Kgp to an extent comparable with that induced by 10 nM 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Kgp also enhanced osteoclastogenesis induced by various microbial components, including lipopolysaccharide. Combined use of Kgp and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) or lipopolysaccharide also increased the number of resorption pits developed on dentin slices, indicating that the osteoclasts formed in the presence of Kgp possess bone-resorbing activity. The enhanced osteoclastogenesis by Kgp was correlated with a depletion of osteoprotegerin in co-culture medium and was proteolytic-activity-dependent, since benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-lysylacycloxyketone, an inhibitor of Kgp, completely abolished osteoclastogenesis induced by Kgp. Kgp digested osteoprotegerin, since its recombinant protein was susceptible to degradation by Kgp in the presence of serum. As a result, Kgp did not augment osteoclastogenesis in co-cultures of osteoprotegerin-deficient osteoblasts and bone-marrow cells. In addition, enhanced osteoclastogenesis by Kgp was abolished by an excess amount of recombinant osteoprotegerin. These findings suggest that degradation of osteoprotegerin is one of the mechanisms underlying promotion of osteoclastogenesis by Kgp.

  14. Molecular Basis for Lysine Specificity in the Yeast Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Cdc34 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Martin; Suryadinata, Randy; Lai, Xianning; Heierhorst, Jörg; Sarcevic, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s) catalyze the attachment of Ub to lysine residues in substrates and Ub during monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination. Lysine selection is important for the generation of diverse substrate-Ub structures, which provides versatility to this pathway in the targeting of proteins to different fates. The mechanisms of lysine selection remain poorly understood, with previous studies suggesting that the ubiquitination site(s) is selected by the E2/E3-mediated positioning of a lysine(s) toward the E2/E3 active site. By studying the polyubiquitination of Sic1 by the E2 protein Cdc34 and the RING E3 Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF) protein, we now demonstrate that in addition to E2/E3-mediated positioning, proximal amino acids surrounding the lysine residues in Sic1 and Ub are critical for ubiquitination. This mechanism is linked to key residues composing the catalytic core of Cdc34 and independent of SCF. Changes to these core residues altered the lysine preference of Cdc34 and specified whether this enzyme monoubiquitinated or polyubiquitinated Sic1. These new findings indicate that compatibility between amino acids surrounding acceptor lysine residues and key amino acids in the catalytic core of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes is an important mechanism for lysine selection during ubiquitination. PMID:20194622

  15. Arabidopsis Receptor of Activated C Kinase1 Phosphorylation by WITH NO LYSINE8 KINASE

    DOE PAGES

    Urano, Daisuke; Czarnecki, Olaf; Wang, Xiaoping; ...

    2014-12-08

    Receptor of activated C kinase1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that binds to numerous proteins to regulate diverse cellular pathways in mammals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), RACK1 has been shown to regulate plant hormone signaling, stress responses, and multiple processes of growth and development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. In this paper, we show that an atypical serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE8 (WNK8), phosphorylates RACK1. WNK8 physically interacted with and phosphorylated RACK1 proteins at two residues: Ser-122 and Thr-162. Genetic epistasis analysis of rack1 wnk8 double mutants indicated that RACK1more » acts downstream of WNK8 in the glucose responsiveness and flowering pathways. The phosphorylation-dead form, RACK1AS122A/T162A, but not the phosphomimetic form, RACK1AS122D/T162E, rescued the rack1a null mutant, implying that phosphorylation at Ser-122 and Thr-162 negatively regulates RACK1A function. The transcript of RACK1AS122D/T162E accumulated at similar levels as those of RACK1S122A/T162A. However, although the steady-state level of the RACK1AS122A/T162A protein was similar to wild-type RACK1A protein, the RACK1AS122D/T162E protein was nearly undetectable, suggesting that phosphorylation affects the stability of RACK1A proteins. In conclusion, these results suggest that RACK1 is phosphorylated by WNK8 and that phosphorylation negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability.« less

  16. Arabidopsis Receptor of Activated C Kinase1 Phosphorylation by WITH NO LYSINE8 KINASE

    SciTech Connect

    Urano, Daisuke; Czarnecki, Olaf; Wang, Xiaoping; Jones, Alan M.; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2014-12-08

    Receptor of activated C kinase1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that binds to numerous proteins to regulate diverse cellular pathways in mammals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), RACK1 has been shown to regulate plant hormone signaling, stress responses, and multiple processes of growth and development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. In this paper, we show that an atypical serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE8 (WNK8), phosphorylates RACK1. WNK8 physically interacted with and phosphorylated RACK1 proteins at two residues: Ser-122 and Thr-162. Genetic epistasis analysis of rack1 wnk8 double mutants indicated that RACK1 acts downstream of WNK8 in the glucose responsiveness and flowering pathways. The phosphorylation-dead form, RACK1AS122A/T162A, but not the phosphomimetic form, RACK1AS122D/T162E, rescued the rack1a null mutant, implying that phosphorylation at Ser-122 and Thr-162 negatively regulates RACK1A function. The transcript of RACK1AS122D/T162E accumulated at similar levels as those of RACK1S122A/T162A. However, although the steady-state level of the RACK1AS122A/T162A protein was similar to wild-type RACK1A protein, the RACK1AS122D/T162E protein was nearly undetectable, suggesting that phosphorylation affects the stability of RACK1A proteins. In conclusion, these results suggest that RACK1 is phosphorylated by WNK8 and that phosphorylation negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability.

  17. Arabidopsis Receptor of Activated C Kinase1 Phosphorylation by WITH NO LYSINE8 KINASE1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Daisuke; Czarnecki, Olaf; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2015-01-01

    Receptor of activated C kinase1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that binds to numerous proteins to regulate diverse cellular pathways in mammals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), RACK1 has been shown to regulate plant hormone signaling, stress responses, and multiple processes of growth and development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. Here, we show that an atypical serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE8 (WNK8), phosphorylates RACK1. WNK8 physically interacted with and phosphorylated RACK1 proteins at two residues: Ser-122 and Thr-162. Genetic epistasis analysis of rack1 wnk8 double mutants indicated that RACK1 acts downstream of WNK8 in the glucose responsiveness and flowering pathways. The phosphorylation-dead form, RACK1AS122A/T162A, but not the phosphomimetic form, RACK1AS122D/T162E, rescued the rack1a null mutant, implying that phosphorylation at Ser-122 and Thr-162 negatively regulates RACK1A function. The transcript of RACK1AS122D/T162E accumulated at similar levels as those of RACK1S122A/T162A. However, although the steady-state level of the RACK1AS122A/T162A protein was similar to wild-type RACK1A protein, the RACK1AS122D/T162E protein was nearly undetectable, suggesting that phosphorylation affects the stability of RACK1A proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that RACK1 is phosphorylated by WNK8 and that phosphorylation negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability. PMID:25489024

  18. Arabidopsis receptor of activated C kinase1 phosphorylation by WITH NO LYSINE8 KINASE.

    PubMed

    Urano, Daisuke; Czarnecki, Olaf; Wang, Xiaoping; Jones, Alan M; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2015-02-01

    Receptor of activated C kinase1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that binds to numerous proteins to regulate diverse cellular pathways in mammals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), RACK1 has been shown to regulate plant hormone signaling, stress responses, and multiple processes of growth and development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. Here, we show that an atypical serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE8 (WNK8), phosphorylates RACK1. WNK8 physically interacted with and phosphorylated RACK1 proteins at two residues: Ser-122 and Thr-162. Genetic epistasis analysis of rack1 wnk8 double mutants indicated that RACK1 acts downstream of WNK8 in the glucose responsiveness and flowering pathways. The phosphorylation-dead form, RACK1A(S122A/T162A), but not the phosphomimetic form, RACK1A(S122D/T162E), rescued the rack1a null mutant, implying that phosphorylation at Ser-122 and Thr-162 negatively regulates RACK1A function. The transcript of RACK1A(S122D/T162E) accumulated at similar levels as those of RACK1(S122A/T162A). However, although the steady-state level of the RACK1A(S122A/T162A) protein was similar to wild-type RACK1A protein, the RACK1A(S122D/T162E) protein was nearly undetectable, suggesting that phosphorylation affects the stability of RACK1A proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that RACK1 is phosphorylated by WNK8 and that phosphorylation negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability.

  19. Substitution of lysine for arginine at position 42 of human transforming growth factor-alpha eliminates biological activity without changing internal disulfide bonds.

    PubMed Central

    Defeo-Jones, D; Tai, J Y; Vuocolo, G A; Wegrzyn, R J; Schofield, T L; Riemen, M W; Oliff, A

    1989-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is a growth-promoting protein that binds to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. To identify critical residues that govern TGF-alpha-EGF receptor binding, we prepared site-specific substitution mutants of TGF-alpha. Mutant proteins were tested in receptor-binding and mitogenesis assays. Semiconservative substitutions at positions 4, 12, 18, and 45 decreased biological activity 2.1- to 14-fold. The conservative substitution of lysine for arginine at position 42 completely eliminated biological activity. Amino acid composition analysis of proteolytic fragments from TGF-alpha and the Lys-42 mutant indicated that these proteins contained the same disulfide bonds. These studies suggest that arginine 42 may be a contact point for TGF-alpha-EGF receptor interaction. PMID:2506441

  20. Deletion of 3 basepairs resulting in the loss of lysine-121 in the insulin receptor alpha-subunit in a patient with leprechaunism: binding, phosphorylation, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Jospe, N; Zhu, J; Liu, R; Livingston, J N; Furlanetto, R W

    1994-11-01

    We have identified a novel mutation of the human insulin receptor gene in a previously unreported patient with leprechaunism, leprechaun Rochester. This mutation consists of deletion of three nucleotides (GAA) in exon 2 and results in loss of the lysine-121 in the putative ligand-binding domain of the alpha-subunit. To analyze this mutation, we prepared a corresponding mutant insulin receptor by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed the receptor in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Although the mutant receptor displayed normal insulin binding, abnormalities were found in autophosphorylation and in phosphorylation of endogenous and exogenous protein substrates. These abnormalities consisted of increased basal kinase activity, but blunted insulin-stimulated responsiveness. Importantly, cells that expressed the mutant receptor showed markedly decreased insulin- and serum-stimulated DNA synthesis compared to untransfected control cells and cells transfected with the wild-type insulin receptor. These findings suggest that deletion of lysine-121 in conjunction with a presumed, but thus far unidentified, second mutant allele contributed significantly to the lethal insulin-resistant state in this patient with leprechaunism.

  1. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of ε-poly-L-lysine

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Ruosong; Xu, Hengyi; Wan, Cuixiang; Peng, Shanshan; Wang, Lijun; Xu, Hong; Aguilar, Zoraida P.; Xiong, Yonghua; Zeng, Zheling; Wei, Hua

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Antibacterial activity and mechanism of ε-PL against E. coli O157:H7 was investigated. •Critical inhibitory factors toward the growth of E. coli O157:H7 by ε-PL was analyzed. •Cell membrane integrity and cell morphology of E. coli O157:H7 was affected by ε-PL. •A positive correlation between reactive oxygen species levels and ε-PL concentration in E. coli O157:H7 cells. •ε-PL induced the expression of different genes related to oxidative/redox stress, SOS response, virulence. -- Abstract: ε-Poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) is widely used as an antibacterial agent because of its broad antimicrobial spectrum. However, the mechanism of ε-PL against pathogens at the molecular level has not been elucidated. This study investigated the antibacterial activity and mechanism of ε-PL against Escherichia coli O157:H7 CMCC44828. Propidium monoazide-PCR test results indicated that the threshold condition of ε-PL for complete membrane lysis of E. coli O157:H7 was 10 μg/mL (90% mortality for 5 μg/mL). Further verification of the destructive effect of ε-PL on cell structure was performed by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed a positive correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and ε-PL concentration in E. coli O157:H7 cells. Moreover, the mortality of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced when antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was added. Results from real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) indicated that the expression levels of oxidative stress genes sodA and oxyR were up-regulated 4- and 16-fold, respectively, whereas virulence genes eaeA and espA were down-regulated after ε-PL treatment. Expression of DNA damage response (SOS response) regulon genes recA and lexA were also affected by ε-PL. In conclusion, the antibacterial mechanism of ε-PL against E. coli O157:H7 may be attributed to disturbance on membrane integrity, oxidative stress by ROS, and effects on various gene expressions, such as regulation of

  2. Activity and specificity of the human SUV39H2 protein lysine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, Maren Kirstin; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Kusevic, Denis; Weirich, Sara; Jeltsch, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 enzymes introduce H3K9me3, which is essential for the viability of mammalian cells. It was the aim of the present work to investigate the substrate specificity and product pattern of SUV39H2. Methylation of peptide SPOT arrays showed that SUV39H2 recognizes a long motif on H3 comprising T6-K14, with highly specific readout of R8, S10, T11 and G12 and partial specificity at T6, A7, G13 and K14. Modification of R8 and phosphorylation of S10 or T11 lead to a reduction or loss of SUV39H2 activity towards H3K9. The specificity of SUV39H2 differs from other H3K9 PKMTs, like Dim-5 or G9a, and these biochemical differences can be explained by the structures of the corresponding enzymes. Based on the specificity profile we identified additional non-histone candidate substrates in human proteins, but all of them were only weakly methylated by SUV39H2 at the peptide level. We conclude that SUV39H2 displays a high preference for the methylation of H3. Using the catalytic SET domain we show here that the enzyme prefers H3K9me0 as a substrate over H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 and it introduces the first two methyl groups into H3K9me0 in a processive reaction. SUV39H2 can transfer up to three methyl groups to lysine 9 of histone H3 but the last methylation reaction is much slower than the first two steps. We also demonstrate that the N324K mutant in the SET domain of SUV39H2 that has been shown to cause an inherited nasal skin disease in Labrador Retrievers renders SUV39H2 inactive. Differences in the circular dichroism spectra of wild type and mutant proteins indicated that the mutation causes slight structural changes.

  3. Activation of neuronal Kv7/KCNQ/M-channels by the opener QO58-lysine and its anti-nociceptive effects on inflammatory pain in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Bo-chuan; Song, Yan; Zhang, Fan; Ma, Tian-yang; Qi, Jin-long; Zhang, Hai-lin; Li, Gang; Wang, KeWei

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the activation of neuronal Kv7/KCNQ channels by a novel modified Kv7 opener QO58-lysine and to test the anti-nociceptive effects of QO58-lysine on inflammatory pain in rodent models. Methods: Assays including whole-cell patch clamp recordings, HPLC, and in vivo pain behavioral evaluations were employed. Results: QO58-lysine caused instant activation of Kv7.2/7.3 currents, and increasing the dose of QO58-lysine resulted in a dose-dependent activation of Kv7.2/Kv7.3 currents with an EC50 of 1.2±0.2 μmol/L. QO58-lysine caused a leftward shift of the voltage-dependent activation of Kv7.2/Kv7.3 to a hyperpolarized potential at V1/2=-54.4±2.5 mV from V1/2=-26.0±0.6 mV. The half-life in plasma (t1/2) was derived as 2.9, 2.7, and 3.0 h for doses of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, respectively. The absolute bioavailabilities for the three doses (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) of QO58-lysine (po) were determined as 13.7%, 24.3%, and 39.3%, respectively. QO58-lysine caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the licking times during phase II pain induced by the injection of formalin into the mouse hindpaw. In the Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain model in rats, oral or intraperitoneal administration of QO58-lysine resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the paw withdrawal threshold, and the anti-nociceptive effect on mechanical allodynia could be reversed by the channel-specific blocker XE991 (3 mg/kg). Conclusion: Taken together, our findings show that a modified QO58 compound (QO58-lysine) can specifically activate Kv7.2/7.3/M-channels. Oral or intraperitoneal administration of QO58-lysine, which has improved bioavailability and a half-life of approximately 3 h in plasma, can reverse inflammatory pain in rodent animal models. PMID:27264315

  4. Degradation of Activated K-Ras Orthologue via K-Ras-specific Lysine Residues Is Required for Cytokinesis*

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Kazutaka; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Mika; Majd, Nazanin; Kahoud, Emily Rose; Takahashi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Koh; Kuroda, Taruho; Lee, Susan; Charest, Pascale G.; Takeda, Kosuke; Asara, John M.; Firtel, Richard A.; Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Sasaki, Atsuo T.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells encode three closely related Ras proteins, H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras. Oncogenic K-Ras mutations frequently occur in human cancers, which lead to dysregulated cell proliferation and genomic instability. However, mechanistic role of the Ras isoform regulation have remained largely unknown. Furthermore, the dynamics and function of negative regulation of GTP-loaded K-Ras have not been fully investigated. Here, we demonstrate RasG, the Dictyostelium orthologue of K-Ras, is targeted for degradation by polyubiquitination. Both ubiquitination and degradation of RasG were strictly associated with RasG activity. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis indicated that RasG ubiquitination occurs at C-terminal lysines equivalent to lysines found in human K-Ras but not in H-Ras and N-Ras homologues. Substitution of these lysine residues with arginines (4KR-RasG) diminished RasG ubiquitination and increased RasG protein stability. Cells expressing 4KR-RasG failed to undergo proper cytokinesis and resulted in multinucleated cells. Ectopically expressed human K-Ras undergoes polyubiquitin-mediated degradation in Dictyostelium, whereas human H-Ras and a Dictyostelium H-Ras homologue (RasC) are refractory to ubiquitination. Our results indicate the existence of GTP-loaded K-Ras orthologue-specific degradation system in Dictyostelium, and further identification of the responsible E3-ligase may provide a novel therapeutic approach against K-Ras-mutated cancers. PMID:24338482

  5. Enzymatic properties and anticancer activity of L-lysine α-oxidase from Trichoderma cf. aureoviride Rifai BKMF-4268D.

    PubMed

    Pokrovsky, Vadim S; Treshalina, Helen M; Lukasheva, Elena V; Sedakova, Ludmila A; Medentzev, Alexander G; Arinbasarova, Anna Yu; Berezov, Temirbolat T

    2013-09-01

    L-Lysine α-oxidase (LO) from a novel Trichoderma strain: Trichoderma cf. aureoviride Rifai shows favorable biochemical and kinetic properties (Km for L-lysine of 17.9 µmol/l, optimum pH 8.0, high stability) and significant antiproliferative activity both in vitro and in vivo. The molecular weight of LO was determined to be 115-116 kDa; the active dimer consists of two identical 57-58 kDa subunits. LO shows considerable cytotoxicity against the following tumor cell lines: K562, LS174T, HT29, SCOV3, PC3, and MCF7, with the inhibition concentration (IC50) ranging from 3.0×10 to 7.8×10 U/ml (3.2×10 to 8.2×10 mg/ml). Two human colon cancer xenografts HCT116 and LS174T and breast adenocarcinoma T47D implanted subcutaneously into Balb/c nude mice showed high sensitivity to LO with a T/C of 12, 37, and 36%, respectively (P<0.05). The antitumor efficacy of LO was observed in the absence of pronounced morbidity or toxicity in vivo. Taken together, these data suggest that LO may be considered as an effective anticancer agent for the treatment of solid tumors in vivo. This study presents promising data on the possible application of LO in clinical oncology for patients with colorectal cancer.

  6. Parasiticidal activity of a novel synthetic peptide from the core α-helical region of NK-lysin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Tuo, Wenbin; Murphy, Charles A; Hong, Yeong H; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2013-10-18

    NK-lysin is an anti-microbial peptide that plays a critical role in innate immunity against infectious pathogens through its selective membrane disruptive property. We previously expressed and purified a full-length chicken NK-lysin (cNKL) recombinant protein, and demonstrated its in vitro anti-parasitic activity against the apicomplexan protozoan, Eimeria, the etiologic agent of avian coccidiosis. This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anti-parasitic properties of a synthetic peptide (cNK-2) incorporating a predicted membrane-permeating, amphipathic α-helix of the full-length cNKL protein. The cNK-2 peptide exhibited dose- and time-dependent in vitro cytotoxic activity against E. acervulina and E. tenella sporozoites. The cytotoxic activity of 1.5 μM of cNK-2 peptide against E. acervulina following 6h incubation was equal to that of 2.5 μM of melittin, the principal active component of apitoxin (bee venom) that also exhibits anti-microbial activity. Even greater activity was detected against E. tenella, where 0.3 μM of cNK-2 peptide was equivalent to 2.5 μM of melittin. Against Neospora caninum tacyzoites, however, the cytotoxic activity of cNK-2 peptide was inferior to that of melittin. Transmission electron microscopy of peptide-treated E. tenella sporozoites revealed disruption of the outer plasma membrane and loss of intracellular contents. In vivo administration of 1.5 μM of cNK-2 peptide increased protection against experimental E. acervulina infection, as measured by greater body weight gain and reduced fecal oocyst shedding, compared with saline controls. These results suggest that the cNK-2 synthetic peptide is a novel anti-infective peptide that can be used for protection against avian coccidiosis during commercial poultry production.

  7. Adding a Lysine Mimic in the Design of Potent Inhibitors of Histone Lysine Methyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yanqi; Ganesh, Thota; Horton, John R.; Spannhoff, Astrid; Liu, Jin; Sun, Aiming; Zhang, Xing; Bedford, Mark T.; Shinkai, Yoichi; Snyder, James P.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2010-07-19

    Dynamic histone lysine methylation involves the activities of modifying enzymes (writers), enzymes removing modifications (erasers), and readers of the histone code. One common feature of these activities is the recognition of lysines in methylated and unmethylated states, whether they are substrates, reaction products, or binding partners. We applied the concept of adding a lysine mimic to an established inhibitor (BIX-01294) of histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferases G9a and G9a-like protein by including a 5-aminopentyloxy moiety, which is inserted into the target lysine-binding channel and becomes methylated by G9a-like protein, albeit slowly. The compound enhances its potency in vitro and reduces cell toxicity in vivo. We suggest that adding a lysine or methyl-lysine mimic should be considered in the design of small-molecule inhibitors for other methyl-lysine writers, erasers, and readers.

  8. Phage lysin LysK can be truncated to its CHAP domain and retain lytic activity against live antibiotic-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Marianne; O'Flynn, Gary; Garry, Jennifer; Cooney, Jakki; Coffey, Aidan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia

    2009-02-01

    A truncated derivative of the phage endolysin LysK containing only the CHAP (cysteine- and histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase) domain exhibited lytic activity against live clinical staphylococcal isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first known report of a truncated phage lysin which retains high lytic activity against live staphylococcal cells.

  9. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Enhanced HSP70 lysine methylation promotes proliferation of cancer cells through activation of Aurora kinase B

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Soo; Shimazu, Tadahiro; Toyokawa, Gouji; Daigo, Yataro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Hayami, Shinya; Ito, Akihiro; Masuda, Ken; Ikawa, Noriko; Field, Helen I.; Tsuchiya, Eiju; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Yoshida, Minoru; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2012-01-01

    Although heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), an evolutionarily highly conserved molecular chaperone, is known to be post-translationally modified in various ways such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination and glycosylation, physiological significance of lysine methylation has never been elucidated. Here we identify dimethylation of HSP70 at Lys-561 by SETD1A. Enhanced HSP70 methylation was detected in various types of human cancer by immunohistochemical analysis, although the methylation was barely detectable in corresponding non-neoplastic tissues. Interestingly, methylated HSP70 predominantly localizes to the nucleus of cancer cells, whereas most of the HSP70 protein locates to the cytoplasm. Nuclear HSP70 directly interacts with Aurora kinase B (AURKB) in a methylation-dependent manner and promotes AURKB activity in vitro and in vivo. We also find that methylated HSP70 has a growth-promoting effect in cancer cells. Our findings demonstrate a crucial role of HSP70 methylation in human carcinogenesis. PMID:22990868

  11. Acetyl-lysine analog peptides as mechanistic probes of protein deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian C; Denu, John M

    2007-12-21

    Class III histone deacetylases (Sir2 or sirtuins) catalyze the NAD+-dependent conversion of acetyl-lysine residues to nicotinamide, 2'-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (OAADPr), and deacetylated lysine. Class I and II HDACs utilize a different deacetylation mechanism, utilizing an active site zinc to direct hydrolysis of acetyl-lysine residues to lysine and acetate. Here, using ten acetyl-lysine analog peptides, we have probed the substrate binding pockets of sirtuins and investigated the catalytic differences among sirtuins and class I and II deacetylases. For the sirtuin Hst2, acetyl-lysine analog peptide binding correlated with the hydrophobic substituent parameter pi with a slope of -0.35 from a plot of log Kd versus pi. Interestingly, propionyl- and butyryl-lysine peptides were found to bind tighter to Hst2 compared with acetyl-lysine peptide and showed measurable rates of catalysis with Hst2, Sirt1, Sirt2, and Sirt3, suggesting propionyl- and butyryl-lysine proteins may be sirtuin substrates in vivo. Unique among the acetyl-lysine analog peptides examined, homocitrulline peptide produced ADP-ribose instead of the corresponding OAADPr analog. The electron-withdrawing nature of each acetyl analog had a profound impact on the deacylation rate between deacetylase classes. The rate of catalysis with the acetyl-lysine analog peptides varied over five orders of magnitude with the class III deacetylase Hst2, revealing a linear free energy relationship with a slope of -1.57 when plotted versus the Taft constant, sigma*. HDAC8, a class I deacetylase, displayed the opposite trend with a slope of +0.79. These results are applicable toward the development of selective substrates and other mechanistic probes of protein deacetylases.

  12. A lysine-to-arginine mutation on NEDD8 markedly reduces the activity of cullin RING E3 ligase through the impairment of neddylation cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Yiyan; Liu, Yaobin; Xu, Guoqiang

    2015-06-12

    Neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8) is a ubiquitin-like modifier, which forms covalent conjugates on lysines of its substrates. This post-translational modification, neddylation, plays important roles in tumor cell proliferation and viability. Ubiquitin can form diverse polyubiquitin chains, on its seven lysines, which play important functions in various biological processes. However, the roles of lysines in NEDD8 have not been explored. Here, we generated nine NEDD8 point mutants, each with one lysine replaced by an arginine, to study the putative function of lysines in NEDD8. Our experiments discover that Lys27 in NEDD8 is a critical residue for protein neddylation. Replacement of this residue with arginine almost completely eliminates the conjugation of NEDD8 to its substrates. Furthermore, we find that the K27R mutant impairs NEDD8 conjugation to the E2 enzyme, which normally forms thioester bonds for further transferring NEDD8 to its ligases and substrates. Therefore, this mutation completely inhibits global protein neddylation, including neddylation of cullin family proteins, resulting in decreased activity of cullin-RING E3 ligases. This work sheds new light on the roles of NEDD8 lysines on neddylation cascades and provides a dominant negative mutant for the study of neddylation and its biological functions. - Highlights: • Lys27 in NEDD8 is critical for protein neddylation. • NEDD8 K27R mutant impairs the NEDD8 conjugation. • NEDD8 K27R mutant significantly reduces the activity of cullin-RING E3 ligases.

  13. Impact of self-assembly properties on antibacterial activity of short acyl-lysine oligomers.

    PubMed

    Sarig, Hadar; Rotem, Shahar; Ziserman, Lior; Danino, Dganit; Mor, Amram

    2008-12-01

    We investigated both the structural and functional consequences of modifying the hydrophobic, lipopeptide-mimetic oligo-acyl-lysine (OAK) N(alpha)-hexadecanoyl-l-lysyl-l-lysyl-aminododecanoyl-l-lysyl-amide (c(16)KKc(12)K) to its unsaturated analog hexadecenoyl-KKc(12)K [c(16(omega7))KKc(12)K]. Despite similar tendencies for self-assembly in solution (critical aggregation concentrations, approximately 10 muM), the analogous OAKs displayed dissimilar antibacterial properties (e.g., bactericidal kinetics taking minutes versus hours). Diverse experimental evidence provided insight into these discrepancies: whereas c(16(omega7))KKc(12)K created wiry interconnected nanofiber networks, c(16)KKc(12)K formed both wider and stiffer fibers which displayed distinct binding properties to phospholipid membranes. Unsaturation also shifted their gel-to-liquid transition temperatures and altered their light-scattering properties, suggesting the disassembly of c(16(omega7))KKc(12)K in the presence of bacteria. Collectively, the data indicated that the higher efficiency in interfering with bacterial viability emanated from a wobbly packing imposed by a single double bond. This suggests that similar strategies might improve hydrophobic OAKs and related lipopeptide antibiotics.

  14. Parasiticidal activity of a novel synthetic peptide from the core a-helical region of NK-lysin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NK-lysin is an anti-microbial peptide that plays a critical role during innate immunity against infectious pathogens through its selective membrane disruptive property. We previously expressed and purified a full-length chicken NK-lysin (cNKL) recombinant protein, and demonstrated its in vitro anti-...

  15. Chemical modification of lysine and arginine residues of bovine heart 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase: effect on the enzyme activity and regulation.

    PubMed

    Ostrovtsova, S A

    1998-01-01

    Chemical modification of arginine and lysine residues of bovine heart 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase with phenylglyoxal and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate inactivated the enzyme, indicating the importance of these residues for the catalysis. Inactivation caused by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was prevented in the presence of thiamine pyrophosphate and Mg2+ allowing the assumption that lysine residues participate in binding of the cofactor.

  16. Activation of phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine does not require binding in the active site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth M; Khan, Crystal A; Hinck, Cynthia S; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2014-12-16

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH), a liver enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine, is activated by phenylalanine. The lack of activity at low levels of phenylalanine has been attributed to the N-terminus of the protein's regulatory domain acting as an inhibitory peptide by blocking substrate access to the active site. The location of the site at which phenylalanine binds to activate the enzyme is unknown, and both the active site in the catalytic domain and a separate site in the N-terminal regulatory domain have been proposed. Binding of catecholamines to the active-site iron was used to probe the accessibility of the active site. Removal of the regulatory domain increases the rate constants for association of several catecholamines with the wild-type enzyme by ∼2-fold. Binding of phenylalanine in the active site is effectively abolished by mutating the active-site residue Arg270 to lysine. The k(cat)/K(phe) value is down 10⁴ for the mutant enzyme, and the K(m) value for phenylalanine for the mutant enzyme is >0.5 M. Incubation of the R270K enzyme with phenylalanine also results in a 2-fold increase in the rate constants for catecholamine binding. The change in the tryptophan fluorescence emission spectrum seen in the wild-type enzyme upon activation by phenylalanine is also seen with the R270K mutant enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine. Both results establish that activation of PheH by phenylalanine does not require binding of the amino acid in the active site. This is consistent with a separate allosteric site, likely in the regulatory domain.

  17. Global Proteomics Analysis of Protein Lysine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xing-Jun; Garcia, Benjamin A.

    2017-01-01

    Lysine methylation is a common protein post-translational modification dynamically mediated by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) and demethylases (PKDMs). Beyond histone proteins, lysine methylation on non-histone proteins play substantial roles in a variety of functions in cells, and is closely associated with diseases such as cancer. A large body of evidence indicates that the dysregulation of some PKMTs lead to tumorigenesis via their non-histone substrates. However, more studies on other PKMTs have made slow progress owing to the lack of the approaches for extensive screening of lysine methylation sites. Recently a series of publications to perform large-scale analysis of protein lysine methylation have emerged. In this unit, we introduce a protocol for the global analysis of protein lysine methylation in cells by means of immunoaffinity enrichment and mass spectrometry. PMID:27801517

  18. Hydrogen Peroxide Linked to Lysine Oxidase Activity Facilitates Biofilm Differentiation and Dispersal in Several Gram-Negative Bacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Egan, Suhelen; Thomas, Torsten; Webb, Jeremy S.; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2008-01-01

    The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata produces an antibacterial and autolytic protein, AlpP, which causes death of a subpopulation of cells during biofilm formation and mediates differentiation, dispersal, and phenotypic variation among dispersal cells. The AlpP homologue (LodA) in the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea was recently identified as a lysine oxidase which mediates cell death through the production of hydrogen peroxide. Here we show that AlpP in P. tunicata also acts as a lysine oxidase and that the hydrogen peroxide generated is responsible for cell death within microcolonies during biofilm development in both M. mediterranea and P. tunicata. LodA-mediated biofilm cell death is shown to be linked to the generation of phenotypic variation in growth and biofilm formation among M. mediterranea biofilm dispersal cells. Moreover, AlpP homologues also occur in several other gram-negative bacteria from diverse environments. Our results show that subpopulations of cells in microcolonies also die during biofilm formation in two of these organisms, Chromobacterium violaceum and Caulobacter crescentus. In all organisms, hydrogen peroxide was implicated in biofilm cell death, because it could be detected at the same time as the killing occurred, and the addition of catalase significantly reduced biofilm killing. In C. violaceum the AlpP-homologue was clearly linked to biofilm cell death events since an isogenic mutant (CVMUR1) does not undergo biofilm cell death. We propose that biofilm killing through hydrogen peroxide can be linked to AlpP homologue activity and plays an important role in dispersal and colonization across a range of gram-negative bacteria. PMID:18502869

  19. Characterization of a second lysine decarboxylase isolated from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Y; Kojima, H; Tanaka, T; Takatsuka, Y; Kamio, Y

    1997-01-01

    We report here on the existence of a new gene for lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli K-12. The hybridization experiments with a cadA probe at low stringency showed that the homologous region of cadA was located in lambda Kohara phage clone 6F5 at 4.7 min on the E. coli chromosome. We cloned the 5.0-kb HindIII fragment of this phage clone and sequenced the homologous region of cadA. This region contained a 2,139-nucleotide open reading frame encoding a 713-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 80,589. Overexpression of the protein and determination of its N-terminal amino acid sequence defined the translational start site of this gene. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69.4% identity to that of lysine decarboxylase encoded by cadA at 93.7 min on the E. coli chromosome. In addition, the level of lysine decarboxylase activity increased in strains carrying multiple copies of the gene. Therefore, the gene encoding this lysine decarboxylase was designated Idc. Analysis of the lysine decarboxylase activity of strains containing cadA, ldc, or cadA ldc mutations indicated that ldc was weakly expressed under various conditions but is a functional gene in E. coli. PMID:9226257

  20. Lysine 246 of the vitamin D receptor is crucial for ligand-dependent interaction with coactivators and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Lara, A M; Aranda, A

    1999-05-07

    Mutant K246A in the predicted helix 3 of the ligand-binding domain, as well as mutants L417S and E420Q in helix 12, which contains the core ligand-dependent transcriptional activation domain (AF-2), were generated to examine AF-2 activity of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). These mutations abolished vitamin D-dependent transactivation. In addition, VDR mediates a ligand-dependent repression of the response of the retinoic acid receptor beta2 promoter to retinoic acid, and the helix 3 and helix 12 mutants were unable to mediate transrepression. Furthermore, the VDR mutants, but not the native receptor, enhanced phorbol ester induction of the activator protein-1-containing collagenase promoter. The helix 3 and helix 12 mutations strikingly reduced the ability of VDR to interact with the coactivators steroid receptor coactivator-1, ACTR, and the CREB-binding protein. As a consequence, overexpression of steroid receptor coactivator-1 increased vitamin D-dependent transactivation by VDR but not by the K246A mutant. These results indicate that the lysine 246 participates, together with residues in helix 12, in the recruitment of coactivators and that AF-2 activity is involved both in ligand-dependent transactivation and in transrepression by VDR.

  1. A novel chimeric lysin with robust antibacterial activity against planktonic and biofilm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hang; Zhang, Huaidong; Wang, Jing; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most threatening pathogens due to its multi-drug resistance (MDR) and strong biofilm-forming capacity. Here, we described the screening of a novel chimeolysin (ClyF) that was active against planktonic and biofilm MRSA. Biochemical tests showed that ClyF was active against all S. aureus clinical isolates tested under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Structure analysis revealed that ClyF has an enhanced thermostability and pH tolerance than its parental lysin Pc by forming a hydrophobic cleft in the catalytic domain and an Ig-like structure in the cell-wall binding domain. A single intraperitoneally or topically administration of ClyF showed good MRSA removing efficacy in mouse models of bacteremia and burn wound infection, respectively. Our data collectively demonstrated that ClyF has good bactericidal activity against planktonic and biofilm MRSA both in vitro and in vivo, and therefore represents a useful antibacterial to combat MDR S. aureus. PMID:28067286

  2. Mal-Lys: prediction of lysine malonylation sites in proteins integrated sequence-based features with mRMR feature selection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Ding, Ya-Xin; Ding, Jun; Wu, Ling-Yun; Xue, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Lysine malonylation is an important post-translational modification (PTM) in proteins, and has been characterized to be associated with diseases. However, identifying malonyllysine sites still remains to be a great challenge due to the labor-intensive and time-consuming experiments. In view of this situation, the establishment of a useful computational method and the development of an efficient predictor are highly desired. In this study, a predictor Mal-Lys which incorporated residue sequence order information, position-specific amino acid propensity and physicochemical properties was proposed. A feature selection method of minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) was used to select optimal ones from the whole features. With the leave-one-out validation, the value of the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as 0.8143, whereas 6-, 8- and 10-fold cross-validations had similar AUC values which showed the robustness of the predictor Mal-Lys. The predictor also showed satisfying performance in the experimental data from the UniProt database. Meanwhile, a user-friendly web-server for Mal-Lys is accessible at http://app.aporc.org/Mal-Lys/. PMID:27910954

  3. Effects of basic site proximity on deprotonation and hydrogen/deuterium exchange reactions for model dodecapeptide ions containing lysine and glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Ewing, Nigel P.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    1998-05-01

    The effects of basic site proximity on gas-phase deprotonation and hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions were investigated for three model dodecapeptide ions in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Each peptide contained four high basicity lysine (K) residues and eight low basicity glycine (G) residues; however, the ordering of the residues differed. In the deprotonation studies, `fully protonated' peptide ions, [M + 4H]4+, where M = (KGG)4, (K2G4)2, and K4G8, were reacted with reference compounds of known basicities. Reaction efficiencies were in the order: [K4G8 + 4H]4+ > [(K2G4)2 + 4H]4+ ~ [(KGG)4 + 4H]4+. The facile reaction of [K4G8 + 4H]4+ is consistent with this ion having the highest Coulomb energy. For gas-phase H/D exchange reactions with d4-methanol, [K4G8 + 4H]4+ has the fastest exchange rate and undergoes the largest number of exchanges; 22 of the 26 labile hydrogens exchanged within the timescale studied. In contrast, [(KGG)4 + 4H]4+ and [(K2G4)2 + 4H]4+ reacted more slowly, but at similar rates, with a maximum of 14 observed exchanges for both ions. Molecular dynamics calculations were conducted to gain insights into conformations. In the lowest energy structures for [(KGG)4 + 4H]4+ and [(K2G4)2 + 4H]4+, the lysine n-butylamino chains stretch out to minimize Coulomb energy; there is little or no intramolecular hydrogen bonding involving the protonated amino groups. In contrast, for [K4G8 + 4H]4+, the proximity of the basicity residues makes minimization of the Coulomb energy difficult; instead, the structure becomes more compact with stabilization of the protonated amino groups by extensive intramolecular hydrogen bonding to heteroatoms in the peptide backbone. The calculated structures suggest that, in the H/D exchange reactions, the compact conformation of [K4G8 + 4H]4+ allows stabilization of the methanolpeptide intermediate by hydrogen bonding, thus lowering the barrier to proton transfer within the complex. The

  4. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Sadhana A.; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  5. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2015-06-19

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms.

  6. Structural Basis for l-Lysine Feedback Inhibition of Homocitrate Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-09-02

    The {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway of lysine biosynthesis is modulated at the transcriptional and biochemical levels by feedback inhibition. The first enzyme in the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway, homocitrate synthase (HCS), is the target of the feedback regulation and is strongly inhibited by L-lysine. Here we report the structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe HCS (SpHCS) in complex with L-lysine. The structure illustrates that the amino acid directly competes with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate for binding within the active site of HCS. Differential recognition of the substrate and inhibitor is achieved via a switch position within the ({alpha}/{beta}){sub 8} TIM barrel of the enzyme that can distinguish between the C5-carboxylate group of 2-oxoglutarate and the {epsilon}-ammonium group of L-lysine. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrate that mutations of the switch residues, which interact with the L-lysine {epsilon}-ammonium group, abrogate feedback inhibition, as do substitutions of residues within the C-terminal domain that were identified in a previous study of L-lysine-insensitive HCS mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Together, these results yield new insights into the mechanism of feedback regulation of an enzyme central to lysine biosynthesis.

  7. Properties of a recombinant human hemoglobin with aspartic acid 99(beta), an important intersubunit contact site, substituted by lysine.

    PubMed Central

    Yanase, H.; Cahill, S.; Martin de Llano, J. J.; Manning, L. R.; Schneider, K.; Chait, B. T.; Vandegriff, K. D.; Winslow, R. M.; Manning, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of an important subunit contact site, Asp-99(beta), by a Lys residue (D99K(beta)) was proven by sequencing the entire beta-globin gene and the mutant tryptic peptide. Oxygen equilibrium curves of the mutant hemoglobin (Hb) (2-15 mM in heme) indicated that it had an increased oxygen affinity and a lowered but significant amount of cooperativity compared to native HbA. However, in contrast to normal HbA, oxygen binding of the recombinant mutant Hb was only marginally affected by the allosteric regulators 2,3-diphosphoglycerate or inositol hexaphosphate and was not at all responsive to chloride. The efficiency of oxygen binding by HbA in the presence of allosteric regulators was limited by the mutant Hb. At concentrations of 0.2 mM or lower in heme, the mutant D99K(beta) Hb was predominantly a dimer as demonstrated by gel filtration, haptoglobin binding, fluorescence quenching, and light scattering. The purified dimeric recombinant Hb mutant exists in 2 forms that are separable on isoelectric focusing by about 0.1 pH unit, in contrast to tetrameric hemoglobin, which shows 1 band. These mutant forms, which were present in a ratio of 60:40, had the same masses for their heme and globin moieties as determined by mass spectrometry. The elution positions of the alpha- and beta-globin subunits on HPLC were identical. Circular dichroism studies showed that one form of the mutant Hb had a negative ellipticity at 410 nm and the other had positive ellipticity at this wavelength. The findings suggest that the 2 D99K(beta) recombinant mutant forms have differences in their heme-protein environments. PMID:7987216

  8. Site-specific methylation and acetylation of lysine residues in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kirsten; Forné, Ignasi; Descostes, Nicolas; Hintermair, Corinna; Schüller, Roland; Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Heidemann, Martin; Flatley, Andrew; Imhof, Axel; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; Eick, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic modification of heptad-repeats with the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates transcription-coupled processes. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that K7-residues in non-consensus repeats of human RNAPII are modified by acetylation, or mono-, di-, and tri-methylation. K7ac, K7me2, and K7me3 were found exclusively associated with phosphorylated CTD peptides, while K7me1 occurred also in non-phosphorylated CTD. The monoclonal antibody 1F5 recognizes K7me1/2 residues in CTD and reacts with RNAPIIA. Treatment of cellular extracts with phosphatase or of cells with the kinase inhibitor flavopiridol unmasked the K7me1/2 epitope in RNAPII0, consistent with the association of K7me1/2 marks with phosphorylated CTD peptides. Genome-wide profiling revealed high levels of K7me1/2 marks at the transcriptional start site of genes for sense and antisense transcribing RNAPII. The new K7 modifications further expand the mammalian CTD code to allow regulation of differential gene expression.

  9. Site-specific methylation and acetylation of lysine residues in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Kirsten; Forné, Ignasi; Descostes, Nicolas; Hintermair, Corinna; Schüller, Roland; Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Heidemann, Martin; Flatley, Andrew; Imhof, Axel; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; Eick, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic modification of heptad-repeats with the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates transcription-coupled processes. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that K7-residues in non-consensus repeats of human RNAPII are modified by acetylation, or mono-, di-, and tri-methylation. K7ac, K7me2, and K7me3 were found exclusively associated with phosphorylated CTD peptides, while K7me1 occurred also in non-phosphorylated CTD. The monoclonal antibody 1F5 recognizes K7me1/2 residues in CTD and reacts with RNAPIIA. Treatment of cellular extracts with phosphatase or of cells with the kinase inhibitor flavopiridol unmasked the K7me1/2 epitope in RNAPII0, consistent with the association of K7me1/2 marks with phosphorylated CTD peptides. Genome-wide profiling revealed high levels of K7me1/2 marks at the transcriptional start site of genes for sense and antisense transcribing RNAPII. The new K7 modifications further expand the mammalian CTD code to allow regulation of differential gene expression. PMID:26566685

  10. Normal Modes Expose Active Sites in Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Glantz-Gashai, Yitav; Samson, Abraham O.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of active sites is an important tool in bioinformatics. Here we present an improved structure based technique to expose active sites that is based on large changes of solvent accessibility accompanying normal mode dynamics. The technique which detects EXPOsure of active SITes through normal modEs is named EXPOSITE. The technique is trained using a small 133 enzyme dataset and tested using a large 845 enzyme dataset, both with known active site residues. EXPOSITE is also tested in a benchmark protein ligand dataset (PLD) comprising 48 proteins with and without bound ligands. EXPOSITE is shown to successfully locate the active site in most instances, and is found to be more accurate than other structure-based techniques. Interestingly, in several instances, the active site does not correspond to the largest pocket. EXPOSITE is advantageous due to its high precision and paves the way for structure based prediction of active site in enzymes. PMID:28002427

  11. LLY-507, a cell-active, potent, and selective inhibitor of protein-lysine methyltransferase SMYD2

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Hannah; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Antonysamy, Stephen; Chang, Shawn; Chen, Lisa Hong; Curtis, Carmen; Emtage, Spencer; Fan, Li; Gheyi, Tarun; Li, Fengling; Liu, Shichong; Martin, Joseph R.; Mendel, David; Olsen, Jonathan B.; Pelletier, Laura; Shatseva, Tatiana; Wu, Song; Zhang, Feiyu Fred; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Brown, Peter J.; Campbell, Robert M.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Mader, Mary; Vedadi, Masoud

    2015-03-30

    SMYD2 is a lysine methyltransferase that catalyzes the monomethylation of several protein substrates including p53. SMYD2 is overexpressed in a significant percentage of esophageal squamous primary carcinomas, and that overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. However, the mechanism(s) by which SMYD2 promotes oncogenesis is not understood. A small molecule probe for SMYD2 would allow for the pharmacological dissection of this biology. In this report, we disclose LLY-507, a cell-active, potent small molecule inhibitor of SMYD2. LLY-507 is >100-fold selective for SMYD2 over a broad range of methyltransferase and non-methyltransferase targets. A 1.63-Å resolution crystal structure of SMYD2 in complex with LLY-507 shows the inhibitor binding in the substrate peptide binding pocket. LLY-507 is active in cells as measured by reduction of SMYD2-induced monomethylation of p53 Lys(370) at submicromolar concentrations. We used LLY-507 to further test other potential roles of SMYD2. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics showed that cellular global histone methylation levels were not significantly affected by SMYD2 inhibition with LLY-507, and subcellular fractionation studies indicate that SMYD2 is primarily cytoplasmic, suggesting that SMYD2 targets a very small subset of histones at specific chromatin loci and/or non-histone substrates. Breast and liver cancers were identified through in silico data mining as tumor types that display amplification and/or overexpression of SMYD2. LLY-507 inhibited the proliferation of several esophageal, liver, and breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. As a result, these findings suggest that LLY-507 serves as a valuable chemical probe to aid in the dissection of SMYD2 function in cancer and other biological processes.

  12. LLY-507, a cell-active, potent, and selective inhibitor of protein-lysine methyltransferase SMYD2

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Hannah; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Antonysamy, Stephen; ...

    2015-03-30

    SMYD2 is a lysine methyltransferase that catalyzes the monomethylation of several protein substrates including p53. SMYD2 is overexpressed in a significant percentage of esophageal squamous primary carcinomas, and that overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. However, the mechanism(s) by which SMYD2 promotes oncogenesis is not understood. A small molecule probe for SMYD2 would allow for the pharmacological dissection of this biology. In this report, we disclose LLY-507, a cell-active, potent small molecule inhibitor of SMYD2. LLY-507 is >100-fold selective for SMYD2 over a broad range of methyltransferase and non-methyltransferase targets. A 1.63-Å resolution crystal structure of SMYD2 in complex withmore » LLY-507 shows the inhibitor binding in the substrate peptide binding pocket. LLY-507 is active in cells as measured by reduction of SMYD2-induced monomethylation of p53 Lys(370) at submicromolar concentrations. We used LLY-507 to further test other potential roles of SMYD2. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics showed that cellular global histone methylation levels were not significantly affected by SMYD2 inhibition with LLY-507, and subcellular fractionation studies indicate that SMYD2 is primarily cytoplasmic, suggesting that SMYD2 targets a very small subset of histones at specific chromatin loci and/or non-histone substrates. Breast and liver cancers were identified through in silico data mining as tumor types that display amplification and/or overexpression of SMYD2. LLY-507 inhibited the proliferation of several esophageal, liver, and breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. As a result, these findings suggest that LLY-507 serves as a valuable chemical probe to aid in the dissection of SMYD2 function in cancer and other biological processes.« less

  13. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antitumor activity of epsilon-poly-L-lysine and citral, alone or in combination

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ce; Zhao, Xingchen; Liu, Zonghui; Meng, Rizeng; Chen, Xiangrong; Guo, Na

    2016-01-01

    Background Food safety is an important worldwide public health concern, and microbial contamination in foods not only leads to food deterioration and shelf life reduction but also results in economic losses and disease. Objective The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of epsilon-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) and citral combination against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) strains. The preliminary antioxidant and antitumor activities were also studied. Design Synergism is a positive interaction created when two compounds combine and exert an inhibitory effect that is greater than the sum of their individual effects. The synergistic antimicrobial effect of ε-PL and citral was studied using the checkerboard method against E. coli O157:H7. The minimal inhibitory concentration, time-kill, and scanning electron microscope assays were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of ε-PL and citral alone or in combination; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-scavenging assay and western blotting were used in antioxidant activity assays; cell viability assay was carried out to finish preliminary antitumor test. Results Minimal inhibitory concentrations of ε-PL and citral resisted to the five E. coli O157:H7 strains were 2–4 µg/mL and 0.5–1 µg/mL, and the fractional inhibitory concentration indices were 0.25–0.375. The results of time-kill assay revealed that a stronger bactericidal effect in a laboratory medium might be exerted in the combination against E. coli O157:H7 than that in a food model. The compounds alone or in combination exhibited a potential 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical–scavenging activity, and the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 and glutathione peroxidase 1 protein increased. The preliminary antitumor activity effect of the combination was better than ε-PL or citral alone. Conclusions These findings indicated that the combination of ε-PL and citral could not only be used as a promising naturally sourced food

  14. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Surface-Exposed Lysine Residues Leads to Improved Transduction by AAV2, But Not AAV8, Vectors in Murine Hepatocytes In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baozheng; Ma, Wenqin; Ling, Chen; Van Vliet, Kim; Huang, Lin-Ya; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Srivastava, Arun; Aslanidi, George V.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin–proteasome pathway plays a critical role in the intracellular trafficking of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors, which negatively impacts the transduction efficiency of these vectors. Because ubiquitination occurs on lysine (K) residues, we performed site-directed mutagenesis where we replaced each of 10 surface-exposed K residues (K258, K490, K507, K527, K532, K544, K549, K556, K665, and K706) with glutamic acid (E) because of similarity of size and lack of recognition by modifying enzymes. The transduction efficiency of K490E, K544E, K549E, and K556E scAAV2 vectors increased in HeLa cells in vitro up to 5-fold compared with wild-type (WT) AAV2 vectors, with the K556E mutant being the most efficient. Intravenous delivery of WT and K-mutant ssAAV2 vectors further corroborated these results in murine hepatocytes in vivo. Because AAV8 vectors transduce murine hepatocytes exceedingly well, and because some of the surface-exposed K residues are conserved between these serotypes, we generated and tested two single mutants (K547E and K569E), and one double-mutant (K547 + 569E) AAV8 vector. However, no significant increase in the transduction efficiency of any of these mutant AAV8 vectors was observed in murine hepatocytes in vivo. These studies suggest that although targeting the surface-exposed K residues is yet another strategy to improve the transduction efficiency of AAV vectors, phenotypic outcome is serotype specific. PMID:26421998

  15. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Surface-Exposed Lysine Residues Leads to Improved Transduction by AAV2, But Not AAV8, Vectors in Murine Hepatocytes In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Baozheng; Ma, Wenqin; Ling, Chen; Van Vliet, Kim; Huang, Lin-Ya; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Srivastava, Arun; Aslanidi, George V

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a critical role in the intracellular trafficking of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors, which negatively impacts the transduction efficiency of these vectors. Because ubiquitination occurs on lysine (K) residues, we performed site-directed mutagenesis where we replaced each of 10 surface-exposed K residues (K258, K490, K507, K527, K532, K544, K549, K556, K665, and K706) with glutamic acid (E) because of similarity of size and lack of recognition by modifying enzymes. The transduction efficiency of K490E, K544E, K549E, and K556E scAAV2 vectors increased in HeLa cells in vitro up to 5-fold compared with wild-type (WT) AAV2 vectors, with the K556E mutant being the most efficient. Intravenous delivery of WT and K-mutant ssAAV2 vectors further corroborated these results in murine hepatocytes in vivo. Because AAV8 vectors transduce murine hepatocytes exceedingly well, and because some of the surface-exposed K residues are conserved between these serotypes, we generated and tested two single mutants (K547E and K569E), and one double-mutant (K547 + 569E) AAV8 vector. However, no significant increase in the transduction efficiency of any of these mutant AAV8 vectors was observed in murine hepatocytes in vivo. These studies suggest that although targeting the surface-exposed K residues is yet another strategy to improve the transduction efficiency of AAV vectors, phenotypic outcome is serotype specific.

  16. Lysine biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa): study of enzymes and nitrogen-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Varisi, Vanderlei A; Camargos, Liliane S; Aguiar, Leandro F; Christofoleti, Renata M; Medici, Leonardo O; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2008-01-01

    Aspartate kinase (AK, EC 2.7.2.4), homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH, EC 1.1.1.3) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS, EC 4.2.1.52) were isolated and partially purified from immature Chenopodium quinoa Willd seeds. Enzyme activities were studied in the presence of the aspartate-derived amino acids lysine, threonine and methionine and also the lysine analogue S-2-aminoethyl-l-cysteine (AEC), at 1 mM and 5 mM. The results confirmed the existence of, at least, two AK isoenzymes, one inhibited by lysine and the other inhibited by threonine, the latter being predominant in quinoa seeds. HSDH activity was also shown to be partially inhibited by threonine, whereas some of the activity was resistant to the inhibitory effect, indicating the presence of two isoenzymes, one resistant and another sensitive to threonine inhibition. Only one DHDPS isoenzyme highly sensitive to lysine inhibition was detected. The results suggest that the high concentration of lysine observed in quinoa seeds is possibly due to a combined effect of increased lysine synthesis and accumulation in the soluble form and/or as protein lysine. Nitrogen assimilation was also investigated and based on nitrate content, nitrate reductase activity, amino acid distribution and ureide content, the leaves were identified as the predominant site of nitrate reduction in this plant species. The amino acid profile analysis in leaves and roots also indicated an important role of soluble glutamine as a nitrogen transporting compound.

  17. Hemoglobinase activity of the lysine gingipain protease (Kgp) of Porphyromonas gingivalis W83.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J P; Dawson, J A; Hannis, J C; Muddiman, D; Macrina, F L

    1999-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal disease pathogen, forms black-pigmented colonies on blood agar. Pigmentation is believed to result from accumulation of iron protoporphyrin IX (FePPIX) derived from erythrocytic hemoglobin. The Lys-X (Lys-gingipain) and Arg-X (Arg-gingipain) cysteine proteases of P. gingivalis bind and degrade erythrocytes. We have observed that mutations abolishing activity of the Lys-X-specific cysteine protease, Kgp, resulted in loss of black pigmentation of P. gingivalis W83. Because the hemagglutinating and hemolytic potentials of mutant strains were reduced but not eliminated, we hypothesized that this protease played a role in acquisition of FePPIX from hemoglobin. In contrast to Arg-gingipain, Lys-gingipain was not inhibited by hemin, suggesting that this protease played a role near the cell surface where high concentrations of hemin confer the black pigmentation. Human hemoglobin contains 11 Lys residues in the alpha chain and 10 Lys residues in the beta chain. In contrast, there are only three Arg residues in each of the alpha and beta chains. These observations are consistent with human hemoglobin being a preferred substrate for Lys-gingipain but not Arg-gingipain. The ability of the Lys-gingipain to cleave human hemoglobin at Lys residues was confirmed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry of hemoglobin fragments resulting from digestion with the purified protease. We were able to detect several of the predicted hemoglobin fragments rendered by digestion with purified Lys-gingipain. Thus, we postulate that the Lys-gingipain of P. gingivalis is a hemoglobinase which plays a role in heme and iron uptake by effecting the accumulation of FePPIX on the bacterial cell surface.

  18. Identification of a novel K311 ubiquitination site critical for androgen receptor transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    McClurg, Urszula L; Cork, David M W; Darby, Steven; Ryan-Munden, Claudia A; Nakjang, Sirintra; Mendes Côrtes, Leticia; Treumann, Achim; Gaughan, Luke; Robson, Craig N

    2016-11-29

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the main driver of prostate cancer (PC) development and progression, and the primary therapeutic target in PC. To date, two functional ubiquitination sites have been identified on AR, both located in its C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD). Recent reports highlight the emergence of AR splice variants lacking the LBD that can arise during disease progression and contribute to castrate resistance. Here, we report a novel N-terminal ubiquitination site at lysine 311. Ubiquitination of this site plays a role in AR stability and is critical for its transcriptional activity. Inactivation of this site causes AR to accumulate on chromatin and inactivates its transcriptional function as a consequence of inability to bind to p300. Additionally, mutation at lysine 311 affects cellular transcriptome altering the expression of genes involved in chromatin organization, signaling, adhesion, motility, development and metabolism. Even though this site is present in clinically relevant AR-variants it can only be ubiquitinated in cells when AR retains LBD suggesting a role for AR C-terminus in E2/E3 substrate recognition. We report that as a consequence AR variants lacking the LBD cannot be ubiquitinated in the cellular environment and their protein turnover must be regulated via an alternate pathway.

  19. Lysine Fermentation: History and Genome Breeding.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masato

    2016-11-11

    Lysine fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum was developed in 1958 by Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd. (current Kyowa Hakko Bio Co. Ltd.) and is the second oldest amino acid fermentation process after glutamate fermentation. The fundamental mechanism of lysine production, discovered in the early stages of the process's history, gave birth to the concept known as "metabolic regulatory fermentation," which is now widely applied to metabolite production. After the development of rational metabolic engineering, research on lysine production first highlighted the need for engineering of the central metabolism from the viewpoints of precursor supply and NADPH regeneration. Furthermore, the existence of active export systems for amino acids was first demonstrated for lysine in C. glutamicum, and this discovery has resulted in the current recognition of such exporters as an important consideration in metabolite production. Lysine fermentation is also notable as the first process to which genomics was successfully applied to improve amino acid production. The first global "genome breeding" strategy was developed using a lysine producer as a model; this has since led to new lysine producers that are more efficient than classical industrial producers. These advances in strain development technology, combined with recent systems-level approaches, have almost achieved the optimization of entire cellular systems as cell factories for lysine production. In parallel, the continuous improvement of the process has resulted not only in fermentation processes with reduced load on downstream processing but also in commercialization of various product forms according to their intended uses. Nowadays lysine fermentation underpins a giant lysine demand of more than 2 million metric tons per year.

  20. A Novel Staphylococcus Podophage Encodes a Unique Lysin with Unusual Modular Design

    PubMed Central

    Cater, Katie; Dandu, Vidya Sree; Bari, S. M. Nayeemul; Lackey, Kim; Everett, Gabriel F. K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drug-resistant staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, are leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. Bacteriophages and their peptidoglycan hydrolytic enzymes (lysins) are currently being explored as alternatives to conventional antibiotics; however, only a limited diversity of staphylococcal phages and their lysins has yet been characterized. Here, we describe a novel staphylococcal phage and its lysins. Bacteriophage Andhra is the first reported S. epidermidis phage belonging to the family Podoviridae. Andhra possesses an 18,546-nucleotide genome with 20 open reading frames. BLASTp searches revealed that gene product 10 (gp10) and gp14 harbor putative catalytic domains with predicted peptidase and amidase activities, characteristic functions of phage lysins. We purified these proteins and show that both Andhra_gp10 and Andhra_gp14 inhibit growth and degrade cell walls of diverse staphylococci, with Andhra_gp10 exhibiting more robust activity against the panel of cell wall substrates tested. Site-directed mutagenesis of its predicted catalytic residues abrogated the activity of Andhra_gp10, consistent with the presence of a catalytic CHAP domain on its C terminus. The active site location combined with the absence of an SH3b cell wall binding domain distinguishes Andhra_gp10 from the majority of staphylococcal lysins characterized to date. Importantly, close homologs of Andhra_gp10 are present in related staphylococcal podophages, and we propose that these constitute a new class of phage-encoded lysins. Altogether, our results reveal insights into the biology of a rare family of staphylococcal phages while adding to the arsenal of antimicrobials with potential for therapeutic use. IMPORTANCE The spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is inciting a global public health crisis. Drug-resistant Staphylococcus species, especially S. aureus and S. epidermidis, have emerged in both hospital

  1. Lethal Factor Active-Site Mutations Affect Catalytic Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, S. E.; Hanna, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    The lethal factor (LF) protein of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin contains the thermolysin-like active-site and zinc-binding consensus motif HEXXH (K. R. Klimpel, N. Arora, and S. H. Leppla, Mol. Microbiol. 13:1093–1100, 1994). LF is hypothesized to act as a Zn2+ metalloprotease in the cytoplasm of macrophages, but no proteolytic activities have been previously shown on any target substrate. Here, synthetic peptides are hydrolyzed by LF in vitro. Mass spectroscopy and peptide sequencing of isolated cleavage products separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography indicate that LF seems to prefer proline-containing substrates. Substitution mutations within the consensus active-site residues completely abolish all in vitro catalytic functions, as does addition of 1,10-phenanthroline, EDTA, and certain amino acid hydroxamates, including the novel zinc metalloprotease inhibitor ZINCOV. In contrast, the protease inhibitors bestatin and lysine CMK, previously shown to block LF activity on macrophages, did not block LF activity in vitro. These data provide the first direct evidence that LF may act as an endopeptidase. PMID:9573135

  2. [Antimycoplasmic Activity of Fermentation Broth of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai F-180, an Organism Producing L-Lysine-α-Oxidase, an Antitumor and Antiviral Enzyme].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, I P; Rakovskaya, I V

    2014-01-01

    A concentrate of the fermentation broth of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai F-180, an organism producing L-lysine-α-oxidase, an antitumor and antiviral enzyme, with the activity in the fermentation broth of 0.54-0.56 U/mI was recovered. The effect of the concentrate on the mycoplasmas growth was investigated for the first time. Two representatives of Mycoplasmafaceae, i.e. Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma fermentans and one representative of Aholeplasmataceae. i. e. Aholeplasma laidlawii were used. It was shown that the fermentation broth inhibited the growth of Mycoplasma hominis after the preliminary exposure. The inhibition rate depended on the mycoplasma inoculation dose and the fermentation broth concentration.

  3. Mineral composition of seawater bittern nigari products and their effects on changing of browning and antioxidant activity in the glucose/lysine maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Takashi; Yano, Toshihiro

    2014-03-01

    Seawater bittern (nigari) is a concentrated solution remaining after the crystallization process of salt that has been used as a coagulant for tofu. Recently, various nigari products are distributed in the East Asia. To clarify the properties of nigari products, major mineral composition of six nigari products was determined. Then, effects of the nigari on the browning and antioxidant activity during the glucose/lysine Maillard reaction were investigated. Though the predominant cation was Mg(2+), the content was varied by each product (0.88-6.49 mol/L). The other major ion contents were also varied. Each 0.5 mol/L of D-glucose and L-lysine were incubated with the nigari (5-50% (v/v)) or nigari-related salts (1 or 2 mol/L). The browning (OD at 465 nm) and antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity and ferrous-reducing power) were increased remarkably by the nigari containing high Mg(2+) content. The browning tended to be high with sulfates (Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4). On the other hand, high content of MgCl2 decreased slightly the browning and antioxidant activity. These results suggest that the reaction and antioxidant activities were affected not only by salinity and cations but also by anions and other elements in the nigari.

  4. Site-saturation engineering of lysine 47 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans to enhance substrate specificity towards maltodextrin for enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G).

    PubMed

    Han, Ruizhi; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the site-saturation engineering of lysine 47 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Paenibacillus macerans was conducted to improve the specificity of CGTase towards maltodextrin, which can be used as a cheap and easily soluble glycosyl donor for the enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) by CGTase. When using maltodextrin as glycosyl donor, four mutants K47F (lysine→ phenylalanine), K47L (lysine→ leucine), K47V (lysine→ valine) and K47W (lysine→ tryptophan) showed higher AA-2G yield as compared with that produced by the wild-type CGTase. The transformation conditions (temperature, pH and the mass ratio of L-ascorbic acid to maltodextrin) were optimized and the highest titer of AA-2G produced by the mutant K47L could reach 1.97 g/l, which was 64.2% higher than that (1.20 g/l) produced by the wild-type CGTase. The reaction kinetics analysis confirmed the enhanced maltodextrin specificity, and it was also found that compared with the wild-type CGTase, the four mutants had relatively lower cyclization activities and higher disproportionation activities, which was favorable for AA-2G synthesis. The mechanism responsible for the enhanced substrate specificity was further explored by structure modeling and it was indicated that the enhancement of maltodextrin specificity may be due to the short residue chain and the removal of hydrogen bonding interactions between the side chain of residue 47 and the sugar at -3 subsite. Here the obtained mutant CGTases, especially the K47L, has a great potential in the production of AA-2G with maltodextrin as a cheap and easily soluble substrate.

  5. Effect of dietary lysine on hepatic lysine catabolism in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lysine is frequently a first- or second-limiting amino acid in poultry diets. Improving the efficiency of lysine use for protein synthesis would effectively lower the lysine requirement and decrease feed costs. Understanding how lysine is degraded and how the degradation is regulated would identif...

  6. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate inactivates DNA topoisomerase IB by modifying the lysine general acid.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Jacqueline J; Christmann-Franck, Serge; Karabashyan, Leon V; Fermandjian, Serge; Mirambeau, Gilles; Der Garabedian, P Arsène

    2004-01-01

    The present results demonstrate that pyridoxal, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxal 5'-diphospho-5'-adenosine (PLP-AMP) inhibit Candida guilliermondii and human DNA topoisomerases I in forming an aldimine with the epsilon-amino group of an active site lysine. PLP acts as a competitive inhibitor of C.guilliermondii topoisomerase I (K(i) = 40 microM) that blocks the cleavable complex formation. Chemical reduction of PLP-treated enzyme reveals incorporation of 1 mol of PLP per mol of protein. The limited trypsic proteolysis releases a 17 residue peptide bearing a lysine-bound PLP (KPPNTVIFDFLGK*DSIR). Targeted lysine (K*) in C.guilliermondii topoisomerase I corresponds to that found in topoisomerase I of Homo sapiens (K532), Candida albicans (K468), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (K458) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (K505). In the human enzyme, K532, belonging to the active site acts as a general acid catalyst and is therefore essential for activity. The spatial orientation of K532-PLP within the active site was approached by molecular modeling using available crystallographic data. The PLP moiety was found at close proximity of several active residues. PLP could be involved in the cellular control of topoisomerases IB. It constitutes an efficient tool to explore topoisomerase IB dynamics during catalysis and is also a lead for new drugs that trap the lysine general acid.

  7. Validated ligand mapping of ACE active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, Daniel J.; Marshall, Garland R.

    2005-08-01

    Crystal structures of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) complexed with three inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril) provided experimental data for testing the validity of a prior active site model predicting the bound conformation of the inhibitors. The ACE active site model - predicted over 18 years ago using a series of potent ACE inhibitors of diverse chemical structure - was recreated using published data and commercial software. Comparison between the predicted structures of the three inhibitors bound to the active site of ACE and those determined experimentally yielded root mean square deviation (RMSD) values of 0.43-0.81 Å, among the distances defining the active site map. The bound conformations of the chemically relevant atoms were accurately deduced from the geometry of ligands, applying the assumption that the geometry of the active site groups responsible for binding and catalysis of amide hydrolysis was constrained. The mapping of bound inhibitors at the ACE active site was validated for known experimental compounds, so that the constrained conformational search methodology may be applied with confidence when no experimentally determined structure of the enzyme yet exists, but potent, diverse inhibitors are available.

  8. Enzymatic characterization of a lysin encoded by bacteriophage EL.

    PubMed

    Tafoya, Diana A; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Herrera, Nadia; Molugu, Sudheer K; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Bernal, Ricardo A

    2013-04-01

    The bacteriophage EL is a virus that specifically attacks the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This phage carries a large genome that encodes for its own chaperonin which presumably facilitates the proper folding of phage proteins independently of the host chaperonin system. EL also encodes a lysin enzyme, a critical component of the lytic cycle that is responsible for digesting the peptidoglycan layer of the host cell wall. Previously, this lysin was believed to be a substrate of the chaperonin encoded by phage EL. In order to characterize the activity of the EL lysin, and to determine whether lysin activity is contingent on chaperonin-mediated folding, a series of peptidoglycan hydrolysis activity assays were performed. Results indicate that the EL-encoded lysin has similar enzymatic activity to that of the Gallus gallus lysozyme and that the EL lysin folds into a functional enzyme in the absence of phage chaperonin and should not be considered a substrate.

  9. Effect of mutation of lysine-128 of the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Anacystis nidulans.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, G; Anralojc, P J; Madgwick, P J; Pitts, J E; Parry, M A

    1998-12-01

    The contribution of lysine-128 within the active site of Anacystis nidulans d-ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) was investigated by the characterization of mutants in which lysine-128 was replaced with arginine, glycine, glutamine, histidine or aspartic acid. Mutated genes encoding the Rubisco large subunit were expressed in Escherichia coli and the resultant polypeptides assembled into active complexes. All of the mutant enzymes had a lower affinity for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and lower rates of carboxylation. Substitution of lysine-128 with glutamine, histidine or aspartic acid decreased the specificity factor and led to the production of an additional monophosphate reaction product. We show that this product results from the loss of the phosphate from C-1 of RuBP, most probably by beta-elimination from the 2,3-enediolate derivative of RuBP. The results confirm that lysine-128 is important in determining the position of the essential epsilon-amino group of lysine-334 within the active site and in loop dynamics. This further demonstrates that residues remote from the active site can be manipulated to modify catalytic function.

  10. Characterization and genome sequencing of a Citrobacter freundii phage CfP1 harboring a lysin active against multidrug-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hugo; Pinto, Graça; Oliveira, Ana; Oliveira, Carla; Faustino, Maria Alberta; Briers, Yves; Domingues, Lucília; Azeredo, Joana

    2016-12-01

    Citrobacter spp., although frequently ignored, is emerging as an important nosocomial bacterium able to cause various superficial and systemic life-threatening infections. Considered to be hard-to-treat bacterium due to its pattern of high antibiotic resistance, it is important to develop effective measures for early and efficient therapy. In this study, the first myovirus (vB_CfrM_CfP1) lytic for Citrobacter freundii was microbiologically and genomically characterized. Its morphology, activity spectrum, burst size, and biophysical stability spectrum were determined. CfP1 specifically infects C. freundii, has broad host range (>85 %; 21 strains tested), a burst size of 45 PFU/cell, and is very stable under different temperatures (-20 to 50 °C) and pH (3 to 11) values. CfP1 demonstrated to be highly virulent against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates up to 12 antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluroquinoles. Genomically, CfP1 has a dsDNA molecule with 180,219 bp with average GC content of 43.1 % and codes for 273 CDSs. The genome architecture is organized into function-specific gene clusters typical for tailed phages, sharing 46 to 94 % nucleotide identity to other Citrobacter phages. The lysin gene encoding a predicted D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase was also cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and its activity evaluated in terms of pH, ionic strength, and temperature. The lysine optimum activity was reached at 20 mM HEPES, pH 7 at 37 °C, and was able to significantly reduce all C. freundii (>2 logs) as well as Citrobacter koseri (>4 logs) strains tested. Interestingly, the antimicrobial activity of this enzyme was performed without the need of pretreatment with outer membrane-destabilizing agents. These results indicate that CfP1 lysin is a good candidate to control problematic Citrobacter infections, for which current antibiotics are no longer effective.

  11. A Proteomic Approach to Analyze the Aspirin-mediated Lysine Acetylome*

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, Michael H.; Cole, Christian; Scullion, Paul; Wilkie, Ross; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Stark, Lesley A.; Hay, Ronald T.

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid is widely used to control pain, inflammation and fever. Important to this function is its ability to irreversibly acetylate cyclooxygenases at active site serines. Aspirin has the potential to acetylate other amino acid side-chains, leading to the possibility that aspirin-mediated lysine acetylation could explain some of its as-yet unexplained drug actions or side-effects. Using isotopically labeled aspirin-d3, in combination with acetylated lysine purification and LC-MS/MS, we identified over 12000 sites of lysine acetylation from cultured human cells. Although aspirin amplifies endogenous acetylation signals at the majority of detectable endogenous sites, cells tolerate aspirin mediated acetylation very well unless cellular deacetylases are inhibited. Although most endogenous acetylations are amplified by orders of magnitude, lysine acetylation site occupancies remain very low even after high doses of aspirin. This work shows that while aspirin has enormous potential to alter protein function, in the majority of cases aspirin-mediated acetylations do not accumulate to levels likely to elicit biological effects. These findings are consistent with an emerging model for cellular acetylation whereby stoichiometry correlates with biological relevance, and deacetylases act to minimize the biological consequences of nonspecific chemical acetylations. PMID:27913581

  12. A Proteomic Approach to Analyze the Aspirin-mediated Lysine Acetylome.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Michael H; Cole, Christian; Scullion, Paul; Wilkie, Ross; Westwood, Nicholas J; Stark, Lesley A; Hay, Ronald T

    2017-02-01

    Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid is widely used to control pain, inflammation and fever. Important to this function is its ability to irreversibly acetylate cyclooxygenases at active site serines. Aspirin has the potential to acetylate other amino acid side-chains, leading to the possibility that aspirin-mediated lysine acetylation could explain some of its as-yet unexplained drug actions or side-effects. Using isotopically labeled aspirin-d3, in combination with acetylated lysine purification and LC-MS/MS, we identified over 12000 sites of lysine acetylation from cultured human cells. Although aspirin amplifies endogenous acetylation signals at the majority of detectable endogenous sites, cells tolerate aspirin mediated acetylation very well unless cellular deacetylases are inhibited. Although most endogenous acetylations are amplified by orders of magnitude, lysine acetylation site occupancies remain very low even after high doses of aspirin. This work shows that while aspirin has enormous potential to alter protein function, in the majority of cases aspirin-mediated acetylations do not accumulate to levels likely to elicit biological effects. These findings are consistent with an emerging model for cellular acetylation whereby stoichiometry correlates with biological relevance, and deacetylases act to minimize the biological consequences of nonspecific chemical acetylations.

  13. Lysine Acetylation of CREBH Regulates Fasting-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunbae; Mendez, Roberto; Chen, Xuequn; Fang, Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH. PMID:26438600

  14. Lysine Acetylation of CREBH Regulates Fasting-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunbae; Mendez, Roberto; Chen, Xuequn; Fang, Deyu; Zhang, Kezhong

    2015-12-01

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH.

  15. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  16. Global analysis of lysine acetylation in strawberry leaves

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Zhao, Yun; Ruan, Songlin; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Jin, Liang; Cao, Lingling; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Huasheng; Cheng, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification. It plays an important role in regulating diverse cellular processes including chromatin dynamic, metabolic pathways, and transcription in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although studies of lysine acetylome in plants have been reported, the throughput was not high enough, hindering the deep understanding of lysine acetylation in plant physiology and pathology. In this study, taking advantages of anti-acetyllysine-based enrichment and high-sensitive-mass spectrometer, we applied an integrated proteomic approach to comprehensively investigate lysine acetylome in strawberry. In total, we identified 1392 acetylation sites in 684 proteins, representing the largest dataset of acetylome in plants to date. To reveal the functional impacts of lysine acetylation in strawberry, intensive bioinformatic analysis was performed. The results significantly expanded our current understanding of plant acetylome and demonstrated that lysine acetylation is involved in multiple cellular metabolism and cellular processes. More interestingly, nearly 50% of all acetylated proteins identified in this work were localized in chloroplast and the vital role of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis was also revealed. Taken together, this study not only established the most extensive lysine acetylome in plants to date, but also systematically suggests the significant and unique roles of lysine acetylation in plants. PMID:26442052

  17. Piscidin-1-analogs with double L- and D-lysine residues exhibited different conformations in lipopolysaccharide but comparable anti-endotoxin activities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Mahajan, Mukesh; Awasthi, Bhanupriya; Tandon, Anshika; Harioudh, Munesh Kumar; Shree, Sonal; Singh, Pratiksha; Shukla, Praveen Kumar; Ramachandran, Ravishankar; Mitra, Kalyan; Bhattacharjya, Surajit; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    2017-01-01

    To become clinically effective, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) should be non-cytotoxic to host cells. Piscidins are a group of fish-derived AMPs with potent antimicrobial and antiendotoxin activities but limited by extreme cytotoxicity. We conjectured that introduction of cationic residue(s) at the interface of polar and non-polar faces of piscidins may control their insertion into hydrophobic mammalian cell membrane and thereby reducing cytotoxicity. We have designed several novel analogs of piscidin-1 by substituting threonine residue(s) with L and D-lysine residue(s). L/D-lysine-substituted analogs showed significantly reduced cytotoxicity but exhibited either higher or comparable antibacterial activity akin to piscidin-1. Piscidin-1-analogs demonstrated higher efficacy than piscidin-1 in inhibiting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory responses in THP-1 cells. T15,21K-piscidin-1 (0.5 mg/Kg) and T15,21dK-piscidin-1 (1.0 mg/Kg) demonstrated 100% survival of LPS (12.0 mg/Kg)-administered mice. High resolution NMR studies revealed that both piscidin-1 and T15,21K-piscidin-1 adopted helical structures, with latter showing a shorter helix, higher amphipathicity and cationic residues placed at optimal distances to form ionic/hydrogen bond with lipid A of LPS. Remarkably, T15,21dK-piscidin-1 showed a helix-loop-helix structure in LPS and its interactions with LPS could be sustained by the distance of separation of side chains of R7 and D-Lys-15 which is close to the inter-phosphate distance of lipid A. PMID:28051162

  18. Importance of the conserved lysine 83 residue of Zea mays cytochrome b(561) for ascorbate-specific transmembrane electron transfer as revealed by site-directed mutagenesis studies.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Nobuyuki; Rahman, Motiur Md; Sakamoto, Yoichi; Takigami, Tadakazu; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Hori, Hiroshi; Hase, Toshiharu; Park, Sam-Yong; Tsubaki, Motonari

    2009-11-10

    Cytochromes b(561), a novel class of transmembrane electron transport proteins residing in a large variety of eukaryotic cells, have a number of common structural features including six hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices and two heme ligation sites. We found that recombinant Zea mays cytochrome b(561) obtained by a heterologous expression system using yeast Pichia pastoris cells could utilize the ascorbate/mondehydroascorbate radical as a physiological electron donor/acceptor. We found further that a concerted proton/electron transfer mechanism might be operative in Z. mays cytochrome b(561) as well upon the electron acceptance from ascorbate to the cytosolic heme center. The well-conserved Lys(83) residue in a cytosolic loop was found to have a very important role(s) for the binding of ascorbate and the succeeding electron transfer via electrostatic interactions based on the analyses of three site-specific mutants, K83A, K83E, and K83D. Further, unusual behavior of the K83A mutant in pulse radiolysis experiments indicated that Lys(83) might also be responsible for the intramolecular electron transfer to the intravesicular heme. On the other hand, pulse radiolysis experiments on two site-specific mutants, S118A and W122A, for the well-conserved residues in the putative monodehydroascorbate radical binding site showed that their electron transfer activities to the monodehydroascorbate radical were very similar to those of the wild-type protein, indicating that Ser(118) and Trp(122) do not have major roles for the redox events on the intravesicular side.

  19. Crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis diaminopimelate decarboxylase, an essential enzyme in bacterial lysine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Rupp, Bernhard; Pavelka, Martin S; Jacobs, William R; Sacchettini, James C

    2003-05-16

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis lysA gene encodes the enzyme meso-diaminopimelate decarboxylase (DAPDC), a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme. The enzyme catalyzes the final step in the lysine biosynthetic pathway converting meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) to l-lysine. The lysA gene of M. tuberculosis H37Rv has been established as essential for bacterial survival in immunocompromised mice, demonstrating that de novo biosynthesis of lysine is essential for in vivo viability. Drugs targeted against DAPDC could be efficient anti-tuberculosis drugs, and the three-dimensional structure of DAPDC from M. tuberculosis complexed with reaction product lysine and the ternary complex with PLP and lysine in the active site has been determined. The first structure of a DAPDC confirms its classification as a fold type III PLP-dependent enzyme. The structure shows a stable 2-fold dimer in head-to-tail arrangement of a triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel-like alpha/beta domain and a C-terminal beta sheet domain, similar to the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) fold family. PLP is covalently bound via an internal aldimine, and residues from both domains and both subunits contribute to the binding pocket. Comparison of the structure with eukaryotic ODCs, in particular with a di-fluoromethyl ornithine (DMFO)-bound ODC from Trypanosoma bruceii, indicates that corresponding DAP-analogues might be potential inhibitors for mycobacterial DAPDCs.

  20. Lysine carboxylation: unveiling a spontaneous post-translational modification

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Morales, David; Adamian, Larisa; Shi, Dashuang; Liang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    A computational method for the prediction of lysine carboxylation (KCX) in protein structures is described. The method accurately identifies misreported KCXs and predicts previously unknown KCX sites. The carboxylation of lysine residues is a post-translational modification (PTM) that plays a critical role in the catalytic mechanisms of several important enzymes. It occurs spontaneously under certain physicochemical conditions, but is difficult to detect experimentally. Its full impact is unknown. In this work, the signature microenvironment of lysine-carboxylation sites has been characterized. In addition, a computational method called Predictor of Lysine Carboxylation (PreLysCar) for the detection of lysine carboxylation in proteins with available three-dimensional structures has been developed. The likely prevalence of lysine carboxylation in the proteome was assessed through large-scale computations. The results suggest that about 1.3% of large proteins may contain a carboxylated lysine residue. This unexpected prevalence of lysine carboxylation implies an enrichment of reactions in which it may play functional roles. The results also suggest that by switching enzymes on and off under appropriate physicochemical conditions spontaneous PTMs may serve as an important and widely used efficient biological machinery for regulation.

  1. Lysine succinylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isocitrate lyase (ICL) fine-tunes the microbial resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingliang; Xie, Longxiang; Yang, Zhaozhen; Zhou, Jiahai; Xie, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    Lysine succinylation (Ksucc) is a newly identified protein posttranslational modification (PTM), which may play an important role in cellular physiology. However, the role of lysine succinylation in antibiotic resistance remains elusive. Isocitrate lyase (ICL) is crucial for broad-spectrum antibiotics tolerance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We previously found that MtbICL (Rv0467) has at least three succinylated lysine residues, namely K189, K322, and K334.To explore the effect of succinylation on the activity of MtbICL, mutants' mimicry of the lysine succinylation were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. ICL-K189E mutant strain is more sensitive than the wild-type to rifampicin and streptomycin, but not isoniazid. For the in vitro activity of the purified isocitrate lyase, only K189E mutant showed significantly decreased activity. Crystal structure analysis showed that Lys189 Glu dramatically increased the pKa of Glu188 and decreased the pKa of Lys190, whereas had negligible effect on other residues within 5 Å as well as disruption of the electrostatic interaction between Lys189 and Glu182, which might prevent the closure of the active site loop and cause severe reduction of the enzyme activity. Considering the genetic, biochemical, and crystallographical evidences together, the succinylation of specific ICL residue can fine-tune the bacterial resistance to selected antibiotics. The decreased enzymatic activity resulting from the succinylation-changed electrostatic interaction might underlie this phenotype. This study provided the first insight into the link between lysine succinylation and antibiotic resistance.

  2. The effect of the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid on the activity in catalyzing aldol condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xiaofang; Yu Xiaobo; Wu Shujie; Liu Bo; Liu Heng; Guan Jingqi; Kan Qiubin

    2011-02-15

    Acid-base bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts containing carboxylic and amine groups, which were immobilized at defined distance from one another on the mesoporous solid were synthesized by immobilizing lysine onto carboxyl-SBA-15. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron micrographs (SEM), transmission electron micrographs (TEM), elemental analysis, and back titration. Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance was more active than maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes. It appears that the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid should be an essential factor for catalysis optimization. -- Graphical abstract: Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance and maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance were synthesized by immobilizing lysine onto carboxyl-SBA-15. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance. {yields} Maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance. {yields} Compared to maximum-C-A-SBA-15, proximal-C-A-SBA-15 was more active toward aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes.

  3. Uptake of L-lysine by a double mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    García, J C; Kotyk, A

    1988-01-01

    A gap1 can1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a single lysine transport system remaining was used to study detailed kinetics of this transport. Its half-saturation constant was 78 mumol per litre, its maximum rate of transport was 0.29 mumol L-lysine per g dry matter per minute, both parameters being lower by more than an order of magnitude in comparison with the GAP system. The pH optimum lay at very acid values of about 3, the temperature dependence without any transition point showed an activation energy of 48 kJ/mol. The transport was inhibited by common metabolic inhibitors (3'-chlorophenylhydrazonomalononitrile, antimycin, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, sodium arsenate) as well as by a membrane-active one (uranyl nitrate). The specificity of the system was extremely high, none of the natural amino acids acting as competitor to L-lysine. The maximum accumulation ratio attained (at about 5 mg dry matter per mL) was 100: 1-120: 1, in agreement with the measured protonmotive force under the assumption of 1 H+ ion being transported with 1 lysine molecule. The ratio decreased with increasing external concentration of lysine to as little as 4: 1 at 1 mmol lysine per litre. It also decreased with increasing suspension density and it was at extremely low suspension densities (0.2 mg dry matter per mL) that ratios of as much as 500: 1 were reached. Application of group-specific inhibitors showed that the active site of the carrier contains an essential histidine residue.

  4. Autoacetylation of the MYST lysine acetyltransferase MOF protein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Jiang; Sinha, Sarmistha H; Neveu, John M; Zheng, Yujun George

    2012-10-12

    The MYST family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes, such as the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Lysine autoacetylation of the MYST HATs has recently received considerable attention. Nonetheless, the mechanism and function of the autoacetylation process are not well defined. To better understand the biochemical mechanism of MYST autoacetylation and the impact of autoacetylation on the cognate histone acetylation, we carried out detailed analyses of males-absent-on-the-first (MOF), a key member of the MYST family. A number of mutant MOF proteins were produced with point mutations at several key residues near the active site of the enzyme. Autoradiography and immunoblotting data showed that mutation of these residues affects the autoacetylation activity and HAT activity of MOF by various degrees demonstrating that MOF activity is highly sensitive to the chemical changes in those residues. We produced MOF protein in the deacetylated form by using a nonspecific lysine deacetylase. Interestingly, both the autoacetylation activity and the histone acetylation activity of the deacetylated MOF were found to be very close to that of wild-type MOF, suggesting that autoacetylation of MOF only marginally modulates the enzymatic activity. Also, we found that the autoacetylation rates of MOF and deacetylated MOF were much slower than the cognate substrate acetylation. Thus, autoacetylation does not seem to contribute to the intrinsic enzymatic activity in a significant manner. These data provide new insights into the mechanism and function of MYST HAT autoacetylation.

  5. Lysine N[superscript zeta]-Decarboxylation Switch and Activation of the [beta]-Lactam Sensor Domain of BlaR1 Protein of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg; Kumarasiri, Malika; Wilson, Brian; Llarrull1, Leticia I.; Lee, Mijoon; Hesek, Dusan; Shi, Qicun; Peng, Jeffrey; Baker, Brian M.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2012-10-29

    The integral membrane protein BlaR1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus senses the presence of {beta}-lactam antibiotics in the milieu and transduces the information to the cytoplasm, where the biochemical events that unleash induction of antibiotic resistance mechanisms take place. We report herein by two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments of the sensor domain of BlaR1 in solution and by determination of an x-ray structure for the apo protein that Lys-392 of the antibiotic-binding site is posttranslationally modified by N{sup {zeta}}-carboxylation. Additional crystallographic and NMR data reveal that on acylation of Ser-389 by antibiotics, Lys-392 experiences N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation. This unique process, termed the lysine N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation switch, arrests the sensor domain in the activated ('on') state, necessary for signal transduction and all the subsequent biochemical processes. We present structural information on how this receptor activation process takes place, imparting longevity to the antibiotic-receptor complex that is needed for the induction of the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  6. Corrosion Research And Web Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers corrosion-related activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 2000. The NASA Kennedy Space Center's corrosion web site, corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov, was updated with new information based on feedback over the past two years. The methodology for a two-year atmospheric exposure testing program to study the effectiveness of commercial chemicals sold for rinsing aircraft and other equipment was developed and some preliminary laboratory chemical analyses are presented.

  7. Corrosion Research and Web Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    This report covers corrosion-related activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 2000. The NASA Kennedy Space Center's corrosion web site, corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov, was updated with new information based on feedback over the past two years. The methodology for a two-year atmospheric exposure testing program to study the effectiveness of commercial chemicals sold for rinsing aircraft and other equipment was developed and some preliminary laboratory chemical analyses are presented.

  8. A Chemical Proteomics Approach for Global Analysis of Lysine Monomethylome Profiling*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhixiang; Cheng, Zhongyi; Sun, Mingwei; Wan, Xuelian; Liu, Ping; He, Tieming; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of lysine residues on histone proteins is known to play an important role in chromatin structure and function. However, non-histone protein substrates of this modification remain largely unknown. An effective approach for system-wide analysis of protein lysine methylation, particularly lysine monomethylation, is lacking. Here we describe a chemical proteomics approach for global screening for monomethyllysine substrates, involving chemical propionylation of monomethylated lysine, affinity enrichment of the modified monomethylated peptides, and HPLC/MS/MS analysis. Using this approach, we identified with high confidence 446 lysine monomethylation sites in 398 proteins, including three previously unknown histone monomethylation marks, representing the largest data set of protein lysine monomethylation described to date. Our data not only confirms previously discovered lysine methylation substrates in the nucleus and spliceosome, but also reveals new substrates associated with diverse biological processes. This method hence offers a powerful approach for dynamic study of protein lysine monomethylation under diverse cellular conditions and in human diseases. PMID:25505155

  9. Use of the guanidination reaction for determining reactive lysine, bioavailable lysine and gut endogenous lysine.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2015-09-01

    Determining the bioavailability of lysine in foods and feedstuffs is important since lysine is often the first limiting indispensable amino acid in diets for intensively farmed livestock (pigs and poultry) and also in many cereal-based diets consumed by humans. When foods or feedstuffs are heat processed, lysine can undergo Maillard reactions to produce nutritionally unavailable products. The guanidination reaction, the reaction of O-methylisourea with the side chain amino group of lysine that produces homoarginine, has been used to determine the unmodified lysine (reactive lysine) in processed foods and feedstuffs and also true ileal digestible reactive lysine (bioavailable lysine). The advantages of the guanidination method in comparison with other reactive lysine methods such as the fluorodinitrobenzene, trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid and dye-binding methods are that it is very specific for reactive lysine and also that the method is relatively straightforward to conduct. The specificity of the guanidination reaction for the lysine side chain amino group is particularly important, since ileal digesta will contain N-terminal groups in the form of free amino acids and peptides. The main disadvantage is that complete conversion of lysine to homoarginine is required, yet it is not straightforward to test for complete guanidination in processed foods and feedstuffs. Another disadvantage is that the guanidination reaction conditions may vary for different food types and sometimes within the same food type. Consequently, food-specific guanidination reaction conditions may be required and more work is needed to optimise the reaction conditions across different foods and feedstuffs.

  10. Characterisation of the First Enzymes Committed to Lysine Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michael D. W.; Billakanti, Jagan M.; Wason, Akshita; Keller, Sabrina; Mertens, Haydyn D. T.; Atkinson, Sarah C.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Perugini, Matthew A.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Pearce, Frederick Grant

    2012-01-01

    In plants, the lysine biosynthetic pathway is an attractive target for both the development of herbicides and increasing the nutritional value of crops given that lysine is a limiting amino acid in cereals. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) and dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR) catalyse the first two committed steps of lysine biosynthesis. Here, we carry out for the first time a comprehensive characterisation of the structure and activity of both DHDPS and DHDPR from Arabidopsis thaliana. The A. thaliana DHDPS enzyme (At-DHDPS2) has similar activity to the bacterial form of the enzyme, but is more strongly allosterically inhibited by (S)-lysine. Structural studies of At-DHDPS2 show (S)-lysine bound at a cleft between two monomers, highlighting the allosteric site; however, unlike previous studies, binding is not accompanied by conformational changes, suggesting that binding may cause changes in protein dynamics rather than large conformation changes. DHDPR from A. thaliana (At-DHDPR2) has similar specificity for both NADH and NADPH during catalysis, and has tighter binding of substrate than has previously been reported. While all known bacterial DHDPR enzymes have a tetrameric structure, analytical ultracentrifugation, and scattering data unequivocally show that At-DHDPR2 exists as a dimer in solution. The exact arrangement of the dimeric protein is as yet unknown, but ab initio modelling of x-ray scattering data is consistent with an elongated structure in solution, which does not correspond to any of the possible dimeric pairings observed in the X-ray crystal structure of DHDPR from other organisms. This increased knowledge of the structure and function of plant lysine biosynthetic enzymes will aid future work aimed at improving primary production. PMID:22792278

  11. The Ribotoxin Restrictocin Recognizes Its RNA Substrate by Selective Engagement of Active Site Residues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Restrictocin and related fungal endoribonucleases from the α-sarcin family site-specifically cleave the sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) on the ribosome to inhibit translation and ultimately trigger cell death. Previous studies showed that the SRL folds into a bulged-G motif and tetraloop, with restrictocin achieving a specificity of ∼1000-fold by recognizing both motifs only after the initial binding step. Here, we identify contacts within the protein−RNA interface and determine the extent to which each one contributes to enzyme specificity by examining the effect of protein mutations on the cleavage of the SRL substrate compared to a variety of other RNA substrates. As with other biomolecular interfaces, only a subset of contacts contributes to specificity. One contact of this subset is critical, with the H49A mutation resulting in quantitative loss of specificity. Maximum catalytic activity occurs when both motifs of the SRL are present, with the major contribution involving the bulged-G motif recognized by three lysine residues located adjacent to the active site: K110, K111, and K113. Our findings support a kinetic proofreading mechanism in which the active site residues H49 and, to a lesser extent, Y47 make greater catalytic contributions to SRL cleavage than to suboptimal substrates. This systematic and quantitative analysis begins to elucidate the principles governing RNA recognition by a site-specific endonuclease and may thus serve as a mechanistic model for investigating other RNA modifying enzymes. PMID:21417210

  12. S-carbocysteine-lysine salt monohydrate and cAMP cause non-additive activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator channel in human respiratory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Meyer, G; Doppierio, S; Daffonchio, L; Cremaschi, D

    1997-03-03

    S-Carbocysteine-lysine salt monohydrate (S-CMC-Lys) has been shown to open a Cl- channel in the trachea, thus aiding fluid secretion. The aim of this study was to characterize the channel and the action mechanism on a culture line of human respiratory epithelial cells. The patch-clamp technique (in cell-attached or inside-out configuration) and conventional micro-electrodes were used. The activity and density of a cAMP-dependent Cl- channel, identical to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) channel, proved to be maximally stimulated by 100 microM S-CMC-Lys present in the cAMP-free cell incubation medium for 240-290 min (cell-attached configuration). Subsequent addition of cAMP to the medium did not determine any further activation. S-CMC-Lys acted mostly indirectly as, when placed in direct contact with a membrane patch, activation of the CFTR channel was nil (cytoplasmic side) or limited (external side).

  13. Effect of substituting arginine and lysine with alanine on antimicrobial activity and the mechanism of action of a cationic dodecapeptide (CL(14-25)), a partial sequence of cyanate lyase from rice.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Nobuteru; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Atsuo; Ishiyama, Yohei; Saitoh, Eiichi; Kato, Tetsuo; Ochiai, Akihito; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of analogs obtained by substituting arginine and lysine in CL(14-25), a cationic α-helical dodecapeptide, with alanine against Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, varied significantly depending on the number and position of cationic amino acids. The alanine-substituted analogs had no hemolytic activity, even at a concentration of 1 mM. The antimicrobial activities of CL(K20A) and CL(K20A, K25A) were 3.8-fold and 9.1-fold higher, respectively, than that of CL(14-25). The antimicrobial activity of CL(R15A) was slightly lower than that of CL(14-25), suggesting that arginine at position 15 is not essential but is important for the antimicrobial activity. The experiments in which the alanine-substituted analogs bearing the replacement of arginine at position 24 and/or lysine at position 25 were used showed that arginine at position 24 was crucial for the antimicrobial activity whenever lysine at position 25 was substituted with alanine. Helical wheel projections of the alanine-substituted analogs indicate that the hydrophobicity in the vicinity of leucine at position 16 and alanines at positions 18 and/or 21 increased by substituting lysine at positions 20 and 25 with alanine, respectively. The degrees of diSC3 -5 release from P. gingivalis cells and disruption of GUVs induced by the alanine-substituted analogs with different positive charges were not closely related to their antimicrobial activities. The enhanced antimicrobial activities of the alanine-substituted analogs appear to be mainly attributable to the changes in properties such as hydrophobicity and amphipathic propensity due to alanine substitution and not to their extents of positive charge (cationicity).

  14. Global Lysine Acetylome Analysis of Desiccated Somatic Embryos of Picea asperata

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yan; Jing, Danlong; Kong, Lisheng; Zhang, Jianwei; OuYang, Fangqun; Zhang, Hanguo; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong

    2016-01-01

    Partial desiccation treatment (PDT) promotes the germination capacity of conifer somatic embryos. Lysine acetylation (LysAc) is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays a key role in many biological processes including metabolic pathways and stress response. To investigate the functional impact of LysAc in the response of Picea asperata somatic embryos to PDT, we performed a global lysine acetylome analysis. Here, combining antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified and validated 1079 acetylation sites in 556 acetylated proteins from P. asperata somatic embryos during PDT. These data represent a novel large-scale dataset of lysine-acetylated proteins from the conifer family. Intensive bioinformatics analysis of the Gene Ontology of molecular functions demonstrated that lysine-acetylated proteins were mainly associated with binding, catalytic activities, and structural molecular activities. Functional characterization of the acetylated proteins revealed that in the desiccated somatic embryos, LysAc is mainly involved in the response to stress and central metabolism. Accordingly, the majority of these interacting proteins were also highly enriched in ribosome, proteasome, spliceosome, and carbon metabolism clusters. This work provides the most comprehensive profile of LysAc for a coniferous species obtained to date and facilitates the systematic study of the physiological role of LysAc in desiccated somatic embryos of P. asperata. PMID:28066480

  15. A High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry Assay Coupled with Redox Activity Testing Reduces Artifacts and False Positives in Lysine Demethylase Screening.

    PubMed

    Wigle, Tim J; Swinger, Kerren K; Campbell, John E; Scholle, Michael D; Sherrill, John; Admirand, Elizabeth A; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Kuntz, Kevin W; Chesworth, Richard; Moyer, Mikel P; Scott, Margaret Porter; Copeland, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Demethylation of histones by lysine demethylases (KDMs) plays a critical role in controlling gene transcription. Aberrant demethylation may play a causal role in diseases such as cancer. Despite the biological significance of these enzymes, there are limited assay technologies for study of KDMs and few quality chemical probes available to interrogate their biology. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of self-assembled monolayer desorption/ionization (SAMDI) mass spectrometry for the investigation of quantitative KDM enzyme kinetics and for high-throughput screening for KDM inhibitors. SAMDI can be performed in 384-well format and rapidly allows reaction components to be purified prior to injection into a mass spectrometer, without a throughput-limiting liquid chromatography step. We developed sensitive and robust assays for KDM1A (LSD1, AOF2) and KDM4C (JMJD2C, GASC1) and screened 13,824 compounds against each enzyme. Hits were rapidly triaged using a redox assay to identify compounds that interfered with the catalytic oxidation chemistry used by the KDMs for the demethylation reaction. We find that overall this high-throughput mass spectrometry platform coupled with the elimination of redox active compounds leads to a hit rate that is manageable for follow-up work.

  16. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  17. Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

  18. Measurement of lysine-specific demethylase-1 activity in the nuclear extracts by flow-injection based time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Chiharu; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), a histone-modifying enzyme, is upregulated in many cancers, especially in neuroblastoma, breast cancer and hepatoma. We have established a simple method to measure LSD1 activity using a synthetic N-terminal 21-mer peptide of histone H3, which is dimethylated at Lys-4 (H3K4me2). After the enzyme reaction, a substrate of H3K4me2 and two demethylated products, H3K4me1 and H3K4me0, were quantitatively determined by flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry (FI-TOF/MS). By using recombinant human LSD1, a nonlinear fitting simulation of the data obtained by FI-TOF/MS produced typical consecutive-reaction kinetics. Apparent Km and kcat values of hLSD1 for the first and second demethylation reactions were found to be in the range of reported values. Tranylcypromine was shown to inhibit LSD1 activity with an IC50 of 6.9 µM for the first demethylation reaction and 5.8 µM for the second demethylation reaction. The FI-TOF/MS assay revealed that the endogenous LSD1 activity was higher in the nuclear extracts of SH-SY5Y cells than in HeLa or PC-3 cells, and this is in accordance with the immunoblotting data using an anti-LSD1 antibody. A simple, straightforward FI-TOF/MS assay is described to efficiently measure LSD1 activity in the nuclear extracts of cultured cells. PMID:25759518

  19. [Structural regularities in activated cleavage sites of thrombin receptors].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlik, I V; Verevka, S V

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of thrombin receptors activation splitting sites sequences testifies to their similarity both in activation splitting sites of protein precursors and protein proteinase inhibitors reactive sites. In all these sites corresponded to effectory sites P2'-positions are placed by hydrophobic amino-acids only. The regularity defined conforms with previous thesis about the role of effectory S2'-site in regulation of the processes mediated by serine proteinases.

  20. Elicitin-Induced Distal Systemic Resistance in Plants is Mediated Through the Protein–Protein Interactions Influenced by Selected Lysine Residues

    PubMed Central

    Uhlíková, Hana; Obořil, Michal; Klempová, Jitka; Šedo, Ondrej; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Kašparovský, Tomáš; Skládal, Petr; Lochman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Elicitins are a family of small proteins with sterol-binding activity that are secreted by Phytophthora and Pythium sp. classified as oomycete PAMPs. Although α- and β-elicitins bind with the same affinity to one high affinity binding site on the plasma membrane, β-elicitins (possessing 6–7 lysine residues) are generally 50- to 100-fold more active at inducing distal HR and systemic resistance than the α-isoforms (with only 1–3 lysine residues). To examine the role of lysine residues in elicitin biological activity, we employed site-directed mutagenesis to prepare a series of β-elicitin cryptogein variants with mutations on specific lysine residues. In contrast to direct infiltration of protein into leaves, application to the stem revealed a rough correlation between protein’s charge and biological activity, resulting in protection against Phytophthora parasitica. A detailed analysis of proteins’ movement in plants showed no substantial differences in distribution through phloem indicating differences in consequent apoplastic or symplastic transport. In this process, an important role of homodimer formation together with the ability to form a heterodimer with potential partner represented by endogenous plants LTPs is suggested. Our work demonstrates a key role of selected lysine residues in these interactions and stresses the importance of processes preceding elicitin recognition responsible for induction of distal systemic resistance. PMID:26904041

  1. Elicitin-Induced Distal Systemic Resistance in Plants is Mediated Through the Protein-Protein Interactions Influenced by Selected Lysine Residues.

    PubMed

    Uhlíková, Hana; Obořil, Michal; Klempová, Jitka; Šedo, Ondrej; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Kašparovský, Tomáš; Skládal, Petr; Lochman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Elicitins are a family of small proteins with sterol-binding activity that are secreted by Phytophthora and Pythium sp. classified as oomycete PAMPs. Although α- and β-elicitins bind with the same affinity to one high affinity binding site on the plasma membrane, β-elicitins (possessing 6-7 lysine residues) are generally 50- to 100-fold more active at inducing distal HR and systemic resistance than the α-isoforms (with only 1-3 lysine residues). To examine the role of lysine residues in elicitin biological activity, we employed site-directed mutagenesis to prepare a series of β-elicitin cryptogein variants with mutations on specific lysine residues. In contrast to direct infiltration of protein into leaves, application to the stem revealed a rough correlation between protein's charge and biological activity, resulting in protection against Phytophthora parasitica. A detailed analysis of proteins' movement in plants showed no substantial differences in distribution through phloem indicating differences in consequent apoplastic or symplastic transport. In this process, an important role of homodimer formation together with the ability to form a heterodimer with potential partner represented by endogenous plants LTPs is suggested. Our work demonstrates a key role of selected lysine residues in these interactions and stresses the importance of processes preceding elicitin recognition responsible for induction of distal systemic resistance.

  2. SIRT5 regulates the mitochondrial lysine succinylome and metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Rardin, Matthew J; He, Wenjuan; Nishida, Yuya; Newman, John C; Carrico, Chris; Danielson, Steven R; Guo, Ailan; Gut, Philipp; Sahu, Alexandria K; Li, Biao; Uppala, Radha; Fitch, Mark; Riiff, Timothy; Zhu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Mulhern, Daniel; Stevens, Robert D; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Newgard, Christopher B; Jacobson, Matthew P; Hellerstein, Marc; Goetzman, Eric S; Gibson, Bradford W; Verdin, Eric

    2013-12-03

    Reversible posttranslational modifications are emerging as critical regulators of mitochondrial proteins and metabolism. Here, we use a label-free quantitative proteomic approach to characterize the lysine succinylome in liver mitochondria and its regulation by the desuccinylase SIRT5. A total of 1,190 unique sites were identified as succinylated, and 386 sites across 140 proteins representing several metabolic pathways including β-oxidation and ketogenesis were significantly hypersuccinylated in Sirt5(-/-) animals. Loss of SIRT5 leads to accumulation of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate production in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that SIRT5 regulates succinylation of the rate-limiting ketogenic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, mutation of hypersuccinylated residues K83 and K310 on HMGCS2 to glutamic acid strongly inhibits enzymatic activity. Taken together, these findings establish SIRT5 as a global regulator of lysine succinylation in mitochondria and present a mechanism for inhibition of ketogenesis through HMGCS2.

  3. Enantiomeric Free Radicals and Enzymatic Control of Stereochemistry in a Radical Mechanism: the Case of Lysine 2,3-aminomutases †

    PubMed Central

    Behshad, E.; Ruzicka, F.J; Mansoorabadi, S.; Chen, D.; Reed, G.H; Frey, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The product of yjeK in Escherichia coli is a homolog of lysine 2,3-aminomutase (LAM) from Clostridium subterminale SB4, and both enzymes catalyze the isomerization of (S)- but not (R)-α-lysine by radical mechanisms. The turnover number for LAM from E. coli is 5.0 min−1, 0.1% of the value for clostridial LAM. The reaction of E. coli LAM with (S)-α-[3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6- 2H8]lysine proceeds with a kinetic isotope effect of kH/kD = 1.4, suggesting that hydrogen transfer is not rate limiting. The product of the E. coli enzyme is (R)-β-lysine, the enantiomer of the clostridial product. β-Lysine-related radicals are observed in the reactions of both enzymes by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The radical in the reaction of clostridial LAM has the (S)- configuration, whereas that in the reaction of E. coli LAM has the (R)-configuration. Moreover, the conformations of the β-lysine-related radicals at the active sites of E. coli and clostridial LAM are different. The nuclear hyperfine splitting between the C3-hydrogen and the unpaired electron at C2 shows the dihedral angle to be 6°, unlike the 77° reported for the analogous radical bound to the clostridial enzyme. Reaction of (S)-4-thialysine produces a substrate-related radical in the steady state of E. coli LAM, as in the action of the clostridial enzyme. While (S)-β-lysine is not a substrate for E. coli LAM, it undergoes hydrogen abstraction to form an (S)-β-lysine-related radical with the same stereochemistry of hydrogen transfer from C2 of (S)-β-lysine to the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical as in the action of the clostridial enzyme. The resulting β-lysyl radical has a different conformation than that at the active site of clostridial LAM. All evidence indicates that the opposite stereochemistry displayed by the E. coli LAM is determined by the conformation of the lysine side chain in the active site. Stereochemical models for the actions of LAM from C. subterminale and E. coli are presented. PMID:17042480

  4. Polyubiquitination of Transforming Growth Factor β-activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) at Lysine 562 Residue Regulates TLR4-mediated JNK and p38 MAPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I-Ting; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Hsu, Wan-Ching; Chen, Nien-Jung; Tseng, Ping-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in innate immunity by eliciting inflammation. Upon receptor engagement, transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is an essential mediator that transmits a signal from the receptor to downstream effectors, IκB kinase (IKK) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which control the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the association between phosphorylation and ubiquitination of TAK1 is not yet clear. Here, we examined the crosstalk between phosphorylation and polyubiquitination of TAK1 and further investigated the mechanism of distinct activation of MAPKs and IKK. Inhibition of TAK1 phosphorylation enhanced Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TAK1. Conversely, ubiquitin modification was counteracted by phospho-mimic TAK1 mutant, T(184,187)D. Moreover, using LC-MS analysis, Lys562 of TAK1 was identified as a novel Lys63-linked ubiquitination site and as the key residue in the feedback regulation. Mutation of Lys562 of TAK1 leads to a decrease in TAK1 phosphorylation and specific inhibition of the MAPK pathway, but has no effect on formation of the TAK1-containing complex. Our findings demonstrate a feedback loop for phosphorylation and ubiquitination of TAK1, indicating a dynamic regulation between TAK1 polyubiquitiantion and phosphorylated activation, and the molecular mechanism by which IKK and MAPKs are differentially activated in the TLR4 pathway. PMID:26189595

  5. Lysine relay mechanism coordinates intermediate transfer in vitamin B6 biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Matthew J; Windeisen, Volker; Zhang, Yang; Guédez, Gabriela; Weber, Stefan; Strohmeier, Marco; Hanes, Jeremiah W; Royant, Antoine; Evans, Gwyndaf; Sinning, Irmgard; Ealick, Steven E; Begley, Tadhg P; Tews, Ivo

    2017-03-01

    Substrate channeling has emerged as a common mechanism for enzymatic intermediate transfer. A conspicuous gap in knowledge concerns the use of covalent lysine imines in the transfer of carbonyl-group-containing intermediates, despite their wideuse in enzymatic catalysis. Here we show how imine chemistry operates in the transfer of covalent intermediates in pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis by the Arabidopsis thaliana enzyme Pdx1. An initial ribose 5-phosphate lysine imine is converted to the chromophoric I320 intermediate, simultaneously bound to two lysine residues and partially vacating the active site, which creates space for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to bind. Crystal structures show how substrate binding, catalysis and shuttling are coupled to conformational changes around strand β6 of the Pdx1 (βα)8-barrel. The dual-specificity active site and imine relay mechanism for migration of carbonyl intermediates provide elegant solutions to the challenge of coordinating a complex sequence of reactions that follow a path of over 20 Å between substrate- and product-binding sites.

  6. Seed-specific expression of a lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton significantly increases the lysine content in maize seeds.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jing; Li, Cong; Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2014-03-27

    Maize seed storage proteins are a major source of human and livestock consumption. However, these proteins have poor nutritional value, because they are deficient in lysine and tryptophan. Much research has been done to elevate the lysine content by reducing zein content or regulating the activities of key enzymes in lysine metabolism. Using the naturally lysine-rich protein genes, sb401 and SBgLR, from potato, we previously increased the lysine and protein contents of maize seeds. Here, we examined another natural lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton, which increased the lysine content of transgenic maize seeds at levels varying from 16.2% to 65.0% relative to the wild-type. The total protein content was not distinctly different, except in the six transgenic lines. The lipid and starch levels did not differ substantially in Gossypium hirsutum L. lysine-rich protein (GhLRP) transgenic kernels when compared to wild-type. The agronomic characteristics of all the transgenic maize were also normal. GhLRP is a high-lysine protein candidate gene for increasing the lysine content of maize. This study provided a valuable model system for improving maize lysine content.

  7. Hyperglycemia Induces a Dynamic Cooperativity of Histone Methylase and Demethylase Enzymes Associated With Gene-Activating Epigenetic Marks That Coexist on the Lysine Tail

    PubMed Central

    Brasacchio, Daniella; Okabe, Jun; Tikellis, Christos; Balcerczyk, Aneta; George, Prince; Baker, Emma K.; Calkin, Anna C.; Brownlee, Michael; Cooper, Mark E.; El-Osta, Assam

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Results from the Diabetes Control Complications Trial (DCCT) and the subsequent Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) Study and more recently from the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) have revealed that the deleterious end-organ effects that occurred in both conventional and more aggressively treated subjects continued to operate >5 years after the patients had returned to usual glycemic control and is interpreted as a legacy of past glycemia known as “hyperglycemic memory.” We have hypothesized that transient hyperglycemia mediates persistent gene-activating events attributed to changes in epigenetic information. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Models of transient hyperglycemia were used to link NFκB-p65 gene expression with H3K4 and H3K9 modifications mediated by the histone methyltransferases (Set7 and SuV39h1) and the lysine-specific demethylase (LSD1) by the immunopurification of soluble NFκB-p65 chromatin. RESULTS The sustained upregulation of the NFκB-p65 gene as a result of ambient or prior hyperglycemia was associated with increased H3K4m1 but not H3K4m2 or H3K4m3. Furthermore, glucose was shown to have other epigenetic effects, including the suppression of H3K9m2 and H3K9m3 methylation on the p65 promoter. Finally, there was increased recruitment of the recently identified histone demethylase LSD1 to the p65 promoter as a result of prior hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS These studies indicate that the active transcriptional state of the NFκB-p65 gene is linked with persisting epigenetic marks such as enhanced H3K4 and reduced H3K9 methylation, which appear to occur as a result of effects of the methyl-writing and methyl-erasing histone enzymes. PMID:19208907

  8. Reversible Nε-Lysine Acetylation Regulates the Activity of Acyl-CoA Synthetases Involved in Anaerobic Benzoate Catabolism in Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Heidi A.; Heiniger, Erin K.; Harwood, Caroline S.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris grows photoheterotrophically on aromatic compounds available in aquatic environments rich in plant-derived lignin. Benzoate degradation is regulated at the transcriptional level in R. palustris in response to anoxia and the presence of benzoate and/or benzoyl-CoA (Bz-CoA). Here, we report evidence that anaerobic benzoate catabolism in this bacterium is also regulated at the posttranslational level. In this pathway, benzoate is activated to Bz-CoA by the AMP-forming Bz-CoA synthetase (BadA) enzyme. Mass spectrometry and mutational analysis data indicate that residue Lys512 is critical to BadA activity. Acetylation of Lys512 inactivated BadA; deacetylation reactivated BadA. Likewise, 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA (HbaA) and cyclohexanecarboxyl-CoA (AliA) synthetases were also reversibly acetylated. We identified one acetyltransferase that modified BadA, Hba, and AliA in vitro. The acetyltransferase enzyme is homologous to the protein acetyltransferase (Pat) enzyme of Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium LT2, thus we refer to it as RpPat. RpPat also modified acetyl-CoA (Ac-CoA) synthetase (Acs) from R. palustris. In vivo data indicate that at least two deacetylases reactivate BadAAc. One is SrtN (encoded by srtN, formerly rpa2524), a sirtuin-type NAD+-dependent deacetylase (O-acetyl-ADP-ribose-forming); the other deacetylase is LdaA (encoded by ldaA, for lysine deacetylase A; formerly rpa0954), an acetate-forming protein deacetylase. LdaA reactivated HbaAc and AliAAc in vitro. PMID:20345662

  9. Identification of Arg-12 in the active site of Escherichia coli K1 CMP-sialic acid synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Stoughton, D M; Zapata, G; Picone, R; Vann, W F

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli K1 CMP-sialic acid synthetase catalyses the synthesis of CMP-sialic acid from CTP and sialic acid. The active site of the 418 amino acid E. coli enzyme was localized to its N-terminal half. The bacterial CMP-sialic acid synthetase enzymes have a conserved motif, IAIIPARXXSKGLXXKN, at their N-termini. Several basic residues have been identified at or near the active site of the E. coli enzyme by chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis. Only one of the lysines in the N-terminal motif, Lys-21, appears to be essential for activity. Mutation of Lys-21 in the N-terminal motif results in an inactive enzyme. Furthermore, Arg-12 of the N-terminal motif appears to be an active-site residue, based on the following evidence. Substituting Arg-12 with glycine or alanine resulted in inactive enzymes, indicating that this residue is required for enzymic activity. The Arg-12-->Lys mutant was partially active, demonstrating that a positive charge is required at this site. Steady-state kinetic analysis reveals changes in k(cat), K(m) and K(s) for CTP, which implicates Arg-12 in catalysis and substrate binding. PMID:10510306

  10. Depupylase Dop Requires Inorganic Phosphate in the Active Site for Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bolten, Marcel; Vahlensieck, Christian; Lipp, Colette; Leibundgut, Marc; Ban, Nenad; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2017-03-10

    Analogous to eukaryotic ubiquitination, proteins in actinobacteria can be post-translationally modified in a process referred to as pupylation, the covalent attachment of prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup to lysine side chains of the target protein via an isopeptide bond. As in eukaryotes, an opposing activity counteracts the modification by specific cleavage of the isopeptide bond formed with Pup. However, the enzymes involved in pupylation and depupylation have evolved independently of ubiquitination and are related to the family of ATP-binding and hydrolyzing carboxylate-amine ligases of the glutamine synthetase type. Furthermore, the Pup ligase PafA and the depupylase Dop share close structural and sequence homology and have a common evolutionary history despite catalyzing opposing reactions. Here, we investigate the role played by the nucleotide in the active site of the depupylase Dop using a combination of biochemical experiments and X-ray crystallographic studies. We show that, although Dop does not turn over ATP stoichiometrically with substrate, the active site nucleotide species in Dop is ADP and inorganic phosphate rather than ATP, and that non-hydrolyzable analogs of ATP cannot support the enzymatic reaction. This finding suggests that the catalytic mechanism is more similar to the mechanism of the ligase PafA than previously thought and likely involves the transient formation of a phosphorylated Pup-intermediate. Evidence is presented for a mechanism where the inorganic phosphate acts as the nucleophilic species in amide bond cleavage and implications for Dop function are discussed.

  11. Efficacy of a new topical gel-spray formulation of ketoprofen lysine salt in the rat: percutaneous permeation in vitro and in vivo and pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Porzio, S; Caselli, G; Pellegrini, L; Pallottini, V; Del Rosario, M; Coppola, A; Boltri, L; Gentile, M; Clavenna, G; Melillo, G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the percutaneous permeation of a new topical Gel-Spray formulation, containing 15% of ketoprofen lysine salt (KLS), both in vitro, using the Franz-type diffusion cells and in vivo, by evaluating urinary recovery after topical administration and to correlate the absorption data with KLS pharmacological activity in the rat. Concentrations of ketoprofen free acid (KFA) were determined by HPLC in the receptor compartment (in vitro), or in urine (in vivo). The permeation of ketoprofen evaluated in vitro after the application of KLS Gel-Spray was higher than that observed with the marketed formulation Profénid gel (containing KFA at 2.5%). The same evidence was found in vivo, except when the ratio between the administered dose and the area treated was higher than 1 mg cm-2. Thus, the difference between the two formulations seems to be the resultant of two opposing components: a positive gradient of concentration that favours the absorption of ketoprofen from KLS Gel-Spray and the presence of the enhancer ethanol that could favour the efficacy of Profénid gel. Under our conditions the former prevailed. As for the efficacy, evaluated in the carrageenan-induced oedema and hyperalgesia model, KLS Gel-Spray confirmed the data obtained for in vivo absorption, being more efficient than the reference standard Profénid gel. The observed inhibitory effects were due only to dermal absorption, oral absorption was excluded by an Elizabethan collar applied around the neck of the rat. In these experimental conditions, no significant damage of the rat stomach mucosa was observed. These results indicate that KLS Gel-Spray, due to its high KLS concentration, allows a very high efficiency in delivering ketoprofen to the inflamed area using a minimal amount of formulation, even in the absence of permeation enhancers.

  12. Unexpected Trypsin Cleavage at Ubiquitinated Lysines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Unexpected tryptic cleavage has been characterized at modified K48 residues in polyubiquitins. In particular, the tryptic products of all seven of the lysine-linked dimers of ubiquitin and of three trimers—linear Ub–48Ub–48Ub, linear Ub–63Ub–63Ub, and the branched trimer [Ub]2–6,48Ub—have been analyzed. In addition to the peptide products expected under commonly used tryptic conditions, we observe that peptides are formed with an unexpected ε-glycinylglycinyl-Lys carboxyl terminus when the site of linkage is Lys48. Trypsin from three different commercial sources exhibited this aberration. Initial cleavage at R74 is proposed in a distal ubiquitin to produce a glycinylglycinyl-lysine residue which is bound by trypsin. PMID:26182167

  13. Quantitative assessment of the impact of the gut microbiota on lysine epsilon-acetylation of host proteins using gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed

    Simon, Gabriel M; Cheng, Jiye; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2012-07-10

    The gut microbiota influences numerous aspects of human biology. One facet that has not been thoroughly explored is its impact on the host proteome. We hypothesized that the microbiota may produce certain of its effects through covalent modification of host proteins. We focused on protein lysine ε-acetylation because of its recently discovered roles in regulation of cell metabolism, and the potential for products of microbial fermentation to interact with the lysine acetylation machinery of host cells. Germ-free mice, fed a (15)N-labeled diet for two generations, were colonized as adults with a microbiota harvested from conventionally raised mouse donors. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we quantified 3,891 liver and proximal colonic proteins, 558 of which contained 1,602 sites of lysine acetylation, 43% not previously described. Multiple proteins from multiple subcellular compartments underwent microbiota-associated increases in their levels of lysine acetylation at one or more residues, in one or both tissues. Acetylated proteins were enriched in functions related to energy production, respiration, and primary metabolism. A number of the acetylation events affect lysine residues at or near the active sites of enzymes, whereas others occur at locations that may affect other facets of protein function. One of these modifications, affecting Lys292 in mouse α-1-antitrypsin, was detected in the corresponding lysine of the human serum protein. Methods described in this report can be applied to other co- or posttranslational modifications, and add quantitation of protein expression and covalent modification to the arsenal of techniques for characterizing the dynamic, important interactions between gut symbionts and their hosts.

  14. Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (APE1) Is Acetylated at DNA Damage Sites in Chromatin, and Acetylation Modulates Its DNA Repair Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roychoudhury, Shrabasti; Nath, Somsubhra; Song, Heyu; Hegde, Muralidhar L.; Bellot, Larry J.; Mantha, Anil K.; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Ray, Sutapa; Natarajan, Amarnath

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, the most frequently formed DNA lesions in the genome, inhibit transcription and block replication. The primary enzyme that repairs AP sites in mammalian cells is the AP endonuclease (APE1), which functions through the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Although the mechanism by which APE1 repairs AP sites in vitro has been extensively investigated, it is largely unknown how APE1 repairs AP sites in cells. Here, we show that APE1 is acetylated (AcAPE1) after binding to the AP sites in chromatin and that AcAPE1 is exclusively present on chromatin throughout the cell cycle. Positive charges of acetylable lysine residues in the N-terminal domain of APE1 are essential for chromatin association. Acetylation-mediated neutralization of the positive charges of the lysine residues in the N-terminal domain of APE1 induces a conformational change; this in turn enhances the AP endonuclease activity of APE1. In the absence of APE1 acetylation, cells accumulated AP sites in the genome and showed higher sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Thus, mammalian cells, unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli cells, require acetylation of APE1 for the efficient repair of AP sites and base damage in the genome. Our study reveals that APE1 acetylation is an integral part of the BER pathway for maintaining genomic integrity. PMID:27994014

  15. A Proteomic Strategy Identifies Lysine Methylation of Splicing Factor snRNP70 by the SETMAR Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Scott M; Moore, Kaitlyn E; Sankaran, Saumya M; Reynoird, Nicolas; Elias, Joshua E; Gozani, Or

    2015-05-08

    The lysine methyltransferase (KMT) SETMAR is implicated in the response to and repair of DNA damage, but its molecular function is not clear. SETMAR has been associated with dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) at sites of DNA damage. However, SETMAR does not methylate H3K36 in vitro. This and the observation that SETMAR is not active on nucleosomes suggest that H3K36 methylation is not a physiologically relevant activity. To identify potential non-histone substrates, we utilized a strategy on the basis of quantitative proteomic analysis of methylated lysine. Our approach identified lysine 130 of the mRNA splicing factor snRNP70 as a SETMAR substrate in vitro, and we show that the enzyme primarily generates monomethylation at this position. Furthermore, we show that SETMAR methylates snRNP70 Lys-130 in cells. Because snRNP70 is a key early regulator of 5' splice site selection, our results suggest a model in which methylation of snRNP70 by SETMAR regulates constitutive and/or alternative splicing. In addition, the proteomic strategy described here is broadly applicable and is a promising route for large-scale mapping of KMT substrates.

  16. L-allo-threonine aldolase from Aeromonas jandaei DK-39: gene cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and identification of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-binding lysine residue by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J Q; Dairi, T; Kataoka, M; Shimizu, S; Yamada, H

    1997-01-01

    We have isolated the gene encoding L-allo-threonine aldolase (L-allo-TA) from Aeromonas jandaei DK-39, a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that stereospecifically catalyzes the interconversion of L-allo-threonine and glycine. The gene contains an open reading frame consisting of 1,014 nucleotides corresponding to 338 amino acid residues. The protein molecular weight was estimated to be 36,294, which is in good agreement with the subunit molecular weight of the enzyme determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was overexpressed in recombinant Escherichia coli cells and purified to homogeneity by one hydrophobic column chromatography step. The predicted amino acid sequence showed no significant similarity to those of the currently known PLP-dependent enzymes but displayed 40 and 41% identity with those of the hypothetical GLY1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the GLY1-like protein of Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively. Accordingly, L-allo-TA might represent a new type of PLP-dependent enzyme. To determine the PLP-binding site of the enzyme, all of the three conserved lysine residues of L-allo-TA were replaced by alanine by site-directed mutagenesis. The purified mutant enzymes, K51A and K224A, showed properties similar to those of the wild type, while the mutant enzyme K199A was catalytically inactive, with corresponding disappearance of the absorption maximum at 420 nm. Thus, Lys199 of L-allo-TA probably functions as an essential catalytic residue forming an internal Schiff base with PLP of the enzyme to catalyze the reversible aldol reaction. PMID:9171400

  17. Mutational analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lysine ɛ-aminotransferase and inhibitor co-crystal structures, reveals distinct binding modes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sarvind Mani; Agarwal, Aparna; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    Lysine ɛ-aminotransferase (LAT) converts lysine to α-aminoadipate-δ-semialdehyde in a PLP-mediated reaction. We mutated active-site T330, N328 and E243, and structurally rationalized their properties. T330A and T330S mutants cannot bind PLP and are inactive. N328A although inactive, binds to PLP. E243A retains activity, but binds α-ketoglutarate in a different conformation. We had earlier identified 2-aminomethyl piperidine derivative as a LAT inhibitor. The co-crystal structure reveals that it mimics binding of C5 substrates and exhibits two binding modes. E243, that shields R422 in the apo enzyme, exhibits conformational changes to permit the binding of the inhibitor in one of the binding modes. Structure-based analysis of bound water in the active site suggests optimization strategies for synthesis of improved inhibitors.

  18. PL3 Amidase, a Tailor-made Lysin Constructed by Domain Shuffling with Potent Killing Activity against Pneumococci and Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez, Blas; Fresco-Taboada, Alba; Iglesias-Bexiga, Manuel; Menéndez, Margarita; García, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is pushing the need of alternative treatments. In this context, phage therapy is already a reality to successfully fight certain multiresistant bacteria. Among different phage gene products, murein hydrolases responsible of phage progeny liberation (also called lysins or endolysins) are weapons that target specific peptidoglycan bonds, leading to lysis and death of susceptible bacteria when added from the outside. In the pneumococcal system, all but one phage murein hydrolases reported to date share a choline-binding domain that recognizes cell walls containing choline residues in the (lipo)teichoic acids. Some purified pneumococcal or phage murein hydrolases, as well as several chimeric proteins combining natural catalytic and cell wall-binding domains (CBDs) have been used as effective antimicrobials. In this work we have constructed a novel chimeric N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (PL3) by fusing the catalytic domain of the Pal amidase (a phage-coded endolysin) to the CBD of the LytA amidase, the major pneumococcal autolysin. The physicochemical properties of PL3 and the bacteriolytic effect against several pneumococci (including 48 multiresistant representative strain) and related species, like Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis, have been studied. Results have shown that low doses of PL3, in the range of 0.5–5 μg/ml, are enough to practically sterilize all choline-containing strains tested. Moreover, a single 20-μg dose of PL3 fully protected zebrafish embryos from infection by S. pneumoniae D39 strain. Importantly, PL3 keeps 95% enzymatic activity after 4 weeks at 37°C and can be lyophilized without losing activity, demonstrating a remarkable robustness. Such stability, together with a prominent efficacy against a narrow spectrum of human pathogens, confers to PL3 the characteristic to be an effective therapeutic. In addition, our results demonstrate

  19. System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveal Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Heidi A.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2012-01-01

    N-Lysine acetylation is a posttranslational modification that has been well studied in eukaryotes and is likely widespread in prokaryotes as well. The central metabolic enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase is regulated in both bacteria and eukaryotes by acetylation of a conserved lysine residue in the active site. In the purple photosynthetic α-proteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, two protein acetyltransferases (RpPat and the newly identified RpKatA) and two deacetylases (RpLdaA and RpSrtN) regulate the activities of AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases. In this work, we used LC/MS/MS to identify other proteins regulated by the N-lysine acetylation/deacetylation system of this bacterium. Of the 24 putative acetylated proteins identified, 14 were identified more often in a strain lacking both deacetylases. Nine of these proteins were members of the AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetase family. RpPat acetylated all nine of the acyl-CoA synthetases identified by this work, and RpLdaA deacetylated eight of them. In all cases, acetylation occurred at the conserved lysine residue in the active site, and acetylation decreased activity of the enzymes by >70%. Our results show that many different AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases are regulated by N-lysine acetylation. Five non-acyl-CoA synthetases were identified as possibly acetylated, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Rpa1177, a putative 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase. Neither RpPat nor RpKatA acetylated either of these proteins in vitro. It has been reported that Salmonella enterica Pat (SePat) can acetylate a number of metabolic enzymes, including GAPDH, but we were unable to confirm this claim, suggesting that the substrate range of SePat is not as broad as suggested previously. PMID:22416131

  20. Platform Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum with Reduced Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Activity for Improved Production of l-Lysine, l-Valine, and 2-Ketoisovalerate

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Jens; Schwentner, Andreas; Brunnenkan, Britta; Gabris, Christina; Grimm, Simon; Gerstmeir, Robert; Takors, Ralf; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

    2013-01-01

    Exchange of the native Corynebacterium glutamicum promoter of the aceE gene, encoding the E1p subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), with mutated dapA promoter variants led to a series of C. glutamicum strains with gradually reduced growth rates and PDHC activities. Upon overexpression of the l-valine biosynthetic genes ilvBNCE, all strains produced l-valine. Among these strains, C. glutamicum aceE A16 (pJC4 ilvBNCE) showed the highest biomass and product yields, and thus it was further improved by additional deletion of the pqo and ppc genes, encoding pyruvate:quinone oxidoreductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, respectively. In fed-batch fermentations at high cell densities, C. glutamicum aceE A16 Δpqo Δppc (pJC4 ilvBNCE) produced up to 738 mM (i.e., 86.5 g/liter) l-valine with an overall yield (YP/S) of 0.36 mol per mol of glucose and a volumetric productivity (QP) of 13.6 mM per h [1.6 g/(liter × h)]. Additional inactivation of the transaminase B gene (ilvE) and overexpression of ilvBNCD instead of ilvBNCE transformed the l-valine-producing strain into a 2-ketoisovalerate producer, excreting up to 303 mM (35 g/liter) 2-ketoisovalerate with a YP/S of 0.24 mol per mol of glucose and a QP of 6.9 mM per h [0.8 g/(liter × h)]. The replacement of the aceE promoter by the dapA-A16 promoter in the two C. glutamicum l-lysine producers DM1800 and DM1933 improved the production by 100% and 44%, respectively. These results demonstrate that C. glutamicum strains with reduced PDHC activity are an excellent platform for the production of pyruvate-derived products. PMID:23835179

  1. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylproteome analysis reveals diverse functions of lysine acetylation in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumei; Song, Limin; Liang, Wenxing; Mu, Ping; Wang, Shu; Lin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation of proteins, a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several researches have been carried out on acetylproteome in plants. However, until now, there have been no data on common wheat, the major cereal crop in the world. In this study, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of common wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.), Chinese Spring. In total, 416 lysine modification sites were identified on 277 proteins, which are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with previous studies, a large proportion of the acetylated proteins are involved in metabolic process. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 26 acetylated proteins are involved in photosynthesis and Calvin cycle, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in these processes. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of acetylome in common wheat and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role of lysine acetylation in this organism and likely in all plants. PMID:26875666

  2. Structure of ALD1, a plant-specific homologue of the universal diaminopimelate aminotransferase enzyme of lysine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Vladimir; Edelman, Marvin; Dym, Orly; Unger, Tamar; Albeck, Shira; Kirma, Menny; Galili, Gad

    2013-02-01

    Diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DAP-AT) is an enzyme in the lysine-biosynthesis pathway. Conversely, ALD1, a close homologue of DAP-AT in plants, uses lysine as a substrate in vitro. Both proteins require pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) for their activity. The structure of ALD1 from the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtALD1) was solved at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Comparison of AtALD1 with the previously solved structure of A. thaliana DAP-AT (AtDAP-AT) revealed similar interactions with PLP despite sequence differences within the PLP-binding site. However, sequence differences between the binding site of AtDAP-AT for malate, a purported mimic of substrate binding, and the corresponding site in AtALD1 led to different interactions. This suggests that either the substrate itself, or the substrate-binding mode, differs in the two proteins, supporting the known in vitro findings.

  3. The oxidation state of active site thiols determines activity of saccharopine dehydrogenase at low pH.

    PubMed

    Bobyk, Kostyantyn D; Kim, Sang Gon; Kumar, Vidya Prasanna; Kim, Sung-Kun; West, Ann H; Cook, Paul F

    2011-09-15

    Saccharopine dehydrogenase catalyzes the NAD-dependent conversion of saccharopine to generate L-lysine and α-ketoglutarate. A disulfide bond between cysteine 205 and cysteine 249, in the vicinity of the dinucleotide-binding site, is observed in structures of the apoenzyme, while a dithiol is observed in a structure with AMP bound, suggesting preferential binding of the dinucleotide to reduced enzyme. Mutation of C205 to S gave increased values of V/E(t) and V/KE(t) at pH 7 compared to wild type. Primary deuterium and solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effects suggest the catalytic pathway, which includes the hydride transfer and hydrolysis steps, contributes more to rate limitation in C205S, but the rates of the two steps relative to one another remain the same. There is a large increase in the rate constants V₁/E(t) and V₁/K(NAD)Et at pH values below 7 compared to WT. Data indicate the low pH increase in activity results from a decreased sensitivity of the C205S mutant enzyme to the protonation state of an enzyme group with a pK(a) of about 7, likely responsible for a pH-dependent conformational change. Reduction of WT and C205S mutant enzymes with TCEP gives equal activities at pH 6, consistent with the increased activity observed for the C205S mutant enzyme.

  4. Protein Lysine Methyltransferase G9a Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, and Structure Activity Relationships of 2,4-Diamino-7-aminoalkoxy-quinazolines.†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Xin; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Quinn, Amy M.; Wigle, Tim J.; Wasney, Gregory A.; Dong, Aiping; Senisterra, Guillermo; Chau, Irene; Siarheyeva, Alena; Norris, Jacqueline L.; Kireev, Dmitri B.; Jadhav, Ajit; Herold, J. Martin; Janzen, William P.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Frye, Stephen V.; Brown, Peter J.; Simeonov, Anton; Vedadi, Masoud; Jin, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Protein lysine methyltransferase G9a, which catalyzes methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9) and lysine 373 (K373) of p53, is over expressed in human cancers. Genetic knockdown of G9a inhibits cancer cell growth and the di-methylation of p53 K373 results in the inactivation of p53. Initial SAR exploration of the 2,4-diamino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline template represented by 3a (BIX01294), a selective small molecule inhibitor of G9a and GLP, led to the discovery of 10 (UNC0224) as a potent G9a inhibitor with excellent selectivity. A high resolution X-ray crystal structure of the G9a-10 complex, the first co-crystal structure of G9a with a small molecule inhibitor, was obtained. Based on the structural insights revealed by this co-crystal structure, optimization of the 7-dimethylaminopropoxy side chain of 10 resulted in the discovery of 29 (UNC0321) (Morrison Ki = 63 pM), which is the first G9a inhibitor with picomolar potency and the most potent G9a inhibitor to date. PMID:20614940

  5. Protein lysine methyltransferase G9a inhibitors: design, synthesis, and structure activity relationships of 2,4-diamino-7-aminoalkoxy-quinazolines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Xin; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Quinn, Amy M; Wigle, Tim J; Wasney, Gregory A; Dong, Aiping; Senisterra, Guillermo; Chau, Irene; Siarheyeva, Alena; Norris, Jacqueline L; Kireev, Dmitri B; Jadhav, Ajit; Herold, J Martin; Janzen, William P; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Frye, Stephen V; Brown, Peter J; Simeonov, Anton; Vedadi, Masoud; Jin, Jian

    2010-08-12

    Protein lysine methyltransferase G9a, which catalyzes methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9) and lysine 373 (K373) of p53, is overexpressed in human cancers. Genetic knockdown of G9a inhibits cancer cell growth, and the dimethylation of p53 K373 results in the inactivation of p53. Initial SAR exploration of the 2,4-diamino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline template represented by 3a (BIX01294), a selective small molecule inhibitor of G9a and GLP, led to the discovery of 10 (UNC0224) as a potent G9a inhibitor with excellent selectivity. A high resolution X-ray crystal structure of the G9a-10 complex, the first cocrystal structure of G9a with a small molecule inhibitor, was obtained. On the basis of the structural insights revealed by this cocrystal structure, optimization of the 7-dimethylaminopropoxy side chain of 10 resulted in the discovery of 29 (UNC0321) (Morrison K(i) = 63 pM), which is the first G9a inhibitor with picomolar potency and the most potent G9a inhibitor to date.

  6. Controlled expression and structural organization of a Lactococcus lactis bacteriophage lysin encoded by two overlapping genes.

    PubMed Central

    Shearman, C A; Jury, K L; Gasson, M J

    1994-01-01

    The phi vML3 bacteriophage lysin is specific for lactococci and could be used to promote enzyme release during cheese manufacture. The level of lysin expression from the cloned gene using its own upstream sequences is very low. Expression in Escherichia coli by using a synthetic hybrid lysin gene and a series of BAL 31 deletions of the original cloned DNA fragment suggested that the start of the gene had previously been incorrectly assigned. Reevaluation of homology between the lysin and Bacillus subtilis PZA protein 15 led to the identification of a new potential ribosome binding site (RBS). A 0.72-kb PCR-generated fragment including this RBS and the complete lysin gene was expressed and inducibly controlled. The translational start of the lysin gene was identified as an isoleucine codon, and this may lead to a low translation rate. During the analysis of the BAL 31 deletion fragments, two proteins of 20 and 8 kDa were shown to be expressed from the originally defined lysin gene. The DNA sequence has a second open reading frame with a good RBS and two potential start methionines. The smaller lysin protein was isolated, and the N terminus was sequenced, confirming that one methionine codon acted as the start of a second gene. The larger lysin protein has homology with lysozymes. The smaller lysin protein has some features resembling those of a holin. The possible roles of these two proteins in lysis of lactococci are discussed. Images PMID:7944354

  7. Cardiolipin binds selectively but transiently to conserved lysine residues in the rotor of metazoan ATP synthases

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    The anionic lipid cardiolipin is an essential component of active ATP synthases. In metazoans, their rotors contain a ring of eight c-subunits consisting of inner and outer circles of N- and C-terminal α-helices, respectively. The beginning of the C-terminal α-helix contains a strictly conserved and fully trimethylated lysine residue in the lipid head-group region of the membrane. Larger rings of known structure, from c9-c15 in eubacteria and chloroplasts, conserve either a lysine or an arginine residue in the equivalent position. In computer simulations of hydrated membranes containing trimethylated or unmethylated bovine c8-rings and bacterial c10- or c11-rings, the head-groups of cardiolipin molecules became associated selectively with these modified and unmodified lysine residues and with adjacent polar amino acids and with a second conserved lysine on the opposite side of the membrane, whereas phosphatidyl lipids were attracted little to these sites. However, the residence times of cardiolipin molecules with the ring were brief and sufficient for the rotor to turn only a fraction of a degree in the active enzyme. With the demethylated c8-ring and with c10- and c11-rings, the density of bound cardiolipin molecules at this site increased, but residence times were not changed greatly. These highly specific but brief interactions with the rotating c-ring are consistent with functional roles for cardiolipin in stabilizing and lubricating the rotor, and, by interacting with the enzyme at the inlet and exit of the transmembrane proton channel, in participation in proton translocation through the membrane domain of the enzyme. PMID:27382158

  8. High activity of N-alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester serine esterase and cytolytic perforin in cloned cell lines is not demonstrable in in-vivo-induced cytotoxic effector cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dennert, G; Anderson, C G; Prochazka, G

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations have suggested striking similarities between complement-mediated and cell-mediated lysis. Both pathways share the terminal insertion of channels into target membranes, and unique esterases have been postulated to participate in the activation of cytolytic effector molecules. Since killer-specific esterases and channel-forming proteins can be demonstrated in in vitro cell lines, it is important to ascertain that the described esterase and channel-forming proteins are also present in killer cells from in vivo sources. Results presented here show that killer-cell-specific N alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester serine esterase is induced in vitro concomitant with the sensitization of cytotoxic effector cells. In contrast, in-vivo-primed cytotoxic T cells or natural killer (NK) cells fail to express high levels of this enzyme. Assay of different cytotoxic effector cells reveals the presence of N alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester serine esterase in clones with T killer and NK activity, but enzyme levels do not correlate with cytolytic activity nor does inhibition of esterase activity interfere with granule-mediated cell lysis. A similar result is seen with granule-mediated cytolytic activity. Cloned NK and T killer cell lines possess granules that are able to lyse erythrocyte targets. However, T killer cells sensitized in mixed lymphocyte culture or in vivo have no detectable cytotoxic granules. Cytotoxic granules are also not detected in NK cells isolated from animals. PMID:2955414

  9. WWOX, the common fragile site FRA16D gene product, regulates ATM activation and the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Salah, Zaidoun; Herbel, Christoph; Hofmann, Thomas G; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2014-11-04

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer. The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a tumor suppressor spanning the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D. Here, we report a direct role of WWOX in DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. We show that Wwox deficiency results in reduced activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase, inefficient induction and maintenance of γ-H2AX foci, and impaired DNA repair. Mechanistically, we show that, upon DNA damage, WWOX accumulates in the cell nucleus, where it interacts with ATM and enhances its activation. Nuclear accumulation of WWOX is regulated by its K63-linked ubiquitination at lysine residue 274, which is mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH. These findings identify a novel role for the tumor suppressor WWOX and show that loss of WWOX expression may drive genomic instability and provide an advantage for clonal expansion of neoplastic cells.

  10. WWOX, the common fragile site FRA16D gene product, regulates ATM activation and the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Salah, Zaidoun; Herbel, Christoph; Hofmann, Thomas G.; Aqeilan, Rami I.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer. The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a tumor suppressor spanning the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D. Here, we report a direct role of WWOX in DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. We show that Wwox deficiency results in reduced activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase, inefficient induction and maintenance of γ-H2AX foci, and impaired DNA repair. Mechanistically, we show that, upon DNA damage, WWOX accumulates in the cell nucleus, where it interacts with ATM and enhances its activation. Nuclear accumulation of WWOX is regulated by its K63-linked ubiquitination at lysine residue 274, which is mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH. These findings identify a novel role for the tumor suppressor WWOX and show that loss of WWOX expression may drive genomic instability and provide an advantage for clonal expansion of neoplastic cells. PMID:25331887

  11. Topological dispositions of lysine. alpha. 380 and lysine. gamma. 486 in the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P. )

    1991-04-23

    The locations have been determined, with respect to the plasma membrane, of lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 in the {alpha} subunit and the {gamma} subunit, respectively, of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica. Immunoadsorbents were constructed that recognize the carboxy terminus of the peptide GVKYIAE released by proteolytic digestion from positions 378-384 in the amino acid sequence of the {alpha} subunit of the acetylcholine receptor and the carboxy terminus of the peptide KYVP released by proteolytic digestion from positions 486-489 in the amino acid sequence of the {gamma} subunit. They were used to isolate these peptides from proteolytic digests of polypeptides from the acetylcholine receptor. Sealed vesicles containing the native acetylcholine receptor were labeled with pyridoxal phosphate and sodium ({sup 3}H)-borohydride. The effect of saponin on the incorporation of pyridoxamine phosphate into lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 from the acetylcholine receptor in these vesicles was assessed with the immunoadsorbents. The conclusions that follow from these results are that lysine {alpha}380 is on the inside surface of a vesicle and lysine {gamma}486 is on the outside surface. Because a majority (85%) of the total binding sites for {alpha}-bungarotoxin bind the toxin in the absence of saponin, the majority of the vesicles are right side out with the inside of the vesicle corresponding to the cytoplasmic surface and the outside of the vesicle corresponding to the extracytoplasmic, synaptic surface. Because lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 lie on opposite sides of the membrane, a membrane-spanning segment must be located between the two positions occupied by these two amino acids in the common sequence of a polypeptide of the acetylcholine receptor.

  12. Systematic identification of the lysine succinylation in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Hu, Xin; Wan, Yujing; Xie, Guizhen; Li, Xiangzhi; Chen, Di; Cheng, Zhongyi; Yi, Xingling; Liang, Shaohui; Tan, Feng

    2014-12-05

    Lysine succinylation is a new posttranslational modification identified in histone proteins of Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa. However, very little is known about their scope and cellular distribution. Here, using LC-MS/MS to identify parasite peptides enriched by immunopurification with succinyl lysine antibody, we produced the first lysine succinylome in this parasite. Overall, a total of 425 lysine succinylation sites that occurred on 147 succinylated proteins were identified in extracellular Toxoplasma tachyzoites, which is a proliferative stage that results in acute toxoplasmosis. With the bioinformatics analysis, it is shown that these succinylated proteins are evolutionarily conserved and involved in a wide variety of cellular functions such as metabolism and epigenetic gene regulation and exhibit diverse subcellular localizations. Moreover, we defined five types of definitively conserved succinylation site motifs, and the results imply that lysine residue of a polypeptide with lysine on the +3 position and without lysine at the -1 to +2 position is a preferred substrate of lysine succinyltransferase. In conclusion, our findings suggest that lysine succinylation in Toxoplasma involves a diverse array of cellular functions, although the succinylation occurs at a low level.

  13. Lysine 2,3-aminomutase. Support for a mechanism of hydrogen transfer involving S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Baraniak, J; Moss, M L; Frey, P A

    1989-01-25

    The conversion of L-lysine to L-beta-lysine is catalyzed by lysine 2,3-aminomutase. The reaction involves the interchange of the 2-amino group of lysine with a hydrogen at carbon 3. As such the reaction is formally analogous to adenosylcobalamin-dependent rearrangements. However, the enzyme does not contain and is not activated by this coenzyme. Instead it contains iron and pyridoxal phosphate and is activated by S-adenosylmethionine. Earlier experiments implicated adenosyl-C-5' of S-adenosylmethionine in the hydrogen transfer mechanism, apparently in a role similar or analogous to that of adenosyl moiety of adenosylcobalamin in the B12-dependent rearrangements. The question of whether both hydrogens or only one hydrogen at adenosyl-C-5' participate in the hydrogen-transfer process has been addressed by carrying out the lysine 2,3-aminomutase reaction with S-[5'-3H] adenosylmethionine in the presence of 10 times its molar concentration of enzyme. Under these conditions all of the tritium appeared in lysine and beta-lysine, showing that C-5'-hydrogens participate. To determine whether hydrogen transfer is compulsorily intermolecular and intramolecular, various molar ratios of [3,3-2H2]lysine and unlabeled lysine were submitted to the action of lysine 2,3-aminomutase under conditions in which 10-15% conversion to beta-lysine occurred. Mass spectral analysis of the beta-lysine for monodeutero and dideutero species showed conclusively that hydrogen transfer is both intramolecular and intermolecular. The results quantitatively support our postulate that activation of the enzyme involves a transformation of S-adenosylmethionine into a form that promotes the generation of an adenosyl-5' free radical, which abstracts hydrogen from lysine to form 5'-deoxyadenosine as an intermediate.

  14. Lysine Acetylation Is a Widespread Protein Modification for Diverse Proteins in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lysine acetylation (LysAc), a form of reversible protein post translational modification previously known only for histone proteins in plants, is shown to be wide spread in Arabidopsis. Sixty five lysine modification sites were identified on 58 proteins, which operate in a wide variety of pathways/...

  15. Structural Basis for Phosphorylation and Lysine Acetylation Cross-talk in a Kinase Motif Associated with Myocardial Ischemia and Cardioprotection*

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Benjamin L.; Shepherd, Nicholas E.; Trefely, Sophie; Hoffman, Nolan J.; White, Melanie Y.; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Hambly, Brett D.; Larsen, Martin R.; James, David E.; Cordwell, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia and cardioprotection by ischemic pre-conditioning induce signal networks aimed at survival or cell death if the ischemic period is prolonged. These pathways are mediated by protein post-translational modifications that are hypothesized to cross-talk with and regulate each other. Phosphopeptides and lysine-acetylated peptides were quantified in isolated rat hearts subjected to ischemia or ischemic pre-conditioning, with and without splitomicin inhibition of lysine deacetylation. We show lysine acetylation (acetyl-Lys)-dependent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, AKT, and PKA kinases during ischemia. Phosphorylation and acetyl-Lys sites mapped onto tertiary structures were proximal in >50% of proteins investigated, yet they were mutually exclusive in 50 ischemic pre-conditioning- and/or ischemia-associated peptides containing the KXXS basophilic protein kinase consensus motif. Modifications in this motif were modeled in the C terminus of muscle-type creatine kinase. Acetyl-Lys increased proximal dephosphorylation by 10-fold. Structural analysis of modified muscle-type creatine kinase peptide variants by two-dimensional NMR revealed stabilization via a lysine-phosphate salt bridge, which was disrupted by acetyl-Lys resulting in backbone flexibility and increased phosphatase accessibility. PMID:25008320

  16. The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase requires interacting domains of adjacent, identical subunits. Most active-site residues are located within the loop regions of an eight-stranded {beta}/{alpha}-barrel which constitutes the larger C-terminal domain; additional key residues are located within a segment of the smaller N-terminal domain which partially covers the mouth of the barrel. Site-directed mutagenesis of the gene encoding the enzyme from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been used to delineate functions of active-site residues. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Selective Sirt2 inhibition by ligand-induced rearrangement of the active site.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, Tobias; Schiedel, Matthias; Karaman, Berin; Roessler, Claudia; North, Brian J; Lehotzky, Attila; Oláh, Judit; Ladwein, Kathrin I; Schmidtkunz, Karin; Gajer, Markus; Pannek, Martin; Steegborn, Clemens; Sinclair, David A; Gerhardt, Stefan; Ovádi, Judit; Schutkowski, Mike; Sippl, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Jung, Manfred

    2015-02-12

    Sirtuins are a highly conserved class of NAD(+)-dependent lysine deacylases. The human isotype Sirt2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, inflammation and neurodegeneration, which makes the modulation of Sirt2 activity a promising strategy for pharmaceutical intervention. A rational basis for the development of optimized Sirt2 inhibitors is lacking so far. Here we present high-resolution structures of human Sirt2 in complex with highly selective drug-like inhibitors that show a unique inhibitory mechanism. Potency and the unprecedented Sirt2 selectivity are based on a ligand-induced structural rearrangement of the active site unveiling a yet-unexploited binding pocket. Application of the most potent Sirtuin-rearranging ligand, termed SirReal2, leads to tubulin hyperacetylation in HeLa cells and induces destabilization of the checkpoint protein BubR1, consistent with Sirt2 inhibition in vivo. Our structural insights into this unique mechanism of selective sirtuin inhibition provide the basis for further inhibitor development and selective tools for sirtuin biology.

  18. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  19. Savannah River Site prioritization of transition activities

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.H.

    1993-11-01

    Effective management of SRS conversion from primarily a production facility to other missions (or Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D)) requires a systematic and consistent method of prioritizing the transition activities. This report discusses the design of a prioritizing method developed to achieve systematic and consistent methods of prioritizing these activities.

  20. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-15

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites.

  1. KDM1 Class Flavin-Dependent Protein Lysine Demethylases

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Jonathan M.; Link, Jennifer E.; Morgan, Brittany S.; Heller, Frederick J.; Hargrove, Amanda E.; McCafferty, Dewey G.

    2015-01-01

    Flavin-dependent, lysine-specific protein demethylases (KDM1s) are a subfamily of amine oxidases that catalyze the selective posttranslational oxidative demethylation of methyllysine side chains within protein and peptide substrates. KDM1s participate in the widespread epigenetic regulation of both normal and disease state transcriptional programs. Their activities are central to various cellular functions, such as hematopoietic and neuronal differentiation, cancer proliferation and metastasis, and viral lytic replication and establishment of latency. Interestingly, KDM1s function as catalytic subunits within complexes with coregulatory molecules that modulate enzymatic activity of the demethylases and coordinate their access to specific substrates at distinct sites within the cell and chromatin. Although several classes of KDM1 -selective small molecule inhibitors have been recently developed, these pan-active site inhibition strategies lack the ability to selectively discriminate between KDM1 activity in specific, and occasionally opposing, functional contexts within these complexes. Here we review the discovery of this class of demethylases, their structures, chemical mechanisms, and specificity. Additionally, we review inhibition of this class of enzymes as well as emerging interactions with coregulatory molecules that regulate demethylase activity in highly specific functional contexts of biological and potential therapeutic importance. PMID:25787087

  2. Controlled Orientation of Active Sites in a Nanostructured Multienzyme Complex

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung In; Yang, Byungseop; Jung, Younghan; Cha, Jaehyun; Cho, Jinhwan; Choi, Eun-Sil; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-01-01

    Multistep cascade reactions in nature maximize reaction efficiency by co-assembling related enzymes. Such organization facilitates the processing of intermediates by downstream enzymes. Previously, the studies on multienzyme nanocomplexes assembled on DNA scaffolds demonstrated that closer interenzyme distance enhances the overall reaction efficiency. However, it remains unknown how the active site orientation controlled at nanoscale can have an effect on multienzyme reaction. Here, we show that controlled alignment of active sites promotes the multienzyme reaction efficiency. By genetic incorporation of a non-natural amino acid and two compatible bioorthogonal chemistries, we conjugated mannitol dehydrogenase to formate dehydrogenase with the defined active site arrangement with the residue-level accuracy. The study revealed that the multienzyme complex with the active sites directed towards each other exhibits four-fold higher relative efficiency enhancement in the cascade reaction and produces 60% more D-mannitol than the other complex with active sites directed away from each other. PMID:28004799

  3. Active site of the mRNA-capping enzyme guanylyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: similarity to the nucleotidyl attachment motif of DNA and RNA ligases.

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, L D; Buratowski, S

    1994-01-01

    Nascent mRNA chains are capped at the 5' end by the addition of a guanylyl residue to form a G(5')ppp(5')N ... structure. During the capping reaction, the guanylyltransferase (GTP:mRNA guanylyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.50) is reversibly and covalently guanylylated. In this enzyme-GMP (E-GMP) intermediate, GMP is linked to the epsilon-amino group of a lysine residue via a phosphoamide bond. Lys-70 was identified as the GMP attachment site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae guanylyltransferase (encoded by the CEG1 gene) by guanylylpeptide sequencing. CEG1 genes with substitutions at Lys-70 were unable to support viability in yeast and produced proteins that were not guanylylated in vitro. The CEG1 active site exhibits sequence similarity to the active sites of viral guanylyltransferases and polynucleotide ligases, suggesting similarity in the mechanisms of nucleotidyl transfer catalyzed by these enzymes. Images PMID:8022828

  4. Perspective: On the active site model in computational catalyst screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Karsten; Plaisance, Craig P.; Oberhofer, Harald; Andersen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    First-principles screening approaches exploiting energy trends in surface adsorption represent an unparalleled success story in recent computational catalysis research. Here we argue that our still limited understanding of the structure of active sites is one of the major bottlenecks towards an ever extended and reliable use of such computational screening for catalyst discovery. For low-index transition metal surfaces, the prevalently chosen high-symmetry (terrace and step) sites offered by the nominal bulk-truncated crystal lattice might be justified. For more complex surfaces and composite catalyst materials, computational screening studies will need to actively embrace a considerable uncertainty with respect to what truly are the active sites. By systematically exploring the space of possible active site motifs, such studies might eventually contribute towards a targeted design of optimized sites in future catalysts.

  5. Diffusional correlations among multiple active sites in a single enzyme.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Carlos; Kapral, Raymond

    2014-04-07

    Simulations of the enzymatic dynamics of a model enzyme containing multiple substrate binding sites indicate the existence of diffusional correlations in the chemical reactivity of the active sites. A coarse-grain, particle-based, mesoscopic description of the system, comprising the enzyme, the substrate, the product and solvent, is constructed to study these effects. The reactive and non-reactive dynamics is followed using a hybrid scheme that combines molecular dynamics for the enzyme, substrate and product molecules with multiparticle collision dynamics for the solvent. It is found that the reactivity of an individual active site in the multiple-active-site enzyme is reduced substantially, and this effect is analyzed and attributed to diffusive competition for the substrate among the different active sites in the enzyme.

  6. Lysine Decarboxylase Catalyzes the First Step of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Coevolved with Alkaloid Production in Leguminosae[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bunsupa, Somnuk; Katayama, Kae; Ikeura, Emi; Oikawa, Akira; Toyooka, Kiminori; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2012-01-01

    Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) catalyzes the first-step in the biosynthetic pathway of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs), which form a distinct, large family of plant alkaloids. A cDNA of lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (L/ODC) was isolated by differential transcript screening in QA-producing and nonproducing cultivars of Lupinus angustifolius. We also obtained L/ODC cDNAs from four other QA-producing plants, Sophora flavescens, Echinosophora koreensis, Thermopsis chinensis, and Baptisia australis. These L/ODCs form a phylogenetically distinct subclade in the family of plant ornithine decarboxylases. Recombinant L/ODCs from QA-producing plants preferentially or equally catalyzed the decarboxylation of l-lysine and l-ornithine. L. angustifolius L/ODC (La-L/ODC) was found to be localized in chloroplasts, as suggested by the transient expression of a fusion protein of La-L/ODC fused to the N terminus of green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells and hairy roots produced enhanced levels of cadaverine-derived alkaloids, and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing (La-L/ODC) produced enhanced levels of cadaverine, indicating the involvement of this enzyme in lysine decarboxylation to form cadaverine. Site-directed mutagenesis and protein modeling studies revealed a structural basis for preferential LDC activity, suggesting an evolutionary implication of L/ODC in the QA-producing plants. PMID:22415272

  7. Lysine decarboxylase catalyzes the first step of quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis and coevolved with alkaloid production in leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Bunsupa, Somnuk; Katayama, Kae; Ikeura, Emi; Oikawa, Akira; Toyooka, Kiminori; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2012-03-01

    Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) catalyzes the first-step in the biosynthetic pathway of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs), which form a distinct, large family of plant alkaloids. A cDNA of lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (L/ODC) was isolated by differential transcript screening in QA-producing and nonproducing cultivars of Lupinus angustifolius. We also obtained L/ODC cDNAs from four other QA-producing plants, Sophora flavescens, Echinosophora koreensis, Thermopsis chinensis, and Baptisia australis. These L/ODCs form a phylogenetically distinct subclade in the family of plant ornithine decarboxylases. Recombinant L/ODCs from QA-producing plants preferentially or equally catalyzed the decarboxylation of L-lysine and L-ornithine. L. angustifolius L/ODC (La-L/ODC) was found to be localized in chloroplasts, as suggested by the transient expression of a fusion protein of La-L/ODC fused to the N terminus of green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells and hairy roots produced enhanced levels of cadaverine-derived alkaloids, and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing (La-L/ODC) produced enhanced levels of cadaverine, indicating the involvement of this enzyme in lysine decarboxylation to form cadaverine. Site-directed mutagenesis and protein modeling studies revealed a structural basis for preferential LDC activity, suggesting an evolutionary implication of L/ODC in the QA-producing plants.

  8. An Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Peptoids with Mixed Lysine-type/Arginine-type Monomers and Evaluation of Their Anti-leishmanial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Hannah L.; Denny, Paul W.; Cobb, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the manual solid-phase synthesis of linear peptoids that contain two differently functionalized cationic monomers. In this procedure amino functionalized 'lysine' and guanido functionalized 'arginine' peptoid monomers can be included within the same peptoid sequence. This procedure uses on-resin (N-(1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclohexylidene)ethyl) or Dde protection, orthogonal conditions to the Boc protection of lysine monomers. Subsequent deprotection allows an efficient on-resin guanidinylation reaction to form the arginine residues. The procedure is compatible with the commonly used submonomer method of peptoid synthesis, allowing simple peptoids to be made using common laboratory equipment and commercially available reagents. The representative synthesis, purification and characterization of two mixed peptoids is described. The evaluation of these compounds as potential anti-infectives in screening assays against Leishmania mexicana is also described. The protozoan parasite L. mexicana is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects up to 12 million people worldwide. PMID:27842365

  9. Activity and cellular functions of the deubiquitinating enzyme and polyglutamine disease protein ataxin-3 are regulated by ubiquitination at lysine 117.

    PubMed

    Todi, Sokol V; Scaglione, K Matthew; Blount, Jessica R; Basrur, Venkatesha; Conlon, Kevin P; Pastore, Annalisa; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo; Paulson, Henry L

    2010-12-10

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUbs) play important roles in many ubiquitin-dependent pathways, yet how DUbs themselves are regulated is not well understood. Here, we provide insight into the mechanism by which ubiquitination directly enhances the activity of ataxin-3, a DUb implicated in protein quality control and the disease protein in the polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorder, Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3. We identify Lys-117, which resides near the catalytic triad, as the primary site of ubiquitination in wild type and pathogenic ataxin-3. Further studies indicate that ubiquitin-dependent activation of ataxin-3 at Lys-117 is important for its ability to reduce high molecular weight ubiquitinated species in cells. Ubiquitination at Lys-117 also facilitates the ability of ataxin-3 to induce aggresome formation in cells. Finally, structure-function studies support a model of activation whereby ubiquitination at Lys-117 enhances ataxin-3 activity independent of the known ubiquitin-binding sites in ataxin-3, most likely through a direct conformational change in or near the catalytic domain.

  10. Robotics at Savannah River site: activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.

    1984-09-01

    The objectives of the Robotics Technology Group at the Savannah River Laboratory are to employ modern industrial robots and to develop unique automation and robotic systems to enhance process operations at the Savannah River site (SRP and SRL). The incentives are to improve safety, reduce personnel radiation exposure, improve product quality and productivity, and to reduce operating costs. During the past year robotic systems have been installed to fill chemical dilution vials in a SRP laboratory at 772-F and remove radioactive waste materials in the SRL Californium Production Facility at 773-A. A robotic system to lubricate an extrusion press has been developed and demonstrated in the SRL robotics laboratory and is scheduled for installation at the 321-M fuel fabrication area. A mobile robot was employed by SRP for a radiation monitoring task at a waste tank top in H-Area. Several other robots are installed in the SRL robotics laboratories and application development programs are underway. The status of these applications is presented in this report.

  11. Lysine glutarylation is a protein posttranslational modification regulated by SIRT5.

    PubMed

    Tan, Minjia; Peng, Chao; Anderson, Kristin A; Chhoy, Peter; Xie, Zhongyu; Dai, Lunzhi; Park, Jeongsoon; Chen, Yue; Huang, He; Zhang, Yi; Ro, Jennifer; Wagner, Gregory R; Green, Michelle F; Madsen, Andreas S; Schmiesing, Jessica; Peterson, Brett S; Xu, Guofeng; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Braulke, Thomas; Mühlhausen, Chris; Backos, Donald S; Olsen, Christian A; McGuire, Peter J; Pletcher, Scott D; Lombard, David B; Hirschey, Matthew D; Zhao, Yingming

    2014-04-01

    We report the identification and characterization of a five-carbon protein posttranslational modification (PTM) called lysine glutarylation (Kglu). This protein modification was detected by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (MS), and then comprehensively validated by chemical and biochemical methods. We demonstrated that the previously annotated deacetylase, sirtuin 5 (SIRT5), is a lysine deglutarylase. Proteome-wide analysis identified 683 Kglu sites in 191 proteins and showed that Kglu is highly enriched on metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial proteins. We validated carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1), the rate-limiting enzyme in urea cycle, as a glutarylated protein and demonstrated that CPS1 is targeted by SIRT5 for deglutarylation. We further showed that glutarylation suppresses CPS1 enzymatic activity in cell lines, mice, and a model of glutaric acidemia type I disease, the last of which has elevated glutaric acid and glutaryl-CoA. This study expands the landscape of lysine acyl modifications and increases our understanding of the deacylase SIRT5.

  12. Lysine Glutarylation Is a Protein Post-Translational Modification Regulated by SIRT5

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Minjia; Peng, Chao; Anderson, Kristin A.; Chhoy, Peter; Xie, Zhongyu; Dai, Lunzhi; Park, Jeong Soon; Chen, Yue; Huang, He; Zhang, Yi; Ro, Jennifer; Wagner, Gregory R.; Green, Michelle F.; Madsen, Andreas S.; Schmiesing, Jessica; Peterson, Brett S.; Xu, Guofeng; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Braulke, Thomas; Mühlhausen, Chris; Backos, Donald S.; Olsen, Christian A.; McGuire, Peter J.; Pletcher, Scott D.; Lombard, David B.; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Zhao, Yingming

    2014-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of a five-carbon protein post-translational modification (PTM) called lysine glutarylation (Kglu). This protein modification was detected by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (MS), and then comprehensively validated by chemical and biochemical methods. We demonstrated that the previously annotated deacetylase, sirtuin 5 (SIRT5), is a lysine deglutarylase. Proteome-wide analysis identified 683 Kglu sites in 191 proteins and showed Kglu is highly enriched on metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial proteins. We validated carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1), the rate-limiting enzyme in urea cycle, as a glutarylated protein and demonstrated that CPS1 is targeted by SIRT5 for deglutarylation. We further showed that glutarylation suppresses CPS1 enzymatic activity in cell lines, mice, and a model of glutaric academia type I disease, the last of which has elevated glutaric acid and glutaryl-CoA. This study expands the landscape of lysine acyl modifications and increases our understanding of the deacylase SIRT5. PMID:24703693

  13. Active sites of thioredoxin reductases: why selenoproteins?

    PubMed

    Gromer, Stephan; Johansson, Linda; Bauer, Holger; Arscott, L David; Rauch, Susanne; Ballou, David P; Williams, Charles H; Schirmer, R Heiner; Arnér, Elias S J

    2003-10-28

    Selenium, an essential trace element for mammals, is incorporated into a selected class of selenoproteins as selenocysteine. All known isoenzymes of mammalian thioredoxin (Trx) reductases (TrxRs) employ selenium in the C-terminal redox center -Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly-COOH for reduction of Trx and other substrates, whereas the corresponding sequence in Drosophila melanogaster TrxR is -Ser-Cys-Cys-Ser-COOH. Surprisingly, the catalytic competence of these orthologous enzymes is similar, whereas direct Sec-to-Cys substitution of mammalian TrxR, or other selenoenzymes, yields almost inactive enzyme. TrxRs are therefore ideal for studying the biology of selenocysteine by comparative enzymology. Here we show that the serine residues flanking the C-terminal Cys residues of Drosophila TrxRs are responsible for activating the cysteines to match the catalytic efficiency of a selenocysteine-cysteine pair as in mammalian TrxR, obviating the need for selenium. This finding suggests that the occurrence of selenoenzymes, which implies that the organism is selenium-dependent, is not necessarily associated with improved enzyme efficiency. Our data suggest that the selective advantage of selenoenzymes is a broader range of substrates and a broader range of microenvironmental conditions in which enzyme activity is possible.

  14. Contribution of active-site glutamine to rate enhancement in ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Boudreaux, David; Chaney, Joseph; Maiti, Tushar K.; Das, Chittaranjan

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolases (UCHs) are cysteine proteases featuring a classical cysteine-histidine-aspartate catalytic triad, also a highly conserved glutamine thought to be a part of the oxyanion hole. However, the contribution of this side chain to the catalysis by UCH enzymes is not known. Herein, we demonstrate that the glutamine side chain contributes to rate enhancement in UCHL1, UCHL3 and UCHL5. Mutation of the glutamine to alanine in these enzymes impairs the catalytic efficiency mainly due to a 16 to 30-fold reduction in kcat, which is consistent with a loss of approximately 2 kcal/mol in transition-state stabilization. However, the contribution to transition-state stabilization observed here is rather modest for the side chain’s role in oxyanion stabilization. Interestingly, we discovered that the carbonyl oxygen of this side chain is engaged in a C—H•••O hydrogen-bonding contact with the CεH group of the catalytic histidine. Upon further analysis, we found that this interaction is a common active-site structural feature in most cysteine proteases, including papain, belonging to families with the QCH(N/D) type of active-site configuration. It is possible that removal of the glutamine side chain might have abolished the C—H•••O interaction, which typically accounts for 2 kcal/mol of stabilization, leading to the effect on catalysis observed here. Additional studies performed on UCHL3 by mutating the glutamine to glutamate (strong C—H•••O acceptor but oxyanion destabilizer) and to lysine (strong oxyanion stabilizer but lacking C—H•••O hydrogen-bonding property) suggest that the C—H•••O hydrogen bond could contribute to catalysis. PMID:22284438

  15. Lysine malonylation is elevated in type 2 diabetic mouse models and enriched in metabolic associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Du, Yipeng; Cai, Tanxi; Li, Tingting; Xue, Peng; Zhou, Bo; He, Xiaolong; Wei, Peng; Liu, Pingsheng; Yang, Fuquan; Wei, Taotao

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine malonylation, a newly identified protein post-translational modification (PTM), has been proved to be evolutionarily conserved and is present in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. However, its potential roles associated with human diseases remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed an elevated lysine malonylation in a screening of seven lysine acylations in liver tissues of db/db mice, which is a typical model of type 2 diabetes. We also detected an elevated lysine malonylation in ob/ob mice, which is another model of type 2 diabetes. We then performed affinity enrichment coupled with proteomic analysis on liver tissues of both wild-type (wt) and db/db mice and identified a total of 573 malonylated lysine sites from 268 proteins. There were more malonylated lysine sites and proteins in db/db than in wt mice. Five proteins with elevated malonylation were verified by immunoprecipitation coupled with Western blot analysis. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic results revealed the enrichment of malonylated proteins in metabolic pathways, especially those involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. In addition, the biological role of lysine malonylation was validated in an enzyme of the glycolysis pathway. Together, our findings support a potential role of protein lysine malonylation in type 2 diabetes with possible implications for its therapy in the future.

  16. Lysine Malonylation Is Elevated in Type 2 Diabetic Mouse Models and Enriched in Metabolic Associated Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yipeng; Cai, Tanxi; Li, Tingting; Xue, Peng; Zhou, Bo; He, Xiaolong; Wei, Peng; Liu, Pingsheng; Yang, Fuquan; Wei, Taotao

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine malonylation, a newly identified protein post-translational modification (PTM), has been proved to be evolutionarily conserved and is present in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. However, its potential roles associated with human diseases remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed an elevated lysine malonylation in a screening of seven lysine acylations in liver tissues of db/db mice, which is a typical model of type 2 diabetes. We also detected an elevated lysine malonylation in ob/ob mice, which is another model of type 2 diabetes. We then performed affinity enrichment coupled with proteomic analysis on liver tissues of both wild-type (wt) and db/db mice and identified a total of 573 malonylated lysine sites from 268 proteins. There were more malonylated lysine sites and proteins in db/db than in wt mice. Five proteins with elevated malonylation were verified by immunoprecipitation coupled with Western blot analysis. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic results revealed the enrichment of malonylated proteins in metabolic pathways, especially those involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. In addition, the biological role of lysine malonylation was validated in an enzyme of the glycolysis pathway. Together, our findings support a potential role of protein lysine malonylation in type 2 diabetes with possible implications for its therapy in the future. PMID:25418362

  17. Growth and antioxidant status of broilers fed supplemental lysine and pyridoxine under high ambient temperature

    PubMed Central

    Khakpour Irani, Farzaneh; Daneshyar, Mohsen; Najafi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Three levels of lysine (90, 100 and 110% of Ross requirement) and of pyridoxine (3, 6 and 9 mg kg-1) were used in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment to investigate the growth and blood antioxidant ability of broilers under high ambient temperature. None of the dietary supplements affected the weight gain during the starter and grower periods. Although no significant differences were detected between the treatments during the entire period, high lysine level fed birds had a lower weight gain. At any levels of pyridoxine, high lysine fed birds were lighter than others. Neither the lysine nor pyridoxine changed the feed intake or feed conversion ratio during the starter, grower and entire period. However there was no significant difference between the treatments for blood malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, medium lysine fed birds had lower blood MDA than other ones. No significant effects on blood triglyceride, total protein and blood superoxide dismutase activity were indicated with addition of any lysine or pyridoxine level. Medium lysine fed birds had decreased blood glutathione peroxidase activity compared to the birds of other treatments. It was concluded that providing the proposed dietary lysine requirement of Ross strain during heat stress ensuring the best body weight gain and body antioxidant ability. Higher lysine level causes the retarded weight gain due to higher excretion of arginine from the body and consequently higher lipid peroxidation. PMID:26261713

  18. Community Update on Site Activities, July 19, 2013

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In an effort to engage and inform community members interested in the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site cleanup, EPA will be issuing periodic topic-based fact sheets that will provide background information and updates about ongoing activities.

  19. Site-specific albumination of a therapeutic protein with multi-subunit to prolong activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung In; Hahn, Young S.; Kwon, Inchan

    2015-01-01

    Albumin fusion/conjugation (albumination) has been an effective method to prolong in vivo half-life of therapeutic proteins. However, its broader application to proteins with complex folding pathway or multi-subunit is restricted by incorrect folding, poor expression, heterogeneity, and loss of native activity of the proteins linked to albumin. We hypothesized that the site-specific conjugation of albumin to a permissive site of a target protein will expand the utilities of albumin as a therapeutic activity extender to proteins with a complex structure. We show here the genetic incorporation of a non-natural amino acid (NNAA) followed by chemoselective albumin conjugation to prolong therapeutic activity in vivo. Urate oxidase (Uox), a therapeutic enzyme for treatment of hyperuricemia, is a homotetramer with multiple surface lysines, limiting conventional approaches for albumination. Incorporation of p-azido-l-phenylalanine into two predetermined positions of Uox allowed site-specific linkage of dibenzocyclooctyne-derivatized human serum albumin (HSA) through strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC). The bio-orthogonality of SPAAC resulted in the production of a chemically well-defined conjugate, Uox-HSA, with a retained enzymatic activity. Uox-HSA had a half-life of 8.8 h in mice, while wild-type Uox had a half-life of 1.3 h. The AUC increased 5.5-fold (1657 vs. 303 mU/mL × h). These results clearly demonstrated that site-specific albumination led to the prolonged enzymatic activity of Uox in vivo. Site-specific albumination enabled by NNAA incorporation and orthogonal chemistry demonstrates its promise for the development of long-acting protein therapeutics with high potency and safety. PMID:25862515

  20. Novel mechanisms for superoxide-scavenging activity of human manganese superoxide dismutase determined by the K68 key acetylation site.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiaqi; Cheng, Kuoyuan; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Huan; Cao, Yuanzhao; Guo, Fei; Feng, Xudong; Xia, Qing

    2015-08-01

    Superoxide is the primary reactive oxygen species generated in the mitochondria. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is the major enzymatic superoxide scavenger present in the mitochondrial matrix and one of the most crucial reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes in the cell. SOD2 is activated by sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) through NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation. However, the exact acetylation sites of SOD2 are ambiguous and the mechanisms underlying the deacetylation-mediated SOD2 activation largely remain unknown. We are the first to characterize SOD2 mutants of the acetylation sites by investigating the relative enzymatic activity, structures, and electrostatic potential of SOD2 in this study. These SOD2 mutations affected the superoxide-scavenging activity in vitro and in HEK293T cells. The lysine 68 (K68) site is the most important acetylation site contributing to SOD2 activation and plays a role in cell survival after paraquat treatment. The molecular basis underlying the regulation of SOD2 activity by K68 was investigated in detail. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that K68 mutations induced a conformational shift of residues located in the active center of SOD2 and altered the charge distribution on the SOD2 surface. Thus, the entry of the superoxide anion into the coordinated core of SOD2 was inhibited. Our results provide a novel mechanistic insight, whereby SOD2 acetylation affects the structure and charge distribution of SOD2, its tetramerization, and p53-SOD2 interactions of SOD2 in the mitochondria, which may play a role in nuclear-mitochondrial communication during aging.

  1. Structure-function validation of high lysine analogs of alpha-hordothionin designed by protein modeling.

    PubMed

    Rao, A G; Hassan, M; Hempel, J C

    1994-12-01

    Cereal grains and legume seeds, which are key protein sources for the vegetarian diet, are generally deficient in essential amino acids. Maize, in particular, is deficient in lysine. The inherent lack of lysine-rich proteins in maize has necessitated the search for heterologous proteins enriched in this amino acid, the isolation of the corresponding gene and its ultimate introduction into maize through plant transformation techniques. However, a rate-limiting step to this strategy has been the availability of plant-derived lysine-rich proteins. An appealing solution to the problem is to artificially increase the lysine content of a given protein by mutating appropriate residues to lysine. Here, we expound this strategy, starting with the protein alpha-hordothionin that is derived from barley seeds and consists of five lysine residues in a total of 45 amino acids (11% lysine). To facilitate rational substitutions, the 3-D structure of the protein has been determined by homology modeling with crambin. Based on this model, we have identified surface residues amenable to substitution with lysine. Furthermore, the acceptability of the mutations has been validated through the synthesis and characterization of the derivatives. To this end, our approach has permitted the creation of a modified alpha-hordothionin protein that has a lysine content of approximately 27% and retains the antifungal activity of the wild-type protein.

  2. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in diverse biological processes in Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Li, Delong; Lv, Binna; Tan, Lingling; Yang, Qianqian; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-07-14

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important plant pathogens due to its huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this Phytopthora. Here, we conducted a lysine acetylome in P. sojae. Overall, 2197 lysine acetylation sites in 1150 proteins were identified. The modified proteins are involved in diverse biological processes and are localized to multiple cellular compartments. Importantly, 7 proteins involved in the pathogenicity or the secretion pathway of P. sojae were found to be acetylated. These data provide the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of P. sojae and serve as an important resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in plant pathogens.

  3. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in diverse biological processes in Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Delong; Lv, Binna; Tan, Lingling; Yang, Qianqian; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important plant pathogens due to its huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this Phytopthora. Here, we conducted a lysine acetylome in P. sojae. Overall, 2197 lysine acetylation sites in 1150 proteins were identified. The modified proteins are involved in diverse biological processes and are localized to multiple cellular compartments. Importantly, 7 proteins involved in the pathogenicity or the secretion pathway of P. sojae were found to be acetylated. These data provide the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of P. sojae and serve as an important resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in plant pathogens. PMID:27412925

  4. Mapping and genotypic analysis of NK-lysin gene in chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are important elements of the first line of defence against pathogens in animals. NK-lysin is a cationic AMP that plays a critical role in innate immunity. The chicken NK-lysin gene has been cloned and its antimicrobial and anticancer activity has been descri...

  5. Mapping and genotypic analysis of NK-lysin gene in chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NK-lysin is a cationic anti-microbial peptide that plays a critical role in innate immunity against infectious pathogens. Chicken NK-lysin has been cloned and its antimicrobial and anticancer activity has been described but its location in the chicken genome prior this study was unknown. A 6000 rad ...

  6. EGFR kinase possesses a broad specificity for ErbB phosphorylation sites, and ligand increases catalytic-centre activity without affecting substrate binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We previously found that EGF (epidermal growth factor) increases the EGFR (EGF receptor) kinase-binding affinity towards the major tyrosine phosphorylation sites in downstream adaptor proteins such as Gab1 (Grb2-associated binding protein 1) and Shc [Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and collagen containing protein], but not that towards EGFR autophosphorylation sites [Fan, Wong, Deb and Johnson (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 38143–38150]. EGFR activation can also result in transphosphorylation of tyrosine resides in the C-terminal region of the related receptors ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 in heterodimers which are formed upon ligand stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the specificity of EGFR kinase by comparing the steady state kinetic parameters for peptides derived from all four ErbBs in the absence or presence of EGF. Our results demonstrated that (i) EGFR kinase can efficiently phosphorylate a broad range of diverse peptide sequences representing ErbB sites; (ii) certain ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 sites had higher specificity constants than any EGFR sequence and (iii) EGF stimulation consistently increases the kcat approx. 5-fold, but does not significantly alter the Km for any ErbB peptides. Furthermore, peptides containing lysine at position −2 or −3 N-terminal to the target tyrosine were found to be poor EGFR kinase substrates, and substitution of these lysines with glutamine decreased the Km and increased the kcat for these substrates. We conclude that EGFR kinase-mediated ErbB transphosphorylations are mostly controlled at the level of oligomerization, and not by a preference of the EGFR kinase for phosphorylation sites in any particular ErbB. The results also demonstrated that, unlike phosphorylation sites in select downstream targets, EGF does not regulate the recognition of phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal region of any of the ErbBs. PMID:16122376

  7. Identification of putative active site residues of ACAT enzymes.

    PubMed

    Das, Akash; Davis, Matthew A; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2008-08-01

    In this report, we sought to determine the putative active site residues of ACAT enzymes. For experimental purposes, a particular region of the C-terminal end of the ACAT protein was selected as the putative active site domain due to its high degree of sequence conservation from yeast to humans. Because ACAT enzymes have an intrinsic thioesterase activity, we hypothesized that by analogy with the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase, the active site of ACAT enzymes may comprise a catalytic triad of ser-his-asp (S-H-D) amino acid residues. Mutagenesis studies revealed that in ACAT1, S456, H460, and D400 were essential for activity. In ACAT2, H438 was required for enzymatic activity. However, mutation of D378 destabilized the enzyme. Surprisingly, we were unable to identify any S mutations of ACAT2 that abolished catalytic activity. Moreover, ACAT2 was insensitive to serine-modifying reagents, whereas ACAT1 was not. Further studies indicated that tyrosine residues may be important for ACAT activity. Mutational analysis showed that the tyrosine residue of the highly conserved FYXDWWN motif was important for ACAT activity. Furthermore, Y518 was necessary for ACAT1 activity, whereas the analogous residue in ACAT2, Y496, was not. The available data suggest that the amino acid requirement for ACAT activity may be different for the two ACAT isozymes.

  8. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide. PMID:26908655

  9. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-04-20

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide.

  10. Widespread occurrence of lysine methylation in Plasmodium falciparum proteins at asexual blood stages

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Saini, Ekta; Kaushik, Abhinav; Mohmmed, Asif; Gupta, Dinesh; Malhotra, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    Post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications play a major role in Plasmodium life cycle regulation. Lysine methylation of histone proteins is well documented in several organisms, however in recent years lysine methylation of proteins outside histone code is emerging out as an important post-translational modification (PTM). In the present study we have performed global analysis of lysine methylation of proteins in asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum development. We immunoprecipitated stage specific Plasmodium lysates using anti-methyl lysine specific antibodies that immunostained the asexual blood stage parasites. Using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 570 lysine methylated proteins at three different blood stages were identified. Analysis of the peptide sequences identified 605 methylated sites within 422 proteins. Functional classification of the methylated proteins revealed that the proteins are mainly involved in nucleotide metabolic processes, chromatin organization, transport, homeostatic processes and protein folding. The motif analysis of the methylated lysine peptides reveals novel motifs. Many of the identified lysine methylated proteins are also interacting partners/substrates of PfSET domain proteins as revealed by STRING database analysis. Our findings suggest that the protein methylation at lysine residues is widespread in Plasmodium and plays an important regulatory role in diverse set of the parasite pathways. PMID:27762281

  11. Promoter-proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Pia K.; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites on transcription requires promoter proximity, as demonstrated using artificial constructs and supported by a genome-wide data set. Importantly, transcription down-regulation can be recapitulated in a gene context devoid of splice sites by placing a functional bona fide pA site/transcription terminator within ∼500 base pairs of the promoter. In contrast, promoter-proximal positioning of a pA site-independent histone gene terminator supports high transcription levels. We propose that optimal communication between a pA site-dependent gene terminator and its promoter critically depends on gene length and that short RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes use specialized termination mechanisms to maintain high transcription levels. PMID:23028143

  12. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  13. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  14. Active and regulatory sites of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase.

    PubMed

    Pesi, Rossana; Allegrini, Simone; Careddu, Maria Giovanna; Filoni, Daniela Nicole; Camici, Marcella; Tozzi, Maria Grazia

    2010-12-01

    Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase (cN-II), which acts preferentially on 6-hydroxypurine nucleotides, is essential for the survival of several cell types. cN-II catalyses both the hydrolysis of nucleotides and transfer of their phosphate moiety to a nucleoside acceptor through formation of a covalent phospho-intermediate. Both activities are regulated by a number of phosphorylated compounds, such as diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap₄A), ADP, ATP, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) and phosphate. On the basis of a partial crystal structure of cN-II, we mutated two residues located in the active site, Y55 and T56. We ascertained that the ability to catalyse the transfer of phosphate depends on the presence of a bulky residue in the active site very close to the aspartate residue that forms the covalent phospho-intermediate. The molecular model indicates two possible sites at which adenylic compounds may interact. We mutated three residues that mediate interaction in the first activation site (R144, N154, I152) and three in the second (F127, M436 and H428), and found that Ap₄A and ADP interact with the same site, but the sites for ATP and BPG remain uncertain. The structural model indicates that cN-II is a homotetrameric protein that results from interaction through a specific interface B of two identical dimers that have arisen from interaction of two identical subunits through interface A. Point mutations in the two interfaces and gel-filtration experiments indicated that the dimer is the smallest active oligomerization state. Finally, gel-filtration and light-scattering experiments demonstrated that the native enzyme exists as a tetramer, and no further oligomerization is required for enzyme activation.

  15. Therapeutic use of chimeric bacteriophage (phage) lysins in staphylococcal endophthalmitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Phage endolysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases that are produced at the end of the phage lytic cycle to digest the host bacterial cell wall, facilitating the release of mature phage progeny. The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of chimeric phage lysins against cli...

  16. Histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation breaks the genome's silence

    PubMed Central

    Shia, Wei-Jong; Pattenden, Samantha G; Workman, Jerry L

    2006-01-01

    Acetylation at histone H4 lysine 16 is involved in many cellular processes in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans. A recent biochemical study pinpoints this particular acetylation mark as a switch for changing chromatin from a repressive to a transcriptionally active state. PMID:16689998

  17. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue

    DOE PAGES

    Teixeira, Miguel; Cabelli, Diane; Pinto, Ana F.; ...

    2014-12-05

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the –EKHVP– motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue ismore » substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (₋E₂₃T₂₄HVP₋), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.« less

  18. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Miguel; Cabelli, Diane; Pinto, Ana F.; Romao, Celia V.; Pinto, Liliana C.; Huber, Harald; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Todorovic, Smilja

    2014-12-05

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the –EKHVP– motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue is substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (₋E₂₃T₂₄HVP₋), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.

  19. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ana F; Romão, Célia V; Pinto, Liliana C; Huber, Harald; Saraiva, Lígia M; Todorovic, Smilja; Cabelli, Diane; Teixeira, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the -EKHVP- motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue is substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (-E23T24HVP-), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild-type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.

  20. Identification of Structural and Catalytic Classes of Highly Conserved Amino Acid Residues in Lysine 2,3-Aminomutase †

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dawei; Frey, Perry A.; Lepore, Bryan W.; Ringe, Dagmar; Ruzicka, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    Lysine 2,3-aminomutase (LAM) from Clostridium subterminale SB4 catalyzes the interconversion of (S)-lysine and (S)-β-lysine by a radical mechanism involving coenzymatic actions of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a [4Fe-4S] cluster, and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP). The enzyme contains a number of conserved acidic residues and a cysteine and arginine-rich motif, that binds iron and sulfide in the [4Fe–4S] cluster. The results of activity and iron, sulfide, and PLP analysis of variants resulting from site-specific mutations of the conserved acidic residues and the arginine residues in the iron-sulfide binding motif indicate two classes of conserved residues of each type. Mutation of the conserved residues Arg134, Asp293, and Asp330 abolish all enzymatic activity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure, these residues bind the ε-aminium and α-carboxylate groups of (S)-lysine. However, among these residues only Asp293 appears to be important for stabilizing the [4Fe–4S] cluster. Members of a second group of conserved residues appear to stabilize the structure of LAM. Mutations of arginine residues 130, 135, and 136 and acidic residues Glu86, Asp165, Glu236, and Asp172 dramatically decrease iron and sulfide contents in the purified variants. Mutation of Asp96 significantly decreases iron and sulfide content. Variants in Arg130 or Asp172 display no detectable activity, whereas variants in the other positions display low to very low activities. Structural roles are assigned to this latter class of conserved amino acids. In particular, a network of hydrogen bonded interactions of Arg130, Glu86, Arg135 and the main chain carbonyl groups of Cys132 and Leu55 appears to stabilize the [4Fe–4S] cluster. PMID:17042481

  1. BAX Activation is Initiated at a Novel Interaction Site

    PubMed Central

    Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Suzuki, Motoshi; Davis, Marguerite L.; Pitter, Kenneth; Bird, Gregory H.; Katz, Samuel G.; Tu, Ho-Chou; Kim, Hyungjin; Cheng, Emily H.-Y.; Tjandra, Nico; Walensky, Loren D.

    2008-01-01

    BAX is a pro-apoptotic protein of the BCL-2 family stationed in the cytosol until activated by a diversity of stress stimuli to induce cell death. Anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-2 counteract BAX-mediated cell death. Although an interaction site that confers survival functionality has been defined for anti-apoptotic proteins, an activation site has not been identified for BAX, rendering its explicit trigger mechanism unknown. We previously developed Stabilized Alpha-Helix of BCL-2 domains (SAHBs) that directly initiate BAX-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. Here we demonstrate by NMR analysis that BIM SAHB binds BAX at an interaction site that is distinct from the canonical binding groove characterized for anti-apoptotic proteins. The specificity of the BIM SAHB-BAX interaction is highlighted by point mutagenesis that abrogates functional activity, confirming that BAX activation is initiated at this novel structural location. Thus, we have now defined a BAX interaction site for direct activation, establishing a new target for therapeutic modulation of apoptosis. PMID:18948948

  2. Involvement of novel autophosphorylation sites in ATM activation.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Graham, Mark E; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Philip; Robinson, Phillip J; Lavin, Martin F

    2006-08-09

    ATM kinase plays a central role in signaling DNA double-strand breaks to cell cycle checkpoints and to the DNA repair machinery. Although the exact mechanism of ATM activation remains unknown, efficient activation requires the Mre11 complex, autophosphorylation on S1981 and the involvement of protein phosphatases and acetylases. We report here the identification of several additional phosphorylation sites on ATM in response to DNA damage, including autophosphorylation on pS367 and pS1893. ATM autophosphorylates all these sites in vitro in response to DNA damage. Antibodies against phosphoserine 1893 revealed rapid and persistent phosphorylation at this site after in vivo activation of ATM kinase by ionizing radiation, paralleling that observed for S1981 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation was dependent on functional ATM and on the Mre11 complex. All three autophosphorylation sites are physiologically important parts of the DNA damage response, as phosphorylation site mutants (S367A, S1893A and S1981A) were each defective in ATM signaling in vivo and each failed to correct radiosensitivity, genome instability and cell cycle checkpoint defects in ataxia-telangiectasia cells. We conclude that there are at least three functionally important radiation-induced autophosphorylation events in ATM.

  3. Resonant active sites in catalytic ammonia synthesis: A structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholach, Alexander R.; Bryliakova, Anna A.; Matveev, Andrey V.; Bulgakov, Nikolai N.

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption sites Mn consisted of n adjacent atoms M, each bound to the adsorbed species, are considered within a realistic model. The sum of bonds Σ lost by atoms in a site in comparison with the bulk atoms was used for evaluation of the local surface imperfection, while the reaction enthalpy at that site was used as a measure of activity. The comparative study of Mn sites (n = 1-5) at basal planes of Pt, Rh, Ir, Fe, Re and Ru with respect to heat of N2 dissociative adsorption QN and heat of Nad + Had → NHad reaction QNH was performed using semi-empirical calculations. Linear QN(Σ) increase and QNH(Σ) decrease allowed to specify the resonant Σ for each surface in catalytic ammonia synthesis at equilibrium Nad coverage. Optimal Σ are realizable for Ru2, Re2 and Ir4 only, whereas other centers meet steric inhibition or unreal crystal structure. Relative activity of the most active sites in proportion 5.0 × 10- 5: 4.5 × 10- 3: 1: 2.5: 3.0: 1080: 2270 for a sequence of Pt4, Rh4, Fe4(fcc), Ir4, Fe2-5(bcc), Ru2, Re2, respectively, is in agreement with relevant experimental data. Similar approach can be applied to other adsorption or catalytic processes exhibiting structure sensitivity.

  4. Active Site Loop Dynamics of a Class IIa Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pegan, Scott D.; Rukseree, Kamolchanok; Capodagli, Glenn C.; Baker, Erica A.; Krasnykh, Olga; Franzblau, Scott G.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2013-01-08

    The class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs, EC 4.1.2.13) comprises one of two families of aldolases. Instead of forming a Schiff base intermediate using an ε-amino group of a lysine side chain, class II FBAs utilize Zn(II) to stabilize a proposed hydroxyenolate intermediate (HEI) in the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, forming glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). As class II FBAs have been shown to be essential in pathogenic bacteria, focus has been placed on these enzymes as potential antibacterial targets. Although structural studies of class II FBAs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtFBA), other bacteria, and protozoa have been reported, the structure of the active site loop responsible for catalyzing the protonation–deprotonation steps of the reaction for class II FBAs has not yet been observed. We therefore utilized the potent class II FBA inhibitor phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) as a mimic of the HEI- and DHAP-bound form of the enzyme and determined the X-ray structure of the MtFBA–PGH complex to 1.58 Å. Remarkably, we are able to observe well-defined electron density for the previously elusive active site loop of MtFBA trapped in a catalytically competent orientation. Utilization of this structural information and site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies conducted on a series of residues within the active site loop revealed that E169 facilitates a water-mediated deprotonation–protonation step of the MtFBA reaction mechanism. Furthermore, solvent isotope effects on MtFBA and catalytically relevant mutants were used to probe the effect of loop flexibility on catalytic efficiency. Additionally, we also reveal the structure of MtFBA in its holoenzyme form.

  5. Myeloperoxidase-mediated protein lysine oxidation generates 2-aminoadipic acid and lysine nitrile in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongqiao; Levison, Bruce S; Buffa, Jennifer A; Huang, Ying; Fu, Xiaoming; Wang, Zeneng; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies reveal 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) is both elevated in subjects at risk for diabetes and mechanistically linked to glucose homeostasis. Prior studies also suggest enrichment of protein-bound 2-AAA as an oxidative post-translational modification of lysyl residues in tissues associated with degenerative diseases of aging. While in vitro studies suggest redox active transition metals or myeloperoxidase (MPO) generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) may produce protein-bound 2-AAA, the mechanism(s) responsible for generation of 2-AAA during inflammatory diseases are unknown. In initial studies we observed that traditional acid- or base-catalyzed protein hydrolysis methods previously employed to measure tissue 2-AAA can artificially generate protein-bound 2-AAA from an alternative potential lysine oxidative product, lysine nitrile (LysCN). Using a validated protease-based digestion method coupled with stable isotope dilution LC/MS/MS, we now report protein bound 2-AAA and LysCN are both formed by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and the MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) system of leukocytes. At low molar ratio of oxidant to target protein N(ε)-lysine moiety, 2-AAA is formed via an initial N(ε)-monochloramine intermediate, which ultimately produces the more stable 2-AAA end-product via sequential generation of transient imine and semialdehyde intermediates. At higher oxidant to target protein N(ε)-lysine amine ratios, protein-bound LysCN is formed via initial generation of a lysine N(ε)-dichloramine intermediate. In studies employing MPO knockout mice and an acute inflammation model, we show that both free and protein-bound 2-AAA, and in lower yield, protein-bound LysCN, are formed by MPO in vivo during inflammation. Finally, both 2-AAA and to lesser extent LysCN are shown to be enriched in human aortic atherosclerotic plaque, a tissue known to harbor multiple MPO-catalyzed protein oxidation products. Collectively, these results show that MPO-mediated oxidation of protein lysyl

  6. Chemical Modification of Papain and Subtilisin: An Active Site Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Vincent, Mireille; Dickman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An experiment using methyle methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) and phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride (PMSF) to specifically modify the cysteine and serine residues in the active sites of papain and subtilism respectively is demonstrated. The covalent modification of these enzymes and subsequent rescue of papain shows the beginning biochemist that proteins…

  7. Spectroscopic studies of the active site of galactose oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, P.F.; Brown, R.D. III; Koenig, S.H.

    1995-07-19

    X-ray absorption and EPR spectroscopy have been used to probe the copper site structure in galactose oxidase at pH 4.5 and 7.0. the results suggest that there are no major differences in the structure of the tetragonal Cu(II) site at these pH values. Analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicates that four N,O scatterers are present at approximately 2 {Angstrom}; these are presumably the equatorial ligands. In addition, the EXAFS data establish that oxidative activation to produce the active-site tyrosine radical does not cause major changes in the copper coordination environment. Therefore results obtained on the one-electron reduced enzyme, containing Cu(II) but not the tyrosine radical, probably also apply to the catalytically active Cu(II)/tyrosine radical state. Solvent water exchange, inhibitor binding, and substrate binding have been probed via nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) measurements. The NMRD profile of galactose oxidase is quantitatively consistent with the rapid exchange of a single, equatorial water ligand with a Cu(II)-O separation of about 2.4 {Angstrom}. Azide and cyanide displace this coordinated water. The binding of azide and the substrate dihydroxyacetone produce very similar effects on the NMRD profile of galactose oxidase, indicating that substrates also bind to the active site Cu(II) in an equatorial position.

  8. Energy transfer at the active sites of heme proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dlott, D.D.; Hill, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments using a picosecond pump-probe apparatus at the Picosecond Free-electron Laser Center at Stanford University, were performed to investigate the relaxation of carbon monoxide bound to the active sites of heme proteins. The significance of these experiments is two-fold: (1) they provide detailed information about molecular dynamics occurring at the active sites of proteins; and (2) they provide insight into the nature of vibrational relaxation processes in condensed matter. Molecular engineering is used to construct various molecular systems which are studied with the FEL. We have studied native proteins, mainly myoglobin obtained from different species, mutant proteins produced by genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques, and a variety of model systems which mimic the structures of the active sites of native proteins, which are produced using molecular synthesis. Use of these different systems permits us to investigate how specific molecular structural changes affect dynamical processes occurring at the active sites. This research provides insight into the problems of how different species needs are fulfilled by heme proteins which have greatly different functionality, which is induced by rather small structural changes.

  9. Charge Stabilization and Entropy Reduction of Central Lysine Residues in

    SciTech Connect

    St-Jean, M.; Blonski, C; Sygusch, J

    2009-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate muscle aldolase is an essential glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes reversible carbon-carbon bond formation by cleaving fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to yield dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and d-glyceraldehyde phosphate. To elucidate the mechanistic role of conserved amino acid Asp-33, Asn-33 and Ser-33 mutants were examined by kinetic and structural analyses. The mutations significantly compromised enzymatic activity and carbanion oxidation in presence of DHAP. Detailed structural analysis demonstrated that, like native crystals, Asp-33 mutant crystals, soaked in DHAP solutions, trapped Schiff base-derived intermediates covalently attached to Lys-229. The mutant structures, however, exhibited an abridged conformational change with the helical region (34-65) flanking the active site as well as pK{sub a} reductions and increased side chain disorder by central lysine residues, Lys-107 and Lys-146. These changes directly affect their interaction with the C-terminal Tyr-363, consistent with the absence of active site binding by the C-terminal region in the presence of phosphate. Lys-146 pKa reduction and side chain disorder would further compromise charge stabilization during C-C bond cleavage and proton transfer during enamine formation. These mechanistic impediments explain diminished catalytic activity and a reduced level of carbanion oxidation and are consistent with rate-determining proton transfer observed in the Asn-33 mutant. Asp-33 reduces the entropic cost and augments the enthalpic gain during catalysis by rigidifying Lys-107 and Lys-146, stabilizing their protonated forms, and promoting a conformational change triggered by substrate or obligate product binding, which lower kinetic barriers in C-C bond cleavage and Schiff base-enamine interconversion.

  10. Changes in active site histidine hydrogen bonding trigger cryptochrome activation.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Abir; Manahan, Craig C; Top, Deniz; Yee, Estella F; Lin, Changfan; Young, Michael W; Thiel, Walter; Crane, Brian R

    2016-09-06

    Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations indicate that flavin reduction substantially increases the His378 pKa Consistent with coupling between ASQ formation and His378 protonation, dCRY displays reduced photoreduction rates with increasing pH; however, His378Asn/Arg variants show no such pH dependence. Replica-exchange MD simulations also support CTT release mediated by changes in His378 hydrogen bonding and verify other responsive regions of the protein previously identified by proteolytic sensitivity assays. His378 dCRY variants show varying abilities to light-activate TIM and undergo self-degradation in cellular assays. Surprisingly, His378Arg/Lys variants do not degrade in light despite maintaining reactivity toward TIM, thereby implicating different conformational responses in these two functions. Thus, the dCRY photosensory mechanism involves flavin photoreduction coupled to protonation of His378, whose perturbed hydrogen-bonding pattern alters the CTT and surrounding regions.

  11. Changes in active site histidine hydrogen bonding trigger cryptochrome activation

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Abir; Manahan, Craig C.; Top, Deniz; Yee, Estella F.; Lin, Changfan; Young, Michael W.; Thiel, Walter; Crane, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations indicate that flavin reduction substantially increases the His378 pKa. Consistent with coupling between ASQ formation and His378 protonation, dCRY displays reduced photoreduction rates with increasing pH; however, His378Asn/Arg variants show no such pH dependence. Replica-exchange MD simulations also support CTT release mediated by changes in His378 hydrogen bonding and verify other responsive regions of the protein previously identified by proteolytic sensitivity assays. His378 dCRY variants show varying abilities to light-activate TIM and undergo self-degradation in cellular assays. Surprisingly, His378Arg/Lys variants do not degrade in light despite maintaining reactivity toward TIM, thereby implicating different conformational responses in these two functions. Thus, the dCRY photosensory mechanism involves flavin photoreduction coupled to protonation of His378, whose perturbed hydrogen-bonding pattern alters the CTT and surrounding regions. PMID:27551082

  12. Probing the promiscuous active site of myo-inositol dehydrogenase using synthetic substrates, homology modeling, and active site modification.

    PubMed

    Daniellou, Richard; Zheng, Hongyan; Langill, David M; Sanders, David A R; Palmer, David R J

    2007-06-26

    The active site of myo-inositol dehydrogenase (IDH, EC 1.1.1.18) from Bacillus subtilis recognizes a variety of mono- and disaccharides, as well as 1l-4-O-substituted inositol derivatives. It catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of the axial alcohol of these substrates with comparable kinetic constants. We have found that 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol does not act as a substrate for IDH, in contrast to structurally similar compounds such as those bearing substituted benzyl substituents in the same position. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol and 4-O-(2-naphthyl)methyl-myo-inositol, which is a substrate for IDH, shows a distinct difference in the preferred conformation of the aryl substituent. Conformational analysis of known substrates of IDH suggests that this conformational difference may account for the difference in reactivity of 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol in the presence of IDH. A sequence alignment of IDH with the homologous glucose-fructose oxidoreductase allowed the construction of an homology model of inositol dehydrogenase, to which NADH and 4-O-benzyl-scyllo-inosose were docked and the active site energy minimized. The active site model is consistent with all experimental results and suggests that a conserved tyrosine-glycine-tyrosine motif forms the hydrophobic pocket adjoining the site of inositol recognition. Y233F and Y235F retain activity, while Y233R and Y235R do not. A histidine-aspartate pair, H176 and D172, are proposed to act as a dyad in which H176 is the active site acid/base. The enzyme is inactivated by diethyl pyrocarbonate, and the mutants H176A and D172N show a marked loss of activity. Kinetic isotope effect experiments with D172N indicate that chemistry is rate-determining for this mutant.

  13. The active site structure and mechanism of phosphoenolpyruvate utilizing enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    Arginine specific reagents showed irreversible inhibition of avian liver mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Potent protection against modification was elicited by CO{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} in the presence of other substrates. Labeling of enzyme with (7-{sup 14}C) phenylglyoxal showed that 1 or 2 arginines are involved in CO{sub 2} binding and activation. Peptide map studies showed this active site arginine residues is located at position 289. Histidine specific reagents showed pseudo first order inhibition of avian mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity. The best protection against modification was elicited by IDP or IDP and Mn{sup +2}. One histidine residue is at or near the phosphoenolpyruvate binding site as demonstrated in the increased absorbance at 240 nm and proton relaxation rate studies. Circular dichroism studies reveal that enzyme structure was perturbed by diethylpyrocarbonate modification. Metal binding studies suggest that this enzyme has only one metal binding site. The putative binding sites from several GTP and phosphoenolpyruvate utilizing enzymes are observed in P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase from different species.

  14. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A; Medici, Leonardo O; Vincze, Eva; Kozak, Marcin; Lea, Peter J; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2015-02-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with increased lysine, methionine and threonine contents. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible changes in the regulation of key enzymes of the aspartate metabolic pathway and the contents of aspartate-derived amino acids in the nontransgenic line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden Promise) and five antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines. Considering the amounts of soluble and protein-bound aspartate-derived amino acids together with the analysis of key enzymes of aspartate metabolic pathway, we suggest that the C-hordein suppression did not only alter the metabolism of at least one aspartate-derived amino acid (threonine), but major changes were also detected in the metabolism of lysine and methionine. Modifications in the activities and regulation of aspartate kinase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase and homoserine dehydrogenase were observed in most transgenic lines. Furthermore the activities of lysine α-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase were also altered, although the extent varied among the transgenic lines.

  15. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  16. Lysine Restriction and Pyridoxal Phosphate Administration in a NADK2 Patient.

    PubMed

    Tort, Frederic; Ugarteburu, Olatz; Torres, Maria Angeles; García-Villoria, Judit; Girós, Marisa; Ruiz, Angeles; Ribes, Antonia

    2016-11-01

    We report the case of a 10-year-old Spanish girl with mutations in NADK2 Prenatal central nervous system abnormalities showed ventriculomegaly, colpocephaly, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. At birth, axial hypotonia, uncoordinated movements, microcephaly, and generalized cerebellar atrophy were detected. Metabolic investigations revealed high lysine, lactate, and pipecolic acid levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in fibroblasts were normal. Beginning at birth she received biotin, thiamine, and carnitine supplementation. A lysine-restricted diet was started when she was 1 month old. Because pipecolic acid was high, pyridoxine was added to treatment. At 3 years old, astatic myoclonic epilepsy appeared, with no response to levetiracetam. We switched pyridoxine to pyridoxal phosphate, with electroclinical improvement. Because the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes III and IV was slightly low in muscle, other cofactors such as ubidecarenone, idebenone, vitamin E, and creatine were added to the treatment. At 8 years old, plasma acylcarnitine testing was performed, and high levels of 2-trans, 4-cis-decadienoylcarnitine were found. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous splice site mutation in NADK2 (c.956+6T>C; p.Trp319Cysfs*21). This substitution generates exon skipping, leading to a truncated protein. In fact, NADK2 messenger RNA and the corresponding protein were almost absent. Now, at 10 years of age she presents with ataxia and incoordination. She has oromotor dysphasia but is able to understand fluid language and is a very friendly girl. We hypothesize that the patient's clinical improvement could be due to her lysine-restricted diet together with cofactors and pyridoxal phosphate administration.

  17. Engineering the substrate specificity of rhizopuspepsin: the role of Asp 77 of fungal aspartic proteinases in facilitating the cleavage of oligopeptide substrates with lysine in P1.

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, W. T.; Majer, P.; Dunn, B. M.

    1995-01-01

    Rhizopuspepsin and other fungal aspartic proteinases are distinct from the mammalian enzymes in that they are able to cleave substrates with lysine in the P1 position. Sequence and structural comparisons suggest that two aspartic acid residues, Asp 30 and Asp 77 (pig pepsin numbering), may be responsible for generating this unique specificity. Asp 30 and Asp 77 were changed to the corresponding residues in porcine pepsin, Ile 30 and Thr 77, to create single and double mutants. The zymogen forms of the wild-type and mutant enzymes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. Following solubilization, denaturation, refolding, activation, and purification to homogeneity, structural and kinetic comparisons were made. The mutant enzymes exhibited a high degree of structural similarity to the wild-type recombinant protein and a native isozyme. The catalytic activities of the recombinant proteins were analyzed with chromogenic substrates containing lysine in the P1, P2, or P3 positions. Mutation of Asp 77 resulted in a loss of 7 kcal mol-1 of transition-state stabilization energy in the hydrolysis of the substrate containing lysine in P1. An inhibitor containing the positively charged P1-lysine side chain inhibited only the enzymes containing Asp 77. Inhibition of the Asp 77 mutants of rhizopuspepsin and several mammalian enzymes was restored upon acetylation of the lysine side chain. These results suggest that an exploitation of the specific electrostatic interaction of Asp 77 in the active site of fungal enzymes may lead to the design of compounds that preferentially inhibit a variety of related Candida proteinases in immunocompromised patients. PMID:7613467

  18. Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Silicate Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolles, Tobias; Burkart, Julia; Häusler, Thomas; Pummer, Bernhard; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Mineral dusts originating from Earth's crust are known to be important atmospheric ice nuclei. In agreement with earlier studies, feldspar was found as the most active of the tested natural mineral dusts [1-3]. Nevertheless, among those structures K-feldspar showed by far the highest ice nucleation activity. In this study, the reasons for its activity and the difference in the activity of the different feldspars were investigated in closer details. Conclusions are drawn from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and oil-immersion freezing experiments. We give a potential explanation of the increased ice nucleation activity of K-feldspar. The ice nucleating sites are very much dependent on the alkali ion present by altering the water structure and the feldspar surface. The higher activity of K-feldspar can be attributed to the presence of potassium ions on the surface and surface bilayer. The alkali-ions have different hydration shells and thus an influence on the ice nucleation activity of feldspar. Chaotropic behavior of Calcium and Sodium ions are lowering the ice nucleation potential of the other feldspars, while kosmotropic Potassium has a neutral or even positive effect. Furthermore we investigated the influence of milling onto the ice nucleation of quartz particles. The ice nucleation activity can be increased by mechanical milling, by introducing more molecular, nucleation active defects to the particle surface. This effect is larger than expected by plane surface increase. [1] Atkinson et al. The Importance of Feldspar for Ice Nucleation by Mineral Dust in Mixed-Phase Clouds. Nature 2013, 498, 355-358. [2] Yakobi-Hancock et al.. Feldspar Minerals as Efficient Deposition Ice Nuclei. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013, 13, 11175-11185. [3] Zolles et al. Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Feldspar Dust Particles. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015 accepted.

  19. The antibacterial activity of E. coli bacteriophage lysin lysep3 is enhanced by fusing the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens bacteriophage endolysin binding domain D8 to the C-terminal region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Gu, Jingmin; Lv, Meng; Guo, Zhimin; Yan, Guangmou; Yu, Ling; Du, Chongtao; Feng, Xin; Han, Wenyu; Sun, Changjiang; Lei, Liancheng

    2017-01-26

    Bacteriophage endolysin is one of the most promising antibiotic substitutes, but in Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane prevents the lysin from hydrolyzing peptidoglycans and blocks the development of lysin applications. The prime strategy for new antibiotic substitutes is allowing lysin to access the peptidoglycan from outside of the bacteria by reformation of the lysin. In this study, the novel Escherichia coli (E. coli) phage lyase lysep3, which lacks outside-in catalytic ability, was fused with the N-terminal region of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens lysin including its cell wall binding domain D8 through the best manner of protein fusion based on the predicted tertiary structure of lysep3-D8 to obtain an engineered lysin that can lyse bacteria from the outside. Our results showed that lysep3-D8 could lyse both Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacteria, whereas lysep3 and D8 have no impact on bacterial growth. The MIC of lysep3-D8 on E. coli CVCC1418 is 60 μg/ml; lysep3-D8 can inhibit the growth of bacteria up to 12 h at this concentration. The bactericidal spectrum of lysep3-D8 is broad, as it can lyse of all of 14 E. coli strains, 3 P. aeruginosa strains, 1 Acinetobacter baumannii strain, and 1 Streptococcus strain. Lysep3-D8 has sufficient bactericidal effects on the 14 E. coli strains tested at the concentration of 100 μg/ml. The cell wall binding domain of the engineered lysin can destroy the integrity of the outer membrane of bacteria, thus allowing the catalytic domain to reach its target, peptidoglycan, to lyse the bacteria. Lysep3-D8 can be used as a preservative in fodder to benefit the health of animals. The method we used here proved to be a successful exploration of the reformation of phage lysin.

  20. Face the Edges: Catalytic Active Sites of Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Edges are special sites in nanomaterials. The atoms residing on the edges have different environments compared to those in other parts of a nanomaterial and, therefore, they may have different properties. Here, recent progress in nanomaterial fields is summarized from the viewpoint of the edges. Typically, edge sites in MoS2 or metals, other than surface atoms, can perform as active centers for catalytic reactions, so the method to enhance performance lies in the optimization of the edge structures. The edges of multicomponent interfaces present even more possibilities to enhance the activities of nanomaterials. Nanoframes and ultrathin nanowires have similarities to conventional edges of nanoparticles, the application of which as catalysts can help to reduce the use of costly materials. Looking beyond this, the edge structures of graphene are also essential for their properties. In short, the edge structure can influence many properties of materials. PMID:27980960

  1. Active sites in char gasification: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtowicz, M.; Lilly, W.D.; Perkins, M.T.; Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    Among the key variables in the design of gasifiers and combustors is the reactivity of the chars which must be gasified or combusted. Significant loss of unburned char is unacceptable in virtually any process; the provision of sufficient residence time for complete conversion is essential. A very wide range of reactivities are observed, depending upon the nature of the char in a process. The current work focuses on furthering the understanding of gasification reactivities of chars. It has been well established that the reactivity of char to gasification generally depends upon three principal factors: (1) the concentration of ''active sites'' in the char; (2) mass transfer within the char; and (3) the type and concentration of catalytic impurities in the char. The present study primarily addresses the first factor. The subject of this research is the origin, nature, and fate of active sites in chars derived from parent hydrocarbons with coal-like structure. The nature and number of the active sites and their reactivity towards oxygen are examined in ''model'' chars derived from phenol-formaldehyde type resins. How the active sites are lost by the process of thermal annealing during heat treatment of chars are studied, and actual rate for the annealing process is derived. Since intrinsic char reactivities are of primary interest in the present study, a fair amount of attention was given to the model char synthesis and handling so that the effect of catalytic impurities and oxygen-containing functional groups in the chemical structure of the material were minimized, if not completely eliminated. The project would not be considered complete without comparing characteristic features of synthetic chars with kinetic behavior exhibited by natural chars, including coal chars.

  2. Nest predation increases with parental activity: Separating nest site and parental activity effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.; Scott, J.; Menge, C.

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection.

  3. Nest predation increases with parental activity: separating nest site and parental activity effects.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection. PMID:11413645

  4. Active site amino acid sequence of human factor D.

    PubMed

    Davis, A E

    1980-08-01

    Factor D was isolated from human plasma by chromatography on CM-Sephadex C50, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxylapatite. Digestion of reduced, S-carboxymethylated factor D with cyanogen bromide resulted in three peptides which were isolated by chromatography on Sephadex G-75 (superfine) equilibrated in 20% formic acid. NH2-Terminal sequences were determined by automated Edman degradation with a Beckman 890C sequencer using a 0.1 M Quadrol program. The smallest peptide (CNBr III) consisted of the NH2-terminal 14 amino acids. The other two peptides had molecular weights of 17,000 (CNBr I) and 7000 (CNBr II). Overlap of the NH2-terminal sequence of factor D with the NH2-terminal sequence of CNBr I established the order of the peptides. The NH2-terminal 53 residues of factor D are somewhat more homologous with the group-specific protease of rat intestine than with other serine proteases. The NH2-terminal sequence of CNBr II revealed the active site serine of factor D. The typical serine protease active site sequence (Gly-Asp-Ser-Gly-Gly-Pro was found at residues 12-17. The region surrounding the active site serine does not appear to be more highly homologous with any one of the other serine proteases. The structural data obtained point out the similarities between factor D and the other proteases. However, complete definition of the degree of relationship between factor D and other proteases will require determination of the remainder of the primary structure.

  5. Brownian aggregation rate of colloid particles with several active sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Polshchitsin, Alexey A.; Yakovleva, Galina E.; Maltsev, Valeri P.

    2014-08-14

    We theoretically analyze the aggregation kinetics of colloid particles with several active sites. Such particles (so-called “patchy particles”) are well known as chemically anisotropic reactants, but the corresponding rate constant of their aggregation has not yet been established in a convenient analytical form. Using kinematic approximation for the diffusion problem, we derived an analytical formula for the diffusion-controlled reaction rate constant between two colloid particles (or clusters) with several small active sites under the following assumptions: the relative translational motion is Brownian diffusion, and the isotropic stochastic reorientation of each particle is Markovian and arbitrarily correlated. This formula was shown to produce accurate results in comparison with more sophisticated approaches. Also, to account for the case of a low number of active sites per particle we used Monte Carlo stochastic algorithm based on Gillespie method. Simulations showed that such discrete model is required when this number is less than 10. Finally, we applied the developed approach to the simulation of immunoagglutination, assuming that the formed clusters have fractal structure.

  6. [Mechanism of arginine deiminase activity by site-directed mutagenesis].

    PubMed

    Li, Lifeng; Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Arginine deiminase (ADI) has been studied as a potential anti-cancer agent for inhibiting arginine-auxotrophic tumors (such as melanomas and hepatocellular carcinomas) in phase III clinical trials. In this work, we studied the molecular mechanism of arginine deiminase activity by site-directed mutagenesis. Three mutation sites, A128, H404 and 1410, were introduced into wild-type ADI gene by QuikChange site-directed mutagenesis method, and four ADI mutants M1 (A128T), M2 (H404R), M3 (I410L), and M4 (A128T, H404R) were obtained. The ADI mutants were individually expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the enzymatic properties of the purified mutant proteins were determined. The results show that both A128T and H404R had enhanced optimum pH, higher activity and stability of ADI under physiological condition (pH 7.4), as well as reduced K(m) value. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanism of the ADI activity, and also the experimental evidence for the rational protein evolution in the future.

  7. Lysine Transport across Isolated Rabbit Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Munck, B. G.; Schultz, Stanley G.

    1969-01-01

    Lysine transport by in vitro distal rabbit ileum has been investigated by determining (a) transmural fluxes across short-circuited segments of the tissue; (b) accumulation by mucosal strips; and (c) influx from the mucosal solution across the brush border into the epithelium. Net transmural flux of lysine is considerably smaller than that of alanine. However, lysine influx across the brush border and lysine accumulation by mucosal strips are quantitatively comparable to alanine influx and accumulation. Evidence is presented that the "low transport capacity" of rabbit ileum for lysine is due to: (a) a carrier-mediated process responsible for efflux of lysine out of the cell across the serosal and/or lateral membranes that is characterized by a low maximal velocity; and (b) a high "backflux" of lysine out of the cell across the mucosal membrane. A possible explanation for the latter observation is discussed with reference to the relatively low Na dependence of lysine transport across the intestinal brush border. PMID:5764744

  8. Potential sites of CFTR activation by tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Billet, Arnaud; Jia, Yanlin; Jensen, Timothy J.; Hou, Yue-Xian; Chang, Xiu-Bao; Riordan, John R.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The CFTR chloride channel is tightly regulated by phosphorylation at multiple serine residues. Recently it has been proposed that its activity is also regulated by tyrosine kinases, however the tyrosine phosphorylation sites remain to be identified. In this study we examined 2 candidate tyrosine residues near the boundary between the first nucleotide binding domain and the R domain, a region which is important for channel function but devoid of PKA consensus sequences. Mutating tyrosines at positions 625 and 627 dramatically reduced responses to Src or Pyk2 without altering the activation by PKA, suggesting they may contribute to CFTR regulation. PMID:26645934

  9. Amine oxidation mediated by lysine-specific demethylase 1: quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics insights into mechanism and role of lysine 661.

    PubMed

    Karasulu, Bora; Patil, Mahendra; Thiel, Walter

    2013-09-11

    We report classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to elucidate the catalytic mechanism of the rate-determining amine oxidation step in the lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1)-catalyzed demethylation of the histone tail lysine (H3K4), with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) acting as cofactor. The oxidation of substrate lysine (sLys) involves the cleavage of an α-CH bond accompanied by the transfer of a hydride ion equivalent to FAD, leading to an imine intermediate. This hydride transfer pathway is shown to be clearly favored for sLys oxidation over other proposed mechanisms, including the radical (or single-electron transfer) route as well as carbanion and polar-nucleophilic mechanisms. MD simulations on six NVT ensembles (covering different protonation states of sLys and K661 as well as the K661M mutant) identify two possible orientations of the reacting sLys and FAD subunits (called "downward" and "upward"). Calculations at the QM(B3LYP-D/6-31G*)/CHARMM22 level provide molecular-level insights into the mechanism, helping to understand how LSD1 achieves the activation of the rather inert methyl-CH bond in a metal-free environment. Factors such as proper alignment of sLys (downward orientation), transition-state stabilization (due to the protein environment and favorable orbital interactions), and product stabilization via adduct formation are found to be crucial for facilitating the oxidative α-CH bond cleavage. The current study also sheds light on the role of important active-site residues (Y761, K661, and W695) and of the conserved water-bridge motif. The steric influence of Y761 helps to position the reaction partners properly, K661 is predicted to get deprotonated prior to substrate binding and to act as an active-site base that accepts a proton from sLys to enable the subsequent amine oxidation, and the water bridge that is stabilized by K661 and W695 mediates this proton

  10. Adipic acid increases plasma lysine but does not improve the efficiency of lysine utilization in swine.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, T A; van Heugten, E; Trottier, N L

    2001-09-01

    Adipic acid, upon catabolism, results in intermediates that bear a structural similarity to lysine degradation products. The objectives of this research were to determine whether adipic acid affects lysine concentrations in plasma and to evaluate whether adipic acid improves the efficiency of lysine utilization in pigs. In Exp. 1, nursery pigs (n = 14) were fed (for a period of 7 d) either a standard nursery diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid to assess effects on plasma amino acid concentrations (plasma collected on d 7). In Exp. 2, nursery pigs (n = 56) were fed (for a period of 15 d) either a control diet or the same diet but deficient in either lysine, threonine, or tryptophan with or without supplemental adipic acid to assess the effects of adipic acid on the efficiency of amino acid utilization. The results from Exp. 1 showed that adipic acid increased plasma lysine (by 18%) but not alpha-amino adipic acid, an intermediate in lysine degradation. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adipic acid did not increase the efficiency of utilization of lysine, threonine, or tryptophan. The lack of effects on alpha-amino adipic acid in Exp. 1 and the lack of a positive effect on the efficiency of utilization of lysine, threonine, and tryptophan suggest that adipic acid does not inhibit the mitochondrial uptake of lysine and(or) its degradation in the mitochondrion. It is concluded that feeding adipic acid increases plasma lysine but does not improve the efficiency of lysine utilization.

  11. Structural definition of the lysine swing in Arabidopsis thaliana PDX1: Intermediate channeling facilitating vitamin B6 biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Graham C; Kaufmann, Markus; Roux, Céline; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2016-10-04

    Vitamin B6 is indispensible for all organisms, notably as the coenzyme form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Plants make the compound de novo using a relatively simple pathway comprising pyridoxine synthase (PDX1) and pyridoxine glutaminase (PDX2). PDX1 is remarkable given its multifaceted synthetic ability to carry out isomerization, imine formation, ammonia addition, aldol-type condensation, cyclization, and aromatization, all in the absence of coenzymes or recruitment of specialized domains. Two active sites (P1 and P2) facilitate the plethora of reactions, but it is not known how the two are coordinated and, moreover, if intermediates are tunneled between active sites. Here we present X-ray structures of PDX1.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana, the overall architecture of which is a dodecamer of (β/α)8 barrels, similar to the majority of its homologs. An apoenzyme structure revealed that features around the P1 active site in PDX1.3 have adopted inward conformations consistent with a catalytically primed state and delineated a substrate accessible cavity above this active site, not noted in other reported structures. Comparison with the structure of PDX1.3 with an intermediate along the catalytic trajectory demonstrated that a lysine residue swings from the distinct P2 site to the P1 site at this stage of catalysis and is held in place by a molecular catch and pin, positioning it for transfer of serviced substrate back to P2. The study shows that a simple lysine swinging arm coordinates use of chemically disparate sites, dispensing with the need for additional factors, and provides an elegant example of solving complex chemistry to generate an essential metabolite.

  12. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of Homocitrate Synthase, an Essential Enzyme in Lysine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Couture, Jean-François; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-01-12

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first and committed step in lysine biosynthesis in many fungi and certain Archaea and is a potential target for antifungal drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of the HCS apoenzyme from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and two distinct structures of the enzyme in complex with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). The structures reveal that HCS forms an intertwined homodimer stabilized by domain-swapping between the N- and C-terminal domains of each monomer. The N-terminal catalytic domain is composed of a TIM barrel fold in which 2-OG binds via hydrogen bonds and coordination to the active site divalent metal ion, whereas the C-terminal domain is composed of mixed {alpha}/{beta} topology. In the structures of the HCS apoenzyme and one of the 2-OG binary complexes, a lid motif from the C-terminal domain occludes the entrance to the active site of the neighboring monomer, whereas in the second 2-OG complex the lid is disordered, suggesting that it regulates substrate access to the active site through its apparent flexibility. Mutations of the active site residues involved in 2-OG binding or implicated in acid-base catalysis impair or abolish activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results yield new insights into the structure and catalytic mechanism of HCSs and furnish a platform for developing HCS-selective inhibitors.

  13. New insights into the catalytic mechanism of histidine phosphatases revealed by a functionally essential arginine residue within the active site of the Sts phosphatases.

    PubMed

    San Luis, Boris; Nassar, Nicolas; Carpino, Nick

    2013-07-01

    Sts (suppressor of T-cell receptor signalling)-1 and Sts-2 are HPs (histidine phosphatases) that negatively regulate TCR (T-cell receptor) signalling pathways, including those involved in cytokine production. HPs play key roles in such varied biological processes as metabolism, development and intracellular signalling. They differ considerably in their primary sequence and substrate specificity, but possess a catalytic core formed by an invariant quartet of active-site residues. Two histidine and two arginine residues cluster together within the HP active site and are thought to participate in a two-step dephosphorylation reaction. To date there has been little insight into any additional residues that might play an important functional role. In the present study, we identify and characterize an additional residue within the Sts phosphatases (Sts-1 Arg383 or Sts-2 Arg369) that is critical for catalytic activity and intracellular function. Mutation of Sts-1 Arg383 to an alanine residue compromises the enzyme's activity and renders Sts-1 unable to suppress TCR-induced cytokine induction. Of the multiple amino acids substituted for Arg383, only lysine partially rescues the catalytic activity of Sts-1. Although Sts-1 Arg383 is conserved in all Sts homologues, it is only conserved in one of the two sub-branches of HPs. The results of the present study highlight an essential role for Sts-1 phosphatase activity in regulating T-cell activation and add a new dimension of complexity to our understanding of HP catalytic activity.

  14. MSK1 activity is controlled by multiple phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    McCOY, Claire E.; Campbell, David G.; Deak, Maria; Bloomberg, Graham B.; Arthur, J. Simon C.

    2004-01-01

    MSK1 (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase) is a kinase activated in cells downstream of both the ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. In the present study, we show that, in addition to being phosphorylated on Thr-581 and Ser-360 by ERK1/2 or p38, MSK1 can autophosphorylate on at least six sites: Ser-212, Ser-376, Ser-381, Ser-750, Ser-752 and Ser-758. Of these sites, the N-terminal T-loop residue Ser-212 and the ‘hydrophobic motif’ Ser-376 are phosphorylated by the C-terminal kinase domain of MSK1, and their phosphorylation is essential for the catalytic activity of the N-terminal kinase domain of MSK1 and therefore for the phosphorylation of MSK1 substrates in vitro. Ser-381 is also phosphorylated by the C-terminal kinase domain, and mutation of Ser-381 decreases MSK1 activity, probably through the inhibition of Ser-376 phosphorylation. Ser-750, Ser-752 and Ser-758 are phosphorylated by the N-terminal kinase domain; however, their function is not known. The activation of MSK1 in cells therefore requires the activation of the ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK cascades and does not appear to require additional signalling inputs. This is in contrast with the closely related RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) proteins, whose activity requires phosphorylation by PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1) in addition to phosphorylation by ERK1/2. PMID:15568999

  15. Global Analysis of Lysine Acetylation Suggests the Involvement of Protein Acetylation in Diverse Biological Processes in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xiaoxian; Tan, Feng; Mujahid, Hana; Zhang, Jian; Nanduri, Bindu; Peng, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible, dynamic protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Recent advances in high-throughput proteomics have greatly contributed to the success of global analysis of lysine acetylation. A large number of proteins of diverse biological functions have been shown to be acetylated in several reports in human cells, E.coli, and dicot plants. However, the extent of lysine acetylation in non-histone proteins remains largely unknown in monocots, particularly in the cereal crops. Here we report the mass spectrometric examination of lysine acetylation in rice (Oryza sativa). We identified 60 lysine acetylated sites on 44 proteins of diverse biological functions. Immunoblot studies further validated the presence of a large number of acetylated non-histone proteins. Examination of the amino acid composition revealed substantial amino acid bias around the acetylation sites and the amino acid preference is conserved among different organisms. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that lysine acetylation occurs in diverse cytoplasmic, chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins in addition to the histone modifications. Our results suggest that lysine acetylation might constitute a regulatory mechanism for many proteins, including both histones and non-histone proteins of diverse biological functions. PMID:24586658

  16. Transcriptional upregulation of four genes of the lysine biosynthetic pathway by homocitrate accumulation in Penicillium chrysogenum: homocitrate as a sensor of lysine-pathway distress.

    PubMed

    Teves, Franco; Lamas-Maceiras, Mónica; García-Estrada, Carlos; Casqueiro, Javier; Naranjo, Leopoldo; Ullán, Ricardo V; Scervino, José-Martín; Wu, Xiaobin; Velasco-Conde, Tania; Martín, Juan F

    2009-12-01

    The lysine biosynthetic pathway has to supply large amounts of alpha-aminoadipic acid for penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum. In this study, we have characterized the P. chrysogenum L2 mutant, a lysine auxotroph that shows highly increased expression of several lysine biosynthesis genes (lys1, lys2, lys3, lys7). The L2 mutant was found to be deficient in homoaconitase activity since it was complemented by the Aspergillus nidulans lysF gene. We have cloned a gene (named lys3) that complements the L2 mutation by transformation with a P. chrysogenum genomic library, constructed in an autonomous replicating plasmid. The lys3-encoded protein showed high identity to homoaconitases. In addition, we cloned the mutant lys3 allele from the L2 strain that showed a G(1534) to A(1534) point mutation resulting in a Gly(495) to Asp(495) substitution. This mutation is located in a highly conserved region adjacent to two of the three cysteine residues that act as ligands to bind the iron-sulfur cluster required for homoaconitase activity. The L2 mutant accumulates homocitrate. Deletion of the lys1 gene (homocitrate synthase) in the L2 strain prevented homocitrate accumulation and reverted expression levels of the four lysine biosynthesis genes tested to those of the parental prototrophic strain. Homocitrate accumulation seems to act as a sensor of lysine-pathway distress, triggering overexpression of four of the lysine biosynthesis genes.

  17. Proteome-wide analysis of lysine acetylation in the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Binna; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Delong; Liang, Wenxing; Song, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. Botrytis cinerea is the most thoroughly studied necrotrophic species due to its broad host range and huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. In this study, we determined the lysine acetylome of B. cinerea through the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. Overall, 1582 lysine acetylation sites in 954 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the acetylated proteins are involved in diverse biological functions and show multiple cellular localizations. Several particular amino acids preferred near acetylation sites, including KacY, KacH, Kac***R, KacF, FKac and Kac***K, were identified in this organism. Protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a variety of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. Interestingly, 6 proteins involved in virulence of B. cinerea, including 3 key components of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, were found to be acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation plays regulatory roles in pathogenesis. These data provides the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of B. cinerea and serves as a rich resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. PMID:27381557

  18. Lysine-specific chemical cross-linking of protein complexes and identification of cross-linking sites using LC-MS/MS and the xQuest/xProphet software pipeline.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Alexander; Walzthoeni, Thomas; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2014-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking in combination with LC-MS/MS (XL-MS) is an emerging technology to obtain low-resolution structural (distance) restraints of proteins and protein complexes. These restraints can also be used to characterize protein complexes by integrative modeling of the XL-MS data, either in combination with other types of structural information or by themselves, to establish spatial relationships of subunits in protein complexes. Here we present a protocol that has been successfully used to generate XL-MS data from a multitude of native proteins and protein complexes. It includes the experimental steps for performing the cross-linking reaction using disuccinimidyl suberate (a homobifunctional, lysine-reactive cross-linking reagent), the enrichment of cross-linked peptides by peptide size-exclusion chromatography (SEC; to remove smaller, non-cross-linked peptides), instructions for tandem MS analysis and the analysis of MS data via the open-source computational software pipeline xQuest and xProphet (available from http://proteomics.ethz.ch). Once established, this robust protocol should take ∼4 d to complete, and it is generally applicable to purified proteins and protein complexes.

  19. Critical active-site residues identified by site-directed mutagenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa phosphorylcholine phosphatase, a new member of the haloacid dehalogenases hydrolase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Beassoni, Paola R; Otero, Lisandro H; Massimelli, Maria J; Lisa, Angela T; Domenech, Carlos E

    2006-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa phosphorylcholine phosphatase (PChP), the product of the PA5292 gene, is synthesized when the bacteria are grown with choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, or carnitine. In the presence of Mg(2+), PChP catalyzes the hydrolysis of both phosphorylcholine (PCh) and p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP). PCh saturation curve analysis of the enzyme with or without the signal peptide indicated that the peptide was the fundamental factor responsible for decreasing the affinity of the second site of PChP for PCh, either at pH 5.0 or pH 7.4. PChP contained three conserved motifs characteristic of the haloacid dehalogenases superfamily. In the PChP without the signal peptide, motifs I, II, and III correspond to the residues (31)DMDNT(35), (166)SAA(168), and K(242)/(261)GDTPDSD(267), respectively. To determine the catalytic importance of the D31, D33, T35, S166, K242, D262, D265, and D267 on the enzyme activity, site-directed mutagenesis was performed. D31, D33, D262, and D267 were identified as the more important residues for catalysis. D265 and D267 may be involved in the stabilization of motif III, or might contribute to substrate specificity. The substitution of T35 by S35 resulted in an enzyme with a low PChP activity, but conserves the catalytic sites involved in the hydrolysis of PCh (K(m1) 0.03 mM: , K(m2) 0.5 mM: ) or p-NPP (K(m) 2.1 mM: ). Mutating either S166 or K242 revealed that these residues are also important to catalyze the hydrolysis of both substrates. The substitution of lysine by arginine or by glutamine revealed the importance of the positive charged group, either from the amino or guanidinium groups, because K242Q was inactive, whereas K242R was a functional enzyme.

  20. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified.

  1. Vitamin K epoxide reductase: homology, active site and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goodstadt, Leo; Ponting, Chris P

    2004-06-01

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) recycles reduced vitamin K, which is used subsequently as a co-factor in the gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in blood coagulation enzymes. VKORC1, a subunit of the VKOR complex, has recently been shown to possess this activity. Here, we show that VKORC1 is a member of a large family of predicted enzymes that are present in vertebrates, Drosophila, plants, bacteria and archaea. Four cysteine residues and one residue, which is either serine or threonine, are identified as likely active-site residues. In some plant and bacterial homologues the VKORC1 homologous domain is fused with domains of the thioredoxin family of oxidoreductases. These might reduce disulfide bonds of VKORC1-like enzymes as a prerequisite for their catalytic activities.

  2. A role of lysine-43 in the inactivation of rat prorenin.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, F; Tosaki, I; Shiratori, Y; Nagai, M; Murakami, K; Nakamura, Y

    1995-12-01

    1. Lysine-43 (Lys43) in the prosegment region was located within 3 x 10(-1) of catalytic sites, Asp81 and Asp266, in a stereo structure model of rat prorenin. 2. A mutant prorenin, Lys43Leu, was produced to elucidate a role of Lys43 in the inactivation of prorenin. Lys43Leu as well as the wild type were inactive at a neutral pH, and activated at an acidic pH. Its acid-activation speed was three times higher than that of the wild type. The mutant prorenin was more labile than the wild type at 55 degrees C and a neutral pH. 3. These results indicate that Lys43 forms ionic bonds with Asp81 and Asp266 to inactivate and stabilize prorenin.

  3. Lysine-specific modifications of p53: a matter of life and death?

    PubMed Central

    Marouco, Diana; Garabadgiu, Alexander V.; Melino, Gerry; Barlev, Nikolai A.

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications provide a fine-tuned control of protein function(s) in the cell. The well-known tumour suppressor p53 is subject to many post-translational modifications, which alter its activity, localization and stability, thus ultimately modulating its response to various forms of genotoxic stress. In this review, we focus on the role of recently discovered lysine-specific modifications of p53, methylation and acetylation in particular, and their effects on p53 activity in damaged cells. We also discuss a possibility of mutual influence of covalent modifications in the p53 and histone proteins located in the vicinity of p53 binding sites in chromatin and propose important ramifications stemming from this hypothesis. PMID:24298606

  4. Biofortification of rice with the essential amino acid lysine: molecular characterization, nutritional evaluation, and field performance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing-qing; Zhang, Chang-quan; Chan, Man-ling; Zhao, Dong-sheng; Chen, Jin-zhu; Wang, Qing; Li, Qian-feng; Yu, Heng-xiu; Gu, Ming-hong; Sun, Samuel Sai-ming; Liu, Qiao-quan

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major staple crop worldwide, has limited levels of the essential amino acid lysine. We previously produced engineered rice with increased lysine content by expressing bacterial aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase and inhibiting rice lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase activity. However, the grain quality, field performance, and integration patterns of the transgenes in these lysine-enriched lines remain unclear. In the present study, we selected several elite transgenic lines with endosperm-specific or constitutive regulation of the above key enzymes but lacking the selectable marker gene. All target transgenes were integrated into the intragenic region in the rice genome. Two pyramid transgenic lines (High Free Lysine; HFL1 and HFL2) with free lysine levels in seeds up to 25-fold that of wild type were obtained via a combination of the above two transgenic events. We observed a dramatic increase in total free amino acids and a slight increase in total protein content in both pyramid lines. Moreover, the general physicochemical properties were improved in pyramid transgenic rice, but the starch composition was not affected. Field trials indicated that the growth of HFL transgenic rice was normal, except for a slight difference in plant height and grain colour. Taken together, these findings will be useful for the potential commercialization of high-lysine transgenic rice. PMID:27252467

  5. Biofortification of rice with the essential amino acid lysine: molecular characterization, nutritional evaluation, and field performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Chan, Man-Ling; Zhao, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Jin-Zhu; Wang, Qing; Li, Qian-Feng; Yu, Heng-Xiu; Gu, Ming-Hong; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2016-07-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major staple crop worldwide, has limited levels of the essential amino acid lysine. We previously produced engineered rice with increased lysine content by expressing bacterial aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase and inhibiting rice lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase activity. However, the grain quality, field performance, and integration patterns of the transgenes in these lysine-enriched lines remain unclear. In the present study, we selected several elite transgenic lines with endosperm-specific or constitutive regulation of the above key enzymes but lacking the selectable marker gene. All target transgenes were integrated into the intragenic region in the rice genome. Two pyramid transgenic lines (High Free Lysine; HFL1 and HFL2) with free lysine levels in seeds up to 25-fold that of wild type were obtained via a combination of the above two transgenic events. We observed a dramatic increase in total free amino acids and a slight increase in total protein content in both pyramid lines. Moreover, the general physicochemical properties were improved in pyramid transgenic rice, but the starch composition was not affected. Field trials indicated that the growth of HFL transgenic rice was normal, except for a slight difference in plant height and grain colour. Taken together, these findings will be useful for the potential commercialization of high-lysine transgenic rice.

  6. Enhancement of the anti-inflammatory activity of temporin-1Tl-derived antimicrobial peptides by tryptophan, arginine and lysine substitutions.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Ganesan; Kamalakannan, Radhakrishnan; Shin, Song Yub

    2015-10-01

    Temporin-1Tl (TL) is a 13-residue frog antimicrobial peptide (AMP) exhibiting potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity. To develop novel AMP with improved anti-inflammatory activity and antimicrobial selectivity, we designed and synthesized a series of TL analogs by substituting Trp, Arg and Lys at selected positions. Except for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis, all TL analogs exhibited retained or increased antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial strains including three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains compared with TL. TL-1 and TL-4 showed a little increase in antimicrobial selectivity, while TL-2 and TL-3 displayed slightly decreased antimicrobial selectivity because of their about twofold increased hemolytic activity. All TL analogs demonstrated greatly increased anti-inflammatory activity, evident by their higher inhibition of the production tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide and the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, compared with TL. Taken together, the peptide anti-inflammatory activity is as follows: TL-2 ≈ TL-3 ≈ TL-4 > TL-1 > TL. In addition, LPS binding ability of the peptides corresponded with their anti-inflammatory activity. These results apparently suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of TL analogs is associated with the direct binding ability between these peptides and LPS. Collectively, our designed TL analogs possess improved anti-inflammatory activity and retain antimicrobial activity without a significant increase in hemolysis. Therefore, it is evident that our TL analogs constitute promising candidates for the development of peptide therapeutics for gram-negative bacterial infection.

  7. Lysine acetylation and cancer: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Gil, Jeovanis; Ramírez-Torres, Alberto; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio

    2017-01-06

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible modification controlled by two groups of enzymes: lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs). Acetylated lysine residues are recognized by bromodomains, a family of evolutionarily conserved domains. The use of high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics, in combination with the enrichment of acetylated peptides through immunoprecipitation with anti-acetyl-lysine antibodies, has expanded the number of acetylated proteins from histones and a few nuclear proteins to more than 2000 human proteins. Because acetylation targets almost all cellular processes, this modification has been associated with cancer. Several KATs, KDACs and bromodomain-containing proteins have been linked to cancer development. Many small molecules targeting some of these proteins have been or are being tested as potential cancer therapies. The stoichiometry of lysine acetylation has not been explored in cancer, representing a promising field in which to increase our knowledge of how this modification is affected in cancer. In this review, we will focus on the strategies that can be used to go deeper in the characterization of the protein lysine acetylation emphasizing in cancer research.

  8. Identification of covalent active site inhibitors of dengue virus protease

    PubMed Central

    Koh-Stenta, Xiaoying; Joy, Joma; Wang, Si Fang; Kwek, Perlyn Zekui; Wee, John Liang Kuan; Wan, Kah Fei; Gayen, Shovanlal; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Kang, CongBao; Lee, May Ann; Poulsen, Anders; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Hill, Jeffrey; Nacro, Kassoum

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) protease is an attractive target for drug development; however, no compounds have reached clinical development to date. In this study, we utilized a potent West Nile virus protease inhibitor of the pyrazole ester derivative class as a chemical starting point for DENV protease drug development. Compound potency and selectivity for DENV protease were improved through structure-guided small molecule optimization, and protease-inhibitor binding interactions were validated biophysically using nuclear magnetic resonance. Our work strongly suggests that this class of compounds inhibits flavivirus protease through targeted covalent modification of active site serine, contrary to an allosteric binding mechanism as previously described. PMID:26677315

  9. Transcriptional regulation by the Set7 lysine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Keating, Samuel T; El-Osta, Assam

    2013-04-01

    Posttranslational histone modifications define chromatin structure and function. In recent years, a number of studies have characterized many of the enzymatic activities and diverse regulatory components required for monomethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me1) and the expression of specific genes. The challenge now is to understand how this specific chemical modification is written and the Set7 methyltransferase has emerged as a key regulatory enzyme mediating methylation of lysine residues of histone and non-histone proteins. In this review, we comprehensively explore the regulatory proteins modified by Set7 and highlight mechanisms of specific co-recruitment of the enzyme to activating promoters. With a focus on signaling and transcriptional control in disease we discuss recent experimental data emphasizing specific components of diverse regulatory complexes that mediate chromatin modification and reinterpretation of Set7-mediated gene expression.

  10. Linkages in thermal copolymers of lysine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Suzuki, F.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal copolymerization of lysine with other alpha-amino acids has been studied further. The identity of the second amino acid influences various properties of the polymer obtained, including the proportion of alpha and epsilon linkages of lysine. A review of linkages in proteinoids indicates alpha and beta linkages for aspartic acid, alpha and gamma linkages for glutamic acid, alpha and epsilon linkages for lysine, and alpha linkages for other amino acids. Thermal proteinoids are thus more complex in types of linkage than are proteins

  11. Linkages in thermal copolymers of lysine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Suzuki, F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal copolymerization of lysine with other alpha-amino acids was studied. The identity of the second amino acid influences various properties of the polymer obtained, including the proportion of alpha and epsilon linkages of lysine. A review of linkages in proteinoids indicates alpha and beta linkages for aspartic acid, alpha and gamma linkages for glutamic acid, alpha and epsilon linkages for lysine, and alpha linkages for other amino acids. Thermal proteinoids are thus more complex in types of linkage than are proteins.

  12. Mechanism-based inhibition of Sir2 deacetylases by thioacetyl-lysine peptide.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian C; Denu, John M

    2007-12-18

    Sir2 protein deacetylases (or sirtuins) catalyze NAD+-dependent conversion of epsilon-amino-acetylated lysine residues to deacetylated lysine, nicotinamide, and 2'-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. Small-molecule modulation of sirtuin activity might treat age-associated diseases, such as type II diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we have evaluated the mechanisms of sirtuin inhibition of histone peptides containing thioacetyl or mono-, di-, and trifluoroacetyl groups at the epsilon-amino of lysine. Although all substituted peptides yielded inhibition of the deacetylation reaction, the thioacetyl-lysine peptide exhibited exceptionally potent inhibition of sirtuins Sirt1, Sirt2, Sirt3, and Hst2. Using Hst2 as a representative sirtuin, the trifluoroacetyl-lysine peptide displayed competitive inhibition with acetyl-lysine substrate and yielded an inhibition constant (Kis) of 4.8 microM, similar to its Kd value of 3.3 microM. In contrast, inhibition by thioacetyl-lysine peptide yielded an inhibition constant (Kis) of 0.017 microM, 280-fold lower than its Kd value of 4.7 microM. Examination of thioacetyl-lysine peptide as an alternative sirtuin substrate revealed conserved production of deacetylated peptide and 1'-SH-2'-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. Pre-steady-state and steady-state analysis of the thioacetyl-lysine peptide showed rapid nicotinamide formation (4.5 s-1) but slow overall turnover (0.0024 s-1), indicating that the reaction stalled at an intermediate after nicotinamide formation. Mass spectral analysis yielded a novel species (m/z 1754.3) that is consistent with an ADP-ribose-peptidyl adduct (1'-S-alkylamidate) as the stalled intermediate. Additional experiments involving solvent isotope effects, general base mutational analysis, and density functional calculations are consistent with impaired 2'-hydroxyl attack on the ADP-ribose-peptidyl intermediate. These results have implications for the development of mechanism-based inhibitors of Sir2 deacetylases.

  13. HTLV-1 Tax Stimulates Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Ring Finger Protein 8, to Assemble Lysine 63-Linked Polyubiquitin Chains for TAK1 and IKK Activation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yik-Khuan; Zhi, Huijun; Bowlin, Tara; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Philip, Subha; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Semmes, Oliver John; Schaefer, Brian; Glover, J N Mark; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2015-08-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. IKK and its upstream kinase, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), contain ubiquitin-binding subunits, NEMO and TAB2/3 respectively, which interact with K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63-pUb) chains. Recruitment to K63-pUb allows cross auto-phosphorylation and activation of TAK1 to occur, followed by TAK1-catalyzed IKK phosphorylation and activation. Using cytosolic extracts of HeLa and Jurkat T cells supplemented with purified proteins we have identified ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8), and E2 conjugating enzymes, Ubc13:Uev1A and Ubc13:Uev2, to be the cellular factors utilized by Tax for TAK1 and IKK activation. In vitro, the combination of Tax and RNF8 greatly stimulated TAK1, IKK, IκBα and JNK phosphorylation. In vivo, RNF8 over-expression augmented while RNF8 ablation drastically reduced canonical NF-κB activation by Tax. Activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax, however, is unaffected by the loss of RNF8. Using purified components, we further demonstrated biochemically that Tax greatly stimulated RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to assemble long K63-pUb chains. Finally, co-transfection of Tax with increasing amounts of RNF8 greatly induced K63-pUb assembly in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, Tax targets RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to promote the assembly of K63-pUb chains, which signal the activation of TAK1 and multiple downstream kinases including IKK and JNK. Because of the roles RNF8 and K63-pUb chains play in DNA damage repair and cytokinesis, this mechanism may also explain the genomic instability of HTLV-1-transformed T cells and ATL cells.

  14. HTLV-1 Tax Stimulates Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Ring Finger Protein 8, to Assemble Lysine 63-Linked Polyubiquitin Chains for TAK1 and IKK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yik-Khuan; Zhi, Huijun; Bowlin, Tara; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Philip, Subha; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Semmes, Oliver John; Schaefer, Brian; Glover, J. N. Mark; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2015-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. IKK and its upstream kinase, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), contain ubiquitin-binding subunits, NEMO and TAB2/3 respectively, which interact with K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63-pUb) chains. Recruitment to K63-pUb allows cross auto-phosphorylation and activation of TAK1 to occur, followed by TAK1-catalyzed IKK phosphorylation and activation. Using cytosolic extracts of HeLa and Jurkat T cells supplemented with purified proteins we have identified ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8), and E2 conjugating enzymes, Ubc13:Uev1A and Ubc13:Uev2, to be the cellular factors utilized by Tax for TAK1 and IKK activation. In vitro, the combination of Tax and RNF8 greatly stimulated TAK1, IKK, IκBα and JNK phosphorylation. In vivo, RNF8 over-expression augmented while RNF8 ablation drastically reduced canonical NF-κB activation by Tax. Activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax, however, is unaffected by the loss of RNF8. Using purified components, we further demonstrated biochemically that Tax greatly stimulated RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to assemble long K63-pUb chains. Finally, co-transfection of Tax with increasing amounts of RNF8 greatly induced K63-pUb assembly in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, Tax targets RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to promote the assembly of K63-pUb chains, which signal the activation of TAK1 and multiple downstream kinases including IKK and JNK. Because of the roles RNF8 and K63-pUb chains play in DNA damage repair and cytokinesis, this mechanism may also explain the genomic instability of HTLV-1-transformed T cells and ATL cells. PMID:26285145

  15. Target-classification approach applied to active UXO sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubitidze, F.; Fernández, J. P.; Shamatava, Irma; Barrowes, B. E.; O'Neill, K.

    2013-06-01

    This study is designed to illustrate the discrimination performance at two UXO active sites (Oklahoma's Fort Sill and the Massachusetts Military Reservation) of a set of advanced electromagnetic induction (EMI) inversion/discrimination models which include the orthonormalized volume magnetic source (ONVMS), joint diagonalization (JD), and differential evolution (DE) approaches and whose power and flexibility greatly exceed those of the simple dipole model. The Fort Sill site is highly contaminated by a mix of the following types of munitions: 37-mm target practice tracers, 60-mm illumination mortars, 75-mm and 4.5'' projectiles, 3.5'', 2.36'', and LAAW rockets, antitank mine fuzes with and without hex nuts, practice MK2 and M67 grenades, 2.5'' ballistic windshields, M2A1-mines with/without bases, M19-14 time fuzes, and 40-mm practice grenades with/without cartridges. The site at the MMR site contains targets of yet different sizes. In this work we apply our models to EMI data collected using the MetalMapper (MM) and 2 × 2 TEMTADS sensors. The data for each anomaly are inverted to extract estimates of the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters associated with each buried target. (The latter include the total volume magnetic source or NVMS, which relates to size, shape, and material properties; the former includes location, depth, and orientation). The estimated intrinsic parameters are then used for classification performed via library matching and the use of statistical classification algorithms; this process yielded prioritized dig-lists that were submitted to the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) for independent scoring. The models' classification performance is illustrated and assessed based on these independent evaluations.

  16. Specificity analysis of protein lysine methyltransferases using SPOT peptide arrays.

    PubMed

    Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Kusevic, Denis; Weirich, Sara; Jeltsch, Albert

    2014-11-29

    Lysine methylation is an emerging post-translation modification and it has been identified on several histone and non-histone proteins, where it plays crucial roles in cell development and many diseases. Approximately 5,000 lysine methylation sites were identified on different proteins, which are set by few dozens of protein lysine methyltransferases. This suggests that each PKMT methylates multiple proteins, however till now only one or two substrates have been identified for several of these enzymes. To approach this problem, we have introduced peptide array based substrate specificity analyses of PKMTs. Peptide arrays are powerful tools to characterize the specificity of PKMTs because methylation of several substrates with different sequences can be tested on one array. We synthesized peptide arrays on cellulose membrane using an Intavis SPOT synthesizer and analyzed the specificity of various PKMTs. Based on the results, for several of these enzymes, novel substrates could be identified. For example, for NSD1 by employing peptide arrays, we showed that it methylates K44 of H4 instead of the reported H4K20 and in addition H1.5K168 is the highly preferred substrate over the previously known H3K36. Hence, peptide arrays are powerful tools to biochemically characterize the PKMTs.

  17. Specificity Analysis of Protein Lysine Methyltransferases Using SPOT Peptide Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Kusevic, Denis; Weirich, Sara; Jeltsch, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Lysine methylation is an emerging post-translation modification and it has been identified on several histone and non-histone proteins, where it plays crucial roles in cell development and many diseases. Approximately 5,000 lysine methylation sites were identified on different proteins, which are set by few dozens of protein lysine methyltransferases. This suggests that each PKMT methylates multiple proteins, however till now only one or two substrates have been identified for several of these enzymes. To approach this problem, we have introduced peptide array based substrate specificity analyses of PKMTs. Peptide arrays are powerful tools to characterize the specificity of PKMTs because methylation of several substrates with different sequences can be tested on one array. We synthesized peptide arrays on cellulose membrane using an Intavis SPOT synthesizer and analyzed the specificity of various PKMTs. Based on the results, for several of these enzymes, novel substrates could be identified. For example, for NSD1 by employing peptide arrays, we showed that it methylates K44 of H4 instead of the reported H4K20 and in addition H1.5K168 is the highly preferred substrate over the previously known H3K36. Hence, peptide arrays are powerful tools to biochemically characterize the PKMTs. PMID:25489813

  18. Identification of Phosphorylation Sites Altering Pollen Soluble Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Activity.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Deborah J; Haque, Tamanna; Tudor, Richard L; Barron, Yoshimi; Zampronio, Cleidiane G; Cotton, Nicholas P J; de Graaf, Barend H J; White, Scott A; Cooper, Helen J; Franklin, F Christopher H; Harper, Jeffery F; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2017-03-01

    Protein phosphorylation regulates numerous cellular processes. Identifying the substrates and protein kinases involved is vital to understand how these important posttranslational modifications modulate biological function in eukaryotic cells. Pyrophosphatases catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic phosphate (PPi) to inorganic phosphate Pi, driving biosynthetic reactions; they are essential for low cytosolic inorganic phosphate. It was suggested recently that posttranslational regulation of Family I soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (sPPases) may affect their activity. We previously demonstrated that two pollen-expressed sPPases, Pr-p26.1a and Pr-p26.1b, from the flowering plant Papaver rhoeas were inhibited by phosphorylation. Despite the potential significance, there is a paucity of data on sPPase phosphorylation and regulation. Here, we used liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry to map phosphorylation sites to the otherwise divergent amino-terminal extensions on these pollen sPPases. Despite the absence of reports in the literature on mapping phosphorylation sites on sPPases, a database survey of various proteomes identified a number of examples, suggesting that phosphorylation may be a more widely used mechanism to regulate these enzymes. Phosphomimetic mutants of Pr-p26.1a/b significantly and differentially reduced PPase activities by up to 2.5-fold at pH 6.8 and 52% in the presence of Ca(2+) and hydrogen peroxide over unmodified proteins. This indicates that phosphoregulation of key sites can inhibit the catalytic responsiveness of these proteins in concert with key intracellular events. As sPPases are essential for many metabolic pathways in eukaryotic cells, our findings identify the phosphorylation of sPPases as a potential master regulatory mechanism that could be used to attenuate metabolism.

  19. Evidence for segmental mobility in the active site of pepsin

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, J.; Strop, P.; Senn, H.; Foundling, S.; Kostka, V.

    1986-05-01

    The low hydrolytic activity (k/sub cat/ < 0.001 s/sup -1/) of chicken pepsin (CP) towards tri- and tetrapeptides is enhanced at least 100 times by modification of its single sulfhydryl group of Cys-115, with little effect on K/sub m/-values. Modification thus simulates the effect of secondary substrate binding on pepsin catalysis. The rate of Cys-115 modification is substantially decreased in the presence of some competitive inhibitors, suggesting its active site location. Experiments with CP alkylated at Cys-115 with Acrylodan as a fluorescent probe or with N-iodoacetyl-(4-fluoro)-aniline as a /sup 19/F-nmr probe suggest conformation change around Cys-115 to occur on substrate or substrate analog binding. The difference /sup 1/H-nmr spectra (500 MHz) of unmodified free and inhibitor-complexed CP reveal chemical shifts almost exclusively in the aromatic region. The effects of Cu/sup + +/ on /sup 19/F- and /sup 1/H-nmr spectra have been studied. Examination of a computer graphics model of CP based on E. parasitica pepsin-inhibitor complex X-ray coordinates suggests that Cys-115 is located near the S/sub 3//S/sub 5/ binding site. The results are interpreted in favor of segmental mobility of this region important for pepsin substrate binding and catalysis.

  20. First Principles Computational Study of the Active Site of Arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Ivaylo; Klien, Micheal

    2004-01-14

    Ab initio density functional theory (DFT) methods were used to investigate the structural features of the active site of the binuclear enzyme rat liver arginase. Special emphasis was placed on the crucial role of the second shell ligand interactions. These interactions were systematically studied by performing calculations on models of varying size. It was determined that a water molecule, and not hydroxide, is the bridging exogenous ligand. The carboxylate ligands facilitate the close approach of the Mn (II) ions by attenuating the metal-metal electrostatic repulsion. Of the two metals, MnA was shown to carry a larger positive charge. Analysis of the electronic properties of the active site revealed that orbitals involving the terminal Asp234 residue, as well as the flexible -1,1 bridging Asp232, lie at high energies, suggesting weaker coordination. This is reflected in certain structural variability present in our models and is also consistent with recent experimental findings. Finally, implications of our findings for the biological function of the enzyme are delineated.

  1. Accessibility and mobility of lysine residues in. beta. -lactoglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.M.; Pfeffer, P.E.; Kumosinski, T.F.; Greenberg, R.

    1988-07-26

    N/sup epsilon/-(/sup 2/H/sub 6/)Isopropyllysyl-..beta..-lactoglobulin was prepared by reductive alkylation of ..beta..-lactoglobulin with (/sup 2/H/sub 6/)acetone and NaBH/sub 4/ to provide a /sup 2/H (NMR) probe for the study of lysine involvement in lipid-protein interactions. Amino acid analysis showed 80% of the protein's 15 lysine residues to be labeled. Unmodified lysine residues were located through peptide maps produced from CNBr, tryptic, and chymotryptic digests of the labeled protein. Average correlation times calculated from /sup 2/H NMR spectra were 20 and 320 ps for 8.7 and 3.3 residues, respectively, in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride; in nondenaturing solution, values of 70 and 320 ps were obtained for 6.5 and 3.2 residues, respectively, with the remaining 2.3 modified residues not observed, suggesting that side chains of lysine residues in unordered or flexible regions were more mobile than those in stable periodic structures. /sup 2/H NMR spectra of the protein complexed with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine confirmed the extrinsic membrane protein type behavior of ..beta..-lactoglobulin previously reported from /sup 31/P NMR studies of the phospholipids complexed with ..beta..-lactoglobulin. Although no physiological function has yet been identified, comparison of these results with the X-ray structure supports the hypothesis that residues not accessible for modification may help to stabilize the cone-shaped ..beta..-barrel thought to contain binding sites for small lipid-soluble molecules.

  2. C-H Activation on Co,O Sites: Isolated Surface Sites versus Molecular Analogs.

    PubMed

    Estes, Deven P; Siddiqi, Georges; Allouche, Florian; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Safonova, Olga V; Trigub, Alexander L; Koptyug, Igor V; Copéret, Christophe

    2016-11-16

    The activation and conversion of hydrocarbons is one of the most important challenges in chemistry. Transition-metal ions (V, Cr, Fe, Co, etc.) isolated on silica surfaces are known to catalyze such processes. The mechanisms of these processes are currently unknown but are thought to involve C-H activation as the rate-determining step. Here, we synthesize well-defined Co(II) ions on a silica surface using a metal siloxide precursor followed by thermal treatment under vacuum at 500 °C. We show that these isolated Co(II) sites are catalysts for a number of hydrocarbon conversion reactions, such as the dehydrogenation of propane, the hydrogenation of propene, and the trimerization of terminal alkynes. We then investigate the mechanisms of these processes using kinetics, kinetic isotope effects, isotopic labeling experiments, parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) NMR, and comparison with a molecular analog. The data are consistent with all of these reactions occurring by a common mechanism, involving heterolytic C-H or H-H activation via a 1,2 addition across a Co-O bond.

  3. Polarizability of the active site of cytochrome c reduces the activation barrier for electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes in biology’s energy chains operate with low energy input distributed through multiple electron transfer steps between protein active sites. The general challenge of biological design is how to lower the activation barrier without sacrificing a large negative reaction free energy. We show that this goal is achieved through a large polarizability of the active site. It is polarized by allowing a large number of excited states, which are populated quantum mechanically by electrostatic fluctuations of the protein and hydration water shells. This perspective is achieved by extensive mixed quantum mechanical/molecular dynamics simulations of the half reaction of reduction of cytochrome c. The barrier for electron transfer is consistently lowered by increasing the number of excited states included in the Hamiltonian of the active site diagonalized along the classical trajectory. We suggest that molecular polarizability, in addition to much studied electrostatics of permanent charges, is a key parameter to consider in order to understand how enzymes work. PMID:27306204

  4. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  5. Inhibition of p300 lysine acetyltransferase activity by luteolin reduces tumor growth in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Selvi, Ruthrotha B.; Swaminathan, Amrutha; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Shanmugam, Muthu K.; Li, Feng; Ramakrishnan, Gowsica B.; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M. Emam; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Basha, Jeelan; Bhat, Akshay; Vasudevan, Madavan; Dharmarajan, Arunasalam; Sethi, Gautam; Kundu, Tapas K.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin acetylation is attributed with distinct functional relevance with respect to gene expression in normal and diseased conditions thereby leading to a topical interest in the concept of epigenetic modulators and therapy. We report here the identification and characterization of the acetylation inhibitory potential of an important dietary flavonoid, luteolin. Luteolin was found to inhibit p300 acetyltransferase with competitive binding to the acetyl CoA binding site. Luteolin treatment in a xenografted tumor model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), led to a dramatic reduction in tumor growth within 4 weeks corresponding to a decrease in histone acetylation. Cells treated with luteolin exhibit cell cycle arrest and decreased cell migration. Luteolin treatment led to an alteration in gene expression and miRNA profile including up-regulation of p53 induced miR-195/215, let7C; potentially translating into a tumor suppressor function. It also led to down-regulation of oncomiRNAs such as miR-135a, thereby reflecting global changes in the microRNA network. Furthermore, a direct correlation between the inhibition of histone acetylation and gene expression was established using chromatin immunoprecipitation on promoters of differentially expressed genes. A network of dysregulated genes and miRNAs was mapped along with the gene ontology categories, and the effects of luteolin were observed to be potentially at multiple levels: at the level of gene expression, miRNA expression and miRNA processing. PMID:26517526

  6. Histone lysine methylation and chromatin replication.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Carlos; Gurard-Levin, Zachary A; Almouzni, Geneviève; Loyola, Alejandra

    2014-12-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, the replication of the DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin are critical to maintain genome integrity. Chromatin components, such as histone variants and histone post-translational modifications, along with the higher-order chromatin structure, impact several DNA metabolic processes, including replication, transcription, and repair. In this review we focus on lysine methylation and the relationships between this histone mark and chromatin replication. We first describe studies implicating lysine methylation in regulating early steps in the replication process. We then discuss chromatin reassembly following replication fork passage, where the incorporation of a combination of newly synthesized histones and parental histones can impact the inheritance of lysine methylation marks on the daughter strands. Finally, we elaborate on how the inheritance of lysine methylation can impact maintenance of the chromatin landscape, using heterochromatin as a model chromatin domain, and we discuss the potential mechanisms involved in this process.

  7. Lysine Decarboxylase with an Enhanced Affinity for Pyridoxal 5-Phosphate by Disulfide Bond-Mediated Spatial Reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Sagong, Hye-Young; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of l-lysine to produce cadaverine, an important industrial platform chemical for bio-based polyamides. However, due to high flexibility at the pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) binding site, use of the enzyme for cadaverine production requires continuous supplement of large amounts of PLP. In order to develop an LDC enzyme from Selenomonas ruminantium (SrLDC) with an enhanced affinity for PLP, we introduced an internal disulfide bond between Ala225 and Thr302 residues with a desire to retain the PLP binding site in a closed conformation. The SrLDCA225C/T302C mutant showed a yellow color and the characteristic UV/Vis absorption peaks for enzymes with bound PLP, and exhibited three-fold enhanced PLP affinity compared with the wild-type SrLDC. The mutant also exhibited a dramatically enhanced LDC activity and cadaverine conversion particularly under no or low PLP concentrations. Moreover, introduction of the disulfide bond rendered SrLDC more resistant to high pH and temperature. The formation of the introduced disulfide bond and the maintenance of the PLP binding site in the closed conformation were confirmed by determination of the crystal structure of the mutant. This study shows that disulfide bond-mediated spatial reconstitution can be a platform technology for development of enzymes with enhanced PLP affinity. PMID:28095457

  8. Active Site and Laminarin Binding in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100–10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  9. Metal active site elasticity linked to activation of homocysteine in methionine synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Koutmos, Markos; Pejchal, Robert; Bomer, Theresa M.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Smith, Janet L.; Ludwig, Martha L.

    2008-04-02

    Enzymes possessing catalytic zinc centers perform a variety of fundamental processes in nature, including methyl transfer to thiols. Cobalamin-independent (MetE) and cobalamin-dependent (MetH) methionine synthases are two such enzyme families. Although they perform the same net reaction, transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine (Hcy) to form methionine, they display markedly different catalytic strategies, modular organization, and active site zinc centers. Here we report crystal structures of zinc-replete MetE and MetH, both in the presence and absence of Hcy. Structural investigation of the catalytic zinc sites of these two methyltransferases reveals an unexpected inversion of zinc geometry upon binding of Hcy and displacement of an endogenous ligand in both enzymes. In both cases a significant movement of the zinc relative to the protein scaffold accompanies inversion. These structures provide new information on the activation of thiols by zinc-containing enzymes and have led us to propose a paradigm for the mechanism of action of the catalytic zinc sites in these and related methyltransferases. Specifically, zinc is mobile in the active sites of MetE and MetH, and its dynamic nature helps facilitate the active site conformational changes necessary for thiol activation and methyl transfer.

  10. A Method to determine lysine acetylation stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles

    2014-07-21

    A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the lack of stoichiometry information. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of lysine acetylation on proteins globally. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy on hundreds of acetylated peptides from cell lysates and cross-validated the measurements via immunoblotting.

  11. An Active Site Water Network in the Plasminogen Activator Pla from Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Eren, Elif; Murphy, Megan; Goguen, Jon; van den Berg, Bert

    2010-08-13

    The plasminogen activator Pla from Yersinia pestis is an outer membrane protease (omptin) that is important for the virulence of plague. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of wild-type, enzymatically active Pla at 1.9 {angstrom}. The structure shows a water molecule located between active site residues D84 and H208, which likely corresponds to the nucleophilic water. A number of other water molecules are present in the active site, linking residues important for enzymatic activity. The R211 sidechain in loop L4 is close to the nucleophilic water and possibly involved in the stabilization of the oxyanion intermediate. Subtle conformational changes of H208 result from the binding of lipopolysaccharide to the outside of the barrel, explaining the unusual dependence of omptins on lipopolysaccharide for activity. The Pla structure suggests a model for the interaction with plasminogen substrate and provides a more detailed understanding of the catalytic mechanism of omptin proteases.

  12. An active site water network in the plasminogen activator pla from Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Eren, Elif; Murphy, Megan; Goguen, Jon; van den Berg, Bert

    2010-07-14

    The plasminogen activator Pla from Yersinia pestis is an outer membrane protease (omptin) that is important for the virulence of plague. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of wild-type, enzymatically active Pla at 1.9 A. The structure shows a water molecule located between active site residues D84 and H208, which likely corresponds to the nucleophilic water. A number of other water molecules are present in the active site, linking residues important for enzymatic activity. The R211 sidechain in loop L4 is close to the nucleophilic water and possibly involved in the stabilization of the oxyanion intermediate. Subtle conformational changes of H208 result from the binding of lipopolysaccharide to the outside of the barrel, explaining the unusual dependence of omptins on lipopolysaccharide for activity. The Pla structure suggests a model for the interaction with plasminogen substrate and provides a more detailed understanding of the catalytic mechanism of omptin proteases.

  13. The multifaceted role of lysine acetylation in cancer: prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Di Martile, Marta; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Trisciuoglio, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification that regulates gene transcription by targeting histones as well as a variety of transcription factors in the nucleus. Recently, several reports have demonstrated that numerous cytosolic proteins are also acetylated and that this modification, affecting protein activity, localization and stability has profound consequences on their cellular functions. Interestingly, most non-histone proteins targeted by acetylation are relevant for tumorigenesis. In this review, we will analyze the functional implications of lysine acetylation in different cellular compartments, and will examine our current understanding of lysine acetyltransferases family, highlighting the biological role and prognostic value of these enzymes and their substrates in cancer. The latter part of the article will address challenges and current status of molecules targeting lysine acetyltransferase enzymes in cancer therapy. PMID:27322556

  14. Factors affecting lysine degradation by ruminal fusobacteria.

    PubMed

    Russell, James B

    2006-04-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum can readily be enriched from the rumen with lysine, and its deamination rate is very rapid. The addition of F. necrophorum JB2 to mixed ruminal bacteria significantly increased lysine degradation, but only if the ratio of ruminal fluid to basal medium was less than 25%. If more ruminal fluid (pH 6.1) was added, ammonia production decreased by as much as 80%. Clarified, autoclaved ruminal fluid was also inhibitory. When F. necrophorum JB2 was grown in a lysine-limited continuous culture (0.1 h(-1) dilution rate) and pH was decreased using HCl, optical density decreased linearly, and the culture washed out at pH 5.6. Batch cultures of F. necrophorum JB2 deaminated as much lysine at pH 6.1 as at pH 6.6, but only if fermentation acids were not present. Sodium acetate (100 mM) had little effect at pH 6.6, but the same concentration inhibited ammonia production by 80% at pH 6.1. The idea that fermentation acids could prevent the enrichment of fusobacteria in vivo was supported by the observation that dietary lysine supplementation did not enhance the lysine deamination rate of the mixed ruminal bacteria.

  15. Effect of lysine acetylsalicylate on aluminium accumulation and (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity in rat brain cortex synaptosomes after aluminium ingestion.

    PubMed

    Silva, V S; Gonçalves, P P

    2015-01-05

    Aluminium is neurotoxic in humans and has been implicated in several neurological disorders. Chronic use of buffered aspirins, as aspegic, would likely constitute the major human aluminium uptake source. Low-dose aspirin is beneficial in secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, so it is widely used for long periods of time. We studied if oral administration of aspegic to rats modified the aluminium inhibitory effect on brain (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase due to alteration in synaptosomal membrane aluminium content. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to sub-acute (1.00g/day during 10 days) and chronic (0.03g/day during 4 months) dietary AlCl3 exposure and/or to aspegic (0.11g/day). The exposure protocol increased the synaptosomal aluminium content especially after a long-term exposure to aluminium and aspegic. Although no alterations were observed in rat body weight gain and adenylate energy charge, the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity was significantly reduced when aluminium was orally administered to rats. The oral administration of aspegic increased the synaptosomal aluminium content and concomitantly enhanced the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase inhibition. In our exposure protocol the increase in synaptosomal aluminium content correlates with the reduction of the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity.

  16. Discovery of a Novel Inhibitor of Histone Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1A (KDM1A/LSD1) as Orally Active Antitumor Agent.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Paola; Botrugno, Oronza A; Cappa, Anna; Dal Zuffo, Roberto; Dessanti, Paola; Mai, Antonello; Marrocco, Biagina; Mattevi, Andrea; Meroni, Giuseppe; Minucci, Saverio; Stazi, Giulia; Thaler, Florian; Trifiró, Paolo; Valente, Sergio; Villa, Manuela; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro

    2016-02-25

    We report the stereoselective synthesis and biological activity of a novel series of tranylcypromine (TCPA) derivatives (14a-k, 15, 16), potent inhibitors of KDM1A. The new compounds strongly inhibit the clonogenic potential of acute leukemia cell lines. In particular three molecules (14d, 14e, and 14g) showing selectivity versus MAO A and remarkably inhibiting colony formation in THP-1 human leukemia cells, were assessed in mouse for their preliminary pharmacokinetic. 14d and 14e were further tested in vivo in a murine acute promyelocytic leukemia model, resulting 14d the most effective. Its two enantiomers were synthesized: the (1S,2R) enantiomer 15 showed higher activity than its (1R,2S) analogue 16, in both biochemical and cellular assays. Compound 15 exhibited in vivo efficacy after oral administration, determining a 62% increased survival in mouse leukemia model with evidence of KDM1A inhibition. The biological profile of compound 15 supports its further investigation as a cancer therapeutic.

  17. Structural and Biochemical Characterization Reveals LysGH15 as an Unprecedented “EF-Hand-Like” Calcium-Binding Phage Lysin

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Yingang; Feng, Xin; Sun, Changjiang; Lei, Liancheng; Ding, Wei; Niu, Fengfeng; Jiao, Lianying; Yang, Mei; Li, Yue; Liu, Xiaohe; Song, Jun; Cui, Ziyin; Han, Dong; Du, Chongtao; Yang, Yongjun; Ouyang, Songying; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Han, Wenyu

    2014-01-01

    The lysin LysGH15, which is derived from the staphylococcal phage GH15, demonstrates a wide lytic spectrum and strong lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we find that the lytic activity of the full-length LysGH15 and its CHAP domain is dependent on calcium ions. To elucidate the molecular mechanism, the structures of three individual domains of LysGH15 were determined. Unexpectedly, the crystal structure of the LysGH15 CHAP domain reveals an “EF-hand-like” calcium-binding site near the Cys-His-Glu-Asn quartet active site groove. To date, the calcium-binding site in the LysGH15 CHAP domain is unique among homologous proteins, and it represents the first reported calcium-binding site in the CHAP family. More importantly, the calcium ion plays an important role as a switch that modulates the CHAP domain between the active and inactive states. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the amidase-2 domain reveals that both the zinc ion and E282 are required in catalysis and enable us to propose a catalytic mechanism. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and titration-guided mutagenesis identify residues (e.g., N404, Y406, G407, and T408) in the SH3b domain that are involved in the interactions with the substrate. To the best of our knowledge, our results constitute the first structural information on the biochemical features of a staphylococcal phage lysin and represent a pivotal step forward in understanding this type of lysin. PMID:24831957

  18. Structural and biochemical characterization reveals LysGH15 as an unprecedented "EF-hand-like" calcium-binding phage lysin.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Yingang; Feng, Xin; Sun, Changjiang; Lei, Liancheng; Ding, Wei; Niu, Fengfeng; Jiao, Lianying; Yang, Mei; Li, Yue; Liu, Xiaohe; Song, Jun; Cui, Ziyin; Han, Dong; Du, Chongtao; Yang, Yongjun; Ouyang, Songying; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Han, Wenyu

    2014-05-01

    The lysin LysGH15, which is derived from the staphylococcal phage GH15, demonstrates a wide lytic spectrum and strong lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we find that the lytic activity of the full-length LysGH15 and its CHAP domain is dependent on calcium ions. To elucidate the molecular mechanism, the structures of three individual domains of LysGH15 were determined. Unexpectedly, the crystal structure of the LysGH15 CHAP domain reveals an "EF-hand-like" calcium-binding site near the Cys-His-Glu-Asn quartet active site groove. To date, the calcium-binding site in the LysGH15 CHAP domain is unique among homologous proteins, and it represents the first reported calcium-binding site in the CHAP family. More importantly, the calcium ion plays an important role as a switch that modulates the CHAP domain between the active and inactive states. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the amidase-2 domain reveals that both the zinc ion and E282 are required in catalysis and enable us to propose a catalytic mechanism. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and titration-guided mutagenesis identify residues (e.g., N404, Y406, G407, and T408) in the SH3b domain that are involved in the interactions with the substrate. To the best of our knowledge, our results constitute the first structural information on the biochemical features of a staphylococcal phage lysin and represent a pivotal step forward in understanding this type of lysin.

  19. [Protein utilization in lysine-supplemented barley protein and effectiveness of the limiting amino acid lysine in growing pigs].

    PubMed

    Wecke, C; Gebhardt, G

    1982-04-01

    In 57 N-balance experiments with castrated male pigs (20 ... 65 kg live weight) the influence of graded lysine supplements to crushed barley enriched with energy, minerals and vitamins on nitrogen metabolism and lysine effectiveness was tested. Close correlative relations between lysine concentration and the b-value, the NPU-value, N-balance and N-excretion in urine could be detected. In agreement with the law of minimum a constant lysine effectiveness could be observed within the limiting range. The supplemented synthetic lysine distinguished itself by the same effectiveness as the protein-bound barley lysine. When barley supplemented with lysine is used, an amount of lysine supplement should be chosen from the point of view of nutrition physiology which raises the total lysine content to a maximum level of 6.3 g/16 g N because lysine supplementation exceeding this value without the simultaneous supplementation of limiting threonine remains ineffective.

  20. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) contributes to colorectal tumorigenesis via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by down-regulating Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) [corrected].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zebin; Li, Shangze; Song, Wei; Li, Xin; Li, Qinshan; Zhang, Zeyan; Han, Yongqing; Zhang, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiying; Du, Runlei; Wang, Linfang

    2013-01-01

    We collected paired samples of tumor and adjacent normal colorectal tissues from 22 patients with colorectal carcinoma to compare the differences in the expression of lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) in these two tissues. The results showed that in 19 paired samples (86.4%), LSD1 is more highly expressed in tumor tissue than in normal tissue. To explore the role of LSD1 in colorectal tumorigenesis, we used somatic cell gene targeting to generate an LSD1 knockout (KO) HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cell line as a research model. The analysis of phenotypic changes showed that LSD1 KO colorectal cancer cells are less tumorigenic, both in vivo and in vitro. The differential expression analysis of the cells by mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) yielded 2,663 differentially expressed genes, and 28 of these genes had highly significant differences (Q <0.01). We then selected the 4 colorectal cancer-related genes ADM, DKK1, HAS3 and SMURF2 for quantitative real-time PCR verification. The results showed that the differences in the expression of ADM, DKK1 and HAS3 were consistent with those measured using the RNA-Seq data. As DKK1 was the gene with the most significant differential expression, we analyzed the key proteins of the DKK1-related Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and found that, after knocking out LSD1, the amount of free β-catenin translocated to the nucleus was significantly reduced and that the transcription of the signaling pathway target gene c-Myc was down-regulated. Our studies show that LSD1 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by down-regulating the pathway antagonist DKK1, which may be one of the mechanisms leading to colorectal tumorigenesis.

  1. Active Site Loop Conformation Regulates Promiscuous Activity in a Lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; An, Jiao; Yang, Guang-Yu; Bai, Aixi; Zheng, Baisong; Lou, Zhiyong; Wu, Geng; Ye, Wei; Chen, Hai-Feng; Feng, Yan; Manco, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme promiscuity is a prerequisite for fast divergent evolution of biocatalysts. A phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) exhibits main lactonase and promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. To understand its catalytic and evolutionary mechanisms, we investigated a “hot spot” in the active site by saturation mutagenesis as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses. We found that position 99 in the active site was involved in substrate discrimination. One mutant, Y99L, exhibited 11-fold improvement over wild-type in reactivity (kcat/Km) toward the phosphotriesterase substrate ethyl-paraoxon, but showed 15-fold decrease toward the lactonase substrate δ-decanolactone, resulting in a 157-fold inversion of the substrate specificity. Structural analysis of Y99L revealed that the mutation causes a ∼6.6 Å outward shift of adjacent loop 7, which may cause increased flexibility of the active site and facilitate accommodation and/or catalysis of organophosphate substrate. This study provides for the PLL family an example of how the evolutionary route from promiscuity to specificity can derive from very few mutations, which promotes alteration in the conformational adjustment of the active site loops, in turn draws the capacity of substrate binding and activity. PMID:25706379

  2. The lysP gene encodes the lysine-specific permease.

    PubMed Central

    Steffes, C; Ellis, J; Wu, J; Rosen, B P

    1992-01-01

    Escherichia coli transports lysine by two distinct systems, one of which is specific for lysine (LysP) and the other of which is inhibited by arginine ornithine. The activity of the lysine-specific system increases with growth in acidic medium, anaerobiosis, and high concentrations of lysine. It is inhibited by the lysine analog S-(beta-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine (thiosine). Thiosine-resistant (Tsr) mutants were isolated by using transpositional mutagenesis with TnphoA. A Tsr mutant expressing alkaline phosphatase activity in intact cells was found to lack lysine-specific transport. This lysP mutation was mapped to about 46.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The lysP-phoA fusion was cloned and used as a probe to clone the wild-type lysP gene. The nucleotide sequence of the 2.7-kb BamHI fragment was determined. An open reading frame from nucleotides 522 to 1989 was observed. The translation product of this open reading frame is predicted to be a hydrophobic protein of 489 residues. The lysP gene product exhibits sequence similarity to a family of amino acid transport proteins found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including the aromatic amino acid permease of E. coli (aroP) and the arginine permease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CAN1). Cells carrying a plasmid with the lysP gene exhibited a 10- to 20-fold increase in the rate of lysine uptake above wild-type levels. These results demonstrate that the lysP gene encodes the lysine-specific permease. Images PMID:1315732

  3. Crystal Structure and Pyridoxal 5-Phosphate Binding Property of Lysine Decarboxylase from Selenomonas ruminantium

    PubMed Central

    Sagong, Hye-Young; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Kim, Sunghwan; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Il-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) is a crucial enzyme for acid stress resistance and is also utilized for the biosynthesis of cadaverine, a promising building block for bio-based polyamides. We determined the crystal structure of LDC from Selenomonas ruminantium (SrLDC). SrLDC functions as a dimer and each monomer consists of two distinct domains; a PLP-binding barrel domain and a sheet domain. We also determined the structure of SrLDC in complex with PLP and cadaverine and elucidated the binding mode of cofactor and substrate. Interestingly, compared with the apo-form of SrLDC, the SrLDC in complex with PLP and cadaverine showed a remarkable structural change at the PLP binding site. The PLP binding site of SrLDC contains the highly flexible loops with high b-factors and showed an open-closed conformational change upon the binding of PLP. In fact, SrLDC showed no LDC activity without PLP supplement, and we suggest that highly flexible PLP binding site results in low PLP affinity of SrLDC. In addition, other structurally homologous enzymes also contain the flexible PLP binding site, which indicates that high flexibility at the PLP binding site and low PLP affinity seems to be a common feature of these enzyme family. PMID:27861532

  4. Characterization of the active site of ADP-ribosyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Munshi, C; Thiel, D J; Mathews, I I; Aarhus, R; Walseth, T F; Lee, H C

    1999-10-22

    ADP-ribosyl cyclase synthesizes two Ca(2+) messengers by cyclizing NAD to produce cyclic ADP-ribose and exchanging nicotinic acid with the nicotinamide group of NADP to produce nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Recombinant Aplysia cyclase was expressed in yeast and co-crystallized with a substrate, nicotinamide. x-ray crystallography showed that the nicotinamide was bound in a pocket formed in part by a conserved segment and was near the central cleft of the cyclase. Glu(98), Asn(107) and Trp(140) were within 3.5 A of the bound nicotinamide and appeared to coordinate it. Substituting Glu(98) with either Gln, Gly, Leu, or Asn reduced the cyclase activity by 16-222-fold, depending on the substitution. The mutant N107G exhibited only a 2-fold decrease in activity, while the activity of W140G was essentially eliminated. The base exchange activity of all mutants followed a similar pattern of reduction, suggesting that both reactions occur at the same active site. In addition to NAD, the wild-type cyclase also cyclizes nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide to cyclic GDP-ribose. All mutant enzymes had at least half of the GDP-ribosyl cyclase activity of the wild type, some even 2-3-fold higher, indicating that the three coordinating amino acids are responsible for positioning of the substrate but not absolutely critical for catalysis. To search for the catalytic residues, other amino acids in the binding pocket were mutagenized. E179G was totally devoid of GDP-ribosyl cyclase activity, and both its ADP-ribosyl cyclase and the base exchange activities were reduced by 10,000- and 18,000-fold, respectively. Substituting Glu(179) with either Asn, Leu, Asp, or Gln produced similar inactive enzymes, and so was the conversion of Trp(77) to Gly. However, both E179G and the double mutant E179G/W77G retained NAD-binding ability as shown by photoaffinity labeling with [(32)P]8-azido-NAD. These results indicate that both Glu(179) and Trp(77) are crucial for catalysis and

  5. Acetylproteomic analysis reveals functional implications of lysine acetylation in human spermatozoa (sperm).

    PubMed

    Yu, Heguo; Diao, Hua; Wang, Chunmei; Lin, Yan; Yu, Fudong; Lu, Hui; Xu, Wei; Li, Zheng; Shi, Huijuan; Zhao, Shimin; Zhou, Yuchuan; Zhang, Yonglian

    2015-04-01

    Male infertility is a medical condition that has been on the rise globally. Lysine acetylation of human sperm, an essential posttranslational modification involved in the etiology of sperm abnormality, is not fully understood. Therefore, we first generated a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody to characterize the global lysine acetylation of uncapacitated normal human sperm with a proteomics approach. With high enrichment ratios that were up to 31%, 973 lysine-acetylated sites that matched to 456 human sperm proteins, including 671 novel lysine acetylation sites and 205 novel lysine-acetylated proteins, were identified. These proteins exhibited conserved motifs XXXKYXXX, XXXKFXXX, and XXXKHXXX, were annotated to function in multiple metabolic processes, and were localized predominantly in the mitochondrion and cytoplasmic fractions. Between the uncapacitated and capacitated sperm, different acetylation profiles in regard to functional proteins involved in sperm capacitation, sperm-egg recognition, sperm-egg plasma fusion, and fertilization were observed, indicating that acetylation of functional proteins may be required during sperm capacitation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed association of acetylated proteins with diseases and drugs. Novel acetylation of voltage-dependent anion channel proteins was also found. With clinical sperm samples, we observed differed lysine acetyltransferases and lysine deacetylases expression between normal sperm and abnormal sperm of asthenospermia or necrospermia. Furthermore, with sperm samples impaired by epigallocatechin gallate to mimic asthenospermia, we observed that inhibition of sperm motility was partly through the blockade of voltage-dependent anion channel 2 Lys-74 acetylation combined with reduced ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, we obtained a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody, analyzed the acetylproteome of uncapacitated human sperm, and revealed

  6. Mutations inducing an active-site aperture in Rhizobium sp. sucrose isomerase confer hydrolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Alexandra; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Robert, Xavier; Rhimi, Moez; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2013-02-01

    Sucrose isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of sucrose isomers of high biotechnological and pharmaceutical interest. Owing to the complexity of the chemical synthesis of these isomers, isomaltulose and trehalulose, enzymatic conversion remains the preferred method for obtaining these products. Depending on the microbial source, the ratio of the sucrose-isomer products varies significantly. In studies aimed at understanding and explaining the underlying molecular mechanisms of these reactions, mutations obtained using a random-mutagenesis approach displayed a major hydrolytic activity. Two of these variants, R284C and F164L, of sucrose isomerase from Rhizobium sp. were therefore crystallized and their crystal structures were determined. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants allowed the identification of the molecular determinants that favour hydrolytic activity compared with transferase activity. Substantial conformational changes resulting in an active-site opening were observed, as were changes in the pattern of water molecules bordering the active-site region.

  7. Site-specific PEGylation of lidamycin and its antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Shang, Boyang; Hu, Lei; Shao, Rongguang; Zhen, Yongsu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, N-terminal site-specific mono-PEGylation of the recombinant lidamycin apoprotein (rLDP) of lidamycin (LDM) was prepared using a polyethyleneglycol (PEG) derivative (Mw 20 kDa) through a reactive terminal aldehyde group under weak acidic conditions (pH 5.5). The biochemical properties of mPEG-rLDP-AE, an enediyne-integrated conjugate, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC, SEC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF. Meanwhile, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of mPEG-rLDP-AE was evaluated by MTT assays and in xenograft model. The results indicated that mPEG-rLDP-AE showed significant antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. After PEGylation, mPEG-rLDP still retained the binding capability to the enediyne AE and presented the physicochemical characteristics similar to that of native LDP. It is of interest that the PEGylation did not diminish the antitumor efficacy of LDM, implying the possibility that this derivative may function as a payload to deliver novel tumor-targeted drugs. PMID:26579455

  8. Purification of cytochrome c oxidase by lysine-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Felsch, J; Kotake, S; Copeland, R A

    1992-02-01

    A method for the purification of cytochrome c oxidase that is based on the affinity of this enzyme for polycations such as poly-L-lysine is described. When detergent extracts of bovine cardiac mitochondria were applied to either a poly-L-lysine-agarose or a lysine-Sepharose column at low ionic strength, cytochrome c oxidase was found to adhere tightly, whereas the bulk of the proteins were eluted by washing with the same buffer. The cytochrome c oxidase was eluted by application of a linear potassium chloride gradient to the columns. The resulting enzyme was identical to that obtained by more traditional purification methods in terms of its subunit composition, optical and resonance Raman spectra, and cytochrome c oxidizing activity. When detergent extracts of spheroplasts from Paracoccus denitrificans were applied to these columns, the cytochrome c oxidase from this organism was also found to adhere tightly. Thus this purification method appears applicable to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic forms of the enzyme. The advantages of this new purification method are that it is less labor intensive than the traditional procedure and less expensive than methods based on cytochrome c-affinity chromatography.

  9. Inhibitory effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pei; Xu, Xian-Bing; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2017-04-15

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of phenolic compounds. In this study, the effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) was investigated in glucose-lysine model reaction systems. Results showed that sugarcane molasses extract significantly and dose dependently inhibited the formation of CML and CEL in model reaction systems. The antiglycation activities of sugarcane molasses extract were not only brought about by its antioxidant activities but also associated with its trapping abilities of reactive carbonyl species, such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), the key intermediate compound for the formation of CML and CEL. Besides, the presence of sugarcane molasses extract effectively reduced the extent of browning. The present study emphasized the potential health effects of sugarcane molasses and the possibility of using byproducts as effective ingredients to reduce dietary Maillard reaction end products.

  10. Allosteric site-mediated active site inhibition of PBP2a using Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside and its combination.

    PubMed

    Rani, Nidhi; Vijayakumar, Saravanan; P T V, Lakshmi; Arunachalam, Annamalai

    2016-08-01

    Recent crystallographic study revealed the involvement of allosteric site in active site inhibition of penicillin binding protein (PBP2a), where one molecule of Ceftaroline (Cef) binds to the allosteric site of PBP2a and paved way for the other molecule (Cef) to bind at the active site. Though Cef has the potency to inhibit the PBP2a, its adverse side effects are of major concern. Previous studies have reported the antibacterial property of Quercetin derivatives, a group of natural compounds. Hence, the present study aims to evaluate the effect of Quercetin 3-o-rutinoside (Rut) in allosteric site-mediated active site inhibition of PBP2a. The molecular docking studies between allosteric site and ligands (Rut, Que, and Cef) revealed a better binding efficiency (G-score) of Rut (-7.790318) and Cef (-6.194946) with respect to Que (-5.079284). Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies showed significant changes at the active site in the presence of ligands (Rut and Cef) at allosteric site. Four different combinations of Rut and Cef were docked and their G-scores ranged between -6.320 and -8.623. MD studies revealed the stability of the key residue (Ser403) with Rut being at both sites, compared to other complexes. Morphological analysis through electron microscopy confirmed that combination of Rut and Cefixime was able to disturb the bacterial cell membrane in a similar fashion to that of Rut and Cefixime alone. The results of this study indicate that the affinity of Rut at both sites were equally good, with further validations Rut could be considered as an alternative for inhibiting MRSA growth.

  11. Low-Density Neuronal Networks Cultured using Patterned Poly-L-Lysine on Microelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sang Beom; Hynd, Matthew R.; Dowell-Mesfin, Natalie; Smith, Karen L.; Turner, James N.; Shain, William; Kim, Sung June

    2009-01-01

    Synaptic activity recorded from low-density networks of cultured rat hippocampal neurons was monitored using microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Neuronal networks were patterned with poly-L-lysine (PLL) using microcontact printing (µCP). Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) stamps were fabricated with relief structures resulting in patterns of 2 µm-wide lines for directing process growth and 20 µm-diameter circles for cell soma attachment. These circles were aligned to electrode sites. Different densities of neurons were plated in order to assess the minimal neuron density required for development of an active network. Spontaneous activity was observed at 10–14 days in networks using neuron densities as low as 200 cells/mm2. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the distribution of dendrites along the lines and the location of foci of the presynaptic protein, synaptophysin, on neuron somas and dendrites. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that single fluorescent tracks contained multiple processes. Evoked responses of selected portions of the networks were produced by stimulation of specific electrode sites. In addition, the neuronal excitability of the network was increased by the bath application of high K+ (10–12 mM). Application of DNQX, an AMPA antagonist, blocked all spontaneous activity, suggesting that the activity is excitatory and mediated through glutamate receptors. PMID:17049614

  12. Simultaneous analysis of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine, reducing sugars, and lysine during the dairy thermal process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xian-Bing; Ma, Fei; Yu, Shu-Juan; Guan, Yong-Guang

    2013-09-01

    A new analytical method allowing the simultaneous quantification of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), lysine, and reducing sugars (glucose, lactose, and galactose) is described. It is based on high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric electrochemical detection. This method demonstrated a low limit of quantification (0.385 to 0.866 mg/L), excellent linear correlation (R(2)>0.997), and desired calibration range (3.125 to 25 mg/L). In addition, lactose-lysine solutions containing sulfite (4 to 400 mmol/L) were heated at 110°C for 2h. The results showed that sulfite inhibited the formation of CML and promoted the consumption of reducing sugars and lysine in the Maillard reaction model. The method proved to be useful for simultaneous analysis of CML, lysine, and reducing sugars (glucose, galactose, and lactose) in the Maillard reaction system. Moreover, sulfite was an effective inhibitor of CML formation.

  13. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis reveals interconnected functional units in the alkaline phosphatase active site

    PubMed Central

    Sunden, Fanny; Peck, Ariana; Salzman, Julia; Ressl, Susanne; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes enable life by accelerating reaction rates to biological timescales. Conventional studies have focused on identifying the residues that have a direct involvement in an enzymatic reaction, but these so-called ‘catalytic residues’ are embedded in extensive interaction networks. Although fundamental to our understanding of enzyme function, evolution, and engineering, the properties of these networks have yet to be quantitatively and systematically explored. We dissected an interaction network of five residues in the active site of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. Analysis of the complex catalytic interdependence of specific residues identified three energetically independent but structurally interconnected functional units with distinct modes of cooperativity. From an evolutionary perspective, this network is orders of magnitude more probable to arise than a fully cooperative network. From a functional perspective, new catalytic insights emerge. Further, such comprehensive energetic characterization will be necessary to benchmark the algorithms required to rationally engineer highly efficient enzymes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06181.001 PMID:25902402

  14. A split active site couples cap recognition by Dcp2 to activation

    PubMed Central

    Floor, Stephen N.; Jones, Brittnee N.; Hernandez, Gail A.; Gross, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Decapping by Dcp2 is an essential step in 5′-3′ mRNA decay. In yeast, decapping requires an open-to-closed transition in Dcp2, though the link between closure and catalysis remains elusive. Here we show using NMR that cap binds conserved residues on both the catalytic and regulatory domains of Dcp2. Lesions in the cap-binding site on the regulatory domain reduce the catalytic step two orders of magnitude and block formation of the closed state whereas Dcp1 enhances the catalytic step by a factor of ten and promotes closure. We conclude that closure occurs during the rate-limiting catalytic step of decapping, juxtaposing the cap-binding region of each domain to form a composite active site. This work suggests a model for regulation of decapping, where coactivators trigger decapping by stabilizing a labile composite active site. PMID:20711189

  15. The Construction and Expression of Lysine-Rich Gene in the Mammary Gland of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Song, Guangqi; Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhongwei; Yin, Yupeng; Kong, Delong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, β-casein, αS2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEOr was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase–PCR, in situ hybridization, and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of nontransgenic controls (p<0.05). In addition, the growth performance of transgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows. PMID:22577831

  16. Modulation of benzodiazepine by lysine and pipecolic acid on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.F.; Hargest, V.; Chen, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    L-lysine and its metabolite pipecolic acid (PA) have been studied for their effects on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. L-Lysine of L-Pa i.p. significantly increased clonic and tonic latencies in a dose-dependent manner against 90 mg/kg PTZ-induced seizures. L-Lysine but not L-Pa enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of diazepam (DZ). L-Pa i.c.v. showed a slight decrease in clonic latency; it did not enhance the antiseizure activity of DZ; it caused seizures at 0.6 mmol/kg. D-PA i.c.v. displayed an opposite effect compared to its L-isomer. The anticonvulsant effect of L-lysine in terms of increase in seizure latency and survival was even more amplified when tested with a submaximal PTZ concentration. L-Lysine showed an enhancement of specific /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam(FZ) binding to mouse brain membranes both in vitro an din vivo. The possibility of L-lysine acting as a modulator for the GABA/benzodiazepine receptors was demonstrated. Since L-PA showed enhancement of /sup 3/H-FZ binding only in vitro but not in vivo, the anticonvulsant effect of L-PA may not be linked to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor.

  17. The construction and expression of lysine-rich gene in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Song, Guangqi; Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhongwei; Yin, Yupeng; Kong, Delong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Tang, Bo; Li, Ziyi

    2012-08-01

    Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, β-casein, αS2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEO(r) was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase-PCR, in situ hybridization, and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of nontransgenic controls (p<0.05). In addition, the growth performance of transgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows.

  18. Molecular basis for the regulation of the H3K4 methyltransferase activity of PRDM9.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Mathioudakis, Nikolas; Diagouraga, Boubou; Dong, Aiping; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Baudat, Frédéric; Cusack, Stephen; de Massy, Bernard; Kadlec, Jan

    2013-10-17

    PRDM9, a histone lysine methyltransferase, is a key determinant of the localization of meiotic recombination hot spots in humans and mice and the only vertebrate protein known to be involved in hybrid sterility. Here, we report the crystal structure of the PRDM9 methyltransferase domain in complex with a histone H3 peptide dimethylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me2) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), which provides insights into the methyltransferase activity of PRDM proteins. We show that the genuine substrate of PRDM9 is histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) and that the enzyme possesses mono-, di-, and trimethylation activities. We also determined the crystal structure of PRDM9 in its autoinhibited state, which revealed a rearrangement of the substrate and cofactor binding sites by a concerted action of the pre-SET and post-SET domains, providing important insights into the regulatory mechanisms of histone lysine methyltransferase activity.

  19. A Method to Determine Lysine Acetylation Stoichiometries

    DOE PAGES

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; ...

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a common protein posttranslational modification that regulates a variety of biological processes. A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the difficulty in measuring the proportion of lysine residues that are acetylated. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of protein lysine acetylation. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy for ~750 acetylated peptides from mammalian cell lysates. Furthermore, the acetylation on N-terminal tail of histone H4 was cross-validated by treating cells with sodiummore » butyrate, a potent deacetylase inhibitor, and comparing changes in stoichiometry levels measured by our method with immunoblotting measurements. Of note we observe that acetylation stoichiometry is high in nuclear proteins, but very low in mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. In summary, our method opens new opportunities to study in detail the relationship of lysine acetylation levels of proteins with their biological functions.« less

  20. The preRC protein ORCA organizes heterochromatin by assembling histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferases on chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sumanprava; Aggarwal, Vasudha; Pontis, Julien; Shen, Zhen; Chakraborty, Arindam; Khan, Abid; Mizzen, Craig; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane; Ha, Taekjip; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Heterochromatic domains are enriched with repressive histone marks, including histone H3 lysine 9 methylation, written by lysine methyltransferases (KMTs). The pre-replication complex protein, origin recognition complex-associated (ORCA/LRWD1), preferentially localizes to heterochromatic regions in post-replicated cells. Its role in heterochromatin organization remained elusive. ORCA recognizes methylated H3K9 marks and interacts with repressive KMTs, including G9a/GLP and Suv39H1 in a chromatin context-dependent manner. Single-molecule pull-down assays demonstrate that ORCA-ORC (Origin Recognition Complex) and multiple H3K9 KMTs exist in a single complex and that ORCA stabilizes H3K9 KMT complex. Cells lacking ORCA show alterations in chromatin architecture, with significantly reduced H3K9 di- and tri-methylation at specific chromatin sites. Changes in heterochromatin structure due to loss of ORCA affect replication timing, preferentially at the late-replicating regions. We demonstrate that ORCA acts as a scaffold for the establishment of H3K9 KMT complex and its association and activity at specific chromatin sites is crucial for the organization of heterochromatin structure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06496.001 PMID:25922909

  1. Mechanistic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1347c, a lysine Nepsilon-acyltransferase involved in mycobactin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Brenda A; Blanchard, John S

    2008-09-15

    Mycobactin acylation plays a crucial role in the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to acquire intracellular iron during infection. M. tuberculosis Rv1347c, the lysine N(epsilon)-acyltransferase responsible for mycobactin acylation, represents a valid target for the development of novel anti-tubercular agents. Here we investigate the substrate specificity of Rv1347c, evaluate its kinetic mechanism and probe the contributions of active-site residues to catalysis. Our results confirm that Rv1347c demonstrates a preference for longer acyl-chains and suggest that mycobactin acylation occurs subsequent to mycobactin core assembly. Steady-state bisubstrate kinetics and dead-end inhibitor studies support a random sequential kinetic mechanism. Analysis of the pH dependence of k(cat)/K(m) revealed the presence of two groups that must be deprotonated for efficient catalysis. Mutagenesis of His(130) and Asp(168) indicated that both residues are critical for acyltransferase activity and suggests that His(130) is responsible for general base activation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine.

  2. A combination of both arginine- and lysine-specific gingipain activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis is necessary for the generation of the micro-oxo bishaem-containing pigment from haemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, John W; Thomas, Michael F; Birss, Andrew J; Withnall, Robert; Silver, Jack

    2004-01-01

    The black pigment of Porphyromonas gingivalis is composed of the mu-oxo bishaem complex of Fe(III) protoporphyrin IX (mu-oxo oligomer, dimeric haem), namely [Fe(III)PPIX]2O. P. gingivalis W50 and Rgp (Arg-gingipain)- and Kgp (Lys-gingipain)-deficient mutants K1A, D7, E8 and W501 [Aduse-Opoku, Davies, Gallagher, Hashim, Evans, Rangarajan, Slaney and Curtis (2000) Microbiology 146, 1933-1940] were grown on horse blood/agar for 14 days and examined for the production of mu-oxo bishaem. Mu-oxo Bishaem was detected by UV-visible, Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopies in wild-type W50 and in the black-pigmented RgpA- and RgpB-deficient mutants (W501 and D7 respectively), whereas no haem species were detected in the straw-coloured colonies of Kgp-deficient strain K1A. The dark brown pigment of the double RgpA/RgpB knockout mutant (E8) was not composed of mu-oxo bishaem, but of a high-spin monomeric Fe(III) protoporphyrin IX species (possibly a haem-albumin complex). In vitro incubation of oxyhaemoglobin with cells of the W50 strain and the RgpA- and RgpB-deficient mutants (W501 and D7) resulted in the formation of mu-oxo bishaem via methaemoglobin as an intermediate. Although the Kgp-deficient strain K1A converted oxyhaemoglobin into methaemoglobin, this was not further degraded into mu-oxo bishaem. The double RgpA/RgpB knockout was also not capable of producing mu-oxo bishaem from oxyhaemoglobin, but instead generated a haemoglobin haemichrome. Inhibition of Arg-X protease activity of W50, W501, D7 and K1A with leupeptin, under conditions where Lys-X protease activity was unaffected, prevented the production of mu-oxo bishaem from oxyhaemoglobin, but resulted in the formation of a haemoglobin haemichrome. These results show that one or both of RgpA and RgpB gingipains, in addition to the lysine-specific gingipain, is necessary for the production of mu-oxo bishaem from haemoglobin by whole cells of P. gingivalis. PMID:14741050

  3. Human 14-3-3 Paralogs Differences Uncovered by Cross-Talk of Phosphorylation and Lysine Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Uhart, Marina; Bustos, Diego M.

    2013-01-01

    The 14-3-3 protein family interacts with more than 700 different proteins in mammals, in part as a result of its specific phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding activity. Upon binding to 14-3-3, the stability, subcellular localization and/or catalytic activity of the ligands are modified. Seven paralogs are strictly conserved in mammalian species. Although initially thought as redundant, the number of studies showing specialization is growing. We created a protein-protein interaction network for 14-3-3, kinases and their substrates signaling in human cells. We included information of phosphorylation, acetylation and other PTM sites, obtaining a complete representation of the 14-3-3 binding partners and their modifications. Using a computational system approach we found that networks of each 14-3-3 isoform are statistically different. It was remarkable to find that Tyr was the most phosphorylatable amino acid in domains of 14-3-3 epsilon partners. This, together with the over-representation of SH3 and Tyr_Kinase domains, suggest that epsilon could be involved in growth factors receptors signaling pathways particularly. We also found that within zeta’s network, the number of acetylated partners (and the number of modify lysines) is significantly higher compared with each of the other isoforms. Our results imply previously unreported hidden differences of the 14-3-3 isoforms interaction networks. The phosphoproteome and lysine acetylome within each network revealed post-transcriptional regulation intertwining phosphorylation and lysine acetylation. A global understanding of these networks will contribute to predict what could occur when regulatory circuits become dysfunctional or are modified in response to external stimuli. PMID:23418452

  4. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for pulmonary administration: design and investigation of ketoprofen lysinate fine dry powders.

    PubMed

    Stigliani, Mariateresa; Aquino, Rita P; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Mencherini, Teresa; Sansone, Francesca; Russo, Paola

    2013-05-01

    Pulmonary inflammation is an important therapeutic target in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, aiming to limit and delay the lung damage. The purpose of the present research was to produce respirable engineered particles of ketoprofen lysinate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug able to fight lung inflammatory status by direct administration to the site of action. Micronized drug powders containing leucine as dispersibility enhancer were prepared by co-spray drying the active compound and the excipient from water or hydro-alcoholic feeds. Microparticles were fully characterized in terms of process yield, particle size distribution, morphology and drug content. The ability of the drug to reach the deepest airways after aerosolization of spray-dried formulations was evaluated by Andersen cascade impactor, using the monodose DPI as device. In order to investigate the behaviour of the drug once in contact with lung fluid, an artificial CF mucus was prepared. Drug permeation properties were evaluated interposing the mucus layer between the drug and a synthetic membrane mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells. Finally, the effect of the engineered particles on vitality of human airway epithelial cells of patients homozygous for ΔF 508 CF (CuFi1) was studied and compared to that of raw active compound. Results indicated that powders engineering changed the diameter and shape of the particles, making them suitable for inhalation. The mucus layer in the donor compartment of vertical diffusion cells slowed down drug dissolution and permeation, leucine having no influence. Cell proliferation studies evidenced that the spray drying process together with the addition of leucine reduced the cytotoxic effect of ketoprofen lysine salt as raw material, making the ketoprofen lysinate DPI a very promising product for the inflammation control in CF patients.

  5. Characterization of Active Site Residues of Nitroalkane Oxidase†

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Michael P.; Fenny, Nana S.; Ali, Shah R.; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitrolkanes to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones plus nitrite. The structure of the enzyme shows that Serl71 forms a hydrogen bond to the flavin N5, suggesting that it plays a role in catalysis. Cys397 and Tyr398 were previously identified by chemical modification as potential active site residues. To more directly probe the roles of these residues, the S171A, S171V, S171T, C397S, and Y398F enzymes have been characterized with nitroethane as substrate. The C397S and Y398 enzymes were less stable than the wild-type enzyme, and the C397S enzyme routinely contained a substoichiometric amount of FAD. Analysis of the steady-state kinetic parameters for the mutant enzymes, including deuterium isotope effects, establishes that all of the mutations result in decreases in the rate constants for removal of the substrate proton by ~5-fold and decreases in the rate constant for product release of ~2-fold. Only the S171V and S171T mutations alter the rate constant for flavin oxidation. These results establish that these residues are not involved in catalysis, but rather are required for maintaining the protein structure. PMID:20056514

  6. Detection limit for activation measurements in ultralow background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trache, Livius; Chesneanu, D.; Margineanu, R.; Pantelica, A.; Ghita, D. G.; Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Tang, X. D.

    2014-09-01

    We used 12C +13C fusion at the beam energies E = 6, 7 and 8 MeV to determine the sensitivity and the limits of activation method measurements in ultralow background sites. A 13C beam of 0.5 μA from the 3 MV Tandem accelerator of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH impinged on thick graphite targets. After about 24 hrs of irradiation targets were measured in two different laboratories: one with a heavy shielded Ge detector in the institute (at the surface) and one located underground in the microBequerel laboratory, in the salt mine of Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The 1369- and 2754 keV peaks from 24Na deactivation were clearly observed in the γ-ray spectra obtained for acquisitions lasting a few hours, or a few days. Determination of the detection limit in evaluating the cross sections for the target irradiated at Ec . m = 3 MeV indicates the fact that it is possible to measure gamma spectrum in underground laboratory down to Ec . m = 2 . 6 MeV. Cleaning the spectra with beta-gamma coincidences and increasing beam intensity 20 times will take as further down. The measurements are motivated by the study of the 12 C +12 C reaction at astrophysical energies.

  7. Disturbance opens recruitment sites for bacterial colonization in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Vuono, David C; Munakata-Marr, Junko; Spear, John R; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the role of immigration in shaping bacterial communities or the factors that may dictate success or failure of colonization by bacteria from regional species pools. To address these knowledge gaps, the influence of bacterial colonization into an ecosystem (activated sludge bioreactor) was measured through a disturbance gradient (successive decreases in the parameter solids retention time) relative to stable operational conditions. Through a DNA sequencing approach, we show that the most abundant bacteria within the immigrant community have a greater probability of colonizing the receiving ecosystem, but mostly as low abundance community members. Only during the disturbance do some of these bacterial populations significantly increase in abundance beyond background levels and in few cases become dominant community members post-disturbance. Two mechanisms facilitate the enhanced enrichment of immigrant populations during disturbance: (i) the availability of resources left unconsumed by established species and (ii) the increased availability of niche space for colonizers to establish and displace resident populations. Thus, as a disturbance decreases local diversity, recruitment sites become available to promote colonization. This work advances our understanding of microbial resource management and diversity maintenance in complex ecosystems.

  8. First Comprehensive Proteome Analyses of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation in Seedling Leaves of Brachypodium distachyon L.

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shoumin; Deng, Xiong; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Gengrui; Cao, Hui; Yuan, Linlin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Protein acetylation and succinylation are the most crucial protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we present the first lysine-acetylation and lysine-succinylation proteome analysis of seedling leaves in Brachypodium distachyon L (Bd). Using high accuracy nano LC-MS/MS combined with affinity purification, we identified a total of 636 lysine-acetylated sites in 353 proteins and 605 lysine-succinylated sites in 262 proteins. These proteins participated in many biology processes, with various molecular functions. In particular, 119 proteins and 115 sites were found to be both acetylated and succinylated, simultaneously. Among the 353 acetylated proteins, 148 had acetylation orthologs in Oryza sativa L., Arabidopsis thaliana, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and Glycine max L. Among the 262 succinylated proteins, 170 of them were found to have homologous proteins in Oryza sativa L., Escherichia coli, Sacchayromyces cerevisiae, or Homo sapiens. Motif-X analysis of the acetylated and succinylated sites identified two new acetylated motifs (K---K and K-I-K) and twelve significantly enriched succinylated motifs for the first time, which could serve as possible binding loci for future studies in plants. Our comprehensive dataset provides a promising starting point for further functional analysis of acetylation and succinylation in Bd and other plant species. PMID:27515067

  9. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an active... visible emissions to the outside air from any active waste disposal site where asbestos-containing...

  10. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an active... visible emissions to the outside air from any active waste disposal site where asbestos-containing...

  11. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  12. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  13. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  14. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  15. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  16. Robotics and Automation Activities at the Savannah River Site: A Site Report for SUBWOG 39F

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.

    1995-09-28

    The Savannah River Site has successfully used robots, teleoperators, and remote video to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation, improve worker safety, and improve the quality of operations. Previous reports have described the use of mobile teleoperators in coping with a high level liquid waste spill, the removal of highly contaminated equipment, and the inspection of nuclear reactor vessels. This report will cover recent applications at the Savannah River, as well as systems which SRS has delivered to other DOE site customers.

  17. GAS HYDRATES AT TWO SITES OF AN ACTIVE CONTINENTAL MARGIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart on the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m.

  18. A System for Enzymatic Lysine Methylation in a Desired Sequence Context

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A number of lysine-specific methyltransferases (KMTs) are responsible for the post-translational modification of cellular proteins on lysine residues. Most KMTs typically recognize specific motifs in unstructured, short peptide sequences. However, we have recently discovered a novel KMT that appeared to have a more relaxed sequence specificity, namely, valosin-containing protein (VCP)-KMT, which trimethylates Lys-315 in the molecular chaperone VCP. On the basis of this, here, we explored the possibility of using the VCP-KMT/VCP system to obtain specific lysine methylation of desired sequences grafted onto a VCP-derived scaffold. We generated VCP-derived proteins in which three amino acid residues on each side of Lys-315 had been replaced by various sequences representing lysine methylation sites in histone H3. We found that all of these chimeric proteins were subject to efficient VCP-KMT-mediated methylation in vitro, and methylation was also observed in mammalian cells. Thus, we here describe a versatile system for introducing lysine methylation into a desired peptide sequence, and the approach should be readily expandable for generating combinatorial libraries of methylated sequences. PMID:28357416

  19. Lidar research activities and observations at NARL site, Gadanki, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellapragada, Bhavani Kumar

    2016-05-01

    The National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), a unit of Department of Space (DOS), located at Gadanki village (13.5°N, 79.2°E, 370 m AMSL) in India, is involved in the development of lidar remote sensing technologies for atmospheric research. Several advanced lidar technologies employing micropulse, polarization, Raman and scanning have been developed at this site and demonstrated for atmospheric studies during the period between 2008 and 2015. The technology of micropulse lidar, operates at 532 nm wavelength, was successfully transferred to an industry and the commercial version has been identified for Indian Lidar network (I-LINK) programme. Under this lidar network activity, several lidar units were installed at different locations in India to study tropospheric aerosols and clouds. The polarization sensitive lidar technology was realized using a set of mini photomultiplier tube (PMT) units and has the capability to operate during day and night without a pause. The lidar technology uses a compact flashlamp pumped Qswitched laser and employs biaxial configuration between the transmitter and receiver units. The lidar technology has been utilized for understanding the polarization characteristics of boundary layer aerosols during the mixed layer development. The demonstrated Raman lidar technology, uses the third harmonic wavelength of Nd:YAG laser, provides the altitude profiles of aerosol backscattering, extinction and water vapor covering the boundary layer range and allows operation during nocturnal periods. The Raman lidar derived height profiles of aerosol backscattering and extinction coefficient, lidar ratio, and watervapor mixing ratio inform the tropical boundary layer aerosol characteristics. The scanning lidar technology uses a near infrared laser wavelength for probing the lower atmosphere and has been utilized for high resolution cloud profiling during convective periods. The lidar technology is also used for rain rate measurement during

  20. Dynamically achieved active site precision in enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Klinman, Judith P

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: The grand challenge in enzymology is to define and understand all of the parameters that contribute to enzymes' enormous rate accelerations. The property of hydrogen tunneling in enzyme reactions has moved the focus of research away from an exclusive focus on transition state stabilization toward the importance of the motions of the heavy atoms of the protein, a role for reduced barrier width in catalysis, and the sampling of a protein conformational landscape to achieve a family of protein substates that optimize enzyme-substrate interactions and beyond. This Account focuses on a thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase for which the chemical step of hydride transfer is rate determining across a wide range of experimental conditions. The properties of the chemical coordinate have been probed using kinetic isotope effects, indicating a transition in behavior below 30 °C that distinguishes nonoptimal from optimal C-H activation. Further, the introduction of single site mutants has the impact of either enhancing or eliminating the temperature dependent transition in catalysis. Biophysical probes, which include time dependent hydrogen/deuterium exchange and fluorescent lifetimes and Stokes shifts, have also been pursued. These studies allow the correlation of spatially resolved transitions in protein motions with catalysis. It is now possible to define a long-range network of protein motions in ht-ADH that extends from a dimer interface to the substrate binding domain across to the cofactor binding domain, over a distance of ca. 30 Å. The ongoing challenge to obtaining spatial and temporal resolution of catalysis-linked protein motions is discussed.

  1. Abundance and functional roles of intrinsic disorder in the antimicrobial peptides of the NK-lysin family.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Haitham A; Al-Maghrabi, Omar A; Ahmed, Ekram S; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2017-03-01

    NK-lysins are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that participate in the innate immune response and also have several pivotal roles in various biological processes. Such multifunctionality is commonly found among intrinsically disordered proteins. However, NK-lysins have never been systematically analyzed for intrinsic disorder. To fill this gap, the amino acid sequences of NK-lysins from various species were collected from UniProt and used for the comprehensive computational analysis to evaluate the propensity of these proteins for intrinsic disorder and to investigate the potential roles of disordered regions in NK-lysin functions. We analyzed abundance and peculiarities of intrinsic disorder distribution in all-known NK-lysins and showed that many NK-lysins are expected to have substantial levels of intrinsic disorder. Curiously, high level of intrinsic disorder was also found even in two proteins with known 3D-strucutres (NK-lysin from pig and human granulysin). Many of the identified disordered regions can be involved in protein-protein interactions. In fact, NK-lysins are shown to contain three to eight molecular recognition features; i.e. short structure-prone segments which are located within the long disordered regions and have a potential to undergo a disorder-to-order transition upon binding to a partner. Furthermore, these disordered regions are expected to have several sites of various posttranslational modifications. Our study shows that NK-lysins, which are AMPs with a set of prominent roles in the innate immune response, are expected to abundantly possess intrinsically disordered regions that might be related to multifunctionality of these proteins in the signal transduction pathways controlling the host response to pathogenic agents.

  2. Characterization of a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent l-lysine decarboxylase/oxidase from Burkholderia sp. AIU 395.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Asami; Matsui, Daisuke; Takahashi, Narumi; Yamada, Miwa; Asano, Yasuhisa; Isobe, Kimiyasu

    2014-11-01

    A novel enzyme, which catalyzed decarboxylation of l-lysine into cadaverine with release of carbon dioxide and oxidative deamination of l-lysine into l-2-aminoadipic 5-semialdehyde with release of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide, was found from a newly isolated Burkholderia sp. AIU 395. The enzyme was specific to l-lysine and did not exhibit enzyme activities for other l-amino acids, l-lysine derivatives, d-amino acids, and amines. The apparent Km values for l-lysine in the oxidation and decarboxylation reactions were estimated to be 0.44 mM and 0.84 mM, respectively. The molecular mass was estimated to be 150 kDa, which was composed of two identical subunits with molecular mass of 76.5 kDa. The enzyme contained one mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate per subunit as a prosthetic group. The enzyme exhibiting decarboxylase and oxidase activities for l-lysine was first reported here, while the deduced amino acid sequence was homologous to that of putative lysine decarboxylases from the genus Burkholderia.

  3. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis LipB enzyme functions as a cysteine/lysine dyad acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingjun; Zhao, Xin; Nasser Eddine, Ali; Geerlof, Arie; Li, Xinping; Cronan, John E; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2006-06-06

    Lipoic acid is essential for the activation of a number of protein complexes involved in key metabolic processes. Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on a pathway in which the lipoate attachment group is synthesized from an endogenously produced octanoic acid moiety. In patients with multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, expression of one gene from this pathway, lipB, encoding for octanoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-protein acyltransferase is considerably up-regulated, thus making it a potential target in the search for novel antiinfectives against tuberculosis. Here we present the crystal structure of the M. tuberculosis LipB protein at atomic resolution, showing an unexpected thioether-linked active-site complex with decanoic acid. We provide evidence that the transferase functions as a cysteine/lysine dyad acyltransferase, in which two invariant residues (Lys-142 and Cys-176) are likely to function as acid/base catalysts. Analysis by MS reveals that the LipB catalytic reaction proceeds by means of an internal thioesteracyl intermediate. Structural comparison of LipB with lipoate protein ligase A indicates that, despite conserved structural and sequence active-site features in the two enzymes, 4'-phosphopantetheine-bound octanoic acid recognition is a specific property of LipB.

  4. Dendronized nanoconjugates of lysine and folate for treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jain, Keerti; Gupta, Umesh; Jain, Narendra K

    2014-08-01

    Poly-L-lysine (PLL) dendrimers are currently being investigated as antiangiogenic agent for therapy of cancer. In this study, we report folate conjugated poly-l-lysine dendrimers (FPLL) as an efficient carrier for model anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox); for pH sensitive drug release, selective targeting to cancer cells, anticancer activity and antiangiogenic activity. This nanoconjugate of Dox showed initial rapid in vitro release followed by gradual slow release, and the drug release was found to be pH sensitive with greater release at acidic pH. In the CAM assay and tubule formation assay with HUVEC, Dox-FPLL formulation showed the significant antiangiogenic activity confirming that activity of PLL was not compromised by the presence of Dox and folic acid. The ex vivo investigations with human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 showed enhanced cytotoxicity of Dox-FPLL with significantly enhanced intracellular uptake (p<0.001). The in vivo therapeutic potential of nanoconjugate was determined in MCF-7 breast cancer xenograft model in tumor-bearing mice. Dox-FPLL increased the concentration of Dox in tumor by 121.5-fold after 24 h in comparison with free Dox formulation. The folate conjugated dendrimeric Dox showed superior anti-tumor activity in tumor xenograft model with significantly prolonged survival determined by Kaplan Meier survival analysis (p<0.001).

  5. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylation suggests the widespread function is regulated by protein acetylation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zuoming; Zhu, Honglin; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Chengcheng; Liu, Yue; Sheng, Qing; Lv, Zhengbing; Zhang, Wenping; Yu, Wei; Jiang, Caiying; Xie, Longfei; Zhang, Yaozhou; Yao, Juming

    2015-09-01

    Lysine acetylation in proteins is a dynamic and reversible PTM and plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. In this study, using lysine-acetylation (Kac) peptide enrichment coupled with nano HPLC/MS/MS, we initially identified the acetylome in the silkworms. Overall, a total of 342 acetylated proteins with 667 Kac sites were identified in silkworm. Sequence motifs analysis around Kac sites revealed an enrichment of Y, F, and H in the +1 position, and F was also enriched in the +2 and -2 positions, indicating the presences of preferred amino acids around Kac sites in the silkworm. Functional analysis showed the acetylated proteins were primarily involved in some specific biological processes. Furthermore, lots of nutrient-storage proteins, such as apolipophorin, vitellogenin, storage proteins, and 30 K proteins, were highly acetylated, indicating lysine acetylation may represent a common regulatory mechanism of nutrient utilization in the silkworm. Interestingly, Ser2 proteins, the coating proteins of larval silk, were found to contain many Kac sites, suggesting lysine acetylation may be involved in the regulation of larval silk synthesis. This study is the first to identify the acetylome in a lepidoptera insect, and expands greatly the catalog of lysine acetylation substrates and sites in insects.

  6. Active-site zinc ligands and activated H2O of zinc enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Vallee, B L; Auld, D S

    1990-01-01

    The x-ray crystallographic structures of 12 zinc enzymes have been chosen as standards of reference to identify the ligands to the catalytic and structural zinc atoms of other members of their respective enzyme families. Universally, H2O is a ligand and critical component of the catalytically active zinc sites. In addition, three protein side chains bind to the catalytic zinc atom, whereas four protein ligands bind to the structural zinc atom. The geometry and coordination number of zinc can vary greatly to accommodate particular ligands. Zinc forms complexes with nitrogen and oxygen just as readily as with sulfur, and this is reflected in catalytic zinc sites having a binding frequency of His much greater than Glu greater than Asp = Cys, three of which bind to the metal atom. The systematic spacing between the ligands is striking. For all catalytic zinc sites except the coenzyme-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, the first two ligands are separated by a "short-spacer" consisting of 1 to 3 amino acids. These ligands are separated from the third ligand by a "long spacer" of approximately 20 to approximately 120 amino acids. The spacer enables formation of a primary bidentate zinc complex, whereas the long spacer contributes flexibility to the coordination sphere, which can poise the zinc for catalysis as well as bring other catalytic and substrate binding groups into apposition with the active site. The H2O is activated by ionization, polarization, or poised for displacement. Collectively, the data imply that the preferred mechanistic pathway for activating the water--e.g., zinc hydroxide or Lewis acid catalysis--will be determined by the identity of the other three ligands and their spacing. Images PMID:2104979

  7. Chemical modification of the RTEM-1 thiol beta-lactamase by thiol-selective reagents: evidence for activation of the primary nucleophile of the beta-lactamase active site by adjacent functional groups.

    PubMed

    Knap, A K; Pratt, R F

    1989-01-01

    The RTEM-1 thiol beta-lactamase (Sigal, I.S., Harwood, B.G., Arentzen, R., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:7157-7160, 1982) is inactivated by thiol-selective reagents such as iodoacetamide, methyl methanethiosulfonate, and 4,4'-dipyridyldisulfide, which modify the active site thiol group. The pH-rate profiles of these inactivation reactions show that there are two nucleophilic forms of the enzyme, EH2 and EH, both of which, by analogy with the situation with cysteine proteinases, probably contain the active site nucleophile in the thiolate form. The pKa of the active site thiol is therefore shown by the data to be below 4.0. This low pKa is thought to reflect the presence of adjacent functionality which stabilizes the thiolate anion. The low nucleophilicity of the thiolate in both EH2 and EH, with respect to that of cysteine proteinases and model compounds, suggests that the thiolate of the thiol beta-lactamase is stabilized by two hydrogen-bond donors. One of these, of pKa greater than 9.0, is suggested to be the conserved and essential Lys-73 ammonium group, while the identity of the other group, of pKa around 6.7, is less clear, but may be the conserved Glu-166 carboxylic acid. beta-Lactamase activity is associated with the EH2 form, and thus the beta-lactamase active site is proposed to contain one basic or nucleophilic group (the thiolate in the thiol beta-lactamase) and two acidic (hydrogen-bond donor) groups (one of which is likely to be the above-mentioned lysine ammonium group).

  8. How Modification of Accessible Lysines to Phenylalanine Modulates the Structural and Functional Properties of Horseradish Peroxidase: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Navapour, Leila; Mogharrab, Navid; Amininasab, Mehriar

    2014-01-01

    Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) is one of the most studied peroxidases and a great number of chemical modifications and genetic manipulations have been carried out on its surface accessible residues to improve its stability and catalytic efficiency necessary for biotechnological applications. Most of the stabilized derivatives of HRP reported to date have involved chemical or genetic modifications of three surface-exposed lysines (K174, K232 and K241). In this computational study, we altered these lysines to phenylalanine residues to model those chemical modifications or genetic manipulations in which these positively charged lysines are converted to aromatic hydrophobic residues. Simulation results implied that upon these substitutions, the protein structure becomes less flexible. Stability gains are likely to be achieved due to the increased number of stable hydrogen bonds, improved heme-protein interactions and more integrated proximal Ca2+ binding pocket. We also found a new persistent hydrogen bond between the protein moiety (F174) and the heme prosthetic group as well as two stitching hydrogen bonds between the connecting loops GH and F′F″ in mutated HRP. However, detailed analysis of functionally related structural properties and dynamical features suggests reduced reactivity of the enzyme toward its substrates. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that substitutions narrow the bottle neck entry of peroxide substrate access channel and reduce the surface accessibility of the distal histidine (H42) and heme prosthetic group to the peroxide and aromatic substrates, respectively. Results also demonstrated that the area and volume of the aromatic-substrate binding pocket are significantly decreased upon modifications. Moreover, the hydrophobic patch functioning as a binding site or trap for reducing aromatic substrates is shrunk in mutated enzyme. Together, the results of this simulation study could provide possible structural clues to explain those

  9. The yeast regulator of transcription protein Rtr1 lacks an active site and phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kehui; Manley, James L; Tong, Liang

    2012-07-10

    The activity of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is controlled in part by the phosphorylation state of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of its largest subunit. Recent reports have suggested that yeast regulator of transcription protein, Rtr1, and its human homologue RPAP2, possess Pol II CTD Ser5 phosphatase activity. Here we report the crystal structure of Kluyveromyces lactis Rtr1, which reveals a new type of zinc finger protein and does not have any close structural homologues. Importantly, the structure does not show evidence of an active site, and extensive experiments to demonstrate its CTD phosphatase activity have been unsuccessful, suggesting that Rtr1 has a non-catalytic role in CTD dephosphorylation.

  10. Proteome-wide mapping of the Drosophila acetylome demonstrates a high degree of conservation of lysine acetylation.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Brian T; Wagner, Sebastian A; Horn, Heiko; Henriksen, Peter; Liu, Wenshe R; Olsen, Jesper V; Jensen, Lars J; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2011-07-26

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by acetylation and phosphorylation regulates most cellular processes in living organisms. Surprisingly, the evolutionary conservation of phosphorylated serine and threonine residues is only marginally higher than that of unmodified serines and threonines. With high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 1981 lysine acetylation sites in the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster. We used data sets of experimentally identified acetylation and phosphorylation sites in Drosophila and humans to analyze the evolutionary conservation of these modification sites between flies and humans. Site-level conservation analysis revealed that acetylation sites are highly conserved, significantly more so than phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, comparison of lysine conservation in Drosophila and humans with that in nematodes and zebrafish revealed that acetylated lysines were significantly more conserved than were nonacetylated lysines. Bioinformatics analysis using Gene Ontology terms suggested that the proteins with conserved acetylation control cellular processes such as protein translation, protein folding, DNA packaging, and mitochondrial metabolism. We found that acetylation of ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes was evolutionarily conserved, and mutation of a conserved acetylation site impaired the function of the human E2 enzyme UBE2D3. This systems-level analysis of comparative posttranslational modification showed that acetylation is an anciently conserved modification and suggests that phosphorylation sites may have evolved faster than acetylation sites.

  11. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  16. Radioactive Lysine in Protein Metabolism Studies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; Whipple,, G. H.

    1950-01-09

    Studies of incorporation of DL-lysine in various body proteins of the dog; the time course of labeled blood proteins; and apparent rate of disappearance of labeled plasma proteins for comparison of behavior of the plasma albumin and globulin fractions; shows more rapid turn over of globulin fraction.

  17. Motility-indole-lysine medium for presumptive identification of enteric pathogens of Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Reller, L B; Mirrett, S

    1975-09-01

    Detection of lysine decarboxylase activity is a useful supplement to reactions on triple sugar-iron (TSI) and urea agars in the initial examination of suspected pathogenic isolates from fecal cultures. Owing to the added value of motility and indole production in the differentiation of enteric pathogens, we prepared and evaluated a motility-indole-lysine (MIL) medium. The following 890 organisms were tested: 264 Shigella, 2 Edwardsiella, 182 Salmonella enteritidis, 235 S. typhi, 3 Arizona, 32 Yersinia enterocolitica, and 172 other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. With few exceptions the MIL medium gave the same results as the standard motility, indole, and lysine decarboxylase (Moeller) test media. All discrepancies were with the indole reaction, which was weak in 2 of 67 strains of Escherichia coli and falsely negative in 6 of 32 strains of Y. enterocolitica. When both TSI agar and lysine-iron agar (LIA) slants are used in the evaluation isolates from fecal cultures, detection of H2S is duplicated. Both LIA and MIL medium detect lysine decarboxylase and deaminase activity equally well. Because of its ability to detect motility and indole production, the MIL medium is more useful than LIA when used with TSI agar. The combination of TSI agar, MIL medium, and urea agar enables reliable initial recognition of enteric pathogens of the Enterobacteriaceae.

  18. An overlooked effect of glycine betaine on fermentation: prevents caramelization and increases the L-lysine production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianzhong; Xia, Xiuhua; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-10-01

    This article focuses on the effects of glycine betaine on preventing caramelization, and increasing DCW and L-lysine production. The additional glycine betaine not only decreased the browning intensity (decreased 4 times), and the concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (decreased 7.8 times) and furfural (decreased 12 times), but also increased the availability of glucose (increased 17.5%) for L-lysine production. The DCW and L-lysine production were increased by adding no more than 20 mM glycine betaine, whereas the DCW and L-lysine production were decreased with the reduction of pH values, although pH had a better response to prevent caramelization than did glycine betaine. For L-lysine production, the highest increase (40%) was observed on the media with 20 mM glycine betaine. The crucial enzymes in glycolysis and L-lysine biosynthesis pathway were investigated. The results indicated that additional glycine betaine increases the activity of enzymes in glycolysis, in contrast to the effect of pH. All the results indicated that glycine betaine can be used to prevent caramelization and increase the L-lysine production. By applying this strategy, glucose would not be have to be separated from the culture media during autoclaving so that factories can save production costs and shorten the fermentation period.

  19. Evaluating copper lysine and copper sulfate sources for heifers.

    PubMed

    Rabiansky, P A; McDowell, L R; Velasquez-Pereira, J; Wilkinson, N S; Percival, S S; Martin, F G; Bates, D B; Johnson, A B; Batra, T R; Salgado-Madriz, E

    1999-12-01

    The effects of feeding different sources and quantities of Cu to heifers were evaluated in a 211-d experiment. Forty crossbred predominantly Brahman x Hereford heifers averaging 13.5 mo of age and 301 kg were initially depleted of Cu. The depletion diet was fed for 70 d and consisted of low Cu and high antagonist minerals, Fe, S, and Mo at 1000 mg/kg, 0.5%, and 5 mg/kg (dry basis), respectively. On d 71, heifers continued to receive the antagonistic minerals and were allotted equally to five Cu treatments: 1) control, no additional Cu source; 2) 8 mg of Cu/kg from CuSO4; 3) 16 mg of Cu/kg from CuSO4; 4) 8 mg of Cu/kg from Cu lysine; and 5) 16 mg of Cu/kg from Cu lysine. When no notable change in concentration of Cu in the liver was observed, d 169, a second diet was formulated. The heifers were fed the same Cu treatments, but S and Mo were removed and Fe was lowered to 50 mg/kg. This diet was then fed for the final 42 d of the experiment. In addition to performance, concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Zn in the plasma and liver, plasma ceruloplasmin, hemoglobin, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a cell mediated immune response (phytohemagglutinin-P, PHA) were measured. Heifers in this study had increased growth over time, but there were no treatment differences for growth and average daily gain. Liver and plasma Cu concentrations were not greatly influenced by different supplemental Cu sources. However, compared with other treatments, Cu lysine (16 mg/kg) increased liver Cu in cattle that were deficient and tended to increase plasma Cu in animals that were marginally deficient in Cu. Iron concentrations decreased over time in liver and plasma, but there was no difference in Fe and Zn concentrations in liver and plasma among treatments. Differences in ceruloplasmin and hemoglobin concentrations were significant over time but not among treatments. The SOD activity in neutrophils did not change over time, but SOD activity of lymphocytes

  20. Crystal structure of the histone lysine specific demethylase LSD1 complexed with tetrahydrofolate.

    PubMed

    Luka, Zigmund; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Calcutt, M Wade; Newcomer, Marcia E; Wagner, Conrad

    2014-07-01

    An important epigenetic modification is the methylation/demethylation of histone lysine residues. The first histone demethylase to be discovered was a lysine-specific demethylase 1, LSD1, a flavin containing enzyme which carries out the demethylation of di- and monomethyllysine 4 in histone H3. The removed methyl groups are oxidized to formaldehyde. This reaction is similar to those performed by dimethylglycine dehydrogenase and sarcosine dehydrogenase, in which protein-bound tetrahydrofolate (THF) was proposed to serve as an acceptor of the generated formaldehyde. We showed earlier that LSD1 binds THF with high affinity which suggests its possible participation in the histone demethylation reaction. In the cell, LSD1 interacts with co-repressor for repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor (CoREST). In order to elucidate the role of folate in the demethylating reaction we solved the crystal structure of the LSD1-CoREST-THF complex. In the complex, the folate-binding site is located in the active center in close proximity to flavin adenine dinucleotide. This position of the folate suggests that the bound THF accepts the formaldehyde generated in the course of histone demethylation to form 5,10-methylene-THF. We also show the formation of 5,10-methylene-THF during the course of the enzymatic reaction in the presence of THF by mass spectrometry. Production of this form of folate could act to prevent accumulation of potentially toxic formaldehyde in the cell. These studies suggest that folate may play a role in the epigenetic control of gene expression in addition to its traditional role in the transfer of one-carbon units in metabolism.

  1. Systematic Analysis of Mycobacterial Acylation Reveals First Example of Acylation-mediated Regulation of Enzyme Activity of a Bacterial Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Anshika; Arora, Gunjan; Virmani, Richa; Kundu, Parijat; Khanna, Tanya; Sajid, Andaleeb; Misra, Richa; Joshi, Jayadev; Yadav, Vikas; Samanta, Sintu; Saini, Neeru; Pandey, Amit K; Visweswariah, Sandhya S; Hentschker, Christian; Becher, Dörte; Gerth, Ulf; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-10-23

    Protein lysine acetylation is known to regulate multiple aspects of bacterial metabolism. However, its presence in mycobacterial signal transduction and virulence-associated proteins has not been studied. In this study, analysis of mycobacterial proteins from different cellular fractions indicated dynamic and widespread occurrence of lysine acetylation. Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins regulating diverse physiological processes were then selected and expressed in the surrogate host Mycobacterium smegmatis. The purified proteins were analyzed for the presence of lysine acetylation, leading to the identification of 24 acetylated proteins. In addition, novel lysine succinylation and propionylation events were found to co-occur with acetylation on several proteins. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase B (PtpB), a secretory phosphatase that regulates phosphorylation of host proteins and plays a critical role in Mycobacterium infection, is modified by acetylation and succinylation at Lys-224. This residue is situated in a lid region that covers the enzyme's active site. Consequently, acetylation and succinylation negatively regulate the activity of PtpB.

  2. Nuclear Site Security in the Event of Terrorist Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, M.L.; Sims, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented as a poster, identifies why ballistic protection should now be considered at nuclear sites to counter terrorist threats. A proven and flexible form of multi purpose protection is described in detail with identification of trial results that show its suitability for this role. (authors)

  3. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  4. Revealing the nature of the active site on the carbon catalyst for C-H bond activation.

    PubMed

    Sun, XiaoYing; Li, Bo; Su, Dangsheng

    2014-09-28

    A reactivity descriptor for the C-H bond activation on the nanostructured carbon catalyst is proposed. Furthermore the calculations reveal that the single ketone group can be an active site in ODH reaction.

  5. Mouse lysine catabolism to aminoadipate occurs primarily through the saccharopine pathway; implications for pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (PDE).

    PubMed

    Pena, Izabella Agostinho; Marques, Lygia Azevedo; Laranjeira, Ângelo B A; Yunes, José A; Eberlin, Marcos N; MacKenzie, Alex; Arruda, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Lysine is catabolized in mammals through the saccharopine and pipecolate pathways - the former is mainly hepatic and renal, and the latter is believed to play a role in the cerebral lysine oxidation. Both pathways lead to the formation of aminoadipic semialdehyde (AASA) that is then oxidized to aminoadipate (AAA) by antiquitin (ALDH7A1). Mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene result in the accumulation of AASA and its cyclic form, piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C), which causes pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE). P6C reacts with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) causing its inactivation. Here, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to investigate lysine catabolism in mice injected with lysine labelled at either its nitrogen epsilon (ε-(15)N) or nitrogen alpha (α-(15)N). Analysis of ε-(15)N and α-(15)N lysine catabolites in plasma, liver and brain suggested the saccharopine as the main pathway for AAA biosynthesis. Although there was evidence for upstream cerebral pipecolate pathway activity, the resulting pipecolate does not appear to be further oxidized into AASA/P6C/AAA. By far the bulk of lysine degradation and therefore, the primary source of lysine catabolites are hepatic and renal. The results indicate that the saccharopine pathway is primarily responsible for body's production of AASA/P6C. The centrality of the saccharopine pathway in whole body lysine catabolism opens new possibilities of therapeutic targets for PDE. We suggest that inhibition of this pathway upstream of AASA/P6C synthesis may be used to prevent its accumulation benefiting PDE patients. Inhibition of the enzyme aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, for example, could constitute a new strategy to treat PDE and other inherited diseases of lysine catabolism.

  6. Cellular Active N-Hydroxyurea FEN1 Inhibitors Block Substrate Entry to the Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Exell, Jack C.; Thompson, Mark J.; Finger, L. David; Shaw, Steven J.; Debreczeni, Judit; Ward, Thomas A.; McWhirter, Claire; Siöberg, Catrine L. B.; Martinez Molina, Daniel; Mark Abbott, W.; Jones, Clifford D.; Nissink, J. Willem M.; Durant, Stephen T.; Grasby, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    The structure-specific nuclease human flap endonuclease-1 (hFEN1) plays a key role in DNA replication and repair and may be of interest as an oncology target. We present the first crystal structure of inhibitor-bound hFEN1 and show a cyclic N-hydroxyurea bound in the active site coordinated to two magnesium ions. Three such compounds had similar IC50 values but differed subtly in mode of action. One had comparable affinity for protein and protein–substrate complex and prevented reaction by binding to active site catalytic metal ions, blocking the unpairing of substrate DNA necessary for reaction. Other compounds were more competitive with substrate. Cellular thermal shift data showed engagement of both inhibitor types with hFEN1 in cells with activation of the DNA damage response evident upon treatment. However, cellular EC50s were significantly higher than in vitro inhibition constants and the implications of this for exploitation of hFEN1 as a drug target are discussed. PMID:27526030

  7. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Vellaichamy, Adaikkalam; Wang, Dongping; Zamdborg, Leonid; Kelleher, Neil L; Huber, Steven C; Zhao, Youfu

    2013-02-21

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella, and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we first report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterium causing serious fire blight disease of apples and pears. Immunoblots using generic anti-lysine acetylation antibodies demonstrated that growth conditions strongly affected the LysAc profiles in E. amylovora. Differential LysAc profiles were also observed for two E. amylovora strains, known to have differential virulence in plants, indicating translational modification of proteins may be important in determining virulence of bacterial strains. Proteomic analysis of LysAc in two E. amylovora strains identified 141 LysAc sites in 96 proteins that function in a wide range of biological pathways. Consistent with previous reports, 44% of the proteins are involved in metabolic processes, including central metabolism, lipopolysaccharide, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, several proteins involved in E. amylovora virulence, including exopolysaccharide amylovoran biosynthesis- and type III secretion-associated proteins, were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that LysAc may play a major role in bacterial virulence. Comparative analysis of LysAc sites in E. amylovora and E. coli further revealed the sequence and structural commonality for LysAc in the two organisms. Collectively, these results reinforce the notion that LysAc of proteins is widespread in bacterial metabolism and virulence.

  8. A lysinated thiophene-based semiconductor as a multifunctional neural bioorganic interface.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Simone; Pistone, Assunta; Brucale, Marco; Karges, Saskia; Favaretto, Laura; Zambianchi, Massimo; Posati, Tamara; Sagnella, Anna; Caprini, Marco; Toffanin, Stefano; Zamboni, Roberto; Camaioni, Nadia; Muccini, Michele; Melucci, Manuela; Benfenati, Valentina

    2015-06-03

    Lysinated molecular organic semiconductors are introduced as valuable multifunctional platforms for neural cells growth and interfacing. Cast films of quaterthiophene (T4) semiconductor covalently modified with lysine-end moieties (T4Lys) are fabricated and their stability, morphology, optical/electrical, and biocompatibility properties are characterized. T4Lys films exhibit fluorescence and electronic transport as generally observed for unsubstituted oligothiophenes combined to humidity-activated ionic conduction promoted by the charged lysine-end moieties. The Lys insertion in T4 enables adhesion of primary culture of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which is not achievable by plating cells on T4. Notably, on T4Lys, the number on adhering neurons/area is higher and displays a twofold longer neurite length than neurons plated on glass coated with poly-l-lysine. Finally, by whole-cell patch-clamp, it is shown that the biofunctionality of neurons cultured on T4Lys is preserved. The present study introduces an innovative concept for organic material neural interface that combines optical and iono-electronic functionalities with improved biocompatibility and neuron affinity promoted by Lys linkage and the softness of organic semiconductors. Lysinated organic semiconductors could set the scene for the fabrication of simplified bioorganic devices geometry for cells bidirectional communication or optoelectronic control of neural cells biofunctionality.

  9. Gastroprotective effects of L-lysine salification of ketoprofen in ethanol-injured gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Cimini, Annamaria; Brandolini, Laura; Gentile, Roberta; Cristiano, Loredana; Menghini, Paola; Fidoamore, Alessia; Antonosante, Andrea; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Giordano, Antonio; Allegretti, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    Ketoprofen L-lysine salt (KLS), a NSAID, is widely used for its analgesic efficacy and tolerability. L-lysine salification was reported to increase the solubility and the gastric absorption and tolerance of ketoprofen. Since the management of NSAIDs gastrotoxicity still represents a major limitation in prolonged therapies, mainly when gastric lesions are present, this study investigated the gastro-protective activity of L-lysine by using a well-established model of gastric mucosa injury, the ethanol-gastric injury model. Several evidences show that the damaging action of ethanol could be attributed to the increase of ROS, which plays a key role in the increase of lipid peroxidation products, including malonyldialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. With the aim to unravel the mechanism of L-lysine gastroprotection, cellular MDA levels and 4-HNE protein adducts as markers of lipid peroxidation and a panel of key endogenous gastro-protective proteins were assayed. The data obtained indicate a gastroprotective effect of L-lysine on gastric mucosa integrity.

  10. SucStruct: Prediction of succinylated lysine residues by using structural properties of amino acids.

    PubMed

    López, Yosvany; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil Pranit; Taherzadeh, Ghazaleh; Michaelson, Jacob; Sattar, Abdul; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Sharma, Alok

    2017-03-28

    Post-Translational Modification (PTM) is a biological reaction which contributes to diversify the proteome. Despite many modifications with important roles in the cellular activity, lysine succinylation has recently emerged as an important PTM mark. It alters the chemical structure of lysines, leading to remarkable changes in the structure and function of proteins. Given the huge amount of proteins being sequenced in the post-genome era, the experimental detection of succinylated residues remains expensive, inefficient and time-consuming. Therefore, the development of computational tools for accurately predicting succinylated lysines is an urgent necessity. To date, several approaches have been proposed but their sensitivity has been reportedly poor. In this paper, we propose an approach that utilizes structural features of amino acids to improve lysine succinylation prediction. Succinylated and non-succinylated lysines were first retrieved from 670 proteins and characteristics such as accessible surface area, backbone torsion angles, and local structure conformations were incorporated. We used the k-nearest neighbors cleaning for dealing with class imbalance and designed a pruned decision tree for classification. Our predictor, referred as SucStruct (Succinylation using Structural features), proved to significantly improve performance when compared to previous predictors, with sensitivity, accuracy and Mathew's correlation coefficient equal to 0.7334-0.7946, 0.7444-0.7608 and 0.4884-0.5240, respectively.

  11. Active Layer and Moisture Measurements for Intensive Site 0 and 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Peterson

    2015-04-17

    These are measurements of Active Layer Thickness collected along several lines beginning in September, 2011 to the present. The data were collected at several time periods along the Site0 L2 Line, the Site1 AB Line, and an ERT Monitoring Line near Area A in Site1.

  12. Identification of promiscuous ene-reductase activity by mining structural databases using active site constellations

    PubMed Central

    Steinkellner, Georg; Gruber, Christian C.; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Binter, Alexandra; Steiner, Kerstin; Winkler, Christoph; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Schwamberger, Orsolya; Oberer, Monika; Schwab, Helmut; Faber, Kurt; Macheroux, Peter; Gruber, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of catalytic promiscuity and the application of de novo design have recently opened the access to novel, non-natural enzymatic activities. Here we describe a structural bioinformatic method for predicting catalytic activities of enzymes based on three-dimensional constellations of functional groups in active sites (‘catalophores’). As a proof-of-concept we identify two enzymes with predicted promiscuous ene-reductase activity (reduction of activated C–C double bonds) and compare them with known ene-reductases, that is, members of the Old Yellow Enzyme family. Despite completely different amino acid sequences, overall structures and protein folds, high-resolution crystal structures reveal equivalent binding modes of typical Old Yellow Enzyme substrates and ligands. Biochemical and biocatalytic data show that the two enzymes indeed possess ene-reductase activity and reveal an inverted stereopreference compared with Old Yellow Enzymes for some substrates. This method could thus be a tool for the identification of viable starting points for the development and engineering of novel biocatalysts. PMID:24954722

  13. Are nest sites actively chosen? Testing a common assumption for three non-resource limited birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, A. E.; Elliot, S. L.; Hart, A. G.

    2009-09-01

    Many widely-accepted ecological concepts are simplified assumptions about complex situations that remain largely untested. One example is the assumption that nest-building species choose nest sites actively when they are not resource limited. This assumption has seen little direct empirical testing: most studies on nest-site selection simply assume that sites are chosen actively (and seek explanations for such behaviour) without considering that sites may be selected randomly. We used 15 years of data from a nestbox scheme in the UK to test the assumption of active nest-site choice in three cavity-nesting bird species that differ in breeding and migratory strategy: blue tit ( Cyanistes caeruleus), great tit ( Parus major) and pied flycatcher ( Ficedula hypoleuca). Nest-site selection was non-random (implying active nest-site choice) for blue and great tits, but not for pied flycatchers. We also considered the relative importance of year-specific and site-specific factors in determining occupation of nest sites. Site-specific factors were more important than year-specific factors for the tit species, while the reverse was true for pied flycatchers. Our results show that nest-site selection, in birds at least, is not always the result of active choice, such that choice should not be assumed automatically in studies of nesting behaviour. We use this example to highlight the need to test key ecological assumptions empirically, and the importance of doing so across taxa rather than for single "model" species.

  14. Acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 64 regulates nucleosome dynamics and facilitates transcription.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Mohn, Fabio; Ryan, Daniel P; Montellier, Emilie; Kacem, Salim; Tropberger, Philipp; Kallis, Eleni; Holzner, Monika; Hoerner, Leslie; Feldmann, Angelika; Richter, Florian Martin; Bannister, Andrew J; Mittler, Gerhard; Michaelis, Jens; Khochbin, Saadi; Feil, Robert; Schuebeler, Dirk; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Daujat, Sylvain; Schneider, Robert

    2014-03-25

    Post-translational modifications of proteins have emerged as a major mechanism for regulating gene expression. However, our understanding of how histone modifications directly affect chromatin function remains limited. In this study, we investigate acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 64 (H3K64ac), a previously uncharacterized acetylation on the lateral surface of the histone octamer. We show that H3K64ac regulates nucleosome stability and facilitates nucleosome eviction and hence gene expression in vivo. In line with this, we demonstrate that H3K64ac is enriched in vivo at the transcriptional start sites of active genes and it defines transcriptionally active chromatin. Moreover, we find that the p300 co-activator acetylates H3K64, and consistent with a transcriptional activation function, H3K64ac opposes its repressive counterpart H3K64me3. Our findings reveal an important role for a histone modification within the nucleosome core as a regulator of chromatin function and they demonstrate that lateral surface modifications can define functionally opposing chromatin states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01632.001.

  15. Acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 64 regulates nucleosome dynamics and facilitates transcription

    PubMed Central

    Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Mohn, Fabio; Ryan, Daniel P; Montellier, Emilie; Kacem, Salim; Tropberger, Philipp; Kallis, Eleni; Holzner, Monika; Hoerner, Leslie; Feldmann, Angelika; Richter, Florian Martin; Bannister, Andrew J; Mittler, Gerhard; Michaelis, Jens; Khochbin, Saadi; Feil, Robert; Schuebeler, Dirk; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Daujat, Sylvain; Schneider, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of proteins have emerged as a major mechanism for regulating gene expression. However, our understanding of how histone modifications directly affect chromatin function remains limited. In this study, we investigate acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 64 (H3K64ac), a previously uncharacterized acetylation on the lateral surface of the histone octamer. We show that H3K64ac regulates nucleosome stability and facilitates nucleosome eviction and hence gene expression in vivo. In line with this, we demonstrate that H3K64ac is enriched in vivo at the transcriptional start sites of active genes and it defines transcriptionally active chromatin. Moreover, we find that the p300 co-activator acetylates H3K64, and consistent with a transcriptional activation function, H3K64ac opposes its repressive counterpart H3K64me3. Our findings reveal an important role for a histone modification within the nucleosome core as a regulator of chromatin function and they demonstrate that lateral surface modifications can define functionally opposing chromatin states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01632.001 PMID:24668167

  16. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Recommendations for communication activities and public participation in the Early Site Permit Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-27

    On October 24, 1992, President Bush signed into law the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The bill is a sweeping, comprehensive overhaul of the Nation`s energy laws, the first in more than a decade. Among other provisions, the National Energy Policy Act reforms the licensing process for new nuclear power plants by adopting a new approach developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989, and upheld in court in 1992. The NRC 10 CFR Part 52 rule is a three-step process that guarantees public participation at each step. The steps are: early site permit approval; standard design certifications; and, combined construction/operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. Licensing reform increases an organization`s ability to respond to future baseload electricity generation needs with less financial risk for ratepayers and the organization. Costly delays can be avoided because design, safety and siting issues will be resolved before a company starts to build a plant. Specifically, early site permit approval allows for site suitability and acceptability issues to be addressed prior to an organization`s commitment to build a plant. Responsibility for site-specific activities, including communications and public participation, rests with those organizations selected to try out early site approval. This plan has been prepared to assist those companies (referred to as sponsoring organizations) in planning their communications and public involvement programs. It provides research findings, information and recommendations to be used by organizations as a resource and starting point in developing their own plans.

  17. Structural characterization of single nucleotide variants at ligand binding sites and enzyme active sites of human proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kazunori D.; Nishi, Hafumi; Nakata, Junichi; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    Functional sites on proteins play an important role in various molecular interactions and reactions between proteins and other molecules. Thus, mutations in functional sites can severely affect the overall phenotype. Progress of genome sequencing projects has yielded a wealth of information on single nucleotide variants (SNVs), especially those with less than 1% minor allele frequency (rare variants). To understand the functional influence of genetic variants at a protein level, we investigated the relationship between SNVs and protein functional sites in terms of minor allele frequency and the structural position of variants. As a result, we observed that SNVs were less abundant at ligand binding sites, which is consistent with a previous study on SNVs and protein interaction sites. Additionally, we found that non-rare variants tended to be located slightly apart from enzyme active sites. Examination of non-rare variants revealed that most of the mutations resulted in moderate changes of the physico-chemical properties of amino acids, suggesting the existence of functional constraints. In conclusion, this study shows that the mapping of genetic variants on protein structures could be a powerful approach to evaluate the functional impact of rare genetic variations. PMID:27924270

  18. Lamellipodial actin mechanically links myosin activity with adhesion site formation

    PubMed Central

    Giannone, Gregory; Dubin-Thaler, Benjamin; Rossier, Olivier; Cai, Yunfei; Chaga, Oleg; Jiang, Guoying; Beaver, William; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther; Freund, Yoav; Borisy, Gary; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cell motility proceeds by cycles of edge protrusion, adhesion and retraction. Whether these functions are coordinated by biochemical or biomechanical processes is unknown. We find that myosin II pulls the rear of the lamellipodial actin network, causing upward bending, edge retraction and initiation of new adhesion sites. The network then separates from the edge and condenses over the myosin. Protrusion resumes as lamellipodial actin regenerates from the front and extends rearward until it reaches newly assembled myosin, initiating the next cycle. Upward bending, observed by evanescence and electron microscopy, results in ruffle formation when adhesion strength is low. Correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy shows that the regenerating lamellipodium forms a cohesive, separable layer of actin above the lamellum. Thus, actin polymerization periodically builds a mechanical link, the lamellipodium, connecting myosin motors with the initiation of adhesion sites, suggesting that the major functions driving motility are coordinated by a biomechanical process. PMID:17289574

  19. Stereospecific suppression of active site mutants by methylphosphonate substituted substrates reveals the stereochemical course of site-specific DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Paul A; Kachroo, Aashiq H; Ma, Chien-Hui; Maciaszek, Anna D; Guga, Piotr; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-07-13

    Tyrosine site-specific recombinases, which promote one class of biologically important phosphoryl transfer reactions in DNA, exemplify active site mechanisms for stabilizing the phosphate transition state. A highly conserved arginine duo (Arg-I; Arg-II) of the recombinase active site plays a crucial role in this function. Cre and Flp recombinase mutants lacking either arginine can be rescued by compensatory charge neutralization of the scissile phosphate via methylphosphonate (MeP) modification. The chemical chirality of MeP, in conjunction with mutant recombinases, reveals the stereochemical contributions of Arg-I and Arg-II. The SP preference of the native reaction is specified primarily by Arg-I. MeP reaction supported by Arg-II is nearly bias-free or RP-biased, depending on the Arg-I substituent. Positional conservation of the arginines does not translate into strict functional conservation. Charge reversal by glutamic acid substitution at Arg-I or Arg-II has opposite effects on Cre and Flp in MeP reactions. In Flp, the base immediately 5' to the scissile MeP strongly influences the choice between the catalytic tyrosine and water as the nucleophile for strand scission, thus between productive recombination and futile hydrolysis. The recombinase active site embodies the evolutionary optimization of interactions that not only favor the normal reaction but also proscribe antithetical side reactions.

  20. Active-Site Hydration and Water Diffusion in Cytochrome P450cam: A Highly Dynamic Process

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinglong; Baudry, Jerome Y

    2011-01-01

    Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations (300 ns) are performed on both the apo- (i.e., camphor-free) and camphor-bound cytochrome P450cam (CYP101). Water diffusion into and out of the protein active site is observed without biased sampling methods. During the course of the molecular dynamics simulation, an average of 6.4 water molecules is observed in the camphor-binding site of the apo form, compared to zero water molecules in the binding site of the substrate-bound form, in agreement with the number of water molecules observed in crystal structures of the same species. However, as many as 12 water molecules can be present at a given time in the camphor-binding region of the active site in the case of apo-P450cam, revealing a highly dynamic process for hydration of the protein active site, with water molecules exchanging rapidly with the bulk solvent. Water molecules are also found to exchange locations frequently inside the active site, preferentially clustering in regions surrounding the water molecules observed in the crystal structure. Potential-of-mean-force calculations identify thermodynamically favored trans-protein pathways for the diffusion of water molecules between the protein active site and the bulk solvent. Binding of camphor in the active site modifies the free-energy landscape of P450cam channels toward favoring the diffusion of water molecules out of the protein active site.

  1. Replisome Function During Replicative Stress Is Modulated by Histone H3 Lysine 56 Acetylation Through Ctf4

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Pierre; Dehé, Pierre-Marie; Audebert, Stéphane; Géli, Vincent; Corda, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the maintenance of genome stability under normal conditions and upon DNA replication stress. Here we show that in the absence of H3 lysine 56 acetylation replisome components become deleterious when replication forks collapse at natural replication block sites. This lethality is not a direct consequence of chromatin assembly defects during replication fork progression. Rather, our genetic analyses suggest that in the presence of replicative stress H3 lysine 56 acetylation uncouples the Cdc45–Mcm2-7–GINS DNA helicase complex and DNA polymerases through the replisome component Ctf4. In addition, we discovered that the N-terminal domain of Ctf4, necessary for the interaction of Ctf4 with Mms22, an adaptor protein of the Rtt101-Mms1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, is required for the function of the H3 lysine 56 acetylation pathway, suggesting that replicative stress promotes the interaction between Ctf4 and Mms22. Taken together, our results indicate that Ctf4 is an essential member of the H3 lysine 56 acetylation pathway and provide novel mechanistic insights into understanding the role of H3 lysine 56 acetylation in maintaining genome stability upon replication stress. PMID:25697176

  2. Identification of 'erasers' for lysine crotonylated histone marks using a chemical proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiucong; Wang, Yi; Li, Xin; Li, Xiao-Meng; Liu, Zheng; Yang, Tangpo; Wong, Chi Fat; Zhang, Jiangwen; Hao, Quan; Li, Xiang David

    2014-11-04

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play a crucial role in a wide range of biological processes. Lysine crotonylation (Kcr) is a newly discovered histone PTM that is enriched at active gene promoters and potential enhancers in mammalian cell genomes. However, the cellular enzymes that regulate the addition and removal of Kcr are unknown, which has hindered further investigation of its cellular functions. Here we used a chemical proteomics approach to comprehensively profile 'eraser' enzymes that recognize a lysine-4 crotonylated histone H3 (H3K4Cr) mark. We found that Sirt1, Sirt2, and Sirt3 can catalyze the hydrolysis of lysine crotonylated histone peptides and proteins. More importantly, Sirt3 functions as a decrotonylase to regulate histone Kcr dynamics and gene transcription in living cells. This discovery not only opens opportunities for examining the physiological significance of histone Kcr, but also helps to unravel the unknown cellular mechanisms controlled by Sirt3, that have previously been considered solely as a deacetylase.

  3. A Liquid-Based Colorimetric Assay of Lysine Decarboxylase and Its Application to Enzymatic Assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hyun; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Kim, Hyun Joong; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Seo, Hyung-Min; Kim, Jung-Ho; Song, Hun-Seok; Kim, Yun-Gon; Park, Kyungmoon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2015-12-28

    A liquid-based colorimetric assay using a pH indicator was introduced for high-throughput monitoring of lysine decarboxylase activity. The assay is based on the color change of bromocresol purple, measured at 595 nm in liquid reaction mixture, due to an increase of pH by the production of cadaverine. Bromocresol purple was selected as the indicator because it has higher sensitivity than bromothymol blue and pheonol red within a broad range and shows good linearity within the applied pH. We applied this for simple determination of lysine decarboxylase reusability using 96-well plates, and optimization of conditions for enzyme overexpression with different concentrations of IPTG on lysine decarboxylase. This assay is expected to be applied for monitoring and quantifying the liquid-based enzyme reaction in biotransformation of decarboxylase in a high-throughput way.

  4. Sirt5 Is an NAD-Dependent Protein Lysine Demalonylase and Desuccinylase*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jintang; Zhou, Yeyun; Su, Xiaoyang; Yu, Jiu Jiu; Khan, Saba; Jiang, Hong; Kim, Jungwoo; Woo, Jimin; Kim, Jun Huyn; Choi, Brian Hyun; He, Bin; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Sheng; Cerione, Richard A.; Auwerx, Johan; Hao, Quan; Lin, Hening

    2011-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD-dependent deacetylases that regulate important biological processes. Mammals have seven sirtuins, Sirt1-7. Four of them (Sirt4-7) have no detectable or very weak deacetylase activity. Here we found that Sirt5 is an efficient protein lysine desuccinylase and demalonylase in vitro. The preference for succinyl and malonyl groups was explained by the presence of an arginine residue (Arg105) and tyrosine residue (Tyr102) in the acyl pocket of Sirt5. Several mammalian proteins were identified to have succinyl or malonyl lysine modifications by mass spectrometry. Deletion of Sirt5 in mice appeared to increases the level of succinylation on carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1, a known target of Sirt5. Thus protein lysine succinylation may represent a posttranslational modification that can be reversed by Sirt5 in vivo. PMID:22076378

  5. [Efficacy and tolerability 80 mg granulated ketoprofen lysine salt in posttraumatic orodental pain: double blind vs placebo study].

    PubMed

    Balzanelli, B; de Lorenzi, C

    1996-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind parallel group, placebo-controlled study was carried out in order to evaluate the analgesic and antiin-flammatory activity of ketoprofen lysine salt as granular formulation. Sixty patients undergoing extraction of an impacted third molar were treated orally with 80 mg ketoprofen lysine salt sachet or placebo t.i.d. for 3 days. The inflammation related local signs (pain, flare, local heat and wheal) were evaluated by scores at 1th and 3th day of observation; to study the time-course of analgesic activity, pain intensity was evalauted by Visual Analogic-Scale (VAS) by Scott-Huskisson before and 0.30 minutes, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 hours after the first administration. Ketoprofen lysine salt was significantly superior to placebo in reducing all inflmamtory signs and symptoms starting from the first day of treatment; the analgesic effect was evident already 30 minutes after administration. Investigator's and patient's global evaluations of efficacy resulted favourable for ketoprofen lysine salt in 96.6% and for placebo in 26.7%. The three adverse events reported were limited to gastric pyrosis (ketoprofen lysine salt, two patients; placebo one patient) and posed no problem to patient management. These data demonstrate the pronouced and rapid analgesic and antinflammatory activity of 80 mg ketoprofen lysine salt granular formulation in post-operative pain and inflammation associated with dental surgery.

  6. Computational prediction of methylation types of covalently modified lysine and arginine residues in proteins.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wankun; Wang, Yongbo; Ma, Lili; Zhang, Ying; Ullah, Shahid; Xue, Yu

    2016-05-30

    Protein methylation is an essential posttranslational modification (PTM) mostly occurs at lysine and arginine residues, and regulates a variety of cellular processes. Owing to the rapid progresses in the large-scale identification of methylation sites, the available data set was dramatically expanded, and more attention has been paid on the identification of specific methylation types of modification residues. Here, we briefly summarized the current progresses in computational prediction of methylation sites, which provided an accurate, rapid and efficient approach in contrast with labor-intensive experiments. We collected 5421 methyllysines and methylarginines in 2592 proteins from the literature, and classified most of the sites into different types. Data analyses demonstrated that different types of methylated proteins were preferentially involved in different biological processes and pathways, whereas a unique sequence preference was observed for each type of methylation sites. Thus, we developed a predictor of GPS-MSP, which can predict mono-, di- and tri-methylation types for specific lysines, and mono-, symmetric di- and asymmetrical di-methylation types for specific arginines. We critically evaluated the performance of GPS-MSP, and compared it with other existing tools. The satisfying results exhibited that the classification of methylation sites into different types for training can considerably improve the prediction accuracy. Taken together, we anticipate that our study provides a new lead for future computational analysis of protein methylation, and the prediction of methylation types of covalently modified lysine and arginine residues can generate more useful information for further experimental manipulation.

  7. Optimization of Direct Lysine Decarboxylase Biotransformation for Cadaverine Production with Whole-Cell Biocatalysts at High Lysine Concentration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Joong; Kim, Yong Hyun; Shin, Ji-Hyun; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Seo, Hyung-Min; Choi, Kwon Young; Yang, Yung-Hun; Park, Kyungmoon

    2015-07-01

    Cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) is an important industrial chemical with a wide range of applications. Although there have been many efforts to produce cadaverine through fermentation, there are not many reports of the direct cadaverine production from lysine using biotransformation. Whole-cell reactions were examined using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain overexpressing the E. coli MG1655 cadA gene, and various parameters were investigated for the whole-cell bioconversion of lysine to cadaverine. A high concentration of lysine resulted in the synthesis of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and it was found to be a critical control factor for the biotransformation of lysine to cadaverine. When 0.025 mM PLP and 1.75 M lysine in 500 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH6) were used, consumption of 91% lysine and conversion of about 80% lysine to cadaverine were successfully achieved.

  8. Silver-Coated Nylon Dressing Plus Active DC Microcurrent for Healing of Autogenous Skin Donor Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Silver-Coated Nylon Dressing Plus Active DC Microcurrent for Healing of Autogenous Skin Donor Sites Edward W. Malin, MD, Chaya M. Galin, BSN, RN... microcurrent in comparison to silver-coated dressing with sham microcurrent on wound-closure time for autogenous skin donor sites. Methods: Four...hundred five patients were screened for treatment of their donor sites using a silver-coated nylon dressing with either sham or active microcurrent

  9. Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Feldspar Dust Particles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mineral dusts originating from Earth’s crust are known to be important atmospheric ice nuclei. In agreement with earlier studies, feldspar was found as the most active of the tested natural mineral dusts. Here we investigated in closer detail the reasons for its activity and the difference in the activity of the different feldspars. Conclusions are drawn from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and oil-immersion freezing experiments. K-feldspar showed by far the highest ice nucleation activity. Finally, we give a potential explanation of this effect, finding alkali-metal ions having different hydration shells and thus an influence on the ice nucleation activity of feldspar surfaces. PMID:25584435

  10. 76 FR 30696 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of the Energy... requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs of...

  11. 76 FR 24871 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... from eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of...). Title X requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs...

  12. Motility-indole-lysine-sulfide medium.

    PubMed

    Ederer, G M; Lund, M E; Blazevic, D J; Reller, L B; Mirrett, S

    1975-09-01

    A medium designed for the detection of motility, indole, lysine decarboxylase and deaminase reactions, and H2S production was devised and evaluated. Results, using 157 strains of enteric pathogens, were in agreement with reference methods. When 300 isolates from fecal cultures were screened using this medium, Shigella was easily differentiated from Escherichia and more of the Proteus species, especially P. morganii, could be eliminated from further study.

  13. A model of the rabies virus glycoprotein active site.

    PubMed

    Rustici, M; Bracci, L; Lozzi, L; Neri, P; Santucci, A; Soldani, P; Spreafico, A; Niccolai, N

    1993-06-01

    The glycoprotein from the neurotropic rabies virus shows a significant homology with the alpha neurotoxin that binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The crystal structure of the alpha neurotoxins suggests that the Arg 37 guanidinium group and the Asp 31 side-chain carboxylate of the erabutoxin have stereochemical features resembling those of acetylcholine. Conformational studies on the Asn194-Ser195-Arg196-Gly197 tetrapeptide, an essential part of the binding site of the rabies virus glycoprotein, indicate that the side chains of Asn and Arg could also mimic the acetylcholine structure. This observation is consistent with the recently proposed mechanism of the viral infection.

  14. Efficiency of lysine or threonine retention in growing rats fed diets limiting in either lysine or threonine.

    PubMed

    Gahl, M J; Finke, M D; Crenshaw, T D; Benevenga, N J

    1996-12-01

    Over a 21-d experiment, the efficiency of lysine and threonine retention was determined in 80 male Sprague-Dawley rats (65.9 +/- 0.3 g, means +/- SE) fed purified diets containing an amino acid mix limiting in either lysine or threonine. With additional increments of the first limiting amino acid, lysine concentration in total body protein (g/16 g N) increased (P < 0.01) in rats fed lysine-limiting diets but, when fed threonine-limiting diets, lysine concentration in body protein first increased and then decreased (P < 0.01). As increments of the first limiting amino acid were added, the threonine concentration in total body protein increased then decreased when both lysine- (P < 0.01) and threonine- (P < 0.06) limiting diets were fed. Lysine and threonine retention were calculated based on comparative slaughter. Sixteen rats were killed on d 0 to estimate the grams of amino acid in the body. Retention responses were analyzed using a logistic equation in which lysine or threonine intake was used to predict retention. The maximum marginal efficiency (dr/dI, retention/intake) was observed at <40% of maximum retention. For lysine retention, it was 81% when lysine was limiting and 70% when threonine was limiting. For threonine retention, it was 58% when threonine was limiting and 49% when lysine was limiting. The maximum cumulative efficiency (retention adjusted for maintenance relative to cumulative intake) for lysine retention was 62% when lysine was limiting or 58% when threonine was limiting. For threonine retention, it was 51% when threonine was limiting and 35% when lysine was limiting. Thus, amino acid concentration in body protein is not constant, and amino acids are used with higher efficiency when first limiting.

  15. Active Site Hydrophobicity and the Convergent Evolution of Paraoxonase Activity in Structurally Divergent Enzymes: The Case of Serum Paraoxonase 1

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a native lactonase capable of promiscuously hydrolyzing a broad range of substrates, including organophosphates, esters, and carbonates. Structurally, PON1 is a six-bladed β-propeller with a flexible loop (residues 70–81) covering the active site. This loop contains a functionally critical Tyr at position 71. We have performed detailed experimental and computational analyses of the role of selected Y71 variants in the active site stability and catalytic activity in order to probe the role of Y71 in PON1’s lactonase and organophosphatase activities. We demonstrate that the impact of Y71 substitutions on PON1’s lactonase activity is minimal, whereas the kcat for the paraoxonase activity is negatively perturbed by up to 100-fold, suggesting greater mutational robustness of the native activity. Additionally, while these substitutions modulate PON1’s active site shape, volume, and loop flexibility, their largest effect is in altering the solvent accessibility of the active site by expanding the active site volume, allowing additional water molecules to enter. This effect is markedly more pronounced in the organophosphatase activity than the lactonase activity. Finally, a detailed comparison of PON1 to other organophosphatases demonstrates that either a similar “gating loop” or a highly buried solvent-excluding active site is a common feature of these enzymes. We therefore posit that modulating the active site hydrophobicity is a key element in facilitating the evolution of organophosphatase activity. This provides a concrete feature that can be utilized in the rational design of next-generation organophosphate hydrolases that are capable of selecting a specific reaction from a pool of viable substrates. PMID:28026940

  16. Proteome-wide analysis of nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations in active sites of human proteins.

    PubMed

    Dingerdissen, Hayley; Motwani, Mona; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2013-03-01

    An enzyme's active site is essential to normal protein activity such that any disruptions at this site may lead to dysfunction and disease. Nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations (nsSNVs), which alter the amino acid sequence, are one type of disruption that can alter the active site. When this occurs, it is assumed that enzyme activity will vary because of the criticality of the site to normal protein function. We integrate nsSNV data and active site annotations from curated resources to identify all active-site-impacting nsSNVs in the human genome and search for all pathways observed to be associated with this data set to assess the likely consequences. We find that there are 934 unique nsSNVs that occur at the active sites of 559 proteins. Analysis of the nsSNV data shows an over-representation of arginine and an under-representation of cysteine, phenylalanine and tyrosine when comparing the list of nsSNV-impacted active site residues with the list of all possible proteomic active site residues, implying a potential bias for or against variation of these residues at the active site. Clustering analysis shows an abundance of hydrolases and transferases. Pathway and functional analysis shows several pathways over- or under-represented in the data set, with the most significantly affected pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism. We provide a table of 32 variation-substrate/product pairs that can be used in targeted metabolomics experiments to assay the effects of specific variations. In addition, we report the significant prevalence of aspartic acid to histidine variation in eight proteins associated with nine diseases including glycogen storage diseases, lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome, Parkinson's disease and several cancers.

  17. Covalent modification of a highly reactive and essential lysine residue of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activase.

    PubMed

    Salvucci, M E

    1993-10-01

    Chemical modification of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase with water-soluble N-hydroxysuccinimide esters was used to identify a reactive lysyl residue that is essential for activity. Incubation of Rubisco activase with sulfosuccinimidyl-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetate (AMCA-sulfo-NHS) or sulfosuccinimidyl-acetate (sulfo-NHS-acetate) caused progressive inactivation of ATPase activity and concomitant loss of the ability to activate Rubisco. AMCA-sulfo-NHS was the more potent inactivator of Rubisco activase, exhibiting a second-order rate constant for inactivation of 239 M-1 s-1 compared to 21 M-1 s-1 for sulfo-NHS-acetate. Inactivation of enzyme activity by AMCA-sulfo-NHS correlated with the incorporation of 1.9 mol of AMCA per mol of 42-kD Rubisco activase monomer. ADP, a competitive inhibitor of Rubisco activase, afforded considerable protection against inactivation of Rubisco activase and decreased the amount of AMCA incorporated into the Rubisco activase monomer. Sequence analysis of the major labeled peptide from AMCA-sulfo-NHS-modified enzyme showed that the primary site of modification was lysine-247 (K247) in the tetrapeptide methionine-glutamic acid-lysine-phenylalanine. Upon complete inactivation of ATPase activity, modification of K247 accounted for 1 mol of AMCA incorporated per mol of Rubisco activase monomer. Photoaffinity labeling of AMCA-sulfo-NHS- and sulfo-NHS-acetate-modified Rubisco activase with ATP analogs derivatized on either the adenine base or on the gamma-phosphate showed that K247 is not essential for the binding of adenine nucleotides per se. Instead, the data indicated that the essentiality of K247 is probably due to an involvement of this highly reactive, species-invariant residue in an obligatory interaction that occurs between the protein and the nucleotide phosphate during catalysis.

  18. Enhancing L-Lysine Production of Beet Molasses by Engineered Escherichia coli Using an In Situ Pretreatment Method.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Qi, Yanbin; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the viscosity of molasses environmentally and selectively removing the harmful ingredients for microbes are the keys to promoting the bioavailability of molasses. A simple and environmental in situ pretreatment method integrating surfactants and alkali was developed to reduce the viscosity of molasses prior to L-lysine production using Escherichia coli ZY0217. Adding activated carbon and modified orange peel based on the in situ pretreatment process effectively removed pigments and excessive zinc in the molasses and also significantly increased the cell growth and L-lysine yield from E. coli ZY0217. The experimental results showed that a mixture of secondary alkane sulfonate, an anionic surfactant, and HodagCB-6, a non-ionic surfactant, effectively reduced the viscosity of the molasses more so than any single surfactant. When the surfactant mixture was added at a concentration of 0.04 g/L to the molasses, the ω value was 0.4, and when ammonia was added at 0.6 %, the lowest viscosity of 705 mPa · s was obtained. Further, 91.5 % of the color and 86.68 % of the original levels of zinc were removed using an activated carbon and modified orange peel treatment on the molasses with the lowest viscosity, which further promoted cell growth and L-lysine production. In the fed-batch cultivation process, the L-lysine concentration achieved using a constant-speed feeding strategy was 45.89 g/L, with an L-lysine yield of 27.18 %, whereas the L-lysine yield from untreated molasses was only 10.13 %. The increase in L-lysine yield was related to the reduced viscosity and the detoxification of the molasses. Lastly, the pretreatment was found to significantly enhance the conversion of sugars in the molasses to L-lysine.

  19. Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    1996-07-01

    This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 60}C, and {sup 65}Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated.

  20. All the catalytic active sites of MoS2 for hydrogen evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Du; Qiao, Qiao; ...

    2016-11-29

    MoS2 presents a promising low-cost catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), but the understanding about its active sites has remained limited. Here we present an unambiguous study of the catalytic activities of all possible reaction sites of MoS2, including edge sites, sulfur vacancies, and grain boundaries. We demonstrate that, in addition to the well-known catalytically active edge sites, sulfur vacancies provide another major active site for the HER, while the catalytic activity of grain boundaries is much weaker. Here, the intrinsic turnover frequencies (Tafel slopes) of the edge sites, sulfur vacancies, and grain boundaries are estimated to be 7.5more » s–1 (65–75 mV/dec), 3.2 s–1 (65–85 mV/dec), and 0.1 s–1 (120–160 mV/dec), respectively. We also demonstrate that the catalytic activity of sulfur vacancies strongly depends on the density of the vacancies and the local crystalline structure in proximity to the vacancies. Unlike edge sites, whose catalytic activity linearly depends on the length, sulfur vacancies show optimal catalytic activities when the vacancy density is in the range of 7–10%, and the number of sulfur vacancies in high crystalline quality MoS2 is higher than that in low crystalline quality MoS2, which may be related with the proximity of different local crystalline structures to the vacancies.« less

  1. Quantifying the density and utilization of active sites in non-precious metal oxygen electroreduction catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Sahraie, Nastaran Ranjbar; Kramm, Ulrike I.; Steinberg, Julian; Zhang, Yuanjian; Thomas, Arne; Reier, Tobias; Paraknowitsch, Jens-Peter; Strasser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Carbon materials doped with transition metal and nitrogen are highly active, non-precious metal catalysts for the electrochemical conversion of molecular oxygen in fuel cells, metal air batteries, and electrolytic processes. However, accurate measurement of their intrinsic turn-over frequency and active-site density based on metal centres in bulk and surface has remained difficult to date, which has hampered a more rational catalyst design. Here we report a successful quantification of bulk and surface-based active-site density and associated turn-over frequency values of mono- and bimetallic Fe/N-doped carbons using a combination of chemisorption, desorption and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. Our general approach yields an experimental descriptor for the intrinsic activity and the active-site utilization, aiding in the catalyst development process and enabling a previously unachieved level of understanding of reactivity trends owing to a deconvolution of site density and intrinsic activity. PMID:26486465

  2. Marine Biology Field Trip Sites. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  3. Arginine and lysine decarboxylases and the acid tolerance response of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium CECT 443 inactivation at pH 2.5 in Mineral Medium (MM) and MM supplemented with 0.01% (w/v) arginine, lysine or glutamic acid was studied using stationary-phase cells grown in buffered BHI pH 7.0 (non-acid adapted cells) and acidified BHI up to pH 4.5 with acetic, citric, lactic and hydrochloric acids (acid adapted cells). In all cases, acid adapted cells, with D-values ranging from 23.34 to 86.90 min, showed a significantly higher acid resistance than non-acid adapted cells, with D-values between 8.90 and 10.29 min. Whereas the conditions used for acid adaptation did not exert a significant effect on the acid resistance of the S. Typhimurium CECT 443 resulting cells, the inclusion of lysine and arginine in the challenge medium protected them against acid inactivation, reaching D-values of about 2 and 3 times higher, respectively, than those found in MM or MM supplemented with glutamic acid. None of these three amino acids significantly modified the acid resistance of non-acid adapted cells. The relative expression level of adiA (encoding the arginine decarboxylase), adiY (encoding the transcriptional activator of adiA), cadA (encoding the lysine decarboxylase) and cadB (encoding the lysine/cadaverine transport protein) was examined by quantitative PCR. Acid adapted cells showed higher relative expression levels for both systems, arginine decarboxylase and lysine decarboxylase, which demonstrates that the induction of specialized pH-homeostatic systems plays an important role in S. Typhimurium CECT 443 protection against acid stress. However, the increased acid resistance showed by acid adapted cells challenged in MM arginine or lysine free suggests the existence of other microbial survival strategies.

  4. An active site mutation increases the polymerase activity of the guinea pig-lethal Marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Alexander; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Becker, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) causes severe, often fatal, disease in humans and transient illness in rodents. Sequential passaging of MARV in guinea pigs resulted in selection of a lethal virus containing 4 aa changes. A D184N mutation in VP40 (VP40D184N), which leads to a species-specific gain of viral fitness, and three mutations in the active site of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L, which were investigated in the present study for functional significance in human and guinea pig cells. The transcription/replication activity of L mutants was strongly enhanced by a substitution at position 741 (S741C), and inhibited by other substitutions (D758A and A759D) in both species. The polymerase activity of L carrying the S741C substitution was eightfold higher in guinea pig cells than in human cells upon co-expression with VP40D184N, suggesting that the additive effect of the two mutations provides MARV a replicative advantage in the new host.

  5. Proteome-wide Lysine Glutarylation Profiling of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Xie, Longxiang; Wang, Guirong; Yu, Zhaoxiao; Zhou, Mingliang; Li, Qiming; Huang, Hairong; Xie, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Lysine glutarylation, a new protein posttranslational modification (PTM), was recently identified and characterized in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To explore the distribution of lysine glutarylation in Mycobacterium tuberculsosis, by using a comprehensive method combining the immune affinity peptide enrichment by the glutaryl-lysine antibody with LC-MS, we finally identified 41 glutarylation sites in 24 glutarylated proteins from M. tuberculosis. These glutarylated proteins are involved in various cellular functions such as translation and metabolism and exhibit diverse subcellular localizations. Three common glutarylated proteins including 50S ribosomal protein L7/L12, elongation factor Tu, and dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase are shared between Escherichia coli and M. tuberculosis. Moreover, comparison with other PTMs characterized in M. tuberculosis, 15 glutarylated proteins, are found to be both acetylated and succinylated. Notably, several stress-response-associated proteins including HspX are glutarylated. Our data provide the first analysis of M. tuberculosis lysine glutarylated proteins. Further studies on the role of the glutarylated proteins will unveil the molecular mechanisms of glutarylation underlying M. tuberculosis physiology and pathogenesis.

  6. ERAD of proteins containing aberrant transmembrane domains requires ubiquitylation of cytoplasmic lysine residues

    PubMed Central

    Briant, Kit; Koay, Yee-Hui; Otsuka, Yuka; Swanton, Eileithyia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clearance of misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The mechanisms through which proteins containing aberrant transmembrane domains are degraded by ERAD are poorly understood. To address this question, we generated model ERAD substrates based on CD8 with either a non-native transmembrane domain but a folded ER luminal domain (CD8TMD*), or the native transmembrane domain but a misfolded luminal domain (CD8LUM*). Although both chimeras were degraded by ERAD, we found that the location of the folding defect determined the initial site of ubiquitylation. Ubiquitylation of cytoplasmic lysine residues was required for the extraction of CD8TMD* from the ER membrane during ERAD, whereas CD8LUM* continued to be degraded in the absence of cytoplasmic lysine residues. Cytoplasmic lysine residues were also required for degradation of an additional ERAD substrate containing an unassembled transmembrane domain and when a non-native transmembrane domain was introduced into CD8LUM*. Our results suggest that proteins with defective transmembrane domains are removed from the ER through a specific ERAD mechanism that depends upon ubiquitylation of cytoplasmic lysine residues. PMID:26446255

  7. Encroachment of Human Activity on Sea Turtle Nesting Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziskin, D.; Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C.; Tuttle, B.; Baugh, K.; Ghosh, T.

    2008-12-01

    The encroachment of anthropogenic lighting on sea turtle nesting sites poses a serious threat to the survival of these animals [Nicholas, 2001]. This danger is quantified by combining two established data sets. The first is the Nighttime Lights data produced by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center [Elvidge et al., 1997]. The second is the Marine Turtle Database produced by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). The technique used to quantify the threat of encroachment is an adaptation of the method described in Aubrecht et al. [2008], which analyzes the stress on coral reef systems by proximity to nighttime lights near the shore. Nighttime lights near beaches have both a direct impact on turtle reproductive success since they disorient hatchlings when they mistake land-based lights for the sky-lit surf [Lorne and Salmon, 2007] and the lights are also a proxy for other anthropogenic threats. The identification of turtle nesting sites with high rates of encroachment will hopefully steer conservation efforts to mitigate their effects [Witherington, 1999]. Aubrecht, C, CD Elvidge, T Longcore, C Rich, J Safran, A Strong, M Eakin, KE Baugh, BT Tuttle, AT Howard, EH Erwin, 2008, A global inventory of coral reef stressors based on satellite observed nighttime lights, Geocarto International, London, England: Taylor and Francis. In press. Elvidge, CD, KE Baugh, EA Kihn, HW Kroehl, ER Davis, 1997, Mapping City Lights with Nighttime Data from the DMSP Operational Linescan System, Photogrammatic Engineering and Remote Sensing, 63:6, pp. 727-734. Lorne, JK, M Salmon, 2007, Effects of exposure to artificial lighting on orientation of hatchling sea turtles on the beach and in the ocean, Endangered Species Research, Vol. 3: 23-30. Nicholas, M, 2001, Light Pollution and Marine Turtle Hatchlings: The Straw that Breaks the Camel's Back?, George Wright Forum, 18:4, p77-82. Witherington, BE, 1999, Reducing Threats To Nesting Habitat, Research and Management Techniques for

  8. Arginine demethylation is catalysed by a subset of JmjC histone lysine demethylases

    PubMed Central

    Walport, Louise J.; Hopkinson, Richard J.; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Schiller, Rachel; Ge, Wei; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    While the oxygen-dependent reversal of lysine Nɛ-methylation is well established, the existence of bona fide Nω-methylarginine demethylases (RDMs) is controversial. Lysine demethylation, as catalysed by two families of lysine demethylases (the flavin-dependent KDM1 enzymes and the 2-oxoglutarate- and oxygen-dependent JmjC KDMs, respectively), proceeds via oxidation of the N-methyl group, resulting in the release of formaldehyde. Here we report detailed biochemical studies clearly demonstrating that, in purified form, a subset of JmjC KDMs can also act as RDMs, both on histone and non-histone fragments, resulting in formaldehyde release. RDM catalysis is studied using peptides of wild-type sequences known to be arginine-methylated and sequences in which the KDM's methylated target lysine is substituted for a methylated arginine. Notably, the preferred sequence requirements for KDM and RDM activity vary even with the same JmjC enzymes. The demonstration of RDM activity by isolated JmjC enzymes will stimulate efforts to detect biologically relevant RDM activity. PMID:27337104

  9. Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei; Enemark, John; Kappler, Ulrike

    2008-11-10

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 2-3 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (~;;60 and 200 s-1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH.

  10. Identification of inhibitors against the potential ligandable sites in the active cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Aditi; Datta, Abhijit

    2015-04-01

    The active cholera toxin responsible for the massive loss of water and ions in cholera patients via its ADP ribosylation activity is a heterodimer of the A1 subunit of the bacterial holotoxin and the human cytosolic ARF6 (ADP Ribosylation Factor 6). The active toxin is a potential target for the design of inhibitors against cholera. In this study we identified the potential ligandable sites of the active cholera toxin which can serve as binding sites for drug-like molecules. By employing an energy-based approach to identify ligand binding sites, and comparison with the results of computational solvent mapping, we identified two potential ligandable sites in the active toxin which can be targeted during structure-based drug design against cholera. Based on the probe affinities of the identified ligandable regions, docking-based virtual screening was employed to identify probable inhibitors against these sites. Several indole-based alkaloids and phosphates showed strong interactions to the important residues of the ligandable region at the A1 active site. On the other hand, 26 top scoring hits were identified against the ligandable region at the A1 ARF6 interface which showed strong hydrogen bonding interactions, including guanidines, phosphates, Leucopterin and Aristolochic acid VIa. This study has important implications in the application of hybrid structure-based and ligand-based methods against the identified ligandable sites using the identified inhibitors as reference ligands, for drug design against the active cholera toxin.

  11. Barium ions selectively activate BK channels via the Ca2+-bowl site.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Zeng, Xu-Hui; Lingle, Christopher J

    2012-07-10

    Activation of Ca(2+)-dependent BK channels is increased via binding of micromolar Ca(2+) to two distinct high-affinity sites per BK α-subunit. One site, termed the Ca(2+) bowl, is embedded within the second RCK domain (RCK2; regulator of conductance for potassium) of each α-subunit, while oxygen-containing residues in the first RCK domain (RCK1) have been linked to a separate Ca(2+) ligation site. Although both sites are activated by Ca(2+) and Sr(2+), Cd(2+) selectively favors activation via the RCK1 site. Divalent cations of larger ionic radius than Sr(2+) are thought to be ineffective at activating BK channels. Here we show that Ba(2+), better known as a blocker of K(+) channels, activates BK channels and that this effect arises exclusively from binding at the Ca(2+)-bowl site. Compared with previous estimates for Ca(2+) bowl-mediated activation by Ca(2+), the affinity of Ba(2+) to the Ca(2+) bowl is reduced about fivefold, and coupling of binding to activation is reduced from ∼3.6 for Ca(2+) to about ∼2.8 for Ba(2+). These results support the idea that ionic radius is an important determinant of selectivity differences among different divalent cations observed for each Ca(2+)-binding site.

  12. Activation of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial GDP binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Swick, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The primary function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. This ability is attributed to the existence of a unique inner mitochondrial membrane protein termed the uncoupling protein or thermogenin. This protein is permeable to H+ and thus allows respiration (and therefore thermogenesis) to proceed at a rapid rate, independent of ADP phosphorylation. Proton conductance can be inhibited by the binding of purine nucleotides to the uncoupling protein. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-GDP to BAT mitochondria is frequently used as a measure of BAT thermogenic activity. Rats fed a diet that was low but adequate in protein exhibited a decrease in feed efficiency. In addition, BAT thermogenesis was activated as indicated by an elevation in the level of GDP binding to BAT mitochondria. This phenomena occurred in older rats and persisted over time.

  13. Structure and Reactivity of the Phosphotriesterase Active Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    characterize different catalytic conformations for chorismate mutase . Preliminary evidence for water binding in phosphotriesterase suggests that activity in...MD/QM study of the chorismate mutase catalyzed Claisen rearrangement reaction. 2001.subm. J.Phys.Chem.B 22.Day, P.N.J., J.H.; Gordon,M.S.; Webb,S.P...Claisen rearrangement of an unusual substrate in chorismate mutase . 2001.subm. J.Phys.Chem.B 38.Stevens, W.J., Basch,H., Krauss,M., Compact effective

  14. Quantitative global proteome and lysine succinylome analyses provide insights into metabolic regulation and lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongxi; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Zhongyi; Gao, Peng; Sun, Jingxu; Chen, Xiaowan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Yunlong; Wang, Zhenning

    2017-02-06

    With the rapid development of high-throughput quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic approaches, the molecular mechanisms of cancers have been comprehensively explored. However, cancer is a multi-dimensional disease with sophisticated regulations, and few studies focus on the crosstalk among multiomics. In order to explore the molecular mechanisms of gastric cancer (GC), particularly in the process of lymph node metastasis (LNM), we investigated dynamic profiling changes as well as crosstalk between long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), the proteome, and the lysine succinylome. Our study reports the first qualitative and quantitative profile of lysine succinylation in GC. We identified a novel mechanism through which the TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathway might be regulated through lysine succinylation in their core enzymes. We then examined the potential of using lysine succinylation as a biomarker for GC and successfully developed a succinylation-dependent antibody for the K569 site in Caldesmon as putative biomarker. Finally, we investigated the relationship between the lysine succinylome and lncRNAs, identifying potential crosstalks between two lncRNAs and one succinylation site. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and provide new information for the diagnosis and prognosis of GC.

  15. Quantitative global proteome and lysine succinylome analyses provide insights into metabolic regulation and lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yongxi; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Zhongyi; Gao, Peng; Sun, Jingxu; Chen, Xiaowan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Yunlong; Wang, Zhenning

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of high-throughput quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic approaches, the molecular mechanisms of cancers have been comprehensively explored. However, cancer is a multi-dimensional disease with sophisticated regulations, and few studies focus on the crosstalk among multiomics. In order to explore the molecular mechanisms of gastric cancer (GC), particularly in the process of lymph node metastasis (LNM), we investigated dynamic profiling changes as well as crosstalk between long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), the proteome, and the lysine succinylome. Our study reports the first qualitative and quantitative profile of lysine succinylation in GC. We identified a novel mechanism through which the TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathway might be regulated through lysine succinylation in their core enzymes. We then examined the potential of using lysine succinylation as a biomarker for GC and successfully developed a succinylation-dependent antibody for the K569 site in Caldesmon as putative biomarker. Finally, we investigated the relationship between the lysine succinylome and lncRNAs, identifying potential crosstalks between two lncRNAs and one succinylation site. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and provide new information for the diagnosis and prognosis of GC. PMID:28165029

  16. Structure of the conserved core of the yeast Dot1p, a nucleosomal histone H3 lysine 79 methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada,K.; Yang, Z.; Horton, J.; Collins, R.; Zhang, X.; Cheng, X.

    2004-01-01

    Methylation of Lys{sup 79} on histone H3 by Dot1p is important for gene silencing. The elongated structure of the conserved core of yeast Dot1p contains an N-terminal helical domain and a seven-stranded catalytic domain that harbors the binding site for the methyl-donor and an active site pocket sided with conserved hydrophobic residues. The S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine exhibits an extended conformation distinct from the folded conformation observed in structures of SET domain histone lysine methyltransferases. A catalytic asparagine (Asn{sup 479}), located at the bottom of the active site pocket, suggests a mechanism similar to that employed for amino methylation in DNA and protein glutamine methylation. The acidic, concave cleft between the two domains contains two basic residue binding pockets that could accommodate the outwardly protruding basic side chains around Lys{sup 79} of histone H3 on the disk-like nucleosome surface. Biochemical studies suggest that recombinant Dot1 proteins are active on recombinant nucleosomes, free of any modifications.

  17. Structural basis for redox sensitivity in Corynebacterium glutamicum diaminopimelate epimerase: an enzyme involved in l-lysine biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sagong, Hye-Young; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Diaminopimelate epimerase (DapF) is one of the crucial enzymes involved in l-lysine biosynthesis, where it converts l,l-diaminopimelate (l,l-DAP) into d,l-DAP. DapF is also considered as an attractive target for the development of antibacterial drugs. Here, we report the crystal structure of DapF from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgDapF). Structures of CgDapF obtained under both oxidized and reduced conditions reveal that the function of CgDapF is regulated by redox-switch modulation via reversible disulfide bond formation between two catalytic cysteine residues. Under oxidized condition, two catalytic cysteine residues form a disulfide bond; these same cysteine residues exist in reduced form under reduced condition. Disulfide bond formation also induces a subsequent structural change in the dynamic catalytic loop at the active site, which results in open/closed conformational change at the active site. We also determined the crystal structure of CgDapF in complex with its product d,l-DAP, and elucidated how the enzyme recognizes its substrate l,l-DAP as a substrate. Moreover, the structure in complex with the d,l-DAP product reveals that CgDapF undergoes a large open/closed domain movement upon substrate binding, resulting in a completely buried active site with the substrate bound. PMID:28176858

  18. Ionized trilysine: a model system for understanding the nonrandom structure of poly-L-lysine and lysine-containing motifs in proteins.

    PubMed

    Verbaro, Daniel J; Mathieu, Daniel; Toal, Siobhan E; Schwalbe, Harald; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard

    2012-07-19

    It is now well-established that different amino acid residues can exhibit different conformational distributions in the unfolded state of peptides and proteins. These conformational propensities can be modulated by nearest neighbors. In the current study, we combined vibrational and NMR spectroscopy to determine the conformational distributions of the central and C-terminal residues in trilysine peptides in aqueous solution. The study was motivated by earlier observations suggesting that interactions between ionized nearest neighbor residues can substantially change conformational propensities. We found that the central lysine residue predominantly adopts conformations that are located at the upper border of the upper left quadrant of the Ramachandran plot and the left border of the polyproline II region. We term this type of conformation deformed polyproline II (pPII(d)). The structures of less populated subensembles of trilysine resemble are comparable with structures at the i + 1 position of type I and type II β-turns. For the C-terminal residue, however, we obtained a mixture of polyproline II, β-strand, and right-handed helical conformations, which is typical for lysine residues in alanine- and glycine-based peptides. Our data thus indicate that the terminal lysines modify and restrict the conformational distribution of the central lysine residue. DFT calculations for ionized trilysine and lysyllysyllysylglycine in vacuo indicate that the pPII(d) is stabilized by a rather strong hydrogen bond between the NH3(+) group of the central lysine and the carbonyl group of the C-terminal peptide. This intramolecular hydrogen bonding induces optical activity in the C-terminal CO stretching vibration, which leads to an unusual and relatively intense positive Cotton band. Additionally, we analyzed the amide I' band profile of ionized triornithine in water. Ornithine is structurally similar to lysine in that its side chain is terminated with an amino group; however, the

  19. Active site proton delivery and the lyase activity of human CYP17A1

    SciTech Connect

    Khatri, Yogan; Gregory, Michael C.; Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2014-01-03

    equivalents and protons are funneled into non-productive pathways. This is similar to previous work with other P450 catalyzed hydroxylation. However, catalysis of carbon–carbon bond scission by the T306A mutant was largely unimpeded by disruption of the CYP17A1 acid-alcohol pair. The unique response of CYP17A1 lyase activity to mutation of Thr306 is consistent with a reactive intermediate formed independently of proton delivery in the active site, and supports involvement of a nucleophilic peroxo-anion rather than the traditional Compound I in catalysis.

  20. Pathways of H2 toward the Active Site of [NiFe]-Hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Vitor H.; Baptista, António M.; Soares, Cláudio M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2), but little is known about the diffusion of H2 toward the active site. Here we analyze pathways for H2 permeation using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit solvent. Various MD simulation replicates were done, to improve the sampling of the system states. H2 easily permeates hydrogenase in every simulation and it moves preferentially in channels. All H2 molecules that reach the active site made their approach from the side of the Ni ion. H2 is able to reach distances of <4 Å from the active site, although after 6 Å permeation is difficult. In this region we mutated Val-67 into alanine and perform new MD simulations. These simulations show an increase of H2 inside the protein and at lower distances from the active site. This valine can be a control point in the H2 access to the active center. PMID:16731562

  1. Maintenance of plastid RNA editing activities independently of their target sites.

    PubMed

    Tillich, Michael; Poltnigg, Peter; Kushnir, Sergei; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian

    2006-03-01

    RNA editing in plant organelles is mediated by site-specific, nuclear-encoded factors. Previous data suggested that the maintenance of these factors depends on the presence of their rapidly evolving cognate sites. The surprising ability of allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) to edit a foreign site in the chloroplast ndhA messenger RNA was thought to be inherited from its diploid male ancestor, Nicotiana tomentosiformis. Here, we show that the same ndhA editing activity is also present in Nicotiana sylvestris, which is the female diploid progenitor of tobacco and which lacks the ndhA site. Hence, heterologous editing is not simply a result of tobacco's allopolyploid genome organization. Analyses of other editing sites after sexual or somatic transfer between land plants showed that heterologous editing occurs at a surprisingly high frequency. This suggests that the corresponding editing activities are conserved despite the absence of their target sites, potentially because they serve other functions in the plant cell.

  2. A Processive Carbohydrate Polymerase That Mediates Bifunctional Catalysis Using a Single Active Site

    PubMed Central

    May, John F.; Levengood, Matthew R.; Splain, Rebecca A.; Brown, Christopher D.; Kiessling, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Even in the absence of a template, glycosyltransferases can catalyze the synthesis of carbohydrate polymers of specific sequence. The paradigm has been that one enzyme catalyzes the formation of one type of glycosidic linkage, yet certain glycosyltransferases generate polysaccharide sequences composed of two distinct linkage types. In principle, bifunctional glycosyltransferases can possess separate active sites for each catalytic activity or one active site with dual activities. We encountered the fundamental question of one or two distinct active sites in our investigation of the galactosyltransferase GlfT2. GlfT2 catalyzes the formation of mycobacterial galactan, a critical cell-wall polymer composed of galactofuranose residues connected with alternating, regioisomeric linkages. We found that GlfT2 mediates galactan polymerization using only one active site that manifests dual regioselectivity. Structural modeling of the bifunctional glycosyltransferases hyaluronan synthase and cellulose synthase suggests that these enzymes also generate multiple glycosidic linkages using a single active site. These results highlight the versatility of glycosyltransferases for generating polysaccharides of specific sequence. We postulate that a hallmark of processive elongation of a carbohydrate polymer by a bifunctional enzyme is that one active site can give rise to two separate types of glycosidic bonds. PMID:22217153

  3. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Kenny, Paul J.; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. PMID:25869137

  4. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Behavior: III. Estimating Bound Site Activity Coefficients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although detailed thermodynamic analyses of the 2-pK diffuse layer surface complexation model generally specify bound site activity coefficients for the purpose of accounting for those non-ideal excess free energies contributing to bound site electrochemical potentials, in applic...

  5. 75 FR 71677 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of the Energy Policy Act of... requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs of...

  6. NQR in Alanine and Lysine Iodates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A. M.; Burbelo, V. M.; Tamazyan, R. A.; Karapetyan, H. A.; Sukiasyan, R. P.

    2000-02-01

    The structure o f iodates of α- and β-alanine ( Ala) (2(β-Ala • HIO3) • H2O , β-Ala-2HIO3 , D L-Ala• HIO3 • 2H2O, L-Ala • HIO3) and L-lysine (L-Lys) (L-Lys • HIO3, L-Lys • 2HIO3,L-Lys • 3HIO3, L-Lys • 6HIO3) have been investigated by means of iodine-127 NQR, IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

  7. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). (e) For all asbestos-containing waste material received, the owner or operator of the active waste... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an...

  8. Bacteriophage phi11 lysin: physicochemical characterization and comparison with phage phi80a lysin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phage lytic enzymes are promising antimicrobial agents. Lysins of phage phi11 (LysPhi11) and phi80a (LysPhi80a) can lyse (destroy) biofilms and cells of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Stability of enzymes is one of the parameters making their practical use possible. The obj...

  9. Unmasking tandem site interaction in human acetylcholinesterase. Substrate activation with a cationic acetanilide substrate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joseph L; Cusack, Bernadette; Davies, Matthew P; Fauq, Abdul; Rosenberry, Terrone L

    2003-05-13

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) contains a narrow and deep active site gorge with two sites of ligand binding, an acylation site (or A-site) at the base of the gorge, and a peripheral site (or P-site) near the gorge entrance. The P-site contributes to catalytic efficiency by transiently binding substrates on their way to the acylation site, where a short-lived acyl enzyme intermediate is produced. A conformational interaction between the A- and P-sites has recently been found to modulate ligand affinities. We now demonstrate that this interaction is of functional importance by showing that the acetylation rate constant of a substrate bound to the A-site is increased by a factor a when a second molecule of substrate binds to the P-site. This demonstration became feasible through the introduction of a new acetanilide substrate analogue of acetylcholine, 3-(acetamido)-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium (ATMA), for which a = 4. This substrate has a low acetylation rate constant and equilibrates with the catalytic site, allowing a tractable algebraic solution to the rate equation for substrate hydrolysis. ATMA affinities for the A- and P-sites deduced from the kinetic analysis were confirmed by fluorescence titration with thioflavin T as a reporter ligand. Values of a >1 give rise to a hydrolysis profile called substrate activation, and the AChE site-specific mutant W86F, and to a lesser extent wild-type human AChE itself, showed substrate activation with acetylthiocholine as the substrate. Substrate activation was incorporated into a previous catalytic scheme for AChE in which a bound P-site ligand can also block product dissociation from the A-site, and two additional features of the AChE catalytic pathway were revealed. First, the ability of a bound P-site ligand to increase the substrate acetylation rate constant varied with the structure of the ligand: thioflavin T accelerated ATMA acetylation by a factor a(2) of 1.3, while propidium failed to accelerate. Second, catalytic rate

  10. Structure and nuclearity of active sites in Fe-zeolites: comparison with iron sites in enzymes and homogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zecchina, Adriano; Rivallan, Mickaël; Berlier, Gloria; Lamberti, Carlo; Ricchiardi, Gabriele

    2007-07-21

    Fe-ZSM-5 and Fe-silicalite zeolites efficiently catalyse several oxidation reactions which find close analogues in the oxidation reactions catalyzed by homogeneous and enzymatic compounds. The iron centres are highly dispersed in the crystalline matrix and on highly diluted samples, mononuclear and dinuclear structures are expected to become predominant. The crystalline and robust character of the MFI framework has allowed to hypothesize that the catalytic sites are located in well defined crystallographic positions. For this reason these catalysts have been considered as the closest and best defined heterogeneous counterparts of heme and non heme iron complexes and of Fenton type Fe(2+) homogeneous counterparts. On this basis, an analogy with the methane monooxygenase has been advanced several times. In this review we have examined the abundant literature on the subject and summarized the most widely accepted views on the structure, nuclearity and catalytic activity of the iron species. By comparing the results obtained with the various characterization techniques, we conclude that Fe-ZSM-5 and Fe-silicalite are not the ideal samples conceived before and that many types of species are present, some active and some other silent from adsorptive and catalytic point of view. The relative concentration of these species changes with thermal treatments, preparation procedures and loading. Only at lowest loadings the catalytically active species become the dominant fraction of the iron species. On the basis of the spectroscopic titration of the active sites by using NO as a probe, we conclude that the active species on very diluted samples are isolated and highly coordinatively unsaturated Fe(2+) grafted to the crystalline matrix. Indication of the constant presence of a smaller fraction of Fe(2+) presumably located on small clusters is also obtained. The nitrosyl species formed upon dosing NO from the gas phase on activated Fe-ZSM-5 and Fe-silicalite, have been analyzed

  11. Monocopper active site for partial methane oxidation in Cu-exchanged 8MR zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Ambarish R.; Zhao, Zhi -Jian; Siahrostami, Samira; Nørskov, Jens K.; Studt, Felix

    2016-08-17

    Direct conversion of methane to methanol using oxygen is experiencing renewed interest owing to the availability of new natural gas resources. Copper-exchanged zeolites such as mordenite and ZSM-5 have shown encouraging results, and di- and tri-copper species have been suggested as active sites. Recently, small eight-membered ring (8MR) zeolites including SSZ-13, -16, and -39 have been shown to be active for methane oxidation, but the active sites and reaction mechanisms in these 8MR zeolites are not known. In this work, we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations to systematically evaluate monocopper species as active sites for the partial methane oxidation reaction in Cu-exchanged SSZ-13. On the basis of kinetic and thermodynamic arguments, we suggest that [CuIIOH]+ species in the 8MR are responsible for the experimentally observed activity. Furthermore, our results successfully explain the available spectroscopic data and experimental observations including (i) the necessity of water for methanol extraction and (ii) the effect of Si/Al ratio on the catalyst activity. Monocopper species have not yet been suggested as an active site for the partial methane oxidation reaction, and our results suggest that [CuIIOH]+ active site may provide complementary routes for methane activation in zeolites in addition to the known [Cu–O–Cu]2+ and Cu3O3 motifs.

  12. Monocopper active site for partial methane oxidation in Cu-exchanged 8MR zeolites

    DOE PAGES

    Kulkarni, Ambarish R.; Zhao, Zhi -Jian; Siahrostami, Samira; ...

    2016-08-17

    Direct conversion of methane to methanol using oxygen is experiencing renewed interest owing to the availability of new natural gas resources. Copper-exchanged zeolites such as mordenite and ZSM-5 have shown encouraging results, and di- and tri-copper species have been suggested as active sites. Recently, small eight-membered ring (8MR) zeolites including SSZ-13, -16, and -39 have been shown to be active for methane oxidation, but the active sites and reaction mechanisms in these 8MR zeolites are not known. In this work, we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations to systematically evaluate monocopper species as active sites for the partial methane oxidationmore » reaction in Cu-exchanged SSZ-13. On the basis of kinetic and thermodynamic arguments, we suggest that [CuIIOH]+ species in the 8MR are responsible for the experimentally observed activity. Furthermore, our results successfully explain the available spectroscopic data and experimental observations including (i) the necessity of water for methanol extraction and (ii) the effect of Si/Al ratio on the catalyst activity. Monocopper species have not yet been suggested as an active site for the partial methane oxidation reaction, and our results suggest that [CuIIOH]+ active site may provide complementary routes for methane activation in zeolites in addition to the known [Cu–O–Cu]2+ and Cu3O3 motifs.« less

  13. Independent Mechanisms Target SMCHD1 to Trimethylated Histone H3 Lysine 9-Modified Chromatin and the Inactive X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Brideau, Nicholas J.; Coker, Heather; Gendrel, Anne-Valerie; Siebert, C. Alistair; Bezstarosti, Karel; Demmers, Jeroen; Poot, Raymond A.; Nesterova, Tatyana B.

    2015-01-01

    The chromosomal protein SMCHD1 plays an important role in epigenetic silencing at diverse loci, including the inactive X chromosome, imprinted genes, and the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy locus. Although homology with canonical SMC family proteins suggests a role in chromosome organization, the mechanisms underlying SMCHD1 function and target site selection remain poorly understood. Here we show that SMCHD1 forms an active GHKL-ATPase homodimer, contrasting with canonical SMC complexes, which exist as tripartite ring structures. Electron microscopy analysis demonstrates that SMCHD1 homodimers structurally resemble prokaryotic condensins. We further show that the principal mechanism for chromatin loading of SMCHD1 involves an LRIF1-mediated interaction with HP1γ at trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3)-modified chromatin sites on the chromosome arms. A parallel pathway accounts for chromatin loading at a minority of sites, notably the inactive X chromosome. Together, our results provide key insights into SMCHD1 function and target site selection. PMID:26391951

  14. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  15. Requirements for 5′dRP/AP lyase activity in Ku

    PubMed Central

    Strande, Natasha T.; Carvajal-Garcia, Juan; Hallett, Ryan A.; Waters, Crystal A.; Roberts, Steven A.; Strom, Christina; Kuhlman, Brian; Ramsden, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    The non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway is used in diverse species to repair chromosome breaks, and is defined in part by a requirement for Ku. We previously demonstrated mammalian Ku has intrinsic 5′ deoxyribosephosphate (5′dRP) and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase activity, and showed this activity is important for excising abasic site damage from ends. Here we employ systematic mutagenesis to clarify the protein requirements for this activity. We identify lysine 31 in the 70 kD subunit (Ku70 K31) as the primary candidate nucleophile required for catalysis, but additional mutation of Ku70 K160 and six other lysines within Ku80 were required to eliminate all activity. Ku from Saccharomyces cerevisiae also possesses 5′dRP/AP lyase activity, and robust activity was also reliant on lysines in Ku70 analogous to K31 and K160. By comparison, these lysines are not conserved in Xenopus laevis Ku, and Ku from this species has negligible activity. A role for residues flanking Ku70 K31 in expanding the range of abasic site contexts that can be used as substrate was also identified. Our results suggest an active site well located to provide the substrate specificity required for its biological role. PMID:25200085

  16. The surface chemistry of heterogeneous catalysis: mechanisms, selectivity, and active sites.

    PubMed

    Zaera, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    The role of chemical kinetics in defining the requirements for the active sites of heterogeneous catalysts is discussed. A personal view is presented, with specific examples from our laboratory to illustrate the role of the chemical composition, structure, and electronic properties of specific surface sites in determining reaction activity and selectivity. Manipulation of catalytic behavior via the addition of chemical modifiers and by tuning of the reaction conditions is also introduced.

  17. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE`s nuclear waste site characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-31

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE`s relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult.

  18. Number and locations of agonist binding sites required to activate homomeric Cys-loop receptors.

    PubMed

    Rayes, Diego; De Rosa, María José; Sine, Steven M; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2009-05-06

    Homo-pentameric Cys-loop receptors contain five identical agonist binding sites, each formed at a subunit interface. To determine the number and locations of binding sites required to generate a stable active state, we constructed a receptor subunit with a mutation that disables the agonist binding site and a reporter mutation that alters unitary conductance and coexpressed mutant and nonmutant subunits. Although receptors with a range of different subunit compositions are produced, patch-clamp recordings reveal that the amplitude of each single-channel opening event reports the number and, for certain subunit combinations, the locations of subunits with intact binding sites. We find that receptors with three binding sites at nonconsecutive subunit interfaces exhibit maximal mean channel open time, receptors with binding sites at three consecutive or two nonconsecutive interfaces exhibit intermediate open time, and receptors with binding sites at two consecutive or one interface exhibit brief open time. Macroscopic recordings after rapid application of agonist reveal that channel activation slows and the extent of desensitization decreases as the number of binding sites per receptor decreases. The overall results provide a framework for defining mechanisms of activation and drug modulation for homo-pentameric Cys-loop receptors.

  19. Repression of p53 activity by Smyd2-mediated methylation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Perez-Burgos, Laura; Placek, Brandon J; Sengupta, Roopsha; Richter, Mario; Dorsey, Jean A; Kubicek, Stefan; Opravil, Susanne; Jenuwein, Thomas; Berger, Shelley L

    2006-11-30

    Specific sites of lysine methylation on histones correlate with either activation or repression of transcription. The tumour suppressor p53 (refs 4-7) is one of only a few non-histone proteins known to be regulated by lysine methylation. Here we report a lysine methyltransferase, Smyd2, that methylates a previously unidentified site, Lys 370, in p53. This methylation site, in contrast to the known site Lys 372, is repressing to p53-mediated transcriptional regulation. Smyd2 helps to maintain low concentrations of promoter-associated p53. We show that reducing Smyd2 concentrations by short interfering RNA enhances p53-mediated apoptosis. We find that Set9-mediated methylation of Lys 372 inhibits Smyd2-mediated methylation of Lys 370, providing regulatory cross-talk between post-translational modifications. In addition, we show that the inhibitory effect of Lys 372 methylation on Lys 370 methylation is caused, in part, by blocking the interaction between p53 and Smyd2. Thus, similar to histones, p53 is subject to both activating and repressing lysine methylation. Our results also predict that Smyd2 may function as a putative oncogene by methylating p53 and repressing its tumour suppressive function.

  20. Thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides as New Reversible Inhibitors of Histone Lysine Demethylase KDM1A/LSD1. Part 2: Structure-Based Drug Design and Structure-Activity Relationship.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Paola; Sartori, Luca; Amigoni, Federica; Cappa, Anna; Fagá, Giovanni; Fattori, Raimondo; Legnaghi, Elena; Ciossani, Giuseppe; Mattevi, Andrea; Meroni, Giuseppe; Moretti, Loris; Cecatiello, Valentina; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Romussi, Alessia; Thaler, Florian; Trifiró, Paolo; Villa, Manuela; Botrugno, Oronza A; Dessanti, Paola; Minucci, Saverio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Zagarrí, Elisa; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro

    2017-03-09

    The balance of methylation levels at histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) is regulated by KDM1A (LSD1). KDM1A is overexpressed in several tumor types, thus representing an emerging target for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. We have previously described ( Part 1, DOI 10.1021.acs.jmedchem.6b01018 ) the identification of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides as novel reversible inhibitors of KDM1A, whose preliminary exploration resulted in compound 2 with biochemical IC50 = 160 nM. We now report the structure-guided optimization of this chemical series based on multiple ligand/KDM1A-CoRest cocrystal structures, which led to several extremely potent inhibitors. In particular, compounds 46, 49, and 50 showed single-digit nanomolar IC50 values for in vitro inhibition of KDM1A, with high selectivity in secondary assays. In THP-1 cells, these compounds transcriptionally affected the expression of genes regulated by KDM1A such as CD14, CD11b, and CD86. Moreover, 49 and 50 showed a remarkable anticlonogenic cell growth effect on MLL-AF9 human leukemia cells.