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Sample records for active site motifs

  1. Probing the active site loop motif of murine ferrochelatase by random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhen; Ferreira, Gloria C

    2004-05-01

    Ferrochelatase catalyzes the terminal step of the heme biosynthetic pathway by inserting ferrous iron into protoporphyrin IX. A conserved loop motif was shown to form part of the active site and contact the bound porphyrin by molecular dynamics calculations and structural analysis. We applied a random mutagenesis approach and steady-state kinetic analysis to assess the role of the loop motif in murine ferrochelatase function, particularly with respect to porphyrin interaction. Functional substitutions in the 10 consecutive loop positions Gln(248)-Leu(257) were identified by genetic complementation in Escherichia coli strain Deltavis. Lys(250), Val(251), Pro(253), Val(254), and Pro(255) tolerated a variety of replacements including single substitutions and contained low informational content. Gln(248), Ser(249), Gly(252), Trp(256), and Leu(257) possessed high informational content, since permissible replacements were limited and only observed in multiply substituted mutants. Selected active loop variants exhibited k(cat) values comparable with or higher than that of wild-type murine ferrochelatase. The K(m) values for porphyrin increased, except for the single mutant V251L. Other than a moderate increase observed in the triple mutant S249A/K250Q/V251C, the K(m) values for Fe(2+) were lowered. The k(cat)/K(m) for porphyrin remained largely unchanged, with the exception of a 10-fold reduction in the triple mutant K250M/V251L/W256Y. The k(cat)/K(m) for Fe(2+) was improved. Molecular modeling of these active loop variants indicated that loop mutations resulted in alterations of the active site architecture. However, despite the plasticity of the loop primary structure, the relative spatial positioning of the loop in the active site appeared to be maintained in functional variants, supporting a role for the loop in ferrochelatase function. PMID:14981080

  2. Molybdenum and tungsten oxygen transferases--and functional diversity within a common active site motif.

    PubMed

    Pushie, M Jake; Cotelesage, Julien J; George, Graham N

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten are the only second and third-row transition elements with a known function in living organisms. The molybdenum and tungsten enzymes show common structural features, with the metal being bound by a pyranopterin-dithiolene cofactor called molybdopterin. They catalyze a variety of oxygen transferase reactions coupled with two-electron redox chemistry in which the metal cycles between the +6 and +4 oxidation states usually with water, either product or substrate, providing the oxygen. The functional roles filled by the molybdenum and tungsten enzymes are diverse; for example, they play essential roles in microbial respiration, in the uptake of nitrogen in green plants, and in human health. Together, the enzymes form a superfamily which is among the most prevalent known, being found in all kingdoms of life. This review discusses what is known of the active site structures and the mechanisms, together with some recent insights into the evolution of these important enzyme systems.

  3. Epsilon glutathione transferases possess a unique class-conserved subunit interface motif that directly interacts with glutathione in the active site.

    PubMed

    Wongsantichon, Jantana; Robinson, Robert C; Ketterman, Albert J

    2015-10-20

    Epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been shown to contribute significantly to insecticide resistance. We report a new Epsilon class protein crystal structure from Drosophila melanogaster for the glutathione transferase DmGSTE6. The structure reveals a novel Epsilon clasp motif that is conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution of the insect Diptera order. This histidine-serine motif lies in the subunit interface and appears to contribute to quaternary stability as well as directly connecting the two glutathiones in the active sites of this dimeric enzyme.

  4. Epsilon glutathione transferases possess a unique class-conserved subunit interface motif that directly interacts with glutathione in the active site

    PubMed Central

    Wongsantichon, Jantana; Robinson, Robert C.; Ketterman, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been shown to contribute significantly to insecticide resistance. We report a new Epsilon class protein crystal structure from Drosophila melanogaster for the glutathione transferase DmGSTE6. The structure reveals a novel Epsilon clasp motif that is conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution of the insect Diptera order. This histidine-serine motif lies in the subunit interface and appears to contribute to quaternary stability as well as directly connecting the two glutathiones in the active sites of this dimeric enzyme. PMID:26487708

  5. Rate of hydrolysis in ATP synthase is fine-tuned by α-subunit motif controlling active site conformation

    PubMed Central

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás; Lincoln, Per; Nordén, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Computer-designed artificial enzymes will require precise understanding of how conformation of active sites may control barrier heights of key transition states, including dependence on structure and dynamics at larger molecular scale. FoF1 ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP using a rotary motor. Isolated F1 performs hydrolysis with a rate very sensitive to ATP concentration. Experimental and theoretical results show that, at low ATP concentrations, ATP is slowly hydrolyzed in the so-called tight binding site, whereas at higher concentrations, the binding of additional ATP molecules induces rotation of the central γ-subunit, thereby forcing the site to transform through subtle conformational changes into a loose binding site in which hydrolysis occurs faster. How the 1-Å-scale rearrangements are controlled is not yet fully understood. By a combination of theoretical approaches, we address how large macromolecular rearrangements may manipulate the active site and how the reaction rate changes with active site conformation. Simulations reveal that, in response to γ-subunit position, the active site conformation is fine-tuned mainly by small α-subunit changes. Quantum mechanics-based results confirm that the sub-Ångström gradual changes between tight and loose binding site structures dramatically alter the hydrolysis rate. PMID:23345443

  6. Rate of hydrolysis in ATP synthase is fine-tuned by α-subunit motif controlling active site conformation.

    PubMed

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás; Lincoln, Per; Nordén, Bengt

    2013-02-01

    Computer-designed artificial enzymes will require precise understanding of how conformation of active sites may control barrier heights of key transition states, including dependence on structure and dynamics at larger molecular scale. F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP using a rotary motor. Isolated F(1) performs hydrolysis with a rate very sensitive to ATP concentration. Experimental and theoretical results show that, at low ATP concentrations, ATP is slowly hydrolyzed in the so-called tight binding site, whereas at higher concentrations, the binding of additional ATP molecules induces rotation of the central γ-subunit, thereby forcing the site to transform through subtle conformational changes into a loose binding site in which hydrolysis occurs faster. How the 1-Å-scale rearrangements are controlled is not yet fully understood. By a combination of theoretical approaches, we address how large macromolecular rearrangements may manipulate the active site and how the reaction rate changes with active site conformation. Simulations reveal that, in response to γ-subunit position, the active site conformation is fine-tuned mainly by small α-subunit changes. Quantum mechanics-based results confirm that the sub-Ångström gradual changes between tight and loose binding site structures dramatically alter the hydrolysis rate. PMID:23345443

  7. Activation of p70s6k is associated with phosphorylation of four clustered sites displaying Ser/Thr-Pro motifs.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, S; Bannwarth, W; Morley, S J; Totty, N F; Thomas, G

    1992-08-01

    Partial amino acid sequences were obtained from 22 internal tryptic peptides of rat liver p70s6k (M(r) 70,000 ribosomal protein S6 kinase), 3 of which were found to contain phosphorylated residues. To determine whether these sites were associated with p70s6k activation, the kinase was labeled to high specific activity with 32P(i) in Swiss mouse 3T3 cells. By sequential cleavage with CNBr and endoproteinase Lys-C followed by two-dimensional tryptic peptide analysis, it could be shown that all of the sites were located in a small endoproteinase Lys-C peptide of M(r) 2400. Analysis of the p70s6k protein sequence revealed a single candidate that could represent this peptide. Three tryptic peptides derived from the endoproteinase Lys-C fragment were chosen by a newly described computer program as the most likely candidates to contain the in vivo sites of phosphorylation. Synthetic peptides based on these sequences were phosphorylated either chemically or enzymatically and found to comigrate by two-dimensional thin-layer electrophoresis/chromatography with the four major in vivo labeled tryptic phosphopeptides. Three of the phosphorylation sites in these peptides were equivalent to those sequenced in the rat liver p70s6k. In addition, all four sites display the motif Ser/Thr-Pro, typical of cell cycle-regulated sites, and are clustered in a putative autoinhibitory domain of the enzyme.

  8. Redox active motifs in selenoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Lutz, Patricia B.; Pepelyayeva, Yuliya; Arnér, Elias S. J.; Bayse, Craig A.; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Selenoproteins use the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) to act as the first line of defense against oxidants, which are linked to aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Many selenoproteins are oxidoreductases in which the reactive Sec is connected to a neighboring Cys and able to form a ring. These Sec-containing redox motifs govern much of the reactivity of selenoproteins. To study their fundamental properties, we have used 77Se NMR spectroscopy in concert with theoretical calculations to determine the conformational preferences and mobility of representative motifs. This use of 77Se as a probe enables the direct recording of the properties of Sec as its environment is systematically changed. We find that all motifs have several ring conformations in their oxidized state. These ring structures are most likely stabilized by weak, nonbonding interactions between the selenium and the amide carbon. To examine how the presence of selenium and ring geometric strain governs the motifs’ reactivity, we measured the redox potentials of Sec-containing motifs and their corresponding Cys-only variants. The comparisons reveal that for C-terminal motifs the redox potentials increased between 20–25 mV when the selenenylsulfide bond was changed to a disulfide bond. Changes of similar magnitude arose when we varied ring size or the motifs’ flanking residues. This suggests that the presence of Sec is not tied to unusually low redox potentials. The unique roles of selenoproteins in human health and their chemical reactivities may therefore not necessarily be explained by lower redox potentials, as has often been claimed. PMID:24769567

  9. Transcriptional activation of human adult alpha-globin genes by hypersensitive site-40 enhancer: function of nuclear factor-binding motifs occupied in erythroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rombel, I; Hu, K Y; Zhang, Q; Papayannopoulou, T; Stamatoyannopoulos, G; Shen, C K

    1995-01-01

    The developmental stage- and erythroid lineage-specific activation of the human embryonic zeta- and fetal/adult alpha-globin genes is controlled by an upstream regulatory element [hypersensitive site (HS)-40] with locus control region properties, a process mediated by multiple nuclear factor-DNA complexes. In vitro DNase I protection experiments of the two G+C-rich, adult alpha-globin promoters have revealed a number of binding sites for nuclear factors that are common to HeLa and K-562 extracts. However, genomic footprinting analysis has demonstrated that only a subset of these sites, clustered between -130 and +1, is occupied in an erythroid tissue-specific manner. The function of these in vivo-occupied motifs of the alpha-globin promoters, as well as those previously mapped in the HS-40 region, is assayed by site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression in embryonic/fetal erythroid K-562 cells. These studies, together with our expression data on the human embryonic zeta-globin promoter, provide a comprehensive view of the functional roles of individual nuclear factor-DNA complexes in the final stages of transcriptional activation of the human alpha-like globin promoters by the HS-40 element. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7604012

  10. Site-1 protease-activated formation of lysosomal targeting motifs is independent of the lipogenic transcription control[S

    PubMed Central

    Klünder, Sarah; Heeren, Jörg; Markmann, Sandra; Santer, René; Braulke, Thomas; Pohl, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Site-1 protease (S1P) cleaves membrane-bound lipogenic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and the α/β-subunit precursor protein of the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase forming mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) targeting markers on lysosomal enzymes. The translocation of SREBPs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi-resident S1P depends on the intracellular sterol content, but it is unknown whether the ER exit of the α/β-subunit precursor is regulated. Here, we investigated the effect of cholesterol depletion (atorvastatin treatment) and elevation (LDL overload) on ER-Golgi transport, S1P-mediated cleavage of the α/β-subunit precursor, and the subsequent targeting of lysosomal enzymes along the biosynthetic and endocytic pathway to lysosomes. The data showed that the proteolytic cleavage of the α/β-subunit precursor into mature and enzymatically active subunits does not depend on the cholesterol content. In either treatment, lysosomal enzymes are normally decorated with M6P residues, allowing the proper sorting to lysosomes. In addition, we found that, in fibroblasts of mucolipidosis type II mice and Niemann-Pick type C patients characterized by aberrant cholesterol accumulation, the proteolytic cleavage of the α/β-subunit precursor was not impaired. We conclude that S1P substrate-dependent regulatory mechanisms for lipid synthesis and biogenesis of lysosomes are different. PMID:26108224

  11. Merging Allosteric and Active Site Binding Motifs: De novo Generation of Target Selectivity and Potency via Natural-Product-Derived Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Jan; Riedl, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The de novo design of molecules from scratch with tailored biological activity is still the major intellectual challenge in chemical biology and drug discovery. Herein we validate natural-product-derived fragments (NPDFs) as excellent molecular seeds for the targeted de novo discovery of lead structures for the modulation of therapeutically relevant proteins. The application of this de novo approach delivered, in synergy with the combination of allosteric and active site binding motifs, highly selective and ligand-efficient non-zinc-binding (3: 4-{[5-(2-{[(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]carbamoyl}eth-1-yn-1-yl)-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-yl]methyl}benzoic acid) as well as zinc-binding (4: 4-({5-[2-({[3-(3-carboxypropoxy)phenyl]methyl}carbamoyl)eth-1-yn-1-yl]-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-yl}methyl)benzoic acid) uracil-based MMP-13 inhibitors presenting IC50 values of 11 nm (3: LE=0.35) and 6 nm (4: LE=0.31). PMID:25487909

  12. Merging allosteric and active site binding motifs: de novo generation of target selectivity and potency via natural-product-derived fragments.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Jan; Riedl, Rainer

    2015-03-01

    The de novo design of molecules from scratch with tailored biological activity is still the major intellectual challenge in chemical biology and drug discovery. Herein we validate natural-product-derived fragments (NPDFs) as excellent molecular seeds for the targeted de novo discovery of lead structures for the modulation of therapeutically relevant proteins. The application of this de novo approach delivered, in synergy with the combination of allosteric and active site binding motifs, highly selective and ligand-efficient non-zinc-binding (3: 4-{[5-(2-{[(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]carbamoyl}eth-1-yn-1-yl)-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-yl]methyl}benzoic acid) as well as zinc-binding (4: 4-({5-[2-({[3-(3-carboxypropoxy)phenyl]methyl}carbamoyl)eth-1-yn-1-yl]-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-yl}methyl)benzoic acid) uracil-based MMP-13 inhibitors presenting IC50 values of 11 nM (3: LE=0.35) and 6 nM (4: LE=0.31).

  13. Understanding the Role of Histidine in the GHSxG Acyltransferase Active Site Motif: Evidence for Histidine Stabilization of the Malonyl-Enzyme Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; Katz, Leonard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. The ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-like subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate. PMID:25286165

  14. Understanding the role of histidine in the GHSxG acyltransferase active site motif: Evidence for histidine stabilization of the malonyl-enzyme intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; Katz, Leonard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2014-10-06

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. Thus, the ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-like subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate.

  15. Understanding the role of histidine in the GHSxG acyltransferase active site motif: Evidence for histidine stabilization of the malonyl-enzyme intermediate

    DOE PAGES

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; Katz, Leonard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2014-10-06

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. Thus, the ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-likemore » subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate.« less

  16. A survey of motif finding Web tools for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) has provided the advantage for finding motifs as ChIP-Seq experiments narrow down the motif finding to binding site locations. Recent motif finding tools facilitate the motif detection by providing user-friendly Web interface. In this work, we reviewed nine motif finding Web tools that are capable for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data. We showed each motif finding Web tool has its own advantages for detecting motifs that other tools may not discover. We recommended the users to use multiple motif finding Web tools that implement different algorithms for obtaining significant motifs, overlapping resemble motifs, and non-overlapping motifs. Finally, we provided our suggestions for future development of motif finding Web tool that better assists researchers for finding motifs in ChIP-Seq data. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Prof. Sandor Pongor, Dr. Yuriy Gusev, and Dr. Shyam Prabhakar (nominated by Prof. Limsoon Wong). PMID:24555784

  17. Motif types, motif locations and base composition patterns around the RNA polyadenylation site in microorganisms, plants and animals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The polyadenylation of RNA is critical for gene functioning, but the conserved sequence motifs (often called signal or signature motifs), motif locations and abundances, and base composition patterns around mRNA polyadenylation [poly(A)] sites are still uncharacterized in most species. The evolutionary tendency for poly(A) site selection is still largely unknown. Results We analyzed the poly(A) site regions of 31 species or phyla. Different groups of species showed different poly(A) signal motifs: UUACUU at the poly(A) site in the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi; UGUAAC (approximately 13 bases upstream of the site) in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; UGUUUG (or UGUUUGUU) at mainly the fourth base downstream of the poly(A) site in the parasite Blastocystis hominis; and AAUAAA at approximately 16 bases and approximately 19 bases upstream of the poly(A) site in animals and plants, respectively. Polyadenylation signal motifs are usually several hundred times more abundant around poly(A) sites than in whole genomes. These predominant motifs usually had very specific locations, whether upstream of, at, or downstream of poly(A) sites, depending on the species or phylum. The poly(A) site was usually an adenosine (A) in all analyzed species except for B. hominis, and there was weak A predominance in C. reinhardtii. Fungi, animals, plants, and the protist Phytophthora infestans shared a general base abundance pattern (or base composition pattern) of “U-rich—A-rich—U-rich—Poly(A) site—U-rich regions”, or U-A-U-A-U for short, with some variation for each kingdom or subkingdom. Conclusion This study identified the poly(A) signal motifs, motif locations, and base composition patterns around mRNA poly(A) sites in protists, fungi, plants, and animals and provided insight into poly(A) site evolution. PMID:25052519

  18. Automated discovery of active motifs in multiple RNA secondary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.T.L.; Chang, Chia-Yo; Shapiro, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a method for discovering approximately common motifs (also known as active motifs) in multiple RNA secondary structures. The secondary structures can be represented as ordered trees (i.e., the order among siblings matters). Motifs in these trees are connected subgraphs that can differ in both substitutions and deletions/insertions. The proposed method consists of two steps: (1) find candidate motifs in a small sample of the secondary structures; (2) search all of the secondary structures to determine how frequently these motifs occur (within the allowed approximation) in the secondary structures. To reduce the running time, we develop two optimization heuristics based on sampling and pattern matching techniques. Experimental results obtained by running these algorithms on both generated data and RNA secondary structures show the good performance of the algorithms. To demonstrate the utility of our algorithms, we discuss their applications to conducting the phylogenetic study of RNA sequences obtained from GenBank.

  19. Miz-1 activates gene expression via a novel consensus DNA binding motif.

    PubMed

    Barrilleaux, Bonnie L; Burow, Dana; Lockwood, Sarah H; Yu, Abigail; Segal, David J; Knoepfler, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Miz-1 can either activate or repress gene expression in concert with binding partners including the Myc oncoprotein. The genomic binding of Miz-1 includes both core promoters and more distal sites, but the preferred DNA binding motif of Miz-1 has been unclear. We used a high-throughput in vitro technique, Bind-n-Seq, to identify two Miz-1 consensus DNA binding motif sequences--ATCGGTAATC and ATCGAT (Mizm1 and Mizm2)--bound by full-length Miz-1 and its zinc finger domain, respectively. We validated these sequences directly as high affinity Miz-1 binding motifs. Competition assays using mutant probes indicated that the binding affinity of Miz-1 for Mizm1 and Mizm2 is highly sequence-specific. Miz-1 strongly activates gene expression through the motifs in a Myc-independent manner. MEME-ChIP analysis of Miz-1 ChIP-seq data in two different cell types reveals a long motif with a central core sequence highly similar to the Mizm1 motif identified by Bind-n-Seq, validating the in vivo relevance of the findings. Miz-1 ChIP-seq peaks containing the long motif are predominantly located outside of proximal promoter regions, in contrast to peaks without the motif, which are highly concentrated within 1.5 kb of the nearest transcription start site. Overall, our results indicate that Miz-1 may be directed in vivo to the novel motif sequences we have identified, where it can recruit its specific binding partners to control gene expression and ultimately regulate cell fate. PMID:24983942

  20. Fission Yeast Hotspot Sequence Motifs Are Also Active in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Walter W.; Steiner, Estelle M.

    2012-01-01

    In most organisms, including humans, meiotic recombination occurs preferentially at a limited number of sites in the genome known as hotspots. There has been substantial progress recently in elucidating the factors determining the location of meiotic recombination hotspots, and it is becoming clear that simple sequence motifs play a significant role. In S. pombe, there are at least five unique sequence motifs that have been shown to produce hotspots of recombination, and it is likely that there are more. In S. cerevisiae, simple sequence motifs have also been shown to produce hotspots or show significant correlations with hotspots. Some of the hotspot motifs in both yeasts are known or suspected to bind transcription factors (TFs), which are required for the activity of those hotspots. Here we show that four of the five hotspot motifs identified in S. pombe also create hotspots in the distantly related budding yeast S. cerevisiae. For one of these hotspots, M26 (also called CRE), we identify TFs, Cst6 and Sko1, that activate and inhibit the hotspot, respectively. In addition, two of the hotspot motifs show significant correlations with naturally occurring hotspots. The conservation of these hotspots between the distantly related fission and budding yeasts suggests that these sequence motifs, and others yet to be discovered, may function widely as hotspots in many diverse organisms. PMID:23300865

  1. Conserved Hydration Sites in Pin1 Reveal a Distinctive Water Recognition Motif in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Barman, Arghya; Smitherman, Crystal; Souffrant, Michael; Gadda, Giovanni; Hamelberg, Donald

    2016-01-25

    Structurally conserved water molecules are important for biomolecular stability, flexibility, and function. X-ray crystallographic studies of Pin1 have resolved a number of water molecules around the enzyme, including two highly conserved water molecules within the protein. The functional role of these localized water molecules remains unknown and unexplored. Pin1 catalyzes cis/trans isomerizations of peptidyl prolyl bonds that are preceded by a phosphorylated serine or threonine residue. Pin1 is involved in many subcellular signaling processes and is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of several life threatening diseases. Here, we investigate the significance of these structurally conserved water molecules in the catalytic domain of Pin1 using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, free energy calculations, analysis of X-ray crystal structures, and circular dichroism (CD) experiments. MD simulations and free energy calculations suggest the tighter binding water molecule plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and stability of a critical hydrogen-bonding network in the active site. The second water molecule is exchangeable with bulk solvent and is found in a distinctive helix-turn-coil motif. Structural bioinformatics analysis of nonredundant X-ray crystallographic protein structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) suggest this motif is present in several other proteins and can act as a water site, akin to the calcium EF hand. CD experiments suggest the isolated motif is in a distorted PII conformation and requires the protein environment to fully form the α-helix-turn-coil motif. This study provides valuable insights into the role of hydration in the structural integrity of Pin1 that can be exploited in protein engineering and drug design. PMID:26651388

  2. Protein chaperones Q8ZP25_SALTY from Salmonella typhimurium and HYAE_ECOLI from Escherichia coli exhibit thioredoxin-like structures despite lack of canonical thioredoxin active site sequence motif.

    PubMed

    Parish, David; Benach, Jordi; Liu, Goahua; Singarapu, Kiran Kumar; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas; Su, Min; Bansal, Sonal; Prestegard, James H; Hunt, John; Montelione, Gaetano T; Szyperski, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    The structure of the 142-residue protein Q8ZP25_SALTY encoded in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 was determined independently by NMR and X-ray crystallography, and the structure of the 140-residue protein HYAE_ECOLI encoded in the genome of Escherichia coli was determined by NMR. The two proteins belong to Pfam (Finn et al. 34:D247-D251, 2006) PF07449, which currently comprises 50 members, and belongs itself to the 'thioredoxin-like clan'. However, protein HYAE_ECOLI and the other proteins of Pfam PF07449 do not contain the canonical Cys-X-X-Cys active site sequence motif of thioredoxin. Protein HYAE_ECOLI was previously classified as a [NiFe] hydrogenase-1 specific chaperone interacting with the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) signal peptide. The structures presented here exhibit the expected thioredoxin-like fold and support the view that members of Pfam family PF07449 specifically interact with Tat signal peptides. PMID:19039680

  3. Protein Chaperones Q8ZP25_SALTY from Salmonella Typhimurium and HYAE_ECOLI from Escherichia coli Exhibit Thioredoxin-like Structures Despite Lack of Canonical Thioredoxin Active Site Sequence Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, D.; Benach, J; Liu, G; Singarapu, K; Xiao, R; Acton, T; Hunt, J; Montelione, G; Szyperski, T; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the 142-residue protein Q8ZP25 SALTY encoded in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 was determined independently by NMR and X-ray crystallography, and the structure of the 140-residue protein HYAE ECOLI encoded in the genome of Escherichia coli was determined by NMR. The two proteins belong to Pfam (Finn et al. 34:D247-D251, 2006) PF07449, which currently comprises 50 members, and belongs itself to the 'thioredoxin-like clan'. However, protein HYAE ECOLI and the other proteins of Pfam PF07449 do not contain the canonical Cys-X-X-Cys active site sequence motif of thioredoxin. Protein HYAE ECOLI was previously classified as a (NiFe) hydrogenase-1 specific chaperone interacting with the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) signal peptide. The structures presented here exhibit the expected thioredoxin-like fold and support the view that members of Pfam family PF07449 specifically interact with Tat signal peptides.

  4. Platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling and vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Boulaftali, Yacine; Hess, Paul R; Kahn, Mark L; Bergmeier, Wolfgang

    2014-03-28

    Platelets are well-known for their critical role in hemostasis, that is, the prevention of blood loss at sites of mechanical vessel injury. Inappropriate platelet activation and adhesion, however, can lead to thrombotic complications, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. To fulfill its role in hemostasis, the platelet is equipped with various G protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to soluble agonists such as thrombin, ADP, and thromboxane A2. In addition to G protein-coupled receptors, platelets express 3 glycoproteins that belong to the family of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors: Fc receptor γ chain, which is noncovalently associated with the glycoprotein VI collagen receptor, C-type lectin 2, the receptor for podoplanin, and Fc receptor γII A, a low-affinity receptor for immune complexes. Although both genetic and chemical approaches have documented a critical role for platelet G protein-coupled receptors in hemostasis, the contribution of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors to this process is less defined. Studies performed during the past decade, however, have identified new roles for platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling in vascular integrity in utero and at sites of inflammation. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on how platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling controls vascular integrity, both in the presence and absence of mechanical injury. PMID:24677237

  5. Platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling and vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Boulaftali, Yacine; Hess, Paul R; Kahn, Mark L; Bergmeier, Wolfgang

    2014-03-28

    Platelets are well-known for their critical role in hemostasis, that is, the prevention of blood loss at sites of mechanical vessel injury. Inappropriate platelet activation and adhesion, however, can lead to thrombotic complications, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. To fulfill its role in hemostasis, the platelet is equipped with various G protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to soluble agonists such as thrombin, ADP, and thromboxane A2. In addition to G protein-coupled receptors, platelets express 3 glycoproteins that belong to the family of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors: Fc receptor γ chain, which is noncovalently associated with the glycoprotein VI collagen receptor, C-type lectin 2, the receptor for podoplanin, and Fc receptor γII A, a low-affinity receptor for immune complexes. Although both genetic and chemical approaches have documented a critical role for platelet G protein-coupled receptors in hemostasis, the contribution of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors to this process is less defined. Studies performed during the past decade, however, have identified new roles for platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling in vascular integrity in utero and at sites of inflammation. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on how platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling controls vascular integrity, both in the presence and absence of mechanical injury.

  6. Carbohydrate-binding motifs in a novel type lectin from the sea mussel Crenomytilus grayanus: Homology modeling study and site-specific mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Svetlana N; Golotin, Vasily A; Balabanova, Larissa A; Buinovskaya, Nina S; Likhatskaya, Galina N; Rasskazov, Valery A

    2015-11-01

    The GalNAc/Gal-specific lectin from the sea mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (CGL) was shown to represent a novel family of lectins and to be characterized by three amino acid tandem repeats with high (up to 73%) sequence similarities to each other. We have used homology modeling approach to predict CGL sugar-binding sites. In silico analysis of CGL-GalNAc complexes showed that CGL contained three binding sites, each of which included conserved HPY(K)G motif. In silico substitutions of histidine, proline and glycine residues by alanine in the HPY(K)G motifs of the Sites 1-3 was shown to lead to loss of hydrogen bonds between His and GalNAc and to the increasing the calculated CGL-GalNAc binding energies. We have obtained recombinant CGL and used site-specific mutagenesis to experimentally examine the role of HPK(Y)G motifs in hemagglutinating and carbohydrate binding activities of CGL. Substitutions of histidine, proline and glycine residues by alanine in the HPYG motif of Site 1 and Site 2 was found to led to complete loss of CGL hemagglutinating and mucin-binding activities. The same mutations in HPKG motif of the Site 3 resulted in decreasing the mucin-binding activity in 6-folds in comparison with the wild type lectin. The mutagenesis and in silico analysis indicates the importance of the all three HPY(K)G motifs in the carbohydrate-binding and hemagglutinating activities of CGL. PMID:26439416

  7. The consensus 5' splice site motif inhibits mRNA nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eliza S; Akef, Abdalla; Mahadevan, Kohila; Palazzo, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, mRNAs are synthesized in the nucleus and then exported to the cytoplasm where they are translated into proteins. We have mapped an element, which when present in the 3'terminal exon or in an unspliced mRNA, inhibits mRNA nuclear export. This element has the same sequence as the consensus 5'splice site motif that is used to define the start of introns. Previously it was shown that when this motif is retained in the mRNA, it causes defects in 3'cleavage and polyadenylation and promotes mRNA decay. Our new data indicates that this motif also inhibits nuclear export and promotes the targeting of transcripts to nuclear speckles, foci within the nucleus which have been linked to splicing. The motif, however, does not disrupt splicing or the recruitment of UAP56 or TAP/Nxf1 to the RNA, which are normally required for nuclear export. Genome wide analysis of human mRNAs, lncRNA and eRNAs indicates that this motif is depleted from naturally intronless mRNAs and eRNAs, but less so in lncRNAs. This motif is also depleted from the beginning and ends of the 3'terminal exons of spliced mRNAs, but less so for lncRNAs. Our data suggests that the presence of the 5'splice site motif in mature RNAs promotes their nuclear retention and may help to distinguish mRNAs from misprocessed transcripts and transcriptional noise.

  8. The Consensus 5' Splice Site Motif Inhibits mRNA Nuclear Export

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eliza S.; Akef, Abdalla; Mahadevan, Kohila; Palazzo, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, mRNAs are synthesized in the nucleus and then exported to the cytoplasm where they are translated into proteins. We have mapped an element, which when present in the 3’terminal exon or in an unspliced mRNA, inhibits mRNA nuclear export. This element has the same sequence as the consensus 5’splice site motif that is used to define the start of introns. Previously it was shown that when this motif is retained in the mRNA, it causes defects in 3’cleavage and polyadenylation and promotes mRNA decay. Our new data indicates that this motif also inhibits nuclear export and promotes the targeting of transcripts to nuclear speckles, foci within the nucleus which have been linked to splicing. The motif, however, does not disrupt splicing or the recruitment of UAP56 or TAP/Nxf1 to the RNA, which are normally required for nuclear export. Genome wide analysis of human mRNAs, lncRNA and eRNAs indicates that this motif is depleted from naturally intronless mRNAs and eRNAs, but less so in lncRNAs. This motif is also depleted from the beginning and ends of the 3’terminal exons of spliced mRNAs, but less so for lncRNAs. Our data suggests that the presence of the 5’splice site motif in mature RNAs promotes their nuclear retention and may help to distinguish mRNAs from misprocessed transcripts and transcriptional noise. PMID:25826302

  9. Multiple Binding Modes between HNF4[alpha] and the LXXLL Motifs of PGC-1[alpha] Lead to Full Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Rha, Geun Bae; Wu, Guangteng; Shoelson, Steven E.; Chi, Young-In

    2010-04-15

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) is a novel nuclear receptor that participates in a hierarchical network of transcription factors regulating the development and physiology of such vital organs as the liver, pancreas, and kidney. Among the various transcriptional coregulators with which HNF4{alpha} interacts, peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator 1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) represents a novel coactivator whose activation is unusually robust and whose binding mode appears to be distinct from that of canonical coactivators such as NCoA/SRC/p160 family members. To elucidate the potentially unique molecular mechanism of PGC-1{alpha} recruitment, we have determined the crystal structure of HNF4{alpha} in complex with a fragment of PGC-1{alpha} containing all three of its LXXLL motifs. Despite the presence of all three LXXLL motifs available for interactions, only one is bound at the canonical binding site, with no additional contacts observed between the two proteins. However, a close inspection of the electron density map indicates that the bound LXXLL motif is not a selected one but an averaged structure of more than one LXXLL motif. Further biochemical and functional studies show that the individual LXXLL motifs can bind but drive only minimal transactivation. Only when more than one LXXLL motif is involved can significant transcriptional activity be measured, and full activation requires all three LXXLL motifs. These findings led us to propose a model wherein each LXXLL motif has an additive effect, and the multiple binding modes by HNF4{alpha} toward the LXXLL motifs of PGC-1{alpha} could account for the apparent robust activation by providing a flexible mechanism for combinatorial recruitment of additional coactivators and mediators.

  10. Function-based classification of carbohydrate-active enzymes by recognition of short, conserved peptide motifs.

    PubMed

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2013-06-01

    Functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes is difficult due to low sequence identity. However, similar enzymes often share a few short motifs, e.g., around the active site, even when the overall sequences are very different. To exploit this notion for functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes, we developed a simple algorithm, peptide pattern recognition (PPR), that can divide proteins into groups of sequences that share a set of short conserved sequences. When this method was used on 118 glycoside hydrolase 5 proteins with 9% average pairwise identity and representing four characterized enzymatic functions, 97% of the proteins were sorted into groups correlating with their enzymatic activity. Furthermore, we analyzed 8,138 glycoside hydrolase 13 proteins including 204 experimentally characterized enzymes with 28 different functions. There was a 91% correlation between group and enzyme activity. These results indicate that the function of carbohydrate-active enzymes can be predicted with high precision by finding short, conserved motifs in their sequences. The glycoside hydrolase 61 family is important for fungal biomass conversion, but only a few proteins of this family have been functionally characterized. Interestingly, PPR divided 743 glycoside hydrolase 61 proteins into 16 subfamilies useful for targeted investigation of the function of these proteins and pinpointed three conserved motifs with putative importance for enzyme activity. Furthermore, the conserved sequences were useful for cloning of new, subfamily-specific glycoside hydrolase 61 proteins from 14 fungi. In conclusion, identification of conserved sequence motifs is a new approach to sequence analysis that can predict carbohydrate-active enzyme functions with high precision. PMID:23524681

  11. Function-based classification of carbohydrate-active enzymes by recognition of short, conserved peptide motifs.

    PubMed

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2013-06-01

    Functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes is difficult due to low sequence identity. However, similar enzymes often share a few short motifs, e.g., around the active site, even when the overall sequences are very different. To exploit this notion for functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes, we developed a simple algorithm, peptide pattern recognition (PPR), that can divide proteins into groups of sequences that share a set of short conserved sequences. When this method was used on 118 glycoside hydrolase 5 proteins with 9% average pairwise identity and representing four characterized enzymatic functions, 97% of the proteins were sorted into groups correlating with their enzymatic activity. Furthermore, we analyzed 8,138 glycoside hydrolase 13 proteins including 204 experimentally characterized enzymes with 28 different functions. There was a 91% correlation between group and enzyme activity. These results indicate that the function of carbohydrate-active enzymes can be predicted with high precision by finding short, conserved motifs in their sequences. The glycoside hydrolase 61 family is important for fungal biomass conversion, but only a few proteins of this family have been functionally characterized. Interestingly, PPR divided 743 glycoside hydrolase 61 proteins into 16 subfamilies useful for targeted investigation of the function of these proteins and pinpointed three conserved motifs with putative importance for enzyme activity. Furthermore, the conserved sequences were useful for cloning of new, subfamily-specific glycoside hydrolase 61 proteins from 14 fungi. In conclusion, identification of conserved sequence motifs is a new approach to sequence analysis that can predict carbohydrate-active enzyme functions with high precision.

  12. Rapid Identification of Protein Kinase Phosphorylation Site Motifs Using Combinatorial Peptide Libraries.

    PubMed

    Miller, Chad J; Turk, Benjamin E

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases phosphorylate substrates at serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues that fall within the context of short sequence motifs. Knowing the phosphorylation site motif for a protein kinase facilitates designing substrates for kinase assays and mapping phosphorylation sites in protein substrates. Here, we describe an arrayed peptide library protocol for rapidly determining kinase phosphorylation consensus sequences. This method uses a set of peptide mixtures in which each of the 20 amino acid residues is systematically substituted at nine positions surrounding a central site of phosphorylation. Peptide mixtures are arrayed in multiwell plates and analyzed by radiolabel assay with the kinase of interest. The preferred sequence is determined from the relative rate of phosphorylation of each peptide in the array. Consensus peptides based on these sequences typically serve as efficient and specific kinase substrates for high-throughput screening or incorporation into biosensors.

  13. The ABBA motif binds APC/C activators and is shared by APC/C substrates and regulators

    PubMed Central

    Hagting, Anja; Izawa, Daisuke; Mansfeld, Jörg; Gibson, Toby J.; Pines, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    The APC/C is the ubiquitin ligase that regulates mitosis by targeting specific proteins for degradation at specific times under the control of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC). How the APC/C recognises its different substrates is a key problem in the control of cell division. Here, we have identified the ABBA motif in Cyclin A, BUBR1, BUB1 and Acm1, and show that it binds to the APC/C co-activator CDC20. The ABBA motif in Cyclin A is required for its proper degradation in prometaphase through competing with BUBR1 for the same site on CDC20. Moreover, the ABBA motifs in BUBR1 and BUB1 are necessary for the SAC to work at full strength and to recruit CDC20 to kinetochores. Thus, we have identified a conserved motif integral to the proper control of mitosis that connects APC/C substrate recognition with the SAC. PMID:25669885

  14. The PDZ-binding motif of Yes-associated protein is required for its co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription and oncogenic cell transforming activity

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, Tadanori; Miyamura, Norio; Hata, Shoji; Miura, Ryota; Hirayama, Jun Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits constitutively active YAP (5SA)-induced oncogenic cell transformation. •The PDZ-binding motif of YAP promotes its nuclear localization in cultured cells and mouse liver. •Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF transcription in cultured cells and mouse liver. -- Abstract: YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that acts downstream of the Hippo signaling pathway and regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation. Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation of YAP negatively regulates its function. Conversely, attenuation of Hippo-mediated phosphorylation of YAP increases its ability to stimulate proliferation and eventually induces oncogenic transformation. The C-terminus of YAP contains a highly conserved PDZ-binding motif that regulates YAP’s functions in multiple ways. However, to date, the importance of the PDZ-binding motif to the oncogenic cell transforming activity of YAP has not been determined. In this study, we disrupted the PDZ-binding motif in the YAP (5SA) protein, in which the sites normally targeted by Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation are mutated. We found that loss of the PDZ-binding motif significantly inhibited the oncogenic transformation of cultured cells induced by YAP (5SA). In addition, the increased nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and its enhanced activation of TEAD-dependent transcription of the cell proliferation gene CTGF were strongly reduced when the PDZ-binding motif was deleted. Similarly, in mouse liver, deletion of the PDZ-binding motif suppressed nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP is critical for YAP-mediated oncogenesis, and that this effect is mediated by YAP’s co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription.

  15. Sequence motif upstream of the Hendra virus fusion protein cleavage site is not sufficient to promote efficient proteolytic processing

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Willie Warren; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis . E-mail: rdutc2@uky.edu

    2005-10-10

    The Hendra virus fusion (HeV F) protein is synthesized as a precursor, F{sub 0}, and proteolytically cleaved into the mature F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} heterodimer, following an HDLVDGVK{sub 109} motif. This cleavage event is required for fusogenic activity. To determine the amino acid requirements for processing of the HeV F protein, we constructed multiple mutants. Individual and simultaneous alanine substitutions of the eight residues immediately upstream of the cleavage site did not eliminate processing. A chimeric SV5 F protein in which the furin site was substituted for the VDGVK{sub 109} motif of the HeV F protein was not processed but was expressed on the cell surface. Another chimeric SV5 F protein containing the HDLVDGVK{sub 109} motif of the HeV F protein underwent partial cleavage. These data indicate that the upstream region can play a role in protease recognition, but is neither absolutely required nor sufficient for efficient processing of the HeV F protein.

  16. Dipeptide frequency/bias analysis identifies conserved sites of nonrandomness shared by cysteine-rich motifs.

    PubMed

    Campion, S R; Ameen, A S; Lai, L; King, J M; Munzenmaier, T N

    2001-08-15

    This report describes the application of a simple computational tool, AAPAIR.TAB, for the systematic analysis of the cysteine-rich EGF, Sushi, and Laminin motif/sequence families at the two-amino acid level. Automated dipeptide frequency/bias analysis detects preferences in the distribution of amino acids in established protein families, by determining which "ordered dipeptides" occur most frequently in comprehensive motif-specific sequence data sets. Graphic display of the dipeptide frequency/bias data revealed family-specific preferences for certain dipeptides, but more importantly detected a shared preference for employment of the ordered dipeptides Gly-Tyr (GY) and Gly-Phe (GF) in all three protein families. The dipeptide Asn-Gly (NG) also exhibited high-frequency and bias in the EGF and Sushi motif families, whereas Asn-Thr (NT) was distinguished in the Laminin family. Evaluation of the distribution of dipeptides identified by frequency/bias analysis subsequently revealed the highly restricted localization of the G(F/Y) and N(G/T) sequence elements at two separate sites of extreme conservation in the consensus sequence of all three sequence families. The similar employment of the high-frequency/bias dipeptides in three distinct protein sequence families was further correlated with the concurrence of these shared molecular determinants at similar positions within the distinctive scaffolds of three structurally divergent, but similarly employed, motif modules.

  17. TFBSshape: a motif database for DNA shape features of transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Zhou, Tianyin; Dror, Iris; Mathelier, Anthony; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Gordân, Raluca; Rohs, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are most commonly characterized by the nucleotide preferences at each position of the DNA target. Whereas these sequence motifs are quite accurate descriptions of DNA binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs), proteins recognize DNA as a three-dimensional object. DNA structural features refine the description of TF binding specificities and provide mechanistic insights into protein–DNA recognition. Existing motif databases contain extensive nucleotide sequences identified in binding experiments based on their selection by a TF. To utilize DNA shape information when analysing the DNA binding specificities of TFs, we developed a new tool, the TFBSshape database (available at http://rohslab.cmb.usc.edu/TFBSshape/), for calculating DNA structural features from nucleotide sequences provided by motif databases. The TFBSshape database can be used to generate heat maps and quantitative data for DNA structural features (i.e., minor groove width, roll, propeller twist and helix twist) for 739 TF datasets from 23 different species derived from the motif databases JASPAR and UniPROBE. As demonstrated for the basic helix-loop-helix and homeodomain TF families, our TFBSshape database can be used to compare, qualitatively and quantitatively, the DNA binding specificities of closely related TFs and, thus, uncover differential DNA binding specificities that are not apparent from nucleotide sequence alone. PMID:24214955

  18. The PDZ-binding motif of Yes-associated protein is required for its co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription and oncogenic cell transforming activity.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Tadanori; Miyamura, Norio; Hata, Shoji; Miura, Ryota; Hirayama, Jun; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that acts downstream of the Hippo signaling pathway and regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation. Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation of YAP negatively regulates its function. Conversely, attenuation of Hippo-mediated phosphorylation of YAP increases its ability to stimulate proliferation and eventually induces oncogenic transformation. The C-terminus of YAP contains a highly conserved PDZ-binding motif that regulates YAP's functions in multiple ways. However, to date, the importance of the PDZ-binding motif to the oncogenic cell transforming activity of YAP has not been determined. In this study, we disrupted the PDZ-binding motif in the YAP (5SA) protein, in which the sites normally targeted by Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation are mutated. We found that loss of the PDZ-binding motif significantly inhibited the oncogenic transformation of cultured cells induced by YAP (5SA). In addition, the increased nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and its enhanced activation of TEAD-dependent transcription of the cell proliferation gene CTGF were strongly reduced when the PDZ-binding motif was deleted. Similarly, in mouse liver, deletion of the PDZ-binding motif suppressed nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP is critical for YAP-mediated oncogenesis, and that this effect is mediated by YAP's co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription.

  19. Defense-Inducing Volatiles: In Search of the Active Motif

    PubMed Central

    Lion, Ulrich; Boland, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely appreciated as an indirect defense mechanism since carnivorous arthropods use VOCs as cues for host localization and then attack herbivores. Another function of VOCs is plant–plant signaling. That VOCs elicit defensive responses in neighboring plants has been reported from various species, and different compounds have been found to be active. In order to search for a structural motif that characterizes active VOCs, we used lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), which responds to VOCs released from damaged plants with an increased secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN). We exposed lima bean to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, a substance naturally released from damaged lima bean and known to induce EFN secretion, and to several structurally related compounds. (E)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, 5-hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenylisovalerate, and (Z)-3-hexenylbutyrate all elicited significant increases in EFN secretion, demonstrating that neither the (Z)-configuration nor the position of the double-bond nor the size of the acid moiety are critical for the EFN-inducing effect. Our result is not consistent with previous concepts that postulate reactive electrophile species (Michael-acceptor-systems) for defense-induction in Arabidopsis. Instead, we postulate that physicochemical processes, including interactions with odorant binding proteins and resulting in changes in transmembrane potentials, can underlie VOCs-mediated signaling processes. PMID:18408973

  20. The EDLL motif: a potent plant transcriptional activation domain from AP2/ERF transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shiv B; Belachew, Alemu; Ma, Siu Fong; Young, Melinda; Ade, Jules; Shen, Yu; Marion, Colleen M; Holtan, Hans E; Bailey, Adina; Stone, Jeffrey K; Edwards, Leslie; Wallace, Andreah D; Canales, Roger D; Adam, Luc; Ratcliffe, Oliver J; Repetti, Peter P

    2012-06-01

    In plants, the ERF/EREBP family of transcriptional regulators plays a key role in adaptation to various biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins contain a conserved AP2 DNA-binding domain and several uncharacterized motifs. Here, we describe a short motif, termed 'EDLL', that is present in AtERF98/TDR1 and other clade members from the same AP2 sub-family. We show that the EDLL motif, which has a unique arrangement of acidic amino acids and hydrophobic leucines, functions as a strong activation domain. The motif is transferable to other proteins, and is active at both proximal and distal positions of target promoters. As such, the EDLL motif is able to partly overcome the repression conferred by the AtHB2 transcription factor, which contains an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif. We further examined the activation potential of EDLL by analysis of the regulation of flowering time by NF-Y (nuclear factor Y) proteins. Genetic evidence indicates that NF-Y protein complexes potentiate the action of CONSTANS in regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis; we show that the transcriptional activation function of CONSTANS can be substituted by direct fusion of the EDLL activation motif to NF-YB subunits. The EDLL motif represents a potent plant activation domain that can be used as a tool to confer transcriptional activation potential to heterologous DNA-binding proteins.

  1. IL-4 and IL-13 induce SOCS-1 gene expression in A549 cells by three functional STAT6-binding motifs located upstream of the transcription initiation site.

    PubMed

    Hebenstreit, Daniel; Luft, Petra; Schmiedlechner, Angela; Regl, Gerhard; Frischauf, Anna-Maria; Aberger, Fritz; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2003-12-01

    Proteins of the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family have important functions as negative regulators of cytokine signaling. We show here that SOCS-1 expression can be induced in the human epithelial lung cell line A549 by IL-4 and IL-13. Analysis of reporter gene constructs under control of the SOCS-1 promoter provides evidence that IL-4- and IL-13-induced up-regulation is dependent on three IFN-gamma-activated sequence motifs of the sequence TTC(N)(4)GAA, which is known for binding STAT6. The three motifs are situated close to each other approximately 600 bp upstream of the transcriptional initiation site. When mutations were inserted into all three IFN-gamma-activated sequence motifs at the same time, IL-4-IL-13-induced luciferase activity was abrogated. With single and double mutants, promoter activity was diminished in comparison with the wild-type promoter. STAT6 is therefore required for IL-4-IL-13-dependent SOCS-1 expression in A549 cells, and the three identified binding motifs cooperate to induce maximal transcription. EMSAs conducted with nuclear extracts of IL-4- and IL-13-stimulated A549 cells showed that STAT6 was able to bind to each of the three binding motifs. Finally, cotransfection of a SOCS-1 expression vector inhibited activation of SOCS-1 promoter luciferase constructs. Thus, SOCS-1 is able to autoregulate its expression via a negative feedback loop.

  2. Oxidation Protection in Metal-Binding Peptide Motif and Its Application to Antibody for Site-Selective Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hye-Shin; Lee, Sunbae; Park, Soon Jae

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that a metal ion binding motif could serve as an efficient and robust tool for site-specific conjugation strategy. Cysteine-containing metal binding motifs were constructed as single repeat or tandem repeat peptides and their metal binding characteristics were investigated. The tandem repeats of the Cysteine-Glycine-Histidine (CGH) metal ion binding motif exhibited concerted binding to Co(II) ions, suggesting that conformational transition of peptide was triggered by the sequential metal ion binding. Evaluation of the free thiol content after reduction by reducing reagent showed that metal-ion binding elicited strong retardation of cysteine oxidation in the order of Zn(II)>Ni(II)>Co(II). The CGH metal ion binding motif was then introduced to the C-terminus of antibody heavy chain and the metal ion-dependent characteristics of oxidation kinetics were investigated. As in the case of peptides, CGH-motif-introduced antibody exhibited strong dependence on metal ion binding to protect against oxidation. Zn(II)-saturated antibody with tandem repeat of CGH motif retains the cysteine reactivity as long as 22 hour even with saturating O2 condition. Metal-ion dependent fluorophore labeling clearly indicated that metal binding motifs could be employed as an efficient tool for site-specific conjugation. Whereas Trastuzumab without a metal ion binding site exhibited site-nonspecific dye conjugation, Zn(II) ion binding to antibody with a tandem repeat of CGH motif showed that fluorophores were site-specifically conjugated to the heavy chain of antibody. We believe that this strong metal ion dependence on oxidation protection and the resulting site-selective conjugation could be exploited further to develop a highly site-specific conjugation strategy for proteins that contain multiple intrinsic cysteine residues, including monoclonal antibodies. PMID:27420328

  3. The promoter competition assay (PCA): a new approach to identify motifs involved in the transcriptional activity of reporter genes.

    PubMed

    Hube, Florent; Myal, Yvonne; Leygue, Etienne

    2006-05-01

    Identifying particular motifs responsible for promoter activity is a crucial step toward the development of new gene-based preventive and therapeutic strategies. However, to date, experimental methods to study promoter activity remain limited. We present in this report a promoter competition assay designed to identify, within a given promoter region, motifs critical for its activity. This assay consists in co-transfecting the promoter to be analyzed and double-stranded oligonucleotides which will compete for the binding of transcription factors. Using the recently characterized SBEM promoter as model, we first delineated the feasibility of the method and optimized the experimental conditions. We then identified, within an 87-bp region responsible for a strong expression of the reporter gene, an octamer-binding site essential for its transcriptional regulation. The importance of this motif has been confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. The promoter competition assay appears to be a fast and efficient approach to identify, within a given promoter sequence, sites critical for its activity.

  4. A conserved motif mediates both multimer formation and allosteric activation of phosphoglycerate mutase 5.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Jordan M; McConnell, Cyrus; Tipton, Peter A; Hannink, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5) is an atypical mitochondrial Ser/Thr phosphatase that modulates mitochondrial dynamics and participates in both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. The mechanisms that regulate the phosphatase activity of PGAM5 are poorly understood. The C-terminal phosphoglycerate mutase domain of PGAM5 shares homology with the catalytic domains found in other members of the phosphoglycerate mutase family, including a conserved histidine that is absolutely required for catalytic activity. However, this conserved domain is not sufficient for maximal phosphatase activity. We have identified a highly conserved amino acid motif, WDXNWD, located within the unique N-terminal region, which is required for assembly of PGAM5 into large multimeric complexes. Alanine substitutions within the WDXNWD motif abolish the formation of multimeric complexes and markedly reduce phosphatase activity of PGAM5. A peptide containing the WDXNWD motif dissociates the multimeric complex and reduces but does not fully abolish phosphatase activity. Addition of the WDXNWD-containing peptide in trans to a mutant PGAM5 protein lacking the WDXNWD motif markedly increases phosphatase activity of the mutant protein. Our results are consistent with an intermolecular allosteric regulation mechanism for the phosphatase activity of PGAM5, in which the assembly of PGAM5 into multimeric complexes, mediated by the WDXNWD motif, results in maximal activation of phosphatase activity. Our results suggest the possibility of identifying small molecules that function as allosteric regulators of the phosphatase activity of PGAM5. PMID:25012655

  5. The HHM Motif at the CuH-site of Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase is a pH-Dependent Conformational Switch†

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Chelsey D.; Mayfield, Mary; Blackburn, Ninian J.

    2013-01-01

    Peptidylglycine monooxygenase is a copper-containing enzyme which catalyzes the amidation of neuropeptide hormones, the first step of which is the conversion of a glycine-extended pro-peptide to its α-hydroxyglcine intermediate. The enzyme contains two mononuclear Cu centers termed CuM (ligated to imidazole nitrogens of H242, H244 and the thioether S of M314) and CuH (ligated to imidazole nitrogens of H107, H108 and H172) with a Cu-Cu separation of 11 Å. During catalysis, the M site binds oxygen and substrate and the H site donates the second electron required for hydroxylation. The WT enzyme shows maximum catalytic activity at pH 5.8, and undergoes loss of activity at lower pHs due to a protonation event with a pKA of 4.6. Low pH also causes a unique structural transition in which a new S ligand coordinates to copper with an identical pKA, manifest by a large increase in Cu-S intensity in the XAS. In previous work (Bauman, A. T., Broers, B. A., Kline, C. D., and Blackburn, N. J. (2011) Biochemistry 50, 10819–10828) we tentitively assigned the new Cu-S interaction to binding of M109 to the H-site (part of an HHM conserved motif common to all but one member of the family). Here we follow up on these findings via studies on the catalytic activity, pH-activity profiles, and spectroscopic (EPR, XAS and FTIR) properties of a number of H-site variants, including H107A, H108A, H172A and M109I. Our results establish that M109 is indeed the coordinating ligand, and confirm the prediction that the low pH structural transition with associated loss of activity is abrogated when the M109 thioether is absent. The histidine mutants show more complex behavior, but the almost complete lack of activity in all three variants coupled with only minor differences in their spectroscopic properties suggests that unique structural elements at H are critical for functionality. The data suggest a more general utility for the HHM motif as a copper- and pH-dependent conformational switch

  6. Pyrimidone-based series of glucokinase activators with alternative donor-acceptor motif.

    PubMed

    Filipski, Kevin J; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Bian, Jianwei; Perreault, Christian; Aspnes, Gary E; Didiuk, Mary T; Dow, Robert L; Hank, Richard F; Jones, Christopher S; Maguire, Robert J; Tu, Meihua; Zeng, Dongxiang; Liu, Shenping; Knafels, John D; Litchfield, John; Atkinson, Karen; Derksen, David R; Bourbonais, Francis; Gajiwala, Ketan S; Hickey, Michael; Johnson, Theodore O; Humphries, Paul S; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A

    2013-08-15

    Glucokinase activators are a class of experimental agents under investigation as a therapy for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. An X-ray crystal structure of a modestly potent agent revealed the potential to substitute the common heterocyclic amide donor-acceptor motif for a pyridone moiety. We have successfully demonstrated that both pyridone and pyrimidone heterocycles can be used as a potent donor-acceptor substituent. Several sub-micromolar analogs that possess the desired partial activator profile were synthesized and characterized. Unfortunately, the most potent activators suffered from sub-optimal pharmacokinetic properties. Nonetheless, these donor-acceptor motifs may find utility in other glucokinase activator series or beyond.

  7. Interactions of noncanonical motifs with hnRNP A2 promote activity-dependent RNA transport in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Muslimov, Ilham A.; Tuzhilin, Aliya; Tang, Thean Hock; Wong, Robert K.S.; Bianchi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    A key determinant of neuronal functionality and plasticity is the targeted delivery of select ribonucleic acids (RNAs) to synaptodendritic sites of protein synthesis. In this paper, we ask how dendritic RNA transport can be regulated in a manner that is informed by the cell’s activity status. We describe a molecular mechanism in which inducible interactions of noncanonical RNA motif structures with targeting factor heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2 form the basis for activity-dependent dendritic RNA targeting. High-affinity interactions between hnRNP A2 and conditional GA-type RNA targeting motifs are critically dependent on elevated Ca2+ levels in a narrow concentration range. Dendritic transport of messenger RNAs that carry such GA motifs is inducible by influx of Ca2+ through voltage-dependent calcium channels upon β-adrenergic receptor activation. The combined data establish a functional correspondence between Ca2+-dependent RNA–protein interactions and activity-inducible RNA transport in dendrites. They also indicate a role of genomic retroposition in the phylogenetic development of RNA targeting competence. PMID:24841565

  8. Subtle Changes in Motif Positioning Cause Tissue-Specific Effects on Robustness of an Enhancer's Activity

    PubMed Central

    Erceg, Jelena; Saunders, Timothy E.; Girardot, Charles; Devos, Damien P.; Hufnagel, Lars; Furlong, Eileen E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the specific contribution of individual motifs within cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) is crucial to understanding how gene expression is regulated and how this process is affected by sequence variation. But despite vast improvements in the ability to identify where transcription factors (TFs) bind throughout the genome, we are limited in our ability to relate information on motif occupancy to function from sequence alone. Here, we engineered 63 synthetic CRMs to systematically assess the relationship between variation in the content and spacing of motifs within CRMs to CRM activity during development using Drosophila transgenic embryos. In over half the cases, very simple elements containing only one or two types of TF binding motifs were capable of driving specific spatio-temporal patterns during development. Different motif organizations provide different degrees of robustness to enhancer activity, ranging from binary on-off responses to more subtle effects including embryo-to-embryo and within-embryo variation. By quantifying the effects of subtle changes in motif organization, we were able to model biophysical rules that explain CRM behavior and may contribute to the spatial positioning of CRM activity in vivo. For the same enhancer, the effects of small differences in motif positions varied in developmentally related tissues, suggesting that gene expression may be more susceptible to sequence variation in one tissue compared to another. This result has important implications for human eQTL studies in which many associated mutations are found in cis-regulatory regions, though the mechanism for how they affect tissue-specific gene expression is often not understood. PMID:24391522

  9. Structural analysis of effector functions related motifs, complement activation and hemagglutinating activities in Lama glama heavy chain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Saccodossi, Natalia; De Simone, Emilio A; Leoni, Juliana

    2012-01-15

    Heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs), devoid of the light chains and the CH(1) domain, are present in the serum of camelids. IgG(2) and IgG(3) are HCAbs; whereas IgG(1) has the conventional structure. In order to study the immunological properties of llama HCAbs, from which to date little is known, llamas (Lama glama) HCAbs cDNA were cloned, sequenced and compared with other mammalian Igs. The sequence analysis showed that llama HCAbs cDNA organization is similar to other mammalian Igs and the presence of conserved binding motifs to Protein A, Protein G, FcγRI, FcγRIII and C1q in HCAbs were observed. In a previous work, different IgG isotypes purified by Protein A and Protein G chromatography, were assayed for their ability to fix complement. Both IgG(1) and the total serum were able to fix complement, whereas IgG(2) and IgG(3) fixed complement even in the absence of antigen (anti-complementary activity). Therefore, in this work we performed the complement activating activity of the different IgG isotypes purified under physiological conditions using Sephadex G-150 and their ability to induce hemagglutination. Llamas were immunized with sheep red blood cells (RBC) stroma and the different isotypes were purified from sera. Whole serum and IgG(1) could activate complement; however, HCAbs (IgG(2)+IgG(3)) could not, despite the presence of the C1q binding motif in their primary sequence. Unlike IgG(1), the fraction corresponding to IgG(2)+IgG(3) did not display hemagglutinating activity. Our findings suggest that HCAbs cannot crosslink efficiently with different antigens and that the C1q binding site might be hindered by the proximity of the variable domains. PMID:22197565

  10. Molecular pathogenesis of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza: the role of the haemagglutinin cleavage site motif.

    PubMed

    Luczo, Jasmina M; Stambas, John; Durr, Peter A; Michalski, Wojtek P; Bingham, John

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza has caused a heavy socio-economic burden through culling of poultry to minimise human and livestock infection. Although human infections with H5N1 have to date been limited, concerns for the pandemic potential of this zoonotic virus have been greatly intensified following experimental evidence of aerosol transmission of H5N1 viruses in a mammalian infection model. In this review, we discuss the dominance of the haemagglutinin cleavage site motif as a pathogenicity determinant, the host-pathogen molecular interactions driving cleavage activation, reverse genetics manipulations and identification of residues key to haemagglutinin cleavage site functionality and the mechanisms of cell and tissue damage during H5N1 infection. We specifically focus on the disease in chickens, as it is in this species that high pathogenicity frequently evolves and from which transmission to the human population occurs. With >75% of emerging infectious diseases being of zoonotic origin, it is necessary to understand pathogenesis in the primary host to explain spillover events into the human population. PMID:26467906

  11. Molecular pathogenesis of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza: the role of the haemagglutinin cleavage site motif

    PubMed Central

    Luczo, Jasmina M.; Stambas, John; Durr, Peter A.; Michalski, Wojtek P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The emergence of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza has caused a heavy socio‐economic burden through culling of poultry to minimise human and livestock infection. Although human infections with H5N1 have to date been limited, concerns for the pandemic potential of this zoonotic virus have been greatly intensified following experimental evidence of aerosol transmission of H5N1 viruses in a mammalian infection model. In this review, we discuss the dominance of the haemagglutinin cleavage site motif as a pathogenicity determinant, the host‐pathogen molecular interactions driving cleavage activation, reverse genetics manipulations and identification of residues key to haemagglutinin cleavage site functionality and the mechanisms of cell and tissue damage during H5N1 infection. We specifically focus on the disease in chickens, as it is in this species that high pathogenicity frequently evolves and from which transmission to the human population occurs. With >75% of emerging infectious diseases being of zoonotic origin, it is necessary to understand pathogenesis in the primary host to explain spillover events into the human population. © 2015 The Authors. Reviews in Medical Virology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26467906

  12. MICU1 motifs define mitochondrial calcium uniporter binding and activity.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Nicholas E; Chandramoorthy, Harish C; Shamugapriya, Santhanam; Zhang, Xueqian; Rajan, Sudarsan; Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Gandhirajan, Rajesh Kumar; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Ferrer, Lucas M; Sreekrishnanilayam, Krishnalatha; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Vallem, Sandhya; Force, Thomas; Choi, Eric T; Cheung, Joseph Y; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2013-12-26

    Resting mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+) is maintained through a mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1)-established threshold inhibition of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) activity. It is not known how MICU1 interacts with MCU to establish this Ca(2+) threshold for mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and MCU activity. Here, we show that MICU1 localizes to the mitochondrial matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane and MICU1/MCU binding is determined by a MICU1 N-terminal polybasic domain and two interacting coiled-coil domains of MCU. Further investigation reveals that MICU1 forms homo-oligomers, and this oligomerization is independent of the polybasic region. However, the polybasic region confers MICU1 oligomeric binding to MCU and controls mitochondrial Ca(2+) current (IMCU). Moreover, MICU1 EF hands regulate MCU channel activity, but do not determine MCU binding. Loss of MICU1 promotes MCU activation leading to oxidative burden and a halt to cell migration. These studies establish a molecular mechanism for MICU1 control of MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation, and dysregulation of this mechanism probably enhances vascular dysfunction.

  13. Signature motifs identify an Acinetobacter Cif virulence factor with epoxide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Christopher D; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Bridges, Andrew A; Ballok, Alicia E; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Cady, Kyle C; O'Toole, George A; Madden, Dean R

    2014-03-14

    Endocytic recycling of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is blocked by the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Originally discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cif is a secreted epoxide hydrolase that is transcriptionally regulated by CifR, an epoxide-sensitive repressor. In this report, we investigate a homologous protein found in strains of the emerging nosocomial pathogens Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii ("aCif"). Like Cif, aCif is an epoxide hydrolase that carries an N-terminal secretion signal and can be purified from culture supernatants. When applied directly to polarized airway epithelial cells, mature aCif triggers a reduction in CFTR abundance at the apical membrane. Biochemical and crystallographic studies reveal a dimeric assembly with a stereochemically conserved active site, confirming our motif-based identification of candidate Cif-like pathogenic EH sequences. Furthermore, cif expression is transcriptionally repressed by a CifR homolog ("aCifR") and is induced in the presence of epoxides. Overall, this Acinetobacter protein recapitulates the essential attributes of the Pseudomonas Cif system and thus may facilitate airway colonization in nosocomial lung infections. PMID:24474692

  14. Tyrosine kinase BMX phosphorylates phosphotyrosine-primed motif mediating the activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sen; Jiang, Xinnong; Gewinner, Christina A; Asara, John M; Simon, Nicholas I; Cai, Changmeng; Cantley, Lewis C; Balk, Steven P

    2013-05-28

    The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase BMX (bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene on chromosome X) is abundant in various cell types and activated downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and the kinase Src, but its substrates are unknown. Positional scanning peptide library screening revealed a marked preference for a priming phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) in the -1 position, indicating that BMX substrates may include multiple tyrosine kinases that are fully activated by pYpY sites in the kinase domain. BMX phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr⁵⁷⁷ subsequent to its Src-mediated phosphorylation at Tyr⁵⁷⁶. Loss of BMX by RNA interference or by genetic deletion in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) markedly impaired FAK activity. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in the kinase domain at Tyr¹¹⁸⁹ and Tyr¹¹⁹⁰, as well as Tyr¹¹⁸⁵, and downstream phosphorylation of the kinase AKT at Thr³⁰⁸ were similarly impaired by BMX deficiency. However, insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser⁴⁷³ was not impaired in Bmx knockout MEFs or liver tissue from Bmx knockout mice, which also showed increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, possibly because of decreased abundance of the phosphatase PHLPP (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase). Thus, by identifying the pYpY motif as a substrate for BMX, our findings suggest that BMX functions as a central regulator among multiple signaling pathways mediated by tyrosine kinases. PMID:23716717

  15. Identifying repeating motifs in the activation of synchronized bursts in cultured neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Raichman, Nadav; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2008-05-15

    Cultured neuronal networks cultivated on micro-electrode arrays are a widely used tool for the investigation of network mechanisms, providing structural framework for long-term recordings of network electrical activity, as well as the network reaction to electrical or chemical stimulations. The typical activity pattern of the culture takes the form of synchronized bursting events (SBEs), in which a large fraction of the recorded neurons simultaneously fire trains of action potentials in short bursts of several hundreds of a millisecond. We developed a method that identifies clusters of bursts that share a similar activation motif throughout the culture based on the fact that the culture morphology remains relatively unchanged for an extended time interval and that neurons fire in a recognizable and precise manner during a burst initiation. Our method compares accuracies in time delays that occurred between the activation of spike-trains of different neurons. Three culture architectures were studied and analyzed: a large network of 2 million cells, a smaller network limited in size of 100,000 cells, and a large network divided into 4 clusters. In each of the morphologies we identified cultures that showed more than one activation motif. Clustered networks showed more motifs on average than uniform cultures. The algorithm was able to show high fidelity to artificial noise. We also compare the results of our method with another method based on a correlation measure.

  16. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J.J.; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J.; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389

  17. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, Stefan H; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J J; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing.

  18. Conversion of a helix-turn-helix motif sequence-specific DNA binding protein into a site-specific DNA cleavage agent.

    PubMed Central

    Ebright, R H; Ebright, Y W; Pendergrast, P S; Gunasekera, A

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) is a helix-turn-helix motif sequence-specific DNA binding protein [de Crombrugghe, B., Busby, S. & Buc, H. (1984) Science 224, 831-838; and Pabo, C. & Sauer, R. (1984) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 53, 293-321]. In this work, CAP has been converted into a site-specific DNA cleavage agent by incorporation of the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline at amino acid 10 of the helix-turn-helix motif. [(N-Acetyl-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)-Cys178]CAP binds to a 22-base-pair DNA recognition site with Kobs = 1 x 10(8) M-1. In the presence of Cu(II) and reducing agent, [(N-acetyl-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)-Cys178]CAP cleaves DNA at four adjacent nucleotides on each DNA strand within the DNA recognition site. The DNA cleavage reaction has been demonstrated using 40-base-pair and 7164-base-pair DNA substrates. The DNA cleavage reaction is not inhibited by dam methylation of the DNA substrate. Such semisynthetic site-specific DNA cleavage agents have potential applications in chromosome mapping, cloning, and sequencing. Images PMID:2158096

  19. The GPS Motif Is a Molecular Switch for Bimodal Activities of Adhesion Class G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Prömel, Simone; Frickenhaus, Marie; Hughes, Samantha; Mestek, Lamia; Staunton, David; Woollard, Alison; Vakonakis, Ioannis; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schnabel, Ralf; Russ, Andreas P.; Langenhan, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Summary Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCR) form the second largest group of seven-transmembrane-spanning (7TM) receptors whose molecular layout and function differ from canonical 7TM receptors. Despite their essential roles in immunity, tumorigenesis, and development, the mechanisms of aGPCR activation and signal transduction have remained obscure to date. Here, we use a transgenic assay to define the protein domains required in vivo for the activity of the prototypical aGPCR LAT-1/Latrophilin in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that the GPCR proteolytic site (GPS) motif, the molecular hallmark feature of the entire aGPCR class, is essential for LAT-1 signaling serving in two different activity modes of the receptor. Surprisingly, neither mode requires cleavage but presence of the GPS, which relays interactions with at least two different partners. Our work thus uncovers the versatile nature of aGPCR activity in molecular detail and places the GPS motif in a central position for diverse protein-protein interactions. PMID:22938866

  20. DNAM-1 controls NK cell activation via an ITT-like motif

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhanguang; Wu, Ning; Lu, Yan; Davidson, Dominique; Colonna, Marco

    2015-01-01

    DNAM-1 (CD226) is an activating receptor expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, and other immune cells. Upon recognition of its ligands, CD155 and CD112, DNAM-1 promotes NK cell–mediated elimination of transformed and virus-infected cells. It also has a key role in expansion and maintenance of virus-specific memory NK cells. Herein, the mechanism by which DNAM-1 controls NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production was elucidated. Cytotoxicity and cytokine production triggered by DNAM-1 were mediated via a conserved tyrosine- and asparagine-based motif in the cytoplasmic domain of DNAM-1. Upon phosphorylation by Src kinases, this motif enabled binding of DNAM-1 to adaptor Grb2, leading to activation of enzymes Vav-1, phosphatidylinositol 3′ kinase, and phospholipase C-γ1. It also promoted activation of kinases Erk and Akt, and calcium fluxes. Although, as reported, DNAM-1 promoted adhesion, this function was signal-independent and insufficient to promote cytotoxicity. DNAM-1 signaling was also required to enhance cytotoxicity, by increasing actin polymerization and granule polarization. We propose that DNAM-1 promotes NK cell activation via an immunoreceptor tyrosine tail (ITT)–like motif coupling DNAM-1 to Grb2 and other downstream effectors. PMID:26552706

  1. Stably integrated mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat DNA requires the octamer motifs for basal promoter activity.

    PubMed Central

    Buetti, E

    1994-01-01

    In the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter, a tandem of octamer motifs, recognized by ubiquitous and tissue-restricted Oct transcription factors, is located upstream of the TATA box and next to a binding site for the transcription factor nuclear factor I (NF-I). Their function was investigated with mutant long terminal repeats under different transfection conditions in mouse Ltk- cells and quantitative S1 nuclease mapping of the transcripts. In stable transfectants, which are most representative of the state of proviral DNA with respect to both number of integrated DNA templates and chromatin organization, a long terminal repeat mutant of both octamer sites showed an average 50-fold reduction of the basal transcription level, while the dexamethasone-stimulated level was unaffected. DNase I in vitro footprinting assays with L-cell nuclear protein extracts showed that the mutant DNA was unable to bind octamer factors but had a normal footprint in the NF-I site. I conclude that mouse mammary tumor virus employs the tandem octamer motifs of the viral promoter, recognized by the ubiquitous transcription factor Oct-1, for its basal transcriptional activity and the NF-I binding site, as previously shown, for glucocorticoid-stimulated transcription. A deletion mutant with only one octamer site showed a marked base-level reduction at high copy number but little reduction at low copies of integrated plasmids. The observed transcription levels may depend both on the relative ratio of transcription factors to DNA templates and on the relative affinity of binding sites, as determined by oligonucleotide competition footprinting. Images PMID:8289800

  2. A conserved CATTCCT motif is required for skeletal muscle-specific activity of the cardiac troponin T gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Mar, J H; Ordahl, C P

    1988-01-01

    Transcription of the cardiac troponin T (cTNT) gene is restricted to cardiac and embryonic skeletal muscle tissue. A DNA segment containing 129 nucleotides upstream from the cTNT transcription initiation site (cTNT-129) directs expression of a heterologous marker gene in transfected embryonic skeletal muscle cells but is inactive in embryonic cardiac or fibroblast cells. By using chimeric promoter constructions, in which distal and proximal segments of cTNT-129 are fused to reciprocal segments of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV tk) gene promoter, the DNA segment responsible for this cell specificity can be localized to the cTNT distal promoter region, located between 50 and 129 nucleotides upstream of the transcription initiation site. The ability of the cTNT distal promoter region to confer skeletal muscle-specific activity upon a heterologous promoter is abolished when it is displaced 60 nucleotides upstream, indicating that its ability to direct skeletal muscle-specific transcription probably requires proximity to other components of the transcription initiation region. Two copies of the heptamer, CATTCCT ("muscle-CAT" or "M-CAT" motif), reside within the 80-nucleotide cTNT distal promoter region. A 3-nucleotide mutation in one of these copies inactivates the cTNT promoter in skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, the M-CAT motif is a distal promoter element required for expression of the cTNT promoter in embryonic skeletal muscle cells. Since the M-CAT motif is found in other contractile protein gene promoters, it may represent one example of a muscle-specific promoter element. Images PMID:3413104

  3. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4-like carrying an MEY motif instead of a TXY motif is involved in ozone tolerance and regulation of stomatal closure in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Yuki; Yoda, Hiroshi; Osaki, Kohei; Amano, Yuta; Aono, Mitsuko; Seo, Shigemi; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs/MPKs) are important factors in the regulation of signal transduction in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Previously, we characterized a MAPK from tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum MPK4 (NtMPK4). Here, we found a highly homologous gene, NtMPK4-like (NtMPK4L), in tobacco as well as other species in Solanaceae and Gramineae. Deduced amino acid sequences of their translation products carried MEY motifs instead of conserved TXY motifs of the MAPK family. We isolated the full length NtMPK4L gene and examined the physiological functions of NtMPK4L. We revealed that NtMPK4L was activated by wounding, like NtMPK4. However, a constitutively active salicylic acid-induced protein kinase kinase (SIPKK(EE)), which phosphorylates NtMPK4, did not phosphorylate NtMPK4L. Moreover, a tyrosine residue in the MEY motif was not involved in NtMPK4L activation. We also found that NtMPK4L-silenced plants showed rapid transpiration caused by remarkably open stomata. In addition, NtMPK4L-silenced plants completely lost the ability to close stomata upon ozone treatment and were highly sensitive to ozone, suggesting that this atypical MAPK plays a role in ozone tolerance through stomatal regulation. PMID:27126796

  4. A designed DNA binding motif that recognizes extended sites and spans two adjacent major grooves†

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jéssica; Mosquera, Jesús; García-Fandiño, Rebeca; Vázquez, M. Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L.

    2016-01-01

    We report the rational design of a DNA-binding peptide construct composed of the DNA-contacting regions of two transcription factors (GCN4 and GAGA) linked through an AT-hook DNA anchor. The resulting chimera, which represents a new, non-natural DNA binding motif, binds with high affinity and selectivity to a long composite sequence of 13 base pairs (TCAT-AATT-GAGAG). PMID:27252825

  5. N-terminal tetrapeptide T/SPLH motifs contribute to multimodal activation of human TRPA1 channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynkova, Anna; Marsakova, Lenka; Vaskova, Jana; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2016-06-01

    Human transient receptor potential ankyrin channel 1 (TRPA1) is a polymodal sensor implicated in pain, inflammation and itching. An important locus for TRPA1 regulation is the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, through which various exogenous electrophilic compounds such as allyl-isothiocyanate from mustard oil or cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon activate primary afferent nociceptors. This major region is comprised of a tandem set of 17 ankyrin repeats (AR1-AR17), five of them contain a strictly conserved T/SPLH tetrapeptide motif, a hallmark of an important and evolutionarily conserved contribution to conformational stability. Here, we characterize the functional consequences of putatively stabilizing and destabilizing mutations in these important structural units and identify AR2, AR6, and AR11-13 to be distinctly involved in the allosteric activation of TRPA1 by chemical irritants, cytoplasmic calcium, and membrane voltage. Considering the potential involvement of the T/SP motifs as putative phosphorylation sites, we also show that proline-directed Ser/Thr kinase CDK5 modulates the activity of TRPA1, and that T673 outside the AR-domain is its only possible target. Our data suggest that the most strictly conserved N-terminal ARs define the energetics of the TRPA1 channel gate and contribute to chemical-, calcium- and voltage-dependence.

  6. N-terminal tetrapeptide T/SPLH motifs contribute to multimodal activation of human TRPA1 channel.

    PubMed

    Hynkova, Anna; Marsakova, Lenka; Vaskova, Jana; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2016-01-01

    Human transient receptor potential ankyrin channel 1 (TRPA1) is a polymodal sensor implicated in pain, inflammation and itching. An important locus for TRPA1 regulation is the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, through which various exogenous electrophilic compounds such as allyl-isothiocyanate from mustard oil or cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon activate primary afferent nociceptors. This major region is comprised of a tandem set of 17 ankyrin repeats (AR1-AR17), five of them contain a strictly conserved T/SPLH tetrapeptide motif, a hallmark of an important and evolutionarily conserved contribution to conformational stability. Here, we characterize the functional consequences of putatively stabilizing and destabilizing mutations in these important structural units and identify AR2, AR6, and AR11-13 to be distinctly involved in the allosteric activation of TRPA1 by chemical irritants, cytoplasmic calcium, and membrane voltage. Considering the potential involvement of the T/SP motifs as putative phosphorylation sites, we also show that proline-directed Ser/Thr kinase CDK5 modulates the activity of TRPA1, and that T673 outside the AR-domain is its only possible target. Our data suggest that the most strictly conserved N-terminal ARs define the energetics of the TRPA1 channel gate and contribute to chemical-, calcium- and voltage-dependence. PMID:27345869

  7. N-terminal tetrapeptide T/SPLH motifs contribute to multimodal activation of human TRPA1 channel

    PubMed Central

    Hynkova, Anna; Marsakova, Lenka; Vaskova, Jana; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2016-01-01

    Human transient receptor potential ankyrin channel 1 (TRPA1) is a polymodal sensor implicated in pain, inflammation and itching. An important locus for TRPA1 regulation is the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, through which various exogenous electrophilic compounds such as allyl-isothiocyanate from mustard oil or cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon activate primary afferent nociceptors. This major region is comprised of a tandem set of 17 ankyrin repeats (AR1-AR17), five of them contain a strictly conserved T/SPLH tetrapeptide motif, a hallmark of an important and evolutionarily conserved contribution to conformational stability. Here, we characterize the functional consequences of putatively stabilizing and destabilizing mutations in these important structural units and identify AR2, AR6, and AR11-13 to be distinctly involved in the allosteric activation of TRPA1 by chemical irritants, cytoplasmic calcium, and membrane voltage. Considering the potential involvement of the T/SP motifs as putative phosphorylation sites, we also show that proline-directed Ser/Thr kinase CDK5 modulates the activity of TRPA1, and that T673 outside the AR-domain is its only possible target. Our data suggest that the most strictly conserved N-terminal ARs define the energetics of the TRPA1 channel gate and contribute to chemical-, calcium- and voltage-dependence. PMID:27345869

  8. Mining Conditional Phosphorylation Motifs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jun; Gong, Haipeng; Deng, Shengchun; He, Zengyou

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation motifs represent position-specific amino acid patterns around the phosphorylation sites in the set of phosphopeptides. Several algorithms have been proposed to uncover phosphorylation motifs, whereas the problem of efficiently discovering a set of significant motifs with sufficiently high coverage and non-redundancy still remains unsolved. Here we present a novel notion called conditional phosphorylation motifs. Through this new concept, the motifs whose over-expressiveness mainly benefits from its constituting parts can be filtered out effectively. To discover conditional phosphorylation motifs, we propose an algorithm called C-Motif for a non-redundant identification of significant phosphorylation motifs. C-Motif is implemented under the Apriori framework, and it tests the statistical significance together with the frequency of candidate motifs in a single stage. Experiments demonstrate that C-Motif outperforms some current algorithms such as MMFPh and Motif-All in terms of coverage and non-redundancy of the results and efficiency of the execution. The source code of C-Motif is available at: https://sourceforge. net/projects/cmotif/. PMID:26356863

  9. Characterization of an H4N2 Influenza Virus from Quails with a Multibasic Motif in the Hemagglutinin Cleavage Site

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sook-San; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Zanin, Mark; Song, Min-Suk; Oshansky, Christine; Zaraket, Hassan; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Rubrum, Adam; Seiler, Patrick; Ferguson, Angela; Krauss, Scott; Cardona, Carol; Webby, Richard J.; Crossley, Beate

    2014-01-01

    The cleavage motif in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 subtypes of avian influenza viruses is characterized by a peptide insertion or a multibasic cleavage site (MBCS). Here, we isolated an H4N2 virus from quails (Quail/CA12) with two additional arginines in the HA cleavage site, PEKRRTR/G, forming an MBCS-like motif. Quail/CA12 is a reassortant virus with the HA and neuraminidase (NA) gene most similar to a duck-isolated H4N2 virus, PD/CA06 with a monobasic HA cleavage site. Quail/CA12 required exogenous trypsin for efficient growth in culture and caused no clinical illness in infected chickens. Quail/CA12 had high binding preference for α2,6-linked sialic acids and showed higher replication and transmission ability in chickens and quails than PD/CA06. Although the H4N2 virus remained low pathogenic, these data suggests that the acquisition of MBCS in the field is not restricted to H5 or H7 subtypes. PMID:25151061

  10. Surface binding sites in amylase have distinct roles in recognition of starch structure motifs and degradation.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Darrell; Nielsen, Morten M; Christiansen, Camilla; Andersen, Joakim M; Rannes, Julie B; Blennow, Andreas; Svensson, Birte

    2015-04-01

    Carbohydrate converting enzymes often possess extra substrate binding regions that enhance their activity. These can be found either on separate domains termed carbohydrate binding modules or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) situated on the catalytic domain. SBSs are common in starch degrading enzymes and critically important for their function. The affinity towards a variety of starch granules as well as soluble poly- and oligosaccharides of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) wild-type and mutants of two SBSs (SBS1 and SBS2) was investigated using Langmuir binding analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, affinity gel electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance to unravel functional roles of the SBSs. SBS1 was critical for binding to different starch types as Kd increased by 7-62-fold or was not measurable upon mutation. By contrast SBS2 was particularly important for binding to soluble polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with α-1,6 linkages, suggesting that branch points are key structural elements in recognition by SBS2. Mutation at both SBS1 and SBS2 eliminated binding to all starch granule types tested. Taken together, the findings indicate that the two SBSs act in concert to localize AMY1 to the starch granule surface and that SBS2 works synergistically with the active site in the degradation of amylopectin.

  11. Extracting regulator activity profiles by integration of de novo motifs and expression data: characterizing key regulators of nutrient depletion responses in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Mudassar; Mast, Yvonne; Amin, Rafat; Hodgson, David A.; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Burroughs, Nigel J.

    2012-01-01

    Determining transcriptional regulator activities is a major focus of systems biology, providing key insight into regulatory mechanisms and co-regulators. For organisms such as Escherichia coli, transcriptional regulator binding site data can be integrated with expression data to infer transcriptional regulator activities. However, for most organisms there is only sparse data on their transcriptional regulators, while their associated binding motifs are largely unknown. Here, we address the challenge of inferring activities of unknown regulators by generating de novo (binding) motifs and integrating with expression data. We identify a number of key regulators active in the metabolic switch, including PhoP with its associated directed repeat PHO box, candidate motifs for two SARPs, a CRP family regulator, an iron response regulator and that for LexA. Experimental validation for some of our predictions was obtained using gel-shift assays. Our analysis is applicable to any organism for which there is a reasonable amount of complementary expression data and for which motifs (either over represented or evolutionary conserved) can be identified in the genome. PMID:22406834

  12. The WSXWS motif in cytokine receptors is a molecular switch involved in receptor activation: insight from structures of the prolactin receptor.

    PubMed

    Dagil, Robert; Knudsen, Maiken J; Olsen, Johan G; O'Shea, Charlotte; Franzmann, Magnus; Goffin, Vincent; Teilum, Kaare; Breinholt, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2012-02-01

    The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is activated by binding of prolactin in a 2:1 complex, but the activation mechanism is poorly understood. PRLR has a conserved WSXWS motif generic to cytokine class I receptors. We have determined the nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the membrane proximal domain of the human PRLR and find that the tryptophans of the motif adopt a T-stack conformation in the unbound state. By contrast, in the hormone bound state, a Trp/Arg-ladder is formed. The conformational change is hormone-dependent and influences the receptor-receptor dimerization site 3. In the constitutively active, breast cancer-related receptor mutant PRLR(I146L), we observed a stabilization of the dimeric state and a change in the dynamics of the motif. Here we demonstrate a structural link between the WSXWS motif, hormone binding, and receptor dimerization and propose it as a general mechanism for class 1 receptor activation.

  13. A Conserved GPG-Motif in the HIV-1 Nef Core Is Required for Principal Nef-Activities.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Palladino, Claudia; Briz, Veronica; Rudolph, Jochen M; Fackler, Oliver T; Relloso, Miguel; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria Angeles; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    To find out new determinants required for Nef activity we performed a functional alanine scanning analysis along a discrete but highly conserved region at the core of HIV-1 Nef. We identified the GPG-motif, located at the 121-137 region of HIV-1 NL4.3 Nef, as a novel protein signature strictly required for the p56Lck dependent Nef-induced CD4-downregulation in T-cells. Since the Nef-GPG motif was dispensable for CD4-downregulation in HeLa-CD4 cells, Nef/AP-1 interaction and Nef-dependent effects on Tf-R trafficking, the observed effects on CD4 downregulation cannot be attributed to structure constraints or to alterations on general protein trafficking. Besides, we found that the GPG-motif was also required for Nef-dependent inhibition of ring actin re-organization upon TCR triggering and MHCI downregulation, suggesting that the GPG-motif could actively cooperate with the Nef PxxP motif for these HIV-1 Nef-related effects. Finally, we observed that the Nef-GPG motif was required for optimal infectivity of those viruses produced in T-cells. According to these findings, we propose the conserved GPG-motif in HIV-1 Nef as functional region required for HIV-1 infectivity and therefore with a potential interest for the interference of Nef activity during HIV-1 infection. PMID:26700863

  14. A Conserved GPG-Motif in the HIV-1 Nef Core Is Required for Principal Nef-Activities

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Palladino, Claudia; Briz, Veronica; Rudolph, Jochen M.; Fackler, Oliver T.; Relloso, Miguel; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria Angeles; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    To find out new determinants required for Nef activity we performed a functional alanine scanning analysis along a discrete but highly conserved region at the core of HIV-1 Nef. We identified the GPG-motif, located at the 121–137 region of HIV-1 NL4.3 Nef, as a novel protein signature strictly required for the p56Lck dependent Nef-induced CD4-downregulation in T-cells. Since the Nef-GPG motif was dispensable for CD4-downregulation in HeLa-CD4 cells, Nef/AP-1 interaction and Nef-dependent effects on Tf-R trafficking, the observed effects on CD4 downregulation cannot be attributed to structure constraints or to alterations on general protein trafficking. Besides, we found that the GPG-motif was also required for Nef-dependent inhibition of ring actin re-organization upon TCR triggering and MHCI downregulation, suggesting that the GPG-motif could actively cooperate with the Nef PxxP motif for these HIV-1 Nef-related effects. Finally, we observed that the Nef-GPG motif was required for optimal infectivity of those viruses produced in T-cells. According to these findings, we propose the conserved GPG-motif in HIV-1 Nef as functional region required for HIV-1 infectivity and therefore with a potential interest for the interference of Nef activity during HIV-1 infection. PMID:26700863

  15. Potentiation of TRAIL killing activity by multimerization through isoleucine zipper hexamerization motif

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji Hye; Moon, Ae Ran; Chang, Jeong Hwan; Bae, Jeehyeon; Choi, Jin Myung; Lee, Sung Haeng; Kim, Tae-Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a homo-trimeric cytotoxic ligand. Several studies have demonstrated that incorporation of artificial trimerization motifs into the TRAIL protein leads to the enhancement of biological activity. Here, we show that linkage of the isoleucine zipper hexamerization motif to the N-terminus of TRAIL, referred as ILz(6):TRAIL, leads to multimerization of its trimeric form, which has higher cytotoxic activity compared to its native state. Size exclusion chromatography of ILz(6):TRAIL revealed possible existence of various forms such as trimeric, hexameric, and multimeric (possibly containing one-, two-, and multi-units of trimeric TRAIL, respectively). Increased number of multimerized ILz(6):TRAIL units corresponded with enhanced cytotoxic activity. Further, a high degree of ILz(6):TRAIL multimerization triggered rapid signaling events such as activation of caspases, tBid generation, and chromatin condensation. Taken together, these results indicate that multimerization of TRAIL significantly enhances its cytotoxic activity. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 282-287] PMID:26674343

  16. Synergic approach to XAFS analysis for the identification of most probable binding motifs for mononuclear zinc sites in metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Giachini, Lisa; Veronesi, Giulia; Francia, Francesco; Venturoli, Giovanni; Boscherini, Federico

    2010-01-01

    In the present work a data analysis approach, based on XAFS data, is proposed for the identification of most probable binding motifs of unknown mononuclear zinc sites in metalloproteins. This approach combines multiple-scattering EXAFS analysis performed within the rigid-body refinement scheme, non-muffin-tin ab initio XANES simulations, average structural information on amino acids and metal binding clusters provided by the Protein Data Bank, and Debye-Waller factor calculations based on density functional theory. The efficiency of the method is tested by using three reference zinc proteins for which the local structure around the metal is already known from protein crystallography. To show the applicability of the present analysis to structures not deposited in the Protein Data Bank, the XAFS spectra of six mononuclear zinc binding sites present in diverse membrane proteins, for which we have previously proposed the coordinating amino acids by applying a similar approach, is also reported. By comparing the Zn K-edge XAFS features exhibited by these proteins with those pertaining to the reference structures, key spectral characteristics, related to specific binding motifs, are observed. These case studies exemplify the combined data analysis proposed and further support its validity.

  17. Novel DNA Motif Binding Activity Observed In Vivo With an Estrogen Receptor α Mutant Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Leping; Grimm, Sara A.; Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Hamilton, Katherine J.; Pockette, Brianna; Rubel, Cory A.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Fargo, David; Lanz, Rainer B.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Schütz, Günther; Korach, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) interacts with DNA directly or indirectly via other transcription factors, referred to as “tethering.” Evidence for tethering is based on in vitro studies and a widely used “KIKO” mouse model containing mutations that prevent direct estrogen response element DNA- binding. KIKO mice are infertile, due in part to the inability of estradiol (E2) to induce uterine epithelial proliferation. To elucidate the molecular events that prevent KIKO uterine growth, regulation of the pro-proliferative E2 target gene Klf4 and of Klf15, a progesterone (P4) target gene that opposes the pro-proliferative activity of KLF4, was evaluated. Klf4 induction was impaired in KIKO uteri; however, Klf15 was induced by E2 rather than by P4. Whole uterine chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed enrichment of KIKO ERα binding to hormone response elements (HREs) motifs. KIKO binding to HRE motifs was verified using reporter gene and DNA-binding assays. Because the KIKO ERα has HRE DNA-binding activity, we evaluated the “EAAE” ERα, which has more severe DNA-binding domain mutations, and demonstrated a lack of estrogen response element or HRE reporter gene induction or DNA-binding. The EAAE mouse has an ERα null–like phenotype, with impaired uterine growth and transcriptional activity. Our findings demonstrate that the KIKO mouse model, which has been used by numerous investigators, cannot be used to establish biological functions for ERα tethering, because KIKO ERα effectively stimulates transcription using HRE motifs. The EAAE-ERα DNA-binding domain mutant mouse demonstrates that ERα DNA-binding is crucial for biological and transcriptional processes in reproductive tissues and that ERα tethering may not contribute to estrogen responsiveness in vivo. PMID:24713037

  18. The quorum-sensing regulator ComA from Bacillus subtilis activates transcription using topologically distinct DNA motifs

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Diana; Rippa, Valentina; Mobarec, Juan Carlos; Sauer, Patricia; Adlung, Lorenz; Kolb, Peter; Bischofs, Ilka B.

    2016-01-01

    ComA-like transcription factors regulate the quorum response in numerous Gram-positive bacteria. ComA proteins belong to the tetrahelical helix-turn-helix superfamily of transcriptional activators, which bind as homodimers to inverted sequence repeats in the DNA. Here, we report that ComA from Bacillus subtilis recognizes a topologically distinct motif, in which the binding elements form a direct repeat. We provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that the canonical and non-canonical site play an important role in facilitating type I and type II promoter activation, respectively, by interacting with different subunits of RNA polymerase. We furthermore show that there is a variety of contexts in which the non-canonical site can occur and identify new direct target genes that are located within the integrative and conjugative element ICEBs1. We therefore suggest that ComA acts as a multifunctional transcriptional activator and provides a striking example for complexity in protein–DNA interactions that evolved in the context of quorum sensing. PMID:26582911

  19. Homology modeling studies of yeast Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKS): structural motifs as a basis for specificity.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Nilar, S H

    2010-06-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key components of cellular signal transduction. It is the objective of this communication to demonstrate that insight into protein-protein interactions in the Common Docking motif of yeast mitogen-activated protein kinases can be obtained based on homology models. Homology models for four yeast MAPKs, FUS3, KSS1, HOG1 and MPK1 were built based on the X-ray structures of active and inactive rat ERK2. The structural motifs required for the basis of specificity were rationalized based on these structures. PMID:19995338

  20. The transcription initiation sites of eggplant latent viroid strands map within distinct motifs in their in vivo RNA conformations.

    PubMed

    López-Carrasco, Amparo; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Mileti, Giuseppe; Minoia, Sofia; Flores, Ricardo; Delgado, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant latent viroid (ELVd), like other members of family Avsunviroidae, replicates in plastids through a symmetric rolling-circle mechanism in which elongation of RNA strands is most likely catalyzed by a nuclear-encoded polymerase (NEP) translocated to plastids. Here we have addressed where NEP initiates transcription of viroid strands. Because this step is presumably directed by sequence/structural motifs, we have previously determined the conformation of the monomeric linear (+) and (-) RNAs of ELVd resulting from hammerhead-mediated self-cleavage. In silico predictions with 3 softwares led to similar bifurcated conformations for both ELVd strands. In vitro examination by non-denaturing PAGE showed that they migrate as prominent single bands, with the ELVd (+) RNA displaying a more compact conformation as revealed by its faster electrophoretic mobility. In vitro SHAPE analysis corroborated the ELVd conformations derived from thermodynamics-based predictions in silico. Moreover, sequence analysis of 94 full-length natural ELVd variants disclosed co-variations, and mutations converting canonical into wobble pairs or vice versa, which confirmed in vivo most of the stems predicted in silico and in vitro, and additionally helped to introduce minor structural refinements. Therefore, results from the 3 experimental approaches were essentially consistent among themselves. Application to RNA preparations from ELVd-infected tissue of RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends, combined with pretreatments to modify the 5' ends of viroid strands, mapped the transcription initiation sites of ELVd (+) and (-) strands in vivo at different sequence/structural motifs, in contrast with the situation previously observed in 2 other members of the family Avsunviroidae. PMID:26618399

  1. Computation of direct and inverse mutations with the SEGM web server (Stochastic Evolution of Genetic Motifs): an application to splice sites of human genome introns.

    PubMed

    Benard, Emmanuel; Michel, Christian J

    2009-08-01

    We present here the SEGM web server (Stochastic Evolution of Genetic Motifs) in order to study the evolution of genetic motifs both in the direct evolutionary sense (past-present) and in the inverse evolutionary sense (present-past). The genetic motifs studied can be nucleotides, dinucleotides and trinucleotides. As an example of an application of SEGM and to understand its functionalities, we give an analysis of inverse mutations of splice sites of human genome introns. SEGM is freely accessible at http://lsiit-bioinfo.u-strasbg.fr:8080/webMathematica/SEGM/SEGM.html directly or by the web site http://dpt-info.u-strasbg.fr/~michel/. To our knowledge, this SEGM web server is to date the only computational biology software in this evolutionary approach.

  2. The PP-motif in luminal loop 2 of ZnT transporters plays a pivotal role in TNAP activation.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shigeyuki; Tsuji, Tokuji; Fujiwara, Takashi; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Merriman, Chengfeng; Fukunaka, Ayako; Nishito, Yukina; Fu, Dax; Hoch, Eitan; Sekler, Israel; Fukue, Kazuhisa; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Kambe, Taiho

    2016-09-01

    Secretory and membrane-bound zinc-requiring enzymes are thought to be activated by binding zinc in the early secretory pathway. One such enzyme, tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), is activated through a two-step mechanism, via protein stabilization and subsequent enzyme activation through metalation, by ZnT5-ZnT6 heterodimers or ZnT7 homodimers. However, little is known about the molecular basis underlying the activation process. In the present study, we found that the di-proline motif (PP-motif) in luminal loop 2 of ZnT5 and ZnT7 is important for TNAP activation. TNAP activity was significantly reduced in cells lacking ZnT5-ZnT6 heterodimers and ZnT7 homodimers [triple knockout (TKO) cells]. The decreased TNAP activity was restored by expressing hZnT5 with hZnT6 or hZnT7, but significantly less so (almost 90% less) by expressing mutants thereof in which the PP-motif was mutated to alanine (PP-AA). In TKO cells, overexpressed hTNAP was not completely activated, and it was converted less efficiently into the holo form by expressing a PP-AA mutant of hZnT5 with hZnT6, whose defects were not restored by zinc supplementation. The zinc transport activity of hZnT7 was not significantly impaired by the PP-AA mutation, indicating that the PP-motif is involved in the TNAP maturation process, although it does not control zinc transport activity. The PP-motif is highly conserved in ZnT5 and ZnT7 orthologues, and its importance for TNAP activation is conserved in the Caenorhabditis elegans hZnT5 orthologue CDF5. These results provide novel molecular insights into the TNAP activation process in the early secretory pathway. PMID:27303047

  3. Synthesis, anti-mycobacterial activity and DNA sequence-selectivity of a library of biaryl-motifs containing polyamides.

    PubMed

    Brucoli, Federico; Guzman, Juan D; Maitra, Arundhati; James, Colin H; Fox, Keith R; Bhakta, Sanjib

    2015-07-01

    The alarming rise of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) strains, compel the development of new molecules with novel modes of action to control this world health emergency. Distamycin analogues containing N-terminal biaryl-motifs 2(1-5)(1-7) were synthesised using a solution-phase approach and evaluated for their anti-mycobacterial activity and DNA-sequence selectivity. Thiophene dimer motif-containing polyamide 2(2,6) exhibited 10-fold higher inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis compared to distamycin and library member 2(5,7) showed high binding affinity for the 5'-ACATAT-3' sequence.

  4. Shrinkage activates a nonselective conductance: involvement of a Walker-motif protein and PKC.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D J; Tien, X Y; Xie, W; Brasitus, T A; Kaetzel, M A; Dedman, J R

    1996-01-01

    The ability of all cells to maintain their volume during an osmotic challenge is dependent on the regulated movement of salt and water across the plasma membrane. We demonstrate the phosphorylation-dependent gating of a nonselective conductance in Caco-2 cells during cellular shrinkage. Intracellular application of exogenous purified rat brain protein kinase C (PKC) resulted in the activation of a current similar to that activated during shrinkage with a Na(+)-to-Cl- permeability ratio of approximately 1.7:1. To prevent possible PKC- and/or shrinkage-dependent activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which is expressed at high levels in Caco-2 cells, a functional anti-peptide antibody, anti-CFTR505-511, was introduced into the cells via the patch pipette. Anti-CFTR505-511, which is directed against the Walker motif in the first nucleotide binding fold of CFTR, prevented the PKC/shrink-age current activation. The peptide CFTR505-511 also induced current inhibition, suggesting the possible involvement of a regulatory element in close proximity to the channel that shares sequence homology with the first nucleotide binding fold of CFTR and whose binding to the channel is required for channel gating. PMID:8772443

  5. Large scale organization of rat sensorimotor cortex based on a motif of large activation spreads

    PubMed Central

    Frostig, Ron D.; Xiong, Ying; Chen-Bee, Cynthia H.; Kvašňák, Eugen; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Parcellation according to function (e.g., visual, somatosensory, auditory, motor) is considered a fundamental property of sensorimotor cortical organization, traditionally defined from cytoarchitectonics and mapping studies relying on peak evoked neuronal activity. In the adult rat, stimulation of single whiskers evokes peak activity at topographically appropriate locations within somatosensory cortex and provides an example of cortical functional specificity. Here, we show that single whisker stimulation also evokes symmetrical areas of supra- and sub-threshold neuronal activation that spread extensively away from peak activity, effectively ignoring cortical borders by spilling deeply into multiple cortical territories of different modalities (auditory, visual and motor), where they were blocked by localized neuronal activity blocker injections and thus ruled out as possibly due to ‘volume conductance’. These symmetrical activity spreads were supported by underlying border-crossing, long-range horizontal connections as confirmed with transection experiments and injections of anterograde neuronal tracer experiments. We found such large evoked activation spreads and their underlying connections irrespective of whisker identity, cortical layer, or axis of recorded responses, thereby revealing a large scale nonspecific organization of sensorimotor cortex based on a motif of large symmetrical activation spreads. Because the large activation spreads and their underlying horizontal connections ignore anatomical borders between cortical modalities, sensorimotor cortex could therefore be viewed as a continuous entity rather than a collection of discrete, delineated unimodal regions – an organization that could co-exist with established specificity of cortical organization and that could serve as a substrate for associative learning, direct multimodal integration and recovery of function following injury. PMID:19052219

  6. Activation of Inhibitors by Sortase Triggers Irreversible Modification of the Active Site*S

    PubMed Central

    Maresso, Anthony W.; Wu, Ruiying; Kern, Justin W.; Zhang, Rongguang; Janik, Dorota; Missiakas, Dominique M.; Duban, Mark-Eugene; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Sortases anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive pathogens through recognition of specific motif sequences. Loss of sortase leads to large reductions in virulence, which identifies sortase as a target for the development of antibacterials. By screening 135,625 small molecules for inhibition, we report here that aryl (β-amino)ethyl ketones inhibit sortase enzymes from staphylococci and bacilli. Inhibition of sortases occurs through an irreversible, covalent modification of their active site cysteine. Sortases specifically activate this class of molecules via β-elimination, generating a reactive olefin intermediate that covalently modifies the cysteine thiol. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of Bacillus anthracis sortase B with and without inhibitor provides insights into the mechanism of inhibition and reveals binding pockets that can be exploited for drug discovery. PMID:17545669

  7. A basic motif in the N-terminal region of RAG1 enhances V(D)J recombination activity.

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, C J; Difilippantonio, M J; Rao, N; Spanopoulou, E; Schatz, D G

    1997-01-01

    The variable portions of antigen receptor genes are assembled from component gene segments by a site-specific recombination reaction known as V(D)J recombination. The RAG1 and RAG2 proteins are the critical lymphoid cell-specific components of the recombination enzymatic machinery and are responsible for site-specific DNA recognition and cleavage. Previous studies had defined a minimal, recombinationally active core region of murine RAG1 consisting of amino acids 384 to 1008 of the 1,040-residue RAG1 protein. No recombination function has heretofore been ascribed to any portion of the 383-amino-acid N-terminal region that is missing from the core, but it seems likely to be of functional significance, based on its evolutionary conservation. Using extrachromosomal recombination substrates, we demonstrate here that the N-terminal region enhances the recombination activity of RAG1 by up to an order of magnitude in a variety of cell lines. Deletion analysis localized a region of the N terminus critical for this effect to amino acids 216 to 238, and further mutagenesis demonstrated that a small basic amino acid motif (BIIa) in this region is essential for enhancing the activity of RAG1. Despite the fact that BIIa is important for the interaction of RAG1 with the nuclear localization factor Srp-1, it does not appear to enhance recombination by facilitating nuclear transport of RAG1. A variety of models for how this region stimulates the recombination activity of RAG1 are considered. PMID:9234712

  8. Development of a salicylic acid inducible minimal sub-genomic transcript promoter from Figwort mosaic virus with enhanced root- and leaf-activity using TGACG motif rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Patro, Sunita; Ghosh, Jayasish; Das, Abhimanyu; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2012-07-15

    In Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (F-Sgt), function of the TGACG-regulatory motif, was investigated in the background of artificially designed promoter sequences. The 131bp (FS, -100 to +31) long F-Sgt promoter sequence containing one TGACG motif [FS-(TGACG)] was engineered to generate a set of three modified promoter constructs: [FS-(TGACG)(2), containing one additional TGACG motif at 7 nucleotides upstream of the original one], [FS-(TGACG)(3), containing two additional TGACG motifs at 7 nucleotides upstream and two nucleotides downstream of the original one] and [FS-(TGCTG)(mu), having a mutated TGACG motif]. EMSA and foot-printing analysis confirmed binding of tobacco nuclear factors with modified TGACG motif/s. The transcription-activation of the GUS gene by the TGACG motif/s in above promoter constructs was examined in transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants and observed that the transcription activation was affected by the spacing/s and number/s of the TGACG motif/s. The FS-(TGACG)(2) promoter showed strongest root-activity compared to other modified and CaMV35S promoters. Also under salicylic acid (SA) stress, the leaf-activity of the said promoter was further enhanced. All above findings were confirmed by real-time and semi-qRT PCR analysis. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrated that the TGACG motif plays an important role in inducing the root-specific expression of the F-Sgt promoter. This study advocates the importance of genetic manipulation of functional cis-motif for amending the tissue specificity of a plant promoter. SA inducible FS-(TGACG)(2) promoter with enhanced activity could be a useful candidate promoter for developing plants with enhanced crop productivity.

  9. Estimation of protein function using template-based alignment of enzyme active sites

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The accumulation of protein structural data occurs more rapidly than it can be characterized by traditional laboratory means. This has motivated widespread efforts to predict enzyme function computationally. The most useful/accurate strategies employed to date are based on the detection of motifs in novel structures that correspond to a specific function. Functional residues are critical components of predictively useful motifs. We have implemented a novel method, to complement current approaches, which detects motifs solely on the basis of distance restraints between catalytic residues. Results ProMOL is a plugin for the PyMOL molecular graphics environment that can be used to create active site motifs for enzymes. A library of 181 active site motifs has been created with ProMOL, based on definitions published in the Catalytic Site Atlas (CSA). Searches with ProMOL produce better than 50% useful Enzyme Commission (EC) class suggestions for level 1 searches in EC classes 1, 4 and 5, and produce some useful results for other classes. 261 additional motifs automatically translated from Jonathan Barker’s JESS motif set [Bioinformatics 19:1644–1649, 2003] and a set of NMR motifs is under development. Alignments are evaluated by visual superposition, Levenshtein distance and root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) and are reasonably consistent with related search methods. Conclusion The ProMOL plugin for PyMOL provides ready access to template-based local alignments. Recent improvements to ProMOL, including the expanded motif library, RMSD calculations and output selection formatting, have greatly increased the program’s usability and speed, and have improved the way that the results are presented. PMID:24669788

  10. Uncommon structural motifs dominate the antigen binding site in human autoantibodies reactive with basement membrane collagen.

    PubMed

    Foster, Mary H; Buckley, Elizabeth S; Chen, Benny J; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Clark, Amy G

    2016-08-01

    Autoantibodies mediate organ destruction in multiple autoimmune diseases, yet their origins in patients remain poorly understood. To probe the genetic origins and structure of disease-associated autoantibodies, we engrafted immunodeficient mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and immunized with the non-collagenous-1 (NC1) domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen. This antigen is expressed in lungs and kidneys and is targeted by autoantibodies in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis and Goodpasture syndrome (GPS), prototypic human organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Using Epstein Barr virus transformation and cell fusion, six human anti-alpha3(IV)NC1 collagen monoclonal autoantibodies (mAb) were recovered, including subsets reactive with human kidney and with epitopes recognized by patients' IgG. Sequence analysis reveals a long to exceptionally long heavy chain complementarity determining region3 (HCDR3), the major site of antigen binding, in all six mAb. Mean HCDR3 length is 25.5 amino acids (range 20-36), generated from inherently long DH and JH genes and extended regions of non-templated N-nucleotides. Long HCDR3 are suited to forming noncontiguous antigen contacts and to binding recessed, immunologically silent epitopes hidden from conventional antibodies, as seen with self-antigen crossreactive broadly neutralizing anti-HIV Ig (bnAb). The anti-alpha3(IV)NC1 collagen mAb also show preferential use of unmutated variable region genes that are enriched among human chronic lymphocytic leukemia antibodies that share features with natural polyreactive Ig. Our findings suggest unexpected relationships between pathogenic anti-collagen Ig, bnAb, and autoreactive Ig associated with malignancy, all of which arise from B cells expressing unconventional structural elements that may require transient escape from tolerance for successful expansion. PMID:27450516

  11. A Functional EXXEK Motif is Essential for Proton Coupling and Active Glucosinolate Transport by NPF2.11.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Geiger, Dietmar; Mirza, Osman; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan

    2015-12-01

    The proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter (POT/PTR) family shares a highly conserved E1X1X2E2RFXYY (E1X1X2E2R) motif across all kingdoms of life. This motif is suggested to have a role in proton coupling and active transport in bacterial homologs. For the plant POT/PTR family, also known as the NRT1/PTR family (NPF), little is known about the role of the E1X1X2E2R motif. Moreover, nothing is known about the role of the X1 and X2 residues within the E1X1X2E2R motif. We used NPF2.11-a proton-coupled glucosinolate (GLS) symporter from Arabidopsis thaliana-to investigate the role of the E1X1X2E2K motif variant in a plant NPF transporter. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based uptake assays and two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) electrophysiology, we demonstrate an essential role for the E1X1X2E2K motif for accumulation of substrate by NPF2.11. Our data suggest that the highly conserved E1, E2 and K residues are involved in translocation of protons, as has been proposed for the E1X1X2E2R motif in bacteria. Furthermore, we show that the two residues X1 and X2 in the E1X1X2E2[K/R] motif are conserved as uncharged amino acids in POT/PTRs from bacteria to mammals and that introducing a positive or negative charge in either position hampers the ability to overaccumulate substrate relative to the assay medium. We hypothesize that introducing a charge at X1 and X2 interferes with the function of the conserved glutamate and lysine residues of the E1X1X2E2K motif and affects the mechanism behind proton coupling. PMID:26443378

  12. A Functional EXXEK Motif is Essential for Proton Coupling and Active Glucosinolate Transport by NPF2.11.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Geiger, Dietmar; Mirza, Osman; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan

    2015-12-01

    The proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter (POT/PTR) family shares a highly conserved E1X1X2E2RFXYY (E1X1X2E2R) motif across all kingdoms of life. This motif is suggested to have a role in proton coupling and active transport in bacterial homologs. For the plant POT/PTR family, also known as the NRT1/PTR family (NPF), little is known about the role of the E1X1X2E2R motif. Moreover, nothing is known about the role of the X1 and X2 residues within the E1X1X2E2R motif. We used NPF2.11-a proton-coupled glucosinolate (GLS) symporter from Arabidopsis thaliana-to investigate the role of the E1X1X2E2K motif variant in a plant NPF transporter. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based uptake assays and two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) electrophysiology, we demonstrate an essential role for the E1X1X2E2K motif for accumulation of substrate by NPF2.11. Our data suggest that the highly conserved E1, E2 and K residues are involved in translocation of protons, as has been proposed for the E1X1X2E2R motif in bacteria. Furthermore, we show that the two residues X1 and X2 in the E1X1X2E2[K/R] motif are conserved as uncharged amino acids in POT/PTRs from bacteria to mammals and that introducing a positive or negative charge in either position hampers the ability to overaccumulate substrate relative to the assay medium. We hypothesize that introducing a charge at X1 and X2 interferes with the function of the conserved glutamate and lysine residues of the E1X1X2E2K motif and affects the mechanism behind proton coupling.

  13. Inhibitory activities of short linear motifs underlie Hox interactome specificity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baëza, Manon; Viala, Séverine; Heim, Marjorie; Dard, Amélie; Hudry, Bruno; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Rogulja-Ortmann, Ana; Brun, Christine; Merabet, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Hox proteins are well-established developmental regulators that coordinate cell fate and morphogenesis throughout embryogenesis. In contrast, our knowledge of their specific molecular modes of action is limited to the interaction with few cofactors. Here, we show that Hox proteins are able to interact with a wide range of transcription factors in the live Drosophila embryo. In this context, specificity relies on a versatile usage of conserved short linear motifs (SLiMs), which, surprisingly, often restrains the interaction potential of Hox proteins. This novel buffering activity of SLiMs was observed in different tissues and found in Hox proteins from cnidarian to mouse species. Although these interactions remain to be analysed in the context of endogenous Hox regulatory activities, our observations challenge the traditional role assigned to SLiMs and provide an alternative concept to explain how Hox interactome specificity could be achieved during the embryonic development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06034.001 PMID:25869471

  14. Site-specific thermodynamic stability and unfolding of a de novo designed protein structural motif mapped by 13C isotopically edited IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kubelka, Ginka S; Kubelka, Jan

    2014-04-23

    The mechanism of protein folding remains poorly understood, in part due to limited experimental information available about partially folded states. Isotopically edited infrared (IR) spectroscopy has emerged as a promising method for studying protein structural changes with site-specific resolution, but its full potential to systematically probe folding at multiple protein sites has not yet been realized. We have used (13)C isotopically edited IR spectroscopy to investigate the site-specific thermal unfolding at seven different locations in the de novo designed helix-turn-helix protein αtα. As one of the few stable helix-turn-helix motifs, αtα is an excellent model for studying the roles of secondary and tertiary interactions in folding. Circular dichroism (CD) experiments on the full αtα motif and its two peptide fragments show that interhelical tertiary contacts are critical for stabilization of the secondary structure. The site-specific thermal unfolding probed by (13)C isotopically edited IR is likewise consistent with primarily tertiary stabilization of the local structure. The least thermally stable part of the αtα motif is near the turn where the interhelical contacts are rather loose, while the motif's center with best established core packing has the highest stability. Similar correlation between the local thermal stability and tertiary contacts was found previously for a naturally occurring helix-turn-helix motif. These results underline the importance of native-like tertiary stabilizing interactions in folding, in agreement with recent state-of-the art folding simulations as well as simplified, native-centric models.

  15. Key importance of small RNA binding for the activity of a glycine-tryptophan (GW) motif-containing viral suppressor of RNA silencing.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Hernández, Carmen

    2015-01-30

    Viruses express viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to counteract RNA silencing-based host defenses. Although virtually all stages of the antiviral silencing pathway can be inhibited by VSRs, small RNAs (sRNAs) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins seem to be the most frequent targets. Recently, GW/WG motifs of some VSRs have been proposed to dictate their suppressor function by mediating interaction with AGO(s). Here we have studied the VSR encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae). The results show that p37, the viral coat protein, blocks RNA silencing. Site-directed mutagenesis of some p37 sequence traits, including a conserved GW motif, allowed generation of suppressor-competent and -incompetent molecules and uncoupling of the VSR and particle assembly capacities. The engineered mutants were used to assess the importance of p37 functions for viral infection and the relative contribution of diverse molecular interactions to suppressor activity. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the silencing suppression and encapsidation functions of p37 are both required for systemic Pelargonium line pattern virus infection, and (ii) the suppressor activity of p37 relies on the ability to bind sRNAs rather than on interaction with AGOs. The data also caution against potential misinterpretations of results due to overlap of sequence signals related to distinct protein properties. This is well illustrated by mutation of the GW motif in p37 that concurrently affects nucleolar localization, efficient interaction with AGO1, and sRNA binding capability. These concomitant effects could have been overlooked in other GW motif-containing suppressors, as we exemplify with the orthologous p38 of turnip crinkle virus. PMID:25505185

  16. Key importance of small RNA binding for the activity of a glycine-tryptophan (GW) motif-containing viral suppressor of RNA silencing.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Hernández, Carmen

    2015-01-30

    Viruses express viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to counteract RNA silencing-based host defenses. Although virtually all stages of the antiviral silencing pathway can be inhibited by VSRs, small RNAs (sRNAs) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins seem to be the most frequent targets. Recently, GW/WG motifs of some VSRs have been proposed to dictate their suppressor function by mediating interaction with AGO(s). Here we have studied the VSR encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae). The results show that p37, the viral coat protein, blocks RNA silencing. Site-directed mutagenesis of some p37 sequence traits, including a conserved GW motif, allowed generation of suppressor-competent and -incompetent molecules and uncoupling of the VSR and particle assembly capacities. The engineered mutants were used to assess the importance of p37 functions for viral infection and the relative contribution of diverse molecular interactions to suppressor activity. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the silencing suppression and encapsidation functions of p37 are both required for systemic Pelargonium line pattern virus infection, and (ii) the suppressor activity of p37 relies on the ability to bind sRNAs rather than on interaction with AGOs. The data also caution against potential misinterpretations of results due to overlap of sequence signals related to distinct protein properties. This is well illustrated by mutation of the GW motif in p37 that concurrently affects nucleolar localization, efficient interaction with AGO1, and sRNA binding capability. These concomitant effects could have been overlooked in other GW motif-containing suppressors, as we exemplify with the orthologous p38 of turnip crinkle virus.

  17. Key Importance of Small RNA Binding for the Activity of a Glycine-Tryptophan (GW) Motif-containing Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing*

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Hernández, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Viruses express viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to counteract RNA silencing-based host defenses. Although virtually all stages of the antiviral silencing pathway can be inhibited by VSRs, small RNAs (sRNAs) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins seem to be the most frequent targets. Recently, GW/WG motifs of some VSRs have been proposed to dictate their suppressor function by mediating interaction with AGO(s). Here we have studied the VSR encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae). The results show that p37, the viral coat protein, blocks RNA silencing. Site-directed mutagenesis of some p37 sequence traits, including a conserved GW motif, allowed generation of suppressor-competent and -incompetent molecules and uncoupling of the VSR and particle assembly capacities. The engineered mutants were used to assess the importance of p37 functions for viral infection and the relative contribution of diverse molecular interactions to suppressor activity. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the silencing suppression and encapsidation functions of p37 are both required for systemic Pelargonium line pattern virus infection, and (ii) the suppressor activity of p37 relies on the ability to bind sRNAs rather than on interaction with AGOs. The data also caution against potential misinterpretations of results due to overlap of sequence signals related to distinct protein properties. This is well illustrated by mutation of the GW motif in p37 that concurrently affects nucleolar localization, efficient interaction with AGO1, and sRNA binding capability. These concomitant effects could have been overlooked in other GW motif-containing suppressors, as we exemplify with the orthologous p38 of turnip crinkle virus. PMID:25505185

  18. Function of the PEX19-binding site of human adrenoleukodystrophy protein as targeting motif in man and yeast. PMP targeting is evolutionarily conserved.

    PubMed

    Halbach, André; Lorenzen, Stephan; Landgraf, Christiane; Volkmer-Engert, Rudolf; Erdmann, Ralf; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter

    2005-06-01

    We predicted in human peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) the binding sites for PEX19, a key player in the topogenesis of PMPs, by virtue of an algorithm developed for yeast PMPs. The best scoring PEX19-binding site was found in the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). The identified site was indeed bound by human PEX19 and was also recognized by the orthologous yeast PEX19 protein. Likewise, both human and yeast PEX19 bound with comparable affinities to the PEX19-binding site of the yeast PMP Pex13p. Interestingly, the identified PEX19-binding site of ALDP coincided with its previously determined targeting motif. We corroborated the requirement of the ALDP PEX19-binding site for peroxisomal targeting in human fibroblasts and showed that the minimal ALDP fragment targets correctly also in yeast, again in a PEX19-binding site-dependent manner. Furthermore, the human PEX19-binding site of ALDP proved interchangeable with that of yeast Pex13p in an in vivo targeting assay. Finally, we showed in vitro that most of the predicted binding sequences of human PMPs represent true binding sites for human PEX19, indicating that human PMPs harbor common PEX19-binding sites that do resemble those of yeast. Our data clearly revealed a role for PEX19-binding sites as PMP-targeting motifs across species, thereby demonstrating the evolutionary conservation of PMP signal sequences from yeast to man.

  19. Phosphorylation of the protein kinase C-theta activation loop and hydrophobic motif regulates its kinase activity, but only activation loop phosphorylation is critical to in vivo nuclear-factor-kappaB induction.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Graham, Caroline; Li, Aiqun; Fisher, Robert J; Shaw, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-theta, a member of the 'novel' subfamily of PKC isoforms, is of singular importance in transducing signals in T-lymphocytes. Since understanding of regulatory phosphorylation of novel PKCs is fragmentary and inconsistent with findings for 'classical' PKC isoforms, we investigated three potential phosphorylation sites on PKC-theta; in the activation loop (Thr(538)), turn motif (Ser(676)) and hydrophobic motif (Ser(695)). Combined evidence from phospho-specific antisera and MS demonstrates phosphorylation at all three sites. Unlike its closest paralogue, PKC-delta, lack of negative charge in the activation loop of PKC-theta results in a profound catalytic defect (>100-fold reduction in the T538A mutant); the high sequence similarity between PKC-theta and -delta assists in the formulation of structural hypotheses to account for this major difference. In contrast with mechanisms proposed for other PKC isoforms, phosphorylation at the other two sites does not reconstitute catalytic activity. Activation loop phosphorylation is critical in vivo, since the T538A mutant completely lost its capacity to mediate T-cell receptor-stimulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in Jurkat T-cells. Hydrophobic motif phosphorylation also substantially influences PKC-theta catalytic activity (5-fold reduction in the S695A mutant), but does not impair NF-kappaB activation in Jurkat T-cells. Its mechanism is independent of secondary effects on activation loop phosphorylation and cannot be explained by thermal instability. Turn motif phosphorylation has a limited effect on kinase activity, but negatively regulates other aspects of PKC-theta function, since the S676A mutant is more efficient than wild-type in inducing NF-kappaB activation in Jurkat T-cells. These findings expand our understanding of the roles of phosphorylation in novel PKCs, and indicate that PKC-theta is a constitutively competent kinase as a consequence of constitutive

  20. Thermodynamic characterization of the DmsD binding site for the DmsA twin-arginine motif.

    PubMed

    Winstone, Tara M L; Turner, Raymond J

    2015-03-24

    The system specific chaperone DmsD interacts with the twin-arginine leader peptide of its substrate, DmsA, allowing for proper folding and assembly of the DmsA catalytic subunit of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase prior to translocation by the twin-arginine translocase. DmsD residues important for binding the complete 45-amino acid sequence of the DmsA leader (DmsAL) peptide were previously identified and found to cluster in a pocket of the DmsD structure. In this study, we have utilized isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to determine the dissociation constant and thermodynamic parameters of 15 single-substitution DmsD variant proteins and a synthetic DmsAL peptide consisting of 27 amino acids (DmsAL₁₅₋₄₁). The stoichiometry values were determined via ITC, and the multimeric compositions of the DmsD variants in the absence and presence of peptide were characterized via size exclusion chromatography and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. An up to 4-fold change in affinity was observed for DmsD variant proteins relative to that of wild-type DmsD, and variation of the entropic contribution to binding divided the binding site into two clusters: residues with either more or less favorable entropy. Substitution of hydrophobic residues along one helix face (helix 5) or prolines found on adjacent loops caused reduced binding affinity because of the increased entropic cost, which suggests that the twin-arginine motif of the DmsAL peptide binds to a preformed site on DmsD. Most DmsD variants were more than 90% monomeric in solution and bound a single peptide per protein molecule. The DmsD variant with the largest dimer population showed increased affinity and induced the formation of tetramers in the presence of peptide, suggesting that dimeric DmsD or an alternatively folded form of DmsD may play an as yet undefined role in binding.

  1. Contribution of the DDDD motif of H. influenzae e (P4) to phosphomonoesterase activity and heme transport.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T J; Green, B A; Zlotnick, G W; Smith, A L

    2001-04-01

    Haemophilus influenzae lipoprotein e (P4) is a member of the DDDD phosphohydrolase superfamily and mediates heme transport. Each of the aspartate residues of the signature motif is required for phosphomonoesterase activity, as none of the e (P4) single D mutants (D64A, D66A, D181N, and D185A) possessed detectable phosphomonoesterase activity. These results suggest that the signature motif is essential to the phosphomonoesterase activity of lipoprotein e (P4). When assessed for phosphomonoesterase-dependent heme transport activity in Escherichia coli hemA strains, plasmids containing D181N and D185A retained heme transport as indicated by aerobic growth while D64A and D66A did not. We conclude that phosphomonoesterase activity is not required for heme transport.

  2. Frizzled-4 C-terminus Distal to KTXXXW Motif is Essential for Normal Dishevelled Recruitment and Norrin-stimulated Activation of Lef/Tcf-dependent Transcriptional Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pau, Milly S.; Gao, Shujuan; Malbon, Craig C.; Wang, Hsien-yu

    2016-01-01

    The carboxy (C)-termini of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) dictate essential functions. The KTXXXW motif C-terminus of Frizzleds (FZD) has been implicated in recruitment of Dishevelled (DVL). Through study of FZD4 and its associated ligand Norrin, we report that a minimum of three residues distal to the KTXXXW motif in the C-terminal tail of Frizzled-4 are essential for DVL recruitment and robust Lef/Tcf-dependent transcriptional activation in response to Norrin. PMID:27096005

  3. Frizzled-4 C-terminus Distal to KTXXXW Motif is Essential for Normal Dishevelled Recruitment and Norrin-stimulated Activation of Lef/Tcf-dependent Transcriptional Activation.

    PubMed

    Bertalovitz, Alexander C; Pau, Milly S; Gao, Shujuan; Malbon, Craig C; Wang, Hsien-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The carboxy (C)-termini of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) dictate essential functions. The KTXXXW motif C-terminus of Frizzleds (FZD) has been implicated in recruitment of Dishevelled (DVL). Through study of FZD4 and its associated ligand Norrin, we report that a minimum of three residues distal to the KTXXXW motif in the C-terminal tail of Frizzled-4 are essential for DVL recruitment and robust Lef/Tcf-dependent transcriptional activation in response to Norrin. PMID:27096005

  4. Motif Discovery on Seismic Amplitude Time Series: The Case Study of Mt Etna 2011 Eruptive Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassisi, Carmelo; Aliotta, Marco; Cannata, Andrea; Montalto, Placido; Patanè, Domenico; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Spampinato, Letizia

    2013-04-01

    Algorithms searching for similar patterns are widely used in seismology both when the waveforms of the events of interest are known and when there is no a priori-knowledge. Such methods usually make use of the cross-correlation coefficient as a measure of similarity; if there is no a-priori knowledge, they behave as brute-force searching algorithms. The disadvantage of these methods, preventing or limiting their application to very large datasets, is computational complexity. The Mueen-Keogh (MK) algorithm overcomes this limitation by means of two optimization techniques—the early abandoning concept and space indexing. Here, we apply the MK algorithm to amplitude time series retrieved from seismic signals recorded during episodic eruptive activity of Mt Etna in 2011. By adequately tuning the input to the MK algorithm we found eight motif groups characterized by distinct seismic amplitude trends, each related to a different phenomenon. In particular, we observed that earthquakes are accompanied by sharp increases and decreases in seismic amplitude whereas lava fountains are accompanied by slower changes. These results demonstrate that the MK algorithm, because of its particular features, may have wide applicability in seismology.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene Family across Fungal Lineage Shows Presence of Novel and Diverse Activation Loop Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Mohanta, Nibedita; Parida, Pratap; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Ponpandian, Lakshmi Narayanan; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is characterized by the presence of the T-E-Y, T-D-Y, and T-G-Y motifs in its activation loop region and plays a significant role in regulating diverse cellular responses in eukaryotic organisms. Availability of large-scale genome data in the fungal kingdom encouraged us to identify and analyse the fungal MAPK gene family consisting of 173 fungal species. The analysis of the MAPK gene family resulted in the discovery of several novel activation loop motifs (T-T-Y, T-I-Y, T-N-Y, T-H-Y, T-S-Y, K-G-Y, T-Q-Y, S-E-Y and S-D-Y) in fungal MAPKs. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that fungal MAPKs are non-polymorphic, had evolved from their common ancestors around 1500 million years ago, and are distantly related to plant MAPKs. We are the first to report the presence of nine novel activation loop motifs in fungal MAPKs. The specificity of the activation loop motif plays a significant role in controlling different growth and stress related pathways in fungi. Hence, the presences of these nine novel activation loop motifs in fungi are of special interest. PMID:26918378

  6. PscanChIP: finding over-represented transcription factor-binding site motifs and their correlations in sequences from ChIP-Seq experiments

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Federico; Pesole, Graziano; Pavesi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing with next-generation technologies (ChIP-Seq) has become the de facto standard for building genome-wide maps of regions bound by a given transcription factor (TF). The regions identified, however, have to be further analyzed to determine the actual DNA-binding sites for the TF, as well as sites for other TFs belonging to the same TF complex or in general co-operating or interacting with it in transcription regulation. PscanChIP is a web server that, starting from a collection of genomic regions derived from a ChIP-Seq experiment, scans them using motif descriptors like JASPAR or TRANSFAC position-specific frequency matrices, or descriptors uploaded by users, and it evaluates both motif enrichment and positional bias within the regions according to different measures and criteria. PscanChIP can successfully identify not only the actual binding sites for the TF investigated by a ChIP-Seq experiment but also secondary motifs corresponding to other TFs that tend to bind the same regions, and, if present, precise positional correlations among their respective sites. The web interface is free for use, and there is no login requirement. It is available at http://www.beaconlab.it/pscan_chip_dev. PMID:23748563

  7. Sequence specific protein binding to and activation of the TGF-beta 3 promoter through a repeated TCCC motif.

    PubMed Central

    Lafyatis, R; Denhez, F; Williams, T; Sporn, M; Roberts, A

    1991-01-01

    We have previously characterized the TGF-beta 3 promoter and shown that the activity of this promoter is highly variable in different cell types. Although the promoter contains a proximal cAMP responsive element, which is critical to basal and forskolin-induced promoter activity, this element is not responsible for the variable, cell-specific regulation of the promoter. In this paper, we identify a 25 base pair sequence in the proximal region of the TGF-beta 3 promoter that binds a novel DNA-binding protein. This region includes the sequence T-CCCTCCCTCCC, (3 x TCCC), and mutation of these T-CCC repeats inhibits protein binding. Further, we show that in the cell line A375, which we have previously shown expresses high levels of TGF-beta 3 mRNA, this region is responsible for mediating high level TGF-beta 3 promoter activity. Immediately 3' to the 3 x TCCC sequence is a consensus AP-2 binding site, however, we show that this region does not bind AP-2, and AP-2 does not transactivate the TGF-beta 3 promoter. Therefore, we provide strong evidence that high level expression of TGF-beta 3 in A375 cells results from transactivation of the TGF-beta 3 promoter by a protein that binds to a repeated TCCC motif in the promoter and suggest that this DNA-binding protein likely also regulates aspects of developmental and tissue-specific expression of this cytokine. Images PMID:1754378

  8. Osteopontin Is Cleaved at Multiple Sites Close to Its Integrin-binding Motifs in Milk and Is a Novel Substrate for Plasmin and Cathepsin D*

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Brian; Schack, Lotte; Kläning, Eva; Sørensen, Esben S.

    2010-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a highly modified integrin-binding protein present in most tissues and body fluids where it has been implicated in numerous biological processes. A significant regulation of OPN function is mediated through phosphorylation and proteolytic processing. Proteolytic cleavage by thrombin and matrix metalloproteinases close to the integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp sequence modulates the function of OPN and its integrin binding properties. In this study, seven N-terminal OPN fragments originating from proteolytic cleavage have been characterized from human milk. Identification of the cleavage sites revealed that all fragments contained the Arg–Gly–Asp145 sequence and were generated by cleavage of the Leu151–Arg152, Arg152–Ser153, Ser153–Lys154, Lys154–Ser155, Ser155–Lys156, Lys156–Lys157, or Phe158–Arg159 peptide bonds. Six cleavages cannot be ascribed to thrombin or matrix metalloproteinase activity, whereas the cleavage at Arg152–Ser153 matches thrombin specificity for OPN. The principal protease in milk, plasmin, hydrolyzed the same peptide bond as thrombin, but its main cleavage site was identified to be Lys154–Ser155. Another endogenous milk protease, cathepsin D, cleaved the Leu151–Arg152 bond. OPN fragments corresponding to plasmin activity were also identified in urine showing that plasmin cleavage of OPN is not restricted to milk. Plasmin, but not cathepsin D, cleavage of OPN increased cell adhesion mediated by the αVβ3- or α5β1-integrins. Similar cellular adhesion was mediated by plasmin and thrombin-cleaved OPN showing that plasmin can be a potent regulator of OPN activity. These data show that OPN is highly susceptible to cleavage near its integrin-binding motifs, and the protein is a novel substrate for plasmin and cathepsin D. PMID:20071328

  9. Motif III in superfamily 2 "helicases" helps convert the binding energy of ATP into a high-affinity RNA binding site in the yeast DEAD-box protein Ded1.

    PubMed

    Banroques, Josette; Doère, Monique; Dreyfus, Marc; Linder, Patrick; Tanner, N Kyle

    2010-03-01

    Motif III in the putative helicases of superfamily 2 is highly conserved in both its sequence and its structural context. It typically consists of the sequence alcohol-alanine-alcohol (S/T-A-S/T). Historically, it was thought to link ATPase activity with a "helicase" strand displacement activity that disrupts RNA or DNA duplexes. DEAD-box proteins constitute the largest family of superfamily 2; they are RNA-dependent ATPases and ATP-dependent RNA binding proteins that, in some cases, are able to disrupt short RNA duplexes. We made mutations of motif III (S-A-T) in the yeast DEAD-box protein Ded1 and analyzed in vivo phenotypes and in vitro properties. Moreover, we made a tertiary model of Ded1 based on the solved structure of Vasa. We used Ded1 because it has relatively high ATPase and RNA binding activities; it is able to displace moderately stable duplexes at a large excess of substrate. We find that the alanine and the threonine in the second and third positions of motif III are more important than the serine, but that mutations of all three residues have strong phenotypes. We purified the wild-type and various mutants expressed in Escherichia coli. We found that motif III mutations affect the RNA-dependent hydrolysis of ATP (k(cat)), but not the affinity for ATP (K(m)). Moreover, mutations alter and reduce the affinity for single-stranded RNA and subsequently reduce the ability to disrupt duplexes. We obtained intragenic suppressors of the S-A-C mutant that compensate for the mutation by enhancing the affinity for ATP and RNA. We conclude that motif III and the binding energy of gamma-PO(4) of ATP are used to coordinate motifs I, II, and VI and the two RecA-like domains to create a high-affinity single-stranded RNA binding site. It also may help activate the beta,gamma-phosphoanhydride bond of ATP.

  10. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Automated protein motif generation in the structure-based protein function prediction tool ProMOL.

    PubMed

    Osipovitch, Mikhail; Lambrecht, Mitchell; Baker, Cameron; Madha, Shariq; Mills, Jeffrey L; Craig, Paul A; Bernstein, Herbert J

    2015-12-01

    ProMOL, a plugin for the PyMOL molecular graphics system, is a structure-based protein function prediction tool. ProMOL includes a set of routines for building motif templates that are used for screening query structures for enzyme active sites. Previously, each motif template was generated manually and required supervision in the optimization of parameters for sensitivity and selectivity. We developed an algorithm and workflow for the automation of motif building and testing routines in ProMOL. The algorithm uses a set of empirically derived parameters for optimization and requires little user intervention. The automated motif generation algorithm was first tested in a performance comparison with a set of manually generated motifs based on identical active sites from the same 112 PDB entries. The two sets of motifs were equally effective in identifying alignments with homologs and in rejecting alignments with unrelated structures. A second set of 296 active site motifs were generated automatically, based on Catalytic Site Atlas entries with literature citations, as an expansion of the library of existing manually generated motif templates. The new motif templates exhibited comparable performance to the existing ones in terms of hit rates against native structures, homologs with the same EC and Pfam designations, and randomly selected unrelated structures with a different EC designation at the first EC digit, as well as in terms of RMSD values obtained from local structural alignments of motifs and query structures. This research is supported by NIH grant GM078077. PMID:26573864

  12. A two-layered machine learning method to identify protein O-GlcNAcylation sites with O-GlcNAc transferase substrate motifs.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hui-Ju; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Bretaña, Neil Arvin; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Huang, Kai-Yao; Weng, Shun-Long; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Protein O-GlcNAcylation, involving the β-attachment of single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine residues, is an O-linked glycosylation catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Molecular level investigation of the basis for OGT's substrate specificity should aid understanding how O-GlcNAc contributes to diverse cellular processes. Due to an increasing number of O-GlcNAcylated peptides with site-specific information identified by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, we were motivated to characterize substrate site motifs of O-GlcNAc transferases. In this investigation, a non-redundant dataset of 410 experimentally verified O-GlcNAcylation sites were manually extracted from dbOGAP, OGlycBase and UniProtKB. After detection of conserved motifs by using maximal dependence decomposition, profile hidden Markov model (profile HMM) was adopted to learn a first-layered model for each identified OGT substrate motif. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was then used to generate a second-layered model learned from the output values of profile HMMs in first layer. The two-layered predictive model was evaluated using a five-fold cross validation which yielded a sensitivity of 85.4%, a specificity of 84.1%, and an accuracy of 84.7%. Additionally, an independent testing set from PhosphoSitePlus, which was really non-homologous to the training data of predictive model, was used to demonstrate that the proposed method could provide a promising accuracy (84.05%) and outperform other O-GlcNAcylation site prediction tools. A case study indicated that the proposed method could be a feasible means of conducting preliminary analyses of protein O-GlcNAcylation and has been implemented as a web-based system, OGTSite, which is now freely available at http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/OGTSite/. PMID:26680539

  13. Motif module map reveals enforcement of aging by continual NF-kappaB activity.

    PubMed

    Adler, Adam S; Sinha, Saurabh; Kawahara, Tiara L A; Zhang, Jennifer Y; Segal, Eran; Chang, Howard Y

    2007-12-15

    Aging is characterized by specific alterations in gene expression, but their underlying mechanisms and functional consequences are not well understood. Here we develop a systematic approach to identify combinatorial cis-regulatory motifs that drive age-dependent gene expression across different tissues and organisms. Integrated analysis of 365 microarrays spanning nine tissue types predicted fourteen motifs as major regulators of age-dependent gene expression in human and mouse. The motif most strongly associated with aging was that of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Inducible genetic blockade of NF-kappaB for 2 wk in the epidermis of chronologically aged mice reverted the tissue characteristics and global gene expression programs to those of young mice. Age-specific NF-kappaB blockade and orthogonal cell cycle interventions revealed that NF-kappaB controls cell cycle exit and gene expression signature of aging in parallel but not sequential pathways. These results identify a conserved network of regulatory pathways underlying mammalian aging and show that NF-kappaB is continually required to enforce many features of aging in a tissue-specific manner.

  14. Repeating Spatial-Temporal Motifs of CA3 Activity Dependent on Engineered Inputs from Dentate Gyrus Neurons in Live Hippocampal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Aparajita; Desai, Harsh; DeMarse, Thomas B.; Wheeler, Bruce C.; Brewer, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical and behavioral studies, and in vivo and slice electrophysiology of the hippocampus suggest specific functions of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the CA3 subregions, but the underlying activity dynamics and repeatability of information processing remains poorly understood. To approach this problem, we engineered separate living networks of the DG and CA3 neurons that develop connections through 51 tunnels for axonal communication. Growing these networks on top of an electrode array enabled us to determine whether the subregion dynamics were separable and repeatable. We found spontaneous development of polarized propagation of 80% of the activity in the native direction from DG to CA3 and different spike and burst dynamics for these subregions. Spatial-temporal differences emerged when the relationships of target CA3 activity were categorized with to the number and timing of inputs from the apposing network. Compared to times of CA3 activity when there was no recorded tunnel input, DG input led to CA3 activity bursts that were 7× more frequent, increased in amplitude and extended in temporal envelope. Logistic regression indicated that a high number of tunnel inputs predict CA3 activity with 90% sensitivity and 70% specificity. Compared to no tunnel input, patterns of >80% tunnel inputs from DG specified different patterns of first-to-fire neurons in the CA3 target well. Clustering dendrograms revealed repeating motifs of three or more patterns at up to 17 sites in CA3 that were importantly associated with specific spatial-temporal patterns of tunnel activity. The number of these motifs recorded in 3 min was significantly higher than shuffled spike activity and not seen above chance in control networks in which CA3 was apposed to CA3 or DG to DG. Together, these results demonstrate spontaneous input-dependent repeatable coding of distributed activity in CA3 networks driven by engineered inputs from DG networks. These functional configurations at measured times

  15. Repeating Spatial-Temporal Motifs of CA3 Activity Dependent on Engineered Inputs from Dentate Gyrus Neurons in Live Hippocampal Networks.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Aparajita; Desai, Harsh; DeMarse, Thomas B; Wheeler, Bruce C; Brewer, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical and behavioral studies, and in vivo and slice electrophysiology of the hippocampus suggest specific functions of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the CA3 subregions, but the underlying activity dynamics and repeatability of information processing remains poorly understood. To approach this problem, we engineered separate living networks of the DG and CA3 neurons that develop connections through 51 tunnels for axonal communication. Growing these networks on top of an electrode array enabled us to determine whether the subregion dynamics were separable and repeatable. We found spontaneous development of polarized propagation of 80% of the activity in the native direction from DG to CA3 and different spike and burst dynamics for these subregions. Spatial-temporal differences emerged when the relationships of target CA3 activity were categorized with to the number and timing of inputs from the apposing network. Compared to times of CA3 activity when there was no recorded tunnel input, DG input led to CA3 activity bursts that were 7× more frequent, increased in amplitude and extended in temporal envelope. Logistic regression indicated that a high number of tunnel inputs predict CA3 activity with 90% sensitivity and 70% specificity. Compared to no tunnel input, patterns of >80% tunnel inputs from DG specified different patterns of first-to-fire neurons in the CA3 target well. Clustering dendrograms revealed repeating motifs of three or more patterns at up to 17 sites in CA3 that were importantly associated with specific spatial-temporal patterns of tunnel activity. The number of these motifs recorded in 3 min was significantly higher than shuffled spike activity and not seen above chance in control networks in which CA3 was apposed to CA3 or DG to DG. Together, these results demonstrate spontaneous input-dependent repeatable coding of distributed activity in CA3 networks driven by engineered inputs from DG networks. These functional configurations at measured times

  16. Peptides derived from central turn motifs within integrin αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails inhibit integrin activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinlei; Liu, Yongqing; Haas, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    We previously found that peptides derived from the full length of integrin αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails inhibited their parent integrin activation, respectively. Here we showed that the cell-permeable peptides corresponding to the conserved central turn motif within αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails, myr-KRNRPPLEED (αIIb peptide) and myr-KRVRPPQEEQ (αV peptide), similarly inhibited both αIIb and αV integrin activation. Pre-treatment with αIIb or αV peptides inhibited Mn(2+)-activated αIIbβ3 binding to soluble fibrinogen as well as the binding of αIIbβ3-expressing Chinese Hamster Ovary cells to immobilized fibrinogen. Our turn peptides also inhibited adhesion of two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-435 and MCF7) to αV ligand vitronectin. These results suggest that αIIb and αV peptides share a same mechanism in regulating integrin function. Using αIIb peptide as a model, we found that replacement of RPP with AAA significantly attenuated the inhibitory activity of αIIb peptide. Furthermore, we found that αIIb peptide specifically bound to β-tubulin in cells. Our work suggests that the central motif of α tails is an anchoring point for cytoskeletons during integrin activation and integrin-mediated cell adhesion, and its function depends on the turn structure at RPP. However, post-treatment of peptides derived from the full-length tail or from the turn motif did not reverse αIIb and αV integrin activation.

  17. The ribotoxin restrictocin recognizes its RNA substrate by selective engagement of active site residues.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Matthew J; Korennykh, Alexei V; Piccirilli, Joseph A; Correll, Carl C

    2011-04-12

    Restrictocin and related fungal endoribonucleases from the α-sarcin family site-specifically cleave the sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) on the ribosome to inhibit translation and ultimately trigger cell death. Previous studies showed that the SRL folds into a bulged-G motif and tetraloop, with restrictocin achieving a specificity of ∼1000-fold by recognizing both motifs only after the initial binding step. Here, we identify contacts within the protein-RNA interface and determine the extent to which each one contributes to enzyme specificity by examining the effect of protein mutations on the cleavage of the SRL substrate compared to a variety of other RNA substrates. As with other biomolecular interfaces, only a subset of contacts contributes to specificity. One contact of this subset is critical, with the H49A mutation resulting in quantitative loss of specificity. Maximum catalytic activity occurs when both motifs of the SRL are present, with the major contribution involving the bulged-G motif recognized by three lysine residues located adjacent to the active site: K110, K111, and K113. Our findings support a kinetic proofreading mechanism in which the active site residues H49 and, to a lesser extent, Y47 make greater catalytic contributions to SRL cleavage than to suboptimal substrates. This systematic and quantitative analysis begins to elucidate the principles governing RNA recognition by a site-specific endonuclease and may thus serve as a mechanistic model for investigating other RNA modifying enzymes. PMID:21417210

  18. Using Weeder, Pscan, and PscanChIP for the Discovery of Enriched Transcription Factor Binding Site Motifs in Nucleotide Sequences.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Federico; Pesole, Graziano; Pavesi, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing modern molecular biology is understanding the complex mechanisms regulating gene expression. A fundamental step in this process requires the characterization of sequence motifs involved in the regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In particular, transcription is modulated by the interaction of transcription factors (TFs) with their corresponding binding sites. Weeder, Pscan, and PscanChIP are software tools freely available for noncommercial users as a stand-alone or Web-based applications for the automatic discovery of conserved motifs in a set of DNA sequences likely to be bound by the same TFs. Input for the tools can be promoter sequences from co-expressed or co-regulated genes (for which Weeder and Pscan are suitable), or regions identified through genome wide ChIP-seq or similar experiments (Weeder and PscanChIP). The motifs are either found by a de novo approach (Weeder) or by using descriptors of the binding specificity of TFs (Pscan and PscanChIP). PMID:25199791

  19. A combined nuclear and nucleolar localization motif in activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) controls immunoglobulin class switching.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Ericsson, Ida; Torseth, Kathrin; Methot, Stephen P; Sundheim, Ottar; Liabakk, Nina B; Slupphaug, Geir; Di Noia, Javier M; Krokan, Hans E; Kavli, Bodil

    2013-01-23

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a DNA mutator enzyme essential for adaptive immunity. AID initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination (CSR) by deaminating cytosine to uracil in specific immunoglobulin (Ig) gene regions. However, other loci, including cancer-related genes, are also targeted. Thus, tight regulation of AID is crucial to balance immunity versus disease such as cancer. AID is regulated by several mechanisms including nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Here we have studied nuclear import kinetics and subnuclear trafficking of AID in live cells and characterized in detail its nuclear localization signal. Importantly, we find that the nuclear localization signal motif also directs AID to nucleoli where it colocalizes with its interaction partner, catenin-β-like 1 (CTNNBL1), and physically associates with nucleolin and nucleophosmin. Moreover, we demonstrate that release of AID from nucleoli is dependent on its C-terminal motif. Finally, we find that CSR efficiency correlates strongly with the arithmetic product of AID nuclear import rate and DNA deamination activity. Our findings suggest that directional nucleolar transit is important for the physiological function of AID and demonstrate that nuclear/nucleolar import and DNA cytosine deamination together define the biological activity of AID. This is the first study on subnuclear trafficking of AID and demonstrates a new level in its complex regulation. In addition, our results resolve the problem related to dissociation of deamination activity and CSR activity of AID mutants.

  20. The phosphotyrosine interaction domains of X11 and FE65 bind to distinct sites on the YENPTY motif of amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Borg, J P; Ooi, J; Levy, E; Margolis, B

    1996-01-01

    The phosphotyrosine interaction (PI) domains (also known as the PTB, or phosphotyrosine binding, domains) of Shc and IRS-1 are recently described domains that bind peptides phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. The PI/PTB domains differ from Src homology 2 (SH2) domains in that their binding specificity is determined by residues that lie amino terminal and not carboxy terminal to the phosphotyrosine. Recently, it has been appreciated that other cytoplasmic proteins also contain PI domains. We now show that the PI domain of X11 and one of the PI domains of FE65, two neuronal proteins, bind to the cytoplasmic domain of the amyloid precursor protein ((beta)APP). (beta)APP is an integral transmembrane glycoprotein whose cellular function is unknown. One of the processing pathways of (beta)APP leads to the secretion of A(beta), the major constituent of the amyloid deposited in the brain parenchyma and vessel walls of Alzheimer's disease patients. We have found that the X11 PI domain binds a YENPTY motif in the intracellular domain of (beta)APP that is strikingly similar to the NPXY motifs that bind the Shc and IRS-1 PI/PTB domains. However, unlike the case for binding of the Shc PI/PTB domain, tyrosine phosphorylation of the YENPTY motif is not required for the binding of (beta)APP to X11 or FE65. The binding site of the FE65 PI domain appears to be different from that of X11, as mutations within the YENPTY motif differentially affect the binding of X11 and FE65. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified a crucial residue within the PI domain involved in X11 and FE65 binding to (beta)APP. The binding of X11 or FE65 PI domains to residues of the YENPTY motif of (beta)APP identifies PI domains as general protein interaction domains and may have important implications for the processing of (beta)APP. PMID:8887653

  1. Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA[subscript N] reveals an endonuclease active site

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Puwei; Bartlam, Mark; Lou, Zhiyong; Chen, Shoudeng; Zhou, Jie; He, Xiaojing; Lv, Zongyang; Ge, Ruowen; Li, Xuemei; Deng, Tao; Fodor, Ervin; Rao, Zihe; Liu, Yingfang

    2009-11-10

    The heterotrimeric influenza virus polymerase, containing the PA, PB1 and PB2 proteins, catalyses viral RNA replication and transcription in the nucleus of infected cells. PB1 holds the polymerase active site and reportedly harbours endonuclease activity, whereas PB2 is responsible for cap binding. The PA amino terminus is understood to be the major functional part of the PA protein and has been implicated in several roles, including endonuclease and protease activities as well as viral RNA/complementary RNA promoter binding. Here we report the 2.2 angstrom (A) crystal structure of the N-terminal 197 residues of PA, termed PA(N), from an avian influenza H5N1 virus. The PA(N) structure has an alpha/beta architecture and reveals a bound magnesium ion coordinated by a motif similar to the (P)DX(N)(D/E)XK motif characteristic of many endonucleases. Structural comparisons and mutagenesis analysis of the motif identified in PA(N) provide further evidence that PA(N) holds an endonuclease active site. Furthermore, functional analysis with in vivo ribonucleoprotein reconstitution and direct in vitro endonuclease assays strongly suggest that PA(N) holds the endonuclease active site and has critical roles in endonuclease activity of the influenza virus polymerase, rather than PB1. The high conservation of this endonuclease active site among influenza strains indicates that PA(N) is an important target for the design of new anti-influenza therapeutics.

  2. Novel hinge-binding motifs for Janus kinase 3 inhibitors: a comprehensive structure-activity relationship study on tofacitinib bioisosteres.

    PubMed

    Gehringer, Matthias; Forster, Michael; Pfaffenrot, Ellen; Bauer, Silke M; Laufer, Stefan A

    2014-11-01

    The Janus kinases (JAKs) are a family of cytosolic tyrosine kinases crucially involved in cytokine signaling. JAKs have been demonstrated to be valid targets in the treatment of inflammatory and myeloproliferative disorders, and two inhibitors, tofacitinib and ruxolitinib, recently received their marketing authorization. Despite this success, selectivity within the JAK family remains a major issue. Both approved compounds share a common 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine hinge binding motif, and little is known about modifications tolerated at this heterocyclic core. In the current study, a library of tofacitinib bioisosteres was prepared and tested against JAK3. The compounds possessed the tofacitinib piperidinyl side chain, whereas the hinge binding motif was replaced by a variety of heterocycles mimicking its pharmacophore. In view of the promising expectations obtained from molecular modeling, most of the compounds proved to be poorly active. However, strategies for restoring activity within this series of novel chemotypes were discovered and crucial structure-activity relationships were deduced. The compounds presented may serve as starting point for developing novel JAK inhibitors and as a valuable training set for in silico models.

  3. Multiple Activities of the Plant Pathogen Type III Effector Proteins WtsE and AvrE1 require WxxxE Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Majerczak, Doris R.; Nomura, Kinya; Mecey, Christy; Uribe, Francisco; He, Sheng-Yang; Mackey, David; Coplin, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The broadly conserved AvrE-family of type III effectors from Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria includes important virulence factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these effectors function inside plant cells to promote disease. We have identified two conserved motifs in AvrE-family effectors: a WxxxE motif and a putative C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum membrane retention/retrieval signal (ERMRS). The WxxxE and ERMRS motifs are both required for the virulence activities of WtsE and AvrE1, which are major virulence factors of the corn pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and the tomato/Arabidopsis pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, respectively. The WxxxE and the predicted ERMRS motifs are also required for other biological activities of WtsE, including elicitation of the hypersensitive response in nonhost plants and suppression of defense responses in Arabidopsis. A family of type III effectors from mammalian bacterial pathogens requires WxxxE and sub-cellular targeting motifs for virulence functions that involve their ability to mimic activated G-proteins. The conservation of related motifs and their necessity for the function of type III effectors from plant pathogens indicates that disturbing host pathways by mimicking activated host G-proteins may be a virulence mechanism employed by plant pathogens as well. PMID:19445595

  4. Binding site structure of one LRP-RAP complex: implications for a common ligand-receptor binding motif.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte A; Andersen, Olav M; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Bjerrum-Bohr, Ida; Etzerodt, Michael; Thøgersen, Hans C; O'Shea, Charlotte; Poulsen, Flemming M; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2006-09-29

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) interacts with more than 30 ligands of different sizes and structures that can all be replaced by the receptor-associated protein (RAP). The double module of complement type repeats, CR56, of LRP binds many ligands including all three domains of RAP and alpha2-macroglobulin, which promotes the catabolism of the Abeta-peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease. To understand the receptor-ligand cross-talk, the NMR structure of CR56 has been solved and ligand binding experiments with RAP domain 1 (RAPd1) have been performed. From chemical shift perturbations of both binding partners upon complex formation, a HADDOCK model of the complex between CR56 and RAPd1 has been obtained. The binding residues are similar to a common binding motif suggested from alpha2-macroglobulin binding studies and provide evidence for an understanding of their mutual cross-competition pattern. The present structural results convey a simultaneous description of both binding partners of an LRP-ligand complex and open a route to a broader understanding of the binding specificity of the LRP receptor, which may involve a general four-residue receptor-ligand recognition motif common to all LRP ligands. The present result may be beneficial in the design of antagonists of ligand binding to the LDL receptor family, and especially of drugs for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Defining a Conformational Consensus Motif in Cotransin-Sensitive Signal Sequences: A Proteomic and Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Wolfgang; Westendorf, Carolin; Schmidt, Antje; Conill-Cortés, Mercè; Rutz, Claudia; Blohs, Marcus; Beyermann, Michael; Protze, Jonas; Krause, Gerd; Krause, Eberhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The cyclodepsipeptide cotransin was described to inhibit the biosynthesis of a small subset of proteins by a signal sequence-discriminatory mechanism at the Sec61 protein-conducting channel. However, it was not clear how selective cotransin is, i.e. how many proteins are sensitive. Moreover, a consensus motif in signal sequences mediating cotransin sensitivity has yet not been described. To address these questions, we performed a proteomic study using cotransin-treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture technique in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry. We used a saturating concentration of cotransin (30 micromolar) to identify also less-sensitive proteins and to discriminate the latter from completely resistant proteins. We found that the biosynthesis of almost all secreted proteins was cotransin-sensitive under these conditions. In contrast, biosynthesis of the majority of the integral membrane proteins was cotransin-resistant. Cotransin sensitivity of signal sequences was neither related to their length nor to their hydrophobicity. Instead, in the case of signal anchor sequences, we identified for the first time a conformational consensus motif mediating cotransin sensitivity. PMID:25806945

  6. Defining a conformational consensus motif in cotransin-sensitive signal sequences: a proteomic and site-directed mutagenesis study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Wolfgang; Westendorf, Carolin; Schmidt, Antje; Conill-Cortés, Mercè; Rutz, Claudia; Blohs, Marcus; Beyermann, Michael; Protze, Jonas; Krause, Gerd; Krause, Eberhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The cyclodepsipeptide cotransin was described to inhibit the biosynthesis of a small subset of proteins by a signal sequence-discriminatory mechanism at the Sec61 protein-conducting channel. However, it was not clear how selective cotransin is, i.e. how many proteins are sensitive. Moreover, a consensus motif in signal sequences mediating cotransin sensitivity has yet not been described. To address these questions, we performed a proteomic study using cotransin-treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture technique in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry. We used a saturating concentration of cotransin (30 micromolar) to identify also less-sensitive proteins and to discriminate the latter from completely resistant proteins. We found that the biosynthesis of almost all secreted proteins was cotransin-sensitive under these conditions. In contrast, biosynthesis of the majority of the integral membrane proteins was cotransin-resistant. Cotransin sensitivity of signal sequences was neither related to their length nor to their hydrophobicity. Instead, in the case of signal anchor sequences, we identified for the first time a conformational consensus motif mediating cotransin sensitivity.

  7. Optimizations of siRNA design for the activation of gene transcription by targeting the TATA-box motif.

    PubMed

    Fan, Miaomiao; Zhang, Yijun; Huang, Zhuoqiong; Liu, Jun; Guo, Xuemin; Zhang, Hui; Luo, Haihua

    2014-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are widely used to repress gene expression by targeting mRNAs. Some reports reveal that siRNAs can also activate or inhibit gene expression through targeting the gene promoters. Our group has found that microRNAs (miRNAs) could activate gene transcription via interaction with the TATA-box motif in gene promoters. To investigate whether siRNA targeting the same region could upregulate the promoter activity, we test the activating efficiency of siRNAs targeting the TATA-box motif of 16 genes and perform a systematic analysis to identify the common features of the functional siRNAs for effective activation of gene promoters. Further, we try various modifications to improve the activating efficiency of siRNAs and find that it is quite useful to design the promoter-targeting activating siRNA by following several rules such as (a) complementary to the TATA-box-centered region; (b) UA usage at the first two bases of the antisense strand; (c) twenty-three nucleotides (nts) in length; (d) 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe) modification at the 3' terminus of the antisense strand; (e) avoiding mismatches at the 3' end of the antisense strand. The optimized activating siRNAs potently enhance the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene in human and mouse primary CD4+ T cells with a long-time effect. Taken together, our study provides a guideline for rational design the promoter-targeting siRNA to sequence-specifically enhance gene expression.

  8. Identification of a novel Stat3 recruitment and activation motif within the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, A; Dyer, K F; Cascio, M; Mietzner, T A; Tweardy, D J

    1999-01-01

    Stat3 is essential for early embryonic development and for myeloid differentiation induced by the cytokines granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Two isoforms of Stat3 have been identified, (p92) and beta (p83), which have distinct transcriptional and biological functions. Activation of both Stat3 and Stat3beta requires the distal cytoplasmic domain of the G-CSFR, which contains four Tyr at positions 704, 729, 744, and 764. The studies reported here were undertaken to determine which, if any, of these tyrosine residues participated in Stat3/beta recruitment and activation. We showed that Stat3 and Stat3beta were affinity purified using phosphopeptides containing Y704 and Y744 but not by nonphosphorylated peptide analogues or by phosphopeptides containing Y729 and Y764. Complementary results were obtained in studies examining the ability of these peptides to destabilize and inhibit DNA binding of activated Stat3. Both Y704 and Y744 contributed to optimal activation of Stat3/beta in M1 murine myeloid leukemia cells containing wild-type and Y-to-F mutant G-CSFR constructs. Carboxy-terminal to Y704 at the +3 position is Gln; YXXQ represents a consensus Stat3 recruitment and activation motif. Y744 is followed at the +3 position by Cys (C); YXXC, represents a novel motif implicated in the recruitment and activation of Stat3. Modeling of the SH2 domain of Stat3 based on homologous SH2 domains of known structure revealed polar residues whose side chains contact the +3 position. This substitution may confer specificity for the Y704- and Y744-based ligands by allowing H-bond formation between the binding surface and the Gln or Cys found at the respective +3 position.

  9. Use of an Improved Matching Algorithm to Select Scaffolds for Enzyme Design Based on a Complex Active Site Model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Xue, Jing; Lin, Min; Zhu, Yushan

    2016-01-01

    Active site preorganization helps native enzymes electrostatically stabilize the transition state better than the ground state for their primary substrates and achieve significant rate enhancement. In this report, we hypothesize that a complex active site model for active site preorganization modeling should help to create preorganized active site design and afford higher starting activities towards target reactions. Our matching algorithm ProdaMatch was improved by invoking effective pruning strategies and the native active sites for ten scaffolds in a benchmark test set were reproduced. The root-mean squared deviations between the matched transition states and those in the crystal structures were < 1.0 Å for the ten scaffolds, and the repacking calculation results showed that 91% of the hydrogen bonds within the active sites are recovered, indicating that the active sites can be preorganized based on the predicted positions of transition states. The application of the complex active site model for de novo enzyme design was evaluated by scaffold selection using a classic catalytic triad motif for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. Eighty scaffolds were identified from a scaffold library with 1,491 proteins and four scaffolds were native esterase. Furthermore, enzyme design for complicated substrates was investigated for the hydrolysis of cephalexin using scaffold selection based on two different catalytic motifs. Only three scaffolds were identified from the scaffold library by virtue of the classic catalytic triad-based motif. In contrast, 40 scaffolds were identified using a more flexible, but still preorganized catalytic motif, where one scaffold corresponded to the α-amino acid ester hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis and synthesis of cephalexin. Thus, the complex active site modeling approach for de novo enzyme design with the aid of the improved ProdaMatch program is a promising approach for the creation of active sites with high catalytic

  10. Use of an Improved Matching Algorithm to Select Scaffolds for Enzyme Design Based on a Complex Active Site Model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Xue, Jing; Lin, Min; Zhu, Yushan

    2016-01-01

    Active site preorganization helps native enzymes electrostatically stabilize the transition state better than the ground state for their primary substrates and achieve significant rate enhancement. In this report, we hypothesize that a complex active site model for active site preorganization modeling should help to create preorganized active site design and afford higher starting activities towards target reactions. Our matching algorithm ProdaMatch was improved by invoking effective pruning strategies and the native active sites for ten scaffolds in a benchmark test set were reproduced. The root-mean squared deviations between the matched transition states and those in the crystal structures were < 1.0 Å for the ten scaffolds, and the repacking calculation results showed that 91% of the hydrogen bonds within the active sites are recovered, indicating that the active sites can be preorganized based on the predicted positions of transition states. The application of the complex active site model for de novo enzyme design was evaluated by scaffold selection using a classic catalytic triad motif for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. Eighty scaffolds were identified from a scaffold library with 1,491 proteins and four scaffolds were native esterase. Furthermore, enzyme design for complicated substrates was investigated for the hydrolysis of cephalexin using scaffold selection based on two different catalytic motifs. Only three scaffolds were identified from the scaffold library by virtue of the classic catalytic triad-based motif. In contrast, 40 scaffolds were identified using a more flexible, but still preorganized catalytic motif, where one scaffold corresponded to the α-amino acid ester hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis and synthesis of cephalexin. Thus, the complex active site modeling approach for de novo enzyme design with the aid of the improved ProdaMatch program is a promising approach for the creation of active sites with high catalytic

  11. Insights into the Activity and Substrate Binding of Xylella fastidiosa Polygalacturonase by Modification of a Unique QMK Amino Acid Motif Using Protein Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeremy G; Lincoln, James E; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) catalyze the random hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. Xylella fastidiosa possesses a single polygalacturonase gene, pglA (PD1485), and X. fastidiosa mutants deficient in the production of polygalacturonase are non-pathogenic and show a compromised ability to systemically infect grapevines. These results suggested that grapevines expressing sufficient amounts of an inhibitor of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase might be protected from disease. Previous work in our laboratory and others have tried without success to produce soluble active X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase for use in inhibition assays. In this study, we created two enzymatically active X. fastidiosa / A. vitis polygalacturonase chimeras, AX1A and AX2A to explore the functionality of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase in vitro. The AX1A chimera was constructed to specifically test if recombinant chimeric protein, produced in Escherichia coli, is soluble and if the X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase catalytic amino acids are able to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid. The AX2A chimera was constructed to evaluate the ability of a unique QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase, most polygalacturonases have a R(I/L)K motif, to bind to and allow the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Furthermore, the AX2A chimera was also used to explore what effect modification of the QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase to a conserved RIK motif has on enzymatic activity. These experiments showed that both the AX1A and AX2A polygalacturonase chimeras were soluble and able to hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid substrate. Additionally, the modification of the QMK motif to the conserved RIK motif eliminated hydrolytic activity, suggesting that the QMK motif is important for the activity of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase. This result suggests X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase may preferentially hydrolyze a different pectic substrate or

  12. Insights into the Activity and Substrate Binding of Xylella fastidiosa Polygalacturonase by Modification of a Unique QMK Amino Acid Motif Using Protein Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jeremy G.; Lincoln, James E.; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) catalyze the random hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. Xylella fastidiosa possesses a single polygalacturonase gene, pglA (PD1485), and X. fastidiosa mutants deficient in the production of polygalacturonase are non-pathogenic and show a compromised ability to systemically infect grapevines. These results suggested that grapevines expressing sufficient amounts of an inhibitor of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase might be protected from disease. Previous work in our laboratory and others have tried without success to produce soluble active X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase for use in inhibition assays. In this study, we created two enzymatically active X. fastidiosa / A. vitis polygalacturonase chimeras, AX1A and AX2A to explore the functionality of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase in vitro. The AX1A chimera was constructed to specifically test if recombinant chimeric protein, produced in Escherichia coli, is soluble and if the X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase catalytic amino acids are able to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid. The AX2A chimera was constructed to evaluate the ability of a unique QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase, most polygalacturonases have a R(I/L)K motif, to bind to and allow the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Furthermore, the AX2A chimera was also used to explore what effect modification of the QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase to a conserved RIK motif has on enzymatic activity. These experiments showed that both the AX1A and AX2A polygalacturonase chimeras were soluble and able to hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid substrate. Additionally, the modification of the QMK motif to the conserved RIK motif eliminated hydrolytic activity, suggesting that the QMK motif is important for the activity of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase. This result suggests X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase may preferentially hydrolyze a different pectic substrate or

  13. Insights into the Activity and Substrate Binding of Xylella fastidiosa Polygalacturonase by Modification of a Unique QMK Amino Acid Motif Using Protein Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeremy G; Lincoln, James E; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) catalyze the random hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. Xylella fastidiosa possesses a single polygalacturonase gene, pglA (PD1485), and X. fastidiosa mutants deficient in the production of polygalacturonase are non-pathogenic and show a compromised ability to systemically infect grapevines. These results suggested that grapevines expressing sufficient amounts of an inhibitor of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase might be protected from disease. Previous work in our laboratory and others have tried without success to produce soluble active X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase for use in inhibition assays. In this study, we created two enzymatically active X. fastidiosa / A. vitis polygalacturonase chimeras, AX1A and AX2A to explore the functionality of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase in vitro. The AX1A chimera was constructed to specifically test if recombinant chimeric protein, produced in Escherichia coli, is soluble and if the X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase catalytic amino acids are able to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid. The AX2A chimera was constructed to evaluate the ability of a unique QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase, most polygalacturonases have a R(I/L)K motif, to bind to and allow the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Furthermore, the AX2A chimera was also used to explore what effect modification of the QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase to a conserved RIK motif has on enzymatic activity. These experiments showed that both the AX1A and AX2A polygalacturonase chimeras were soluble and able to hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid substrate. Additionally, the modification of the QMK motif to the conserved RIK motif eliminated hydrolytic activity, suggesting that the QMK motif is important for the activity of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase. This result suggests X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase may preferentially hydrolyze a different pectic substrate or

  14. Gene switching rate determines response to extrinsic perturbations in the self-activation transcriptional network motif.

    PubMed

    de Franciscis, Sebastiano; Caravagna, Giulio; Mauri, Giancarlo; d'Onofrio, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Gene switching dynamics is a major source of randomness in genetic networks, also in the case of large concentrations of the transcription factors. In this work, we consider a common network motif - the positive feedback of a transcription factor on its own synthesis - and assess its response to extrinsic noises perturbing gene deactivation in a variety of settings where the network might operate. These settings are representative of distinct cellular types, abundance of transcription factors and ratio between gene switching and protein synthesis rates. By investigating noise-induced transitions among the different network operative states, our results suggest that gene switching rates are key parameters to shape network response to external perturbations, and that such response depends on the particular biological setting, i.e. the characteristic time scales and protein abundance. These results might have implications on our understanding of irreversible transitions for noise-related phenomena such as cellular differentiation. In addition these evidences suggest to adopt the appropriate mathematical model of the network in order to analyze the system consistently to the reference biological setting. PMID:27256916

  15. Gene switching rate determines response to extrinsic perturbations in the self-activation transcriptional network motif

    PubMed Central

    de Franciscis, Sebastiano; Caravagna, Giulio; Mauri, Giancarlo; d’Onofrio, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Gene switching dynamics is a major source of randomness in genetic networks, also in the case of large concentrations of the transcription factors. In this work, we consider a common network motif - the positive feedback of a transcription factor on its own synthesis - and assess its response to extrinsic noises perturbing gene deactivation in a variety of settings where the network might operate. These settings are representative of distinct cellular types, abundance of transcription factors and ratio between gene switching and protein synthesis rates. By investigating noise-induced transitions among the different network operative states, our results suggest that gene switching rates are key parameters to shape network response to external perturbations, and that such response depends on the particular biological setting, i.e. the characteristic time scales and protein abundance. These results might have implications on our understanding of irreversible transitions for noise-related phenomena such as cellular differentiation. In addition these evidences suggest to adopt the appropriate mathematical model of the network in order to analyze the system consistently to the reference biological setting. PMID:27256916

  16. Site-specific labeling of the type 1 ryanodine receptor using biarsenical fluorophores targeted to engineered tetracysteine motifs.

    PubMed

    Fessenden, James D; Mahalingam, Mohana

    2013-01-01

    The type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) is an intracellular Ca(2+) release channel that mediates skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling. While the overall shape of RyR1 has been elucidated using cryo electron microscopic reconstructions, fine structural details remain elusive. To better understand the structure of RyR1, we have previously used a cell-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method using a fused green fluorescent protein (GFP) donor and a fluorescent acceptor, Cy3NTA that binds specifically to short poly-histidine 'tags' engineered into RyR1. However, the need to permeabilize cells to allow Cy3NTA entry as well as the noncovalent binding of Cy3NTA to the His tag limits future applications of this technique for studying conformational changes of the RyR. To overcome these problems, we used a dodecapeptide sequence containing a tetracysteine (Tc) motif to target the biarsenical fluorophores, FlAsH and ReAsH to RyR1. These compounds freely cross intact cell membranes where they then bind covalently to the tetracysteine motif. First, we used this system to conduct FRET measurements in intact cells by fusing a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) FRET donor to the N-terminus of RyR1 and then targeting the FRET acceptor, ReAsH to an adjacent Tc tag. Moderate energy transfer (∼33%) was observed whereas ReAsH incubation of a YFPRyR1 fusion protein lacking the Tc tag resulted in no detectable FRET. We also developed a FRET-based system that did not require RyR fluorescent protein fusions by labeling N-terminal Tc-tagged RyR1 with FlAsH, a FRET donor and then targeting the FRET acceptor Cy3NTA to an adjacent decahistidine (His10) tag. A high degree of energy transfer (∼66%) indicated proper binding of both compounds to these unique recognition sequences in RyR1. Thus, these two systems should provide unprecedented flexibility in future FRET-based structural determinations of RyR1.

  17. Targeted mutations in a highly conserved motif of the nsp1β protein impair the interferon antagonizing activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhua; Zhu, Longchao; Lawson, Steven R; Fang, Ying

    2013-09-01

    Non-structural protein 1β (nsp1β) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contains a papain-like cysteine protease (PLPβ) domain and has been identified as the main viral protein antagonizing the host innate immune response. In this study, nsp1β was determined to suppress the expression of reporter genes as well as to suppress 'self-expression' in transfected cells, and this activity appeared to be associated with its interferon (IFN) antagonist function. To knock down the effect of nsp1β on IFN activity, a panel of site-specific mutations in nsp1β was analysed. Double mutations K130A/R134A (type 1 PRRSV) or K124A/R128A (type 2 PRRSV) targeting a highly conserved motif of nsp1β, GKYLQRRLQ (in bold), impaired the ability of nsp1β to suppress IFN-β and reporter gene expression, as well as to suppress 'self-expression' in vitro. Subsequently, viable recombinant viruses vSD01-08-K130A/R134A and vSD95-21-K124A/R128A, containing double mutations in the GKYLQRRLQ motif were generated using reverse genetics. In comparison with WT viruses, these nsp1β mutants showed impaired growth ability in infected cells, but the PLPβ cleavage function was not directly affected. The expression of selected innate immune genes was determined in vSD95-21-K124A/R128A mutant-infected cells. The results consistently showed that gene expression levels of IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-stimulated gene 15 were upregulated in cells that were infected with the vSD95-21-K124A/R128A compared with that of WT virus. These data suggest that PRRSV nsp1β may selectively suppress cellular gene expression, including expression of genes involved in the host innate immune function. Modifying the key residues in the highly conserved GKYLQRRLQ motif could attenuate virus growth and improve the cellular innate immune responses. PMID:23761406

  18. Mutation of Phe318 within the NPxxY(x)(5,6)F motif in melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 results in an efficient signaling activity.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Akie; Horikawa, Manabu; Saho, Tomoko; Saito, Yumiko

    2012-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays an important role in feeding by coupling to Gα(q)- and Gα(i)-mediated signal transduction pathways. To interrogate the molecular basis for MCHR1 activation, we analyzed the effect of a series of site-directed mutations on rat MCHR1 function. In the highly conserved NPxxY(x)(5,6)F domain of GPCRs, the phenylalanine residue is involved in structural constraints; replacement with alanine generally leads to impaired/lost GPCR function. However, Phe-to-Ala (F318A) mutation in MCHR1 had no significant effect on the level of cell surface expression and receptor signaling. By analyzing a further series of mutants, we found that Phe-to-Lys substitution (F318K) caused the most significant reduction in the EC(50) value of MCH for calcium mobilization without affecting receptor expression at the cell surface. Interestingly, GTPγS-binding, which monitors Gα(i) activation, was not modulated by F318K. Our results, combined with computer modeling, provide new insight into the role of Phe in the NPxxY(x)(5,6)F motif as a structurally critical site for receptor dynamics and a determinant of Gα protein interaction.

  19. Role of leucine zipper motif in apoE3 N-terminal domain lipid binding activity.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Taichi; Ryan, Robert O

    2006-09-01

    The N terminal domain of human apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3-NT) functions as a ligand for members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Whereas lipid-free apoE3-NT adopts a stable four-helix bundle conformation, a lipid binding induced conformational change is required for LDLR recognition. To investigate the role of a leucine zipper motif identified in the helix bundle on lipid binding activity, three leucine residues in helix 2 (Leu63, Leu71 and Leu78) were replaced by alanine. Recombinant "leucine to alanine" (LA) apoE3-NT was produced in E. coli, isolated and characterized. Stability studies revealed a transition midpoint of guanidine hydrochloride induced denaturation of 2.7 M and 2.1 M for wild type (WT) and LA apoE3-NT, respectively. Results from fluorescent dye binding assays revealed that, compared to WT apoE3-NT, LA apoE3-NT has an increased content of solvent exposed hydrophobic surfaces. In phospholipid vesicle solubilization assays, LA apoE3-NT was more effective than WT apoE3-NT at inducing a time-dependent decrease in dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol vesicle light scattering intensity. Likewise, in lipoprotein binding assays, LA apoE3-NT protected human low-density lipoprotein from phospholipase C induced aggregation to a greater extent than WT apoE3-NT. On the other hand, LA apoE3-NT and WT apoE3-NT were equivalent in terms of their ability to bind a soluble LDLR fragment. The results suggest that the leucine zipper motif confers stability to the apoE3-NT helix bundle state and may serve to modulate lipid binding activity of this domain and, thereby, influence the conformational transition associated with manifestation of LDLR binding activity.

  20. Identifying the activation motif in the N-terminal of rainbow trout and zebrafish melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 1 (MRAP1) orthologs.

    PubMed

    Dores, Robert M; Liang, Liang; Hollmann, Rebecca E; Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2016-08-01

    The activation of mammalian melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) orthologs is dependent on a four-amino acid activation motif (LDYL/I) located in the N-terminal of mammalian MRAP1 (melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein). Previous alanine substitution analysis had shown that the Y residue in this motif appears to be the most important for mediating the activation of mammalian MC2R orthologs. Similar, but not identical amino acid motifs were detected in rainbow trout MRAP1 (YDYL) and zebrafish MRAP1 (YDYV). To determine the importance of these residues in the putative activation motifs, rainbow trout and zebrafish MRAP1 orthologs were individually co-expressed in CHO cells with rainbow trout MC2R, and the activation of this receptor with either the wild-type MRAP1 ortholog or alanine-substituted analogs of the two teleost MRAP1s was analyzed. Alanine substitutions at all four amino acid positions in rainbow trout MRAP1 blocked activation of the rainbow trout MC2R. Single alanine substitutions of the D and Y residues in rainbow trout and zebrafish MRAP1 indicate that these two residues play a significant role in the activation of rainbow trout MC2R. These observations indicate that there are subtle differences in the way that teleost and mammalian MRAPs are involved in the activation of their corresponding MC2R orthologs.

  1. Efficacy of function specific 3D-motifs in enzyme classification according to their EC-numbers.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Amir; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin; Touserkani, Rouzbeh; Goliaei, Bahram

    2013-11-01

    Due to the increasing number of protein structures with unknown function originated from structural genomics projects, protein function prediction has become an important subject in bioinformatics. Among diverse function prediction methods, exploring known 3D-motifs, which are associated with functional elements in unknown protein structures is one of the most biologically meaningful methods. Homologous enzymes inherit such motifs in their active sites from common ancestors. However, slight differences in the properties of these motifs, results in variation in the reactions and substrates of the enzymes. In this study, we examined the possibility of discriminating highly related active site patterns according to their EC-numbers by 3D-motifs. For each EC-number, the spatial arrangement of an active site, which has minimum average distance to other active sites with the same function, was selected as a representative 3D-motif. In order to characterize the motifs, various points in active site elements were tested. The results demonstrated the possibility of predicting full EC-number of enzymes by 3D-motifs. However, the discriminating power of 3D-motifs varies among different enzyme families and depends on selecting the appropriate points and features.

  2. A WXW motif is required for the anticancer activity of the TAT-RasGAP317-326 peptide.

    PubMed

    Barras, David; Chevalier, Nadja; Zoete, Vincent; Dempsey, Rosemary; Lapouge, Karine; Olayioye, Monilola A; Michielin, Olivier; Widmann, Christian

    2014-08-22

    TAT-RasGAP317-326, a cell-permeable 10-amino acid-long peptide derived from the N2 fragment of p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP), sensitizes tumor cells to apoptosis induced by various anticancer therapies. This RasGAP-derived peptide, by targeting the deleted in liver cancer-1 (DLC1) tumor suppressor, also hampers cell migration and invasion by promoting cell adherence and by inhibiting cell movement. Here, we systematically investigated the role of each amino acid within the RasGAP317-326 sequence for the anticancer activities of TAT-RasGAP317-326. We report here that the first three amino acids of this sequence, tryptophan, methionine, and tryptophan (WMW), are necessary and sufficient to sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and to reduce cell migration. The WMW motif was found to be critical for the binding of fragment N2 to DLC1. These results define the interaction mode between the active anticancer sequence of RasGAP and DLC1. This knowledge will facilitate the design of small molecules bearing the tumor-sensitizing and antimetastatic activities of TAT-RasGAP317-326.

  3. Palmitoylation of protease-activated receptor-1 regulates adaptor protein complex-2 and -3 interaction with tyrosine-based motifs and endocytic sorting.

    PubMed

    Canto, Isabel; Trejo, JoAnn

    2013-05-31

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor for the coagulant protease thrombin. Thrombin binds to and cleaves the N terminus of PAR1, generating a new N terminus that functions as a tethered ligand that cannot diffuse away. In addition to rapid desensitization, PAR1 trafficking is critical for the regulation of cellular responses. PAR1 displays constitutive and agonist-induced internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), which binds to a distal tyrosine-based motif localized within the C-terminal tail (C-tail) domain. Once internalized, PAR1 is sorted from endosomes to lysosomes via AP-3 interaction with a second C-tail tyrosine motif proximal to the transmembrane domain. However, the regulatory processes that control adaptor protein recognition of PAR1 C-tail tyrosine-based motifs are not known. Here, we report that palmitoylation of PAR1 is critical for regulating proper utilization of tyrosine-based motifs and endocytic sorting. We show that PAR1 is basally palmitoylated at highly conserved C-tail cysteines. A palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 mutant is competent to signal and exhibits a marked increase in constitutive internalization and lysosomal degradation compared with wild type receptor. Intriguingly, enhanced constitutive internalization of PAR1 is mediated by AP-2 and requires the proximal tyrosine-based motif rather than the distal tyrosine motif used by wild type receptor. Moreover, palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 displays increased degradation that is mediated by AP-3. These findings suggest that palmitoylation of PAR1 regulates appropriate utilization of tyrosine-based motifs by adaptor proteins and endocytic trafficking, processes that are critical for maintaining appropriate expression of PAR1 at the cell surface. PMID:23580642

  4. Palmitoylation of protease-activated receptor-1 regulates adaptor protein complex-2 and -3 interaction with tyrosine-based motifs and endocytic sorting.

    PubMed

    Canto, Isabel; Trejo, JoAnn

    2013-05-31

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor for the coagulant protease thrombin. Thrombin binds to and cleaves the N terminus of PAR1, generating a new N terminus that functions as a tethered ligand that cannot diffuse away. In addition to rapid desensitization, PAR1 trafficking is critical for the regulation of cellular responses. PAR1 displays constitutive and agonist-induced internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), which binds to a distal tyrosine-based motif localized within the C-terminal tail (C-tail) domain. Once internalized, PAR1 is sorted from endosomes to lysosomes via AP-3 interaction with a second C-tail tyrosine motif proximal to the transmembrane domain. However, the regulatory processes that control adaptor protein recognition of PAR1 C-tail tyrosine-based motifs are not known. Here, we report that palmitoylation of PAR1 is critical for regulating proper utilization of tyrosine-based motifs and endocytic sorting. We show that PAR1 is basally palmitoylated at highly conserved C-tail cysteines. A palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 mutant is competent to signal and exhibits a marked increase in constitutive internalization and lysosomal degradation compared with wild type receptor. Intriguingly, enhanced constitutive internalization of PAR1 is mediated by AP-2 and requires the proximal tyrosine-based motif rather than the distal tyrosine motif used by wild type receptor. Moreover, palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 displays increased degradation that is mediated by AP-3. These findings suggest that palmitoylation of PAR1 regulates appropriate utilization of tyrosine-based motifs by adaptor proteins and endocytic trafficking, processes that are critical for maintaining appropriate expression of PAR1 at the cell surface.

  5. Sites for phosphates and iron-sulfur thiolates in the first membranes: 3 to 6 residue anion-binding motifs (nests).

    PubMed

    Milner-White, E James; Russell, Michael J

    2005-02-01

    Nests are common three to six amino acid residue motifs in proteins where successive main chain NH groups bind anionic atoms or groups. On average 8% of residues in proteins belong to nests. Nests form a key part of a number of phosphate binding sites, notably the P-loop, which is the commonest of the binding sites for the phosphates of ATP and GTP. They also occur regularly in sites that bind [Fe2S2](RS)4 [Fe3S4](RS)3and [Fe4S4](RS)4 iron-sulfur centers, which are also anionic groups. Both phosphates and iron-sulfur complexes would have occurred in the precipitates within hydrothermal vents of moderate temperature as key components of the earliest metabolism and it is likely existing organisms emerging in this milieu would have benefited from evolving molecules binding such anions. The nest conformation is favored by high proportions of glycine residues and there is evidence for glycine being the commonest amino acid during the stage of evolution when proteins were evolving so it is likely nests would have been common features in peptides occupying the membranes at the dawn of life.

  6. Sites for Phosphates and Iron-Sulfur Thiolates in the First Membranes: 3 to 6 Residue Anion-Binding Motifs (Nests)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner-White, E. James; Russell, Michael J.

    2005-02-01

    Nests are common three to six amino acid residue motifs in proteins where successive main chain NH groups bind anionic atoms or groups. On average 8% of residues in proteins belong to nests. Nests form a key part of a number of phosphate binding sites, notably the P-loop, which is the commonest of the binding sites for the phosphates of ATP and GTP. They also occur regularly in sites that bind [Fe2S2](RS)4 [Fe3S4](RS)3 and [Fe4S4](RS)4 iron-sulfur centers, which are also anionic groups. Both phosphates and iron-sulfur complexes would have occurred in the precipitates within hydrothermal vents of moderate temperature as key components of the earliest metabolism and it is likely existing organisms emerging in this milieu would have benefited from evolving molecules binding such anions. The nest conformation is favored by high proportions of glycine residues and there is evidence for glycine being the commonest amino acid during the stage of evolution when proteins were evolving so it is likely nests would have been common features in peptides occupying the membranes at the dawn of life.

  7. [Personal motif in art].

    PubMed

    Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    One of the basic questions of the art psychology is whether a personal motif is to be found behind works of art and if so, how openly or indirectly it appears in the work itself. Analysis of examples and documents from the fine arts and literature allow us to conclude that the personal motif that can be identified by the viewer through symbols, at times easily at others with more difficulty, gives an emotional plus to the artistic product. The personal motif may be found in traumatic experiences, in communication to the model or with other emotionally important persons (mourning, disappointment, revenge, hatred, rivalry, revolt etc.), in self-searching, or self-analysis. The emotions are expressed in artistic activity either directly or indirectly. The intention nourished by the artist's identity (Kunstwollen) may stand in the way of spontaneous self-expression, channelling it into hidden paths. Under the influence of certain circumstances, the artist may arouse in the viewer, consciously or unconsciously, an illusionary, misleading image of himself. An examination of the personal motif is one of the important research areas of art therapy.

  8. [Personal motif in art].

    PubMed

    Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    One of the basic questions of the art psychology is whether a personal motif is to be found behind works of art and if so, how openly or indirectly it appears in the work itself. Analysis of examples and documents from the fine arts and literature allow us to conclude that the personal motif that can be identified by the viewer through symbols, at times easily at others with more difficulty, gives an emotional plus to the artistic product. The personal motif may be found in traumatic experiences, in communication to the model or with other emotionally important persons (mourning, disappointment, revenge, hatred, rivalry, revolt etc.), in self-searching, or self-analysis. The emotions are expressed in artistic activity either directly or indirectly. The intention nourished by the artist's identity (Kunstwollen) may stand in the way of spontaneous self-expression, channelling it into hidden paths. Under the influence of certain circumstances, the artist may arouse in the viewer, consciously or unconsciously, an illusionary, misleading image of himself. An examination of the personal motif is one of the important research areas of art therapy. PMID:26202617

  9. Adaptation of short-term plasticity parameters via error-driven learning may explain the correlation between activity-dependent synaptic properties, connectivity motifs and target specificity

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Umberto; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical connectivity among neurons has been experimentally found to be largely non-random across brain areas. This means that certain connectivity motifs occur at a higher frequency than would be expected by chance. Of particular interest, short-term synaptic plasticity properties were found to colocalize with specific motifs: an over-expression of bidirectional motifs has been found in neuronal pairs where short-term facilitation dominates synaptic transmission among the neurons, whereas an over-expression of unidirectional motifs has been observed in neuronal pairs where short-term depression dominates. In previous work we found that, given a network with fixed short-term properties, the interaction between short- and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission is sufficient for the emergence of specific motifs. Here, we introduce an error-driven learning mechanism for short-term plasticity that may explain how such observed correspondences develop from randomly initialized dynamic synapses. By allowing synapses to change their properties, neurons are able to adapt their own activity depending on an error signal. This results in more rich dynamics and also, provided that the learning mechanism is target-specific, leads to specialized groups of synapses projecting onto functionally different targets, qualitatively replicating the experimental results of Wang and collaborators. PMID:25688203

  10. Wobble Pairs of the HDV Ribozyme Play Specific Roles in Stabilization of Active Site Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sripathi, Kamali N.; Banáš, Pavel; Reblova, Kamila; Šponer, Jiři; Otyepka, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the only known human pathogen whose genome contains a catalytic RNA motif (ribozyme). The overall architecture of the HDV ribozyme is that of a double-nested pseudoknot, with two GU pairs flanking the active site. Although extensive studies have shown that mutation of either wobble results in decreased catalytic activity, little work has focused on linking these mutations to specific structural effects on catalytic fitness. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations based on an activated structure to probe the active site dynamics as a result of wobble pair mutations. In both wild-type and mutant ribozymes, the in-line fitness of the active site (as a measure of catalytic proficiency) strongly depends on the presence of a C75(N3H3+)N1(O5′) hydrogen bond, which positions C75 as the general acid for the reaction. Our mutational analyses show that each GU wobble supports catalytically fit conformations in distinct ways; the reverse G25U20 wobble promotes high in-line fitness, high occupancy of the C75(N3H3+)G1(O5′) general-acid hydrogen bond and stabilization of the G1U37 wobble, while the G1U37 wobble acts more locally by stabilizing high in-line fitness and the C75(N3H3+)G1(O5′) hydrogen bond. We also find that stable type I A-minor and P1.1 hydrogen bonding above and below the active site, respectively, prevent local structural disorder from spreading and disrupting global conformation. Taken together, our results define specific, often redundant architectural roles for several structural motifs of the HDV ribozyme active site, expanding the known roles of these motifs within all HDV-like ribozymes and other structured RNAs. PMID:25631765

  11. Homotypic clustering of OsMYB4 binding site motifs in promoters of the rice genome and cellular-level implications on sheath blight disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Pooja, Singh; Sweta, Kumari; Mohanapriya, A; Sudandiradoss, C; Siva, Ramamoorthy; Gothandam, Kodiveri M; Babu, Subramanian

    2015-05-01

    The promoter regions (1 kb upstream sequences) of 45,836 annotated genes of rice were analyzed for the presence of OsMYB4 binding sites using a Perl program algorithm. Based on the homotypic clustering concept, 113 promoters were found to have more than 4 binding site motifs. Among the downstream genes of these promoters, five genes which are known to have a role in disease resistance were selected and the binding capacity of OsMYB4 protein in the promoter regions was analyzed by docking studies. Expression level of these genes was analyzed by RT-PCR in Rhizoctonia solani infected rice seedlings. Upon pathogen challenge, higher expression of aminotransferase, ankyrin and WRKY 12 genes was observed corresponding to higher expression of Osmyb4. Over-expression of Osmyb4 cDNA in rice leaf tissues by agro-infection failed to result in similar over-expression of aminotransferase, ankyrin and WRKY 12 as expected. Although the role of OsMYB4 in sheath blight resistance was found to be definitive based on our initial results, artificial over-expression of this TF was observed to be insufficient in regulating the disease resistance related genes.

  12. RNA-binding motif protein 47 inhibits Nrf2 activity to suppress tumor growth in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, T; Isogaya, K; Sakai, S; Morikawa, M; Morishita, Y; Ehata, S; Miyazono, K; Koinuma, D

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins provide a new layer of posttranscriptional regulation of RNA during cancer progression. We identified RNA-binding motif protein 47 (RBM47) as a target gene of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG cells) that have undergone the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. TGF-β repressed RBM47 expression in NMuMG cells and lung cancer cell lines. Expression of RBM47 correlated with good prognosis in patients with lung, breast and gastric cancer. RBM47 suppressed the expression of cell metabolism-related genes, which were the direct targets of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2; also known as NFE2L2). RBM47 bound to KEAP1 and Cullin 3 mRNAs, and knockdown of RBM47 inhibited their protein expression, which led to enhanced binding of Nrf2 to target genomic regions. Knockdown of RBM47 also enhanced the expression of some Nrf2 activators, p21/CDKN1A and MafK induced by TGF-β. Both mitochondrial respiration rates and the side population cells in lung cancer cells increased in the absence of RBM47. Our findings, together with the enhanced tumor formation and metastasis of xenografted mice by knockdown of the RBM47 expression, suggested tumor-suppressive roles for RBM47 through the inhibition of Nrf2 activity. PMID:26923328

  13. DndEi Exhibits Helicase Activity Essential for DNA Phosphorothioate Modification and ATPase Activity Strongly Stimulated by DNA Substrate with a GAAC/GTTC Motif.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tao; Jiang, Pan; Cao, Bo; Cheng, Qiuxiang; Kong, Lingxin; Zheng, Xiaoqing; Hu, Qinghai; You, Delin

    2016-01-15

    Phosphorothioate (PT) modification of DNA, in which the non-bridging oxygen of the backbone phosphate group is replaced by sulfur, is governed by the DndA-E proteins in prokaryotes. To better understand the biochemical mechanism of PT modification, functional analysis of the recently found PT-modifying enzyme DndEi, which has an additional domain compared with canonical DndE, from Riemerella anatipestifer is performed in this study. The additional domain is identified as a DNA helicase, and functional deletion of this domain in vivo leads to PT modification deficiency, indicating an essential role of helicase activity in PT modification. Subsequent analysis reveals that the additional domain has an ATPase activity. Intriguingly, the ATPase activity is strongly stimulated by DNA substrate containing a GAAC/GTTC motif (i.e. the motif at which PT modifications occur in R. anatipestifer) when the additional domain and the other domain (homologous to canonical DndE) are co-expressed as a full-length DndEi. These results reveal that PT modification is a biochemical process with DNA strand separation and intense ATP hydrolysis.

  14. Catalysis: Elusive active site in focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labinger, Jay A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification of the active site of an iron-containing catalyst raises hopes of designing practically useful catalysts for the room-temperature conversion of methane to methanol, a potential fuel for vehicles. See Letter p.317

  15. IQ Motif-Containing GTPase-Activating Protein 2 (IQGAP2) Is a Novel Regulator of Colonic Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleb, Amr M.; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B.; Snider, Ashley J.; Gnatenko, Dmitri V.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Yang, Vincent W.; Schmidt, Valentina A.

    2015-01-01

    IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 2 (IQGAP2) is a multidomain scaffolding protein that plays a role in cytoskeleton regulation by juxtaposing Rho GTPase and Ca2+/calmodulin signals. While IQGAP2 suppresses tumorigenesis in liver, its role in pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract remains unexplored. Here we report that IQGAP2 is required for the inflammatory response in colon. Mice lacking Iqgap2 gene (Iqgap2-/- mice) were resistant to chemically-induced colitis. Unlike wild-type controls, Iqgap2-/- mice treated with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in water for 13 days displayed no injury to colonic epithelium. Mechanistically, resistance to colitis was associated with suppression of colonic NF-κB signaling and IL-6 synthesis, along with diminished neutrophil and macrophage production and recruitment in Iqgap2-/- mice. Finally, alterations in IQGAP2 expression were found in colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our findings indicate that IQGAP2 promotes inflammatory response at two distinct levels; locally, in colonic epithelium through TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, and systemically, via control of maturation and recruitment of myeloid immune cells. This work identifies a novel mechanism of colonic inflammation mediated by signal transducing scaffolding protein IQGAP2. IQGAP2 domain-specific blocking agents may represent a conceptually novel strategy for therapy of IBD and other inflammation-associated disorders, including cancer. PMID:26047140

  16. Polycystin-2 activity is controlled by transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif and PALS1-associated tight junction protein.

    PubMed

    Duning, Kerstin; Rosenbusch, Deike; Schlüter, Marc A; Tian, Yuemin; Kunzelmann, Karl; Meyer, Nina; Schulze, Ulf; Markoff, Arseni; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Weide, Thomas

    2010-10-29

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent monogenic cause of kidney failure, characterized by the development of renal cysts. ADPKD is caused by mutations of the polycystin-1 (PC1) or polycystin-2 (PC2) genes. PC2 encodes a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel, and its dysfunction has been implicated in cyst development. The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) is required for the integrity of renal cilia. Its absence results in the development of renal cysts in a knock-out mouse model. TAZ directly interacts with PC2, and it has been suggested that another yet unidentified PDZ domain protein may be involved in the TAZ/PC2 interaction. Here we describe a novel interaction of TAZ with the multi-PDZ-containing PALS1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ). TAZ interacts with both the N-terminal PDZ domains 1-3 and the C-terminal PDZ domains 8-10 of PATJ, suggesting two distinct TAZ binding domains. We also show that the C terminus of PC2 strongly interacts with PDZ domains 8-10 and to a weaker extent with PDZ domains 1-3 of PATJ. Finally, we demonstrate that both TAZ and PATJ impair PC2 channel activity when co-expressed with PC2 in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. These results implicate TAZ and PATJ as novel regulatory elements of the PC2 channel and might thus be involved in ADPKD pathology.

  17. The disulfide oxidoreductase SdbA is active in Streptococcus gordonii using a single C-terminal cysteine of the CXXC motif.

    PubMed

    Davey, Lauren; Cohen, Alejandro; LeBlanc, Jason; Halperin, Scott A; Lee, Song F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we identified a novel disulfide oxidoreductase, SdbA, in the oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii. Disulfide oxidoreductases form disulfide bonds in nascent proteins using a CXXC catalytic motif. Typically, the N-terminal cysteine interacts with substrates, whereas the C-terminal cysteine is buried and only reacts with the first cysteine of the motif. In this study, we investigated the SdbA C(86) P(87) D(88) C(89) catalytic motif. In vitro, SdbA single cysteine variants at the N or C-terminal position (SdbAC86P and SdbAC89A ) were active but displayed different susceptibility to oxidation, and N-terminal cysteine was prone to sulfenylation. In S. gordonii, mutants with a single N-terminal cysteine were inactive and formed unstable disulfide adducts with other proteins. Activity was partially restored by inactivation of pyruvate oxidase, a hydrogen peroxide generator. Presence of the C-terminal cysteine alone (in the SdbAC86P variant) could complement the ΔsdbA mutant and restore disulfide bond formation in recombinant and natural protein substrates. These results provide evidence that certain disulfide oxidoreductases can catalyze disulfide bond formation using a single cysteine of the CXXC motif, including the buried C-terminal cysteine.

  18. The Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus G Protein-Coupled Receptor Contains an Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Inhibitory Motif That Activates Shp2 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Nicola; Bakken, Thomas; Pennell, Christopher; Chen, Liwei; Wu, Jie; Cannon, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) is a constitutively active, highly angiogenic homologue of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptors that signals in part via the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2. We show that vGPCR contains a bona fide immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) that binds and constitutively activates Shp2. PMID:21047965

  19. Activation of the bacterial thermosensor DesK involves a serine zipper dimerization motif that is modulated by bilayer thickness

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Larisa Estefanía; Ballering, Joost; Moussatova, Anastassiia; Inda, Maria Eugenia; Vazquez, Daniela B.; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A.; de Mendoza, Diego; Tieleman, D. Peter; Killian, J. Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    DesK is a bacterial thermosensor protein involved in maintaining membrane fluidity in response to changes in environmental temperature. Most likely, the protein is activated by changes in membrane thickness, but the molecular mechanism of sensing and signaling is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to elucidate the mode of action of DesK by studying the so-called “minimal sensor DesK” (MS-DesK), in which sensing and signaling are captured in a single transmembrane segment. This simplified version of the sensor allows investigation of membrane thickness-dependent protein–lipid interactions simply by using synthetic peptides, corresponding to the membrane-spanning parts of functional and nonfunctional mutants of MS-DesK incorporated in lipid bilayers with varying thicknesses. The lipid-dependent behavior of the peptides was investigated by circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence, and molecular modeling. These experiments were complemented with in vivo functional studies on MS-DesK mutants. Based on the results, we constructed a model that suggests a new mechanism for sensing in which the protein is present as a dimer and responds to an increase in bilayer thickness by membrane incorporation of a C-terminal hydrophilic motif. This results in exposure of three serines on the same side of the transmembrane helices of MS-DesK, triggering a switching of the dimerization interface to allow the formation of a serine zipper. The final result is activation of the kinase state of MS-DesK. PMID:25941408

  20. Low dielectric response in enzyme active site

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Edward L.; Krishtalik, Lev I.

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of charge transfer depend crucially on the dielectric reorganization of the medium. In enzymatic reactions that involve charge transfer, atomic dielectric response of the active site and of its surroundings determines the efficiency of the protein as a catalyst. We report direct spectroscopic measurements of the reorganization energy associated with the dielectric response in the active site of α-chymotrypsin. A chromophoric inhibitor of the enzyme is used as a spectroscopic probe. We find that water strongly affects the dielectric reorganization in the active site of the enzyme in solution. The reorganization energy of the protein matrix in the vicinity of the active site is similar to that of low-polarity solvents. Surprisingly, water exhibits an anomalously high dielectric response that cannot be described in terms of the dielectric continuum theory. As a result, sequestering the active site from the aqueous environment inside low-dielectric enzyme body dramatically reduces the dielectric reorganization. This reduction is particularly important for controlling the rate of enzymatic reactions. PMID:10681440

  1. Is there any interaction between telomeric DNA structures, G-quadruplex and I-motif, with saffron active metabolites?

    PubMed

    Hoshyar, Reyhane; Bathaie, S Zahra; Kyani, Anahita; Mousavi, Mir Fazlollah

    2012-01-01

    Telomeric DNA contains some unique secondary structures, such as G-quadruplex and I-motif. These structures may be stabilized or changed by binding to specific proteins or small molecules. Herein, we report the in vitro effect of crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin, and safranal on these structures. Circular dichroism (CD) data indicate that crocetin has higher affinity for these structures. Safranal and crocin induce little change in the I-motif and G-quadruplex, respectively. The molecular docking confirms the experimental data and indicates the minor groove binding of ligands with G-quadruplex. The possibility for application of these ligands as sequence-specific drugs should be further investigated. PMID:23145950

  2. Lethal Factor Active-Site Mutations Affect Catalytic Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, S. E.; Hanna, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    The lethal factor (LF) protein of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin contains the thermolysin-like active-site and zinc-binding consensus motif HEXXH (K. R. Klimpel, N. Arora, and S. H. Leppla, Mol. Microbiol. 13:1093–1100, 1994). LF is hypothesized to act as a Zn2+ metalloprotease in the cytoplasm of macrophages, but no proteolytic activities have been previously shown on any target substrate. Here, synthetic peptides are hydrolyzed by LF in vitro. Mass spectroscopy and peptide sequencing of isolated cleavage products separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography indicate that LF seems to prefer proline-containing substrates. Substitution mutations within the consensus active-site residues completely abolish all in vitro catalytic functions, as does addition of 1,10-phenanthroline, EDTA, and certain amino acid hydroxamates, including the novel zinc metalloprotease inhibitor ZINCOV. In contrast, the protease inhibitors bestatin and lysine CMK, previously shown to block LF activity on macrophages, did not block LF activity in vitro. These data provide the first direct evidence that LF may act as an endopeptidase. PMID:9573135

  3. Histidine Triad-Like Motif of the Rotavirus NSP2 Octamer Mediates Both RTPase and NTPase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Carpio, Rodrigo Vasquez-Del; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando D.; Riadi, Gonzalo; Taraporewala, Zenobia F.; Patton., John T.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Rotavirus NSP2 is an abundant nonstructural RNA-binding protein essential for forming the viral factories that support replication of the double-stranded RNA genome. NSP2 exists as stable doughnut-shaped octamers within the infected cell, representing the tail-to-tail interaction of two tetramers. Extending diagonally across the surface of each octamer are four highly basic grooves that function as binding sites for single-stranded RNA. Between the N and C-terminal domains of each monomer is a deep electropositive cleft containing a catalytic site that hydrolyzes the γ-β phosphoanhydride bond of any NTP. The catalytic site has similarity to those of the histidine triad (HIT) family of nucleotide-binding proteins. Due to the close proximity of the grooves and clefts, we investigated the possibility that the RNA-binding activity of the groove promoted the insertion of the 5′-triphosphate moiety of the RNA into the cleft, and the subsequent hydrolysis of its γ-β phosphoanhydride bond. Our results show that NSP2 hydrolyzes the γP from RNAs and NTPs through Mg2+-dependent activities that proceed with similar reaction velocities, that require the catalytic His225 residue, and that produce a phosphorylated intermediate. Competition assays indicate that although both substrates enter the active site, RNA is the preferred substrate due to its higher affinity for the octamer. The RTPase activity of NSP2 may account for the absence of 5′-terminal γP on the (−) strands of the dsRNA genome segments. This is the first report of a HIT-like protein with a multifunctional catalytic site, capable of accommodating both NTPs and RNAs during γP hydrolysis. PMID:16934294

  4. Consensus PP1 binding motifs regulate transcriptional corepression and alternative RNA splicing activities of the steroid receptor coregulators, p54nrb and PSF.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangliang; Xie, Ning; Rennie, Paul; Challis, John R G; Gleave, Martin; Lye, Stephen J; Dong, Xuesen

    2011-07-01

    Originally identified as essential pre-mRNA splicing factors, non-POU-domain-containing, octamer binding protein (p54nrb) and PTB-associated RNA splicing factor (PSF) are also steroid receptor corepressors. The mechanisms by which p54nrb and PSF regulate gene transcription remain unclear. Both p54nrb and PSF contain protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) consensus binding RVxF motifs, suggesting that PP1 may regulate phosphorylation status of p54nrb and PSF and thus their function in gene transcription. In this report, we demonstrated that PP1 forms a protein complex with both p54nrb and PSF. PP1 interacts directly with the RVxF motif only in p54nrb, but not in PSF. Association with PP1 results in dephosphorylation of both p54nrb and PSF in vivo and the loss of their transcriptional corepressor activities. Using the CD44 minigene as a reporter, we showed that PP1 regulates p54nrb and PSF alternative splicing activities that determine exon skipping vs. inclusion in the final mature RNA for translation. In addition, changes in transcriptional corepression and RNA splicing activities of p54nrb and PSF are correlated with alterations in protein interactions of p54nrb and PSF with transcriptional corepressors such as Sin3A and histone deacetylase 1, and RNA splicing factors such as U1A and U2AF. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel function of the RVxF motif within PSF that enhances its corepression and RNA splicing activities independent of PP1. We conclude that the RVxF motifs play an important role in controlling the multifunctional properties of p54nrb and PSF in the regulation of gene transcription.

  5. Solvent Tuning of Electrochemical Potentials in the Active Sites of HiPIP Versus Ferredoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, A.; Francis, E.J.; Adams, M.W.W.; Babini, E.; Takahashi, Y.; Fukuyama, K.; Hodgson, K.O.; Hedman, B.; Solomon, E.I.; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept. /Georgia U. /Bologna U. /Osaka U. /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-29

    A persistent puzzle in the field of biological electron transfer is the conserved iron-sulfur cluster motif in both high potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) and ferredoxin (Fd) active sites. Despite this structural similarity, HiPIPs react oxidatively at physiological potentials, whereas Fds are reduced. Sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy uncovers the substantial influence of hydration on this variation in reactivity. Fe-S covalency is much lower in natively hydrated Fd active sites than in HiPIPs but increases upon water removal; similarly, HiPIP covalency decreases when unfolding exposes an otherwise hydrophobically shielded active site to water. Studies on model compounds and accompanying density functional theory calculations support a correlation of Fe-S covalency with ease of oxidation and therefore suggest that hydration accounts for most of the difference between Fd and HiPIP reduction potentials.

  6. Structural and Mechanistic Analysis of Trichodiene Synthase Using Site-Directed Mutagenesis: Probing the Catalytic Function of Tryosine-295 and the Asparagine-225/Serine-229/Glutamate-233-Mg2+ B Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Vedula,L.; Jiang, J.; Zakharian, T.; Cane, D.; Christianson, D.

    2008-01-01

    Trichodiene synthase from Fusarium sporotrichioides contains two metal ion-binding motifs required for the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate: the 'aspartate-rich' motif D100DXX(D/E) that coordinates to Mg{sup 2+}{sub A} and Mg{sup 2+}{sub C} source, and the 'NSE/DTE' motif N225DXXSXXXE that chelates Mg{sup 2+}{sub b} (boldface indicates metal ion ligands). Here, we report steady-state kinetic parameters, product array analyses, and X-ray crystal structures of trichodiene synthase mutants in which the fungal NSE motif is progressively converted into a plant-like DDXXTXXXE motif, resulting in a degradation in both steady-state kinetic parameters and product specificity. Each catalytically active mutant generates a different distribution of sesquiterpene products, and three newly detected sesquiterpenes are identified. In addition, the kinetic and structural properties of the Y295F mutant of trichodiene synthase were found to be similar to those of the wild-type enzyme, thereby ruling out a proposed role for Y295 in catalysis.

  7. Structural and mechanistic analysis of trichodiene synthase using site-directed mutagenesis: probing the catalytic function of tyrosine-295 and the asparagine-225/serine-229/glutamate-233-Mg2+B motif.

    PubMed

    Vedula, L Sangeetha; Jiang, Jiaoyang; Zakharian, Tatiana; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2008-01-15

    Trichodiene synthase from Fusarium sporotrichioides contains two metal ion-binding motifs required for the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate: the "aspartate-rich" motif D(100)DXX(D/E) that coordinates to Mg2+A and Mg2+C, and the "NSE/DTE" motif N(225)DXXSXXXE that chelates Mg2+B (boldface indicates metal ion ligands). Here, we report steady-state kinetic parameters, product array analyses, and X-ray crystal structures of trichodiene synthase mutants in which the fungal NSE motif is progressively converted into a plant-like DDXXTXXXE motif, resulting in a degradation in both steady-state kinetic parameters and product specificity. Each catalytically active mutant generates a different distribution of sesquiterpene products, and three newly detected sesquiterpenes are identified. In addition, the kinetic and structural properties of the Y295F mutant of trichodiene synthase were found to be similar to those of the wild-type enzyme, thereby ruling out a proposed role for Y295 in catalysis. PMID:17996718

  8. Characterization of an acromesomelic dysplasia, Grebe type case: novel mutation affecting the recognition motif at the processing site of GDF5.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Garcia, Monica; Garcia-Canto, Eva; Fenollar-Cortes, Maria; Aytes, Antonio Perez; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José

    2016-09-01

    Acromesomelic dysplasia, Grebe type is a very rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe dwarfism with marked micromelia and deformation of the upper and lower limbs, with a proximodistal gradient of severity. CDMP1 gene mutations have been associated with Grebe syndrome, Hunter-Thompson syndrome, Du Pan syndrome and brachydactyly type C. The proband is a 4-year-old boy, born of consanguineous Pakistani parents. Radiographic imaging revealed features typical of Grebe syndrome: severe shortening of the forearms with an acromesomelic pattern following a proximodistal gradient, with distal parts more severely affected than medial parts; hypoplastic hands, with the phalangeal zone more affected than the metacarpal zone; and severe hypoplastic tibial/femoral zones in both limbs. After molecular analyses, the p.Arg377Trp variant in a homozygous pattern was identified in the CDMP1 gene in the affected child. In silico and structural analyses predicted the p.Arg377Trp amino acid change to be pathogenic. Of the 34 mutations described in the CDMP1 gene, four different missense mutations have been associated with Grebe syndrome. The CDMP1 gene encodes growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), which plays a role in regulation of limb patterning, joint formation and distal bone growth. Homozygous mutations in the mature domain of GDF5 result in severe limb malformations such as the Grebe type or the Hunter-Thompson type of acromesomelic chondrodysplasia. The p.Arg377Trp mutation is located within the recognition motif at the processing site of GDF5 where the sequence RRKRR changes to WRKRR. The genotype-phenotype correlation allowed not only confirmation of the clinical diagnosis but also appropriate genetic counselling to be offered to this family.

  9. Regulation of polycystin-1 ciliary trafficking by motifs at its C-terminus and polycystin-2 but not by cleavage at the GPS site.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Wu, Maoqing; Yao, Gang; El-Jouni, Wassim; Luo, Chong; Tabari, Azadeh; Zhou, Jing

    2015-11-15

    Failure to localize membrane proteins to the primary cilium causes a group of diseases collectively named ciliopathies. Polycystin-1 (PC1, also known as PKD1) is a large ciliary membrane protein defective in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Here, we developed a large set of PC1 expression constructs and identified multiple sequences, including a coiled-coil motif in the C-terminal tail of PC1, regulating full-length PC1 trafficking to the primary cilium. Ciliary trafficking of wild-type and mutant PC1 depends on the dose of polycystin-2 (PC2, also known as PKD2), and the formation of a PC1-PC2 complex. Modulation of the ciliary trafficking module mediated by the VxP ciliary-targeting sequence and Arf4 and Asap1 does not affect the ciliary localization of full-length PC1. PC1 also promotes PC2 ciliary trafficking. PC2 mutations truncating its C-terminal tail but not those changing the VxP sequence to AxA or impairing the pore of the channel, leading to a dead channel, affect PC1 ciliary trafficking. Cleavage at the GPCR proteolytic site (GPS) of PC1 is not required for PC1 trafficking to cilia. We propose a mutually dependent model for the ciliary trafficking of PC1 and PC2, and that PC1 ciliary trafficking is regulated by multiple cis-acting elements. As all pathogenic PC1 mutations tested here are defective in ciliary trafficking, ciliary trafficking might serve as a functional read-out for ADPKD.

  10. Signature motifs of GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, a non-segmented negative strand RNA viral mRNA capping enzyme, domain in the L protein are required for covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate formation.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Julie; Ogino, Minako; Green, Todd J; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The unconventional mRNA capping enzyme (GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, PRNTase; block V) domain in RNA polymerase L proteins of non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses (e.g. rabies, measles, Ebola) contains five collinear sequence elements, Rx(3)Wx(3-8)ΦxGxζx(P/A) (motif A; Φ, hydrophobic; ζ, hydrophilic), (Y/W)ΦGSxT (motif B), W (motif C), HR (motif D) and ζxxΦx(F/Y)QxxΦ (motif E). We performed site-directed mutagenesis of the L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a prototypic NNS RNA virus) to examine participation of these motifs in mRNA capping. Similar to the catalytic residues in motif D, G1100 in motif A, T1157 in motif B, W1188 in motif C, and F1269 and Q1270 in motif E were found to be essential or important for the PRNTase activity in the step of the covalent L-pRNA intermediate formation, but not for the GTPase activity that generates GDP (pRNA acceptor). Cap defective mutations in these residues induced termination of mRNA synthesis at position +40 followed by aberrant stop-start transcription, and abolished virus gene expression in host cells. These results suggest that the conserved motifs constitute the active site of the PRNTase domain and the L-pRNA intermediate formation followed by the cap formation is essential for successful synthesis of full-length mRNAs.

  11. Enzymatic activity of poliovirus RNA polymerase mutants with single amino acid changes in the conserved YGDD amino acid motif.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, S A; Luo, M; Morrow, C D

    1991-09-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases contain a highly conserved region of amino acids with a core segment composed of the amino acids YGDD which have been hypothesized to be at or near the catalytic active site of the molecule. Six mutations in this conserved YGDD region of the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were made by using oligonucleotide site-directed DNA mutagenesis of the poliovirus cDNA to substitute A, C, M, P, S, or V for the amino acid G. The mutant polymerase genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified RNA polymerases were tested for in vitro enzyme activity. Two of the mutant RNA polymerases (those in which the glycine residue was replaced with alanine or serine) exhibited in vitro enzymatic activity ranging from 5 to 20% of wild-type activity, while the remaining mutant RNA polymerases were inactive. Alterations in the in vitro reaction conditions by modification of temperature, metal ion concentration, or pH resulted in no significant differences in the activities of the mutant RNA polymerases relative to that of the wild-type enzyme. An antipeptide antibody directed against the wild-type core amino acid segment containing the YGDD region of the poliovirus polymerase reacted with the wild-type recombinant RNA polymerase and to a limited extent with the two enzymatically active mutant polymerases; the antipeptide antibody did not react with the mutant RNA polymerases which did not have in vitro enzyme activity. These results are discussed in the context of secondary-structure predictions for the core segment containing the conserved YGDD amino acids in the poliovirus RNA polymerase. PMID:1651402

  12. Ehrlichia chaffeensis TRP120 Binds a G+C-Rich Motif in Host Cell DNA and Exhibits Eukaryotic Transcriptional Activator Function ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bing; Kuriakose, Jeeba A.; Luo, Tian; Ballesteros, Efren; Gupta, Sharu; Fofanov, Yuriy; McBride, Jere W.

    2011-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that modulates host cell gene transcription in the mononuclear phagocyte, but the host gene targets and mechanisms involved in transcriptional modulation are not well-defined. In this study, we identified a novel tandem repeat DNA-binding domain in the E. chaffeensis 120-kDa tandem repeat protein (TRP120) that directly binds host cell DNA. TRP120 was observed by immunofluorescent microscopy in the nucleus of E. chaffeensis-infected host cells and was detected in nuclear extracts by Western immunoblotting with TRP120-specific antibody. The TRP120 binding sites and associated host cell target genes were identified using high-throughput deep sequencing (Illumina) of immunoprecipitated DNA (chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput DNA sequencing). Multiple em motif elicitation (MEME) analysis of the most highly enriched TRP120-bound sequences revealed a G+C-rich DNA motif, and recombinant TRP120 specifically bound synthetic oligonucleotides containing the motif. TRP120 target gene binding sites were mapped most frequently to intersecting regions (intron/exon; 49%) but were also identified in upstream regulatory regions (25%) and downstream locations (26%). Genes targeted by TRP120 were most frequently associated with transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, and apoptosis. TRP120 targeted inflammatory chemokine genes, CCL2, CCL20, and CXCL11, which were strongly upregulated during E. chaffeensis infection and were also upregulated by direct transfection with recombinant TRP120. This study reveals that TRP120 is a novel DNA-binding protein that is involved in a host gene transcriptional regulation strategy. PMID:21859854

  13. Transcriptional activation through ETS domain binding sites in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV gene

    SciTech Connect

    Virbasius, J.V.; Scarpulla, R.C. )

    1991-11-01

    A mutational analysis of the rat cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (RCO4) promoter region revealed the presence of a major control element consisting of a tandemly repeated pair of binding sites for a nuclear factor from HeLa cells. This factor was designated NRF-2 (nuclear respiratory factor 2) because a functional recognition site was also found in the human ATP synthase {beta}-subunit gene. Deletion or site-directed point mutations of the NRF-2 binding sites in the RCO4 promoter resulted in substantial loss of transcriptional activity, and synthetic oligomers of the NRF-2 binding sites from both genes stimulated a heterologous promoter when cloned in cis. NRF-2 binding a transcriptional activation required a purine-rich core sequence, GGAA. This motif is characteristic of the recognition site for a family of activators referred to as ETS domain proteins because of the similarity within their DNA-binding domains to the ets-1 proto-oncogene product. NRF-2 recognized an authentic Ets-1 site within the Moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat, and this site was able to compete for NRF-2 binding to the RCO4 promoter sequence. However, in contrast to Ets-1, which appears to be exclusive to lymphoid tissues, NRF-2 has the broad tissue distribution expected of a regulator of respiratory chain expression.

  14. Discriminative motif optimization based on perceptron training

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Stormo, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Generating accurate transcription factor (TF) binding site motifs from data generated using the next-generation sequencing, especially ChIP-seq, is challenging. The challenge arises because a typical experiment reports a large number of sequences bound by a TF, and the length of each sequence is relatively long. Most traditional motif finders are slow in handling such enormous amount of data. To overcome this limitation, tools have been developed that compromise accuracy with speed by using heuristic discrete search strategies or limited optimization of identified seed motifs. However, such strategies may not fully use the information in input sequences to generate motifs. Such motifs often form good seeds and can be further improved with appropriate scoring functions and rapid optimization. Results: We report a tool named discriminative motif optimizer (DiMO). DiMO takes a seed motif along with a positive and a negative database and improves the motif based on a discriminative strategy. We use area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) as a measure of discriminating power of motifs and a strategy based on perceptron training that maximizes AUC rapidly in a discriminative manner. Using DiMO, on a large test set of 87 TFs from human, drosophila and yeast, we show that it is possible to significantly improve motifs identified by nine motif finders. The motifs are generated/optimized using training sets and evaluated on test sets. The AUC is improved for almost 90% of the TFs on test sets and the magnitude of increase is up to 39%. Availability and implementation: DiMO is available at http://stormo.wustl.edu/DiMO Contact: rpatel@genetics.wustl.edu, ronakypatel@gmail.com PMID:24369152

  15. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, J.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide for early leak detection and to monitor performance of the active low-level waste disposal facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and the transuranic waste storage areas in SWSA 5 North. Early leak detection is accomplished by sampling runoff, groundwater, and perched water in burial trenches. Sample results are compared to action levels that represent background contamination by naturally occurring and fallout-derived radionuclides. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Stabilized G protein binding site in the structure of constitutively active metarhodopsin-II.

    PubMed

    Deupi, Xavier; Edwards, Patricia; Singhal, Ankita; Nickle, Benjamin; Oprian, Daniel; Schertler, Gebhard; Standfuss, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are seven transmembrane helix proteins that couple binding of extracellular ligands to conformational changes and activation of intracellular G proteins, GPCR kinases, and arrestins. Constitutively active mutants are ubiquitously found among GPCRs and increase the inherent basal activity of the receptor, which often correlates with a pathological outcome. Here, we have used the M257Y(6.40) constitutively active mutant of the photoreceptor rhodopsin in combination with the specific binding of a C-terminal fragment from the G protein alpha subunit (GαCT) to trap a light activated state for crystallization. The structure of the M257Y/GαCT complex contains the agonist all-trans-retinal covalently bound to the native binding pocket and resembles the G protein binding metarhodopsin-II conformation obtained by the natural activation mechanism; i.e., illumination of the prebound chromophore 11-cis-retinal. The structure further suggests a molecular basis for the constitutive activity of 6.40 substitutions and the strong effect of the introduced tyrosine based on specific interactions with Y223(5.58) in helix 5, Y306(7.53) of the NPxxY motif and R135(3.50) of the E(D)RY motif, highly conserved residues of the G protein binding site.

  17. Antifreeze activity enhancement by site directed mutagenesis on an antifreeze protein from the beetle Rhagium mordax.

    PubMed

    Friis, Dennis Steven; Kristiansen, Erlend; von Solms, Nicolas; Ramløv, Hans

    2014-05-01

    The ice binding motifs of insect antifreeze proteins (AFPs) mainly consist of repetitive TxT motifs aligned on a flat face of the protein. However, these motifs often contain non-threonines that disrupt the TxT pattern. We substituted two such disruptive amino acids located in the ice binding face of an AFP from Rhagium mordax with threonine. Furthermore, a mutant with an extra ice facing TxT motif was constructed. These mutants showed enhanced antifreeze activity compared to the wild type at low concentrations. However, extrapolating the data indicates that the wild type will become the most active at concentrations above 270 μmol.

  18. NMR Localization of Divalent Cations at the Active Site of the Neurospora VS Ribozyme Provides Insights into RNA–Metal-Ion Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Metal cations represent key elements of RNA structure and function. In the Neurospora VS ribozyme, metal cations play diverse roles; they are important for substrate recognition, formation of the active site, and shifting the pKa’s of two key nucleobases that contribute to the general acid–base mechanism. Recently, we determined the NMR structure of the A730 loop of the VS ribozyme active site (SLVI) that contributes the general acid (A756) in the enzymatic mechanism of the cleavage reaction. Our studies showed that magnesium (Mg2+) ions are essential to stabilize the formation of the S-turn motif within the A730 loop that exposes the A756 nucleobase for catalysis. In this article, we extend these NMR investigations by precisely mapping the Mg2+-ion binding sites using manganese-induced paramagnetic relaxation enhancement and cadmium-induced chemical-shift perturbation of phosphorothioate RNAs. These experiments identify five Mg2+-ion binding sites within SLVI. Four Mg2+ ions in SLVI are associated with known RNA structural motifs, including the G–U wobble pair and the GNRA tetraloop, and our studies reveal novel insights about Mg2+ ion binding to these RNA motifs. Interestingly, one Mg2+ ion is specifically associated with the S-turn motif, confirming its structural role in the folding of the A730 loop. This Mg2+ ion is likely important for formation of the active site and may play an indirect role in catalysis. PMID:24364590

  19. Alteration of zif268 zinc-finger motifs gives rise to non-native zinc-co-ordination sites but preserves wild-type DNA recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Green, A; Sarkar, B

    1998-01-01

    Zinc fingers are among the major structural motifs found in proteins that are involved in eukaryotic gene regulation. Many of these zinc-finger domains are involved in DNA binding. This study investigated whether the zinc-co-ordinating (Cys)2(His)2 motif found in the three zinc fingers of zif268 could be replaced by a (Cys)4 motif while still preserving DNA recognition. (Cys)2(His)2-to-(Cys)4 mutations were generated in each of the three zinc fingers of zif268 individually, as well as in fingers 1 and 3, and fingers 2 and 3 together. Whereas finger 1 and finger 3 tolerate the switch, such an alteration in finger 2 renders the polypeptide incapable of DNA recognition. The protein-DNA interaction was examined in greater detail by using a methylation-interference assay. The mutant polypeptides containing the (Cys)4 motif in fingers 1 or 3 recognize DNA in a manner identical to the wild-type protein, suggesting that the (Cys)4 motif appears to give rise to a properly folded finger. Additional results indicate that a zif268 variant containing a (Cys)2(His)(Ala) arrangement in finger 1 is also capable of DNA recognition in a manner identical to the wild-type polypeptide. This appears to be the first time that such alterations, in the context of an intact DNA-binding domain, have still allowed for specific DNA recognition. Taken together, the work presented here enhances our understanding of the relationship between metal ligation and DNA-binding by zinc fingers. PMID:9639566

  20. Restoration of the CCAAT box or insertion of the CACCC motif activates [corrected] delta-globin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tang, D C; Ebb, D; Hardison, R C; Rodgers, G P

    1997-07-01

    Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2), which contains delta-globin as its non-alpha-globin, represents a minor fraction of the Hb found in normal adults. It has been shown recently that HbA2 is as potent as HbF in inhibiting intracellular deoxy-HbS polymerization, and its expression is therefore relevant to sickle cell disease treatment strategies. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the low-level expression of the delta-globin gene in adult erythroid cells, we first compared promoter sequences and found that the delta-globin gene differs from the beta-globin gene in the absence of an erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF) binding site, the alteration of the CCAAT box to CCAAC, and the presence of a GATA-1 binding site. Second, serial deletions of the human delta-globin promoter sequence fused to a luciferase (LUC) reporter gene were transfected into K562 cells. We identified both positive and negative regulatory regions in the 5' flanking sequence. Furthermore, a plasmid containing a single base pair (bp) mutation in the CCAAC box of the delta promoter, restoring the CCAAT box, caused a 5.6-fold and 2.4-fold (P < .05) increase of LUC activity in transfected K562 cells and MEL cells, respectively, in comparison to the wild-type delta promoter. A set of substitutions that create an EKLF binding site centered at -85 bp increased the expression by 26.8-fold and 6.5-fold (P < .05) in K562 and MEL cells, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that the restoration of either an EKLF binding site or the CCAAT box can increase delta-globin gene expression, with potential future clinical benefit.

  1. 2'-deoxy cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose derivatives: importance of the 2'-hydroxyl motif for the antagonistic activity of 8-substituted cADPR derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Wagner, Gerd K; Weber, Karin; Garnham, Clive; Morgan, Anthony J; Galione, Antony; Guse, Andreas H; Potter, Barry V L

    2008-03-27

    The structural features needed for antagonism at the cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) receptor are unclear. Chemoenzymatic syntheses of novel 8-substituted 2'-deoxy-cADPR analogues, including 8-bromo-2'-deoxy-cADPR 7, 8-amino-2'-deoxy-cADPR 8, 8- O-methyl-2'-deoxy-cADPR 9, 8-phenyl-2'-deoxy-cADPR 10 and its ribose counterpart 8-phenyl-cADPR 5 are reported, including improved syntheses of established antagonists 8-amino-cADPR 2 and 8-bromo-cADPR 3. Aplysia californica ADP-ribosyl cyclase tolerates even the bulky 8-phenyl-nicotinamide adenine 5'-dinucleotide as a substrate. Structure-activity relationships of 8-substituted cADPR analogues in both Jurkat T-lymphocytes and sea urchin egg homogenate (SUH) were investigated. 2'-OH Deletion decreased antagonistic activity (at least for the 8-amino series), showing it to be an important motif. Some 8-substituted 2'-deoxy analogues showed agonist activity at higher concentrations, among which 8-bromo-2'-deoxy-cADPR 7 was, unexpectedly, a weak but almost full agonist in SUH and was membrane-permeant in whole eggs. Classical antagonists 2 and 3 also showed previously unobserved agonist activity at higher concentrations in both systems. The 2'-OH group, without effect on the Ca (2+)-mobilizing ability of cADPR itself, is an important motif for the antagonistic activities of 8-substituted cADPR analogues. PMID:18303825

  2. Characterization of active sites in zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, J.; Bug, A.; Nicol, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Atomic-level details of the interaction of adsorbed molecules with active sites in catalysts are urgently needed to facilitate development of more effective and/or environmentally benign catalysts. To this end the authors have carried out neutron scattering studies combined with theoretical calculations of the dynamics of small molecules inside the cavities of zeolite catalysts. The authors have developed the use of H{sub 2} as a probe of adsorption sites by observing the hindered rotations of the adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule, and they were able to show that an area near the four-rings is the most likely adsorption site for H{sub 2} in zeolite A while adsorption of H{sub 2} near cations located on six-ring sites decreases in strength as Ni {approximately} Co > Ca > Zn {approximately} Na. Vibrational and rotational motions of ethylene and cyclopropane adsorption complexes were used as a measure for zeolite-adsorbate interactions. Preliminary studies of the binding of water, ammonia, and methylamines were carried out in a number of related guest-host materials.

  3. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

    2013-07-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient.

  4. A single mutation in the hepta-peptide active site of Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase leads to myriad of biochemical changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The active site motif of proteins belonging to ‘Histidine Acid Phosphatase’ (HAP) contains a hepta-peptide region, RHGXRXP. A close comparison among fungal and yeast HAPs has revealed the fourth residue of the hepta-peptide to be E instead of A, which is the case with A. niger phyA phytase. However,...

  5. iMotifs: an integrated sequence motif visualization and analysis environment

    PubMed Central

    Piipari, Matias; Down, Thomas A.; Saini, Harpreet; Enright, Anton; Hubbard, Tim J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Short sequence motifs are an important class of models in molecular biology, used most commonly for describing transcription factor binding site specificity patterns. High-throughput methods have been recently developed for detecting regulatory factor binding sites in vivo and in vitro and consequently high-quality binding site motif data are becoming available for increasing number of organisms and regulatory factors. Development of intuitive tools for the study of sequence motifs is therefore important. iMotifs is a graphical motif analysis environment that allows visualization of annotated sequence motifs and scored motif hits in sequences. It also offers motif inference with the sensitive NestedMICA algorithm, as well as overrepresentation and pairwise motif matching capabilities. All of the analysis functionality is provided without the need to convert between file formats or learn different command line interfaces. The application includes a bundled and graphically integrated version of the NestedMICA motif inference suite that has no outside dependencies. Problems associated with local deployment of software are therefore avoided. Availability: iMotifs is licensed with the GNU Lesser General Public License v2.0 (LGPL 2.0). The software and its source is available at http://wiki.github.com/mz2/imotifs and can be run on Mac OS X Leopard (Intel/PowerPC). We also provide a cross-platform (Linux, OS X, Windows) LGPL 2.0 licensed library libxms for the Perl, Ruby, R and Objective-C programming languages for input and output of XMS formatted annotated sequence motif set files. Contact: matias.piipari@gmail.com; imotifs@googlegroups.com PMID:20106815

  6. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 activates NF-kappaB, induces cIAP-2 expression, and protects against apoptosis in a PDZ binding motif-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    James, Michael A; Lee, John H; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J

    2006-06-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of most cervical cancers and some aerodigestive cancers. The HPV E6 oncoprotein from high-risk HPV types contributes to the immortalization and transformation of cells by multiple mechanisms, including degradation of p53, transcriptional activation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and degradation of several proteins containing PDZ domains. The ability of E6 to bind PDZ domain-containing proteins is independent of p53 degradation or hTERT activation but does correlate with oncogenic potential (R. A. Watson, M. Thomas, L. Banks, and S. Roberts, J. Cell Sci. 116:4925-4934, 2003) and is essential for induction of epithelial hyperplasia in vivo (M. L. Nguyen, M. M. Nguyen, D. Lee, A. E. Griep, and P. F. Lambert, J. Virol. 77:6957-6964, 2003). In this study, we found that HPV type 16 E6 was able to activate NF-kappaB in airway epithelial cells through the induction of nuclear binding activity of p52-containing NF-kappaB complexes in a PDZ binding motif-dependent manner. Transcript accumulation for the NF-kappaB-responsive antiapoptotic gene encoding cIAP-2 and binding of nuclear factors to the proximal NF-kappaB binding site of the cIAP-2 gene promoter are induced by E6 expression. Furthermore, E6 is able to protect cells from TNF-induced apoptosis. All of these E6-dependent phenotypes are dependent on the presence of the PDZ binding motif of E6. Our results imply a role for targeting of PDZ proteins by E6 in NF-kappaB activation and protection from apoptosis in airway epithelial cells. PMID:16699010

  7. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 activates NF-kappaB, induces cIAP-2 expression, and protects against apoptosis in a PDZ binding motif-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    James, Michael A; Lee, John H; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J

    2006-06-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of most cervical cancers and some aerodigestive cancers. The HPV E6 oncoprotein from high-risk HPV types contributes to the immortalization and transformation of cells by multiple mechanisms, including degradation of p53, transcriptional activation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and degradation of several proteins containing PDZ domains. The ability of E6 to bind PDZ domain-containing proteins is independent of p53 degradation or hTERT activation but does correlate with oncogenic potential (R. A. Watson, M. Thomas, L. Banks, and S. Roberts, J. Cell Sci. 116:4925-4934, 2003) and is essential for induction of epithelial hyperplasia in vivo (M. L. Nguyen, M. M. Nguyen, D. Lee, A. E. Griep, and P. F. Lambert, J. Virol. 77:6957-6964, 2003). In this study, we found that HPV type 16 E6 was able to activate NF-kappaB in airway epithelial cells through the induction of nuclear binding activity of p52-containing NF-kappaB complexes in a PDZ binding motif-dependent manner. Transcript accumulation for the NF-kappaB-responsive antiapoptotic gene encoding cIAP-2 and binding of nuclear factors to the proximal NF-kappaB binding site of the cIAP-2 gene promoter are induced by E6 expression. Furthermore, E6 is able to protect cells from TNF-induced apoptosis. All of these E6-dependent phenotypes are dependent on the presence of the PDZ binding motif of E6. Our results imply a role for targeting of PDZ proteins by E6 in NF-kappaB activation and protection from apoptosis in airway epithelial cells.

  8. Coagulase and Efb of Staphylococcus aureus Have a Common Fibrinogen Binding Motif

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ya-Ping; Kang, Mingsong; Ganesh, Vannakambadi K.; Ravirajan, Dharmanand; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coagulase (Coa) and Efb, secreted Staphylococcus aureus proteins, are important virulence factors in staphylococcal infections. Coa interacts with fibrinogen (Fg) and induces the formation of fibrin(ogen) clots through activation of prothrombin. Efb attracts Fg to the bacterial surface and forms a shield to protect the bacteria from phagocytic clearance. This communication describes the use of an array of synthetic peptides to identify variants of a linear Fg binding motif present in Coa and Efb which are responsible for the Fg binding activities of these proteins. This motif represents the first Fg binding motif identified for any microbial protein. We initially located the Fg binding sites to Coa’s C-terminal disordered segment containing tandem repeats by using recombinant fragments of Coa in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-type binding experiments. Sequence analyses revealed that this Coa region contained shorter segments with sequences similar to the Fg binding segments in Efb. An alanine scanning approach allowed us to identify the residues in Coa and Efb that are critical for Fg binding and to define the Fg binding motifs in the two proteins. In these motifs, the residues required for Fg binding are largely conserved, and they therefore constitute variants of a common Fg binding motif which binds to Fg with high affinity. Defining a specific motif also allowed us to identify a functional Fg binding register for the Coa repeats that is different from the repeat unit previously proposed. PMID:26733070

  9. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anton I; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles B

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson-Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access.

  10. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anton I.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson–Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access. PMID:23970545

  11. Active site of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.; Stringer, C.D.; Milanez, S.; Lee, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Previous affinity labeling studies and comparative sequence analyses have identified two different lysines at the active site of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and have suggested their essentiality to function. The essential lysines occupy positions 166 and 329 in the Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme and positions 175 and 334 in the spinach enzyme. Based on the pH-dependencies of inactivations of the two enzymes by trinitrobenzene sulfonate, Lys-166 (R. rubrum enzyme) exhibits a pK/sub a/ of 7.9 and Lys-334 (spinach enzyme) exhibits a pK/sub a/ of 9.0. These low pK/sub a/ values as well as the enhanced nucleophilicities of the lysyl residues argue that both are important to catalysis rather than to substrate binding. Lys-166 may correspond to the essential base that initiates catalysis and that displays a pK/sub a/ of 7.5 in the pH-curve for V/sub max//K/sub m/. Cross-linking experiments with 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonate stilbene demonstrate that the two active-site lysines are within 12 A. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Structure-activity relationship of the peptide binding-motif mediating the BRCA2:RAD51 protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Scott, Duncan E; Marsh, May; Blundell, Tom L; Abell, Chris; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-04-01

    RAD51 is a recombinase involved in the homologous recombination of double-strand breaks in DNA. RAD51 forms oligomers by binding to another molecule of RAD51 via an 'FxxA' motif, and the same recognition sequence is similarly utilised to bind BRCA2. We have tabulated the effects of mutation of this sequence, across a variety of experimental methods and from relevant mutations observed in the clinic. We use mutants of a tetrapeptide sequence to probe the binding interaction, using both isothermal titration calorimetry and X-ray crystallography. Where possible, comparison between our tetrapeptide mutational study and the previously reported mutations is made, discrepancies are discussed and the importance of secondary structure in interpreting alanine scanning and mutational data of this nature is considered.

  13. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  14. The Nuclear Protein IκBζ Forms a Transcriptionally Active Complex with Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) p50 and the Lcn2 Promoter via the N- and C-terminal Ankyrin Repeat Motifs.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Akira; Yamazaki, Soh; Sumimoto, Hideki

    2016-09-23

    The nuclear protein IκBζ, comprising the N-terminal trans-activation domain and the C-terminal ankyrin repeat (ANK) domain composed of seven ANK motifs, activates transcription of a subset of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent innate immune genes such as Lcn2 encoding the antibacterial protein lipocalin-2. Lcn2 activation requires formation of a complex containing IκBζ and NF-κB p50, a transcription factor that harbors the DNA-binding Rel homology region but lacks a trans-activation domain, on the promoter with the canonical NF-κB-binding site (κB site) and its downstream cytosine-rich element. Here we show that IκBζ productively interacts with p50 via Asp-451 in the N terminus of ANK1, a residue that is evolutionarily conserved among IκBζ and the related nuclear IκB proteins Bcl-3 and IκBNS Threonine substitution for Asp-451 abrogates direct association with the κB-site-binding protein p50, complex formation with the Lcn2 promoter DNA, and activation of Lcn2 transcription. The basic residues Lys-717 and Lys-719 in the C-terminal region of ANK7 contribute to IκBζ binding to the Lcn2 promoter, probably via interaction with the cytosine-rich element required for Lcn2 activation; glutamate substitution for both lysines results in a loss of transcriptionally active complex formation without affecting direct contact of IκBζ with p50. Both termini of the ANK domain in Bcl-3 and IκBNS function in a manner similar to that of IκBζ to interact with promoter DNA, indicating a common mechanism in which the nuclear IκBs form a regulatory complex with NF-κB and promoter DNA via the invariant aspartate in ANK1 and the conserved basic residues in ANK7.

  15. Motifs in brain networks.

    PubMed

    Sporns, Olaf; Kötter, Rolf

    2004-11-01

    Complex brains have evolved a highly efficient network architecture whose structural connectivity is capable of generating a large repertoire of functional states. We detect characteristic network building blocks (structural and functional motifs) in neuroanatomical data sets and identify a small set of structural motifs that occur in significantly increased numbers. Our analysis suggests the hypothesis that brain networks maximize both the number and the diversity of functional motifs, while the repertoire of structural motifs remains small. Using functional motif number as a cost function in an optimization algorithm, we obtain network topologies that resemble real brain networks across a broad spectrum of structural measures, including small-world attributes. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that highly evolved neural architectures are organized to maximize functional repertoires and to support highly efficient integration of information.

  16. Motifs in Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Complex brains have evolved a highly efficient network architecture whose structural connectivity is capable of generating a large repertoire of functional states. We detect characteristic network building blocks (structural and functional motifs) in neuroanatomical data sets and identify a small set of structural motifs that occur in significantly increased numbers. Our analysis suggests the hypothesis that brain networks maximize both the number and the diversity of functional motifs, while the repertoire of structural motifs remains small. Using functional motif number as a cost function in an optimization algorithm, we obtain network topologies that resemble real brain networks across a broad spectrum of structural measures, including small-world attributes. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that highly evolved neural architectures are organized to maximize functional repertoires and to support highly efficient integration of information. PMID:15510229

  17. Intragenic suppression of an active site mutation in the human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Izumi, T; Malecki, J; Chaudhry, M A; Weinfeld, M; Hill, J H; Lee, J C; Mitra, S

    1999-03-19

    The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases (APE) contain several highly conserved sequence motifs. The glutamic acid residue in a consensus motif, LQE96TK98 in human APE (hAPE-1), is crucial because of its role in coordinating Mg2+, an essential cofactor. Random mutagenesis of the inactive E96A mutant cDNA, followed by phenotypic screening in Escherichia coli, led to isolation of an intragenic suppressor with a second site mutation, K98R. Although the Km of the suppressor mutant was about sixfold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme, their kcat values were similar for AP endonuclease activity. These results suggest that the E96A mutation affects only the DNA-binding step, but not the catalytic step of the enzyme. The 3' DNA phosphoesterase activities of the wild-type and the suppressor mutant were also comparable. No global change of the protein conformation is induced by the single or double mutations, but a local perturbation in the structural environment of tryptophan residues may be induced by the K98R mutation. The wild-type and suppressor mutant proteins have similar Mg2+ requirement for activity. These results suggest a minor perturbation in conformation of the suppressor mutant enabling an unidentified Asp or Glu residue to substitute for Glu96 in positioning Mg2+ during catalysis. The possibility that Asp70 is such a residue, based on its observed proximity to the metal-binding site in the wild-type protein, was excluded by site-specific mutation studies. It thus appears that another acidic residue coordinates with Mg2+ in the mutant protein. These results suggest a rather flexible conformation of the region surrounding the metal binding site in hAPE-1 which is not obvious from the X-ray crystallographic structure. PMID:10074406

  18. The Crystal Structure of a Cardiovirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Reveals an Unusual Conformation of the Polymerase Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Vives-Adrian, Laia; Lujan, Celia; Oliva, Baldo; van der Linden, Lonneke; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a member of the Cardiovirus genus within the large Picornaviridae family, which includes a number of important human and animal pathogens. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3Dpol is a key enzyme for viral genome replication. In this study, we report the X-ray structures of two different crystal forms of the EMCV RdRp determined at 2.8- and 2.15-Å resolution. The in vitro elongation and VPg uridylylation activities of the purified enzyme have also been demonstrated. Although the overall structure of EMCV 3Dpol is shown to be similar to that of the known RdRps of other members of the Picornaviridae family, structural comparisons show a large reorganization of the active-site cavity in one of the crystal forms. The rearrangement affects mainly motif A, where the conserved residue Asp240, involved in ribonucleoside triphosphate (rNTP) selection, and its neighbor residue, Phe239, move about 10 Å from their expected positions within the ribose binding pocket toward the entrance of the rNTP tunnel. This altered conformation of motif A is stabilized by a cation-π interaction established between the aromatic ring of Phe239 and the side chain of Lys56 within the finger domain. Other contacts, involving Phe239 and different residues of motif F, are also observed. The movement of motif A is connected with important conformational changes in the finger region flanked by residues 54 to 63, harboring Lys56, and in the polymerase N terminus. The structures determined in this work provide essential information for studies on the cardiovirus RNA replication process and may have important implications for the development of new antivirals targeting the altered conformation of motif A. IMPORTANCE The Picornaviridae family is one of the largest virus families known, including many important human and animal pathogens. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3Dpol is a key enzyme for picornavirus genome replication and a validated

  19. Activation of synoviocytes by the secreted phospholipase A2 motif in the VP1-unique region of parvovirus B19 minor capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhi, Ning; Wong, Susan; Brown, Kevin E

    2006-02-15

    Parvovirus B19 infection in adults is often associated with acute symmetrical polyarthropathy, but the mechanism is unknown. Recently, a secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) motif was identified in the VP1-unique region (VP1u) of the B19 minor capsid protein. To investigate the role of this motif, we expressed VP1u with and without point mutations in the critical amino acids of sPLA(2). Although high concentrations of B19 did not infect human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (HFLSs), there was a >3-fold increase in synoviocyte migration that could be blocked by phospholipase inhibitors. Recombinant proteins with intact VP1u demonstrated sPLA(2) activity and induced cell migration, whereas proteins with mutated VP1u were nonfunctional in both assays. The incubation of HFLSs with proteins that had intact VP1u, but not with proteins with mutated VP1u, increased the production of prostaglandin E(2) >100-fold. Expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA transcripts, as determined by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and COX-2 protein expression were both significantly increased after incubation with protein that had intact VP1u. Proteins with VP1u in noninfectious B19 may participate in the inflammatory response in the synovial compartment.

  20. Expression of conformationally constrained adhesion peptide in an antibody CDR loop and inhibition of natural killer cell cytotoxic activity by an antibody antigenized with the RGD motif.

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, M; Filaci, G; Lee, R H; del Guercio, P; Rossi, F; Bacchetta, R; Stevenson, F; Barnaba, V; Billetta, R

    1993-01-01

    We report that an antibody engineered to express three Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) repeats in the third complementarity-determining region of the heavy chain (antigenized antibody) efficiently inhibits the lysis of human erythroleukemia K-562 cells by natural killer (NK) cells. Synthetic peptides containing RGD did not inhibit. Inhibition was specific for the (RGD)3-containing loop and required simultaneous occupancy of the Fc receptor (CD16) on effector cells. The antigenized antibody inhibited other forms of cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells but not cytotoxicity mediated by major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). A three-dimensional model of the engineered antibody loop shows the structure and physicochemical characteristics probably required for the ligand activity. The results indicate that an RGD motif is involved in the productive interaction between NK and target cells. Moreover, they show that peptide expression in the hypervariable loops of an antibody molecule is an efficient procedure for stabilizing oligopeptides within a limited spectrum of tertiary structures. This is a new approach towards imparting ligand properties to antibody molecules and can be used to study the biological function and specificity of short peptide motifs, including those involved in cell adhesion. Images PMID:8223447

  1. Using SCOPE to identify potential regulatory motifs in coregulated genes.

    PubMed

    Martyanov, Viktor; Gross, Robert H

    2011-05-31

    SCOPE is an ensemble motif finder that uses three component algorithms in parallel to identify potential regulatory motifs by over-representation and motif position preference. Each component algorithm is optimized to find a different kind of motif. By taking the best of these three approaches, SCOPE performs better than any single algorithm, even in the presence of noisy data. In this article, we utilize a web version of SCOPE to examine genes that are involved in telomere maintenance. SCOPE has been incorporated into at least two other motif finding programs and has been used in other studies. The three algorithms that comprise SCOPE are BEAM, which finds non-degenerate motifs (ACCGGT), PRISM, which finds degenerate motifs (ASCGWT), and SPACER, which finds longer bipartite motifs (ACCnnnnnnnnGGT). These three algorithms have been optimized to find their corresponding type of motif. Together, they allow SCOPE to perform extremely well. Once a gene set has been analyzed and candidate motifs identified, SCOPE can look for other genes that contain the motif which, when added to the original set, will improve the motif score. This can occur through over-representation or motif position preference. Working with partial gene sets that have biologically verified transcription factor binding sites, SCOPE was able to identify most of the rest of the genes also regulated by the given transcription factor. Output from SCOPE shows candidate motifs, their significance, and other information both as a table and as a graphical motif map. FAQs and video tutorials are available at the SCOPE web site which also includes a "Sample Search" button that allows the user to perform a trial run. Scope has a very friendly user interface that enables novice users to access the algorithm's full power without having to become an expert in the bioinformatics of motif finding. As input, SCOPE can take a list of genes, or FASTA sequences. These can be entered in browser text fields, or read from

  2. Suppression of HPV-16 late L1 5′-splice site SD3632 by binding of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 to upstream AUAGUA RNA motifs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) 5′-splice site SD3632 is used exclusively to produce late L1 mRNAs. We identified a 34-nt splicing inhibitory element located immediately upstream of HPV-16 late 5′-splice site SD3632. Two AUAGUA motifs located in these 34 nt inhibited SD3632. Two nucleotide substitutions in each of the HPV-16 specific AUAGUA motifs alleviated splicing inhibition and induced late L1 mRNA production from episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome in primary human keratinocytes. The AUAGUA motifs bind specifically not only to the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) D family of RNA-binding proteins including hnRNP D/AUF, hnRNP DL and hnRNP AB but also to hnRNP A2/B1. Knock-down of these proteins induced HPV-16 late L1 mRNA expression, and overexpression of hnRNP A2/B1, hnRNP AB, hnRNP DL and the two hnRNP D isoforms hnRNP D37 and hnRNP D40 further suppressed L1 mRNA expression. This inhibition may allow HPV-16 to hide from the immune system and establish long-term persistent infections with enhanced risk at progressing to cancer. There is an inverse correlation between expression of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 and HPV-16 L1 production in the cervical epithelium, as well as in cervical cancer, supporting the conclusion that hnRNP D proteins and A2/B1 inhibit HPV-16 L1 mRNA production. PMID:24013563

  3. Genome methylation in D. melanogaster is found at specific short motifs and is independent of DNMT2 activity.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Sachiko; Dhahbi, Joseph; Roberts, Adam; Mao, Guanxiong; Heo, Seok-Jin; Pachter, Lior; Martin, David I K; Boffelli, Dario

    2014-05-01

    Cytosine methylation in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster has been elusive and controversial: Its location and function have not been established. We have used a novel and highly sensitive genomewide cytosine methylation assay to detect and map genome methylation in stage 5 Drosophila embryos. The methylation we observe with this method is highly localized and strand asymmetrical, limited to regions covering ∼1% of the genome, dynamic in early embryogenesis, and concentrated in specific 5-base sequence motifs that are CA- and CT-rich but depleted of guanine. Gene body methylation is associated with lower expression, and many genes containing methylated regions have developmental or transcriptional functions. The only known DNA methyltransferase in Drosophila is the DNMT2 homolog MT2, but lines deficient for MT2 retain genomic methylation, implying the presence of a novel methyltransferase. The association of methylation with a lower expression of specific developmental genes at stage 5 raises the possibility that it participates in controlling gene expression during the maternal-zygotic transition.

  4. Interlocked positive and negative feedback network motifs regulate β-catenin activity in the adherens junction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Klinke, David J.; Horvath, Nicholas; Cuppett, Vanessa; Wu, Yueting; Deng, Wentao; Kanj, Rania

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of epithelial tissue architecture is maintained through adherens junctions that are created through extracellular homotypic protein–protein interactions between cadherin molecules. Cadherins also provide an intracellular scaffold for the formation of a multiprotein complex that contains signaling proteins, including β-catenin. Environmental factors and controlled tissue reorganization disrupt adherens junctions by cleaving the extracellular binding domain and initiating a series of transcriptional events that aim to restore tissue homeostasis. However, it remains unclear how alterations in cell adhesion coordinate transcriptional events, including those mediated by β-catenin in this pathway. Here were used quantitative single-cell and population-level in vitro assays to quantify the endogenous pathway dynamics after the proteolytic disruption of the adherens junctions. Using prior knowledge of isolated elements of the overall network, we interpreted these data using in silico model-based inference to identify the topology of the regulatory network. Collectively the data suggest that the regulatory network contains interlocked network motifs consisting of a positive feedback loop, which is used to restore the integrity of adherens junctions, and a negative feedback loop, which is used to limit β-catenin–induced gene expression. PMID:26224311

  5. Genome methylation in D. melanogaster is found at specific short motifs and is independent of DNMT2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Sachiko; Dhahbi, Joseph; Roberts, Adam; Mao, Guanxiong; Heo, Seok-Jin; Pachter, Lior; Martin, David I.K.; Boffelli, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Cytosine methylation in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster has been elusive and controversial: Its location and function have not been established. We have used a novel and highly sensitive genomewide cytosine methylation assay to detect and map genome methylation in stage 5 Drosophila embryos. The methylation we observe with this method is highly localized and strand asymmetrical, limited to regions covering ∼1% of the genome, dynamic in early embryogenesis, and concentrated in specific 5-base sequence motifs that are CA- and CT-rich but depleted of guanine. Gene body methylation is associated with lower expression, and many genes containing methylated regions have developmental or transcriptional functions. The only known DNA methyltransferase in Drosophila is the DNMT2 homolog MT2, but lines deficient for MT2 retain genomic methylation, implying the presence of a novel methyltransferase. The association of methylation with a lower expression of specific developmental genes at stage 5 raises the possibility that it participates in controlling gene expression during the maternal-zygotic transition. PMID:24558263

  6. The Activity of Sendai Virus Genomic and Antigenomic Promoters Requires a Second Element Past the Leader Template Regions: a Motif (GNNNNN)3 Is Essential for Replication

    PubMed Central

    Tapparel, Caroline; Maurice, Diane; Roux, Laurent

    1998-01-01

    The paramyxovirus genome, a nonsegmented, negative-polarity, single-stranded RNA of ∼15 kb, contains six transcription units flanked at the 3′ and 5′ ends by a short (∼ 50- to 60-nucleotide) extracistronic sequence, dubbed the positive and negative leader regions. These leader template regions, present at the 3′ end of the genome and the antigenome, have been shown to contain essential signals governing RNA replication activity. Whether they are sufficient to promote replication is still open to question. By using a series of Sendai virus defective interfering RNAs carrying a nested set of deletions in the promoter regions, it is shown here that for both the genomic and antigenomic promoters, a 3′-end RNA sequence of 96 nucleotides is required to allow replication. Sequence comparison of active and inactive promoters led to the identification of a set of three nucleotide hexamers (nucleotides 79 to 84, 85 to 90, and 91 to 96) containing a repeated motif RXXYXX [shown as 5′-3′ positive-strand]. Sequential mutation of each hexamer into its complementary sequence confirmed their essential role. The three hexamers are required, and their relative positioning is important, since displacing them by 6 nucleotides destroyed promoter function. RNAs carrying degenerate nucleotides in the three hexamers were used as replication templates. They led to the selection of actively replicating RNA species exclusively carrying the basic motif (GNNNNN)3 from nucleotides 79 to 96. These results clearly show that, apart from the region from nucleotides 1 to 31, previously identified as governing Sendai virus replication activity, a second element, spanning at the most nucleotides 79 to 96, appears essential. Thus, the paramyxovirus replication promoters are not confined to the leader template regions, as seems to be the case for the rhabdoviruses. PMID:9525637

  7. Cloning and characterization of a novel nuclease from shrimp hepatopancreas, and prediction of its active site.

    PubMed

    Wang, W Y; Liaw, S H; Liao, T H

    2000-03-15

    Approximately 95% of the amino acid sequence of a shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) nuclease was derived from protease-digested peptides. A 1461-base cDNA for the nuclease was amplified and sequenced with degenerate primers based on the amino acid sequence and then specific primers by 3' and 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). It contains an open reading frame encoding a putative 21-residue signal peptide and a 381-residue mature protein. The N-terminus of the enzyme is pyroglutamate, deduced from composition and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS analyses, and confirmed by a glutamine residue in the cDNA sequence. The enzyme has 11 Cys residues, forming five intramolecular disulphides. The eleventh Cys residue was linked to a thiol compound with an estimated molecular mass of between 500 and 700 Da. A sequence similarity search revealed no homologous proteins but residues 205-255 shared a conserved active-site motif within a distinct group of nucleases. His(211) in this conserved motif was shown to be very important in catalysis by site-specific modification with (14)C-labelled iodoacetate. The shrimp nuclease, previously designated DNase I, does indeed possess a low level of hydrolytic activity towards RNA in the presence of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). The conservation of functionally important residues during distant evolution might imply that the catalytic mechanisms are similar in these nucleases, which should be classified in one subfamily. Finally, an active-site structure for shrimp nuclease was proposed on the basis of published structural data and the results of mutational and biochemical analyses of Serratia nuclease.

  8. A membrane-associated movement protein of Pelargonium flower break virus shows RNA-binding activity and contains a biologically relevant leucine zipper-like motif.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen

    2011-05-10

    Two small viral proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2) have been proposed to act in a concerted manner to aid intra- and intercellular trafficking of carmoviruses though the distribution of functions and mode of action of each protein partner are not yet clear. Here we have confirmed the requirement of the DGBps of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), p7 and p12, for pathogen movement. Studies focused on p12 have shown that it associates to cellular membranes, which is in accordance to its hydrophobic profile and to that reported for several homologs. However, peculiarities that distinguish p12 from other DGBps2 have been found. Firstly, it contains a leucine zipper-like motif which is essential for virus infectivity in plants. Secondly, it has an unusually long and basic N-terminal region that confers RNA binding activity. The results suggest that PFBV p12 may differ mechanistically from related proteins and possible roles of PFBV DGBps are discussed.

  9. The Thiamin Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominiak, Paulina M.; Ciszak, Ewa M.

    2003-01-01

    Using databases the authors have identified a common thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-motif in the family of functionally diverse TPP-dependent enzymes. This common motif consists of multimeric organization of subunits, two catalytic centers, common amino acid sequence, and specific contacts to provide a flip-flop, or alternate site, mechanism of action. Each catalytic center [PP:PYR] is formed at the interface of the PP-domain binding the magnesium ion, pyrophosphate and aminopyrimidine ring of TPP, and the PYR-domain binding the aminopyrimidine ring of that cofactor. A pair of these catalytic centers constitutes the catalytic core [PP:PYR]* within these enzymes. Analysis of the structural elements of this catalytic core reveals novel definition of the common amino acid sequences, which are GX@&(G)@XXGQ, and GDGX25-30 within the PP- domain, and the E&(G)@XXG@ within the PYR-domain, where Q, corresponds to a hydrophobic amino acid. This TPP-motif provides a novel tool for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes useful in advancing functional proteomics.

  10. Targeting of TGF-β-activated protein kinase 1 inhibits chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 expression, tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wen-Chun; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2015-01-01

    TGF-β-activated protein kinase 1 (TAK1) is a critical mediator in inflammation, immune response and cancer development. Our previous study demonstrated that activation of TAK1 increases the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7) and promotes lymphatic invasion ability of breast cancer cells. However, the expression and association of activated TAK1 and CCR7 in breast tumor tissues is unknown and the therapeutic effect by targeting TAK1 is also unclear. We showed that activated TAK1 (as indicated by phospho-TAK1) and its binding protein TAB1 are strongly expressed in breast tumor tissues (77% and 74% respectively). In addition, increase of phospho-TAK1 or TAB1 is strongly associated with over-expression of CCR7. TAK1 inhibitor 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol (5Z-O) inhibited TAK1 activity, suppressed downstream signaling pathways including p38, IκB kinase (IKK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and reduced CCR7 expression in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, 5Z-O repressed NF-κB- and c-JUN-mediated transcription of CCR7 gene. Knockdown of TAB1 attenuated CCR7 expression and tumor growth in an orthotopic animal study. More importantly, lymphatic invasion and lung metastasis were suppressed. Collectively, our results demonstrate that constitutive activation of TAK1 is frequently found in human breast cancer and this kinase is a potential therapeutic target for this cancer. PMID:25557171

  11. The serine protease motif of Pic mediates a dose-dependent mucolytic activity after binding to sugar constituents of the mucin substrate.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Javier; Arciniega, Ivonne; Navarro-García, Fernando

    2008-08-01

    The pic gene is harbored on the chromosomes of three important pathogens: enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), and Shigella flexneri. Since Pic is secreted into the intestinal lumen during EAEC infection, we sought to identify intestinal-mucosal substrates for Pic. Pic did not damage epithelial cells, cleave fodrin, or degrade host defense proteins embedded in the mucus layer (sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme). However, by using a solid-phase assay to evaluate the mucinolytic activity of EAEC Pic, we documented a specific, dose-dependent mucinolytic activity. A serine protease inhibitor and an enzymatically inactive variant of Pic were used to show that the Pic serine protease motif is required for mucinolytic activity. Pic binds mucin, and this binding was blocked in competition assays using monosaccharide constituents of the oligosaccharide side chains of mucin. Moreover, Pic mucinolytic activity decreased when sialic acid was removed from mucin. Thus, Pic is a mucinase with lectin-like activity that can be related to its reported hemagglutinin activity. Our results suggest that EAEC may secrete Pic into the intestinal lumen as a strategy for penetrating the gel-like mucus layer during EAEC colonization.

  12. Control of active sites in flocculation: Concept of equivalent active sites''

    SciTech Connect

    Behl, S.; Moudgil, B.M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Flocculation and dispersion of solids are strong functions of the amount and conformation of the adsorbed polymer. Regions of dispersion and flocculation of solids with particular polymer molecules may be deduced from saturation adsorption data. The concept of equivalent active sites'' is proposed to explain flocculation and dispersion behavior irrespective of the amount or conformation of the adsorbed polymer. The concept has been further extended to study the selective flocculation process.

  13. Structure of inorganic pyrophosphatase from Staphylococcus aureus reveals conformational flexibility of the active site.

    PubMed

    Gajadeera, Chathurada S; Zhang, Xinyi; Wei, Yinan; Tsodikov, Oleg V

    2015-02-01

    Cytoplasmic inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPiase) is an enzyme essential for survival of organisms, from bacteria to human. PPiases are divided into two structurally distinct families: family I PPiases are Mg(2+)-dependent and present in most archaea, eukaryotes and prokaryotes, whereas the relatively less understood family II PPiases are Mn(2+)-dependent and present only in some archaea, bacteria and primitive eukaryotes. Staphylococcus aureus (SA), a dangerous pathogen and a frequent cause of hospital infections, contains a family II PPiase (PpaC), which is an attractive potential target for development of novel antibacterial agents. We determined a crystal structure of SA PpaC in complex with catalytic Mn(2+) at 2.1Å resolution. The active site contains two catalytic Mn(2+) binding sites, each half-occupied, reconciling the previously observed 1:1 Mn(2+):enzyme stoichiometry with the presence of two divalent metal ion sites in the apo-enzyme. Unexpectedly, despite the absence of the substrate or products in the active site, the two domains of SA PpaC form a closed active site, a conformation observed in structures of other family II PPiases only in complex with substrate or product mimics. A region spanning residues 295-298, which contains a conserved substrate binding RKK motif, is flipped out of the active site, an unprecedented conformation for a PPiase. Because the mutant of Arg295 to an alanine is devoid of activity, this loop likely undergoes an induced-fit conformational change upon substrate binding and product dissociation. This closed conformation of SA PPiase may serve as an attractive target for rational design of inhibitors of this enzyme. PMID:25576794

  14. SVM2Motif--Reconstructing Overlapping DNA Sequence Motifs by Mimicking an SVM Predictor.

    PubMed

    Vidovic, Marina M-C; Görnitz, Nico; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Rätsch, Gunnar; Kloft, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Identifying discriminative motifs underlying the functionality and evolution of organisms is a major challenge in computational biology. Machine learning approaches such as support vector machines (SVMs) achieve state-of-the-art performances in genomic discrimination tasks, but--due to its black-box character--motifs underlying its decision function are largely unknown. As a remedy, positional oligomer importance matrices (POIMs) allow us to visualize the significance of position-specific subsequences. Although being a major step towards the explanation of trained SVM models, they suffer from the fact that their size grows exponentially in the length of the motif, which renders their manual inspection feasible only for comparably small motif sizes, typically k ≤ 5. In this work, we extend the work on positional oligomer importance matrices, by presenting a new machine-learning methodology, entitled motifPOIM, to extract the truly relevant motifs--regardless of their length and complexity--underlying the predictions of a trained SVM model. Our framework thereby considers the motifs as free parameters in a probabilistic model, a task which can be phrased as a non-convex optimization problem. The exponential dependence of the POIM size on the oligomer length poses a major numerical challenge, which we address by an efficient optimization framework that allows us to find possibly overlapping motifs consisting of up to hundreds of nucleotides. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach on a synthetic data set as well as a real-world human splice site data set. PMID:26690911

  15. [Psychopathological study of lie motif in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Koichiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    present directive lie motif is told. Lie motifs are considered to have the effect of restoring the patient's own subjectivity by the following ways: (a) by actualizing the structural constituents elementary for the establishment of subjectivity, (b) by conducting a kind of speech act for declaring themselves as an active lying subject to co-presenting others for the resettlement in our inter-subjective world.

  16. N-Terminal Ile-Orn- and Trp-Orn-Motif Repeats Enhance Membrane Interaction and Increase the Antimicrobial Activity of Apidaecins against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bluhm, Martina E. C.; Schneider, Viktoria A. F.; Schäfer, Ingo; Piantavigna, Stefania; Goldbach, Tina; Knappe, Daniel; Seibel, Peter; Martin, Lisandra L.; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a life-threatening nosocomial pathogen due to its generally low susceptibility toward antibiotics. Furthermore, many strains have acquired resistance mechanisms requiring new antimicrobials with novel mechanisms to enhance treatment options. Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides, such as the apidaecin analog Api137, are highly efficient against various Enterobacteriaceae infections in mice, but less active against P. aeruginosa in vitro. Here, we extended our recent work by optimizing lead peptides Api755 (gu-OIORPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OH; gu = N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidino, O = L-ornithine) and Api760 (gu-OWORPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OH) by incorporation of Ile-Orn- and Trp-Orn-motifs, respectively. Api795 (gu-O(IO)2RPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OH) and Api794 (gu-O(WO)3RPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OH) were highly active against P. aeruginosa with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 8–16 and 8–32 μg/mL against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Assessed using a quartz crystal microbalance, these peptides inserted into a membrane layer and the surface activity increased gradually from Api137, over Api795, to Api794. This mode of action was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy indicating some membrane damage only at the high peptide concentrations. Api794 and Api795 were highly stable against serum proteases (half-life times >5 h) and non-hemolytic to human erythrocytes at peptide concentrations of 0.6 g/L. At this concentration, Api795 reduced the cell viability of HeLa cells only slightly, whereas the IC50 of Api794 was 0.23 ± 0.09 g/L. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed no colocalization of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein-labeled Api794 or Api795 with the mitochondria, excluding interactions with the mitochondrial membrane. Interestingly, Api795 was localized in endosomes, whereas Api794 was present in endosomes and the cytosol. This was verified using flow cytometry showing a 50% higher uptake of Api794 in HeLa cells compared

  17. N-Terminal Ile-Orn- and Trp-Orn-Motif Repeats Enhance Membrane Interaction and Increase the Antimicrobial Activity of Apidaecins against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Martina E C; Schneider, Viktoria A F; Schäfer, Ingo; Piantavigna, Stefania; Goldbach, Tina; Knappe, Daniel; Seibel, Peter; Martin, Lisandra L; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a life-threatening nosocomial pathogen due to its generally low susceptibility toward antibiotics. Furthermore, many strains have acquired resistance mechanisms requiring new antimicrobials with novel mechanisms to enhance treatment options. Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides, such as the apidaecin analog Api137, are highly efficient against various Enterobacteriaceae infections in mice, but less active against P. aeruginosa in vitro. Here, we extended our recent work by optimizing lead peptides Api755 (gu-OIORPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OH; gu = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylguanidino, O = L-ornithine) and Api760 (gu-OWORPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OH) by incorporation of Ile-Orn- and Trp-Orn-motifs, respectively. Api795 (gu-O(IO)2RPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OH) and Api794 (gu-O(WO)3RPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OH) were highly active against P. aeruginosa with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 8-16 and 8-32 μg/mL against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Assessed using a quartz crystal microbalance, these peptides inserted into a membrane layer and the surface activity increased gradually from Api137, over Api795, to Api794. This mode of action was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy indicating some membrane damage only at the high peptide concentrations. Api794 and Api795 were highly stable against serum proteases (half-life times >5 h) and non-hemolytic to human erythrocytes at peptide concentrations of 0.6 g/L. At this concentration, Api795 reduced the cell viability of HeLa cells only slightly, whereas the IC50 of Api794 was 0.23 ± 0.09 g/L. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed no colocalization of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein-labeled Api794 or Api795 with the mitochondria, excluding interactions with the mitochondrial membrane. Interestingly, Api795 was localized in endosomes, whereas Api794 was present in endosomes and the cytosol. This was verified using flow cytometry showing a 50% higher uptake of Api794 in HeLa cells compared with Api

  18. Role of the Chemical Environment beyond the Coordination Site: Structural Insight into Fe(III) Protoporphyrin Binding to Cysteine-Based Heme-Regulatory Protein Motifs.

    PubMed

    Brewitz, Hans Henning; Kühl, Toni; Goradia, Nishit; Galler, Kerstin; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Imhof, Diana

    2015-10-12

    The importance of heme as a transient regulatory molecule has become a major focus in biochemical research. However, detailed information about the molecular basis of transient heme-protein interactions is still missing. We report an in-depth structural analysis of Fe(III) heme-peptide complexes by a combination of UV/Vis, resonance Raman, and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods. The experiments reveal insights both into the coordination to the central iron ion and into the spatial arrangement of the amino acid sequences interacting with protoporphyrin IX. Cysteine-based peptides display different heme-binding behavior as a result of the existence of ordered, partially ordered, and disordered conformations in the heme-unbound state. Thus, the heme-binding mode is clearly the consequence of the nature and flexibility of the residues surrounding the iron ion coordinating cysteine. Our analysis reveals scenarios for transient binding of heme to heme-regulatory motifs in proteins and demonstrates that a thorough structural analysis is required to unravel how heme alters the structure and function of a particular protein. PMID:26260099

  19. Role of the Chemical Environment beyond the Coordination Site: Structural Insight into Fe(III) Protoporphyrin Binding to Cysteine-Based Heme-Regulatory Protein Motifs.

    PubMed

    Brewitz, Hans Henning; Kühl, Toni; Goradia, Nishit; Galler, Kerstin; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Imhof, Diana

    2015-10-12

    The importance of heme as a transient regulatory molecule has become a major focus in biochemical research. However, detailed information about the molecular basis of transient heme-protein interactions is still missing. We report an in-depth structural analysis of Fe(III) heme-peptide complexes by a combination of UV/Vis, resonance Raman, and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods. The experiments reveal insights both into the coordination to the central iron ion and into the spatial arrangement of the amino acid sequences interacting with protoporphyrin IX. Cysteine-based peptides display different heme-binding behavior as a result of the existence of ordered, partially ordered, and disordered conformations in the heme-unbound state. Thus, the heme-binding mode is clearly the consequence of the nature and flexibility of the residues surrounding the iron ion coordinating cysteine. Our analysis reveals scenarios for transient binding of heme to heme-regulatory motifs in proteins and demonstrates that a thorough structural analysis is required to unravel how heme alters the structure and function of a particular protein.

  20. Structural basis for the binding of tryptophan-based motifs by δ-COP

    PubMed Central

    Suckling, Richard J.; Poon, Pak Phi; Travis, Sophie M.; Majoul, Irina V.; Hughson, Frederick M.; Evans, Philip R.; Duden, Rainer; Owen, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Coatomer consists of two subcomplexes: the membrane-targeting, ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1):GTP-binding βγδζ-COP F-subcomplex, which is related to the adaptor protein (AP) clathrin adaptors, and the cargo-binding αβ’ε-COP B-subcomplex. We present the structure of the C-terminal μ-homology domain of the yeast δ-COP subunit in complex with the WxW motif from its binding partner, the endoplasmic reticulum-localized Dsl1 tether. The motif binds at a site distinct from that used by the homologous AP μ subunits to bind YxxΦ cargo motifs with its two tryptophan residues sitting in compatible pockets. We also show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Arf GTPase-activating protein (GAP) homolog Gcs1p uses a related WxxF motif at its extreme C terminus to bind to δ-COP at the same site in the same way. Mutations designed on the basis of the structure in conjunction with isothermal titration calorimetry confirm the mode of binding and show that mammalian δ-COP binds related tryptophan-based motifs such as that from ArfGAP1 in a similar manner. We conclude that δ-COP subunits bind Wxn(1–6)[WF] motifs within unstructured regions of proteins that influence the lifecycle of COPI-coated vesicles; this conclusion is supported by the observation that, in the context of a sensitizing domain deletion in Dsl1p, mutating the tryptophan-based motif-binding site in yeast causes defects in both growth and carboxypeptidase Y trafficking/processing. PMID:26578768

  1. Structural basis for the binding of tryptophan-based motifs by δ-COP.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Richard J; Poon, Pak Phi; Travis, Sophie M; Majoul, Irina V; Hughson, Frederick M; Evans, Philip R; Duden, Rainer; Owen, David J

    2015-11-17

    Coatomer consists of two subcomplexes: the membrane-targeting, ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1):GTP-binding βγδζ-COP F-subcomplex, which is related to the adaptor protein (AP) clathrin adaptors, and the cargo-binding αβ'ε-COP B-subcomplex. We present the structure of the C-terminal μ-homology domain of the yeast δ-COP subunit in complex with the WxW motif from its binding partner, the endoplasmic reticulum-localized Dsl1 tether. The motif binds at a site distinct from that used by the homologous AP μ subunits to bind YxxΦ cargo motifs with its two tryptophan residues sitting in compatible pockets. We also show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Arf GTPase-activating protein (GAP) homolog Gcs1p uses a related WxxF motif at its extreme C terminus to bind to δ-COP at the same site in the same way. Mutations designed on the basis of the structure in conjunction with isothermal titration calorimetry confirm the mode of binding and show that mammalian δ-COP binds related tryptophan-based motifs such as that from ArfGAP1 in a similar manner. We conclude that δ-COP subunits bind Wxn(1-6)[WF] motifs within unstructured regions of proteins that influence the lifecycle of COPI-coated vesicles; this conclusion is supported by the observation that, in the context of a sensitizing domain deletion in Dsl1p, mutating the tryptophan-based motif-binding site in yeast causes defects in both growth and carboxypeptidase Y trafficking/processing.

  2. CLIMP: Clustering Motifs via Maximal Cliques with Parallel Computing Design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoqiang; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A set of conserved binding sites recognized by a transcription factor is called a motif, which can be found by many applications of comparative genomics for identifying over-represented segments. Moreover, when numerous putative motifs are predicted from a collection of genome-wide data, their similarity data can be represented as a large graph, where these motifs are connected to one another. However, an efficient clustering algorithm is desired for clustering the motifs that belong to the same groups and separating the motifs that belong to different groups, or even deleting an amount of spurious ones. In this work, a new motif clustering algorithm, CLIMP, is proposed by using maximal cliques and sped up by parallelizing its program. When a synthetic motif dataset from the database JASPAR, a set of putative motifs from a phylogenetic foot-printing dataset, and a set of putative motifs from a ChIP dataset are used to compare the performances of CLIMP and two other high-performance algorithms, the results demonstrate that CLIMP mostly outperforms the two algorithms on the three datasets for motif clustering, so that it can be a useful complement of the clustering procedures in some genome-wide motif prediction pipelines. CLIMP is available at http://sqzhang.cn/climp.html. PMID:27487245

  3. CLIMP: Clustering Motifs via Maximal Cliques with Parallel Computing Design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoqiang; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A set of conserved binding sites recognized by a transcription factor is called a motif, which can be found by many applications of comparative genomics for identifying over-represented segments. Moreover, when numerous putative motifs are predicted from a collection of genome-wide data, their similarity data can be represented as a large graph, where these motifs are connected to one another. However, an efficient clustering algorithm is desired for clustering the motifs that belong to the same groups and separating the motifs that belong to different groups, or even deleting an amount of spurious ones. In this work, a new motif clustering algorithm, CLIMP, is proposed by using maximal cliques and sped up by parallelizing its program. When a synthetic motif dataset from the database JASPAR, a set of putative motifs from a phylogenetic foot-printing dataset, and a set of putative motifs from a ChIP dataset are used to compare the performances of CLIMP and two other high-performance algorithms, the results demonstrate that CLIMP mostly outperforms the two algorithms on the three datasets for motif clustering, so that it can be a useful complement of the clustering procedures in some genome-wide motif prediction pipelines. CLIMP is available at http://sqzhang.cn/climp.html.

  4. CLIMP: Clustering Motifs via Maximal Cliques with Parallel Computing Design

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A set of conserved binding sites recognized by a transcription factor is called a motif, which can be found by many applications of comparative genomics for identifying over-represented segments. Moreover, when numerous putative motifs are predicted from a collection of genome-wide data, their similarity data can be represented as a large graph, where these motifs are connected to one another. However, an efficient clustering algorithm is desired for clustering the motifs that belong to the same groups and separating the motifs that belong to different groups, or even deleting an amount of spurious ones. In this work, a new motif clustering algorithm, CLIMP, is proposed by using maximal cliques and sped up by parallelizing its program. When a synthetic motif dataset from the database JASPAR, a set of putative motifs from a phylogenetic foot-printing dataset, and a set of putative motifs from a ChIP dataset are used to compare the performances of CLIMP and two other high-performance algorithms, the results demonstrate that CLIMP mostly outperforms the two algorithms on the three datasets for motif clustering, so that it can be a useful complement of the clustering procedures in some genome-wide motif prediction pipelines. CLIMP is available at http://sqzhang.cn/climp.html. PMID:27487245

  5. Dissecting the active site of a photoreceptor protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Wouter; Hara, Miwa; Ren, Jie; Moghadam, Farzaneh; Xie, Aihua; Kumauchi, Masato

    While enzymes are quite large molecules, functionally important chemical events are often limited to a small region of the protein: the active site. The physical and chemical properties of residues at such active sites are often strongly altered compared to the same groups dissolved in water. Understanding such effects is important for unraveling the mechanisms underlying protein function and for protein engineering, but has proven challenging. Here we report on our ongoing efforts on using photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a bacterial photoreceptor, as a model system for such effects. We will report on the following questions: How many residues affect active site properties? Are these residues in direct physical contact with the active site? Can functionally important residues be recognized in the crystal structure of a protein? What structural resolution is needed to understand active sites? What spectroscopic techniques are most informative? Which weak interactions dominate active site properties?

  6. Transcription factor motif quality assessment requires systematic comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Caleb Kipkurui; Machanick, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site prediction remains a challenge in gene regulatory research due to degeneracy and potential variability in binding sites in the genome. Dozens of algorithms designed to learn binding models (motifs) have generated many motifs available in research papers with a subset making it to databases like JASPAR, UniPROBE and Transfac. The presence of many versions of motifs from the various databases for a single TF and the lack of a standardized assessment technique makes it difficult for biologists to make an appropriate choice of binding model and for algorithm developers to benchmark, test and improve on their models. In this study, we review and evaluate the approaches in use, highlight differences and demonstrate the difficulty of defining a standardized motif assessment approach. We review scoring functions, motif length, test data and the type of performance metrics used in prior studies as some of the factors that influence the outcome of a motif assessment. We show that the scoring functions and statistics used in motif assessment influence ranking of motifs in a TF-specific manner. We also show that TF binding specificity can vary by source of genomic binding data. We also demonstrate that information content of a motif is not in isolation a measure of motif quality but is influenced by TF binding behaviour. We conclude that there is a need for an easy-to-use tool that presents all available evidence for a comparative analysis. PMID:27092243

  7. A Hydrophobic Pocket in the Active Site of Glycolytic Aldolase Mediates Interactions with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein

    SciTech Connect

    St-Jean,M.; Izard, T.; Sygusch, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aldolase plays essential catalytic roles in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, aldolase is a highly abundant protein that is remarkably promiscuous in its interactions with other cellular proteins. In particular, aldolase binds to highly acidic amino acid sequences, including the C-terminus of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, an actin nucleation promoting factor. Here we report the crystal structure of tetrameric rabbit muscle aldolase in complex with a C-terminal peptide of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. Aldolase recognizes a short, 4-residue DEWD motif (residues 498-501), which adopts a loose hairpin turn that folds about the central aromatic residue, enabling its tryptophan side chain to fit into a hydrophobic pocket in the active site of aldolase. The flanking acidic residues in this binding motif provide further interactions with conserved aldolase active site residues, Arg-42 and Arg-303, aligning their side chains and forming the sides of the hydrophobic pocket. The binding of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein to aldolase precludes intramolecular interactions of its C-terminus with its active site, and is competitive with substrate as well as with binding by actin and cortactin. Finally, based on this structure a novel naphthol phosphate-based inhibitor of aldolase was identified and its structure in complex with aldolase demonstrated mimicry of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-aldolase interaction. The data support a model whereby aldolase exists in distinct forms that regulate glycolysis or actin dynamics.

  8. Detecting DNA regulatory motifs by incorporating positional trendsin information content

    SciTech Connect

    Kechris, Katherina J.; van Zwet, Erik; Bickel, Peter J.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2004-05-04

    On the basis of the observation that conserved positions in transcription factor binding sites are often clustered together, we propose a simple extension to the model-based motif discovery methods. We assign position-specific prior distributions to the frequency parameters of the model, penalizing deviations from a specified conservation profile. Examples with both simulated and real data show that this extension helps discover motifs as the data become noisier or when there is a competing false motif.

  9. The CD3 gamma epsilon/delta epsilon signaling module provides normal T cell functions in the absence of the TCR zeta immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Lisa A; Mathis, Meredith A; Young, Jennifer A; DeFord, Laura M; Purtic, Bozidar; Wulfing, Christoph; van Oers, Nicolai S C

    2005-12-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction is mediated by the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM). The ten ITAM in the TCR complex are distributed in two distinct signaling modules termed TCR zetazeta and CD3 gammaepsilon/deltaepsilon. To delineate the specific role of the zeta ITAM in T cell development and TCR signal transmission, we compared the properties of T cells from different TCR zeta-transgenic lines wherein tyrosine-to-phenylalanine substitutions had been introduced in the zeta subunit. These lines lack selected phosphorylated forms of TCR zeta including just p23, both p21 and p23, or all phospho-zeta derivatives. We report herein that the efficiency of positive selection in HY TCR-transgenic female mice was directly related to the number of zeta ITAM in the TCR. In contrast, TCR-mediated signal transmission and T cell proliferative responses following agonist peptide stimulation were similar and independent of the zeta ITAM. Only the duration of MAPK activation was affected by multiple zeta ITAM substitutions. These results strongly suggest that the ITAM in the CD3 gammaepsilon/deltaepsilon module can provide normal TCR signal transmission, with zeta ITAM providing a secondary function facilitating MAPK activation and positive selection.

  10. (-)-Epicatechin gallate (ECG) stimulates osteoblast differentiation via Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ)-mediated transcriptional activation.

    PubMed

    Byun, Mi Ran; Sung, Mi Kyung; Kim, A Rum; Lee, Cham Han; Jang, Eun Jung; Jeong, Mi Gyeong; Noh, Minsoo; Hwang, Eun Sook; Hong, Jeong-Ho

    2014-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease characterized by low bone mass and is caused by an imbalance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. It is known that the bioactive compounds present in green tea increase osteogenic activity and decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density. However, the detailed mechanism underlying these beneficial effects has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the osteogenic effect of (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), a major bioactive compound found in green tea. We found that ECG effectively stimulates osteoblast differentiation, indicated by the increased expression of osteoblastic marker genes. Up-regulation of osteoblast marker genes is mediated by increased expression and interaction of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). ECG facilitates nuclear localization of TAZ through PP1A. PP1A is essential for osteoblast differentiation because inhibition of PP1A activity was shown to suppress ECG-mediated osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, the results showed that ECG stimulates osteoblast differentiation through the activation of TAZ and RUNX2, revealing a novel mechanism for green tea-stimulated osteoblast differentiation.

  11. Mars Surveyor Project Landing Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Briggs, Geoffrey; Saunders, R. Stephen; Gilmore, Martha; Soderblom, Larry

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program --now a cooperative program led by NASA and CNES along with other international partners -- is underway. It has the primary science objective of furthering our understanding of the biological potential and possible biological history of Mars and has the complementary objective of improving our understanding of martian climate evolution and planetary history The missions will develop technology and acquire data necessary for eventual human Exploration. Launches of orbiters, landers and rovers will take place in 2001 and in 2003; in 2005 a complete system will be launched capable of returning samples to Earth by 2008. A key aspect of the program is the selection of landing sites. This abstract 1) reports on the status of the landing site selection process that begins with the 2001 lander mission and 2) outlines be opportunities for the Mars community to provide input into the landing site selection process.

  12. Mars Surveyor Project Landing Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Briggs, Geoffrey; Saunders, R. Stephen; Gilmore, Martha; Soderblom, Larry

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program -- now a cooperative program led by NASA and CNES along with other international partners -- is underway. It has the primary science objective of furthering our understanding of the biological potential and possible biological history of Mars and has the complementary objective of improving our understanding of martian climate evolution and planetary history. The missions will develop technology and acquire data necessary for eventual human exploration. Launches of orbiters, landers and rovers will take place in 2001 and in 2003; in 2005 a complete system will be launched capable of returning samples to Earth by 2008. A key aspect of the program is the selection of landing sites. This abstract 1) reports on the status of the landing site selection process that begins with the 2001 lander mission and 2) outlines the opportunities for the Mars community to provide input into the landing site selection process.

  13. The bifunctional active site of s-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Roles of the active site aspartates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Markham, G D

    1999-11-12

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthetase catalyzes the biosynthesis of AdoMet in a unique enzymatic reaction. Initially the sulfur of methionine displaces the intact tripolyphosphate chain (PPP(i)) from ATP, and subsequently PPP(i) is hydrolyzed to PP(i) and P(i) before product release. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli AdoMet synthetase shows that the active site contains four aspartate residues. Aspartate residues Asp-16* and Asp-271 individually provide the sole protein ligand to one of the two required Mg(2+) ions (* denotes a residue from a second subunit); aspartates Asp-118 and Asp-238* are proposed to interact with methionine. Each aspartate has been changed to an uncharged asparagine, and the metal binding residues were also changed to alanine, to assess the roles of charge and ligation ability on catalytic efficiency. The resultant enzyme variants all structurally resemble the wild type enzyme as indicated by circular dichroism spectra and are tetramers. However, all have k(cat) reductions of approximately 10(3)-fold in AdoMet synthesis, whereas the MgATP and methionine K(m) values change by less than 3- and 8-fold, respectively. In the partial reaction of PPP(i) hydrolysis, mutants of the Mg(2+) binding residues have >700-fold reduced catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)), whereas the D118N and D238*N mutants are impaired less than 35-fold. The catalytic efficiency for PPP(i) hydrolysis by Mg(2+) site mutants is improved by AdoMet, like the wild type enzyme. In contrast AdoMet reduces the catalytic efficiency for PPP(i) hydrolysis by the D118N and D238*N mutants, indicating that the events involved in AdoMet activation are hindered in these methionyl binding site mutants. Ca(2+) uniquely activates the D271A mutant enzyme to 15% of the level of Mg(2+), in contrast to the approximately 1% Ca(2+) activation of the wild type enzyme. This indicates that the Asp-271 side chain size is a discriminator between the activating ability of Ca(2+) and the

  14. ZNF10 inhibits HIV-1 LTR activity through interaction with NF-κB and Sp1 binding motifs.

    PubMed

    Nishitsuji, Hironori; Sawada, Leila; Sugiyama, Ryuichi; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Kruppel-associated box-containing zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF) genes constitute the single largest gene family of transcriptional repressors in the genomes of higher organisms. In this study, we isolated 52 cDNA clones of KRAB-ZFPs from U1 cell lines and screened them to identify which were capable of regulating HIV-1 gene expression. We identified 5 KRAB-ZFPs that suppressed ⩾50% of HIV-1 LTR. Of the 5 identified KRAB-ZFPs, the expression of ZNF10 significantly enhanced the transcriptional repression activity of the LTR compared with other ZNFs. In addition, the depletion of endogenous ZNF10 led to the activation of HIV-1 LTR. The repressor activity of ZNF10 was required for TRIM28, SETDB1 and HP1-gamma binding. These results indicate that ZNF10 could be involved in a potent intrinsic antiretroviral defense. PMID:26096782

  15. Active Site Detection by Spatial Conformity and Electrostatic Analysis—Unravelling a Proteolytic Function in Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Minda, Renu; Salaye, Lipika; Bhattacharjee, Swapan K.; Rao, Basuthkar J.

    2011-01-01

    Computational methods are increasingly gaining importance as an aid in identifying active sites. Mostly these methods tend to have structural information that supplement sequence conservation based analyses. Development of tools that compute electrostatic potentials has further improved our ability to better characterize the active site residues in proteins. We have described a computational methodology for detecting active sites based on structural and electrostatic conformity - CataLytic Active Site Prediction (CLASP). In our pipelined model, physical 3D signature of any particular enzymatic function as defined by its active sites is used to obtain spatially congruent matches. While previous work has revealed that catalytic residues have large pKa deviations from standard values, we show that for a given enzymatic activity, electrostatic potential difference (PD) between analogous residue pairs in an active site taken from different proteins of the same family are similar. False positives in spatially congruent matches are further pruned by PD analysis where cognate pairs with large deviations are rejected. We first present the results of active site prediction by CLASP for two enzymatic activities - β-lactamases and serine proteases, two of the most extensively investigated enzymes. The results of CLASP analysis on motifs extracted from Catalytic Site Atlas (CSA) are also presented in order to demonstrate its ability to accurately classify any protein, putative or otherwise, with known structure. The source code and database is made available at www.sanchak.com/clasp/. Subsequently, we probed alkaline phosphatases (AP), one of the well known promiscuous enzymes, for additional activities. Such a search has led us to predict a hitherto unknown function of shrimp alkaline phosphatase (SAP), where the protein acts as a protease. Finally, we present experimental evidence of the prediction by CLASP by showing that SAP indeed has protease activity in vitro. PMID

  16. Manipulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Signaling in the Arabidopsis Stomatal Lineage Reveals Motifs That Contribute to Protein Localization and Signaling Specificity[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lampard, Gregory R.; Wengier, Diego L.; Bergmann, Dominique C.

    2014-01-01

    When multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) components are recruited recurrently to transduce signals of different origins, and often opposing outcomes, mechanisms to enforce signaling specificity are of utmost importance. These mechanisms are largely uncharacterized in plant MAPK signaling networks. The Arabidopsis thaliana stomatal lineage was previously used to show that when rendered constitutively active, four MAPK kinases (MKKs), MKK4/5/7/9, are capable of perturbing stomatal development and that these kinases comprise two pairs, MKK4/5 and MKK7/9, with both overlapping and divergent functions. We characterized the contributions of specific structural domains of these four “stomatal” MKKs to MAPK signaling output and specificity both in vitro and in vivo within the three discrete cell types of the stomatal lineage. These results verify the influence of functional docking (D) domains of MKKs on MAPK signal output and identify novel regulatory functions for previously uncharacterized structures within the N termini of MKK4/5. Beyond this, we present a novel function of the D-domains of MKK7/9 in regulating the subcellular localization of these kinases. These results provide tools to broadly assess the extent to which these and additional motifs within MKKs function to regulate MAPK signal output throughout the plant. PMID:25172143

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Solution Structures of Lacticin Q and Aureocin A53 Reveal a Structural Motif Conserved among Leaderless Bacteriocins with Broad-Spectrum Activity.

    PubMed

    Acedo, Jeella Z; van Belkum, Marco J; Lohans, Christopher T; Towle, Kaitlyn M; Miskolzie, Mark; Vederas, John C

    2016-02-01

    Lacticin Q (LnqQ) and aureocin A53 (AucA) are leaderless bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis QU5 and Staphylococcus aureus A53, respectively. These bacteriocins are characterized by the absence of an N-terminal leader sequence and are active against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria. LnqQ and AucA consist of 53 and 51 amino acids, respectively, and have 47% identical sequences. In this study, their three-dimensional structures were elucidated using solution nuclear magnetic resonance and were shown to consist of four α-helices that assume a very similar compact, globular overall fold (root-mean-square deviation of 1.7 Å) with a highly cationic surface and a hydrophobic core. The structures of LnqQ and AucA resemble the shorter two-component leaderless bacteriocins, enterocins 7A and 7B, despite having low levels of sequence identity. Homology modeling revealed that the observed structural motif may be shared among leaderless bacteriocins with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive organisms. The elucidated structures of LnqQ and AucA also exhibit some resemblance to circular bacteriocins. Despite their similar overall fold, inhibition studies showed that LnqQ and AucA have different antimicrobial potency against the Gram-positive strains tested, suggesting that sequence disparities play a crucial role in their mechanisms of action.

  18. The integrin-binding motif RGDS induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation without activation in Bufo arenarum (Amphibia) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Mouguelar, Valeria S; Cabada, Marcelo O; Coux, Gabriela

    2011-05-01

    Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that are thought to be involved in sperm-oocyte interaction. Nevertheless, their function in mammalian fertilization is still controversial, as different species behave differently. In amphibians, their role is mainly supported by Xenopus laevis studies, where RGDS peptide induces oocyte activation. We recently provided evidence suggesting the presence and involvement of integrins in the interaction of the oocyte plasma membrane (PM) with sperm in the amphibian Bufo arenarum. In order to understand the role of integrin homologs in oocytes and their possible contribution to egg activation mechanisms, we examined the presence of integrin subunits and the effect of RGDS peptide on oocytes and during fertilization. Western blot studies detected integrin subunits α5, αV and β1 in oocytes. In sperm, we could detect only the αV integrin subunit. We found that RGDS peptide was unable to elicit egg activation or MAPK dephosphorylation, but can induce reversible inhibition of fertilization. A similar partial inhibition was produced by an anti-β1 integrin antibody. Using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody we found major changes in phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in egg extracts minutes after fertilization. Cytosol and PMs isolated from oocytes and fertilized eggs showed additional fertilization-induced phosphorylated proteins. Some of these were also present in cytosol and PMs from RGDS-treated oocytes (partially mimicking fertilization). These findings suggest that B. arenarum fertilization involves integrins (e.g. β1 subunit) as adhesion proteins. Our data support the view that RGDS-binding receptors may function as signaling receptors in B. arenarum oocytes, but integrin engagement by RGDS is not sufficient for oocyte activation. PMID:21339287

  19. The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase requires interacting domains of adjacent, identical subunits. Most active-site residues are located within the loop regions of an eight-stranded {beta}/{alpha}-barrel which constitutes the larger C-terminal domain; additional key residues are located within a segment of the smaller N-terminal domain which partially covers the mouth of the barrel. Site-directed mutagenesis of the gene encoding the enzyme from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been used to delineate functions of active-site residues. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Designing synthetic RNAs to determine the relevance of structural motifs in picornavirus IRES elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Lozano, Gloria; Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Ramajo, Jorge; Dotu, Ivan; Clote, Peter; Martinez-Salas, Encarnacion

    2016-04-01

    The function of Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) elements is intimately linked to their RNA structure. Viral IRES elements are organized in modular domains consisting of one or more stem-loops that harbor conserved RNA motifs critical for internal initiation of translation. A conserved motif is the pyrimidine-tract located upstream of the functional initiation codon in type I and II picornavirus IRES. By computationally designing synthetic RNAs to fold into a structure that sequesters the polypyrimidine tract in a hairpin, we establish a correlation between predicted inaccessibility of the pyrimidine tract and IRES activity, as determined in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Our data supports the hypothesis that structural sequestration of the pyrimidine-tract within a stable hairpin inactivates IRES activity, since the stronger the stability of the hairpin the higher the inhibition of protein synthesis. Destabilization of the stem-loop immediately upstream of the pyrimidine-tract also decreases IRES activity. Our work introduces a hybrid computational/experimental method to determine the importance of structural motifs for biological function. Specifically, we show the feasibility of using the software RNAiFold to design synthetic RNAs with particular sequence and structural motifs that permit subsequent experimental determination of the importance of such motifs for biological function.

  1. Designing synthetic RNAs to determine the relevance of structural motifs in picornavirus IRES elements

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Lozano, Gloria; Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Ramajo, Jorge; Dotu, Ivan; Clote, Peter; Martinez-Salas, Encarnacion

    2016-01-01

    The function of Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) elements is intimately linked to their RNA structure. Viral IRES elements are organized in modular domains consisting of one or more stem-loops that harbor conserved RNA motifs critical for internal initiation of translation. A conserved motif is the pyrimidine-tract located upstream of the functional initiation codon in type I and II picornavirus IRES. By computationally designing synthetic RNAs to fold into a structure that sequesters the polypyrimidine tract in a hairpin, we establish a correlation between predicted inaccessibility of the pyrimidine tract and IRES activity, as determined in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Our data supports the hypothesis that structural sequestration of the pyrimidine-tract within a stable hairpin inactivates IRES activity, since the stronger the stability of the hairpin the higher the inhibition of protein synthesis. Destabilization of the stem-loop immediately upstream of the pyrimidine-tract also decreases IRES activity. Our work introduces a hybrid computational/experimental method to determine the importance of structural motifs for biological function. Specifically, we show the feasibility of using the software RNAiFold to design synthetic RNAs with particular sequence and structural motifs that permit subsequent experimental determination of the importance of such motifs for biological function. PMID:27053355

  2. Intronic motif pairs cooperate across exons to promote pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A very early step in splice site recognition is exon definition, a process that is as yet poorly understood. Communication between the two ends of an exon is thought to be required for this step. We report genome-wide evidence for exons being defined through the combinatorial activity of motifs located in flanking intronic regions. Results Strongly co-occurring motifs were found to specifically reside in four intronic regions surrounding a large number of human exons. These paired motifs occur around constitutive and alternative exons but not pseudo exons. Most co-occurring motifs are limited to intronic regions within 100 nucleotides of the exon. They are preferentially associated with weaker exons. Their pairing is conserved in evolution and they exhibit a lower frequency of single nucleotide polymorphism when paired. Paired motifs display specificity with respect to distance from the exon borders and in constitutive versus alternative splicing. Many resemble binding sites for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Specific pairs are associated with tissue-specific genes, the higher expression of which coincides with that of the pertinent RNA binding proteins. Tested pairs acted synergistically to enhance exon inclusion, and this enhancement was found to be exon-specific. Conclusions The exon-flanking sequence pairs identified here by genomic analysis promote exon inclusion and may play a role in the exon definition step in pre-mRNA splicing. We propose a model in which multiple concerted interactions are required between exonic sequences and flanking intronic sequences to effect exon definition. PMID:20704715

  3. Regulatory motifs in Chk1

    PubMed Central

    Caparelli, Michael L.; O’Connell, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Chk1 is the effector kinase of the G2 DNA damage checkpoint. Chk1 homologs possess a highly conserved N-terminal kinase domain and a less conserved C-terminal regulatory domain. In response to DNA damage, Chk1 is recruited to mediator proteins assembled at lesions on replication protein A (RPA)-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Chk1 is then activated by phosphorylation on S345 in the C-terminal regulatory domain by the PI3 kinase-related kinases ATM and ATR to enforce a G2 cell cycle arrest to allow time for DNA repair. Models have emerged in which this C-terminal phosphorylation relieves auto-inhibitory regulation of the kinase domain by the regulatory domain. However, experiments in fission yeast have shown that deletion of this putative auto-inhibitory domain actually inactivates Chk1 function. We show here that Chk1 homologs possess a kinase-associated 1 (KA1) domain that possesses residues previously implicated in Chk1 auto-inhibition. In addition, all Chk1 homologs have a small and highly conserved C-terminal extension (CTE domain). In fission yeast, both of these motifs are essential for Chk1 activation through interaction with the mediator protein Crb2, the homolog of human 53BP1. Thus, through different intra- and intermolecular interactions, these motifs explain why the regulatory domain exerts both positive and negative control over Chk1 activation. Such motifs may provide alternative targets to the ATP-binding pocket on which to dock Chk1 inhibitors as anticancer therapeutics. PMID:23422000

  4. Savannah River Site prioritization of transition activities

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.H.

    1993-11-01

    Effective management of SRS conversion from primarily a production facility to other missions (or Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D)) requires a systematic and consistent method of prioritizing the transition activities. This report discusses the design of a prioritizing method developed to achieve systematic and consistent methods of prioritizing these activities.

  5. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  6. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-15

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites.

  7. Mutations of fumarase that distinguish between the active site and a nearby dicarboxylic acid binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, T.; Lees, M.; Banaszak, L.

    1997-01-01

    Two mutant forms of fumarase C from E. coli have been made using PCR and recombinant DNA. The recombinant form of the protein included a histidine arm on the C-terminal facilitating purification. Based on earlier studies, two different carboxylic acid binding sites, labeled A- and B-, were observed in crystal structures of the wild type and inhibited forms of the enzyme. A histidine at each of the sites was mutated to an asparagine. H188N at the A-site resulted in a large decrease in specific activity, while the H129N mutation at the B-site had essentially no effect. From the results, we conclude that the A-site is indeed the active site, and a dual role for H188 as a potential catalytic base is proposed. Crystal structures of the two mutant proteins produced some unexpected results. Both mutations reduced the affinity for the carboxylic acids at their respective sites. The H129N mutant should be particularly useful in future kinetic studies because it sterically blocks the B-site with the carboxyamide of asparagine assuming the position of the ligand's carboxylate. In the H188N mutation at the active site, the new asparagine side chain still interacts with an active site water that appears to have moved slightly as a result of the mutation. PMID:9098893

  8. A Gibbs sampler for motif detection in phylogenetically close sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddharthan, Rahul; van Nimwegen, Erik; Siggia, Eric

    2004-03-01

    Genes are regulated by transcription factors that bind to DNA upstream of genes and recognize short conserved ``motifs'' in a random intergenic ``background''. Motif-finders such as the Gibbs sampler compare the probability of these short sequences being represented by ``weight matrices'' to the probability of their arising from the background ``null model'', and explore this space (analogous to a free-energy landscape). But closely related species may show conservation not because of functional sites but simply because they have not had sufficient time to diverge, so conventional methods will fail. We introduce a new Gibbs sampler algorithm that accounts for common ancestry when searching for motifs, while requiring minimal ``prior'' assumptions on the number and types of motifs, assessing the significance of detected motifs by ``tracking'' clusters that stay together. We apply this scheme to motif detection in sporulation-cycle genes in the yeast S. cerevisiae, using recent sequences of other closely-related Saccharomyces species.

  9. Solution NMR characterization of Sgf73(1-104) indicates that Zn ion is required to stabilize zinc finger motif

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chaohua; Wu, Minhao; Li, Pan; Shi, Chaowei; Tian, Changlin; Zang, Jianye

    2010-07-02

    Zinc finger motif contains a zinc ion coordinated by several conserved amino acid residues. Yeast Sgf73 protein was identified as a component of SAGA (Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase) multi-subunit complex and Sgf73 protein was known to contain two zinc finger motifs. Sgf73(1-104), containing the first zinc finger motif, was necessary to modulate the deubiquitinase activity of SAGA complex. Here, Sgf73(1-104) was over-expressed using bacterial expression system and purified for solution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) structural studies. Secondary structure and site-specific relaxation analysis of Sgf73(1-104) were achieved after solution NMR backbone assignment. Solution NMR and circular dichroism analysis of Sgf73(1-104) after zinc ion removal using chelation reagent EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid) demonstrated that zinc ion was required to maintain stable conformation of the zinc finger motif.

  10. Ionizable Side Chains at Catalytic Active Sites of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Morales, David; Liang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic active sites of enzymes of known structure can be well defined by a modern program of computational geometry. The CASTp program was used to define and measure the volume of the catalytic active sites of 573 enzymes in the Catalytic Site Atlas database. The active sites are identified as catalytic because the amino acids they contain are known to participate in the chemical reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. Acid and base side chains are reliable markers of catalytic active sites. The catalytic active sites have 4 acid and 5 base side chains, in an average volume of 1072 Å3. The number density of acid side chains is 8.3 M (in chemical units); the number density of basic side chains is 10.6 M. The catalytic active site of these enzymes is an unusual electrostatic and steric environment in which side chains and reactants are crowded together in a mixture more like an ionic liquid than an ideal infinitely dilute solution. The electrostatics and crowding of reactants and side chains seems likely to be important for catalytic function. In three types of analogous ion channels, simulation of crowded charges accounts for the main properties of selectivity measured in a wide range of solutions and concentrations. It seems wise to use mathematics designed to study interacting complex fluids when making models of the catalytic active sites of enzymes. PMID:22484856

  11. Recognition of β-Strand Motifs by RseB Is Required for σE Activity in Escherichia coli ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kulp, Adam; Kuehn, Meta J.

    2011-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria react to misfolded proteins in the envelope through a myriad of different stress response pathways. This cohort of pathways allows the bacteria to specifically respond to different types of damage, and many of these have been discovered to have key roles in the virulence of bacterial pathogens. Misfolded outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are typically recognized by the σE pathway, a highly conserved envelope stress response pathway. We examined the features of misfolded OMPs with respect to their ability to generate envelope stress responses. We determined that the secondary structure, particularly the potential to form β strands, is critical to inducing the σE response in an RseB-dependent manner. The sequence of the potential β-strand motif modulates the strength of the σE response generated by the constructs. By understanding the details of how such stress response pathways are activated, we can gain a greater understanding of how bacteria survive in harsh environments. PMID:21908666

  12. Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif phosphorylation during engulfment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by the neutrophil-restricted CEACAM3 (CD66d) receptor.

    PubMed

    McCaw, Shannon E; Schneider, Jutta; Liao, Edward H; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2003-08-01

    Gonorrhea is characterized by a purulent urethral or cervical discharge consisting primarily of neutrophils associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These interactions are facilitated by gonococcal colony opacity-associated (Opa) protein binding to host cellular CEACAM receptors. Of these, CEACAM3 is restricted to neutrophils and contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) reminiscent of that found within certain phagocytic Fc receptors. CEACAM3 was tyrosine phosphorylated by a Src family kinase-dependent process upon infection by gonococci expressing CEACAM-specific Opa proteins. This phosphorylation was necessary for efficient bacterial uptake; however, a less efficient uptake process became evident when kinase inhibitors or mutagenesis of the ITAM were used to prevent phosphorylation. Ligated CEACAM3 was recruited to a cytoskeleton-containing fraction, intense foci of polymerized actin were evident where bacteria attached to HeLa-CEACAM3, and disruption of polymerized actin by cytochalasin D blocked all bacterial uptake by these cells. These data support a model whereby CEACAM3 can mediate the Opa-dependent uptake of N. gonorrhoeae via either an efficient, ITAM phosphorylation-dependent process that resembles phagocytosis or a less efficient, tyrosine phosphorylation-independent mechanism. PMID:12864848

  13. Sequence determinants spanning -35 motif and AT-rich spacer region impacting Ehrlichia chaffeensis Sigma 70-dependent promoter activity of two differentially expressed p28 outer membrane protein genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huitao; Jakkula, Laxmi U. M. R.; Von Ohlen, Tonia; Ganta, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligate intracellular tick-borne bacterium which causes the disease, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Ehrlichia chaffeensis contains only two sigma factors, σ32 and σ70. It is difficult to study E. chaffeensis gene regulation due to lack of a transformation system. We developed an Escherichia coli-based transcription system to study E. chaffeensis transcriptional regulation. An E. coli strain with its σ70 repressed with trp promoter is used to express E. chaffeensis σ70. The E. coli system and our previously established in vitro transcription system were used to map transcriptional differences of two Ehrlichia genes encoding p28-outer membrane proteins 14 and 19. We mapped the -10 and -35 motifs and the AT rich spacers located between the two motifs by performing detailed mutational analysis. Mutations within the -35 motif of the genes impacted transcription differently, while -10 motif deletions had no impact. The AT-rich spacers also contributed to transcriptional differences. We further demonstrated that the domain 4.2 of E. chaffeensis σ70 is important for regulating promoter activity and the deletion of region 1.1 of E. chaffeensis σ70 causes enhancement of the promoter activity. This is the first study defining the promoters of two closely related E. chaffeensis genes. PMID:27402867

  14. NMR structure of the A730 loop of the Neurospora VS ribozyme: insights into the formation of the active site

    PubMed Central

    Bonneau, Eric; Girard, Nicolas; Boisbouvier, Jérôme; Legault, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    The Neurospora VS ribozyme is a small nucleolytic ribozyme with unique primary, secondary and global tertiary structures, which displays mechanistic similarities to the hairpin ribozyme. Here, we determined the high-resolution NMR structure of a stem–loop VI fragment containing the A730 internal loop, which forms part of the active site. In the presence of magnesium ions, the A730 loop adopts a structure that is consistent with existing biochemical data and most likely reflects its conformation in the VS ribozyme prior to docking with the cleavage site internal loop. Interestingly, the A730 loop adopts an S-turn motif that is also present in loop B within the hairpin ribozyme active site. The S-turn appears necessary to expose the Watson–Crick edge of a catalytically important residue (A756) so that it can fulfill its role in catalysis. The A730 loop and the cleavage site loop of the VS ribozyme display structural similarities to internal loops found in the active site of the hairpin ribozyme. These similarities provided a rationale to build a model of the VS ribozyme active site based on the crystal structure of the hairpin ribozyme. PMID:21266483

  15. The Thiamine-Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Dominiak, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), a derivative of vitamin B1, is a cofactor for enzymes performing catalysis in pathways of energy production including the well known decarboxylation of a-keto acid dehydrogenases followed by transketolation. TPP-dependent enzymes constitute a structurally and functionally diverse group exhibiting multimeric subunit organization, multiple domains and two chemically equivalent catalytic centers. Annotation of functional TPP-dependcnt enzymes, therefore, has not been trivial due to low sequence similarity related to this complex organization. Our approach to analysis of structures of known TPP-dependent enzymes reveals for the first time features common to this group, which we have termed the TPP-motif. The TPP-motif consists of specific spatial arrangements of structural elements and their specific contacts to provide for a flip-flop, or alternate site, enzymatic mechanism of action. Analysis of structural elements entrained in the flip-flop action displayed by TPP-dependent enzymes reveals a novel definition of the common amino acid sequences. These sequences allow for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes, thus advancing functional proteomics. Further details of three-dimensional structures of TPP-dependent enzymes will be discussed.

  16. The adeno-associated virus major regulatory protein Rep78-c-Jun-DNA motif complex modulates AP-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Prasad, C Krishna; Meyers, Craig; Zhan, De-Jin; You, Hong; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Mehta, Jawahar L; Liu, Yong; Hermonat, Paul L

    2003-09-15

    Multiple epidemiologic studies show that adeno-associated virus (AAV) is negatively associated with cervical cancer (CX CA), a cancer which is positively associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Mechanisms for this correlation may be by Rep78's (AAV's major regulatory protein) ability to bind the HPV-16 p97 promoter DNA and inhibit transcription, to bind and interfere with the functions of the E7 oncoprotein of HPV-16, and to bind a variety of HPV-important cellular transcription factors such as Sp1 and TBP. c-Jun is another important cellular factor intimately linked to the HPV life cycle, as well as keratinocyte differentiation and skin development. Skin is the natural host tissue for both HPV and AAV. In this article it is demonstrated that Rep78 directly interacts with c-Jun, both in vitro and in vivo, as analyzed by Western blot, yeast two-hybrid cDNA, and electrophoretic mobility shift-supershift assay (EMSA supershift). Addition of anti-Rep78 antibodies inhibited the EMSA supershift. Investigating the biological implications of this interaction, Rep78 inhibited the c-Jun-dependent c-jun promoter in transient and stable chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) assays. Rep78 also inhibited c-Jun-augmented c-jun promoter as well as the HPV-16 p97 promoter activity (also c-Jun regulated) in in vitro transcription assays in T47D nuclear extracts. Finally, the Rep78-c-Jun interaction mapped to the amino-half of Rep78. The ability of Rep78 to interact with c-Jun and down-regulate AP-1-dependent transcription suggests one more mechanism by which AAV may modulate the HPV life cycle and the carcinogenesis process.

  17. The nuclear splicing factor RNA binding motif 5 promotes caspase activation in human neuronal cells, and increases after traumatic brain injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Travis C; Du, Lina; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Vagni, Vincent A; Dezfulian, Cameron; Poloyac, Samuel M; Jackson, Edwin K; Clark, Robert SB; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    Splicing factors (SFs) coordinate nuclear intron/exon splicing of RNA. Splicing factor disturbances can cause cell death. RNA binding motif 5 (RBM5) and 10 (RBM10) promote apoptosis in cancer cells by activating detrimental alternative splicing of key death/survival genes. The role(s) of RBM5/10 in neurons has not been established. Here, we report that RBM5 knockdown in human neuronal cells decreases caspase activation by staurosporine. In contrast, RBM10 knockdown augments caspase activation. To determine whether brain injury alters RBM signaling, we measured RBM5/10 protein in mouse cortical/hippocampus homogenates after controlled cortical impact (CCI) traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock (CCI+HS). The RBM5/10 staining was higher 48  to 72 hours after injury and appeared to be increased in neuronal nuclei of the hippocampus. We also measured levels of other nuclear SFs known to be essential for cellular viability and report that splicing factor 1 (SF1) but not splicing factor 3A (SF3A) decreased 4  to 72 hours after injury. Finally, we confirm that RBM5/10 regulate protein expression of several target genes including caspase-2, cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), LETM1 Domain-Containing Protein 1 (LETMD1), and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) in neuronal cells. Knockdown of RBM5 appeared to increase expression of c-FLIP(s), LETMD1, and APLP2 but decrease caspase-2. PMID:25586139

  18. Pioneer Transcription Factors Target Partial DNA Motifs on Nucleosomes to Initiate Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Soufi, Abdenour; Garcia, Meilin Fernandez; Jaroszewicz, Artur; Osman, Nebiyu; Pellegrini, Matteo; Zaret, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pioneer transcription factors (TFs) access silent chromatin and initiate cell fate changes, using diverse types of DNA binding domains (DBDs). FoxA, the paradigm pioneer TF, has a winged helix DBD that resembles linker histone and thereby binds its target sites on nucleosomes and in compacted chromatin. Herein we compare the nucleosome and chromatin targeting activities of Oct4 (POU DBD), Sox2 (HMG box DBD), Klf4 (zinc finger DBD), and c-Myc (bHLH DBD), which together reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency. Purified Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 proteins can bind nucleosomes in vitro, and in vivo they preferentially target silent sites enriched for nucleosomes. Pioneer activity relates simply to the ability of a given DBD to target partial motifs displayed on the nucleosome surface. Such partial motif recognition can occur by coordinate binding between factors. Our findings provide insight into how pioneer factors can target naïve chromatin sites. PMID:25892221

  19. Protein oxidation mediated by heme-induced active site conversion specific for heme-regulated transcription factor, iron response regulator

    PubMed Central

    Kitatsuji, Chihiro; Izumi, Kozue; Nambu, Shusuke; Kurogochi, Masaki; Uchida, Takeshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwai, Kazuhiro; O’Brian, Mark R.; Ikeda-Saito, Masao; Ishimori, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    The Bradyrhizobium japonicum transcriptional regulator Irr (iron response regulator) is a key regulator of the iron homeostasis, which is degraded in response to heme binding via a mechanism that involves oxidative modification of the protein. Here, we show that heme-bound Irr activates O2 to form highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the “active site conversion” from heme iron to non-heme iron to degrade itself. In the presence of heme and reductant, the ROS scavenging experiments show that Irr generates H2O2 from O2 as found for other hemoproteins, but H2O2 is less effective in oxidizing the peptide, and further activation of H2O2 is suggested. Interestingly, we find a time-dependent decrease of the intensity of the Soret band and appearance of the characteristic EPR signal at g = 4.3 during the oxidation, showing the heme degradation and the successive formation of a non-heme iron site. Together with the mutational studies, we here propose a novel “two-step self-oxidative modification” mechanism, during which O2 is activated to form H2O2 at the heme regulatory motif (HRM) site and the generated H2O2 is further converted into more reactive species such as ·OH at the non-heme iron site in the His-cluster region formed by the active site conversion. PMID:26729068

  20. Methanol Synthesis over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3: The Active Site in Industrial Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, Malte

    2012-03-28

    Unlike homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts that have been optimized through decades are typically so complex and hard to characterize that the nature of the catalytically active site is not known. This is one of the main stumbling blocks in developing rational catalyst design strategies in heterogeneous catalysis. We show here how to identify the crucial atomic structure motif for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. Using a combination of experimental evidence from bulk-, surface-sensitive and imaging methods collected on real high-performance catalytic systems in combination with DFT calculations. We show that the active site consists of Cu steps peppered with Zn atoms, all stabilized by a series of well defined bulk defects and surface species that need jointly to be present for the system to work.

  1. A Prominent Site of Antibody Vulnerability on HIV Envelope Incorporates a Motif Associated with CCR5 Binding and Its Camouflaging Glycans.

    PubMed

    Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Briney, Bryan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Hsueh, Jessica; Ramos, Alejandra; Le, Khoa M; Jones, Meaghan; Jardine, Joseph G; Bastidas, Raiza; Sarkar, Anita; Liang, Chi-Hui; Shivatare, Sachin S; Wu, Chung-Yi; Schief, William R; Wong, Chi-Huey; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B; Zhu, Jiang; Poignard, Pascal; Burton, Dennis R

    2016-07-19

    The dense patch of high-mannose-type glycans surrounding the N332 glycan on the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is targeted by multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). This region is relatively conserved, implying functional importance, the origins of which are not well understood. Here we describe the isolation of new bnAbs targeting this region. Examination of these and previously described antibodies to Env revealed that four different bnAb families targeted the (324)GDIR(327) peptide stretch at the base of the gp120 V3 loop and its nearby glycans. We found that this peptide stretch constitutes part of the CCR5 co-receptor binding site, with the high-mannose patch glycans serving to camouflage it from most antibodies. GDIR-glycan bnAbs, in contrast, bound both (324)GDIR(327) peptide residues and high-mannose patch glycans, which enabled broad reactivity against diverse HIV isolates. Thus, as for the CD4 binding site, bnAb effectiveness relies on circumventing the defenses of a critical functional region on Env. PMID:27438765

  2. Structure of Arabidopsis thaliana 5-methylthioribose Kinase Reveals a More Occluded Active Site Than its Bacterial Homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Cornell, K.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic variations exist between the methionine salvage pathway of humans and a number of plants and microbial pathogens. 5-Methylthioribose (MTR) kinase is a key enzyme required for methionine salvage in plants and many bacteria. The absence of a mammalian homolog suggests that MTR kinase is a good target for the design of specific herbicides or antibiotics. The structure of Arabidopsis thaliana MTR kinase co-crystallized with ATP?S and MTR has been determined at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The structure is similar to B. subtilis MTR kinase and has the same protein kinase fold observed in other evolutionarily related protein kinase-like phosphotransferases. The active site is comparable between the two enzymes with the DXE-motif coordinating the nucleotide-Mg, the D238 of the HGD catalytic loop polarizing the MTR O1 oxygen, and the RR-motif interacting with the substrate MTR. Unlike its bacterial homolog, however, the Gly-rich loop (G-loop) of A. thaliana MTR kinase has an extended conformation, which shields most of the active site from solvent, a feature that resembles eukaryotic protein kinases more than the bacterial enzyme. The G- and W-loops of A. thaliana and B. subtilis MTR kinase adopt different conformations despite high sequence similarity. The ATP?S analog was hydrolyzed during the co-crystallization procedure, resulting in ADP in the active site. This suggests that the A. thaliana enzyme, like its bacterial homolog, may have significant ATPase activity in the absence of MTR. The structure of A. thaliana MTR kinase provides a template for structure-based design of agrochemicals, particularly herbicides whose effectiveness could be regulated by nutrient levels. Features of the MTR binding site offer an opportunity for a simple organic salt of an MTR analog to specifically inhibit MTR kinase.

  3. Structural Characterization of Human 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase Variants Bearing Active Site Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Radom,C.; Banerjee, A.; Verdine, G.

    2007-01-01

    The human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) protein is responsible for initiating base excision DNA repair of the endogenous mutagen 8-oxoguanine. Like nearly all DNA glycosylases, hOGG1 extrudes its substrate from the DNA helix and inserts it into an extrahelical enzyme active site pocket lined with residues that participate in lesion recognition and catalysis. Structural analysis has been performed on mutant versions of hOGG1 having changes in catalytic residues but not on variants having altered 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (oxoG) contact residues. Here we report high resolution structural analysis of such recognition variants. We found that Ala substitution at residues that contact the phosphate 5 to the lesion (H270A mutation) and its Watson-Crick face (Q315A mutation) simply removed key functionality from the contact interface but otherwise had no effect on structure. Ala substitution at the only residue making an oxoG-specific contact (G42A mutation) introduced torsional stress into the DNA contact surface of hOGG1, but this was overcome by local interactions within the folded protein, indicating that this oxoG recognition motif is 'hardwired'. Introduction of a side chain intended to sterically obstruct the active site pocket (Q315F mutation) led to two different structures, one of which (Q315F{sup *149}) has the oxoG lesion in an exosite flanking the active site and the other of which (Q315F{sup *292}) has the oxoG inserted nearly completely into the lesion recognition pocket. The latter structure offers a view of the latest stage in the base extrusion pathway yet observed, and its lack of catalytic activity demonstrates that the transition state for displacement of the lesion base is geometrically demanding.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signals activation of p70 S6 kinase in situ through site-specific p70 phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Q P; Andrabi, K; Klippel, A; Kozlowski, M T; Williams, L T; Avruch, J

    1995-01-01

    The p70 S6 kinase is activated by insulin and mitogens through multisite phosphorylation of the enzyme. One set of activating phosphorylations occurs in a putative autoinhibitory domain in the noncatalytic carboxyl-terminal tail. Deletion of this tail yields a variant (p70 delta CT104) that nevertheless continues to be mitogen regulated. Coexpression with a recombinant constitutively active phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (EC 2.7.1.137) gives substantial activation of both full-length p70 and p70 delta CT104 but not Rsk. Activation of p70 delta CT104 by PI 3-kinase and inhibition by wortmannin are each accompanied by parallel and selective changes in the phosphorylation of p70 Thr-252. A Thr or Ser at this site, in subdomain VIII of the catalytic domain just amino-terminal to the APE motif, is necessary for p70 40S kinase activity. The inactive ATP-binding site mutant K123M p70 delta CT104 undergoes phosphorylation of Thr-252 in situ but does not undergo direct phosphorylation by the active PI 3-kinase in vitro. PI 3-kinase provides a signal necessary for the mitogen activation of the p70 S6 kinase, which directs the site-specific phosphorylation of Thr-252 in the p70 catalytic domain, through a distinctive signal transduction pathway. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7777579

  5. The crystal structure of the extracellular 11-heme cytochrome UndA reveals a conserved 10-heme motif and defined binding site for soluble iron chelates.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marcus J; Hall, Andrea; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K; Zachara, John M; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J; Clarke, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Members of the genus Shewanella translocate deca- or undeca-heme cytochromes to the external cell surface thus enabling respiration using extracellular minerals and polynuclear Fe(III) chelates. The high resolution structure of the first undeca-heme outer membrane cytochrome, UndA, reveals a crossed heme chain with four potential electron ingress/egress sites arranged within four domains. Sequence and structural alignment of UndA and the deca-heme MtrF reveals the extra heme of UndA is inserted between MtrF hemes 6 and 7. The remaining UndA hemes can be superposed over the heme chain of the decaheme MtrF, suggesting that a ten heme core is conserved between outer membrane cytochromes. The UndA structure has also been crystallographically resolved in complex with substrates, an Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate dimer or an Fe(III)-citrate trimer. The structural resolution of these UndA-Fe(III)-chelate complexes provides a rationale for previous kinetic measurements on UndA and other outer membrane cytochromes.

  6. The Crystal Structure of the Extracellular 11-heme Cytochrome UndA Reveals a Conserved 10-heme Motif and Defined Binding Site for Soluble Iron Chelates.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Marcus; Hall, Andrea; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2012-07-03

    Members of the genus Shewanella translocate deca- or undeca-heme cytochromes to the external cell surface thus enabling respiration using extracellular minerals and polynuclear Fe(III) chelates. The high resolution structure of the first undeca-heme outer membrane cytochrome, UndA, reveals a crossed heme chain with four potential electron ingress/egress sites arranged within four domains. Sequence and structural alignment of UndA and the deca-heme MtrF reveals the extra heme of UndA is inserted between MtrF hemes 6 and 7. The remaining UndA hemes can be superposed over the heme chain of the decaheme MtrF, suggesting that a ten heme core is conserved between outer membrane cytochromes. The UndA structure is the first outer membrane cytochrome to be crystallographically resolved in complex with substrates, an Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate dimer or an Fe(III)-citrate trimer. The structural resolution of these UndA-Fe(III)-chelate complexes provides a rationale for previous kinetic measurements on UndA and other outer membrane cytochromes.

  7. Active site - a site of binding of affinity inhibitors in baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Svyato, I.E.; Sklyankina, V.A.; Avaeva, S.M.

    1986-03-20

    The interaction of the enzyme-substrate complex with methyl phosphate, O-phosphoethanolamine, O-phosphopropanolamine, N-acetylphosphoserine, and phosphoglyolic acid, as well as pyrophosphatase, modified by monoesters of phosphoric acid, with pyrophosphate and tripolyphosphate, was investigated. It was shown that the enzyme containing the substrate in the active site does not react with monophosphates, but modified pyrophosphatase entirely retains the ability to bind polyanions to the regulatory site. It is concluded that the inactivation of baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase by monoesters of phosphoric acid, which are affinity inhibitors of it, is the result of modification of the active site of the enzyme.

  8. Active site mapping, biochemical properties and subcellular localization of rhodesain, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, C R; Hansell, E; Lucas, K D; Brinen, L S; Alvarez Hernandez, A; Cheng, J; Gwaltney, S L; Roush, W R; Stierhof, Y D; Bogyo, M; Steverding, D; McKerrow, J H

    2001-11-01

    Cysteine protease activity of African trypanosome parasites is a target for new chemotherapy using synthetic protease inhibitors. To support this effort and further characterize the enzyme, we expressed and purified rhodesain, the target protease of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (MVAT4 strain), in reagent quantities from Pichia pastoris. Rhodesain was secreted as an active, mature protease. Site-directed mutagenesis of a cryptic glycosylation motif not previously identified allowed production of rhodesain suitable for crystallization. An invariable ER(A/V)FNAA motif in the pro-peptide sequence of rhodesain was identified as being unique to the genus Trypanosoma. Antibodies to rhodesain localized the protease in the lysosome and identified a 40-kDa protein in long slender forms of T. b. rhodesiense and all life-cycle stages of T. b. brucei. With the latter parasite, protease expression was five times greater in short stumpy trypanosomes than in the other stages. Radiolabeled active site-directed inhibitors identified brucipain as the major cysteine protease in T. b. brucei. Peptidomimetic vinyl sulfone and epoxide inhibitors designed to interact with the S2, S1 and S' subsites of the active site cleft revealed differences between rhodesain and the related trypanosome protease cruzain. Using fluorogenic dipeptidyl substrates, rhodesain and cruzain had acid pH optima, but unlike some mammalian cathepsins retained significant activity and stability up to pH 8.0, consistent with a possible extracellular function. S2 subsite mapping of rhodesain and cruzain with fluorogenic peptidyl substrates demonstrates that the presence of alanine rather than glutamate at S2 prevents rhodesain from cleaving substrates in which P2 is arginine. PMID:11704274

  9. A Secreted Protein with Plant-Specific Cysteine-Rich Motif Functions as a Mannose-Binding Lectin That Exhibits Antifungal Activity1[W

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Takuya; Hatano, Ken-ichi; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Suwa, You-ichi; Sawano, Yoriko; Tanokura, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Plants have a variety of mechanisms for defending against plant pathogens and tolerating environmental stresses such as drought and high salinity. Ginkbilobin2 (Gnk2) is a seed storage protein in gymnosperm that possesses antifungal activity and a plant-specific cysteine-rich motif (domain of unknown function26 [DUF26]). The Gnk2-homologous sequence is also observed in an extracellular region of cysteine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases that function in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we report the lectin-like molecular function of Gnk2 and the structural basis of its monosaccharide recognition. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments showed that mannan was the only yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell wall polysaccharide that interacted with Gnk2. Gnk2 also interacted with mannose, a building block of mannan, with a specificity that was similar to those of mannose-binding legume lectins, by strictly recognizing the configuration of the hydroxy group at the C4 position of the monosaccharide. The crystal structure of Gnk2 in complex with mannose revealed that three residues (asparagine-11, arginine-93, and glutamate-104) recognized mannose by hydrogen bonds, which defined the carbohydrate-binding specificity. These interactions were directly related to the ability of Gnk2 to inhibit the growth of fungi, including the plant pathogenic Fusarium spp., which were disrupted by mutation of arginine-93 or the presence of yeast mannan in the assay system. In addition, Gnk2 did not inhibit the growth of a yeast mutant strain lacking the α1,2-linked mannose moiety. These results provide insights into the molecular basis of the DUF26 protein family. PMID:25139159

  10. A novel approach to predict active sites of enzyme molecules.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kuo-Chen; Cai, Yu-dong

    2004-04-01

    Enzymes are critical in many cellular signaling cascades. With many enzyme structures being solved, there is an increasing need to develop an automated method for identifying their active sites. However, given the atomic coordinates of an enzyme molecule, how can we predict its active site? This is a vitally important problem because the core of an enzyme molecule is its active site from the viewpoints of both pure scientific research and industrial application. In this article, a topological entity was introduced to characterize the enzymatic active site. Based on such a concept, the covariant discriminant algorithm was formulated for identifying the active site. As a paradigm, the serine hydrolase family was demonstrated. The overall success rate by jackknife test for a data set of 88 enzyme molecules was 99.92%, and that for a data set of 50 independent enzyme molecules was 99.91%. Meanwhile, it was shown through an example that the prediction algorithm can also be used to find any typographic error of a PDB file in annotating the constituent amino acids of catalytic triad and to suggest a possible correction. The very high success rates are due to the introduction of a covariance matrix in the prediction algorithm that makes allowance for taking into account the coupling effects among the key constituent atoms of active site. It is anticipated that the novel approach is quite promising and may become a useful high throughput tool in enzymology, proteomics, and structural bioinformatics. PMID:14997541

  11. An AU-Rich Sequence Element (UUUN[A/U]U) Downstream of the Edited C in Apolipoprotein B mRNA Is a High-Affinity Binding Site for Apobec-1: Binding of Apobec-1 to This Motif in the 3′ Untranslated Region of c-myc Increases mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Anant, Shrikant; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2000-01-01

    Apobec-1, the catalytic subunit of the mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA-editing enzyme, is a cytidine deaminase with RNA binding activity for AU-rich sequences. This RNA binding activity is required for Apobec-1 to mediate C-to-U RNA editing. Filter binding assays, using immobilized Apobec-1, demonstrate saturable binding to a 105-nt apoB RNA with a Kd of ∼435 nM. A series of AU-rich templates was used to identify a high-affinity (∼50 nM) binding site of consensus sequence UUUN[A/U]U, with multiple copies of this sequence constituting the high-affinity binding site. In order to determine whether this consensus site could be functionally demonstrated from within an apoB RNA, circular-permutation analysis was performed, revealing one major (UUUGAU) and one minor (UU) site located 3 and 16 nucleotides, respectively, downstream of the edited base. Secondary-structure predictions reveal a stem-loop flanking the edited base with Apobec-1 binding to the consensus site(s) at an open loop. A similar consensus (AUUUA) is present in the 3′ untranslated regions of several mRNAs, including that of c-myc, that are known to undergo rapid degradation. In this context, it is presumed that the consensus motif acts as a destabilizing element. As an independent test of the ability of Apobec-1 to bind to this sequence, F442A cells were transfected with Apobec-1 and the half-life of c-myc mRNA was determined following actinomycin D treatment. These studies demonstrated an increase in the half-life of c-myc mRNA from 90 to 240 min in control versus Apobec-1-expressing cells. Apobec-1 expression mutants, in which RNA binding activity is eliminated, failed to alter c-myc mRNA turnover. Taken together, the data establish a consensus binding site for Apobec-1 embedded in proximity to the edited base in apoB RNA. Binding to this site in other target RNAs raises the possibility that Apobec-1 may be involved in other aspects of RNA metabolism, independent of its role as an apoB RNA

  12. Growth exponents in surface models with non-active sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Figueiredo, W.; Aarão Reis, F. D. A.

    2006-11-01

    In this work, we studied the role played by the inactive sites present on the substrate of a growing surface. In our model, one particle sticks at the surface if the site where it falls is an active site. However, we allow the deposited particle to diffuse along the surface in accordance with some mechanism previously defined. Using Monte Carlo simulations, and some analytical results, we have investigated the model in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions considering different relaxation mechanisms. We show that the consideration of non-active sites is a crucial point in the model. In fact, we have seen that the saturation regime is not observed for any value of the density of inactive sites. Besides, the growth exponent β turns to be one, at long times, whatever the mechanism of diffusion we consider in one and two dimensions.

  13. A small ribozyme with dual-site kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Elisa; Maxwell, Adam W.R.; Burke, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoryl transfer onto backbone hydroxyls is a recognized catalytic activity of nucleic acids. We find that kinase ribozyme K28 possesses an unusually complex active site that promotes (thio)phosphorylation of two residues widely separated in primary sequence. After allowing the ribozyme to radiolabel itself by phosphoryl transfer from [γ-32P]GTP, DNAzyme-mediated cleavage yielded two radiolabeled cleavage fragments, indicating phosphorylation sites within each of the two cleavage fragments. These sites were mapped by alkaline digestion and primer extension pausing. Enzymatic digestion and mutational analysis identified nucleotides important for activity and established the active structure as being a constrained pseudoknot with unusual connectivity that may juxtapose the two reactive sites. Nuclease sensitivities for nucleotides near the pseudoknot core were altered in the presence of GTPγS, indicating donor-induced folding. The 5′ target site was more strongly favored in full-length ribozyme K28 (128 nt) than in truncated RNAs (58 nt). Electrophoretic mobilities of self-thiophosphorylated products on organomercurial gels are distinct from the 5′ mono-thiophosphorylated product produced by reaction with polynucleotide kinase, potentially indicating simultaneous labeling of both sites within individual RNA strands. Our evidence supports a single, compact structure with local dynamics, rather than global rearrangement, as being responsible for dual-site phosphorylation. PMID:22618879

  14. ISOLATION OF AN ACTIVE LV1 GENE FROM CATTLE INDICATES THAT TRIPARTITE MOTIF PROTEIN-MEDIATED INNATE IMMUNITY TO RETROVIRAL INFECTION IS WIDESPREAD AMONG MAMMALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lv1/TRIM5alpha (tripartite motif 5alpha) has recently emerged as an important factor influencing species-specific permissivity to retroviral infection in a range of primates, including humans. Old World monkey TRIM5alpha blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity, and the human a...

  15. Splice Site Strength-Dependent Activity and Genetic Buffering by Poly-G Runs

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xinshu; Wang, Zefeng; Jang, Minyoung; Nutiu, Razvan; Wang, Eric T.; Burge, Christopher B.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is regulated through combinatorial activity of RNA motifs including splice sites and splicing regulatory elements (SREs). Here, we show that the activity of the G-run class of SREs is ∼4-fold higher when adjacent to intermediate strength 5'ss relative to weak 5'ss, and ∼1.3-fold higher relative to strong 5'ss. This dependence on 5'ss strength was observed in splicing reporters and in global microarray and mRNA-Seq analyses of splicing changes following RNAi against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) H, which crosslinked to G-runs adjacent to many regulated exons. An exon’s responsiveness to changes in hnRNP H levels therefore depends in a complex way on G-run abundance and 5'ss strength, and other splicing factors may function similarly. This pattern of activity enables G-runs and hnRNP H to buffer the effects of 5'ss mutations, augmenting the frequency of 5'ss polymorphism and the evolution of new splicing patterns. PMID:19749754

  16. The Q Motif Is Involved in DNA Binding but Not ATP Binding in ChlR1 Helicase.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Guo, Manhong; Vidhyasagar, Venkatasubramanian; Talwar, Tanu; Wu, Yuliang

    2015-01-01

    Helicases are molecular motors that couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to the unwinding of structured DNA or RNA and chromatin remodeling. The conversion of energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into unwinding and remodeling is coordinated by seven sequence motifs (I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, and VI). The Q motif, consisting of nine amino acids (GFXXPXPIQ) with an invariant glutamine (Q) residue, has been identified in some, but not all helicases. Compared to the seven well-recognized conserved helicase motifs, the role of the Q motif is less acknowledged. Mutations in the human ChlR1 (DDX11) gene are associated with a unique genetic disorder known as Warsaw Breakage Syndrome, which is characterized by cellular defects in genome maintenance. To examine the roles of the Q motif in ChlR1 helicase, we performed site directed mutagenesis of glutamine to alanine at residue 23 in the Q motif of ChlR1. ChlR1 recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from HEK293T cells. ChlR1-Q23A mutant abolished the helicase activity of ChlR1 and displayed reduced DNA binding ability. The mutant showed impaired ATPase activity but normal ATP binding. A thermal shift assay revealed that ChlR1-Q23A has a melting point value similar to ChlR1-WT. Partial proteolysis mapping demonstrated that ChlR1-WT and Q23A have a similar globular structure, although some subtle conformational differences in these two proteins are evident. Finally, we found ChlR1 exists and functions as a monomer in solution, which is different from FANCJ, in which the Q motif is involved in protein dimerization. Taken together, our results suggest that the Q motif is involved in DNA binding but not ATP binding in ChlR1 helicase.

  17. Architecture and active site of particulate methane monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Megen A.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is an integral membrane metalloenzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria, organisms that live on methane gas as their sole carbon source. Understanding pMMO function has important implications for bioremediation applications and for the development of new, environmentally friendly catalysts for the direct conversion of methane to methanol. Crystal structures of pMMOs from three different methanotrophs reveal a trimeric architecture, consisting of three copies each of the pmoB, pmoA, and pmoC subunits. There are three distinct metal centers in each protomer of the trimer, mononuclear and dinuclear copper sites in the periplasmic regions of pmoB and a mononuclear site within the membrane that can be occupied by copper or zinc. Various models for the pMMO active site have been proposed within these structural constraints, including dicopper, tricopper, and diiron centers. Biochemical and spectroscopic data on pMMO and recombinant soluble fragments, denoted spmoB proteins, indicate that the active site involves copper and is located at the site of the dicopper center in the pmoB subunit. Initial spectroscopic evidence for O2 binding at this site has been obtained. Despite these findings, questions remain about the active site identity and nuclearity and will be the focus of future studies. PMID:22725967

  18. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-04-20

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide. PMID:26908655

  19. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide. PMID:26908655

  20. Aztec, Incan and Mayan Motifs...Lead to Distinctive Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Joanne

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project for seventh-grade students in which they choose motifs based on Incan, Aztec, and Mayan Indian materials to incorporate into two-dimensional designs. Explains that the activity objective is to create a unified, balanced and pleasing composition using a minimum of three motifs. (CMK)

  1. Second-site long terminal repeat (LTR) revertants of replication-defective human immunodeficiency virus: effects of revertant TATA box motifs on virus infectivity, LTR-directed expression, in vitro RNA synthesis, and binding of basal transcription factors TFIID and TFIIA.

    PubMed Central

    Kashanchi, F; Shibata, R; Ross, E K; Brady, J N; Martin, M A

    1994-01-01

    Second-site revertants from replication-incompetent molecular clones of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contain base substitutions adjacent to the TATA motif. The altered TATA box motifs were analyzed for their effect(s) on virus infectivity, long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed expression in transient transfection assays, in vitro RNA synthesis, and assembly of the TFIID-TFIIA preinitiation complex. The revertant TATA boxes accelerated the kinetics of HIV replication when present in the context of an LTR containing a Sp1 mutation (deletion or site specific); no effect was observed on the infectivity of wild-type HIV. In chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays and in vitro transcription systems, the altered TATA box motifs led to elevated basal levels of RNA synthesis from NF-kappa B- and Sp1-mutagenized and wild-type templates, respectively, but did not increase responsiveness to Tat transactivation. The revertant TATA boxes accelerated the binding of TFIID and TFIIA to the LTR and stabilized their association with the promoter. The revertants did not assemble a more-processive elongation complex. These results suggest that in the context of an impaired enhancer/promoter (viz., three mutated Sp1 elements), a series of HIV revertants emerge which contain LTR alterations that significantly augment basal RNA synthesis. The TATA motif revertants are capable of rescuing the enhancer/promoter defect and sustain virus infectivity. Images PMID:8151790

  2. Active site of mycobacterial dUTPase: Structural characteristics and a built-in sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Balazs; Barabas, Orsolya; Takacs, Eniko; Nagy, Nikolett; Nagy, Peter; Vertessy, Beata G.

    2008-08-15

    dUTPases are essential to eliminate dUTP for DNA integrity and provide dUMP for thymidylate biosynthesis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis apparently lacks any other thymidylate biosynthesis pathway, therefore dUTPase is a promising antituberculotic drug target. Crystal structure of the mycobacterial enzyme in complex with the isosteric substrate analog, {alpha},{beta}-imido-dUTP and Mg{sup 2+} at 1.5 A resolution was determined that visualizes the full-length C-terminus, previously not localized. Interactions of a conserved motif important in catalysis, the Mycobacterium-specific five-residue-loop insert and C-terminal tetrapeptide could now be described in detail. Stacking of C-terminal histidine upon the uracil moiety prompted replacement with tryptophan. The resulting sensitive fluorescent sensor enables fast screening for binding of potential inhibitors to the active site. K{sub d} for {alpha},{beta}-imido-dUTP binding to mycobacterial dUTPase is determined to be 10-fold less than for human dUTPase, which is to be considered in drug optimization. A robust continuous activity assay for kinetic screening is proposed.

  3. ELM: the status of the 2010 eukaryotic linear motif resource.

    PubMed

    Gould, Cathryn M; Diella, Francesca; Via, Allegra; Puntervoll, Pål; Gemünd, Christine; Chabanis-Davidson, Sophie; Michael, Sushama; Sayadi, Ahmed; Bryne, Jan Christian; Chica, Claudia; Seiler, Markus; Davey, Norman E; Haslam, Niall; Weatheritt, Robert J; Budd, Aidan; Hughes, Tim; Pas, Jakub; Rychlewski, Leszek; Travé, Gilles; Aasland, Rein; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Linding, Rune; Gibson, Toby J

    2010-01-01

    Linear motifs are short segments of multidomain proteins that provide regulatory functions independently of protein tertiary structure. Much of intracellular signalling passes through protein modifications at linear motifs. Many thousands of linear motif instances, most notably phosphorylation sites, have now been reported. Although clearly very abundant, linear motifs are difficult to predict de novo in protein sequences due to the difficulty of obtaining robust statistical assessments. The ELM resource at http://elm.eu.org/ provides an expanding knowledge base, currently covering 146 known motifs, with annotation that includes >1300 experimentally reported instances. ELM is also an exploratory tool for suggesting new candidates of known linear motifs in proteins of interest. Information about protein domains, protein structure and native disorder, cellular and taxonomic contexts is used to reduce or deprecate false positive matches. Results are graphically displayed in a 'Bar Code' format, which also displays known instances from homologous proteins through a novel 'Instance Mapper' protocol based on PHI-BLAST. ELM server output provides links to the ELM annotation as well as to a number of remote resources. Using the links, researchers can explore the motifs, proteins, complex structures and associated literature to evaluate whether candidate motifs might be worth experimental investigation. PMID:19920119

  4. The calcium-sensor guanylate cyclase activating protein type 2 specific site in rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase type 1.

    PubMed

    Duda, Teresa; Fik-Rymarkiewicz, Ewa; Venkataraman, Venkateswar; Krishnan, Ramalingam; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm; Sharma, Rameshwar K

    2005-05-17

    The rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase type 1 (ROS-GC1), originally identified in the photoreceptor outer segments, is a member of the subfamily of Ca(2+)-modulated membrane guanylate cyclases. In phototransduction, its activity is tightly regulated by its two Ca(2+)-sensor protein parts, GCAP1 and GCAP2. This study maps the GCAP2-modulatory site in ROS-GC1 through the use of multiple techniques involving surface plasmon resonance binding studies with soluble ROS-GC1 constructs, coimmunoprecipitation, functional reconstitution experiments with deletion mutants, and peptide competition assays. The findings show that the sequence motif of the core GCAP2-modulatory site is Y965-N981 of ROS-GC1. The site is distinct from the GCAP1-modulatory site. It, however, partially overlaps with the S100B-regulatory site. This indicates that the Y965-N981 motif tightly controls the Ca(2+)-dependent specificity of ROS-GC1. Identification of the site demonstrates an intriguing topographical feature of ROS-GC1. This is that the GCAP2 module transmits the Ca(2+) signals to the catalytic domain from its C-terminal side and the GCAP1 module from the distant N-terminal side.

  5. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  6. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  7. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined. PMID:27243042

  8. Chaotic motif sampler: detecting motifs from biological sequences by using chaotic neurodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Takafumi; Ikeguchi, Tohru

    Identification of a region in biological sequences, motif extraction problem (MEP) is solved in bioinformatics. However, the MEP is an NP-hard problem. Therefore, it is almost impossible to obtain an optimal solution within a reasonable time frame. To find near optimal solutions for NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems such as traveling salesman problems, quadratic assignment problems, and vehicle routing problems, chaotic search, which is one of the deterministic approaches, has been proposed and exhibits better performance than stochastic approaches. In this paper, we propose a new alignment method that employs chaotic dynamics to solve the MEPs. It is called the Chaotic Motif Sampler. We show that the performance of the Chaotic Motif Sampler is considerably better than that of the conventional methods such as the Gibbs Site Sampler and the Neighborhood Optimization for Multiple Alignment Discovery.

  9. Studies on the active site of pig plasma amine oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Collison, D; Knowles, P F; Mabbs, F E; Rius, F X; Singh, I; Dooley, D M; Cote, C E; McGuirl, M

    1989-01-01

    Amine oxidase from pig plasma (PPAO) has two bound Cu2+ ions and at least one pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) moiety as cofactors. It is shown that recovery of activity by copper-depleted PPAO is linear with respect to added Cu2+ ions. Recovery of e.s.r. and optical spectral characteristics of active-site copper parallel the recovery of catalytic activity. These results are consistent with both Cu2+ ions contributing to catalysis. Further e.s.r. studies indicate that the two copper sites in PPAO, unlike those in amine oxidases from other sources, are chemically distinct. These comparative studies establish that non-identity of the Cu2+ ions in PPAO is not a requirement for amine oxidase activity. It is shown through the use of a new assay procedure that there are two molecules of PQQ bound per molecule of protein in PPAO; only the more reactive of these PQQ moieties is required for activity. PMID:2559715

  10. The polarization of the G-protein activated potassium channel GIRK5 to the vegetal pole of Xenopus laevis oocytes is driven by a di-leucine motif.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Bello, Beatriz; Rangel-García, Claudia I; Salvador, Carolina; Carrisoza-Gaytán, Rolando; Escobar, Laura I

    2013-01-01

    The G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (known as GIRK or Kir3) form functional heterotetramers gated by G-βγ subunits. GIRK channels participate in heart rate modulation and neuronal postsynaptic inhibition in mammals. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, GIRK5 is a functional homomultimer. Previously, we found that phosphorylation of a tyrosine (Y16) at its N-terminus downregulates the surface expression of GIRK5. In this work, we elucidated the subcellular localization and trafficking of GIRK5 in oocytes. Several EGFP-GIRK5 chimeras were produced and an ECFP construct was used to identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Whereas GIRK5-WT was retained in the ER at the animal pole, the phospho-null GIRK5-Y16A was localized to the vegetal pole. Interestingly, a construct with an N-terminal Δ25 deletion produced an even distribution of the channel in the whole oocyte. Through an alanine-scan, we identified an acidic cluster/di-leucine sorting-signal recognition motif between E17 and I22. We quantified the effect of each amino acid residue within this di-leucine motif in determining the distribution of GIRK5 to the animal and vegetal poles. We found that Y16 and I22 contributed to functional expression and were dominant in the polarization of GIRK5. We thus conclude that the N-terminal acidic di-leucine motif of GIRK5 determines its retention and polarized trafficking within Xl oocytes.

  11. The Polarization of the G-Protein Activated Potassium Channel GIRK5 to the Vegetal Pole of Xenopus laevis Oocytes Is Driven by a Di-Leucine Motif

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Bello, Beatriz; Rangel-García, Claudia I.; Salvador, Carolina; Carrisoza-Gaytán, Rolando; Escobar, Laura I.

    2013-01-01

    The G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (known as GIRK or Kir3) form functional heterotetramers gated by G-βγ subunits. GIRK channels participate in heart rate modulation and neuronal postsynaptic inhibition in mammals. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, GIRK5 is a functional homomultimer. Previously, we found that phosphorylation of a tyrosine (Y16) at its N-terminus downregulates the surface expression of GIRK5. In this work, we elucidated the subcellular localization and trafficking of GIRK5 in oocytes. Several EGFP-GIRK5 chimeras were produced and an ECFP construct was used to identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Whereas GIRK5-WT was retained in the ER at the animal pole, the phospho-null GIRK5-Y16A was localized to the vegetal pole. Interestingly, a construct with an N-terminal Δ25 deletion produced an even distribution of the channel in the whole oocyte. Through an alanine-scan, we identified an acidic cluster/di-leucine sorting-signal recognition motif between E17 and I22. We quantified the effect of each amino acid residue within this di-leucine motif in determining the distribution of GIRK5 to the animal and vegetal poles. We found that Y16 and I22 contributed to functional expression and were dominant in the polarization of GIRK5. We thus conclude that the N-terminal acidic di-leucine motif of GIRK5 determines its retention and polarized trafficking within Xl oocytes. PMID:23717539

  12. Mutational analysis of active-site residues in the Mycobacterium leprae RecA intein, a LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease: Asp(122) and Asp(193) are crucial to the double-stranded DNA cleavage activity whereas Asp(218) is not.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pawan; Tripathi, Pankaj; Muniyappa, K

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae recA harbors an in-frame insertion sequence that encodes an intein homing endonuclease (PI-MleI). Most inteins (intein endonucleases) possess two conserved LAGLIDADG (DOD) motifs at their active center. A common feature of LAGLIDADG-type homing endonucleases is that they recognize and cleave the same or very similar DNA sequences. However, PI-MleI is distinctive from other members of the family of LAGLIDADG-type HEases for its modular structure with functionally separable domains for DNA-binding and cleavage, each with distinct sequence preferences. Sequence alignment analyses of PI-MleI revealed three putative LAGLIDADG motifs; however, there is conflicting bioinformatics data in regard to their identity and specific location within the intein polypeptide. To resolve this conflict and to determine the active-site residues essential for DNA target site recognition and double-stranded DNA cleavage, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of presumptive catalytic residues in the LAGLIDADG motifs. Analysis of target DNA recognition and kinetic parameters of the wild-type PI-MleI and its variants disclosed that the two amino acid residues, Asp(122) (in Block C) and Asp(193) (in functional Block E), are crucial to the double-stranded DNA endonuclease activity, whereas Asp(218) (in pseudo-Block E) is not. However, despite the reduced catalytic activity, the PI-MleI variants, like the wild-type PI-MleI, generated a footprint of the same length around the insertion site. The D122T variant showed significantly reduced catalytic activity, and D122A and D193A mutations although failed to affect their DNA-binding affinities, but abolished the double-stranded DNA cleavage activity. On the other hand, D122C variant showed approximately twofold higher double-stranded DNA cleavage activity, compared with the wild-type PI-MleI. These results provide compelling evidence that Asp(122) and Asp(193) in DOD motif I and II, respectively, are bona fide active-site

  13. Role of a cysteine residue in the active site of ERK and the MAPKK family

    SciTech Connect

    Ohori, Makoto; Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Yoshimura, Seiji; Warizaya, Masaichi; Nakajima, Hidenori . E-mail: hidenori.nakajima@jp.astellas.com; Miyake, Hiroshi

    2007-02-16

    Kinases of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), represent likely targets for pharmacological intervention in proliferative diseases. Here, we report that FR148083 inhibits ERK2 enzyme activity and TGF{beta}-induced AP-1-dependent luciferase expression with respective IC{sub 50} values of 0.08 and 0.05 {mu}M. FR265083 (1'-2' dihydro form) and FR263574 (1'-2' and 7'-8' tetrahydro form) exhibited 5.5-fold less and no activity, respectively, indicating that both the {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated ketone and the conformation of the lactone ring contribute to this inhibitory activity. The X-ray crystal structure of the ERK2/FR148083 complex revealed that the compound binds to the ATP binding site of ERK2, involving a covalent bond to S{gamma} of ERK2 Cys166, hydrogen bonds with the backbone NH of Met108, N{zeta} of Lys114, backbone C=O of Ser153, N{delta}2 of Asn154, and hydrophobic interactions with the side chains of Ile31, Val39, Ala52, and Leu156. The covalent bond motif in the ERK2/FR148083 complex assures that the inhibitor has high activity for ERK2 and no activity for other MAPKs such as JNK1 and p38MAPK{alpha}/{beta}/{gamma}/{delta} which have leucine residues at the site corresponding to Cys166 in ERK2. On the other hand, MEK1 and MKK7, kinases of the MAPKK family which also can be inhibited by FR148083, contain a cysteine residue corresponding to Cys166 of ERK2. The covalent binding to the common cysteine residue in the ATP-binding site is therefore likely to play a crucial role in the inhibitory activity for these MAP kinases. These findings on the molecular recognition mechanisms of FR148083 for kinases with Cys166 should provide a novel strategy for the pharmacological intervention of MAPK cascades.

  14. Acidic/IQ Motif Regulator of Calmodulin*

    PubMed Central

    Putkey, John A.; Waxham, M. Neal; Gaertner, Tara R.; Brewer, Kari J.; Goldsmith, Michael; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Kleerekoper, Quinn K.

    2013-01-01

    The small IQ motif proteins PEP-19 (62 amino acids) and RC3 (78 amino acids) greatly accelerate the rates of Ca2+ binding to sites III and IV in the C-domain of calmodulin (CaM). We show here that PEP-19 decreases the degree of cooperativity of Ca2+ binding to sites III and IV, and we present a model showing that this could increase Ca2+ binding rate constants. Comparative sequence analysis showed that residues 28 to 58 from PEP-19 are conserved in other proteins. This region includes the IQ motif (amino acids 39–62), and an adjacent acidic cluster of amino acids (amino acids 28–40). A synthetic peptide spanning residues 28–62 faithfully mimics intact PEP-19 with respect to increasing the rates of Ca2+ association and dissociation, as well as binding preferentially to the C-domain of CaM. In contrast, a peptide encoding only the core IQ motif does not modulate Ca2+ binding, and binds to multiple sites on CaM. A peptide that includes only the acidic region does not bind to CaM. These results show that PEP-19 has a novel acidic/IQ CaM regulatory motif in which the IQ sequence provides a targeting function that allows binding of PEP-19 to CaM, whereas the acidic residues modify the nature of this interaction, and are essential for modulating Ca2+ binding to the C-domain of CaM. PMID:17991744

  15. Computer simulation of the active site of human serum cholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Kefang Jiao; Song Li; Zhengzheng Lu

    1996-12-31

    The first 3D-structure of acetylchelinesterase from Torpedo California electric organ (T.AChE) was published by JL. Sussman in 1991. We have simulated 3D-structure of human serum cholinesterase (H.BuChE) and the active site of H.BuChE. It is discovered by experiment that the residue of H.BuChE is still active site after a part of H.BuChE is cut. For example, the part of 21KD + 20KD is active site of H.BuChE. The 20KD as it is. Studies on these peptides by Hemelogy indicate that two active peptides have same negative electrostatic potential maps diagram. These negative electrostatic areas attached by acetyl choline with positive electrostatic potency. We predict that 147...236 peptide of AChE could be active site because it was as 20KD as with negative electrostatic potential maps. We look forward to proving from other ones.

  16. Resonant active sites in catalytic ammonia synthesis: A structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholach, Alexander R.; Bryliakova, Anna A.; Matveev, Andrey V.; Bulgakov, Nikolai N.

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption sites Mn consisted of n adjacent atoms M, each bound to the adsorbed species, are considered within a realistic model. The sum of bonds Σ lost by atoms in a site in comparison with the bulk atoms was used for evaluation of the local surface imperfection, while the reaction enthalpy at that site was used as a measure of activity. The comparative study of Mn sites (n = 1-5) at basal planes of Pt, Rh, Ir, Fe, Re and Ru with respect to heat of N2 dissociative adsorption QN and heat of Nad + Had → NHad reaction QNH was performed using semi-empirical calculations. Linear QN(Σ) increase and QNH(Σ) decrease allowed to specify the resonant Σ for each surface in catalytic ammonia synthesis at equilibrium Nad coverage. Optimal Σ are realizable for Ru2, Re2 and Ir4 only, whereas other centers meet steric inhibition or unreal crystal structure. Relative activity of the most active sites in proportion 5.0 × 10- 5: 4.5 × 10- 3: 1: 2.5: 3.0: 1080: 2270 for a sequence of Pt4, Rh4, Fe4(fcc), Ir4, Fe2-5(bcc), Ru2, Re2, respectively, is in agreement with relevant experimental data. Similar approach can be applied to other adsorption or catalytic processes exhibiting structure sensitivity.

  17. Multi-site Phosphorylation Regulates Bim Stability and Apoptotic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Anette; Barrett, Tamera; Flavell, Richard A.; Davis, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim is established to be an important mediator of signaling pathways that induce cell death. Multi-site phosphorylation of Bim by several members of the MAP kinase group is implicated as a regulatory mechanism that controls the apoptotic activity of Bim. To test the role of Bim phosphorylation in vivo, we constructed mice with a series of mutant alleles that express phosphorylation-defective Bim proteins. We show that mutation of the phosphorylation site Thr-112 causes decreased binding of Bim to the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and can increase cell survival. In contrast, mutation of the phosphorylation sites Ser-55, Ser-65, and Ser-73 can cause increased apoptosis because of reduced proteasomal degradation of Bim. Together, these data indicate that phosphorylation can regulate Bim by multiple mechanisms and that the phosphorylation of Bim on different sites can contribute to the sensitivity of cellular apoptotic responses. PMID:18498746

  18. Water in the Active Site of Ketosteroid Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Hanoian, Philip; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations were utilized to investigate the structural and dynamical properties of water in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) to provide insight into the role of these water molecules in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. This reaction is thought to proceed via a dienolate intermediate that is stabilized by hydrogen bonding with residues Tyr16 and Asp103. A comparative study was performed for the wild-type (WT) KSI and the Y16F, Y16S, and Y16F/Y32F/Y57F (FFF) mutants. These systems were studied with three different bound ligands: equilenin, which is an intermediate analog, and the intermediate states of two steroid substrates. Several distinct water occupation sites were identified in the active site of KSI for the WT and mutant systems. Three additional sites were identified in the Y16S mutant that were not occupied in WT KSI or the other mutants studied. The number of water molecules directly hydrogen bonded to the ligand oxygen was approximately two waters in the Y16S mutant, one water in the Y16F and FFF mutants, and intermittent hydrogen bonding of one water molecule in WT KSI. The molecular dynamics trajectories of the Y16F and FFF mutants reproduced the small conformational changes of residue 16 observed in the crystal structures of these two mutants. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations of 1H NMR chemical shifts of the protons in the active site hydrogen-bonding network suggest that the presence of water in the active site does not prevent the formation of short hydrogen bonds with far-downfield chemical shifts. The molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the active site water molecules exchange much more frequently for WT KSI and the FFF mutant than for the Y16F and Y16S mutants. This difference is most likely due to the hydrogen-bonding interaction between Tyr57 and an active site water molecule that is persistent in the Y16F and Y16S mutants but absent in the FFF mutant and significantly less

  19. Activation of phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine does not require binding in the active site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth M; Khan, Crystal A; Hinck, Cynthia S; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2014-12-16

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH), a liver enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine, is activated by phenylalanine. The lack of activity at low levels of phenylalanine has been attributed to the N-terminus of the protein's regulatory domain acting as an inhibitory peptide by blocking substrate access to the active site. The location of the site at which phenylalanine binds to activate the enzyme is unknown, and both the active site in the catalytic domain and a separate site in the N-terminal regulatory domain have been proposed. Binding of catecholamines to the active-site iron was used to probe the accessibility of the active site. Removal of the regulatory domain increases the rate constants for association of several catecholamines with the wild-type enzyme by ∼2-fold. Binding of phenylalanine in the active site is effectively abolished by mutating the active-site residue Arg270 to lysine. The k(cat)/K(phe) value is down 10⁴ for the mutant enzyme, and the K(m) value for phenylalanine for the mutant enzyme is >0.5 M. Incubation of the R270K enzyme with phenylalanine also results in a 2-fold increase in the rate constants for catecholamine binding. The change in the tryptophan fluorescence emission spectrum seen in the wild-type enzyme upon activation by phenylalanine is also seen with the R270K mutant enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine. Both results establish that activation of PheH by phenylalanine does not require binding of the amino acid in the active site. This is consistent with a separate allosteric site, likely in the regulatory domain.

  20. MINER: software for phylogenetic motif identification.

    PubMed

    La, David; Livesay, Dennis R

    2005-07-01

    MINER is web-based software for phylogenetic motif (PM) identification. PMs are sequence regions (fragments) that conserve the overall familial phylogeny. PMs have been shown to correspond to a wide variety of catalytic regions, substrate-binding sites and protein interfaces, making them ideal functional site predictions. The MINER output provides an intuitive interface for interactive PM sequence analysis and structural visualization. The web implementation of MINER is freely available at http://www.pmap.csupomona.edu/MINER/. Source code is available to the academic community on request.

  1. Chemical Modification of Papain and Subtilisin: An Active Site Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Vincent, Mireille; Dickman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An experiment using methyle methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) and phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride (PMSF) to specifically modify the cysteine and serine residues in the active sites of papain and subtilism respectively is demonstrated. The covalent modification of these enzymes and subsequent rescue of papain shows the beginning biochemist that proteins…

  2. Energy transfer at the active sites of heme proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dlott, D.D.; Hill, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments using a picosecond pump-probe apparatus at the Picosecond Free-electron Laser Center at Stanford University, were performed to investigate the relaxation of carbon monoxide bound to the active sites of heme proteins. The significance of these experiments is two-fold: (1) they provide detailed information about molecular dynamics occurring at the active sites of proteins; and (2) they provide insight into the nature of vibrational relaxation processes in condensed matter. Molecular engineering is used to construct various molecular systems which are studied with the FEL. We have studied native proteins, mainly myoglobin obtained from different species, mutant proteins produced by genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques, and a variety of model systems which mimic the structures of the active sites of native proteins, which are produced using molecular synthesis. Use of these different systems permits us to investigate how specific molecular structural changes affect dynamical processes occurring at the active sites. This research provides insight into the problems of how different species needs are fulfilled by heme proteins which have greatly different functionality, which is induced by rather small structural changes.

  3. Changes in active site histidine hydrogen bonding trigger cryptochrome activation.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Abir; Manahan, Craig C; Top, Deniz; Yee, Estella F; Lin, Changfan; Young, Michael W; Thiel, Walter; Crane, Brian R

    2016-09-01

    Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations indicate that flavin reduction substantially increases the His378 pKa Consistent with coupling between ASQ formation and His378 protonation, dCRY displays reduced photoreduction rates with increasing pH; however, His378Asn/Arg variants show no such pH dependence. Replica-exchange MD simulations also support CTT release mediated by changes in His378 hydrogen bonding and verify other responsive regions of the protein previously identified by proteolytic sensitivity assays. His378 dCRY variants show varying abilities to light-activate TIM and undergo self-degradation in cellular assays. Surprisingly, His378Arg/Lys variants do not degrade in light despite maintaining reactivity toward TIM, thereby implicating different conformational responses in these two functions. Thus, the dCRY photosensory mechanism involves flavin photoreduction coupled to protonation of His378, whose perturbed hydrogen-bonding pattern alters the CTT and surrounding regions. PMID:27551082

  4. Conformational Transitions in Human AP Endonuclease 1 and Its Active Site Mutant during Abasic Site Repair†

    PubMed Central

    Kanazhevskaya, Lyubov Yu.; Koval, Vladimir V.; Zharkov, Dmitry O.; Strauss, Phyllis R.; Fedorova, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    AP endonuclease 1 (APE 1) is a crucial enzyme of the base excision repair pathway (BER) in human cells. APE1 recognizes apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and makes a nick in the phosphodiester backbone 5′ to them. The conformational dynamics and presteady-state kinetics of wild-type APE1 and its active site mutant, Y171F-P173L-N174K, have been studied. To observe conformational transitions occurring in the APE1 molecule during the catalytic cycle, we detected intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the enzyme under single turnover conditions. DNA duplexes containing a natural AP site, its tetrahydrofuran analogue, or a 2′-deoxyguanosine residue in the same position were used as specific substrates or ligands. The stopped-flow experiments have revealed high flexibility of the APE1 molecule and the complexity of the catalytic process. The fluorescent traces indicate that wild-type APE1 undergoes at least four conformational transitions during the processing of abasic sites in DNA. In contrast, nonspecific interactions of APE1 with undamaged DNA can be described by a two-step kinetic scheme. Rate and equilibrium constants were extracted from the stopped-flow and fluorescence titration data for all substrates, ligands, and products. A replacement of three residues at the enzymatic active site including the replacement of tyrosine 171 with phenylalanine in the enzyme active site resulted in a 2 × 104-fold decrease in the reaction rate and reduced binding affinity. Our data indicate the important role of conformational changes in APE1 for substrate recognition and catalysis. PMID:20575528

  5. N-methyl-D-aspartate recognition site ligands modulate activity at the coupled glycine recognition site.

    PubMed

    Hood, W F; Compton, R P; Monahan, J B

    1990-03-01

    In synaptic plasma membranes from rat forebrain, the potencies of glycine recognition site agonists and antagonists for modulating [3H]1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine ([3H]TCP) binding and for displacing strychnine-insensitive [3H]glycine binding are altered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) recognition site ligands. The NMDA competitive antagonist, cis-4-phosphonomethyl-2-piperidine carboxylate (CGS 19755), reduces [3H]glycine binding, and the reduction can be fully reversed by the NMDA recognition site agonist, L-glutamate. Scatchard analysis of [3H]glycine binding shows that in the presence of CGS 19755 there is no change in Bmax (8.81 vs. 8.79 pmol/mg of protein), but rather a decrease in the affinity of glycine (KD of 0.202 microM vs. 0.129 microM). Similar decreases in affinity are observed for the glycine site agonists, D-serine and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, in the presence of CGS 19755. In contrast, the affinity of glycine antagonists, 1-hydroxy-3-amino-2-pyrrolidone and 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate, at this [3H]glycine recognition site increases in the presence of CGS 19755. The functional consequence of this change in affinity was addressed using the modulation of [3H]TCP binding. In the presence of L-glutamate, the potency of glycine agonists for the stimulation of [3H]TCP binding increases, whereas the potency of glycine antagonists decreases. These data are consistent with NMDA recognition site ligands, through their interactions at the NMDA recognition site, modulating activity at the associated glycine recognition site.

  6. Control of active sites in selective flocculation: I -- Mathematical model

    SciTech Connect

    Behl, S.; Moudgil, B.M.; Prakash, T.S. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Heteroflocculation has been determined to be another major reason for loss in selectivity for flocculation process. In a mathematical model developed earlier, conditions for controlling heteroflocculation were discussed. Blocking active sites to control selective adsorption of a flocculant oil a desirable solid surface is discussed. It has been demonstrated that the lower molecular weight fraction of a flocculant which is incapable of flocculating the particles is an efficient site blocking agent. The major application of selective flocculation has been in mineral processing but many potential uses exist in biological and other colloidal systems. These include purification of ceramic powders, separating hazardous solids from chemical waste, and removal of deleterious components from paper pulp.

  7. The site of activation of factor X by cancer procoagulant.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S G; Mourad, A M

    1991-12-01

    Cancer procoagulant (CP) is a cysteine proteinase found in a variety of malignant cells and tissues and in human amnion-chorion tissue. It initiates coagulation by activating factor X. However, the amino acid sequence of the substrate protein that determines the cleavage site of cysteine proteinases is different from that of the serine proteinases that normally activate factor X, such as factor IXa, VIIa and Russell's Viper Venom (RVV). Therefore, it was of interest to determine the site of cleavage of human factor X by CP. Purified CP was incubated with purified factor X and the reaction mixture was electrophoresed on a 10% Tris-tricine SDS-PAGE gel. The proteins were electroeluted on to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane, and stained with Coomassie blue. The heavy chain of activated factor X was cut out of the PVDF membrane and sequenced with an Applied Biosystems 477A with on-line HPLC. The primary cleavage sequence was Asp-Ala-Ala-Asp-Leu-Asp-Pro-; two other secondary sequences Ser-Ile-Thr-Trp-Lys-Pro- and Glu-Asn-Pro-Phe-Asp-Leu were found. The penultimate amino acid on the carbonyl side of the hydrolysed amide bond plays a critical role for the recognition of the cleavage site of cysteine proteinases. These data indicate that the penultimate amino acid for the primary cleavage site of factor X by CP is proline-20 and for the secondary sites, proline-13 and proline-28. This is in contrast to arginine-52 that determines the specificity of the cleavage by normal serine proteinase activation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Active-Site-Accessible, Porphyrinic Metal;#8722;Organic Framework Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Farha, Omar K.; Shultz, Abraham M.; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-02-06

    On account of their structural similarity to cofactors found in many metallo-enzymes, metalloporphyrins are obvious potential building blocks for catalytically active, metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. While numerous porphyrin-based MOFs have already been described, versions featuring highly accessible active sites and permanent microporosity are remarkably scarce. Indeed, of the more than 70 previously reported porphyrinic MOFs, only one has been shown to be both permanently microporous and contain internally accessible active sites for chemical catalysis. Attempts to generalize the design approach used in this single successful case have failed. Reported here, however, is the synthesis of an extended family of MOFs that directly incorporate a variety of metalloporphyrins (specifically Al{sup 3+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 3+}, and Fe{sup 3+} complexes). These robust porphyrinic materials (RPMs) feature large channels and readily accessible active sites. As an illustrative example, one of the manganese-containing RPMs is shown to be catalytically competent for the oxidation of alkenes and alkanes.

  9. Functional constituents of the active site of human neutrophil collagenase.

    PubMed

    Mookhtiar, K A; Wang, F; Van Wart, H E

    1986-05-01

    A series of chemical modification reactions has been carried out to identify functional constituents of the active site of human neutrophil collagenase. The enzyme is reversibly inhibited by the transition metal chelating agent 1,10-phenanthroline, and inhibition is fully reversed by zinc. Removal of weakly bound metal ions by gel filtration inactivates collagenase, and activity is fully restored on immediate readdition of calcium. The enzyme is unaffected by reagents that modify serine, cysteine, and arginine residues. However, reaction with the carboxyl reagents cyclohexylmorpholinocarbodiimide and Woodward's Reagent K lowers the activity of the enzyme substantially. Acetylimidazole inactivates the enzyme, but activity is completely restored on addition of hydroxylamine. The enzyme is also inactivated by tetranitromethane, indicating that it contains an essential tyrosine residue. Acylation of collagenase with diethyl pyrocarbonate, diketene, acetic anhydride, or trinitrobenzenesulfonate inactivates the enzyme, and activity is not restored on addition of hydroxylamine, indicating the presence of an essential lysine residue.

  10. Nest predation increases with parental activity: Separating nest site and parental activity effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.; Scott, J.; Menge, C.

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection.

  11. DMINDA: an integrated web server for DNA motif identification and analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qin; Zhang, Hanyuan; Mao, Xizeng; Zhou, Chuan; Liu, Bingqiang; Chen, Xin; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    DMINDA (DNA motif identification and analyses) is an integrated web server for DNA motif identification and analyses, which is accessible at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/DMINDA/. This web site is freely available to all users and there is no login requirement. This server provides a suite of cis-regulatory motif analysis functions on DNA sequences, which are important to elucidation of the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation: (i) de novo motif finding for a given set of promoter sequences along with statistical scores for the predicted motifs derived based on information extracted from a control set, (ii) scanning motif instances of a query motif in provided genomic sequences, (iii) motif comparison and clustering of identified motifs, and (iv) co-occurrence analyses of query motifs in given promoter sequences. The server is powered by a backend computer cluster with over 150 computing nodes, and is particularly useful for motif prediction and analyses in prokaryotic genomes. We believe that DMINDA, as a new and comprehensive web server for cis-regulatory motif finding and analyses, will benefit the genomic research community in general and prokaryotic genome researchers in particular. PMID:24753419

  12. Active sites in char gasification: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtowicz, M.; Lilly, W.D.; Perkins, M.T.; Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    Among the key variables in the design of gasifiers and combustors is the reactivity of the chars which must be gasified or combusted. Significant loss of unburned char is unacceptable in virtually any process; the provision of sufficient residence time for complete conversion is essential. A very wide range of reactivities are observed, depending upon the nature of the char in a process. The current work focuses on furthering the understanding of gasification reactivities of chars. It has been well established that the reactivity of char to gasification generally depends upon three principal factors: (1) the concentration of ''active sites'' in the char; (2) mass transfer within the char; and (3) the type and concentration of catalytic impurities in the char. The present study primarily addresses the first factor. The subject of this research is the origin, nature, and fate of active sites in chars derived from parent hydrocarbons with coal-like structure. The nature and number of the active sites and their reactivity towards oxygen are examined in ''model'' chars derived from phenol-formaldehyde type resins. How the active sites are lost by the process of thermal annealing during heat treatment of chars are studied, and actual rate for the annealing process is derived. Since intrinsic char reactivities are of primary interest in the present study, a fair amount of attention was given to the model char synthesis and handling so that the effect of catalytic impurities and oxygen-containing functional groups in the chemical structure of the material were minimized, if not completely eliminated. The project would not be considered complete without comparing characteristic features of synthetic chars with kinetic behavior exhibited by natural chars, including coal chars.

  13. Mechanistic and bioinformatic investigation of a conserved active site helix in α-isopropylmalate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a member of the DRE-TIM metallolyase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Casey, Ashley K; Hicks, Michael A; Johnson, Jordyn L; Babbitt, Patricia C; Frantom, Patrick A

    2014-05-13

    The characterization of functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies provides the opportunity to identify evolutionarily conserved catalytic strategies, as well as amino acid substitutions responsible for the evolution of new functions or specificities. Isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS) belongs to the DRE-TIM metallolyase superfamily. Members of this superfamily share common active site elements, including a conserved active site helix and an HXH divalent metal binding motif, associated with stabilization of a common enolate anion intermediate. These common elements are overlaid by variations in active site architecture resulting in the evolution of a diverse set of reactions that include condensation, lyase/aldolase, and carboxyl transfer activities. Here, using IPMS, an integrated biochemical and bioinformatics approach has been utilized to investigate the catalytic role of residues on an active site helix that is conserved across the superfamily. The construction of a sequence similarity network for the DRE-TIM metallolyase superfamily allows for the biochemical results obtained with IPMS variants to be compared across superfamily members and within other condensation-catalyzing enzymes related to IPMS. A comparison of our results with previous biochemical data indicates an active site arginine residue (R80 in IPMS) is strictly required for activity across the superfamily, suggesting that it plays a key role in catalysis, most likely through enolate stabilization. In contrast, differential results obtained from substitution of the C-terminal residue of the helix (Q84 in IPMS) suggest that this residue plays a role in reaction specificity within the superfamily.

  14. Brownian aggregation rate of colloid particles with several active sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Polshchitsin, Alexey A.; Yakovleva, Galina E.; Maltsev, Valeri P.

    2014-08-14

    We theoretically analyze the aggregation kinetics of colloid particles with several active sites. Such particles (so-called “patchy particles”) are well known as chemically anisotropic reactants, but the corresponding rate constant of their aggregation has not yet been established in a convenient analytical form. Using kinematic approximation for the diffusion problem, we derived an analytical formula for the diffusion-controlled reaction rate constant between two colloid particles (or clusters) with several small active sites under the following assumptions: the relative translational motion is Brownian diffusion, and the isotropic stochastic reorientation of each particle is Markovian and arbitrarily correlated. This formula was shown to produce accurate results in comparison with more sophisticated approaches. Also, to account for the case of a low number of active sites per particle we used Monte Carlo stochastic algorithm based on Gillespie method. Simulations showed that such discrete model is required when this number is less than 10. Finally, we applied the developed approach to the simulation of immunoagglutination, assuming that the formed clusters have fractal structure.

  15. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Hicks, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from April 1991 through September 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations (SWO) and the Environmental Sciences Division, both of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level (radioactive) waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. A new set of action levels was developed on the basis of a statistical analysis of background contamination. These new action levels have been used to evaluate results in this report. Results of ASEMP monitoring continue to demonstrate that no LLW (except [sup 3]H) is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II, which began in early FY 1991, was >90% complete at the end of September 1991. Results of sampling of groundwater and surface waters is presented.

  16. Inhibition and active-site modelling of prolidase.

    PubMed

    King, G F; Crossley, M J; Kuchel, P W

    1989-03-15

    Consideration of the active-site model of prolidase led us to examine azetidine, pyrrolidine and piperidine substrate analogs as potential in vivo inhibitors of the enzyme. One of these, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-proline, was shown to be a potent competitive inhibitor of porcine kidney prolidase (Ki = 90 microM); its rapid protein-mediated permeation of human and sheep erythrocytes suggests that it may be effective in vivo. The higher homolog, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-pipecolic acid, was also a potent inhibitor of the enzyme while the antihypertensive drugs, captopril and enalaprilat, were shown to have mild and no inhibitory effects, respectively. Analysis of inhibitor action and consideration of X-ray crystallographic data of relevant Mn2+ complexes allowed the active-site model of prolidase to be further refined; a new model is presented in which the substrate acts as a bidentate ligand towards the active-site manganous ion. Various aspects of the new model help to explain why Mn2+ has been 'chosen' by the enzyme in preference to other biologically available metal ions. PMID:2924773

  17. Finding regulatory elements and regulatory motifs: a general probabilistic framework

    PubMed Central

    van Nimwegen, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Over the last two decades a large number of algorithms has been developed for regulatory motif finding. Here we show how many of these algorithms, especially those that model binding specificities of regulatory factors with position specific weight matrices (WMs), naturally arise within a general Bayesian probabilistic framework. We discuss how WMs are constructed from sets of regulatory sites, how sites for a given WM can be discovered by scanning of large sequences, how to cluster WMs, and more generally how to cluster large sets of sites from different WMs into clusters. We discuss how 'regulatory modules', clusters of sites for subsets of WMs, can be found in large intergenic sequences, and we discuss different methods for ab initio motif finding, including expectation maximization (EM) algorithms, and motif sampling algorithms. Finally, we extensively discuss how module finding methods and ab initio motif finding methods can be extended to take phylogenetic relations between the input sequences into account, i.e. we show how motif finding and phylogenetic footprinting can be integrated in a rigorous probabilistic framework. The article is intended for readers with a solid background in applied mathematics, and preferably with some knowledge of general Bayesian probabilistic methods. The main purpose of the article is to elucidate that all these methods are not a disconnected set of individual algorithmic recipes, but that they are just different facets of a single integrated probabilistic theory. PMID:17903285

  18. A Minimal Cysteine Motif Required to Activate the SKOR K+ Channel of Arabidopsis by the Reactive Oxygen Species H2O2*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Mata, Carlos; Wang, Jianwen; Gajdanowicz, Pawel; Gonzalez, Wendy; Hills, Adrian; Donald, Naomi; Riedelsberger, Janin; Amtmann, Anna; Dreyer, Ingo; Blatt, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for development and stress signaling in plants. They contribute to plant defense against pathogens, regulate stomatal transpiration, and influence nutrient uptake and partitioning. Although both Ca2+ and K+ channels of plants are known to be affected, virtually nothing is known of the targets for ROS at a molecular level. Here we report that a single cysteine (Cys) residue within the Kv-like SKOR K+ channel of Arabidopsis thaliana is essential for channel sensitivity to the ROS H2O2. We show that H2O2 rapidly enhanced current amplitude and activation kinetics of heterologously expressed SKOR, and the effects were reversed by the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT). Both H2O2 and DTT were active at the outer face of the membrane and current enhancement was strongly dependent on membrane depolarization, consistent with a H2O2-sensitive site on the SKOR protein that is exposed to the outside when the channel is in the open conformation. Cys substitutions identified a single residue, Cys168 located within the S3 α-helix of the voltage sensor complex, to be essential for sensitivity to H2O2. The same Cys residue was a primary determinant for current block by covalent Cys S-methioylation with aqueous methanethiosulfonates. These, and additional data identify Cys168 as a critical target for H2O2, and implicate ROS-mediated control of the K+ channel in regulating mineral nutrient partitioning within the plant. PMID:20605786

  19. RAP: Accurate and Fast Motif Finding Based on Protein-Binding Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Orenstein, Yaron; Mick, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The novel high-throughput technology of protein-binding microarrays (PBMs) measures binding intensity of a transcription factor to thousands of DNA probe sequences. Several algorithms have been developed to extract binding-site motifs from these data. Such motifs are commonly represented by positional weight matrices. Previous studies have shown that the motifs produced by these algorithms are either accurate in predicting in vitro binding or similar to previously published motifs, but not both. In this work, we present a new simple algorithm to infer binding-site motifs from PBM data. It outperforms prior art both in predicting in vitro binding and in producing motifs similar to literature motifs. Our results challenge previous claims that motifs with lower information content are better models for transcription-factor binding specificity. Moreover, we tested the effect of motif length and side positions flanking the “core” motif in the binding site. We show that side positions have a significant effect and should not be removed, as commonly done. A large drop in the results quality of all methods is observed between in vitro and in vivo binding prediction. The software is available on acgt.cs.tau.ac.il/rap. PMID:23464877

  20. MoD Tools: regulatory motif discovery in nucleotide sequences from co-regulated or homologous genes.

    PubMed

    Pavesi, Giulio; Mereghetti, Paolo; Zambelli, Federico; Stefani, Marco; Mauri, Giancarlo; Pesole, Graziano

    2006-07-01

    Understanding the complex mechanisms regulating gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels is one of the greatest challenges of the post-genomic era. The MoD (MOtif Discovery) Tools web server comprises a set of tools for the discovery of novel conserved sequence and structure motifs in nucleotide sequences, motifs that in turn are good candidates for regulatory activity. The server includes the following programs: Weeder, for the discovery of conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in nucleotide sequences from co-regulated genes; WeederH, for the discovery of conserved TFBSs and distal regulatory modules in sequences from homologous genes; RNAProfile, for the discovery of conserved secondary structure motifs in unaligned RNA sequences whose secondary structure is not known. In this way, a given gene can be compared with other co-regulated genes or with its homologs, or its mRNA can be analyzed for conserved motifs regulating its post-transcriptional fate. The web server thus provides researchers with different strategies and methods to investigate the regulation of gene expression, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Available at http://www.pesolelab.it/modtools/ and http://www.beacon.unimi.it/modtools/.

  1. A generalization of substitution evolution models of nucleotides to genetic motifs.

    PubMed

    Benard, Emmanuel; Michel, Christian J

    2011-11-01

    We generalize here the classical stochastic substitution models of nucleotides to genetic motifs of any size. This generalized model gives the analytical occurrence probabilities of genetic motifs as a function of a substitution matrix containing up to three formal parameters (substitution rates) per motif site and of an initial occurrence probability vector of genetic motifs. The evolution direction can be direct (past-present) or inverse (present-past). This extension has been made due to the identification of a Kronecker relation between the nucleotide substitution matrices and the motif substitution matrices. The evolution models for motifs of size 4 (tetranucleotides) and 5 (pentanucleotides) are now included in the SEGM (Stochastic Evolution of Genetic Motifs) web server.

  2. Druggability analysis and classification of protein tyrosine phosphatase active sites

    PubMed Central

    Ghattas, Mohammad A; Raslan, Noor; Sadeq, Asil; Al Sorkhy, Mohammad; Atatreh, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases. The fact that no PTP inhibitors have reached the market so far has raised many questions about their druggability. In this study, the active sites of 17 PTPs were characterized and assessed for its ability to bind drug-like molecules. Consequently, PTPs were classified according to their druggability scores into four main categories. Only four members showed intermediate to very druggable pocket; interestingly, the rest of them exhibited poor druggability. Particularly focusing on PTP1B, we also demonstrated the influence of several factors on the druggability of PTP active site. For instance, the open conformation showed better druggability than the closed conformation, while the tight-bound water molecules appeared to have minimal effect on the PTP1B druggability. Finally, the allosteric site of PTP1B was found to exhibit superior druggability compared to the catalytic pocket. This analysis can prove useful in the discovery of new PTP inhibitors by assisting researchers in predicting hit rates from high throughput or virtual screening and saving unnecessary cost, time, and efforts via prioritizing PTP targets according to their predicted druggability. PMID:27757011

  3. The biological activity of botulinum neurotoxin type C is dependent upon novel types of ganglioside binding sites.

    PubMed

    Strotmeier, Jasmin; Gu, Shenyan; Jutzi, Stephan; Mahrhold, Stefan; Zhou, Jie; Pich, Andreas; Eichner, Timo; Bigalke, Hans; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng; Binz, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) cause muscle paralysis by selectively cleaving core components of the vesicular fusion machinery. Their extraordinary activity primarily relies on highly specific entry into neurons. Data on BoNT/A, B, E, F and G suggest that entry follows a dual receptor interaction with complex gangliosides via an established ganglioside binding region and a synaptic vesicle protein. Here, we report high resolution crystal structures of the BoNT/C cell binding fragment alone and in complex with sialic acid. The WY-motif characteristic of the established ganglioside binding region was located on an exposed loop. Sialic acid was co-ordinated at a novel position neighbouring the binding pocket for synaptotagmin in BoNT/B and G and the sialic acid binding site in BoNT/D and TeNT respectively. Employing synaptosomes and immobilized gangliosides binding studies with BoNT/C mutants showed that the ganglioside binding WY-loop, the newly identified sialic acid-co-ordinating pocket and the area corresponding to the established ganglioside binding region of other BoNTs are involved in ganglioside interaction. Phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm activity tests employing ganglioside deficient mice furthermore evidenced that the biological activity of BoNT/C depends on ganglioside interaction with at least two binding sites. These data suggest a unique cell binding and entry mechanism for BoNT/C among clostridial neurotoxins. PMID:21542861

  4. The Role of an Active Site Mg2+ in HDV Ribozyme Self-Cleavage: Insights from QM/MM Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Mlýnský, Vojtěch; Šponer, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme is a catalytic RNA motif embedded in the human pathogenic HDV RNA. It catalyzes self-cleavage of its sugar-phosphate backbone with direct participation of the active site cytosine C75. Biochemical and structural data support a general acid role of C75. Here, we used hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations to probe the reaction mechanism and changes in Gibbs energy along the ribozyme's reaction pathway with an N3-protonated C75H+ in the active site, which acts as the general acid, and a partially hydrated Mg2+ ion with one deprotonated, inner-shell coordinated water molecule that acts as the general base. We followed eight reaction paths with distinct position and coordination of the catalytically important active site Mg2+ ion. For six of them, we observed feasible activation barriers ranging from 14.2 to 21.9 kcal/mol, indicating that the specific position of the Mg2+ ion in the active site is predicted to strongly affect the kinetics of self-cleavage. The deprotonation of the U-1(2′-OH) nucleophile and the nucleophilic attack of the resulting U-1(2′-O−) on the scissile phosphodiester are found to be separate steps, as deprotonation precedes the nucleophilic attack. This sequential mechanism of the HDV ribozyme differs from the concerted nucleophilic activation and attack suggested for the hairpin ribozyme. We estimated the pKa of the U-1(2′-OH) group to range from 8.8 to 11.2, suggesting that the pKa is lowered by several units from that of a free ribose, comparable to and most likely smaller than the pKa of the solvated active site Mg2+ ion. Our results thus support the notion that the structure of the HDV ribozyme, and particularly the positioning of the active site Mg2+ ion, facilitates deprotonation and activation of the 2′-OH nucleophile. PMID:25412464

  5. [Prediction of Promoter Motifs in Virophages].

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhou, Xuewen; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-07-01

    Virophages have crucial roles in ecosystems and are the transport vectors of genetic materials. To shed light on regulation and control mechanisms in virophage--host systems as well as evolution between virophages and their hosts, the promoter motifs of virophages were predicted on the upstream regions of start codons using an analytical tool for prediction of promoter motifs: Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation. Seventeen potential promoter motifs were identified based on the E-value, location, number and length of promoters in genomes. Sputnik and zamilon motif 2 with AT-rich regions were distributed widely on genomes, suggesting that these motifs may be associated with regulation of the expression of various genes. Motifs containing the TCTA box were predicted to be late promoter motif in mavirus; motifs containing the ATCT box were the potential late promoter motif in the Ace Lake mavirus . AT-rich regions were identified on motif 2 in the Organic Lake virophage, motif 3 in Yellowstone Lake virophage (YSLV)1 and 2, motif 1 in YSLV3, and motif 1 and 2 in YSLV4, respectively. AT-rich regions were distributed widely on the genomes of virophages. All of these motifs may be promoter motifs of virophages. Our results provide insights into further exploration of temporal expression of genes in virophages as well as associations between virophages and giant viruses. PMID:26524912

  6. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified.

  7. Responsive Fluorescent PNA Analogue as a Tool for Detecting G-quadruplex Motifs of Oncogenes and Activity of Toxic Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sabale, Pramod M; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescent oligomers that are resistant to enzymatic degradation and report their binding to target oligonucleotides (ONs) by changes in fluorescence properties are highly useful in developing nucleic-acid-based diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. Here, we describe the synthesis and photophysical characterization of fluorescent peptide nucleic acid (PNA) building blocks made of microenvironment-sensitive 5-(benzofuran-2-yl)- and 5-(benzothiophen-2-yl)-uracil cores. The emissive monomers, when incorporated into PNA oligomers and hybridized to complementary ONs, are minimally perturbing and are highly sensitive to their neighboring base environment. In particular, benzothiophene-modified PNA reports the hybridization process with significant enhancement in fluorescence intensity, even when placed in the vicinity of guanine residues, which often quench fluorescence. This feature was used in the turn-on detection of G-quadruplex-forming promoter DNA sequences of human proto-oncogenes (c-myc and c-kit). Furthermore, the ability of benzothiophene-modified PNA oligomer to report the presence of an abasic site in RNA enabled us to develop a simple fluorescence hybridization assay to detect and estimate the depurination activity of ribosome-inactivating protein toxins. Our results demonstrate that this approach with responsive PNA probes will provide new opportunities to develop robust tools to study nucleic acids. PMID:27271025

  8. Electrostatic fields in the active sites of lysozymes.

    PubMed

    Sun, D P; Liao, D I; Remington, S J

    1989-07-01

    Considerable experimental evidence is in support of several aspects of the mechanism that has been proposed for the catalytic activity of lysozyme. However, the enzymatically catalyzed hydrolysis of polysaccharides proceeds over 5 orders of magnitude faster than that of model compounds that mimic the configuration of the substrate in the active site of the enzyme. Although several possible explanations for this rate enhancement have been discussed elsewhere, a definitive mechanism has not emerged. Here we report striking results obtained by classical electrodynamics, which suggest that bond breakage and the consequent separation of charge in lysozyme is promoted by a large electrostatic field across the active site cleft, produced in part by a very asymmetric distribution of charged residues on the enzyme surface. Lysozymes unrelated in amino acid sequence have similar distributions of charged residues and electric fields. The results reported here suggest that the electrostatic component of the rate enhancement is greater than 9 kcal.mol-1. Thus, electrostatic interactions may play a more important role in the enzymatic mechanism than has generally been appreciated.

  9. Histidine at the active site of Neurospora tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Pfiffner, E; Lerch, K

    1981-10-13

    The involvement of histidyl residues as potential ligands to the binuclear active-site copper of Neurospora tyrosinase was explored by dye-sensitized photooxidation. The enzymatic activity of the holoenzyme was shown to be unaffected by exposure to light in the presence of methylene blue; however, irradiation of the apoenzyme under the same conditions led to a progressive loss of its ability to be reactivated with Cu2+. This photoinactivation was paralleled by a decrease in the histidine content whereas the number of histidyl residues in the holoenzyme remained constant. Copper measurements of photooxidized, reconstituted apoenzyme demonstrated the loss of binding of one copper atom per mole of enzyme as a consequence of photosensitized oxidation of three out of nine histidine residues. Their sequence positions were determined by a comparison of the relative yields of the histidine containing peptides of photooxidized holo- and apotyrosinases. The data obtained show the preferential modification of histidyl residues 188, 193, and 289 and suggest that they constitute metal ligands to one of the two active-site copper atoms. Substitution of copper by cobalt was found to afford complete protection of the histidyl residues from being modified by dye-sensitized photooxidation. PMID:6458322

  10. Pivotal role of the C-terminal DW-motif in mediating inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 by dichloroacetate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Kato, Masato; Chuang, David T

    2009-12-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is down-regulated by phosphorylation catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoforms 1-4. Overexpression of PDK isoforms and therefore reduced PDC activity prevails in cancer and diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the role of the invariant C-terminal DW-motif in inhibition of human PDK2 by dichloroacetate (DCA). Substitutions were made in the DW-motif (Asp-382 and Trp-383) and its interacting residues (Tyr-145 and Arg-149) in the other subunit of PDK2 homodimer. Single and double mutants show 20-60% residual activities that are not stimulated by the PDC core. The R149A and Y145F/R149A mutants show drastic increases in apparent IC(50) values for DCA, whereas binding affinities for DCA are comparable with wild-type PDK2. Both R149A and Y145F variants exhibit increased similar affinities for ADP and ATP, mimicking the effects of DCA. The R149A and the DW-motif mutations (D382A/W383A) forestall binding of the lipoyl domain of PDC to these mutants, analogous to wild-type PDK2 in the presence of DCA and ADP. In contrast, the binding of a dihydrolipoamide mimetic AZD7545 is largely unaffected in these PDK2 variants. Our results illuminate the pivotal role of the DW-motif in mediating communications between the DCA-, the nucleotide-, and the lipoyl domain-binding sites. This signaling network locks PDK2 in the inactive closed conformation, which is in equilibrium with the active open conformation without DCA and ADP. These results implicate the DW-motif anchoring site as a drug target for the inhibition of aberrant PDK activity in cancer and diabetes. PMID:19833728

  11. Motif-based analysis of large nucleotide data sets using MEME-ChIP.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxiu; Noble, William S; Bailey, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    MEME-ChIP is a web-based tool for analyzing motifs in large DNA or RNA data sets. It can analyze peak regions identified by ChIP-seq, cross-linking sites identified by CLIP-seq and related assays, as well as sets of genomic regions selected using other criteria. MEME-ChIP performs de novo motif discovery, motif enrichment analysis, motif location analysis and motif clustering, providing a comprehensive picture of the DNA or RNA motifs that are enriched in the input sequences. MEME-ChIP performs two complementary types of de novo motif discovery: weight matrix-based discovery for high accuracy; and word-based discovery for high sensitivity. Motif enrichment analysis using DNA or RNA motifs from human, mouse, worm, fly and other model organisms provides even greater sensitivity. MEME-ChIP's interactive HTML output groups and aligns significant motifs to ease interpretation. This protocol takes less than 3 h, and it provides motif discovery approaches that are distinct and complementary to other online methods. PMID:24853928

  12. Multiple Weak Linear Motifs Enhance Recruitment and Processivity in SPOP-Mediated Substrate Ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Wendy K; Grace, Christy R; Lee, Jihun; Nourse, Amanda; Marzahn, Melissa R; Watson, Edmond R; High, Anthony A; Peng, Junmin; Schulman, Brenda A; Mittag, Tanja

    2016-03-27

    Primary sequence motifs, with millimolar affinities for binding partners, are abundant in disordered protein regions. In multivalent interactions, such weak linear motifs can cooperate to recruit binding partners via avidity effects. If linear motifs recruit modifying enzymes, optimal placement of weak motifs may regulate access to modification sites. Weak motifs may thus exert physiological relevance stronger than that suggested by their affinities, but molecular mechanisms of their function are still poorly understood. Herein, we use the N-terminal disordered region of the Hedgehog transcriptional regulator Gli3 (Gli3(1-90)) to determine the role of weak motifs encoded in its primary sequence for the recruitment of its ubiquitin ligase CRL3(SPOP) and the subsequent effect on ubiquitination efficiency. The substrate adaptor SPOP binds linear motifs through its MATH (meprin and TRAF homology) domain and forms higher-order oligomers through its oligomerization domains, rendering SPOP multivalent for its substrates. Gli3 has multiple weak SPOP binding motifs. We map three such motifs in Gli3(1-90), the weakest of which has a millimolar dissociation constant. Multivalency of ligase and substrate for each other facilitates enhanced ligase recruitment and stimulates Gli3(1-90) ubiquitination in in vitro ubiquitination assays. We speculate that the weak motifs enable processivity through avidity effects and by providing steric access to lysine residues that are otherwise not prioritized for polyubiquitination. Weak motifs may generally be employed in multivalent systems to act as gatekeepers regulating post-translational modification. PMID:26475525

  13. Motif-based analysis of large nucleotide data sets using MEME-ChIP

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenxiu; Noble, William S; Bailey, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    MEME-ChIP is a web-based tool for analyzing motifs in large DNA or RNA data sets. It can analyze peak regions identified by ChIP-seq, cross-linking sites identified by cLIP-seq and related assays, as well as sets of genomic regions selected using other criteria. MEME-ChIP performs de novo motif discovery, motif enrichment analysis, motif location analysis and motif clustering, providing a comprehensive picture of the DNA or RNA motifs that are enriched in the input sequences. MEME-ChIP performs two complementary types of de novo motif discovery: weight matrix–based discovery for high accuracy; and word-based discovery for high sensitivity. Motif enrichment analysis using DNA or RNA motifs from human, mouse, worm, fly and other model organisms provides even greater sensitivity. MEME-ChIP’s interactive HTML output groups and aligns significant motifs to ease interpretation. this protocol takes less than 3 h, and it provides motif discovery approaches that are distinct and complementary to other online methods. PMID:24853928

  14. An autoinhibited conformation of LGN reveals a distinct interaction mode between GoLoco motifs and TPR motifs.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhu; Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Wei, Zhiyi; Jia, Min; Xia, Caihao; Wen, Wenyu; Wang, Wenning; Zhang, Mingjie

    2013-06-01

    LGN plays essential roles in asymmetric cell divisions via its N-terminal TPR-motif-mediated binding to mInsc and NuMA. This scaffolding activity requires the release of the autoinhibited conformation of LGN by binding of Gα(i) to its C-terminal GoLoco (GL) motifs. The interaction between the GL and TPR motifs of LGN represents a distinct GL/target binding mode with an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that two consecutive GL motifs of LGN form a minimal TPR-motif-binding unit. GL12 and GL34 bind to TPR0-3 and TPR4-7, respectively. The crystal structure of a truncated LGN reveals that GL34 forms a pair of parallel α helices and binds to the concave surface of TPR4-7, thereby preventing LGN from binding to other targets. Importantly, the GLs bind to TPR motifs with a mode distinct from that observed in the GL/Gα(i)·GDP complexes. Our results also indicate that multiple and orphan GL motif proteins likely respond to G proteins with distinct mechanisms.

  15. Finding specific RNA motifs: Function in a zeptomole world?

    PubMed Central

    KNIGHT, ROB; YARUS, MICHAEL

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a new method for estimating the abundance of any modular (piecewise) RNA motif within a longer random region. We have used this method to estimate the size of the active motifs available to modern SELEX experiments (picomoles of unique sequences) and to a plausible RNA World (zeptomoles of unique sequences: 1 zmole = 602 sequences). Unexpectedly, activities such as specific isoleucine binding are almost certainly present in zeptomoles of molecules, and even ribozymes such as self-cleavage motifs may appear (depending on assumptions about the minimal structures). The number of specified nucleotides is not the only important determinant of a motif’s rarity: The number of modules into which it is divided, and the details of this division, are also crucial. We propose three maxims for easily isolated motifs: the Maxim of Minimization, the Maxim of Multiplicity, and the Maxim of the Median. These maxims together state that selected motifs should be small and composed of as many separate, equally sized modules as possible. For evenly divided motifs with four modules, the largest accessible activity in picomole scale (1–1000 pmole) pools of length 100 is about 34 nucleotides; while for zeptomole scale (1–1000 zmole) pools it is about 20 specific nucleotides (50% probability of occurrence). This latter figure includes some ribozymes and aptamers. Consequently, an RNA metabolism apparently could have begun with only zeptomoles of RNA molecules. PMID:12554865

  16. Survey on the PABC recognition motif PAM2.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Mario; Lengauer, Thomas

    2004-03-26

    The PABP-interacting motif PAM2 has been identified in various eukaryotic proteins as an important binding site for the PABC domain. This domain is contained in homologs of the poly(A)-binding protein PABP and the ubiquitin-protein ligase HYD. Despite the importance of the PAM2 motif, a comprehensive analysis of its occurrence in different proteins has been missing. Using iterated sequence profile searches, we obtained an extensive list of proteins carrying the PAM2 motif. We discuss their functional context and domain architecture, which often consists of RNA-binding domains. Our list of PAM2 motif proteins includes eukaryotic homologs of eRF3/GSPT1/2, PAIP1/2, Tob1/2, Ataxin-2, RBP37, RBP1, Blackjack, HELZ, TPRD, USP10, ERD15, C1D4.14, and the viral protease P29. The identification of the PAM2 motif in as yet uncharacterized proteins can give valuable hints with respect to their cellular function and potential interaction partners and suggests further experimentation. It is also striking that the PAM2 motif appears to occur solely outside globular protein domains.

  17. Sequential visibility-graph motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    Visibility algorithms transform time series into graphs and encode dynamical information in their topology, paving the way for graph-theoretical time series analysis as well as building a bridge between nonlinear dynamics and network science. In this work we introduce and study the concept of sequential visibility-graph motifs, smaller substructures of n consecutive nodes that appear with characteristic frequencies. We develop a theory to compute in an exact way the motif profiles associated with general classes of deterministic and stochastic dynamics. We find that this simple property is indeed a highly informative and computationally efficient feature capable of distinguishing among different dynamics and robust against noise contamination. We finally confirm that it can be used in practice to perform unsupervised learning, by extracting motif profiles from experimental heart-rate series and being able, accordingly, to disentangle meditative from other relaxation states. Applications of this general theory include the automatic classification and description of physical, biological, and financial time series.

  18. Trichodiene synthase. Identification of active site residues by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Cane, D E; Shim, J H; Xue, Q; Fitzsimons, B C; Hohn, T M

    1995-02-28

    Derivatization of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-treated trichodiene synthase with [methyl-14C]methyl methanethiosulfonate and analysis of the derived tryptic peptides suggested the presence of two cysteine residues at the active site. The corresponding C146A and C190A mutants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The C190A mutant displayed partial but significantly reduced activity, with a reduction in kcat/Km of 3000 compared to the wild-type trichodiene synthase, while the C146A mutant was essentially inactive. A hybrid trichodiene synthase, constructed from amino acids 1-309 of the Fusarium sporotrichioides enzyme and amino acids 310-383 of the Gibberella pulicaris cyclase, had steady state kinetic parameters nearly identical to those of the wild-type F. sporotrichioides enzyme. From this parent hybrid, a series of mutants was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in which the amino acids in the base-rich region, 302-306 (DRRYR), were systematically modified. Three of these mutants were overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. The importance of Arg304 for catalysis was established by the observation that the R304K mutant showed a more than 25-fold increase in Km, as well as a 200-fold reduction in kcat. In addition, analysis of the incubation products of the R304K mutant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) indicated that farnesyl diphosphate was converted not only to trichodiene but to at least two additional C15H24 hydrocarbons, mle 204. Replacement of the Tyr305 residue of trichodiene synthase with Phe had little effect on kcat, while increasing the Km by a factor of ca. 7-8.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7873527

  19. Dynamic motifs in socio-economic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-12-01

    Socio-economic networks are of central importance in economic life. We develop a method of identifying and studying motifs in socio-economic networks by focusing on “dynamic motifs,” i.e., evolutionary connection patterns that, because of “node acquaintances” in the network, occur much more frequently than random patterns. We examine two evolving bi-partite networks: i) the world-wide commercial ship chartering market and ii) the ship build-to-order market. We find similar dynamic motifs in both bipartite networks, even though they describe different economic activities. We also find that “influence” and “persistence” are strong factors in the interaction behavior of organizations. When two companies are doing business with the same customer, it is highly probable that another customer who currently only has business relationship with one of these two companies, will become customer of the second in the future. This is the effect of influence. Persistence means that companies with close business ties to customers tend to maintain their relationships over a long period of time.

  20. The copper active site of CBM33 polysaccharide oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, Glyn R; Taylor, Edward J; Kim, Robbert Q; Gregory, Rebecca C; Lewis, Sally J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Parkin, Alison; Davies, Gideon J; Walton, Paul H

    2013-04-24

    The capacity of metal-dependent fungal and bacterial polysaccharide oxygenases, termed GH61 and CBM33, respectively, to potentiate the enzymatic degradation of cellulose opens new possibilities for the conversion of recalcitrant biomass to biofuels. GH61s have already been shown to be unique metalloenzymes containing an active site with a mononuclear copper ion coordinated by two histidines, one of which is an unusual τ-N-methylated N-terminal histidine. We now report the structural and spectroscopic characterization of the corresponding copper CBM33 enzymes. CBM33 binds copper with high affinity at a mononuclear site, significantly stabilizing the enzyme. X-band EPR spectroscopy of Cu(II)-CBM33 shows a mononuclear type 2 copper site with the copper ion in a distorted axial coordination sphere, into which azide will coordinate as evidenced by the concomitant formation of a new absorption band in the UV/vis spectrum at 390 nm. The enzyme's three-dimensional structure contains copper, which has been photoreduced to Cu(I) by the incident X-rays, confirmed by X-ray absorption/fluorescence studies of both aqueous solution and intact crystals of Cu-CBM33. The single copper(I) ion is ligated in a T-shaped configuration by three nitrogen atoms from two histidine side chains and the amino terminus, similar to the endogenous copper coordination geometry found in fungal GH61. PMID:23540833

  1. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors via their allosteric binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubík, J; Bacáková, L; Lisá, V; el-Fakahany, E E; Tucek, S

    1996-01-01

    Ligands that bind to the allosteric-binding sites on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors alter the conformation of the classical-binding sites of these receptors and either diminish or increase their affinity for muscarinic agonists and classical antagonists. It is not known whether the resulting conformational change also affects the interaction between the receptors and the G proteins. We have now found that the muscarinic receptor allosteric modulators alcuronium, gallamine, and strychnine (acting in the absence of an agonist) alter the synthesis of cAMP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the M2 or the M4 subtype of muscarinic receptors in the same direction as the agonist carbachol. In addition, most of their effects on the production of inositol phosphates in CHO cells expressing the M1 or the M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes are also similar to (although much weaker than) those of carbachol. The agonist-like effects of the allosteric modulators are not observed in CHO cells that have not been transfected with the gene for any of the subtypes of muscarinic receptors. The effects of alcuronium on the formation of cAMP and inositol phosphates are not prevented by the classical muscarinic antagonist quinuclidinyl benzilate. These observations demonstrate for the first time that the G protein-mediated functional responses of muscarinic receptors can be evoked not only from their classical, but also from their allosteric, binding sites. This represents a new mechanism of receptor activation. PMID:8710935

  2. Increasing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 Prevents Amyloid-β-induced Depletion of Cell Surface Glutamate Receptors by a Mechanism That Requires the PDZ-binding Motif of EphB2 and Neuronal Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Takashi; Kim, Daniel; Knox, Joseph A.; Johnson, Erik; Mucke, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Diverse lines of evidence suggest that amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides causally contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), the most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. However, the mechanisms by which Aβ impairs neuronal functions remain to be fully elucidated. Previous studies showed that soluble Aβ oligomers interfere with synaptic functions by depleting NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) from the neuronal surface and that overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 can counteract this process. Through pharmacological treatments and biochemical analyses of primary neuronal cultures expressing wild-type or mutant forms of EphB2, we demonstrate that this protective effect of EphB2 depends on its PDZ-binding motif and the presence of neuronal activity but not on its kinase activity. We further present evidence that the protective effect of EphB2 may be mediated by the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluA2, which can become associated with the PDZ-binding motif of EphB2 through PDZ domain-containing proteins and can promote the retention of NMDARs in the membrane. In addition, we show that the Aβ-induced depletion of surface NMDARs does not depend on several factors that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction, including aberrant neuronal activity, tau, prion protein (PrPC), and EphB2 itself. Thus, although EphB2 does not appear to be directly involved in the Aβ-induced depletion of NMDARs, increasing its expression may counteract this pathogenic process through a neuronal activity- and PDZ-dependent regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors. PMID:26589795

  3. PhyME: a software tool for finding motifs in sets of orthologous sequences.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Saurabh

    2007-01-01

    Discovery of transcription factor binding sites is a crucial and challenging problem in bioinformatics. Several computational tools have been developed for this problem, popularly known as the motif-finding problem. PhyME is an ab initio motif-finding algorithm, which finds overrepresented motifs in input sequences while accounting for their evolutionary conservation in orthologs of those sequences. Here, we describe the usage of this algorithm, publicly available as a Linux-based implementation. PMID:17993682

  4. Homing in on the role of transition metals in the HNH motif of colicin endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Pommer, A J; Kühlmann, U C; Cooper, A; Hemmings, A M; Moore, G R; James, R; Kleanthous, C

    1999-09-17

    The cytotoxic domain of the bacteriocin colicin E9 (the E9 DNase) is a nonspecific endonuclease that must traverse two membranes to reach its cellular target, bacterial DNA. Recent structural studies revealed that the active site of colicin DNases encompasses the HNH motif found in homing endonucleases, and bound within this motif a single transition metal ion (either Zn(2+) or Ni(2+)) the role of which is unknown. In the present work we find that neither Zn(2+) nor Ni(2+) is required for DNase activity, which instead requires Mg(2+) ions, but binding transition metals to the E9 DNase causes subtle changes to both secondary and tertiary structure. Spectroscopic, proteolytic, and calorimetric data show that, accompanying the binding of 1 eq of Zn(2+), Ni(2+), or Co(2+), the thermodynamic stability of the domain increased substantially, and that the equilibrium dissociation constant for Zn(2+) was less than or equal to nanomolar, while that for Co(2+) and Ni (2+) was micromolar. Our data demonstrate that the transition metal is not essential for colicin DNase activity but rather serves a structural role. We speculate that the HNH motif has been adapted for use by endonuclease colicins because of its involvement in DNA recognition and because removal of the bound metal ion destabilizes the DNase domain, a likely prerequisite for its translocation across bacterial membranes.

  5. Radiation inactivation study of aminopeptidase: probing the active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamadar, V. K.; Jamdar, S. N.; Mohan, Hari; Dandekar, S. P.; Harikumar, P.

    2004-04-01

    Ionizing radiation inactivated purified chicken intestinal aminopeptidase in media saturated with gases in the order N 2O>N 2>air. The D 37 values in the above conditions were 281, 210 and 198 Gy, respectively. OH radical scavengers such as t-butanol and isopropanol effectively nullified the radiation-induced damage in N 2O. The radicals (SCN) 2•-, Br 2•- and I 2•- inactivated the enzyme, pointing to the involvement of aromatic amino acids and cysteine in its catalytic activity. The enzyme exhibited fluorescence emission at 340 nm which is characteristic of tryptophan. The radiation-induced loss of activity was accompanied by a decrease in the fluorescence of the enzyme suggesting a predominant influence on tryptophan residues. The enzyme inhibition was associated with a marked increase in the Km and a decrease in the Vmax and kcat values, suggesting an irreversible alteration in the catalytic site. The above observations were confirmed by pulse radiolysis studies.

  6. Mimicking enzymatic active sites on surfaces for energy conversion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gutzler, Rico; Stepanow, Sebastian; Grumelli, Doris; Lingenfelder, Magalí; Kern, Klaus

    2015-07-21

    Metal-organic supramolecular chemistry on surfaces has matured to a point where its underlying growth mechanisms are well understood and structures of defined coordination environments of metal atoms can be synthesized in a controlled and reproducible procedure. With surface-confined molecular self-assembly, scientists have a tool box at hand which can be used to prepare structures with desired properties, as for example a defined oxidation number and spin state of the transition metal atoms within the organic matrix. From a structural point of view, these coordination sites in the supramolecular structure resemble the catalytically active sites of metallo-enzymes, both characterized by metal centers coordinated to organic ligands. Several chemical reactions take place at these embedded metal ions in enzymes and the question arises whether these reactions also take place using metal-organic networks as catalysts. Mimicking the active site of metal atoms and organic ligands of enzymes in artificial systems is the key to understanding the selectivity and efficiency of enzymatic reactions. Their catalytic activity depends on various parameters including the charge and spin configuration in the metal ion, but also on the organic environment, which can stabilize intermediate reaction products, inhibits catalytic deactivation, and serves mostly as a transport channel for the reactants and products and therefore ensures the selectivity of the enzyme. Charge and spin on the transition metal in enzymes depend on the one hand on the specific metal element, and on the other hand on its organic coordination environment. These two parameters can carefully be adjusted in surface confined metal-organic networks, which can be synthesized by virtue of combinatorial mixing of building synthons. Different organic ligands with varying functional groups can be combined with several transition metals and spontaneously assemble into ordered networks. The catalytically active metal

  7. Polarizability of the active site of cytochrome c reduces the activation barrier for electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-06-01

    Enzymes in biology’s energy chains operate with low energy input distributed through multiple electron transfer steps between protein active sites. The general challenge of biological design is how to lower the activation barrier without sacrificing a large negative reaction free energy. We show that this goal is achieved through a large polarizability of the active site. It is polarized by allowing a large number of excited states, which are populated quantum mechanically by electrostatic fluctuations of the protein and hydration water shells. This perspective is achieved by extensive mixed quantum mechanical/molecular dynamics simulations of the half reaction of reduction of cytochrome c. The barrier for electron transfer is consistently lowered by increasing the number of excited states included in the Hamiltonian of the active site diagonalized along the classical trajectory. We suggest that molecular polarizability, in addition to much studied electrostatics of permanent charges, is a key parameter to consider in order to understand how enzymes work.

  8. Polarizability of the active site of cytochrome c reduces the activation barrier for electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes in biology’s energy chains operate with low energy input distributed through multiple electron transfer steps between protein active sites. The general challenge of biological design is how to lower the activation barrier without sacrificing a large negative reaction free energy. We show that this goal is achieved through a large polarizability of the active site. It is polarized by allowing a large number of excited states, which are populated quantum mechanically by electrostatic fluctuations of the protein and hydration water shells. This perspective is achieved by extensive mixed quantum mechanical/molecular dynamics simulations of the half reaction of reduction of cytochrome c. The barrier for electron transfer is consistently lowered by increasing the number of excited states included in the Hamiltonian of the active site diagonalized along the classical trajectory. We suggest that molecular polarizability, in addition to much studied electrostatics of permanent charges, is a key parameter to consider in order to understand how enzymes work. PMID:27306204

  9. Spectroscopic Definition of the Ferroxidase Site in M Ferritin: Comparison of Binuclear Substrate vs. Cofactor Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jennifer K.; Liu, Xiaofeng S.; Tosha, Takehiko; Theil, Elizabeth C.; Solomon, Edward I.

    2008-01-01

    Maxi ferritins, 24 subunit protein nanocages, are essential in humans, plants, bacteria, and other animals for the concentration and storage of iron as hydrated ferric oxide, while minimizing free radical generation or use by pathogens. Formation of the precursors to these ferric oxides is catalyzed at a non-heme biferrous substrate site, which has some parallels with the cofactor sites in other biferrous enzymes. A combination of circular dichroism (CD), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and variable-temperature, variable-field MCD (VTVH MCD) has been used to probe Fe(II) binding to the substrate active site in frog M ferritin. These data determined that the active site within each subunit consists of two inequivalent five-coordinate (5C) ferrous centers that are weakly anti-ferromagnetically coupled, consistent with a μ-1,3 carboxylate bridge. The active site ligand set is unusual and likely includes a terminal water bound to each Fe(II) center. The Fe(II) ions bind to the active sites in a concerted manner, and cooperativity among the sites in each subunit is observed, potentially providing a mechanism for the control of ferritin iron loading. Differences in geometric and electronic structure – including a weak ligand field, availability of two water ligands at the biferrous substrate site, and the single carboxylate bridge in ferritin – coincide with the divergent reaction pathways observed between this substrate site and the previously studied cofactor active sites. PMID:18576633

  10. An active-site lysine in avian liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

    SciTech Connect

    Guidinger, P.F.; Nowak, T. )

    1991-09-10

    The participation of lysine in the catalysis by avian liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was studied by chemical modification and by a characterization of the modified enzyme. The rate of inactivation by 2,4-pentanedione is pseudo-first-order and linearly dependent on reagent concentration with a second-order rate constant of 0.36 {plus minus} 0.025 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}. Inactivation by pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate of the reversible reaction catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase follows bimolecular kinetics with a second-order rate constant of 7,700 {plus minus} 860 m{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}. Treatment of the enzyme or one lysine residue modified concomitant with 100% loss in activity. A stoichiometry of 1:1 is observed when either the reversible or the irreversible reactions catalyzed by the enzyme are monitored. A study of k{sub obs} vs pH suggests this active-site lysine has a pK{sub a} of 8.1 and a pH-independent rate constant of inactivation of 47,700 m{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}. Proton relaxation rate measurements suggest that pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate modification alters binding of the phosphate-containing substrates. {sup 31}P NMR relaxation rate measurements show altered binding of the substrates in the ternary enzyme {center dot}Mn{sup 2+}{center dot}substrate complex. Circular dichroism studies show little change in secondary structure of pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate modified phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. These results indicate that avian liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase has one reactive lysine at the active site and it is involved in the binding and activation of the phosphate-containing substrates.

  11. A motif within the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 specifically promotes the proangiogenic activity of endothelial colony-forming cells.

    PubMed

    Dias, Juliana Vieira; Benslimane-Ahmim, Zahia; Egot, Marion; Lokajczyk, Anna; Grelac, Françoise; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Juliano, Luiz; Le-Bonniec, Bernard; Takiya, Cristina Maeda; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Blanc-Brude, Olivier; Morandi, Verônica; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine

    2012-10-15

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) gives rise to fragments that have both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. The TSP-HepI peptide (2.3 kDa), located in the N-terminal domain of TSP-1, has proangiogenic effects on endothelial cells. We have previously shown that TSP-1 itself exhibits a dual effect on endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) by enhancing their adhesion through its TSP-HepI fragment while reducing their proliferation and differentiation into vascular tubes (tubulogenesis) in vitro. This effect is likely mediated through CD47 binding to the TSP-1 C-terminal domain. Here we investigated the effect of TSP-HepI peptide on the angiogenic properties of ECFC in vitro and in vivo. TSP-HepI peptide potentiated FGF-2-induced neovascularisation by enhancing ECFC chemotaxis and tubulogenesis in a Matrigel plug assay. ECFC exposure to 20 μg/mL of TSP-HepI peptide for 18 h enhanced cell migration (p < 0.001 versus VEGF exposure), upregulated alpha 6-integrin expression, and enhanced their cell adhesion to activated endothelium under physiological shear stress conditions at levels comparable to those of SDF-1α. The adhesion enhancement appeared to be mediated by the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) syndecan-4, as ECFC adhesion was significantly reduced by a syndecan-4-neutralising antibody. ECFC migration and tubulogenesis were stimulated neither by a TSP-HepI peptide with a modified heparin-binding site (S/TSP-HepI) nor when the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) moieties were removed from the ECFC surface by enzymatic treatment. Ex vivo TSP-HepI priming could potentially serve to enhance the effectiveness of therapeutic neovascularisation with ECFC.

  12. A motif within the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 specifically promotes the proangiogenic activity of endothelial colony-forming cells.

    PubMed

    Dias, Juliana Vieira; Benslimane-Ahmim, Zahia; Egot, Marion; Lokajczyk, Anna; Grelac, Françoise; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Juliano, Luiz; Le-Bonniec, Bernard; Takiya, Cristina Maeda; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Blanc-Brude, Olivier; Morandi, Verônica; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine

    2012-10-15

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) gives rise to fragments that have both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. The TSP-HepI peptide (2.3 kDa), located in the N-terminal domain of TSP-1, has proangiogenic effects on endothelial cells. We have previously shown that TSP-1 itself exhibits a dual effect on endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) by enhancing their adhesion through its TSP-HepI fragment while reducing their proliferation and differentiation into vascular tubes (tubulogenesis) in vitro. This effect is likely mediated through CD47 binding to the TSP-1 C-terminal domain. Here we investigated the effect of TSP-HepI peptide on the angiogenic properties of ECFC in vitro and in vivo. TSP-HepI peptide potentiated FGF-2-induced neovascularisation by enhancing ECFC chemotaxis and tubulogenesis in a Matrigel plug assay. ECFC exposure to 20 μg/mL of TSP-HepI peptide for 18 h enhanced cell migration (p < 0.001 versus VEGF exposure), upregulated alpha 6-integrin expression, and enhanced their cell adhesion to activated endothelium under physiological shear stress conditions at levels comparable to those of SDF-1α. The adhesion enhancement appeared to be mediated by the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) syndecan-4, as ECFC adhesion was significantly reduced by a syndecan-4-neutralising antibody. ECFC migration and tubulogenesis were stimulated neither by a TSP-HepI peptide with a modified heparin-binding site (S/TSP-HepI) nor when the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) moieties were removed from the ECFC surface by enzymatic treatment. Ex vivo TSP-HepI priming could potentially serve to enhance the effectiveness of therapeutic neovascularisation with ECFC. PMID:22796565

  13. Perchlorate Reductase Is Distinguished by Active Site Aromatic Gate Residues.

    PubMed

    Youngblut, Matthew D; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Clark, Iain C; Carlson, Hans K; Maglaqui, Adrian P; Gau-Pan, Phonchien S; Redford, Steven A; Wong, Alan; Tainer, John A; Coates, John D

    2016-04-22

    Perchlorate is an important ion on both Earth and Mars. Perchlorate reductase (PcrAB), a specialized member of the dimethylsulfoxide reductase superfamily, catalyzes the first step of microbial perchlorate respiration, but little is known about the biochemistry, specificity, structure, and mechanism of PcrAB. Here we characterize the biophysics and phylogeny of this enzyme and report the 1.86-Å resolution PcrAB complex crystal structure. Biochemical analysis revealed a relatively high perchlorate affinity (Km = 6 μm) and a characteristic substrate inhibition compared with the highly similar respiratory nitrate reductase NarGHI, which has a relatively much lower affinity for perchlorate (Km = 1.1 mm) and no substrate inhibition. Structural analysis of oxidized and reduced PcrAB with and without the substrate analog SeO3 (2-) bound to the active site identified key residues in the positively charged and funnel-shaped substrate access tunnel that gated substrate entrance and product release while trapping transiently produced chlorate. The structures suggest gating was associated with shifts of a Phe residue between open and closed conformations plus an Asp residue carboxylate shift between monodentate and bidentate coordination to the active site molybdenum atom. Taken together, structural and mutational analyses of gate residues suggest key roles of these gate residues for substrate entrance and product release. Our combined results provide the first detailed structural insight into the mechanism of biological perchlorate reduction, a critical component of the chlorine redox cycle on Earth.

  14. Eel calcitonin binding site distribution and antinociceptive activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Guidobono, F.; Netti, C.; Sibilia, V.; Villa, I.; Zamboni, A.; Pecile, A.

    1986-03-01

    The distribution of binding site for (/sup 125/I)-eel-calcitonin (ECT) to rat central nervous system, studied by an autoradiographic technique, showed concentrations of binding in the diencephalon, the brain stem and the spinal cord. Large accumulations of grains were seen in the hypothalamus, the amygdala, in the fasciculus medialis prosencephali, in the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, in the ventrolateral part of the periventricular gray matter, in the lemniscus medialis and in the raphe nuclei. The density of grains in the reticular formation and in the nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini was more moderate. In the spinal cord, grains were scattered throughout the dorsal horns. Binding of the ligand was displaced equally by cold ECT and by salmon CT(sCT), indicating that both peptides bind to the same receptors. Human CT was much weaker than sCT in displacing (/sup 125/I)-ECT binding. The administration of ECT into the brain ventricles of rats dose-dependently induced a significant and long-lasting enhancement of hot-plate latencies comparable with that obtained with sCT. The antinociceptive activity induced by ECT is compatible with the topographical distribution of binding sites for the peptide and is a further indication that fish CTs are active in the mammalian brain.

  15. Perchlorate Reductase Is Distinguished by Active Site Aromatic Gate Residues.

    PubMed

    Youngblut, Matthew D; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Clark, Iain C; Carlson, Hans K; Maglaqui, Adrian P; Gau-Pan, Phonchien S; Redford, Steven A; Wong, Alan; Tainer, John A; Coates, John D

    2016-04-22

    Perchlorate is an important ion on both Earth and Mars. Perchlorate reductase (PcrAB), a specialized member of the dimethylsulfoxide reductase superfamily, catalyzes the first step of microbial perchlorate respiration, but little is known about the biochemistry, specificity, structure, and mechanism of PcrAB. Here we characterize the biophysics and phylogeny of this enzyme and report the 1.86-Å resolution PcrAB complex crystal structure. Biochemical analysis revealed a relatively high perchlorate affinity (Km = 6 μm) and a characteristic substrate inhibition compared with the highly similar respiratory nitrate reductase NarGHI, which has a relatively much lower affinity for perchlorate (Km = 1.1 mm) and no substrate inhibition. Structural analysis of oxidized and reduced PcrAB with and without the substrate analog SeO3 (2-) bound to the active site identified key residues in the positively charged and funnel-shaped substrate access tunnel that gated substrate entrance and product release while trapping transiently produced chlorate. The structures suggest gating was associated with shifts of a Phe residue between open and closed conformations plus an Asp residue carboxylate shift between monodentate and bidentate coordination to the active site molybdenum atom. Taken together, structural and mutational analyses of gate residues suggest key roles of these gate residues for substrate entrance and product release. Our combined results provide the first detailed structural insight into the mechanism of biological perchlorate reduction, a critical component of the chlorine redox cycle on Earth. PMID:26940877

  16. A novel human AP endonuclease with conserved zinc-finger-like motifs involved in DNA strand break responses

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Shin-ichiro; Kuzuoka, Hiroyuki; Sasao, Shigeru; Hong, Zehui; Lan, Li; Nakajima, Satoshi; Yasui, Akira

    2007-01-01

    DNA damage causes genome instability and cell death, but many of the cellular responses to DNA damage still remain elusive. We here report a human protein, PALF (PNK and APTX-like FHA protein), with an FHA (forkhead-associated) domain and novel zinc-finger-like CYR (cysteine–tyrosine–arginine) motifs that are involved in responses to DNA damage. We found that the CYR motif is widely distributed among DNA repair proteins of higher eukaryotes, and that PALF, as well as a Drosophila protein with tandem CYR motifs, has endo- and exonuclease activities against abasic site and other types of base damage. PALF accumulates rapidly at single-strand breaks in a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent manner in human cells. Indeed, PALF interacts directly with PARP1 and is required for its activation and for cellular resistance to methyl-methane sulfonate. PALF also interacts directly with KU86, LIGASEIV and phosphorylated XRCC4 proteins and possesses endo/exonuclease activity at protruding DNA ends. Various treatments that produce double-strand breaks induce formation of PALF foci, which fully coincide with γH2AX foci. Thus, PALF and the CYR motif may play important roles in DNA repair of higher eukaryotes. PMID:17396150

  17. Evolution of an insect-specific GROUCHO-interaction motif in the ENGRAILED selector protein.

    PubMed

    Hittinger, Chris Todd; Carroll, Sean B

    2008-01-01

    Animal morphology evolves through alterations in the genetic regulatory networks that control development. Regulatory connections are commonly added, subtracted, or modified via mutations in cis-regulatory elements, but several cases are also known where transcription factors have gained or lost activity-modulating peptide motifs. In order to better assess the role of novel transcription factor peptide motifs in evolution, we searched for synapomorphic motifs in the homeotic selectors of Drosophila melanogaster and related insects. Here, we describe an evolutionarily novel GROUCHO (GRO)-interaction motif in the ENGRAILED (EN) selector protein. This "ehIFRPF" motif is not homologous to the previously characterized "engrailed homology 1" (eh1) GRO-interaction motif of EN. This second motif is an insect-specific "WRPW"-type motif that has been maintained by purifying selection in at least the dipteran/lepidopteran lineage. We demonstrate that this motif contributes to in vivo repression of the wingless (wg) target gene and to interaction with GRO in vitro. The acquisition and conservation of this auxiliary peptide motif shows how the number and activity of short peptide motifs can evolve in transcription factors while existing regulatory functions are maintained.

  18. Direct vs 2-stage approaches to structured motif finding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The notion of DNA motif is a mathematical abstraction used to model regions of the DNA (known as Transcription Factor Binding Sites, or TFBSs) that are bound by a given Transcription Factor to regulate gene expression or repression. In turn, DNA structured motifs are a mathematical counterpart that models sets of TFBSs that work in concert in the gene regulations processes of higher eukaryotic organisms. Typically, a structured motif is composed of an ordered set of isolated (or simple) motifs, separated by a variable, but somewhat constrained number of “irrelevant” base-pairs. Discovering structured motifs in a set of DNA sequences is a computationally hard problem that has been addressed by a number of authors using either a direct approach, or via the preliminary identification and successive combination of simple motifs. Results We describe a computational tool, named SISMA, for the de-novo discovery of structured motifs in a set of DNA sequences. SISMA is an exact, enumerative algorithm, meaning that it finds all the motifs conforming to the specifications. It does so in two stages: first it discovers all the possible component simple motifs, then combines them in a way that respects the given constraints. We developed SISMA mainly with the aim of understanding the potential benefits of such a 2-stage approach w.r.t. direct methods. In fact, no 2-stage software was available for the general problem of structured motif discovery, but only a few tools that solved restricted versions of the problem. We evaluated SISMA against other published tools on a comprehensive benchmark made of both synthetic and real biological datasets. In a significant number of cases, SISMA outperformed the competitors, exhibiting a good performance also in most of the cases in which it was inferior. Conclusions A reflection on the results obtained lead us to conclude that a 2-stage approach can be implemented with many advantages over direct approaches. Some of these

  19. An Active Site Water Network in the Plasminogen Activator Pla from Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Eren, Elif; Murphy, Megan; Goguen, Jon; van den Berg, Bert

    2010-08-13

    The plasminogen activator Pla from Yersinia pestis is an outer membrane protease (omptin) that is important for the virulence of plague. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of wild-type, enzymatically active Pla at 1.9 {angstrom}. The structure shows a water molecule located between active site residues D84 and H208, which likely corresponds to the nucleophilic water. A number of other water molecules are present in the active site, linking residues important for enzymatic activity. The R211 sidechain in loop L4 is close to the nucleophilic water and possibly involved in the stabilization of the oxyanion intermediate. Subtle conformational changes of H208 result from the binding of lipopolysaccharide to the outside of the barrel, explaining the unusual dependence of omptins on lipopolysaccharide for activity. The Pla structure suggests a model for the interaction with plasminogen substrate and provides a more detailed understanding of the catalytic mechanism of omptin proteases.

  20. The crystal structure of the Rv0301-Rv0300 VapBC-3 toxin-antitoxin complex from M. tuberculosis reveals a Mg2+ ion in the active site and a putative RNA-binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Andrew B; Miallau, Linda; Sawaya, Michael R; Habel, Jeff; Cascio, Duilio; Eisenberg, David

    2013-01-10

    VapBC pairs account for 45 out of 88 identified toxin-antitoxin (TA) pairs in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv genome. A working model suggests that under times of stress, antitoxin molecules are degraded, releasing the toxins to slow the metabolism of the cell, which in the case of VapC toxins is via their RNase activity. Otherwise the TA pairs remain bound to their promoters, autoinhibiting transcription. The crystal structure of Rv0301-Rv0300, an Mtb VapBC TA complex determined at 1.49 Å resolution, suggests a mechanism for these three functions: RNase activity, its inhibition by antitoxin, and its ability to bind promoter DNA. The Rv0301 toxin consists of a core of five parallel beta strands flanked by alpha helices. Three proximal aspartates coordinate a Mg2+ ion forming the putative RNase active site. The Rv0300 antitoxin monomer is extended in structure, consisting of an N-terminal beta strand followed by four helices. The last two helices wrap around the toxin and terminate near the putative RNase active site, but with different conformations. In one conformation, the C-terminal arginine interferes with Mg2+ ion coordination, suggesting a mechanism by which the antitoxin can inhibit toxin activity. At the N-terminus of the antitoxin, two pairs of Ribbon-Helix-Helix (RHH) motifs are related by crystallographic twofold symmetry. The resulting hetero-octameric complex is similar to the FitAB system, but the two RHH motifs are about 30 Å closer together in the Rv0301-Rv0300 complex, suggesting either a different span of the DNA recognition sequence or a conformational change.

  1. Metal active site elasticity linked to activation of homocysteine in methionine synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Koutmos, Markos; Pejchal, Robert; Bomer, Theresa M.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Smith, Janet L.; Ludwig, Martha L.

    2008-04-02

    Enzymes possessing catalytic zinc centers perform a variety of fundamental processes in nature, including methyl transfer to thiols. Cobalamin-independent (MetE) and cobalamin-dependent (MetH) methionine synthases are two such enzyme families. Although they perform the same net reaction, transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine (Hcy) to form methionine, they display markedly different catalytic strategies, modular organization, and active site zinc centers. Here we report crystal structures of zinc-replete MetE and MetH, both in the presence and absence of Hcy. Structural investigation of the catalytic zinc sites of these two methyltransferases reveals an unexpected inversion of zinc geometry upon binding of Hcy and displacement of an endogenous ligand in both enzymes. In both cases a significant movement of the zinc relative to the protein scaffold accompanies inversion. These structures provide new information on the activation of thiols by zinc-containing enzymes and have led us to propose a paradigm for the mechanism of action of the catalytic zinc sites in these and related methyltransferases. Specifically, zinc is mobile in the active sites of MetE and MetH, and its dynamic nature helps facilitate the active site conformational changes necessary for thiol activation and methyl transfer.

  2. The N-terminus region of the putative C2H2 transcription factor Ada1 harbors a species-specific activation motif that regulates asexual reproduction in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Kim, Jung-Eun; Shim, Won-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is an important plant pathogenic fungus causing maize ear and stalk rots. In addition, the fungus is directly associated with fumonisin contamination of food and feeds. Here, we report the functional characterization of Ada1, a putative Cys2-His2 zinc finger transcription factor with a high level of similarity to Aspergillus nidulans FlbC, which is required for the activation of the key regulator of conidiation brlA. ADA1 is predicted to encode a protein with two DNA binding motifs at the C terminus and a putative activator domain at the N terminus region. Deletion of the flbC gene in A. nidulans results in "fluffy" cotton-like colonies, with a defect in transition from vegetative growth to asexual development. In this study we show that Ada1 plays a key role in asexual development in F. verticillioides. Conidia production was significantly reduced in the knockout mutant (Δada1), in which aberrant conidia and conidiophores were also observed. We identified genes that are predicted to be downstream of ADA1, based on A. nidulans conidiation signaling pathway. Among them, the deletion of stuA homologue, FvSTUA, resulted in near absence of conidia production. To further investigate the functional conservation of this transcription factor, we complemented the Δada1 strain with A. nidulans flbC, F. verticillioides ADA1, and chimeric constructs. A. nidulans flbC failed to restore conidia production similar to the wild-type level. However, the Ada1N-terminal domain, which contains a putative activator, fused to A. nidulans FlbC C-terminal motif successfully complemented the Δada1 mutant. Taken together, Ada1 is an important transcriptional regulator of asexual development in F. verticillioides and that the N-terminus domain is critical for proper function of this transcription factor.

  3. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  4. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting Δ8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Song, Li-Ying; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Yin, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2011-12-01

    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of Δ(8)-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among Δ(8)-sphingolipid desaturases and Δ(6)-fatty acid desaturases from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb(5) (cytochrome b(5)) HPGG motif and three conserved histidine boxes, they share additional 15 completely conserved residues. A series of site-directed mutants were generated using our previously isolated Δ(8)-sphingolipid desaturase gene from Brassica rapa to evaluate the importance of these residues to the enzyme function. The mutants were functionally characterized by heterologous expression in yeast, allowing the identification of the products of the enzymes. The results revealed that residues H63, N203, D208, D210, and G368 were obligatorily required for the enzymatic activity, and substitution of the residues F59, W190, W345, L369 and Q372 markedly decreased the enzyme activity. Among them, replacement of the residues W190, L369 and Q372 also has significant influence on the ratio of the two enzyme products. Information obtained in this work provides the molecular basis for the Δ(8)-sphingolipid desaturase activity and aids in our understanding of the structure-function relationships of the membrane-bound desaturases.

  5. Crystal Structure of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Inhibitory Factor Cif Reveals Novel Active-Site Features of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, C.; Morisseau, C; Bomberger, J; Stanton, B; Hammock, B; O' Toole, G; Madden, D

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces the quantity of CFTR in the apical membrane of human airway epithelial cells. Initial sequence analysis suggested that Cif is an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but its sequence violates two strictly conserved EH motifs and also is compatible with other {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase family members with diverse substrate specificities. To investigate the mechanistic basis of Cif activity, we have determined its structure at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The catalytic triad consists of residues Asp129, His297, and Glu153, which are conserved across the family of EHs. At other positions, sequence deviations from canonical EH active-site motifs are stereochemically conservative. Furthermore, detailed enzymatic analysis confirms that Cif catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxide compounds, with specific activity against both epibromohydrin and cis-stilbene oxide, but with a relatively narrow range of substrate selectivity. Although closely related to two other classes of {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase in both sequence and structure, Cif does not exhibit activity as either a haloacetate dehalogenase or a haloalkane dehalogenase. A reassessment of the structural and functional consequences of the H269A mutation suggests that Cif's effect on host-cell CFTR expression requires the hydrolysis of an extended endogenous epoxide substrate.

  6. Effect of D to E mutation of the RGD motif in rhodostomin on its activity, structure, and dynamics: importance of the interactions between the D residue and integrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiu-Yueh; Shiu, Jia-Hau; Hsieh, Yao-Husn; Liu, Yu-Chen; Chen, Yen-Chin; Chen, Yi-Chun; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Tang, Ming-Jer; Lo, Szecheng J; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2009-09-01

    Rhodostomin (Rho) is a snake venom protein containing an RGD motif that specifically inhibits the integrin-binding function. Rho produced in Pichia pastoris inhibits platelet aggregation with a K(I) of 78 nM as potent as native Rho. In contrast, its D51E mutant inhibits platelet aggregation with a K(I) of 49 muM. Structural analysis of Rho and its D51E mutant showed that they have the same tertiary fold with three two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets. There are no structural backbone differences between the RG[D/E] loop which extends outward from the protein core and the RG[D/E] sequence at its apex in a four-residue RG[D/E]M type I turn. Two minor differences between Rho and its D51E mutant were only found from their backbone dynamics and 3D structures. The R(2) value of E51 is 13% higher than that of the D51 residue. A difference in the charge separation of 1.76 A was found between the sidechains of positive (R49) and negative residues (D51 or E51).The docking of Rho into integrin alphavbeta3 showed that the backbone amide and carbonyl groups of the D51 residue of Rho were formed hydrogen bonds with the integrin residues R216 and R214, respectively. In contrast, these hydrogen bonds were absent in the D51E mutant-integrin complex. Our findings suggest that the interactions between both the sidechain and backbone of the D residue of RGD-containing ligands and integrin are important for their binding. PMID:19280603

  7. Active Site and Laminarin Binding in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100–10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  8. Neural Circuits: Male Mating Motifs.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Characterizing microcircuit motifs in intact nervous systems is essential to relate neural computations to behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Clowney et al. (2015) identify recurring, parallel feedforward excitatory and inhibitory pathways in male Drosophila's courtship circuitry, which might explain decisive mate choice.

  9. Mutagenic scan of the H-N-H motif of colicin E9: implications for the mechanistic enzymology of colicins, homing enzymes and apoptotic endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Walker, David C.; Georgiou, Theonie; Pommer, Ansgar J.; Walker, Daniel; Moore, Geoffrey R.; Kleanthous, Colin; James, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Colicin E9 is a microbial toxin that kills bacteria through random degradation of chromosomal DNA. Within the active site of the cytotoxic endonuclease domain of colicin E9 (the E9 DNase) is a 32 amino acid motif found in the H-N-H group of homing endonucleases. Crystal structures of the E9 DNase have implicated several conserved residues of the H-N-H motif in the mechanism of DNA hydrolysis. We have used mutagenesis to test the involvement of these key residues in colicin toxicity, metal ion binding and catalysis. Our data show, for the first time, that the H-N-H motif is the site of DNA binding and that Mg2+-dependent cleavage of double-stranded DNA is responsible for bacterial cell death. We demonstrate that more active site residues are required for catalysis in the presence of Mg2+ ions than transition metals, consistent with the recent hypothesis that the E9 DNase hydrolyses DNA by two distinct, cation-dependent catalytic mechanisms. The roles of individual amino acids within the H-N-H motif are discussed in the context of the available structural information on this and related DNases and we address the possible mechanistic similarities between caspase-activated DNases, responsible for the degradation of chromatin in eukaryotic apoptosis, and H-N-H DNases. PMID:12136104

  10. Active site loop conformation regulates promiscuous activity in a lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; An, Jiao; Yang, Guang-Yu; Bai, Aixi; Zheng, Baisong; Lou, Zhiyong; Wu, Geng; Ye, Wei; Chen, Hai-Feng; Feng, Yan; Manco, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme promiscuity is a prerequisite for fast divergent evolution of biocatalysts. A phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) exhibits main lactonase and promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. To understand its catalytic and evolutionary mechanisms, we investigated a "hot spot" in the active site by saturation mutagenesis as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses. We found that position 99 in the active site was involved in substrate discrimination. One mutant, Y99L, exhibited 11-fold improvement over wild-type in reactivity (kcat/Km) toward the phosphotriesterase substrate ethyl-paraoxon, but showed 15-fold decrease toward the lactonase substrate δ-decanolactone, resulting in a 157-fold inversion of the substrate specificity. Structural analysis of Y99L revealed that the mutation causes a ∼6.6 Å outward shift of adjacent loop 7, which may cause increased flexibility of the active site and facilitate accommodation and/or catalysis of organophosphate substrate. This study provides for the PLL family an example of how the evolutionary route from promiscuity to specificity can derive from very few mutations, which promotes alteration in the conformational adjustment of the active site loops, in turn draws the capacity of substrate binding and activity.

  11. Active Site Loop Conformation Regulates Promiscuous Activity in a Lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; An, Jiao; Yang, Guang-Yu; Bai, Aixi; Zheng, Baisong; Lou, Zhiyong; Wu, Geng; Ye, Wei; Chen, Hai-Feng; Feng, Yan; Manco, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme promiscuity is a prerequisite for fast divergent evolution of biocatalysts. A phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) exhibits main lactonase and promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. To understand its catalytic and evolutionary mechanisms, we investigated a “hot spot” in the active site by saturation mutagenesis as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses. We found that position 99 in the active site was involved in substrate discrimination. One mutant, Y99L, exhibited 11-fold improvement over wild-type in reactivity (kcat/Km) toward the phosphotriesterase substrate ethyl-paraoxon, but showed 15-fold decrease toward the lactonase substrate δ-decanolactone, resulting in a 157-fold inversion of the substrate specificity. Structural analysis of Y99L revealed that the mutation causes a ∼6.6 Å outward shift of adjacent loop 7, which may cause increased flexibility of the active site and facilitate accommodation and/or catalysis of organophosphate substrate. This study provides for the PLL family an example of how the evolutionary route from promiscuity to specificity can derive from very few mutations, which promotes alteration in the conformational adjustment of the active site loops, in turn draws the capacity of substrate binding and activity. PMID:25706379

  12. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis reveals interconnected functional units in the alkaline phosphatase active site.

    PubMed

    Sunden, Fanny; Peck, Ariana; Salzman, Julia; Ressl, Susanne; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes enable life by accelerating reaction rates to biological timescales. Conventional studies have focused on identifying the residues that have a direct involvement in an enzymatic reaction, but these so-called 'catalytic residues' are embedded in extensive interaction networks. Although fundamental to our understanding of enzyme function, evolution, and engineering, the properties of these networks have yet to be quantitatively and systematically explored. We dissected an interaction network of five residues in the active site of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. Analysis of the complex catalytic interdependence of specific residues identified three energetically independent but structurally interconnected functional units with distinct modes of cooperativity. From an evolutionary perspective, this network is orders of magnitude more probable to arise than a fully cooperative network. From a functional perspective, new catalytic insights emerge. Further, such comprehensive energetic characterization will be necessary to benchmark the algorithms required to rationally engineer highly efficient enzymes. PMID:25902402

  13. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis reveals interconnected functional units in the alkaline phosphatase active site.

    PubMed

    Sunden, Fanny; Peck, Ariana; Salzman, Julia; Ressl, Susanne; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes enable life by accelerating reaction rates to biological timescales. Conventional studies have focused on identifying the residues that have a direct involvement in an enzymatic reaction, but these so-called 'catalytic residues' are embedded in extensive interaction networks. Although fundamental to our understanding of enzyme function, evolution, and engineering, the properties of these networks have yet to be quantitatively and systematically explored. We dissected an interaction network of five residues in the active site of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. Analysis of the complex catalytic interdependence of specific residues identified three energetically independent but structurally interconnected functional units with distinct modes of cooperativity. From an evolutionary perspective, this network is orders of magnitude more probable to arise than a fully cooperative network. From a functional perspective, new catalytic insights emerge. Further, such comprehensive energetic characterization will be necessary to benchmark the algorithms required to rationally engineer highly efficient enzymes.

  14. Efficient trafficking of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus requires a VAMP-associated protein-interacting FFAT motif of CERT.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Miyuki; Kumagai, Keigo; Nishijima, Masahiro; Hanada, Kentaro

    2006-10-01

    Ceramide is synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to the Golgi apparatus by CERT for its conversion to sphingomyelin in mammalian cells. CERT has a pleck-strin homology (PH) domain for Golgi targeting and a START domain catalyzing the intermembrane transfer of ceramide. The region between the two domains contains a short peptide motif designated FFAT, which is supposed to interact with the ER-resident proteins VAP-A and VAP-B. Both VAPs were actually co-immunoprecipitated with CERT, and the CERT/VAP interaction was abolished by mutations in the FFAT motif. These mutations did not affect the Golgi targeting activity of CERT. Whereas mutations of neither the FFAT motif nor the PH domain inhibited the ceramide transfer activity of CERT in a cell-free system, they impaired the ER-to-Golgi transport of ceramide in intact and in semi-intact cells at near endogenous expression levels. By contrast, when overexpressed, both the FFAT motif and the PH domain mutants of CERT substantially supported the transport of ceramide from the ER to the site where sphingomyelin is produced. These results suggest that the Golgi-targeting PH domain and ER-interacting FFAT motif of CERT spatially restrict the random ceramide transfer activity of the START domain in cells.

  15. Expression of PCNA-binding domain of CtIP, a motif required for CtIP localization at DNA replication foci, causes DNA damage and activation of DNA damage checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bingnan; Chen, Phang-Lang

    2009-05-01

    CtIP, CtBP-interacting protein, is a nuclear protein that was identified as a cofactor for the transcriptional repressor CtBP. Our genetic studies in mice revealed that haploid insufficiency of CtIP leads to tumorigenesis and is associated with shortened life span. At the molecular level, CtIP is a multivalent adaptor. It interacts directly with pRB family members, the prototype tumor suppressor proteins, and contributes to G(1)/S regulation. It has also been implicated in DNA damage checkpoint control through its interaction with the breast cancer susceptibility gene product BRCA1. Recently, it was found to modulate the nuclease activity of the Mre11/Rad50/NBS1 complex. Here we report that CtIP is recruited to S-phase DNA replication foci through a novel motif functioning as replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS). This motif contains a consensus PCNA-interacting protein box that binds to PCNA both in vivo and in vitro. In support of the biological significance of this interaction, we detected arrest of the cell cycle at the S/G(2) phase transition, and suppression of cell proliferation in U2-OS cells upon the conditional expression of the wild type, but not a mutated RFTS using a tetracycline-inducible system. We found that cells expressing RFTS had excess DNA double strand breaks as demonstrated by formation of gamma-H2AX nuclear foci. Finally, G(2)/M checkpoint activation in response to the expression of the CtIP RFTS is abrogated by caffeine treatment. Our work suggests an intimate relationship between CtIP and PCNA may be important for the maintenance of genomic stability in higher eukaryotic organism.

  16. Histone H2B gene transcription during Xenopus early development requires functional cooperation between proteins bound to the CCAAT and octamer motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Hinkley, C; Perry, M

    1992-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed transcription factor Oct-1 and several other members of the POU domain protein family bind to a site, termed the octamer motif, that functions in the promoter and enhancer regions of a variety of genes expressed under diverse conditions. An octamer motif present in a conserved histone H2B-specific promoter element is required for S-phase-specific transcription of mammalian histone H2B genes in cultured cells. We have previously shown that the octamer motif in a Xenopus histone H2B gene promoter was inactive in nondividing frog oocytes. Here we show that the octamer motif, in addition to regulatory elements (TATAA, CCAAT, and ATF motifs) that are active in oocytes, is required for maximal H2B gene transcription in developing frog embryos. Factors binding to each of the H2B upstream promoter elements are present in oocytes and increase slightly in abundance during early development. The activity of the H2B octamer motif in embryos is not specifically associated with increased binding by Oct-1 or the appearance of novel octamer-binding proteins but requires the presence of an intact CCAAT motif. Our results indicate that synergistic interactions among promoter-bound factors are important for octamer-dependent H2B transcription. We suggest that the activity of the H2B promoter is regulated primarily by changes in the interactions between proteins already bound to the promoter rather than by alterations in their intrinsic abilities to bind DNA. Images PMID:1406629

  17. Systematic discovery of linear binding motifs targeting an ancient protein interaction surface on MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Zeke, András; Bastys, Tomas; Alexa, Anita; Garai, Ágnes; Mészáros, Bálint; Kirsch, Klára; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Kalinina, Olga V; Reményi, Attila

    2015-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are broadly used regulators of cellular signaling. However, how these enzymes can be involved in such a broad spectrum of physiological functions is not understood. Systematic discovery of MAPK networks both experimentally and in silico has been hindered because MAPKs bind to other proteins with low affinity and mostly in less-characterized disordered regions. We used a structurally consistent model on kinase-docking motif interactions to facilitate the discovery of short functional sites in the structurally flexible and functionally under-explored part of the human proteome and applied experimental tools specifically tailored to detect low-affinity protein-protein interactions for their validation in vitro and in cell-based assays. The combined computational and experimental approach enabled the identification of many novel MAPK-docking motifs that were elusive for other large-scale protein-protein interaction screens. The analysis produced an extensive list of independently evolved linear binding motifs from a functionally diverse set of proteins. These all target, with characteristic binding specificity, an ancient protein interaction surface on evolutionarily related but physiologically clearly distinct three MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38). This inventory of human protein kinase binding sites was compared with that of other organisms to examine how kinase-mediated partnerships evolved over time. The analysis suggests that most human MAPK-binding motifs are surprisingly new evolutionarily inventions and newly found links highlight (previously hidden) roles of MAPKs. We propose that short MAPK-binding stretches are created in disordered protein segments through a variety of ways and they represent a major resource for ancient signaling enzymes to acquire new regulatory roles. PMID:26538579

  18. An A-tract at the AtzR binding site assists DNA binding, inducer-dependent repositioning and transcriptional activation of the PatzDEF promoter.

    PubMed

    Porrúa, Odil; López-Sánchez, Aroa; Platero, Ana I; Santero, Eduardo; Shingler, Victoria; Govantes, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    The LysR-type regulator AtzR activates the Pseudomonas sp. ADP atzDEF operon in response to nitrogen limitation and cyanuric acid. Activation involves repositioning of the AtzR tetramer on the PatzDEF promoter and relaxation of an AtzR-induced DNA bend. Here we examine the in vivo and in vitro contribution of an A5 -tract present at the PatzDEF promoter region to AtzR binding and transcriptional activation. Substitution of the A-tract for the sequence ACTCA prevented PatzDEF activation and high-affinity AtzR binding, impaired AtzR contacts with the activator binding site and shifted the position of the AtzR-induced DNA bend. Analysis of a collection of mutants bearing different alterations in the A-tract sequence showed that the extent of AtzR-dependent activation does not correlate with the magnitude or orientation of the spontaneous DNA bend generated at this site. Our results support the notion that indirect readout of the A-tract-associated narrow minor groove is essential for the AtzR-DNA complex to achieve a conformation competent for activation of the PatzDEF promoter. Conservation of this motif in several binding sites of LysR-type regulators suggests that this mechanism may be shared by other proteins in this family.

  19. Metals in the active site of native protein phosphatase-1.

    PubMed

    Heroes, Ewald; Rip, Jens; Beullens, Monique; Van Meervelt, Luc; De Gendt, Stefan; Bollen, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is a major protein Ser/Thr phosphatase in eukaryotic cells. Its activity depends on two metal ions in the catalytic site, which were identified as manganese in the bacterially expressed phosphatase. However, the identity of the metal ions in native PP1 is unknown. In this study, total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to detect iron and zinc in PP1 that was purified from rabbit skeletal muscle. Metal exchange experiments confirmed that the distinct substrate specificity of recombinant and native PP1 is determined by the nature of their associated metals. We also found that the iron level associated with native PP1 is decreased by incubation with inhibitor-2, consistent with a function of inhibitor-2 as a PP1 chaperone. PMID:25890482

  20. Selection against spurious promoter motifs correlates withtranslational efficiency across bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, Jeffrey L.; Francino, M. Pilar

    2007-05-01

    Because binding of RNAP to misplaced sites could compromise the efficiency of transcription, natural selection for the optimization of gene expression should regulate the distribution of DNA motifs capable of RNAP-binding across the genome. Here we analyze the distribution of the -10 promoter motifs that bind the {sigma}{sup 70} subunit of RNAP in 42 bacterial genomes. We show that selection on these motifs operates across the genome, maintaining an over-representation of -10 motifs in regulatory sequences while eliminating them from the nonfunctional and, in most cases, from the protein coding regions. In some genomes, however, -10 sites are over-represented in the coding sequences; these sites could induce pauses effecting regulatory roles throughout the length of a transcriptional unit. For nonfunctional sequences, the extent of motif under-representation varies across genomes in a manner that broadly correlates with the number of tRNA genes, a good indicator of translational speed and growth rate. This suggests that minimizing the time invested in gene transcription is an important selective pressure against spurious binding. However, selection against spurious binding is detectable in the reduced genomes of host-restricted bacteria that grow at slow rates, indicating that components of efficiency other than speed may also be important. Minimizing the number of RNAP molecules per cell required for transcription, and the corresponding energetic expense, may be most relevant in slow growers. These results indicate that genome-level properties affecting the efficiency of transcription and translation can respond in an integrated manner to optimize gene expression. The detection of selection against promoter motifs in nonfunctional regions also implies that no sequence may evolve free of selective constraints, at least in the relatively small and unstructured genomes of bacteria.

  1. Metavanadate at the active site of the phosphatase VHZ.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav I; Alexandrova, Anastassia N; Hengge, Alvan C

    2012-09-01

    Vanadate is a potent modulator of a number of biological processes and has been shown by crystal structures and NMR spectroscopy to interact with numerous enzymes. Although these effects often occur under conditions where oligomeric forms dominate, the crystal structures and NMR data suggest that the inhibitory form is usually monomeric orthovanadate, a particularly good inhibitor of phosphatases because of its ability to form stable trigonal-bipyramidal complexes. We performed a computational analysis of a 1.14 Å structure of the phosphatase VHZ in complex with an unusual metavanadate species and compared it with two classical trigonal-bipyramidal vanadate-phosphatase complexes. The results support extensive delocalized bonding to the apical ligands in the classical structures. In contrast, in the VHZ metavanadate complex, the central, planar VO(3)(-) moiety has only one apical ligand, the nucleophilic Cys95, and a gap in electron density between V and S. A computational analysis showed that the V-S interaction is primarily ionic. A mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of metavanadate in the active site from a dimeric vanadate species that previous crystallographic evidence has shown to be able to bind to the active sites of phosphatases related to VHZ. Together, the results show that the interaction of vanadate with biological systems is not solely reliant upon the prior formation of a particular inhibitory form in solution. The catalytic properties of an enzyme may act upon the oligomeric forms primarily present in solution to generate species such as the metavanadate ion observed in the VHZ structure. PMID:22876963

  2. Zymogen Activation and Subcellular Activity of Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme 1/Site 1 Protease*

    PubMed Central

    da Palma, Joel Ramos; Burri, Dominique Julien; Oppliger, Joël; Salamina, Marco; Cendron, Laura; de Laureto, Patrizia Polverino; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Kunz, Stefan; Pasquato, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P) plays crucial roles in cellular homeostatic functions and is hijacked by pathogenic viruses for the processing of their envelope glycoproteins. Zymogen activation of SKI-1/S1P involves sequential autocatalytic processing of its N-terminal prodomain at sites B′/B followed by the herein newly identified C′/C sites. We found that SKI-1/S1P autoprocessing results in intermediates whose catalytic domain remains associated with prodomain fragments of different lengths. In contrast to other zymogen proprotein convertases, all incompletely matured intermediates of SKI-1/S1P showed full catalytic activity toward cellular substrates, whereas optimal cleavage of viral glycoproteins depended on B′/B processing. Incompletely matured forms of SKI-1/S1P further process cellular and viral substrates in distinct subcellular compartments. Using a cell-based sensor for SKI-1/S1P activity, we found that 9 amino acid residues at the cleavage site (P1–P8) and P1′ are necessary and sufficient to define the subcellular location of processing and to determine to what extent processing of a substrate depends on SKI-1/S1P maturation. In sum, our study reveals novel and unexpected features of SKI-1/S1P zymogen activation and subcellular specificity of activity toward cellular and pathogen-derived substrates. PMID:25378398

  3. The active site of hydroxynitrile lyase from Prunus amygdalus: modeling studies provide new insights into the mechanism of cyanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dreveny, Ingrid; Kratky, Christoph; Gruber, Karl

    2002-02-01

    The FAD-dependent hydroxynitrile lyase from almond (Prunus amygdalus, PaHNL) catalyzes the cleavage of R-mandelonitrile into benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid. Catalysis of the reverse reaction-the enantiospecific formation of alpha-hydroxynitriles--is now widely utilized in organic syntheses as one of the few industrially relevant examples of enzyme-mediated C-C bond formation. Starting from the recently determined X-ray crystal structure, systematic docking calculations with the natural substrate were used to locate the active site of the enzyme and to identify amino acid residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis. Analysis of the modeled substrate complexes supports an enzymatic mechanism that includes the flavin cofactor as a mere "spectator" of the reaction and relies on general acid/base catalysis by the conserved His-497. Stabilization of the negative charge of the cyanide ion is accomplished by a pronounced positive electrostatic potential at the binding site. PaHNL activity requires the FAD cofactor to be bound in its oxidized form, and calculations of the pKa of enzyme-bound HCN showed that the observed inactivation upon cofactor reduction is largely caused by the reversal of the electrostatic potential within the active site. The suggested mechanism closely resembles the one proposed for the FAD-independent, and structurally unrelated HNL from Hevea brasiliensis. Although the actual amino acid residues involved in the catalytic cycle are completely different in the two enzymes, a common motif for the mechanism of cyanogenesis (general acid/base catalysis plus electrostatic stabilization of the cyanide ion) becomes evident. PMID:11790839

  4. Ring-Closing and Cross-Metathesis with Artificial Metalloenzymes Created by Covalent Active Site-Directed Hybridization of a Lipase.

    PubMed

    Basauri-Molina, Manuel; Verhoeven, Dide G A; van Schaik, Arnoldus J; Kleijn, Henk; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M

    2015-10-26

    A series of Grubbs-type catalysts that contain lipase-inhibiting phosphoester functionalities have been synthesized and reacted with the lipase cutinase, which leads to artificial metalloenzymes for olefin metathesis. The resulting hybrids comprise the organometallic fragment that is covalently bound to the active amino acid residue of the enzyme host in an orthogonal orientation. Differences in reactivity as well as accessibility of the active site by the functionalized inhibitor became evident through variation of the anchoring motif and substituents on the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. Such observations led to the design of a hybrid that is active in the ring-closing metathesis and the cross-metathesis of N,N-diallyl-p-toluenesulfonamide and allylbenzene, respectively, the latter being the first example of its kind in the field of artificial metalloenzymes.

  5. Unusual conformation of the SxN motif in the crystal structure of penicillin-binding protein A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    SciTech Connect

    Fedarovich, Alena; Nicholas, Robert A.; Davies, Christopher

    2010-07-19

    PBPA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a class B-like penicillin-binding protein (PBP) that is not essential for cell growth in M. tuberculosis, but is important for proper cell division in Mycobacterium smegmatis. We have determined the crystal structure of PBPA at 2.05 {angstrom} resolution, the first published structure of a PBP from this important pathogen. Compared to other PBPs, PBPA has a relatively small N-terminal domain, and conservation of a cluster of charged residues within this domain suggests that PBPA is more related to class B PBPs than previously inferred from sequence analysis. The C-terminal domain is a typical transpeptidase fold and contains the three conserved active-site motifs characterisitic of penicillin-interacting enzymes. While the arrangement of the SxxK and KTG motifs is similar to that observed in other PBPs, the SxN motif is markedly displaced away from the active site, such that its serine (Ser281) is not involved in hydrogen bonding with residues of the other two motifs. A disulfide bridge between Cys282 (the 'x' of the SxN motif) and Cys266, which resides on an adjacent loop, may be responsible for this unusual conformation. Another interesting feature of the structure is a relatively long connection between {beta}5 and {alpha}11, which restricts the space available in the active site of PBPA and suggests that conformational changes would be required to accommodate peptide substrate or {beta}-lactam antibiotics during acylation. Finally, the structure shows that one of the two threonines postulated to be targets for phosphorylation is inaccessible (Thr362), whereas the other (Thr437) is well placed on a surface loop near the active site.

  6. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli heat shock protein YedU reveals three potential catalytic active sites

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yonghong; Liu, Deqian; Kaluarachchi, Warna D.; Bellamy, Henry D.; White, Mark A.; Fox, Robert O.

    2003-01-01

    The mRNA of Escherichia coli yedU gene is induced 31-fold upon heat shock. The 31-kD YedU protein, also calls Hsp31, is highly conserved in several human pathogens and has chaperone activity. We solved the crystal structure of YedU at 2.2 Å resolution. YedU monomer has an α/β/α sandwich domain and a small α/β domain. YedU is a dimer in solution, and its crystal structure indicates that a significant amount of surface area is buried upon dimerization. There is an extended hydrophobic patch that crosses the dimer interface on the surface of the protein. This hydrophobic patch is likely the substrate-binding site responsible for the chaperone activity. The structure also reveals a potential protease-like catalytic triad composed of Cys184, His185, and Asp213, although no enzymatic activity could be identified. YedU coordinates a metal ion using His85, His122, and Glu90. This 2-His-1-carboxylate motif is present in carboxypeptidase A (a zinc enzyme), and a number of dioxygenases and hydroxylases that utilize iron as a cofactor, suggesting another potential function for YedU. PMID:14500888

  7. Structural analysis of a phosphonate hydroxylase with an access tunnel at the back of the active site.

    PubMed

    Li, Changqing; Junaid, Muhammad; Almuqri, Eman Abdullah; Hao, Shiguang; Zhang, Houjin

    2016-05-01

    FrbJ is a member of the Fe(2+)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family which hydroxylates the natural product FR-900098 of Streptomyces rubellomurinus, yielding the phosphonate antibiotic FR-33289. Here, the crystal structure of FrbJ, which shows structural homology to taurine dioxygenase (TauD), a key member of the same family, is reported. Unlike other members of the family, FrbJ has an unusual lid structure which consists of two β-strands with a long loop between them. To investigate the role of this lid motif, a molecular-dynamics simulation was performed with the FrbJ structure. The molecular-dynamics simulation analysis implies that the lid-loop region is highly flexible, which is consistent with the fact that FrbJ has a relatively broad spectrum of substrates with different lengths. Interestingly, an access tunnel is found at the back of the active site which connects the putative binding site of α-ketoglutarate to the solvent outside. PMID:27139827

  8. Interconnected network motifs control podocyte morphology and kidney function.

    PubMed

    Azeloglu, Evren U; Hardy, Simon V; Eungdamrong, Narat John; Chen, Yibang; Jayaraman, Gomathi; Chuang, Peter Y; Fang, Wei; Xiong, Huabao; Neves, Susana R; Jain, Mohit R; Li, Hong; Ma'ayan, Avi; Gordon, Ronald E; He, John Cijiang; Iyengar, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Podocytes are kidney cells with specialized morphology that is required for glomerular filtration. Diseases, such as diabetes, or drug exposure that causes disruption of the podocyte foot process morphology results in kidney pathophysiology. Proteomic analysis of glomeruli isolated from rats with puromycin-induced kidney disease and control rats indicated that protein kinase A (PKA), which is activated by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), is a key regulator of podocyte morphology and function. In podocytes, cAMP signaling activates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) to enhance expression of the gene encoding a differentiation marker, synaptopodin, a protein that associates with actin and promotes its bundling. We constructed and experimentally verified a β-adrenergic receptor-driven network with multiple feedback and feedforward motifs that controls CREB activity. To determine how the motifs interacted to regulate gene expression, we mapped multicompartment dynamical models, including information about protein subcellular localization, onto the network topology using Petri net formalisms. These computational analyses indicated that the juxtaposition of multiple feedback and feedforward motifs enabled the prolonged CREB activation necessary for synaptopodin expression and actin bundling. Drug-induced modulation of these motifs in diseased rats led to recovery of normal morphology and physiological function in vivo. Thus, analysis of regulatory motifs using network dynamics can provide insights into pathophysiology that enable predictions for drug intervention strategies to treat kidney disease. PMID:24497609

  9. Analysis of Genomic Sequence Motifs for Deciphering Transcription Factor Binding and Transcriptional Regulation in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boeva, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain a variety of structured patterns: repetitive elements, binding sites of DNA and RNA associated proteins, splice sites, and so on. Often, these structured patterns can be formalized as motifs and described using a proper mathematical model such as position weight matrix and IUPAC consensus. Two key tasks are typically carried out for motifs in the context of the analysis of genomic sequences. These are: identification in a set of DNA regions of over-represented motifs from a particular motif database, and de novo discovery of over-represented motifs. Here we describe existing methodology to perform these two tasks for motifs characterizing transcription factor binding. When applied to the output of ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments, or to promoter regions of co-modulated genes, motif analysis techniques allow for the prediction of transcription factor binding events and enable identification of transcriptional regulators and co-regulators. The usefulness of motif analysis is further exemplified in this review by how motif discovery improves peak calling in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments and, when coupled with information on gene expression, allows insights into physical mechanisms of transcriptional modulation. PMID:26941778

  10. Analysis of Genomic Sequence Motifs for Deciphering Transcription Factor Binding and Transcriptional Regulation in Eukaryotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Boeva, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain a variety of structured patterns: repetitive elements, binding sites of DNA and RNA associated proteins, splice sites, and so on. Often, these structured patterns can be formalized as motifs and described using a proper mathematical model such as position weight matrix and IUPAC consensus. Two key tasks are typically carried out for motifs in the context of the analysis of genomic sequences. These are: identification in a set of DNA regions of over-represented motifs from a particular motif database, and de novo discovery of over-represented motifs. Here we describe existing methodology to perform these two tasks for motifs characterizing transcription factor binding. When applied to the output of ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments, or to promoter regions of co-modulated genes, motif analysis techniques allow for the prediction of transcription factor binding events and enable identification of transcriptional regulators and co-regulators. The usefulness of motif analysis is further exemplified in this review by how motif discovery improves peak calling in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments and, when coupled with information on gene expression, allows insights into physical mechanisms of transcriptional modulation.

  11. WordSpy: identifying transcription factor binding motifs by building a dictionary and learning a grammar

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guandong; Yu, Taotao; Zhang, Weixiong

    2005-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding sites or motifs (TFBMs) are functional cis-regulatory DNA sequences that play an essential role in gene transcriptional regulation. Although many experimental and computational methods have been developed, finding TFBMs remains a challenging problem. We propose and develop a novel dictionary based motif finding algorithm, which we call WordSpy. One significant feature of WordSpy is the combination of a word counting method and a statistical model which consists of a dictionary of motifs and a grammar specifying their usage. The algorithm is suitable for genome-wide motif finding; it is capable of discovering hundreds of motifs from a large set of promoters in a single run. We further enhance WordSpy by applying gene expression information to separate true TFBMs from spurious ones, and by incorporating negative sequences to identify discriminative motifs. In addition, we also use randomly selected promoters from the genome to evaluate the significance of the discovered motifs. The output from WordSpy consists of an ordered list of putative motifs and a set of regulatory sequences with motif binding sites highlighted. The web server of WordSpy is available at . PMID:15980501

  12. Site-specific PEGylation of lidamycin and its antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Shang, Boyang; Hu, Lei; Shao, Rongguang; Zhen, Yongsu

    2015-05-01

    In this study, N-terminal site-specific mono-PEGylation of the recombinant lidamycin apoprotein (rLDP) of lidamycin (LDM) was prepared using a polyethyleneglycol (PEG) derivative (M w 20 kDa) through a reactive terminal aldehyde group under weak acidic conditions (pH 5.5). The biochemical properties of mPEG-rLDP-AE, an enediyne-integrated conjugate, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC, SEC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF. Meanwhile, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of mPEG-rLDP-AE was evaluated by MTT assays and in xenograft model. The results indicated that mPEG-rLDP-AE showed significant antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. After PEGylation, mPEG-rLDP still retained the binding capability to the enediyne AE and presented the physicochemical characteristics similar to that of native LDP. It is of interest that the PEGylation did not diminish the antitumor efficacy of LDM, implying the possibility that this derivative may function as a payload to deliver novel tumor-targeted drugs. PMID:26579455

  13. Hybrid [FeFe]-hydrogenases with modified active sites show remarkable residual enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Siebel, Judith F; Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Weber, Katharina; Rumpel, Sigrun; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-02-24

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases are to date the only enzymes for which it has been demonstrated that the native inorganic binuclear cofactor of the active site Fe2(adt)(CO)3(CN)2 (adt = azadithiolate = [S-CH2-NH-CH2-S](2-)) can be synthesized on the laboratory bench and subsequently inserted into the unmaturated enzyme to yield fully functional holo-enzyme (Berggren, G. et al. (2013) Nature 499, 66-70; Esselborn, J. et al. (2013) Nat. Chem. Biol. 9, 607-610). In the current study, we exploit this procedure to introduce non-native cofactors into the enzyme. Mimics of the binuclear subcluster with a modified bridging dithiolate ligand (thiodithiolate, N-methylazadithiolate, dimethyl-azadithiolate) and three variants containing only one CN(-) ligand were inserted into the active site of the enzyme. We investigated the activity of these variants for hydrogen oxidation as well as proton reduction and their structural accommodation within the active site was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Interestingly, the monocyanide variant with the azadithiolate bridge showed ∼50% of the native enzyme activity. This would suggest that the CN(-) ligands are not essential for catalytic activity, but rather serve to anchor the binuclear subsite inside the protein pocket through hydrogen bonding. The inserted artificial cofactors with a propanedithiolate and an N-methylazadithiolate bridge as well as their monocyanide variants also showed residual activity. However, these activities were less than 1% of the native enzyme. Our findings indicate that even small changes in the dithiolate bridge of the binuclear subsite lead to a rather strong decrease of the catalytic activity. We conclude that both the Brønsted base function and the conformational flexibility of the native azadithiolate amine moiety are essential for the high catalytic activity of the native enzyme. PMID:25633077

  14. Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Andrew J.; Brennan, Sean N.; Sauer, Timothy D.; Schiff, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We quantify observability in small (3 node) neuronal networks as a function of 1) the connection topology and symmetry, 2) the measured nodes, and 3) the nodal dynamics (linear and nonlinear). We find that typical observability metrics for 3 neuron motifs range over several orders of magnitude, depending upon topology, and for motifs containing symmetry the network observability decreases when observing from particularly confounded nodes. Nonlinearities in the nodal equations generally decrease the average network observability and full network information becomes available only in limited regions of the system phase space. Our findings demonstrate that such networks are partially observable, and suggest their potential efficacy in reconstructing network dynamics from limited measurement data. How well such strategies can be used to reconstruct and control network dynamics in experimental settings is a subject for future experimental work. PMID:25909092

  15. Mutational analysis of two highly conserved motifs in the silencing suppressor encoded by tomato spotted wilt virus (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Ying; Bag, Sudeep; Mitter, Neena; Turina, Massimo; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-06-01

    Tospoviruses cause serious economic losses to a wide range of field and horticultural crops on a global scale. The NSs gene encoded by tospoviruses acts as a suppressor of host plant defense. We identified amino acid motifs that are conserved in all of the NSs proteins of tospoviruses for which the sequence is known. Using tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) as a model, the role of these motifs in suppressor activity of NSs was investigated. Using site-directed point mutations in two conserved motifs, glycine, lysine and valine/threonine (GKV/T) at positions 181-183 and tyrosine and leucine (YL) at positions 412-413, and an assay to measure the reversal of gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana line 16c, we show that substitutions (K182 to A, and L413 to A) in these motifs abolished suppressor activity of the NSs protein, indicating that these two motifs are essential for the RNAi suppressor function of tospoviruses. PMID:24363189

  16. Co-evolution of segregation guide DNA motifs and the FtsK translocase in bacteria: identification of the atypical Lactococcus lactis KOPS motif

    PubMed Central

    Nolivos, Sophie; Touzain, Fabrice; Pages, Carine; Coddeville, Michele; Rousseau, Philippe; El Karoui, Meriem; Le Bourgeois, Pascal; Cornet, François

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria use the global bipolarization of their chromosomes into replichores to control the dynamics and segregation of their genome during the cell cycle. This involves the control of protein activities by recognition of specific short DNA motifs whose orientation along the chromosome is highly skewed. The KOPS motifs act in chromosome segregation by orienting the activity of the FtsK DNA translocase towards the terminal replichore junction. KOPS motifs have been identified in γ-Proteobacteria and in Bacillus subtilis as closely related G-rich octamers. We have identified the KOPS motif of Lactococcus lactis, a model bacteria of the Streptococcaceae family harbouring a compact and low GC% genome. This motif, 5′-GAAGAAG-3, was predicted in silico using the occurrence and skew characteristics of known KOPS motifs. We show that it is specifically recognized by L. lactis FtsK in vitro and controls its activity in vivo. L. lactis KOPS is thus an A-rich heptamer motif. Our results show that KOPS-controlled chromosome segregation is conserved in Streptococcaceae but that KOPS may show important variation in sequence and length between bacterial families. This suggests that FtsK adapts to its host genome by selecting motifs with convenient occurrence frequencies and orientation skews to orient its activity. PMID:22373923

  17. Threonine 79 is a hinge residue that governs the fidelity of DNA polymerase beta by helping to position the DNA within the active site.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Mausumi; Gudzelak, Andrew; Li, Shu-Xia; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Eckert, Kristin A; Jager, Joachim; Sweasy, Joann B

    2002-09-20

    DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) is an ideal system for studying the role of its different amino acid residues in the fidelity of DNA synthesis. In this study, the T79S variant of pol beta was identified using an in vivo genetic screen. T79S is located in the N-terminal 8-kDa domain of pol beta and has no contact with either the DNA template or the incoming dNTP substrate. The T79S protein produced 8-fold more multiple mutations in the herpes simplex virus type 1-thymidine kinase assay than wild-type pol beta. Surprisingly, T79S is a misincorporation mutator only when using a 3'-recessed primer-template. In the presence of a single nucleotide-gapped DNA substrate, T79S displays an antimutator phenotype when catalyzing DNA synthesis opposite template C and has similar fidelity as wild type opposite templates A, G, or T. Threonine 79 is located directly between two helix-hairpin-helix motifs located within the 8-kDa and thumb domains of pol beta. As the pol beta enzyme closes into its active form, the helix-hairpin-helix motifs appear to assist in the production and stabilization of a 90 degrees bend of the DNA. The function of the bent DNA is to present the templating base to the incoming nucleotide substrate. We propose that Thr-79 is part of a hydrogen bonding network within the helix-hairpin-helix motifs that is important for positioning the DNA within the active site. We suggest that alteration of Thr-79 to Ser disrupts this hydrogen bonding network and results in an enzyme that is unable to bend the DNA into the proper geometry for accurate DNA synthesis.

  18. The Thiamin Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominiak, P.; Ciszak, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using databases the authors have identified a common thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-motif in the family of functionally diverse TPP-dependent enzymes. This common motif consists of multimeric organization of subunits and two catalytic centers. Each catalytic center (PP:PYR) is formed at the interface of the PP-domain binding the magnesium ion, pyrophosphate and amhopyrimidine ring of TPP, and the PYR-domain binding the aminopyrimidine ring of that cofactor. A pair of these catalytic centers constitutes the catalytic core (PP:PYR)(sub 2) within these enzymes. Analysis of the structural elements of this catalytic core reveals novel definition of the common amino acid sequences, which are GXPhiX(sub 4)(G)PhiXXGQ and GDGX(sub 25-30)NN in the PP-domain, and the EX(sub 4)(G)PhiXXGPhi in the PYR-domain, where Phi corresponds to a hydrophobic amino acid. This TPP-motif provides a novel tool for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes useful in advancing functional proteomics.

  19. An Efficient Algorithm for Discovering Motifs in Large DNA Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Huo, Hongwei; Chen, Xiaoyang; Guo, Haitao; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott; Huan, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The planted (l,d) motif discovery has been successfully used to locate transcription factor binding sites in dozens of promoter sequences over the past decade. However, there has not been enough work done in identifying (l,d) motifs in the next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data sets, which contain thousands of input sequences and thereby bring new challenge to make a good identification in reasonable time. To cater this need, we propose a new planted (l,d) motif discovery algorithm named MCES, which identifies motifs by mining and combining emerging substrings. Specially, to handle larger data sets, we design a MapReduce-based strategy to mine emerging substrings distributedly. Experimental results on the simulated data show that i) MCES is able to identify (l,d) motifs efficiently and effectively in thousands to millions of input sequences, and runs faster than the state-of-the-art (l,d) motif discovery algorithms, such as F-motif and TraverStringsR; ii) MCES is able to identify motifs without known lengths, and has a better identification accuracy than the competing algorithm CisFinder. Also, the validity of MCES is tested on real data sets. MCES is freely available at http://sites.google.com/site/feqond/mces.

  20. Design of hyperthermophilic lipase chimeras by key motif-directed recombination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Gao, Le; Yang, Guangyu; Liu, Donglai; Bai, Aixi; Li, Binchun; Deng, Zixin; Feng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Recombination of diverse natural evolved domains within a superfamily offers greater opportunity for enzyme function leaps. How to recombine protein modules from distant parents with less disruption in cross-interfaces is a challenging issue. Here, we identified the existence of a key motif, the sequence VVSVN(D)YR, within a structural motif ψ loop in the α/β-hydrolase fold superfamily, by using a MEME server and the PROMOTIF program. To obtain thermostable lipase-like enzymes, two chimeras were engineered at the key motif regions through recombination of domains from a mesophilic lipase and a hyperthermophilic esterase/peptidase with amino acid identity less than 21 %. The chimeras retained the desirable substrate preference of their mesophilic parent and exhibited more than 100-fold increased thermostability at 50 °C. Through site-directed mutation, we further improved activity of the chimera by 4.6-fold. The recombination strategy presented here enables the creation of novel catalysts. PMID:25530200

  1. Metal-binding and redox properties of substituted linear and cyclic ATCUN motifs.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Kosh P; Aldous, Amanda R; Kritzer, Joshua A

    2014-10-01

    The amino-terminal copper and nickel binding (ATCUN) motif is a short peptide sequence found in human serum albumin and other proteins. Synthetic ATCUN-metal complexes have been used to oxidatively cleave proteins and DNA, cross-link proteins, and damage cancer cells. The ATCUN motif consists of a tripeptide that coordinates Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions in a square planar geometry, anchored by chelation sites at the N-terminal amine, histidine imidazole and two backbone amides. Many studies have shown that the histidine is required for tight binding and square planar geometry. Previously, we showed that macrocyclization of the ATCUN motif can lead to high-affinity binding with altered metal ion selectivity and enhanced Cu(II)/Cu(III) redox cycling (Inorg. Chem. 2013, 52, 2729-2735). In this work, we synthesize and characterize several linear and cyclic ATCUN variants to explore how substitutions at the histidine alter the metal-binding and catalytic properties. UV-visible spectroscopy, EPR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry indicate that cyclization can promote the formation of ATCUN-like complexes even in the absence of imidazole. We also report several novel ATCUN-like complexes and quantify their redox properties. These findings further demonstrate the effects of conformational constraints on short, metal-binding peptides, and also provide novel redox-active metallopeptides suitable for testing as catalysts for stereoselective or regioselective oxidation reactions.

  2. Coordination of platinum therapeutic agents to met-rich motifs of human copper transport protein1.

    PubMed

    Crider, Sarah E; Holbrook, Robert J; Franz, Katherine J

    2010-01-01

    Platinum therapeutic agents are widely used in the treatment of several forms of cancer. Various mechanisms for the transport of the drugs have been proposed including passive diffusion across the cellular membrane and active transport via proteins. The copper transport protein Ctr1 is responsible for high affinity copper uptake but has also been implicated in the transport of cisplatin into cells. Human hCtr1 contains two methionine-rich Mets motifs on its extracellular N-terminus that are potential platinum-binding sites: the first one encompasses residues 7-14 with amino acid sequence Met-Gly-Met-Ser-Tyr-Met-Asp-Ser and the second one spans residues 39-46 with sequence Met-Met-Met-Met-Pro-Met-Thr-Phe. In these studies, we use liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to compare the binding interactions between cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin with synthetic peptides corresponding to hCtr1 Mets motifs. The interactions of cisplatin and carboplatin with Met-rich motifs that contain three or more methionines result in removal of the carrier ligands of both platinum complexes. In contrast, oxaliplatin retains its cyclohexyldiamine ligand upon platinum coordination to the peptide.

  3. Identification of a pKa-regulating motif stabilizing imidazole-modified double-stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Buyst, Dieter; Gheerardijn, Vicky; Fehér, Krisztina; Van Gasse, Bjorn; Van Den Begin, Jos; Martins, José C.; Madder, Annemieke

    2015-01-01

    The predictable 3D structure of double-stranded DNA renders it ideally suited as a template for the bottom-up design of functionalized nucleic acid-based active sites. We here explore the use of a 14mer DNA duplex as a scaffold for the precise and predictable positioning of catalytic functionalities. Given the ubiquitous participation of the histidine-based imidazole group in protein recognition and catalysis events, single histidine-like modified duplexes were investigated. Tethering histamine to the C5 of the thymine base via an amide bond, allows the flexible positioning of the imidazole function in the major groove. The mutual interactions between the imidazole and the duplex and its influence on the imidazolium pKaH are investigated by placing a single modified thymine at four different positions in the center of the 14mer double helix. Using NMR and unrestrained molecular dynamics, a structural motif involving the formation of a hydrogen bond between the imidazole and the Hoogsteen side of the guanine bases of two neighboring GC base pairs is established. The motif contributes to a stabilization against thermal melting of 6°C and is key in modulating the pKaH of the imidazolium group. The general features, prerequisites and generic character of the new pKaH-regulating motif are described. PMID:25520197

  4. Metal-Binding and Redox Properties of Substituted Linear and Cyclic ATCUN Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Kosh P.; Aldous, Amanda R.; Kritzer, Joshua A.

    2014-01-01

    The amino-terminal copper and nickel binding (ATCUN) motif is a short peptide sequence found in human serum albumin and other proteins. Synthetic ATCUN-metal complexes have been used to oxidatively cleave proteins and DNA, cross-link proteins, and damage cancer cells. The ATCUN motif consists of a tripeptide that coordinates Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions in a square planar geometry, anchored by chelation sites at the N-terminal amine, histidine imidazole and two backbone amides. Many studies have shown that the histidine is required for tight binding and square planar geometry. Previously, we showed that macrocyclization of the ATCUN motif can lead to high-affinity binding with altered metal ion selectivity and enhanced Cu(II)/Cu(III) redox cycling (Inorg. Chem. 2013, 52, 2729-2735). In this work, we synthesize and characterize several linear and cyclic ATCUN variants to explore how substitutions at the histidine alter the metal-binding and catalytic properties. UV-visible spectroscopy, EPR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry indicate that cyclization can promote the formation of ATCUN-like complexes even in the absence of imidazole. We also report several novel ATCUN-like complexes and quantify their redox properties. These findings further demonstrate the effects of conformational constraints on short, metal-binding peptides, and also provide novel redox-active metallopeptides suitable for testing as catalysts for stereoselective or regioselective oxidation reactions. PMID:24980953

  5. Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Multiple Telemeric TTAGGG Motifs Suppress Inflammasome Activity in Macrophages Subjected to Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation and Reduce Ischemic Brain Injury in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Mou, Yongshan; Bernstock, Joshua D; Klimanis, Dace; Wang, Sixian; Spatz, Maria; Maric, Dragan; Johnson, Kory; Klinman, Dennis M; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Xinhui; Hallenbeck, John M

    2015-01-01

    The immune system plays a fundamental role in both the development and pathobiology of stroke. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that have come to be recognized as critical players in the inflammation that ultimately contributes to stroke severity. Inflammasomes recognize microbial and host-derived danger signals and activate caspase-1, which in turn controls the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. We have shown that A151, a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing multiple telemeric TTAGGG motifs, reduces IL-1β production by activated bone marrow derived macrophages that have been subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and LPS stimulation. Further, we demonstrate that A151 reduces the maturation of caspase-1 and IL-1β, the levels of both the iNOS and NLRP3 proteins, and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential within such cells. In addition, we have demonstrated that A151 reduces ischemic brain damage and NLRP3 mRNA levels in SHR-SP rats that have undergone permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. These findings clearly suggest that the modulation of inflammasome activity via A151 may contribute to a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages subjected to conditions that model brain ischemia and modulate ischemic brain damage in an animal model of stroke. Therefore, modulation of ischemic pathobiology by A151 may have a role in the development of novel stroke prevention and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26473731

  6. A dileucine motif is involved in plasma membrane expression and endocytosis of rat sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp).

    PubMed

    Stross, Claudia; Kluge, Stefanie; Weissenberger, Katrin; Winands, Elisabeth; Häussinger, Dieter; Kubitz, Ralf

    2013-11-15

    The sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) is the major uptake transporter for bile salts into liver parenchymal cells, and PKC-mediated endocytosis was shown to regulate the number of Ntcp molecules at the plasma membrane. In this study, mechanisms of Ntcp internalization were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analyses in HepG2 cells. PKC activation induced endocytosis of Ntcp from the plasma membrane by ~30%. Endocytosis of Ntcp was clathrin dependent and was followed by lysosomal degradation. A dileucine motif located in the third intracellular loop of Ntcp was essential for endocytosis but also for processing and plasma membrane targeting, suggesting a dual function of this motif for intracellular trafficking of Ntcp. Mutation of two of five potential phosphorylation sites surrounding the dileucine motif (Thr225 and Ser226) inhibited PKC-mediated endocytosis. In conclusion, we could identify a motif, which is critical for Ntcp plasma membrane localization. Endocytic retrieval protects hepatocytes from elevated bile salt concentrations and is of special interest, because NTCP has been identified as a receptor for the hepatitis B and D virus.

  7. An RNA motif that binds ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassanfar, M.; Szostak, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    RNAs that contain specific high-affinity binding sites for small molecule ligands immobilized on a solid support are present at a frequency of roughly one in 10(10)-10(11) in pools of random sequence RNA molecules. Here we describe a new in vitro selection procedure designed to ensure the isolation of RNAs that bind the ligand of interest in solution as well as on a solid support. We have used this method to isolate a remarkably small RNA motif that binds ATP, a substrate in numerous biological reactions and the universal biological high-energy intermediate. The selected ATP-binding RNAs contain a consensus sequence, embedded in a common secondary structure. The binding properties of ATP analogues and modified RNAs show that the binding interaction is characterized by a large number of close contacts between the ATP and RNA, and by a change in the conformation of the RNA.

  8. Characterization of the active site of chloroperoxidase using physical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Chloroperoxidase (CPO) and Cytochrome P-450, two very different hemeproteins, have been shown to have similar active sites by several techniques. Recent work has demonstrated thiolate ligation from a cysteine residue to the iron in P-450. A major portion of this research has been devoted to obtaining direct evidence that CPO also has a thiolate 5th ligand from a cysteine residue. This information will provide the framework for a detailed analysis of the structure-function relationships between peroxidases, catalase and cytochrome P-450 hemeproteins. To determine whether the 5th ligand is a cysteine, methionine or a unique amino acid, specific isotope enrichment experiments were used. Preliminary /sup 1/H-NMR studies show that the carbon monoxide-CPO complex has a peak in the upfield region corresponding to alpha-protons of a thiolate amino acid. C. fumago was grown on 95% D/sub 2/O media with a small amount of /sup 1/H-cysteine added. Under these conditions C. fumago slows down the biosynthesis of cysteine by at least 50% and utilizes the exogenous cysteine in the media. GC-MS was able to show that the methylene protons next to the sulfur atom in cysteine are 80-90% protonated while these positions in methionine are approximately 73% deuterated. Comparison of the /sup 1/H-NMR spectra of CO-CPO and CO-CPO indicate the presence of a cysteine ligand in chloroperoxidase.

  9. N6-Methyldeoxyadenosine Marks Active Transcription Start Sites in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Deng, Xin; Yu, Miao; Han, Dali; Hao, Ziyang; Liu, Jianzhao; Lu, Xingyu; Dore, Louis C; Weng, Xiaocheng; Ji, Quanjiang; Mets, Laurens; He, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY N6-methyldeoxyadenosine (6mA or m6A) is a DNA modification preserved in prokaryotes to eukaryotes. It is widespread in bacteria, and functions in DNA mismatch repair, chromosome segregation, and virulence regulation. In contrast, the distribution and function of 6mA in eukaryotes have been unclear. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the 6mA landscape in the genome of Chlamydomonas using new sequencing approaches. We identified the 6mA modification in 84% of genes in Chlamydomonas. We found that 6mA mainly locates at ApT dinucleotides around transcription start sites (TSS) with a bimodal distribution, and appears to mark active genes. A periodic pattern of 6mA deposition was also observed at base resolution, which is associated with nucleosome distribution near the TSS, suggesting a possible role in nucleosome positioning. The new genome-wide mapping of 6mA and its unique distribution in the Chlamydomonas genome suggest potential regulatory roles of 6mA in gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25936837

  10. Detection limit for activation measurements in ultralow background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trache, Livius; Chesneanu, D.; Margineanu, R.; Pantelica, A.; Ghita, D. G.; Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Tang, X. D.

    2014-09-01

    We used 12C +13C fusion at the beam energies E = 6, 7 and 8 MeV to determine the sensitivity and the limits of activation method measurements in ultralow background sites. A 13C beam of 0.5 μA from the 3 MV Tandem accelerator of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH impinged on thick graphite targets. After about 24 hrs of irradiation targets were measured in two different laboratories: one with a heavy shielded Ge detector in the institute (at the surface) and one located underground in the microBequerel laboratory, in the salt mine of Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The 1369- and 2754 keV peaks from 24Na deactivation were clearly observed in the γ-ray spectra obtained for acquisitions lasting a few hours, or a few days. Determination of the detection limit in evaluating the cross sections for the target irradiated at Ec . m = 3 MeV indicates the fact that it is possible to measure gamma spectrum in underground laboratory down to Ec . m = 2 . 6 MeV. Cleaning the spectra with beta-gamma coincidences and increasing beam intensity 20 times will take as further down. The measurements are motivated by the study of the 12 C +12 C reaction at astrophysical energies.

  11. Disturbance opens recruitment sites for bacterial colonization in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Vuono, David C; Munakata-Marr, Junko; Spear, John R; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the role of immigration in shaping bacterial communities or the factors that may dictate success or failure of colonization by bacteria from regional species pools. To address these knowledge gaps, the influence of bacterial colonization into an ecosystem (activated sludge bioreactor) was measured through a disturbance gradient (successive decreases in the parameter solids retention time) relative to stable operational conditions. Through a DNA sequencing approach, we show that the most abundant bacteria within the immigrant community have a greater probability of colonizing the receiving ecosystem, but mostly as low abundance community members. Only during the disturbance do some of these bacterial populations significantly increase in abundance beyond background levels and in few cases become dominant community members post-disturbance. Two mechanisms facilitate the enhanced enrichment of immigrant populations during disturbance: (i) the availability of resources left unconsumed by established species and (ii) the increased availability of niche space for colonizers to establish and displace resident populations. Thus, as a disturbance decreases local diversity, recruitment sites become available to promote colonization. This work advances our understanding of microbial resource management and diversity maintenance in complex ecosystems. PMID:25727891

  12. Active Site Characterization of Proteases Sequences from Different Species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Morya, V K; Yadav, Virendra K; Yadav, Sangeeta; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    A total of 129 proteases sequences comprising 43 serine proteases, 36 aspartic proteases, 24 cysteine protease, 21 metalloproteases, and 05 neutral proteases from different Aspergillus species were analyzed for the catalytically active site residues using MEROPS database and various bioinformatics tools. Different proteases have predominance of variable active site residues. In case of 24 cysteine proteases of Aspergilli, the predominant active site residues observed were Gln193, Cys199, His364, Asn384 while for 43 serine proteases, the active site residues namely Asp164, His193, Asn284, Ser349 and Asp325, His357, Asn454, Ser519 were frequently observed. The analysis of 21 metalloproteases of Aspergilli revealed Glu298 and Glu388, Tyr476 as predominant active site residues. In general, Aspergilli species-specific active site residues were observed for different types of protease sequences analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis of these 129 proteases sequences revealed 14 different clans representing different types of proteases with diverse active site residues.

  13. A proposed definition of the 'activity' of surface sites on lactose carriers for dry powder inhalation.

    PubMed

    Grasmeijer, Floris; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-06-01

    A new definition of the activity of surface sites on lactose carriers for dry powder inhalation is proposed which relates to drug detachment during dispersion. The new definition is expected to improve the understanding of 'carrier surface site activity', which stimulates the unambiguous communication about this subject and may aid in the rational design and interpretation of future formulation studies. In contrast to the currently prevailing view on carrier surface site activity, it follows from the newly proposed definition that carrier surface site activity depends on more variables than just the physicochemical properties of the carrier surface. Because the term 'active sites' is ambiguous, it is recommended to use the term 'highly active sites' instead to denote carrier surface sites with a relatively high activity. PMID:24613490

  14. Discovering motifs in ranked lists of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Eden, Eran; Lipson, Doron; Yogev, Sivan; Yakhini, Zohar

    2007-03-23

    Computational methods for discovery of sequence elements that are enriched in a target set compared with a background set are fundamental in molecular biology research. One example is the discovery of transcription factor binding motifs that are inferred from ChIP-chip (chromatin immuno-precipitation on a microarray) measurements. Several major challenges in sequence motif discovery still require consideration: (i) the need for a principled approach to partitioning the data into target and background sets; (ii) the lack of rigorous models and of an exact p-value for measuring motif enrichment; (iii) the need for an appropriate framework for accounting for motif multiplicity; (iv) the tendency, in many of the existing methods, to report presumably significant motifs even when applied to randomly generated data. In this paper we present a statistical framework for discovering enriched sequence elements in ranked lists that resolves these four issues. We demonstrate the implementation of this framework in a software application, termed DRIM (discovery of rank imbalanced motifs), which identifies sequence motifs in lists of ranked DNA sequences. We applied DRIM to ChIP-chip and CpG methylation data and obtained the following results. (i) Identification of 50 novel putative transcription factor (TF) binding sites in yeast ChIP-chip data. The biological function of some of them was further investigated to gain new insights on transcription regulation networks in yeast. For example, our discoveries enable the elucidation of the network of the TF ARO80. Another finding concerns a systematic TF binding enhancement to sequences containing CA repeats. (ii) Discovery of novel motifs in human cancer CpG methylation data. Remarkably, most of these motifs are similar to DNA sequence elements bound by the Polycomb complex that promotes histone methylation. Our findings thus support a model in which histone methylation and CpG methylation are mechanistically linked. Overall, we

  15. Detecting correlations among functional-sequence motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirino, Davide; Rigosa, Jacopo; Ledda, Alice; Ferretti, Luca

    2012-06-01

    Sequence motifs are words of nucleotides in DNA with biological functions, e.g., gene regulation. Identification of such words proceeds through rejection of Markov models on the expected motif frequency along the genome. Additional biological information can be extracted from the correlation structure among patterns of motif occurrences. In this paper a log-linear multivariate intensity Poisson model is estimated via expectation maximization on a set of motifs along the genome of E. coli K12. The proposed approach allows for excitatory as well as inhibitory interactions among motifs and between motifs and other genomic features like gene occurrences. Our findings confirm previous stylized facts about such types of interactions and shed new light on genome-maintenance functions of some particular motifs. We expect these methods to be applicable to a wider set of genomic features.

  16. Comparative genomic analysis of upstream miRNA regulatory motifs in Caenorhabditis.

    PubMed

    Jovelin, Richard; Krizus, Aldis; Taghizada, Bakhtiyar; Gray, Jeremy C; Phillips, Patrick C; Claycomb, Julie M; Cutter, Asher D

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a class of short noncoding RNA molecules that play diverse developmental and physiological roles by controlling mRNA abundance and protein output of the vast majority of transcripts. Despite the importance of miRNAs in regulating gene function, we still lack a complete understanding of how miRNAs themselves are transcriptionally regulated. To fill this gap, we predicted regulatory sequences by searching for abundant short motifs located upstream of miRNAs in eight species of Caenorhabditis nematodes. We identified three conserved motifs across the Caenorhabditis phylogeny that show clear signatures of purifying selection from comparative genomics, patterns of nucleotide changes in motifs of orthologous miRNAs, and correlation between motif incidence and miRNA expression. We then validated our predictions with transgenic green fluorescent protein reporters and site-directed mutagenesis for a subset of motifs located in an enhancer region upstream of let-7 We demonstrate that a CT-dinucleotide motif is sufficient for proper expression of GFP in the seam cells of adult C. elegans, and that two other motifs play incremental roles in combination with the CT-rich motif. Thus, functional tests of sequence motifs identified through analysis of molecular evolutionary signatures provide a powerful path for efficiently characterizing the transcriptional regulation of miRNA genes. PMID:27140965

  17. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  18. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  19. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  20. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  1. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  2. The Role of the β5-α11 Loop in the Active-Site Dynamics of Acylated Penicillin-Binding Protein A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fedarovich, Alena; Nicholas, Robert A.; Davies, Christopher

    2013-04-22

    Penicillin-binding protein A (PBPA) is a class B penicillin-binding protein that is important for cell division in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We have determined a second crystal structure of PBPA in apo form and compared it with an earlier structure of apoenzyme. Significant structural differences in the active site region are apparent, including increased ordering of a β-hairpin loop and a shift of the SxN active site motif such that it now occupies a position that appears catalytically competent. Using two assays, including one that uses the intrinsic fluorescence of a tryptophan residue, we have also measured the second-order acylation rate constants for the antibiotics imipenem, penicillin G, and ceftriaxone. Of these, imipenem, which has demonstrable anti-tubercular activity, shows the highest acylation efficiency. Crystal structures of PBPA in complex with the same antibiotics were also determined, and all show conformational differences in the β5–α11 loop near the active site, but these differ for each β-lactam and also for each of the two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Overall, these data reveal the β5–α11 loop of PBPA as a flexible region that appears important for acylation and provide further evidence that penicillin-binding proteins in apo form can occupy different conformational states.

  3. Vaccine-derived Mutation in Motif D of Poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Lowers Nucleotide Incorporation Fidelity*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinran; Yang, Xiaorong; Lee, Cheri A.; Moustafa, Ibrahim M.; Smidansky, Eric D.; Lum, David; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Boehr, David D.

    2013-01-01

    All viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) have a conserved structural element termed motif D. Studies of the RdRp from poliovirus (PV) have shown that a conformational change of motif D leads to efficient and faithful nucleotide addition by bringing Lys-359 into the active site where it serves as a general acid. The RdRp of the Sabin I vaccine strain has Thr-362 changed to Ile. Such a drastic change so close to Lys-359 might alter RdRp function and contribute in some way to the attenuated phenotype of Sabin type I. Here we present our characterization of the T362I RdRp. We find that the T362I RdRp exhibits a mutator phenotype in biochemical experiments in vitro. Using NMR, we show that this change in nucleotide incorporation fidelity correlates with a change in the structural dynamics of motif D. A recombinant PV expressing the T362I RdRp exhibits normal growth properties in cell culture but expresses a mutator phenotype in cells. For example, the T362I-containing PV is more sensitive to the mutagenic activity of ribavirin than wild-type PV. Interestingly, the T362I change was sufficient to cause a statistically significant reduction in viral virulence. Collectively, these studies suggest that residues of motif D can be targeted when changes in nucleotide incorporation fidelity are desired. Given the observation that fidelity mutants can serve as vaccine candidates, it may be possible to use engineering of motif D for this purpose. PMID:24085299

  4. GAS HYDRATES AT TWO SITES OF AN ACTIVE CONTINENTAL MARGIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart on the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m.

  5. Control of active sites in selective flocculation: III -- Mechanism of site blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Behl, S.; Moudgil, B.M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    It has been shown in Parts I and II of this paper that heteroflocculation can be controlled by poisoning the sites for flocculant adsorption using a site blocking agent (SBA). An efficient SBA was determined to be the lower molecular weight fraction of the flocculant. In this paper, the underlying mechanism of SBA action is described. Also, the mathematical model detailed in Part I is used to determine the effect of different SBAs on apatite-dolomite separation efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the depression in flocculation is directly related to the site blocking parameter ([bar [Phi

  6. Structural characterizations of fusion peptide analogs of influenza virus hemagglutinin. Implication of the necessity of a helix-hinge-helix motif in fusion activity.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Hua; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Chang, Ding-Kwo; Chen, Chinpan

    2002-06-21

    Infection by enveloped viruses initially involves membrane fusion between viral and host cell membranes. The fusion peptide plays a crucial role in triggering this reaction. To clarify how the fusion peptide exerts this specific function, we carried out biophysical studies of three fusion peptide analogs of influenza virus hemagglutinin HA2, namely E5, G13L, and L17A. E5 exhibits an activity similar to the native fusion peptide, whereas G13L and L17A, which are two point mutants of the E5 analog, possess much less fusion activity. Our CD data showed that the conformations of these three analogs in SDS micelles are pH-dependent, with higher alpha-helical contents at acidic pH. Tryptophan fluorescence emission experiments indicated that these three analogs insert deeper into lipid bilayers at acidic pH. The three-dimensional structure of the E5 analog in SDS micelles at pH 4.0 revealed that two segments, Leu(2)-Glu(11) and Trp(14)-Ile(18), form amphipathic helical conformations, with Gly(12)-Gly(13) forming a hinge. The hydrophobic residues in the N- and C-terminal helices form a hydrophobic cluster. At neutral pH, however, the C-terminal helix of Trp(14)-Ile(18) reduces dramatically, and the hydrophobic core observed at acidic pH is severely disrupted. We suggest that the disruption of the C-terminal helix renders the E5 analog fusion-inactive at neutral pH. Furthermore, the decrease of the hinge and the reduction of fusion activity in G13L reveal the importance of the hinge in fusion activity. Also, the decrease in the C-terminal helix and the reduction of fusion activity in L17A demonstrates the importance of the C-terminal helix in fusion activity. Based on these biophysical studies, we propose a model that illustrates the structural change of the HA2 fusion peptide analog and explains how the analog interacts with the lipid bilayer at different pH values.

  7. Dynamically achieved active site precision in enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Klinman, Judith P

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: The grand challenge in enzymology is to define and understand all of the parameters that contribute to enzymes' enormous rate accelerations. The property of hydrogen tunneling in enzyme reactions has moved the focus of research away from an exclusive focus on transition state stabilization toward the importance of the motions of the heavy atoms of the protein, a role for reduced barrier width in catalysis, and the sampling of a protein conformational landscape to achieve a family of protein substates that optimize enzyme-substrate interactions and beyond. This Account focuses on a thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase for which the chemical step of hydride transfer is rate determining across a wide range of experimental conditions. The properties of the chemical coordinate have been probed using kinetic isotope effects, indicating a transition in behavior below 30 °C that distinguishes nonoptimal from optimal C-H activation. Further, the introduction of single site mutants has the impact of either enhancing or eliminating the temperature dependent transition in catalysis. Biophysical probes, which include time dependent hydrogen/deuterium exchange and fluorescent lifetimes and Stokes shifts, have also been pursued. These studies allow the correlation of spatially resolved transitions in protein motions with catalysis. It is now possible to define a long-range network of protein motions in ht-ADH that extends from a dimer interface to the substrate binding domain across to the cofactor binding domain, over a distance of ca. 30 Å. The ongoing challenge to obtaining spatial and temporal resolution of catalysis-linked protein motions is discussed.

  8. An Efficient Exact Algorithm for the Motif Stem Search Problem over Large Alphabets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Huo, Hongwei; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott; Huan, Jun; Nekrich, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in planted (l, d) motif search (PMS) with applications to discovering significant segments in biological sequences. However, there has been little discussion about PMS over large alphabets. This paper focuses on motif stem search (MSS), which is recently introduced to search motifs on large-alphabet inputs. A motif stem is an l-length string with some wildcards. The goal of the MSS problem is to find a set of stems that represents a superset of all (l , d) motifs present in the input sequences, and the superset is expected to be as small as possible. The three main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) We build motif stem representation more precisely by using regular expressions. (2) We give a method for generating all possible motif stems without redundant wildcards. (3) We propose an efficient exact algorithm, called StemFinder, for solving the MSS problem. Compared with the previous MSS algorithms, StemFinder runs much faster and reports fewer stems which represent a smaller superset of all (l, d) motifs. StemFinder is freely available at http://sites.google.com/site/feqond/stemfinder. PMID:26357225

  9. Sequence motifs of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2) determining progelatinase A (proMMP-2) binding and activation by membrane-type metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP).

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Joanna R; Thompkins, Philip B; Lee, Meng H; Hutton, Mike; Soloway, Paul; Edwards, Dylan R; Murphy, Gillian; Knäuper, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental cellular processes including angiogenesis and cell migration require a proteolytic cascade driven by interactions of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) and progelatinase A (proMMP-2) that are dependent on the presence of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2). There are unique interactions between TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP, which we have previously defined, and here we identify TIMP-2 sequence motifs specific for proMMP-2 binding in the context of its activation by MT1-MMP. A TIMP-2 mutant encoding the C-terminal domain of TIMP-4 showed loss of proMMP-2 activation, indicating that the C-terminal domain of TIMP-2 is important in establishing the trimolecular complex between MT1-MMP, TIMP-2 and proMMP-2. This was confirmed by analysis of a TIMP-4 mutant encoding the C-terminal domain of TIMP-2, which formed a trimolecular complex and promoted proMMP-2 processing to the intermediate form. Mutants encoding TIMP-4 from Cys(1) to Leu(185) and partial tail sequence of TIMP-2 showed some gain of activating capability relative to TIMP-4. The identified residues were subsequently mutated in TIMP-2 (E(192)-D(193) to I(192)-Q(193)) and this inhibitor showed a significantly reduced ability to facilitate proMMP-2 processing by MT1-MMP. Furthermore, the tail-deletion mutant Delta(186-194)TIMP-2 was completely incapable of promoting proMMP-2 activation by MT1-MMP. Thus the C-terminal tail residues of TIMP-2 are important determinants for stable trimolecular complex formation between TIMP-2, proMMP-2 and MT1-MMP and play an important role in MT1-MMP-mediated processing to the intermediate and final active forms of MMP-2 at the cell surface. PMID:12630911

  10. Structural Motifs of Gold Nanoparticles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, C. L.; Luedtke, W. D.; Landman, Uzi

    1996-03-01

    Through an extensive search, involving energy minimization using embedded atom potentials, we found(R.L. Whetten et al./), submitted to Nature (1995). that the energetically optimal sequence for AuN clusters (30 <= N <= 3000 atoms) consists of fcc crystallites, with a truncated-octahedral (TO) morphological motif, and variants thereof. These predictions for bare gold particles, and for particles coated by sef-assembled thiol monolayers, are discussed in light of recent experiments on the preparation and characterization (including mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction) of nanocrystalline gold molecules (see Ref. 2).

  11. Insulin receptor binding motif tagged with IgG4 Fc (Yiminsu) works as an insulin sensitizer to activate Akt signaling in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zou, T; Yang, H X; Gong, Y Z; Xie, X J; Liu, H Y; Liao, D F

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Interaction of insulin with the insulin receptor (IR) leads to both its auto-phosphorylation and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on the IR substrate (IRS) proteins, initiating the activation of intracellular signaling cascades. The metabolic effects of IRS are known to be mediated through pathways involving phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), which result in the activation of Akt signaling. The C-terminal region of the IR ectodomain is required to facilitate the conformational changes that are required for high-affinity binding to insulin. Furthermore, the CH2 and CH3 domains in the Fc fragments of immunoglobulins are responsible for their binding to the Fc receptor, which triggers transcytosis. In this study, we created a fusion peptide of the C-terminal end of the human IR ectodomain with the IgG4 Fc fragment, including an intervening polyG fragment to ensure enough space for insulin binding. We named this new peptide "Yiminsu", meaning an insulin sensitizer. The results of our analyses show that Yiminsu significantly facilitates insulin signaling via the activation of Akt in hepatocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Further studies are required to determine whether Yiminsu can act as an insulin sensitizer. PMID:26345813

  12. Monoclonal antibody against the active site of caeruloplasmin and the ELISA system detecting active caeruloplasmin.

    PubMed

    Hiyamuta, S; Ito, K

    1994-04-01

    Serum caeruloplasmin deficiency is a characteristic biochemical abnormality found in patients with Wilson's disease, but the mechanism of this disease is unknown. Although the phenylenediamine oxidase activity of serum caeruloplasmin is markedly low in patients with Wilson's disease, mRNA of caeruloplasmin exists to some extent. To investigate the deficiency of caeruloplasmin oxidase activity in Wilson's disease, we generated 14 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and selected ID1, which had the strongest reactivity, and ID2, which had neutralizing ability. We also established a system to measure active caeruloplasmin specifically using these MAbs. These MAbs and the system will be useful tools in analyzing the active site of caeruloplasmin in patients with Wilson's disease.

  13. Robotics and Automation Activities at the Savannah River Site: A Site Report for SUBWOG 39F

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.

    1995-09-28

    The Savannah River Site has successfully used robots, teleoperators, and remote video to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation, improve worker safety, and improve the quality of operations. Previous reports have described the use of mobile teleoperators in coping with a high level liquid waste spill, the removal of highly contaminated equipment, and the inspection of nuclear reactor vessels. This report will cover recent applications at the Savannah River, as well as systems which SRS has delivered to other DOE site customers.

  14. Control of active sites in selective flocculation: II -- Role of site blocking agents

    SciTech Connect

    Behl, S.; Moudgil, B.M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Control of heteroflocculation using a lower molecular weight fraction of the flocculant as a site blocking agent is demonstrated in the apatite-dolomite-polyethylene oxide system. The most effective SBA (site blocking agent) was determined to be the highest molecular weight fraction of the flocculant itself which was not capable of flocculating any of the components of the mixture. In the presence of the SBA, flocculant adsorption decreased significantly on apatite particles, thereby inhibiting coflocculation.

  15. Regulatory role of suppressive motifs from commensal DNA.

    PubMed

    Bouladoux, N; Hall, J A; Grainger, J R; dos Santos, L M; Kann, M G; Nagarajan, V; Verthelyi, D; Belkaid, Y

    2012-11-01

    The microbiota contributes to the induction of both effector and regulatory responses in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, the mechanisms controlling these distinct properties remain poorly understood. We previously showed that commensal DNA promotes intestinal immunity. Here, we find that the capacity of bacterial DNA to stimulate immune responses is species specific and correlated with the frequency of motifs known to exert immunosuppressive function. In particular, we show that the DNA of Lactobacillus species, including various probiotics, is enriched in suppressive motifs able to inhibit lamina propria dendritic cell activation. In addition, immunosuppressive oligonucleotides sustain T(reg) cell conversion during inflammation and limit pathogen-induced immunopathology and colitis. Altogether, our findings identify DNA-suppressive motifs as a molecular ligand expressed by commensals and support the idea that a balance between stimulatory and regulatory DNA motifs contributes to the induction of controlled immune responses in the GI tract and gut immune homeostasis. Further, our findings suggest that the endogenous regulatory capacity of DNA motifs enriched in some commensal bacteria could be exploited for therapeutic purposes. PMID:22617839

  16. A β-Turn Motif in the Steroid Hormone Receptor's Ligand-Binding Domains Interacts with the Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase (PPIase) Catalytic Site of the Immunophilin FKBP52.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Cillian; Henen, Morkos A; Belnou, Mathilde; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Kamah, Amina; Qi, Haoling; Giustiniani, Julien; Chambraud, Béatrice; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Lippens, Guy; Landrieu, Isabelle; Jacquot, Yves

    2016-09-27

    The immunophilin FKBP52 interacts with nuclear steroid hormone receptors. Studying the crystal structure of human estrogen receptor α (hERα) and using nuclear magnetic resonance, we show here that the short V(364)PGF(367) sequence, which is located within its ligand-binding domain and adopts a type II β-turn conformation in the protein, binds the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase or rotamase) FK1 domain of FKBP52. Interestingly, this turn motif displays strong similarities with the FKBP52 FK1 domain-binding moiety of macrolide immunomodulators such as rapamycin and GPI-1046, an immunophilin ligand with neuroprotective characteristics. An increase in the hydrophobicity of the residue preceding the proline and cyclization of the VPGF peptide strengthen its recognition by the FK1 domain of FKBP52. Replacement of the Pro residue with a dimethylproline also enhances this interaction. Our study not only contributes to a better understanding of how the interaction between the FK1 domain of FKBP52 and steroid hormone receptors most likely works but also opens new avenues for the synthesis of FKBP52 FK1 peptide ligands appropriate for the control of hormone-dependent physiological mechanisms or of the functioning of the Tau protein. Indeed, it has been shown that FKBP52 is involved in the intraneuronal dynamics of the Tau protein. PMID:27641460

  17. A β-Turn Motif in the Steroid Hormone Receptor's Ligand-Binding Domains Interacts with the Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase (PPIase) Catalytic Site of the Immunophilin FKBP52.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Cillian; Henen, Morkos A; Belnou, Mathilde; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Kamah, Amina; Qi, Haoling; Giustiniani, Julien; Chambraud, Béatrice; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Lippens, Guy; Landrieu, Isabelle; Jacquot, Yves

    2016-09-27

    The immunophilin FKBP52 interacts with nuclear steroid hormone receptors. Studying the crystal structure of human estrogen receptor α (hERα) and using nuclear magnetic resonance, we show here that the short V(364)PGF(367) sequence, which is located within its ligand-binding domain and adopts a type II β-turn conformation in the protein, binds the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase or rotamase) FK1 domain of FKBP52. Interestingly, this turn motif displays strong similarities with the FKBP52 FK1 domain-binding moiety of macrolide immunomodulators such as rapamycin and GPI-1046, an immunophilin ligand with neuroprotective characteristics. An increase in the hydrophobicity of the residue preceding the proline and cyclization of the VPGF peptide strengthen its recognition by the FK1 domain of FKBP52. Replacement of the Pro residue with a dimethylproline also enhances this interaction. Our study not only contributes to a better understanding of how the interaction between the FK1 domain of FKBP52 and steroid hormone receptors most likely works but also opens new avenues for the synthesis of FKBP52 FK1 peptide ligands appropriate for the control of hormone-dependent physiological mechanisms or of the functioning of the Tau protein. Indeed, it has been shown that FKBP52 is involved in the intraneuronal dynamics of the Tau protein.

  18. Application of Synthetic Peptide Arrays To Uncover Cyclic Di-GMP Binding Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Düvel, Juliane; Bense, Sarina; Möller, Stefan; Bertinetti, Daniela; Schwede, Frank; Morr, Michael; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Jänsch, Lothar; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Frank, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High levels of the universal bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) promote the establishment of surface-attached growth in many bacteria. Not only can c-di-GMP bind to nucleic acids and directly control gene expression, but it also binds to a diverse array of proteins of specialized functions and orchestrates their activity. Since its development in the early 1990s, the synthetic peptide array technique has become a powerful tool for high-throughput approaches and was successfully applied to investigate the binding specificity of protein-ligand interactions. In this study, we used peptide arrays to uncover the c-di-GMP binding site of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa protein (PA3740) that was isolated in a chemical proteomics approach. PA3740 was shown to bind c-di-GMP with a high affinity, and peptide arrays uncovered LKKALKKQTNLR to be a putative c-di-GMP binding motif. Most interestingly, different from the previously identified c-di-GMP binding motif of the PilZ domain (RXXXR) or the I site of diguanylate cyclases (RXXD), two leucine residues and a glutamine residue and not the charged amino acids provided the key residues of the binding sequence. Those three amino acids are highly conserved across PA3740 homologs, and their singular exchange to alanine reduced c-di-GMP binding within the full-length protein. IMPORTANCE In many bacterial pathogens the universal bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP governs the switch from the planktonic, motile mode of growth to the sessile, biofilm mode of growth. Bacteria adapt their intracellular c-di-GMP levels to a variety of environmental challenges. Several classes of c-di-GMP binding proteins have been structurally characterized, and diverse c-di-GMP binding domains have been identified. Nevertheless, for several c-di-GMP receptors, the binding motif remains to be determined. Here we show that the use of a synthetic peptide array allowed the identification of a c-di-GMP binding motif of a putative c

  19. An Algorithm for Motif Discovery with Iteration on Lengths of Motifs.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yetian; Wu, Wei; Yang, Jie; Yang, Wenyu; Liu, Rongrong

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of DNA sequence motifs is becoming increasingly important in the study of gene regulation, and the identification of motif in DNA sequences is a complex problem in computational biology. Motif discovery has attracted the attention of more and more researchers, and varieties of algorithms have been proposed. Most existing motif discovery algorithms fix the motif's length as one of the input parameters. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to identify the optimal length of the motif and the optimal motif with that length, through an iteration process on increasing length numbers. For each fixed length, a modified genetic algorithm (GA) is used for finding the optimal motif with that length. Three operators are used in the modified GA: Mutation that is similar to the one used in usual GA but is modified to avoid local optimum in our case, and Addition and Deletion that are proposed by us for the problem. A criterion is given for singling out the optimal length in the increasing motif's lengths. We call this method AMDILM (an algorithm for motif discovery with iteration on lengths of motifs). The experiments on simulated data and real biological data show that AMDILM can accurately identify the optimal motif length. Meanwhile, the optimal motifs discovered by AMDILM are consistent with the real ones and are similar with the motifs obtained by the three well-known methods: Gibbs Sampler, MEME and Weeder. PMID:26357084

  20. Circular code motifs in genomes of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    El Soufi, Karim; Michel, Christian J

    2016-11-01

    A set X of 20 trinucleotides was identified in genes of bacteria, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses, which has in average the highest occurrence in reading frame compared to its two shifted frames (Michel, 2015; Arquès and Michel, 1996). This set X has an interesting mathematical property as X is a circular code (Arquès and Michel, 1996). Thus, the motifs from this circular code X, called X motifs, have the property to always retrieve, synchronize and maintain the reading frame in genes. In this paper, we develop several statistical analyzes of X motifs in 138 available complete genomes of eukaryotes in which genes as well as non-gene regions are examined. Large X motifs (with lengths of at least 15 consecutive trinucleotides of X and compositions of at least 10 different trinucleotides of X among 20) have the highest occurrence in genomes of eukaryotes compared to its 23 large bijective motifs, its two large permuted motifs and large random motifs. The largest X motifs identified in eukaryotic genomes are presented, e.g. an X motif in a non-gene region of the genome Solanum pennellii with a length of 155 trinucleotides (465 nucleotides) and an expectation E=10(-71). In the human genome, the largest X motif occurs in a non-gene region of the chromosome 13 with a length of 36 trinucleotides and an expectation E=10(-11). X motifs in non-gene regions of genomes could be evolutionary relics of primitive genes using the circular code for translation. However, the proportion of X motifs (with lengths of at least 10 consecutive trinucleotides of X and compositions of at least 5 different trinucleotides of X among 20) in genes/non-genes of the 138 complete eukaryotic genomes is about 8. Thus, the X motifs occur preferentially in genes, as expected from the previous works of 20 years.

  1. Molecular Models of STAT5A Tetramers Complexed to DNA Predict Relative Genome-Wide Frequencies of the Spacing between the Two Dimer Binding Motifs of the Tetramer Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Bangalore K.; Li, Peng; Lin, Jian-Xin; Leonard, Warren J.

    2016-01-01

    STAT proteins bind DNA as dimers and tetramers to control cellular development, differentiation, survival, and expansion. The tetramer binding sites are comprised of two dimer-binding sites repeated in tandem. The genome-wide distribution of the spacings between the dimer binding sites shows a distinctive, non-random pattern. Here, we report on estimating the feasibility of building possible molecular models of STAT5A tetramers bound to a DNA double helix with all possible spacings between the dimer binding sites. We found that the calculated feasibility estimates correlated well with the experimentally measured frequency of tetramer-binding sites. This suggests that the feasibility of forming the tetramer complex was a major factor in the evolution of this DNA sequence variation. PMID:27537504

  2. Molecular Models of STAT5A Tetramers Complexed to DNA Predict Relative Genome-Wide Frequencies of the Spacing between the Two Dimer Binding Motifs of the Tetramer Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana, Bangalore K; Li, Peng; Lin, Jian-Xin; Leonard, Warren J; Lee, Byungkook

    2016-01-01

    STAT proteins bind DNA as dimers and tetramers to control cellular development, differentiation, survival, and expansion. The tetramer binding sites are comprised of two dimer-binding sites repeated in tandem. The genome-wide distribution of the spacings between the dimer binding sites shows a distinctive, non-random pattern. Here, we report on estimating the feasibility of building possible molecular models of STAT5A tetramers bound to a DNA double helix with all possible spacings between the dimer binding sites. We found that the calculated feasibility estimates correlated well with the experimentally measured frequency of tetramer-binding sites. This suggests that the feasibility of forming the tetramer complex was a major factor in the evolution of this DNA sequence variation. PMID:27537504

  3. Synthetic biology with RNA motifs.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hirohide; Inoue, Tan

    2009-02-01

    Structural motifs in naturally occurring RNAs and RNPs can be employed as new molecular parts for synthetic biology to facilitate the development of novel devices and systems that modulate cellular functions. In this review, we focus on the following: (i) experimental evolution techniques of RNA molecules in vitro and (ii) their applications for regulating gene expression systems in vivo. For experimental evolution, new artificial RNA aptamers and RNA enzymes (ribozymes) have been selected in vitro. These functional RNA molecules are likely to be applicable in the reprogramming of existing gene regulatory systems. Furthermore, they may be used for designing hypothetical RNA-based living systems in the so-called RNA world. For the regulation of gene expressions in living cells, the development of new riboswitches allows us to modulate the target gene expression in a tailor-made manner. Moreover, recently RNA-based synthetic genetic circuits have been reported by employing functional RNA molecules, expanding the repertory of synthetic biology with RNA motifs. PMID:18775792

  4. Peptide sequences identified by phage display are immunodominant functional motifs of Pet and Pic serine proteases secreted by Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Ulises, Hernández-Chiñas; Tatiana, Gazarian; Karlen, Gazarian; Guillermo, Mendoza-Hernández; Juan, Xicohtencatl-Cortes; Carlos, Eslava

    2009-12-01

    Plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet) and protein involved in colonization (Pic), are serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) secreted by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), which display the GDSGSG sequence or the serine motif. Our research was directed to localize functional sites in both proteins using the phage display method. From a 12mer linear and a 7mer cysteine-constrained (C7C) libraries displayed on the M13 phage pIII protein we selected different mimotopes using IgG purified from sera of children naturally infected with EAEC producing Pet and Pic proteins, and anti-Pet and anti-Pic IgG purified from rabbits immunized with each one of these proteins. Children IgG selected a homologous group of sequences forming the consensus sequence, motif, PQPxK, and the motifs PGxI/LN and CxPDDSSxC were selected by the rabbit anti-Pet and anti-Pic IgGs, respectively. Analysis of the amino terminal region of a panel of SPATEs showed the presence in all of them of sequences matching the PGxI/LN or CxPDDSSxC motifs, and in a three-dimensional model (Modeller 9v2) designed for Pet, both these motifs were found in the globular portion of the protein, close to the protease active site GDSGSG. Antibodies induced in mice by mimotopes carrying the three aforementioned motifs were reactive with Pet, Pic, and with synthetic peptides carrying the immunogenic mimotope sequences TYPGYINHSKA and LLPQPPKLLLP, thus confirming that the peptide moiety of the selected phages induced the antibodies specific for the toxins. The antibodies induced in mice to the PGxI/LN and CxPDDSSxC mimotopes inhibited fodrin proteolysis and macrophage chemotaxis biological activities of Pet. Our results showed that we were able to generate, by a phage display procedure, mimotopes with sequence motifs PGxI/LN and CxPDDSSxC, and to identify them as functional motifs of the Pet, Pic and other SPATEs involved in their biological activities.

  5. Multiple cryptic splice sites can be activated by IDS point mutations generating misspliced transcripts.

    PubMed

    Lualdi, Susanna; Pittis, Maria G; Regis, Stefano; Parini, Rossella; Allegri, Anna E; Furlan, Francesca; Bembi, Bruno; Filocamo, Mirella

    2006-08-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) were reported as the cause of the X-linked recessive lysosomal disease, mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II). Amongst the different mutations, it emerges that nearly 10% are nucleotide substitutions causing splicing mutations. We now report the molecular characterisation of three MPS II patients with multiple aberrant transcripts due to three different point mutations. The c.418+1G>C that occurred in the invariant splice-site motif, produced only aberrantly spliced transcripts. Whilst the mutations affecting variant motifs (c.419G>T) or coding regions (c.245C>T) led to aberrantly spliced transcripts in addition to correctly spliced transcripts with the respective predicted missense mutation, p.G140V or p.A82V. A combination of experimental tests and computational approaches were used to understand the molecular basis underlying the altered transcription patterns. In addition, by using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, the reduction of mRNA amount in two patients observed was likely due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Overall, our results further emphasised the importance of cloning and sequencing independent transcripts to reveal less abundant, aberrant products, which often could not be detected by direct sequencing. Moreover, the different splicing patterns observed in the three patients as a consequence of point mutations show how sensitive the balance is between constitutive and cryptic splice sites in the IDS gene. The generation of such diverse transcripts, together with their level of expression, could contribute to the profound phenotypic variability reported in MPS II.

  6. Themes or Motifs? Aiming for Coherence through Interdisciplinary Outlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.; Smith Lynne A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how "motif-units" undermine the potential benefits of integrated thematic instruction. Suggests replacing the term "thematic unit" with the concept of "interdisciplinary outline," which focus on meaningful content, authentic activities, students' needs, teacher mediation, and a variety of resources. Shows how one fourth-grade teacher…

  7. Motif3D: Relating protein sequence motifs to 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Gaulton, Anna; Attwood, Teresa K

    2003-07-01

    Motif3D is a web-based protein structure viewer designed to allow sequence motifs, and in particular those contained in the fingerprints of the PRINTS database, to be visualised on three-dimensional (3D) structures. Additional functionality is provided for the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, enabling fingerprint motifs of any of the receptors in this family to be mapped onto the single structure available, that of bovine rhodopsin. Motif3D can be used via the web interface available at: http://www.bioinf.man.ac.uk/dbbrowser/motif3d/motif3d.html.

  8. Biological network motif detection: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Elisabeth; Baur, Brittany; Quader, Saad; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2012-03-01

    Network motifs are statistically overrepresented sub-structures (sub-graphs) in a network, and have been recognized as 'the simple building blocks of complex networks'. Study of biological network motifs may reveal answers to many important biological questions. The main difficulty in detecting larger network motifs in biological networks lies in the facts that the number of possible sub-graphs increases exponentially with the network or motif size (node counts, in general), and that no known polynomial-time algorithm exists in deciding if two graphs are topologically equivalent. This article discusses the biological significance of network motifs, the motivation behind solving the motif-finding problem, and strategies to solve the various aspects of this problem. A simple classification scheme is designed to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of several existing algorithms. Experimental results derived from a few comparative studies in the literature are discussed, with conclusions that lead to future research directions. PMID:22396487

  9. Redemptive Rhetoric: The Continuity Motif in the Rhetoric of Right to Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Martha

    1980-01-01

    Traces the use of the "continuity" motif in the Right to Life movement's rhetoric and its influence on the depiction of the abortion controversy. Analyzes how the motif functions rhetorically to aid the movement in defining its activities and involvement. (PD)

  10. Mutagenesis and biochemical studies on AuaA confirmed the importance of the two conserved aspartate-rich motifs and suggested difference in the amino acids for substrate binding in membrane-bound prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Stec, Edyta; Li, Shu-Ming

    2012-07-01

    AuaA is a membrane-bound farnesyltransferase from the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca involved in the biosynthesis of aurachins. Like other known membrane-bound aromatic prenyltransferases, AuaA contains two conserved aspartate-rich motifs. Several amino acids in the first motif NXxxDxxxD were proposed to be responsible for prenyl diphosphate binding via metal ions like Mg(2+). Site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated in this study that asparagine, but not the arginine residue in NRxxDxxxD, is important for the enzyme activity of AuaA, differing from the importance of NQ or ND residues in the NQxxDxxxD or NDxxDxxxD motifs observed in some membrane-bound prenyltransferases. The second motif of known membrane-bound prenyltransferases was proposed to be involved in the binding of their aromatic substrates. KDIxDxEGD, also found in AuaA, had been previously speculated to be characteristic for binding of flavonoids or homogenisate. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments with AuaA showed that KDIxDxEGD was critical for the enzyme activity. However, this motif is very likely not specific for flavonoid or homogenisate prenyltransferases, because none of the tested flavonoids was accepted by AuaA or its mutant R53A in the presence of farnesyl, geranyl or dimethylallyl diphosphate.

  11. Mutation at a Strictly Conserved, Active Site Tyrosine in the Copper Amine Oxidase Leads to Uncontrolled Oxygenase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhi-wei; Datta, Saumen; DuBois, Jennifer L.; Klinman, Judith P.; Mathews, F. Scott

    2010-09-07

    The copper amine oxidases carry out two copper-dependent processes: production of their own redox-active cofactor (2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone, TPQ) and the subsequent oxidative deamination of substrate amines. Because the same active site pocket must facilitate both reactions, individual active site residues may serve multiple roles. We have examined the roles of a strictly conserved active site tyrosine Y305 in the copper amine oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha kinetically, spetroscopically (Dubois and Klinman (2006) Biochemistry 45, 3178), and, in the present work, structurally. While the Y305A enzyme is almost identical to the wild type, a novel, highly oxygenated species replaces TPQ in the Y305F active sites. This new structure not only provides the first direct detection of peroxy intermediates in cofactor biogenesis but also indicates the critical control of oxidation chemistry that can be conferred by a single active site residue.

  12. Interaction of mitogen-activated protein kinases with the kinase interaction motif of the tyrosine phosphatase PTP-SL provides substrate specificity and retains ERK2 in the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, A; Torres, J; Ubeda, J; Pulido, R

    1999-07-30

    ERK1 and ERK2 associate with the tyrosine phosphatase PTP-SL through a kinase interaction motif (KIM) located in the juxtamembrane region of PTP-SL. A glutathione S-transferase (GST)-PTP-SL fusion protein containing the KIM associated with ERK1 and ERK2 as well as with p38/HOG, but not with the related JNK1 kinase or with protein kinase A or C. Accordingly, ERK2 showed in vitro substrate specificity to phosphorylate GST-PTP-SL in comparison with GST-c-Jun. Furthermore, tyrosine dephosphorylation of ERK2 by the PTP-SLDeltaKIM mutant was impaired. The in vitro association of ERK1/2 with GST-PTP-SL was highly stable; however, low concentrations of nucleotides partially dissociated the ERK1/2.PTP-SL complex. Partial deletions of the KIM abrogated the association of PTP-SL with ERK1/2, indicating that KIM integrity is required for interaction. Amino acid substitution analysis revealed that Arg and Leu residues within the KIM are essential for the interaction and suggested a regulatory role for Ser(231). Finally, coexpression of PTP-SL and ERK2 in COS-7 cells resulted in the retention of ERK2 in the cytoplasm in a KIM-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the noncatalytic region of PTP-SL associates with mitogen-activated protein kinases with high affinity and specificity, providing a mechanism for substrate specificity, and suggest a role for PTP-SL in the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase translocation to the nucleus upon activation.

  13. Identification of promiscuous ene-reductase activity by mining structural databases using active site constellations

    PubMed Central

    Steinkellner, Georg; Gruber, Christian C.; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Binter, Alexandra; Steiner, Kerstin; Winkler, Christoph; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Schwamberger, Orsolya; Oberer, Monika; Schwab, Helmut; Faber, Kurt; Macheroux, Peter; Gruber, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of catalytic promiscuity and the application of de novo design have recently opened the access to novel, non-natural enzymatic activities. Here we describe a structural bioinformatic method for predicting catalytic activities of enzymes based on three-dimensional constellations of functional groups in active sites (‘catalophores’). As a proof-of-concept we identify two enzymes with predicted promiscuous ene-reductase activity (reduction of activated C–C double bonds) and compare them with known ene-reductases, that is, members of the Old Yellow Enzyme family. Despite completely different amino acid sequences, overall structures and protein folds, high-resolution crystal structures reveal equivalent binding modes of typical Old Yellow Enzyme substrates and ligands. Biochemical and biocatalytic data show that the two enzymes indeed possess ene-reductase activity and reveal an inverted stereopreference compared with Old Yellow Enzymes for some substrates. This method could thus be a tool for the identification of viable starting points for the development and engineering of novel biocatalysts. PMID:24954722

  14. Binding Motifs in Bacterial Gene Promoters Modulate Transcriptional Effects of Global Regulators CRP and ArcA

    PubMed Central

    Leuze, Michael R.; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Syed, Mustafa H.; Beliaev, Alexander S.; Uberbacher, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TF) that bind to DNA recognition sequences in operon promoters. These recognition sequences, many of which are palindromic, are known as regulatory elements or transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Some TFs are global regulators that can modulate the expression of hundreds of genes. In this study we examine global regulator half-sites, where a half-site, which we shall call a binding motif (BM), is one half of a palindromic TFBS. We explore the hypothesis that the number of BMs plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, examining empirical data from transcriptional profiling of the CRP and ArcA regulons. We compare the power of BM counts and of full TFBS characteristics to predict induced transcriptional activity. We find that CRP BM counts have a nonlinear effect on CRP-dependent transcriptional activity and predict this activity better than full TFBS quality or location. PMID:22701314

  15. Binding motifs in bacterial gene promoters modulate transcriptional effects of global regulators CRP and ArcA

    SciTech Connect

    Leuze, Mike; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Syed, Mustafa H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Uberbacher, Edward

    2012-05-30

    Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TF) that bind to DNA recognition sequences in operon promoters. These recognition sequences, many of which are palindromic, are known as regulatory elements or transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Some TFs are global regulators that can modulate the expression of hundreds of genes. In this study we examine global regulator half-sites, where a half-site, which we shall call a binding motif (BM), is one half of a palindromic TFBS. We explore the hypothesis that the number of BMs plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, examining empirical data from transcriptional profiling of the CRP and ArcA regulons. We compare the power of BM counts and of full TFBS characteristics to predict induced transcriptional activity. We find that CRP BM counts have a nonlinear effect on CRP-dependent transcriptional activity and predict this activity better than full TFBS quality or location.

  16. A lysine-rich motif in the phosphatidylserine receptor PSR-1 mediates recognition and removal of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hengwen; Chen, Yu-Zen; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Xiang; Godfroy, James I.; Liang, Qian; Zhang, Man; Zhang, Tianying; Yuan, Quan; Royal, Mary Ann; Driscoll, Monica; Xia, Ning-Shao; Yin, Hang; Xue, Ding

    2014-01-01

    The conserved phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) was first identified as a receptor for phosphatidylserine, an "eat-me" signal exposed by apoptotic cells. However, several studies suggest that PSR may also act as an arginine demethylase, a lysyl hydroxylase, or an RNA binding protein through its N-terminal JmjC domain. How PSR might execute drastically different biochemical activities, and whether they are physiologically significant, remain unclear. Here we report that a lysine-rich motif in the extracellular domain of PSR-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans PSR, mediates specific phosphatidylserine binding in vitro and clearance of apoptotic cells in vivo. This motif also mediates phosphatidylserine-induced oligomerization of PSR-1, suggesting a mechanism by which PSR-1 activates phagocytosis. Mutations in the phosphatidylserine-binding motif, but not in its Fe(II) binding site critical for the JmjC activity, abolish PSR-1 phagocytic function. Moreover, PSR-1 enriches and clusters around apoptotic cells during apoptosis. These results establish that PSR-1 is a conserved, phosphatidylserine-recognizing phagocyte receptor. PMID:25564762

  17. The heteromeric Nanoarchaeum equitans splicing endonuclease cleaves noncanonical bulge–helix–bulge motifs of joined tRNA halves

    PubMed Central

    Randau, Lennart; Calvin, Kate; Hall, Michelle; Yuan, Jing; Podar, Mircea; Li, Hong; Söll, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Among the tRNA population of the archaeal parasite Nanoarchaeum equitans are five species assembled from separate 5′ and 3′ tRNA halves and four species derived from tRNA precursors containing introns. In both groups an intervening sequence element must be removed during tRNA maturation. A bulge–helix–bulge (BHB) motif is the hallmark structure required by the archaeal splicing endonuclease for recognition and excision of all introns. BHB motifs are recognizable at the joining sites of all five noncontinuous tRNA species, although deviations from the canonical BHB motif are clearly present in at least two of them. Here, we show that the N. equitans splicing endonuclease cleaves tRNA precursors containing normal introns, as well as all five noncontinuous precursor tRNAs, at the predicted splice sites, indicating the enzyme's dual role in the removal of tRNA introns and processing of tRNA halves to be joined in trans. The cleavage activity on a set of synthetic canonical and noncanonical BHB constructs showed that the N. equitans splicing endonuclease accepts a broader range of substrates than the homodimeric Archaeoglobus fulgidus enzyme. In contrast to the A. fulgidus endonuclease, the N. equitans splicing enzyme possesses two different subunits. This heteromeric endonuclease type, found in N. equitans, in all Crenarchaeota, and in Methanopyrus kandleri, is able to act on the noncanonical tRNA introns present only in these organisms, which suggests coevolution of enzyme and substrate. PMID:16330750

  18. An ionizable active-site tryptophan imparts catalase activity to a peroxidase core.

    PubMed

    Loewen, Peter C; Carpena, Xavi; Vidossich, Pietro; Fita, Ignacio; Rovira, Carme

    2014-05-21

    Catalase peroxidases (KatG's) are bifunctional heme proteins that can disproportionate hydrogen peroxide (catalatic reaction) despite their structural dissimilarity with monofunctional catalases. Using X-ray crystallography and QM/MM calculations, we demonstrate that the catalatic reaction of KatG's involves deprotonation of the active-site Trp, which plays a role similar to that of the distal His in monofunctional catalases. The interaction of a nearby mobile arginine with the distal Met-Tyr-Trp essential adduct (in/out) acts as an electronic switch, triggering deprotonation of the adduct Trp.

  19. C-terminal motif prediction in eukaryotic proteomes using comparative genomics and statistical over-representation across protein families

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Ryan S; Provart, Nicholas J; Cutler, Sean R

    2007-01-01

    Background The carboxy termini of proteins are a frequent site of activity for a variety of biologically important functions, ranging from post-translational modification to protein targeting. Several short peptide motifs involved in protein sorting roles and dependent upon their proximity to the C-terminus for proper function have already been characterized. As a limited number of such motifs have been identified, the potential exists for genome-wide statistical analysis and comparative genomics to reveal novel peptide signatures functioning in a C-terminal dependent manner. We have applied a novel methodology to the prediction of C-terminal-anchored peptide motifs involving a simple z-statistic and several techniques for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Results We examined the statistical over-representation of position-specific C-terminal tripeptides in 7 eukaryotic proteomes. Sequence randomization models and simple-sequence masking were applied to the successful reduction of background noise. Similarly, as C-terminal homology among members of large protein families may artificially inflate tripeptide counts in an irrelevant and obfuscating manner, gene-family clustering was performed prior to the analysis in order to assess tripeptide over-representation across protein families as opposed to across all proteins. Finally, comparative genomics was used to identify tripeptides significantly occurring in multiple species. This approach has been able to predict, to our knowledge, all C-terminally anchored targeting motifs present in the literature. These include the PTS1 peroxisomal targeting signal (SKL*), the ER-retention signal (K/HDEL*), the ER-retrieval signal for membrane bound proteins (KKxx*), the prenylation signal (CC*) and the CaaX box prenylation motif. In addition to a high statistical over-representation of these known motifs, a collection of significant tripeptides with a high propensity for biological function exists between species, among

  20. Nuclear Site Security in the Event of Terrorist Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, M.L.; Sims, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented as a poster, identifies why ballistic protection should now be considered at nuclear sites to counter terrorist threats. A proven and flexible form of multi purpose protection is described in detail with identification of trial results that show its suitability for this role. (authors)

  1. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  2. Active Layer and Moisture Measurements for Intensive Site 0 and 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Peterson

    2015-04-17

    These are measurements of Active Layer Thickness collected along several lines beginning in September, 2011 to the present. The data were collected at several time periods along the Site0 L2 Line, the Site1 AB Line, and an ERT Monitoring Line near Area A in Site1.

  3. In silico analysis of molecular mechanisms of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectin-induced cancer cell death from carbohydrate-binding motif evolution hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qi-Jia; Li, Zi-Yue; Yao, Shun; Ming, Miao; Wang, Shu-Ya; Liu, Bo; Bao, Jin-Ku

    2011-10-01

    Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectins, a superfamily of strictly mannose-binding-specific lectins widespread amongst monotyledonous plants, have drawn a rising attention for their remarkable anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities toward various types of cancer cells; however, the precise molecular mechanisms by which they induce tumor cell apoptosis are still only rudimentarily understood. Herein, we found that the three conserved motifs "QXDXNXVXY," the mannose-specific binding sites, could mutate at one or more amino acid sites, which might be a driving force for the sequential evolution and thus ultimately leading to the complete disappearance of the three conserved motifs. In addition, we found that the motif evolution could result in the diversification of sugar-binding types that G. nivalis agglutinin-related lectins could bind from specific mannose receptors to more types of sugar-containing receptors in cancer cells. Subsequently, we indicated that some sugar-containing receptors such as TNFR1, EGFR, Hsp90, and Hsp70 could block downstream anti-apoptotic or survival signaling pathways, which, in turn, resulted in tumor cell apoptosis. Taken together, our hypothesis that carbohydrate-binding motif evolution may impact the G. nivalis agglutinin-related lectin-induced survival or anti-apoptotic pathways would provide a new perspective for further elucidating the intricate relationships between the carbohydrate-binding specificities and complex molecular mechanisms by which G. nivalis agglutinin-related lectins induce cancer cell death.

  4. Exploring comprehensive within-motif dependence of transcription factor binding in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chi; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the binding of transcription factors helps to decipher the control logic behind transcriptional regulatory networks. Position weight matrix is commonly used to describe a binding motif but assumes statistical independence between positions. Although current approaches take within-motif dependence into account for better predictive performance, these models usually rely on prior knowledge and incorporate simple positional dependence to describe binding motifs. The inability to take complex within-motif dependence into account may result in an incomplete representation of binding motifs. In this work, we applied association rule mining techniques and constructed models to explore within-motif dependence for transcription factors in Escherichia coli. Our models can reflect transcription factor-DNA recognition where the explored dependence correlates with the binding specificity. We also propose a graphical representation of the explored within-motif dependence to illustrate the final binding configurations. Understanding the binding configurations also enables us to fine-tune or design transcription factor binding sites, and we attempt to present the configurations through exploring within-motif dependence. PMID:26592556

  5. Exploring comprehensive within-motif dependence of transcription factor binding in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung

    2015-11-23