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Sample records for active site peptide

  1. An active-site peptide from pepsin C

    PubMed Central

    Kay, J.; Ryle, A. P.

    1971-01-01

    Porcine pepsin C is inactivated rapidly and irreversibly by diazoacetyl-dl-norleucine methyl ester in the presence of cupric ions at pH values above 4.5. The inactivation is specific in that complete inactivation accompanies the incorporation of 1mol of inhibitor residue/mol of enzyme and evidence has been obtained to suggest that the reaction occurs with an active site residue. The site of reaction is the β-carboxyl group of an aspartic acid residue in the sequence Ile-Val-Asp-Thr. This sequence is identical with the active-site sequence in pepsin and the significance of this in terms of the different activities of the two enzymes is discussed. PMID:4942834

  2. Conversed mutagenesis of an inactive peptide to ASIC3 inhibitor for active sites determination.

    PubMed

    Osmakov, Dmitry I; Koshelev, Sergey G; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Dyachenko, Igor A; Bondarenko, Dmitry A; Murashev, Arkadii N; Grishin, Eugene V; Kozlov, Sergey A

    2016-06-15

    Peptide Ugr9-1 from the venom of sea anemone Urticina grebelnyi selectively inhibits the ASIC3 channel and significantly reverses inflammatory and acid-induced pain in vivo. A close homolog peptide Ugr 9-2 does not have these features. To find the pharmacophore residues and explore structure-activity relationships of Ugr 9-1, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of Ugr 9-2 and replaced several positions by the corresponding residues from Ugr 9-1. Mutant peptides Ugr 9-2 T9F and Ugr 9-2 Y12H were able to inhibit currents of the ASIC3 channels 2.2 times and 1.3 times weaker than Ugr 9-1, respectively. Detailed analysis of the spatial models of Ugr 9-1, Ugr 9-2 and both mutant peptides revealed the presence of the basic-aromatic clusters on opposite sides of the molecule, each of which is responsible for the activity. Additionally, Ugr9-1 mutant with truncated N- and C-termini retained similar with the Ugr9-1 action in vitro and was equally potent in vivo model of thermal hypersensitivity. All together, these results are important for studying the structure-activity relationships of ligand-receptor interaction and for the future development of peptide drugs from animal toxins. PMID:26686983

  3. The thrombin receptor extracellular domain contains sites crucial for peptide ligand-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahou, W F; Coller, B S; Potter, C L; Norton, K J; Kutok, J L; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha

  4. Amyloid-β peptide active site: theoretical Cu K-edge XANES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaynikov, A. P.; Soldatov, M. A.; Streltsov, V.; Soldatov, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    This article is dedicated to the local atomic structure analysis of the copper binding site in amyloid-β peptide. Here we considered two possible structural models that were previously obtained by means of EXAFS analysis and density functional theory simulations. We present the calculations of Cu K-edge XANES spectra for both models and make comparison of these spectra with experiment.

  5. Purification and sequencing of the active site tryptic peptide from penicillin-binding protein 1b of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, R.A.; Suzuki, H.; Hirota, Y.; Strominger, J.L.

    1985-07-02

    This paper reports the sequence of the active site peptide of penicillin-binding protein 1b from Escherichia coli. Purified penicillin-binding protein 1b was labeled with (/sup 14/C)penicillin G, digested with trypsin, and partially purified by gel filtration. Upon further purification by high-pressure liquid chromatography, two radioactive peaks were observed, and the major peak, representing over 75% of the applied radioactivity, was submitted to amino acid analysis and sequencing. The sequence Ser-Ile-Gly-Ser-Leu-Ala-Lys was obtained. The active site nucleophile was identified by digesting the purified peptide with aminopeptidase M and separating the radioactive products on high-pressure liquid chromatography. Amino acid analysis confirmed that the serine residue in the middle of the sequence was covalently bonded to the (/sup 14/C)penicilloyl moiety. A comparison of this sequence to active site sequences of other penicillin-binding proteins and beta-lactamases is presented.

  6. A Multiple-Labeling Strategy for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Using Active-Site-Directed Proteomic Probes for Adenylation Domains.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-12-01

    Genetic approaches have greatly contributed to our understanding of nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic machinery; however, proteomic investigations are limited. Here, we developed a highly sensitive detection strategy for multidomain nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) by using a multiple-labeling technique with active-site-directed probes for adenylation domains. When applied to gramicidin S-producing and -nonproducing strains of Aneurinibacillus migulanus (DSM 5759 and DSM 2895, respectively), the multiple technique sensitively detected an active multidomain NRPS (GrsB) in lysates obtained from the organisms. This functional proteomics method revealed an unknown inactive precursor (or other inactive form) of GrsB in the nonproducing strain. This method provides a new option for the direct detection, functional analysis, and high-resolution identification of low-abundance active NRPS enzymes in native proteomic environments. PMID:26467472

  7. A single mutation in the hepta-peptide active site of Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase leads to myriad of biochemical changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The active site motif of proteins belonging to ‘Histidine Acid Phosphatase’ (HAP) contains a hepta-peptide region, RHGXRXP. A close comparison among fungal and yeast HAPs has revealed the fourth residue of the hepta-peptide to be E instead of A, which is the case with A. niger phyA phytase. However,...

  8. Simultaneous Binding of Basic Peptides at Intracellular Sites on a Large Conductance Ca2+-activated K+ Channel

    PubMed Central

    Favre, Isabelle; Moczydlowski, Edward

    1999-01-01

    The homologous Kunitz inhibitor proteins, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and dendrotoxin I (DTX-I), interact with large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (maxi-KCa) by binding to an intracellular site outside of the pore to produce discrete substate events. In contrast, certain homologues of the Shaker ball peptide produce discrete blocking events by binding within the ion conduction pathway. In this study, we investigated ligand interactions of these positively charged peptide molecules by analysis of single maxi-KCa channels in planar bilayers recorded in the presence of DTX-I and BPTI, or DTX-I and a high-affinity homologue of ball peptide. Both DTX-I (Kd, 16.5 nM) and BPTI (Kd, 1,490 nM) exhibit one-site binding kinetics when studied alone; however, records in the presence of DTX-I plus BPTI demonstrate simultaneous binding of these two molecules. The affinity of BPTI (net charge, +6) decreases by 11.7-fold (Kd, 17,500 nM) when DTX-I (net charge, +10) is bound and, conversely, the affinity of DTX-I decreases by 10.8-fold (Kd, 178 nM) when BPTI is bound. The ball peptide homologue (BP; net charge, +6) exhibits high blocking affinity (Kd, 7.2 nM) at a single site when studied alone, but has 8.0-fold lower affinity (Kd, 57 nM) for blocking the DTX-occupied channel. The affinity of DTX-I likewise decreases by 8.4-fold (Kd, 139 nM) when BP is bound. These results identify two types of negatively coupled ligand–ligand interactions at distinct sites on the intracellular surface of maxi-KCa channels. Such antagonistic ligand interactions explain how the binding of BPTI or DTX-I to four potentially available sites on a tetrameric channel protein can exhibit apparent one-site kinetics. We hypothesize that negatively coupled binding equilibria and asymmetric changes in transition state energies for the interaction between DTX-I and BP originate from repulsive electrostatic interactions between positively charged peptide ligands on the channel surface

  9. A Structural Study of Norovirus 3C Protease Specificity: Binding of a Designed Active Site-Directed Peptide Inhibitor†

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses are the major cause of human epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Viral replication requires a 3C cysteine protease that cleaves a 200 kDa viral polyprotein into its constituent functional proteins. Here we describe the X-ray structure of the Southampton norovirus 3C protease (SV3CP) bound to an active site-directed peptide inhibitor (MAPI) which has been refined at 1.7 Å resolution. The inhibitor, acetyl-Glu-Phe-Gln-Leu-Gln-X, which is based on the most rapidly cleaved recognition sequence in the 200 kDa polyprotein substrate, reacts covalently through its propenyl ethyl ester group (X) with the active site nucleophile, Cys 139. The structure permits, for the first time, the identification of substrate recognition and binding groups in a noroviral 3C protease and thus provides important new information for the development of antiviral prophylactics. PMID:21128685

  10. Functional and Mechanistic Analyses of Biomimetic Aminoacyl Transfer Reactions in de novo Designed Coiled Coil Peptides via Rational Active Site Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Luke J.; Weinberger, Dana A.; Huang, Zheng-Zheng; Wilcoxen, Keith M.; Ghadiri, M. Reza

    2008-01-01

    Ribosomes and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) carry out instructed peptide synthesis through a series of directed intermodular aminoacyl transfer reactions. We recently reported the design of coiled-coil assemblies that could functionally mimic the elementary aminoacyl loading and intermodular aminoacyl transfer steps of NRPSs. These peptides were designed initially to accelerate aminoacyl transfer mainly through catalysis by approximation by closely juxtaposing four active site moieties, two each from adjacent noncovalently-associated helical modules. In our designs peptide self-assembly positions a cysteine residue that is used to covalently capture substrates from solution via transthiolesterification (substrate loading step to generate the aminoacyl donor site) adjacent to an aminoacyl acceptor site provided by a covalently tethered amino acid or modeled by the ε-amine of an active site lysine. However, through systematic functional analyses of 48 rationally designed peptide sequences, we have now determined that the substrate loading and intermodular aminoacyl transfer steps can be significantly influenced (up to ~103-fold) by engineering changes in the active site microenvironment through amino acid substitutions and variations in the inter-residue distances and geometry. Mechanistic studies based on 15N-NMR and kinetic analysis further indicate that certain active site constellations furnish an unexpectedly large pKa depression (1.5 pH units) of the aminoacyl-acceptor moiety, helping to explain the observed high rates of aminoacyl transfer in those constructs. Taken together, our studies demonstrate the feasibility of engineering efficient de novo peptide sequences possessing active sites and functions reminiscent of those in natural enzymes. PMID:17302417

  11. Binding stability of peptides derived from 1ALA residue and 7GLY residues to sites near active center of fluctuating papain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the binding stability of peptides derived from 1ALA residue and 7GLY residues to sites near active center of fluctuating papain via molecular dynamics and docking simulations. Replacing GLY residue in 8GLY with ALA residue had a positive effect on binding stability to the sites in some cases although the replacing had a negative effect on it in other cases. Furthermore the replacing had a negative effect on the chance of binding to the sites. Residue in peptide should be replaced on the basis of systematic exploration of its position.

  12. FRET analysis using sperm-activating peptides tagged with fluorescent proteins reveals that ligand-binding sites exist as clusters.

    PubMed

    Arcos-Hernández, César; Romero, Francisco; Sánchez-Guevara, Yoloxochitl; Beltrán, Carmen; Nishigaki, Takuya

    2016-02-01

    Long-range cellular communication between the sperm and egg is critical for external fertilization. Sperm-activating peptides (SAPs) are diffusible components of the outer layer of eggs in echinoderms, and function as chemoattractants for spermatozoa. The decapeptide named speract is the best-characterized sea urchin SAP. Biochemical and physiological actions of speract have been studied with purified or chemically synthesized peptides. In this work, we prepared recombinant speract fused to a fluorescent protein (FP; FP-speract) using three color variants: a cyan (eCFP), a yellow (mVenus) and a large Stokes shift yellow (mAmetrine) FP. Although these fluorescence tags are 20 times larger than speract, competitive binding experiments using mAmetrine-speract revealed that this FP-speract has binding affinity to the receptor that is comparable (7.6-fold less) to that of non-labeled speract. Indeed, 10 nmol l(-1) eCFP-speract induces physiological sperm responses such as membrane potential changes and increases in intracellular pH and Ca(2+) concentrations similar to those triggered by 10 nmol l(-1) speract. Furthermore, FP-speract maintains its fluorescence upon binding to its receptor. Using this property, we performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements with eCFP-speract and mVenus-speract as probes and obtained a positive FRET signal upon binding to the receptor, which suggests that the speract receptor exists as an oligomer, at least as a dimer, or alternatively that a single speract receptor protein possesses multiple binding sites. This property could partially account for the positive and/or negative cooperative binding of speract to the receptor. PMID:26889001

  13. Aberrant hepatic processing causes removal of activation peptide and primary polymerisation site from fibrinogen Canterbury (A alpha 20 Val --> Asp).

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, S O; Hammonds, B; George, P M

    1995-01-01

    A novel mechanism of molecular disease was uncovered in a patient with prolonged thrombin time and a mild bleeding tendency. DNA sequencing of the fibrinogen A alpha chain indicated heterozygosity for a mutation of 20 Val --> Asp. The molar ratio of fibrinopeptide A to B released by thrombin was substantially reduced at 0.64 suggesting either impaired cleavage or that the majority of the variant alpha chains lacked the A peptide. The latter novel proposal arises from the observation that the mutation changes the normal 16R G P R V20 sequence to R G P R D creating a potential furin cleavage site at Arg 19. Synthetic peptides incorporating both sequences were tested as substrates for both thrombin and furin. There was no substantial difference in the thrombin catalyzed cleavage. However, the variant peptide, but not the normal, was rapidly cleaved at Arg 19 by furin. Predictably intracellular cleavage of the Aalpha-chain at Arg 19 would remove fibrinopeptide A together with the G P R polymerisation site. This was confirmed by sequence analysis of fibrinogen Aalpha chains after isolation by SDS-PAGE. The expected normal sequence was detected together with a new sequence (D V E R H Q S A-) commencing at residue 20. Truncation was further verified by nonreducing SDS-PAGE of the NH2-terminal disulfide knot which indicated the presence of aberrant homo- and heterodimers. Images PMID:8675656

  14. Definition of a physiologic aging autoantigen by using synthetic peptides of membrane protein band 3: localization of the active antigenic sites.

    PubMed

    Kay, M M; Marchalonis, J J; Hughes, J; Watanabe, K; Schluter, S F

    1990-08-01

    Senescent cell antigen (SCA), an aging antigen, is a protein that appears on old cells and marks them for removal by the immune system in mammals. It is derived from band 3, a ubiquitous membrane transport protein found in diverse cell types and tissues. We have used synthetic peptides to identify aging antigenic sites on band 3, using a competitive inhibition assay and immunoblotting with IgG directed against the aging antigen on old cells. Results indicate that: (i) the active antigenic sites of the aging antigen reside on membrane protein band 3 residues that are extracellular regions implicated in anion transport (residues 538-554 and 788-827); (ii) a putative ankyrin-binding-region peptide is not involved in SCA activity; and (iii) carbohydrate moieties are not required for the antigenicity or recognition of SCA because synthetic peptides alone abolish binding of senescent cell IgG to erythrocytes. One of the putative transport sites that contributes to the aging antigen is located toward the carboxyl terminus. A model of band 3 is presented. Localization of the active antigenic site on the band 3 molecule facilitates definition of the molecular changes occurring during aging that initiate molecular as well as cellular degeneration. PMID:1696010

  15. Synthetic peptides based upon a three-dimensional model for the receptor recognition site of follicle-stimulating hormone exhibit antagonistic or agonistic activity at low concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Hage-van Noort, M; Puijk, W C; Plasman, H H; Kuperus, D; Schaaper, W M; Beekman, N J; Grootegoed, J A; Meloen, R H

    1992-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (follitropin, FSH) belongs to a group of closely related glycoprotein hormones that contain two noncovalently linked dissimilar subunits designated alpha and beta. By using synthetic peptides, several receptor interaction sites in these hormones have been identified; however, the peptides have a reduced potency (lowest effective concentration of 10(-4) to 10(-5) M) relative to the hormone itself (10(-8) to 10(-11) M). This suggests that the peptides represent only a portion of a larger recognition site in the intact hormone that comprises parts of both the beta and the alpha chains. To develop peptides that exhibit FSH-antagonistic activity at low concentrations, we have constructed a three-dimensional model for FSH, which is based on an alignment of both the beta and the alpha chains of glycoprotein hormones with thioredoxin, for which x-ray diffraction data are available. This model resulted in the prediction of a conformational receptor-binding site in FSH, in which (parts of) three earlier proposed binding regions on the FSH molecule [namely, the regions FSH alpha-(34-37), with the amino acid sequence SRAY; FSH beta-(40-43), with the amino acid sequence TRDL; and FSH beta-(87-94), the "determinant loop" with the amino acid sequence CDSDSTDC] are located within 10 A of one another. On the basis of this model, peptides have been synthesized in which two of these binding regions are linked by a synthetic amino acid whose length was derived from the model, Ac-TDSDS-NH-(CH2)5-CO-SRAY-NH2 and Ac-SRAY-NH-(CH2)4-CO-TRDL-NH2. Both peptides inhibited FSH-induced cAMP production in Sertoli cells at 1000-fold lower concentrations (10(-7) M) than the peptides Ac-TRDL-NH2, Ac-SRAY-NH2, or Ac-TDSDS-NH2. In another peptide, Ac-TDSDS-NH-(CH2)5-CO-SRAY-NH-(CH2)4-CO-TRDL-NH2, all three binding regions have been linked. This peptide appeared to be a strong agonist of FSH action, as measured by the ability to stimulate cAMP production, at concentrations

  16. Concepts for Biologically Active Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kastin, Abba J.; Pan, Weihong

    2012-01-01

    Here we review a unique aspect of CNS research on biologically active peptides that started against a background of prevalent dogmas but ended by exerting considerable influence on the field. During the course of refuting some doctrines, we introduced several concepts that were unconventional and paradigm-shifting at the time. We showed that (1) hypothalamic peptides can act ‘up’ on the brain as well as ‘down’ on the pituitary, (2) peripheral peptides can affect the brain, (3) peptides can cross the blood-brain barrier, (4) the actions of peptides can persist longer than their half-lives in blood, (5) perinatal administration of peptides can exert actions persisting into adulthood, (6) a single peptide can have more than one action, (7) dose-response relationships of peptides need not be linear, (8) the brain produces antiopiate as well as opiate peptides, (9) there is a selective high affinity endogenous peptide ligand for the mu-opiate receptor, (10) a peptide’s name does not restrict its effects, and (11) astrocytes assume an active role in response to metabolic disturbance and hyperleptinemia. The evolving questions in our laboratories reflect the diligent effort of the neuropeptide community to identify the roles of peptides in the CNS. The next decade is expected to see greater progress in the following areas: (a) interactions of peptides with other molecules in the CNS; (b) peptide involvement in cell-cell interactions; and (c) peptides in neuropsychiatric, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases. The development of peptidomics and gene silencing approaches will expedite the formation of many new concepts in a new era. PMID:20726835

  17. Crystal structure of the dithiol oxidase DsbA enzyme from proteus mirabilis bound non-covalently to an active site peptide ligand.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Fabian; Duprez, Wilko; Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Schembri, Mark A; Fairlie, David P; Martin, Jennifer L

    2014-07-11

    The disulfide bond forming DsbA enzymes and their DsbB interaction partners are attractive targets for development of antivirulence drugs because both are essential for virulence factor assembly in Gram-negative pathogens. Here we characterize PmDsbA from Proteus mirabilis, a bacterial pathogen increasingly associated with multidrug resistance. PmDsbA exhibits the characteristic properties of a DsbA, including an oxidizing potential, destabilizing disulfide, acidic active site cysteine, and dithiol oxidase catalytic activity. We evaluated a peptide, PWATCDS, derived from the partner protein DsbB and showed by thermal shift and isothermal titration calorimetry that it binds to PmDsbA. The crystal structures of PmDsbA, and the active site variant PmDsbAC30S were determined to high resolution. Analysis of these structures allows categorization of PmDsbA into the DsbA class exemplified by the archetypal Escherichia coli DsbA enzyme. We also present a crystal structure of PmDsbAC30S in complex with the peptide PWATCDS. The structure shows that the peptide binds non-covalently to the active site CXXC motif, the cis-Pro loop, and the hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site of the enzyme. This high-resolution structural data provides a critical advance for future structure-based design of non-covalent peptidomimetic inhibitors. Such inhibitors would represent an entirely new antibacterial class that work by switching off the DSB virulence assembly machinery. PMID:24831013

  18. Crystal Structure of the Dithiol Oxidase DsbA Enzyme from Proteus Mirabilis Bound Non-covalently to an Active Site Peptide Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Fabian; Duprez, Wilko; Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Schembri, Mark A.; Fairlie, David P.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The disulfide bond forming DsbA enzymes and their DsbB interaction partners are attractive targets for development of antivirulence drugs because both are essential for virulence factor assembly in Gram-negative pathogens. Here we characterize PmDsbA from Proteus mirabilis, a bacterial pathogen increasingly associated with multidrug resistance. PmDsbA exhibits the characteristic properties of a DsbA, including an oxidizing potential, destabilizing disulfide, acidic active site cysteine, and dithiol oxidase catalytic activity. We evaluated a peptide, PWATCDS, derived from the partner protein DsbB and showed by thermal shift and isothermal titration calorimetry that it binds to PmDsbA. The crystal structures of PmDsbA, and the active site variant PmDsbAC30S were determined to high resolution. Analysis of these structures allows categorization of PmDsbA into the DsbA class exemplified by the archetypal Escherichia coli DsbA enzyme. We also present a crystal structure of PmDsbAC30S in complex with the peptide PWATCDS. The structure shows that the peptide binds non-covalently to the active site CXXC motif, the cis-Pro loop, and the hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site of the enzyme. This high-resolution structural data provides a critical advance for future structure-based design of non-covalent peptidomimetic inhibitors. Such inhibitors would represent an entirely new antibacterial class that work by switching off the DSB virulence assembly machinery. PMID:24831013

  19. X-ray structure at 1.75 resolution of a norovirus 3C protease linked to an active site-directed peptide inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Jon; Coates, Leighton; Hussey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses are recognized universally as the most important cause of human epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Viral replication requires a 3C cysteine protease that cleaves a 200kDa viral polyprotein into its constituent functional proteins. Here we describe the X-ray structure of the Southampton norovirus 3C protease (SV3CP) bound to an active site-directed peptide inhibitor (MAPI) which has been refined at 1.75 resolution, following initial MAD phasing with a selenomethionine derivative. The inhibitor, acetyl-Glu-Phe-Gln-Leu-Gln-X, based on a 3C protease cleavage recognition sequences in the 200kDa polyprotein substrate, reacts covalently through its propenylethylester group (X) with the active site nucleophile, Cys 139. The 3C protease-inhibitor structure permits, for the first time, the identification of substrate recognition and binding groups and provides important new information for the development of antiviral prophylactics.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of polycationic peptides.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, A; Cirioni, O; Barchiesi, F; Del Prete, M S; Scalise, G

    1999-11-01

    The in vitro activity of six polycationic peptides, buforin II, cecropin P1, indolicidin, magainin II, nisin, and ranalexin, were evaluated against several clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptosporidium parvum, by using microbroth dilution methods. The peptides exhibited different antibacterial activities and rapid time-dependent killing. The gram-negative organisms were more susceptible to buforin II and cecropin P1, whereas buforin II and ranalexin were the most active compounds against the gram-positive strains. Similarly, ranalexin showed the highest activity against Candida spp., whereas magainin II exerted the highest anticryptococcal activity. Finally, the peptides showed high anti-Pneumocystis activity, whereas no compound had strong inhibitory effect on C. parvum. PMID:10612440

  1. Identification of the heme adduct and an active site peptide modified during mechanism-based inactivation of rat liver cytochrome P450 2B1 by secobarbital.

    PubMed

    He, K; Falick, A M; Chen, B; Nilsson, F; Correia, M A

    1996-01-01

    The olefinic barbiturate secobarbital (SB) is a sedative hypnotic known to be a relatively selective mechanism-based inactivator of rat liver cytochrome P450 2B1. Previous studies have demonstrated that such inactivation results in prosthetic heme destruction and irreversible drug-induced protein modification, events most likely triggered by P450 2B1-dependent oxidative activation of the olefinic pi-bond. However, the precise structure of the SB-modified heme and/or the protein site targeted for attack remained to be elucidated. We have now isolated the SB-heme adduct from P450 2B1 inactivated by [14C]SB in a functionally reconstituted system and structurally characterized it by electronic absorption spectroscopy and tandem collision-induced dissociation (CID), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization on time of flight (MALDI-TOF), and liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry in the positive mode (+ LSIMS) as the N-(5-(2-hydroxypropyl)-5-(1-methylbutyl)barbituric acid)protoporphyrin IX adduct. The [14C]SB-modified 2B1 protein has also been isolated from similar inactivation systems and subjected to lysyl endopeptidase C (Lys-C) digestion and HPLC-peptide mapping. A [14C]SB-modified 2B1 peptide was thus isolated, purified, electrotransferred onto a poly-(vinylidene) membrane, and identified by micro Edman degradation of its first N-terminal 17 residues (S277NH(H)TEFH(H)ENLMISLL293) as the Lys-C peptide domain comprised of amino acids 277-323. This peptide thus includes the peptide domain corresponding to the distal helix I of P450 101, a region highly conserved through evolution, and which is known not only to flank the heme moiety but also to intimately contact the substrates. This finding thus suggests that SB-induced protein modification of P450 2B1 also occurs at the active site and, together with heme N-alkylation, contributes to the SB-induced mechanism-based inactivation of P450 2B1. PMID:8728507

  2. Specific binding sites for muramyl peptides on murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.H.S.; Krueger, J.M.; Karnovsky, M.L.

    1986-03-15

    Two radiolabeled (/sup 125/I) muramyl peptide derivatives of high specific activity were prepared: a tripeptide with an iodinated C-terminal tyrosine methyl ester (Ligand I), and a muramyl tripeptide with a C-terminal lysine derivatized with Bolton-Hunter reagent (Ligand II). These were used to characterize binding of muramyl peptides to monolayers of murine macrophages. Saturable high-affinity binding to resident, caseinate-elicited, and Listeria-activated peritoneal cells was observed with both radioligands. Binding affinities varied with the state of activation of the macrophages, and K/sub D/ values ranged from 48 +/- 33 pM (for resident macrophages, Ligand I) to 1020 +/- 90 pM (for activated macrophages, Ligand II). Specific binding sites were also found on a macrophage-derived cell line. The ability of several unlabeled muramyl peptides to compete with Ligands I and II for their binding sites was tested. Competition was stereospecific and correlated with known biological activities of these compounds (i.e., immunoadjuvanticity, pyrogenicity, and somnogenicity). The sites identified here for Ligands I and II may mediate some of the effects that muramyl peptides have previously been demonstrated to have on macrophages.

  3. Antiviral active peptide from oyster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Cui, Wenxuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Guo, Yao

    2008-08-01

    An active peptide against herpes virus was isolated from the enzymic hydrolysate of oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and purified with the definite direction hydrolysis technique in the order of alcalase and bromelin. The hydrolysate was fractioned into four ranges of molecular weight (>10 kDa, 10 5 kDa, 5 1 kDa and <1 kDa) using ultrafiltration membranes and dialysis. The fraction of 10 5 kDa was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods including DEAE Sephadex A-25 column, Sephadex G-25 column, and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by activity-guided isolation. The antiviral effect of the obtained peptide on herpetic virus was investigated in Vero cells by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). The result shows that the peptide has high inhibitory activity on herpetic virus.

  4. Non-coding nucleotides and amino acids near the active site regulate peptide deformylase expression and inhibitor susceptibility in Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaofeng; Pachikara, Niseema D; Oey, Christopher B; Balakrishnan, Amit; Westblade, Lars F; Tan, Ming; Chase, Theodore; Nickels, Bryce E; Fan, Huizhou

    2011-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is a highly prevalent human pathogen. Hydroxamic-acid-based matrix metalloprotease inhibitors can effectively inhibit the pathogen both in vitro and in vivo, and have exhibited therapeutic potential. Here, we provide genome sequencing data indicating that peptide deformylase (PDF) is the sole target of the inhibitors in this organism. We further report molecular mechanisms that control chlamydial PDF (cPDF) expression and inhibition efficiency. In particular, we identify the σ⁶⁶-dependent promoter that controls cPDF gene expression and demonstrate that point mutations in this promoter lead to resistance by increasing cPDF transcription. Furthermore, we show that substitution of two amino acids near the active site of the enzyme alters enzyme kinetics and protein stability. PMID:21719536

  5. PeptiSite: a structural database of peptide binding sites in 4D.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Chayan; Kufareva, Irina; Ilatovskiy, Andrey V; Abagyan, Ruben

    2014-03-21

    We developed PeptiSite, a comprehensive and reliable database of biologically and structurally characterized peptide-binding sites, in which each site is represented by an ensemble of its complexes with protein, peptide and small molecule partners. The unique features of the database include: (1) the ensemble site representation that provides a fourth dimension to the otherwise three dimensional data, (2) comprehensive characterization of the binding site architecture that may consist of a multimeric protein assembly with cofactors and metal ions and (3) analysis of consensus interaction motifs within the ensembles and identification of conserved determinants of these interactions. Currently the database contains 585 proteins with 650 peptide-binding sites. http://peptisite.ucsd.edu/ link allows searching for the sites of interest and interactive visualization of the ensembles using the ActiveICM web-browser plugin. This structural database for protein-peptide interactions enables understanding of structural principles of these interactions and may assist the development of an efficient peptide docking benchmark. PMID:24406170

  6. Accurate Detection of Adenylation Domain Functions in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay System Using Active Site-directed Probes for Adenylation Domains.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Miyamoto, Kengo; Konno, Sho; Kasai, Shota; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-12-18

    A significant gap exists between protein engineering and enzymes used for the biosynthesis of natural products, largely because there is a paucity of strategies that rapidly detect active-site phenotypes of the enzymes with desired activities. Herein, we describe a proof-of-concept study of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for the adenylation (A) domains in nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) using a combination of active site-directed probes coupled to a 5'-O-N-(aminoacyl)sulfamoyladenosine scaffold with a biotin functionality that immobilizes probe molecules onto a streptavidin-coated solid support. The recombinant NRPSs have a C-terminal His-tag motif that is targeted by an anti-6×His mouse antibody as the primary antibody and a horseradish peroxidase-linked goat antimouse antibody as the secondary antibody. These probes can selectively capture the cognate A domains by ligand-directed targeting. In addition, the ELISA technique detected A domains in the crude cell-free homogenates from the Escherichia coli expression systems. When coupled with a chromogenic substrate, the antibody-based ELISA technique can visualize probe-protein binding interactions, which provides accurate readouts of the A-domain functions in NRPS enzymes. To assess the ELISA-based engineering of the A domains of NRPSs, we reprogramed 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB)-activating enzyme EntE toward salicylic acid (Sal)-activating enzymes and investigated a correlation between binding properties for probe molecules and enzyme catalysts. We generated a mutant of EntE that displayed negligible loss in the kcat/Km value with the noncognate substrate Sal and a corresponding 48-fold decrease in the kcat/Km value with the cognate substrate DHB. The resulting 26-fold switch in substrate specificity was achieved by the replacement of a Ser residue in the active site of EntE with a Cys toward the nonribosomal codes of Sal-activating enzymes. Bringing a laboratory ELISA technique

  7. Inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by a reactive metabolite of acetaminophen and mass spectral characterization of an arylated active site peptide.

    PubMed

    Dietze, E C; Schäfer, A; Omichinski, J G; Nelson, S D

    1997-10-01

    Acetaminophen (4'-hydroxyacetanilide, APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug that can cause hepatic necrosis under some circumstances via cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation to a reactive metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). Although the mechanism of hepatocellular injury caused by APAP is not fully understood, it is known that NAPQI forms covalent adducts with several hepatocellular proteins. Reported here is the identification of one of these proteins as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH, D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate: NAD+ oxidoreductase (phosphorylating), EC 1.2.1.12]. Two hours after the administration of hepatotoxic doses of [14C]APAP to mice, at a time prior to overt cell damage, hepatocellular GAPDH activity was significantly decreased concurrent with the formation of a 14C-labeled GAPDH adduct. A nonhepatotoxic regioisomer of APAP, 3'-hydroxyacetanilide (AMAP), was found to decrease GAPDH activity to a lesser extent than APAP, and radiolabel from [14C]AMAP bound to a lesser extent to GAPDH at a time when its overall binding to hepatocellular proteins was almost equivalent to that of APAP. In order to determine the nature of the covalent adduct between GAPDH and APAP, its major reactive and toxic metabolite, NAPQI, was incubated with purified porcine muscle GAPDH. Microsequencing analysis and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) with collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to characterize one of the adducts as APAP bound to the cysteinyl sulfhydryl group of Cys-149 in the active site peptide of GAPDH. PMID:9348431

  8. Natural and synthetic peptides with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Santinoli, Claudia; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the increase of invasive fungal infections and the emergence of antifungal resistance stressed the need for new antifungal drugs. Peptides have shown to be good candidates for the development of alternative antimicrobial agents through high-throughput screening, and subsequent optimization according to a rational approach. This review presents a brief overview on antifungal natural peptides of different sources (animals, plants, micro-organisms), peptide fragments derived by proteolytic cleavage of precursor physiological proteins (cryptides), synthetic unnatural peptides and peptide derivatives. Antifungal peptides are schematically reported based on their structure, antifungal spectrum and reported effects. Natural or synthetic peptides and their modified derivatives may represent the basis for new compounds active against fungal infections. PMID:27502155

  9. Structure-activity relationship of crustacean peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    In crustaceans, various physiological events, such as molting, vitellogenesis, and sex differentiation, are regulated by peptide hormones. To understanding the functional sites of these hormones, many structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been published. In this review, the author focuses the SAR of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-family peptides and androgenic gland hormone and describes the detailed results of our and other research groups. The future perspectives will be also discussed. PMID:26624010

  10. [Progress on parasiticidal activity of anitimicrobial peptides].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-hua; Zhao, Jun-long

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are a kind of gene encoded, ribosome synthesized, small molecular polypeptides that have high efficiency, wide antibacterial spectrum, and low immunogenicity. Many studies have indicated that antimicrobial peptides can inhibit the growth of parasites or even kill them. This paper reviews the research progress on parasiticidal activity of the antimicrobial peptides in recent years, and presents the problems in the research. PMID:25726604

  11. Design and production of peptides mimicking the active site of serine esterases with covalent binding to the organophosphorous poison soman. Annual report, 1 July 1984-30 June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzman, H.H.

    1985-12-09

    The objective of this research program is to design, synthesize, and test peptides and peptide mimics that will scavange soman in vivo and thereby provide protection against this CW agent. The test compounds were designed to mimic the active site of serine esterases (AChE), which are the natural targets of soman, enabling them to react with soman and thus protect endogenous AChE. Cyclodextrins derivatized with peptide functional groups and their equivalents such as imidazole, histamine, ethylene diamine, diethylene triamine, catechol, and ethane dithiol were synthesized for testing. The synthesis of precursors to cyclohexapeptides containing histidine, serine, and aspartic acid, which are amino acids that have been implicated in the active site of numerous esterases, were pursued. Testing of the ability of alpha-, beta, and gamma-cyclodextrins to protect AChE frominactivation by soman was carried out in vitro. From this group of compounds, beta-cyclodextrin was observed to preserve the activity of AChE in a dose response manner achieving a 72.1% preservation of activity when present in 200,000 fold excess versus soman after only ten minutes incubation time (beta-cyclodextrin + soman). Neither alpha, nor gamma-cyclodextrin showed any protective effect at the same doses. The test results suggest that beta cyclodextrin is uniquely suited to scavange soman. Improved scavanging might be achieved with the modified cyclodextrins prepared above for testing.

  12. Immediate and prolonged patterns of Agouti-related peptide-(83--132)-induced c-Fos activation in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic sites.

    PubMed

    Hagan, M M; Benoit, S C; Rushing, P A; Pritchard, L M; Woods, S C; Seeley, R J

    2001-03-01

    Several lines of evidence substantiate the important role of the central nervous system melanocortin 3- and 4-receptor (MC3/4-R) system in the control of food intake and energy balance. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), an endogenous antagonist of these receptors, produces a robust and unique pattern of increased food intake that lasts up to 7 days after a single injection. Little is known about brain regions that may mediate this powerful effect of AgRP on food intake. To this end we compared c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI) in several brain sites of rats injected intracerebroventricularly with 1 nmol AgRP-(83--132) 2 and 24 h before death and compared c-FLI patterns to those induced by another potent orexigenic peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY). Although both NPY and AgRP induced c-FLI in hypothalamic areas, AgRP also produced increased c-FLI in the accumbens shell and lateral septum. Although NPY elicited no changes in c-FLI 24 h after administration, AgRP induced c-FLI in the accumbens shell, nucleus of the solitary tract, central amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus. These results indicate that an NPY-like hypothalamic circuit mediates the short-term effects of AgRP, but that the unique sustained effect of AgRP on food intake involves a complex circuit of key extrahypothalamic reward and feeding regulatory nuclei. PMID:11181518

  13. Isolation and sequencing of an active-site peptide from Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase after affinity labeling with 2-((Bromoacetyl)amino)pentitol 1,5-bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Fraij, B.; Hartman, F.C.

    1983-01-01

    2-((Bromoacetyl)amino)pentitol 1,5-bisphosphate was reported to be a highly selective affinity label for ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum. The enzyme has now been inactivated with a /sup 14/C-labeled reagent in order to identify the target residue at the sequence level. Subsequent to inactivation, the enzyme was carboxymethylated with iodoacetate and then digested with trypsin. The only radioactive peptide in the digest was obtained at a high degree of purity by successive chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, SP-Sephadex, and Sephadex G-25. On the basis of amino acid analysis of the purified peptide, the derivatized residue was a methionyl sulfonium salt. Automated Edman degradation confirmed the purity of the labeled peptide and established its sequence as Leu-Gln-Gly-Ala-Ser-Gly-Ile-His-Thr-Gly-Thr-Met-Gly-Phe-Gly-Lys-Met-Glu-Gly-Glu-Ser-Ser-Asp-Arg. Cleavage of this peptide with cyanogen bromide showed that the reagent moiety was covalently attached to the second methionyl residue. Sequence homology with the carboxylase/oxygenase from spinach indicates that the lysyl residue immediately preceding the alkylated methionine corresponds to Lys-334, a residue previously implicated at the active site. 31 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  14. 2-(4-bromoacetamido)anilino-2-deoxypentitol 1,5-bisphosphate, a new affinity label for ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum: determination of reaction parameters and characterization of an active site peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, C.S.; Hartman, F.C.

    1984-03-10

    Reductive amination of ribulose-P/sub 2/ with p-phenylenediamine in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride yielded an epimeric mixture which was resolved by chromatography. Subsequent bromoacetylation of the isolated amino bisphosphates gave reagents A and B (ribo and arabino epimers of 2-(4-bromoacetamido)anilino-2-deoxypentitol 1.5-bisphosphate) which were competitive inhibitors of the carboxylase with K/sub i/ values of 705 and 104 ..mu..M, respectively. Reagent A exhibited no time-dependent effects on the carboxylase in either the deactivated or activated state. Incubation of the enzyme with reagent B in the presence of the essential activators CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/, however, resulted in an irreversible, time-dependent loss of activity, with a K/sub inact/ of 125 ..mu..M and a minimal half-time of 7.3 min. Covalent incorporation of (/sup 14/C)reagent B was directly proportional to the loss of activity, with total inactivation correlating with an incorporation of 1.1 mol of reagent/mol of subunit. Inclusion of the competitive inhibitor 2-carboxyribitol 1,5-bisphosphate protected against inactivation with a concomitant reduction in incorporation. Neither reagent affected the activity of spinach carboxylase. Fractionation of (/sup 14/C)reagent B-modified enzyme on DEAE-cellulose, subsequent to carboxymethylation and tryptic digestion, revealed two major radioactive peaks of approximately equal area. Digestion of each peak with alkaline phosphatase and rechromatography on DEAE-cellulose resulted in pure peptides I and II. The peptides were identical except in the site of labeling: peptide I contained a modified cysteinyl residue while peptide II contained a modified histidyl residue. 60 references, 7 figures, tables.

  15. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Carlos E.; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A.; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  16. A biologically active peptide mimetic of N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Laura L; Hoober, J Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Background Glycosylated proteins and lipids are important regulatory factors whose functions can be altered by addition or removal of sugars to the glycan structure. The glycans are recognized by sugar-binding lectins that serve as receptors on the surface of many cells and facilitate initiation of an intracellular signal that changes the properties of the cells. We identified a peptide that mimics the ligand of an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectin and asked whether the peptide would express specific biological activity. Findings A 12-mer phage display library was screened with a GalNAc-specific lectin to identify an amino acid sequence that binds to the lectin. Phage particles that were eluted from the lectin with free GalNAc were considered to have been bound to a GalNAc-binding site. Peptides were synthesized with the selected sequence as a quadravalent structure to facilitate receptor crosslinking. Treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for 24 h with the peptide stimulated secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) but not of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The secretion of IL-21 was stimulated as strongly with the peptide as with interferon-γ. Conclusion The data indicate that the quadravalent peptide has biological activity with a degree of specificity. These effects occurred at concentrations in the nanomolar range, in contrast to free sugars that generally bind to proteins in the micro- to millimolar range. PMID:19284521

  17. Site-selective chemical cleavage of peptide bonds.

    PubMed

    Elashal, Hader E; Raj, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Site-selective cleavage of extremely unreactive peptide bonds is a very important chemical modification that provides invaluable information regarding protein sequence, and it acts as a modulator of protein structure and function for therapeutic applications. For controlled and selective cleavage, a daunting task, chemical reagents must selectively recognize or bind to one or more amino acid residues in the peptide chain and selectively cleave a peptide bond. Building on this principle, we have developed an approach that utilizes a chemical reagent to selectively modify the serine residue in a peptide chain and leads to the cleavage of a peptide backbone at the N-terminus of the serine residue. After cleavage, modified residues can be converted back to the original fragments. This method exhibits broad substrate scope and selectively cleaves various bioactive peptides with post-translational modifications (e.g. N-acetylation and -methylation) and mutations (d- and β-amino acids), which are a known cause of age related diseases. PMID:27087443

  18. Insulin Mimetic Peptide Disrupts the Primary Binding Site of the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Callum F; Margetts, Mai B; Menting, John G; Smith, Nicholas A; Smith, Brian J; Ward, Colin W; Lawrence, Michael C

    2016-07-22

    Sets of synthetic peptides that interact with the insulin receptor ectodomain have been discovered by phage display and reported in the literature. These peptides were grouped into three classes termed Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 based on their mutual competition of binding to the receptor. Further refinement has yielded, in particular, a 36-residue Site 2-Site 1 fusion peptide, S519, that binds the insulin receptor with subnanomolar affinity and exhibits agonist activity in both lipogenesis and glucose uptake assays. Here, we report three-dimensional crystallographic detail of the interaction of the C-terminal, 16-residue Site 1 component (S519C16) of S519 with the first leucine-rich repeat domain (L1) of the insulin receptor. Our structure shows that S519C16 binds to the same site on the L1 surface as that occupied by a critical component of the primary binding site, namely the helical C-terminal segment of the insulin receptor α-chain (termed αCT). In particular, the two phenylalanine residues within the FYXWF motif of S519C16 are seen to engage the insulin receptor L1 domain surface in a fashion almost identical to the respective αCT residues Phe(701) and Phe(705) The structure provides a platform for the further development of peptidic and/or small molecule agents directed toward the insulin receptor and/or the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor. PMID:27281820

  19. [Biologically Active Peptides of King Crab Hepatopancreas].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, V V; Berezin, B B; Il'ina, A P; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Substances of a peptide nature isolated from the hepatopancreas of the king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus exhibited physicochemical properties and membranotropic and specific activities similar to those of membranotropic homeostatic tissue-specific bioregulators previously found in different mammalian and plant tissues. Their biological effect on vertebrate tissues was demonstrated on a model of roller organotypic cultivation of Pleurodeles waltl newt liver tissue. PMID:26353409

  20. The peptide agonist-binding site of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor based on site-directed mutagenesis and knowledge-based modelling

    PubMed Central

    Dods, Rachel L.; Donnelly, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36)amide (GLP-1) plays a central role in regulating blood sugar levels and its receptor, GLP-1R, is a target for anti-diabetic agents such as the peptide agonist drugs exenatide and liraglutide. In order to understand the molecular nature of the peptide–receptor interaction, we used site-directed mutagenesis and pharmacological profiling to highlight nine sites as being important for peptide agonist binding and/or activation. Using a knowledge-based approach, we constructed a 3D model of agonist-bound GLP-1R, basing the conformation of the N-terminal region on that of the receptor-bound NMR structure of the related peptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating protein (PACAP21). The relative position of the extracellular to the transmembrane (TM) domain, as well as the molecular details of the agonist-binding site itself, were found to be different from the model that was published alongside the crystal structure of the TM domain of the glucagon receptor, but were nevertheless more compatible with published mutagenesis data. Furthermore, the NMR-determined structure of a high-potency cyclic conformationally-constrained 11-residue analogue of GLP-1 was also docked into the receptor-binding site. Despite having a different main chain conformation to that seen in the PACAP21 structure, four conserved residues (equivalent to His-7, Glu-9, Ser-14 and Asp-15 in GLP-1) could be structurally aligned and made similar interactions with the receptor as their equivalents in the GLP-1-docked model, suggesting the basis of a pharmacophore for GLP-1R peptide agonists. In this way, the model not only explains current mutagenesis and molecular pharmacological data but also provides a basis for further experimental design. PMID:26598711

  1. Anticoagulant activity of original synthetic peptide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Drozd, N N; Tolstenkov, A S; Makarov, V A; Miphtakhova, N T; Voyushina, T L; Sergeev, M E

    2008-01-01

    Original synthetic peptide derivatives exhibit anticoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. They delayed fibrin clot formation from human blood plasma in tests for the intrinsic coagulation pathway (activated partial thromboplastin time) and final stage of plasma coagulation (thrombin time) and inhibited amidolytic activity of thrombin. We determined the minimum effective dose of the most active compound providing a 2-fold lengthening of blood clotting time (activated partial thromboplastin time test and thrombin time test), which persisted for 2-3 h. PMID:19024001

  2. Peptides and proteins with antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Lôbo, Katiuscia Menezes; Bezerra, Denise Aline Casimiro; Lôbo, Inalzuir

    2008-01-01

    The increase of microbial resistance to antibiotics has led to a continuing search for newer and more effective drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are generally found in animals, plants, and microorganisms and are of great interest to medicine, pharmacology, and the food industry. These peptides are capable of inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms. They can attack parasites, while causing little or no harm to the host cells. The defensins are peptides found in granules in the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and are responsible for the defense of the organism. Several animal defensins, like dermaseptin, antileukoprotease, protegrin, and others, have had their activities and efficacy tested and been shown to be effective against bacteria, fungi, and protists; there are also specific defensins from invertebrates, e.g., drosomycin and heliomicin; from plants, e.g., the types A and B; and the bacteriocins, e.g., acrocin, marcescin, etc. The aim of the present work was to compile a comprehensive bibliographic review of the diverse potentially antimicrobial peptides in an effort to systematize the current knowledge on these substances as a contribution for further researches. The currently available bibliography does not give a holistic approach on this subject. The present work intends to show that the mechanism of defense represented by defensins is promising from the perspective of its application in the treatment of infectious diseases in human, animals and plants. PMID:21264153

  3. Peptide Bacteriocins--Structure Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    Etayash, Hashem; Azmi, Sarfuddin; Dangeti, Ramana; Kaur, Kamaljit

    2015-01-01

    With the growing concerns in the scientific and health communities over increasing levels of antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptide bacteriocins have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional small molecule antibiotics. A substantial attention has recently focused on the utilization of bacteriocins in food preservation and health safety. Despite the fact that a large number of bacteriocins have been reported, only a few have been fully characterized and structurally elucidated. Since knowledge of the molecular structure is a key for understanding the mechanism of action and therapeutic effects of peptide, we centered our focus in this review on the structure-activity relationships of bacteriocins with a particular focus in seven bacteriocins, namely, nisin, microcin J25, microcin B17, microcin C, leucocin A, sakacin P, and pediocin PA-1. Significant structural changes responsible for the altered activity of the recent bacteriocin analogues are discussed here. PMID:26265354

  4. Site-Selective Reactions with Peptide-Based Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Michael W; Miller, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    The problem of catalyst-controlled site-selectivity can potentially require a catalyst to overcome energetic barriers larger than those associated with enantioselective reactions. This challenge is a signature of substrates that present reactive sites that are not of equivalent reactivity. Herein we present a narrative of our laboratory's efforts to overcome this challenge using peptide-based catalysts. We highlight the interplay between understanding the inherent reactivity preferences of a given target molecule and the development of catalysts that can overcome intrinsic preferences embedded within a substrate. PMID:26307403

  5. Catalytic Activities Of [GADV]-Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Takae; Fukushima, Jun; Maruyama, Masako; Iwamoto, Ryoko; Ikehara, Kenji

    2005-10-01

    We have previously postulated a novel hypothesis for the origin of life, assuming that life on the earth originated from “[GADV]-protein world”, not from the “RNA world” (see Ikehara's review, 2002). The [GADV]-protein world is constituted from peptides and proteins with random sequences of four amino acids (glycine [G], alanine [A], aspartic acid [D] and valine [V]), which accumulated by pseudo-replication of the [GADV]-proteins. To obtain evidence for the hypothesis, we produced [GADV]-peptides by repeated heat-drying of the amino acids for 30 cycles ([GADV]-P30) and examined whether the peptides have some catalytic activities or not. From the results, it was found that the [GADV]-P30 can hydrolyze several kinds of chemical bonds in molecules, such as umbelliferyl-β-D-galactoside, glycine-p-nitroanilide and bovine serum albumin. This suggests that [GADV]-P30 could play an important role in the accumulation of [GADV]-proteins through pseudo-replication, leading to the emergence of life. We further show that [GADV]-octapaptides with random sequences, but containing no cyclic compounds as diketepiperazines, have catalytic activity, hydrolyzing peptide bonds in a natural protein, bovine serum albumin. The catalytic activity of the octapeptides was much higher than the [GADV]-P30 produced through repeated heat-drying treatments. These results also support the [GADV]-protein-world hypothesis of the origin of life (see Ikehara's review, 2002). Possible steps for the emergence of life on the primitive earth are presented.

  6. Site-Specific Characterization of d-Amino Acid Containing Peptide Epimers by Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the d-amino acid containing peptide (DAACP) candidate can be discovered by observing the differences of biological activity and chromatographic retention time between the synthetic peptides and naturally occurring peptides. However, it is difficult to determine the exact position of d-amino acid in the DAACP candidates. Herein, we developed a novel site-specific strategy to rapidly and precisely localize d-amino acids in peptides by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) analysis of mass spectrometry (MS)-generated epimeric fragment ions. Briefly, the d/l-peptide epimers were separated by online reversed-phase liquid chromatography and fragmented by collision-induced dissociation (CID), followed by IMS analysis. The epimeric fragment ions resulting from d/l-peptide epimers exhibit conformational differences, thus showing different mobilities in IMS. The arrival time shift between the epimeric fragment ions was used as criteria to localize the d-amino acid substitution. The utility of this strategy was demonstrated by analysis of peptide epimers with different molecular sizes, [d-Trp]-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, [d-Ala]-deltorphin, [d-Phe]-achatin-I, and their counterparts that contain all-l amino acids. Furthermore, the crustacean hyperglycemia hormones (CHHs, 8.5 kDa) were isolated from the American lobster Homarus americanus and identified by integration of MS-based bottom-up and top-down sequencing approaches. The IMS data acquired using our novel site-specific strategy localized the site of isomerization of l- to d-Phe at the third residue of the CHHs from the N-terminus. Collectively, this study demonstrates a new method for discovery of DAACPs using IMS technique with the ability to localize d-amino acid residues. PMID:24328107

  7. Antiendotoxin activity of cationic peptide antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Gough, M; Hancock, R E; Kelly, N M

    1996-01-01

    The endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria consists of a molecule lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which can be shed by bacteria during antimicrobial therapy. A resulting syndrome, endotoxic shock, is a leading cause of death in the developed world. Thus, there is great interest in the development of antimicrobial agents which can reverse rather than promote sepsis, especially given the recent disappointing clinical performance of antiendotoxin therapies. We describe here two small cationic peptides, MBI-27 and MBI-28, which have both antiendotoxic and antibacterial activities in vitro and in vivo in animal models. We had previously demonstrated that these peptides bind to LPS with an affinity equivalent to that of polymyxin B. Consistent with this, the peptides blocked the ability of LPS and intact cells to induce the endotoxic shock mediator, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), upon incubation with the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. MBI-28 was equivalent to polymyxin B in its ability to block LPS induction of TNF by this cell line, even when added 60 min after the TNF stimulus. Furthermore, MBI-28 offered significant protection in a galactosamine-sensitized mouse model of lethal endotoxic shock. This protection correlated with the ability of MBI-28 to reduce LPS-induced circulating TNF by nearly 90% in this mouse model. Both MBI-27 and MBI-28 demonstrated antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria in vitro and in vivo against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in neutropenic mice. PMID:8945527

  8. Iron-chelating activity of chickpea protein hydrolysate peptides.

    PubMed

    Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Alaiz, Manuel; Vioque, Javier

    2012-10-01

    Chickpea-chelating peptides were purified and analysed for their iron-chelating activity. These peptides were purified after affinity and gel filtration chromatography from a chickpea protein hydrolysate produced with pepsin and pancreatin. Iron-chelating activity was higher in purified peptide fractions than in the original hydrolysate. Histidine contents were positively correlated with the iron-chelating activity. Hence fractions with histidine contents above 20% showed the highest chelating activity. These results show that iron-chelating peptides are generated after chickpea protein hydrolysis with pepsin plus pancreatin. These peptides, through metal chelation, may increase iron solubility and bioavailability and improve iron absorption. PMID:25005984

  9. Prediction of Antimicrobial Activity of Synthetic Peptides by a Decision Tree Model

    PubMed Central

    Lira, Felipe; Perez, Pedro S.; Baranauskas, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a persistent problem in the public health sphere. However, recent attempts to find effective substitutes to combat infections have been directed at identifying natural antimicrobial peptides in order to circumvent resistance to commercial antibiotics. This study describes the development of synthetic peptides with antimicrobial activity, created in silico by site-directed mutation modeling using wild-type peptides as scaffolds for these mutations. Fragments of antimicrobial peptides were used for modeling with molecular modeling computational tools. To analyze these peptides, a decision tree model, which indicated the action range of peptides on the types of microorganisms on which they can exercise biological activity, was created. The decision tree model was processed using physicochemistry properties from known antimicrobial peptides available at the Antimicrobial Peptide Database (APD). The two most promising peptides were synthesized, and antimicrobial assays showed inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Colossomin C and colossomin D were the most inhibitory peptides at 5 μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The methods described in this work and the results obtained are useful for the identification and development of new compounds with antimicrobial activity through the use of computational tools. PMID:23455341

  10. Aurora-A site specificity: a study with synthetic peptide substrates

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    AurA (Aurora-A) is a ubiquitous protein kinase regulating entry into mitosis and shown to promote transformation upon overexpression. In order to gain information on the structural features determining its substrate specificity, we assayed human recombinant AurA on a variety of phosphoacceptor peptide substrates including a series of properly modified derivatives of the Kemptide (ALRRASLGAA). The data presented here show that AurA is a basophilic Ser/Thr protein kinase recognizing the consensus R/K/N-R-X-S/T-B, where B denotes any hydrophobic residue with the exception of Pro. We show that the presence of a Pro at position n+1 fully abrogates phosphorylation of the peptide substrate. Although the consensus for AurA is reminiscent of that of PKA (protein kinase A), it significantly differs from the latter for a much more stringent dependence on the hydrophobic residue at n+1 and for its tolerance of residues other than Arg at position n−3. Based on the finding that the peptide ALKRASLGAA is not a substrate of PKA while still providing a sensitive assay of AurA activity, we suggest that this peptide may be used for differential screening of the two kinases. We have further validated the AurA consensus by generating a peptide (APSSRRTT288LCGT) that comprises the main AurA autophosphorylation site and by showing that AurA phosphorylated this peptide exclusively at one site fulfilling its consensus (Thr288). Moreover, we show that AurA could autophosphorylate at Thr288 through an intermolecular mechanism of reaction and that, in vivo, PKA was not involved with Thr288 phosphorylation. The evidence obtained in the present study provides a rational tool for predicting AurA sites in potential substrates of physiological significance. PMID:16083426

  11. Studies on Anticancer Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Hoskin, David W.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2008-01-01

    In spite of great advances in cancer therapy, there is considerable current interest in developing anticancer agents with a new mode of action because of the development of resistance by cancer cells towards current anticancer drugs. A growing number of studies have shown that some of the cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are toxic to bacteria but not to normal mammalian cells, exhibit a broad spectrum of cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. Such studies have considerably enhanced the significance of AMPs, both synthetic and from natural sources, which have been of importance both for an increased understanding of the immune system and for their potential as clinical antibiotics. The electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged components of bacterial and cancer cells and the positively charged AMPs is believed to play a major role in the strong binding and selective disruption of bacterial and cancer cell membranes, respectively. However, it is unclear why some host defense peptides are able to kill cancer cells when others do not. In addition, it is not clear whether the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the antibacterial and anticancer activities of AMPs are the same or different. In this article, we review various studies on different AMPs that exhibit cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. The suitability of cancer cell-targeting AMPs as cancer therapeutics is also discussed. PMID:18078805

  12. Photoreactive stapled peptides to identify and characterize BCL-2 family interaction sites by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Susan; Braun, Craig R; Bird, Gregory H; Walensky, Loren D

    2014-01-01

    Protein interactions dictate a myriad of cellular activities that maintain health or cause disease. Dissecting these binding partnerships, and especially their sites of interaction, fuels the discovery of signaling pathways, disease mechanisms, and next-generation therapeutics. We previously applied all-hydrocarbon peptide stapling to chemically restore α-helical shape to bioactive motifs that become unfolded when taken out of context from native signaling proteins. For example, we developed stabilized alpha-helices of BCL-2 domains (SAHBs) to dissect and target protein interactions of the BCL-2 family, a critical network that regulates the apoptotic pathway. SAHBs are α-helical surrogates that bind both stable and transient physiologic interactors and have effectively uncovered novel sites of BCL-2 family protein interaction. To leverage stapled peptides for proteomic discovery, we describe our conversion of SAHBs into photoreactive agents that irreversibly capture their protein targets and facilitate rapid identification of the peptide helix binding sites. We envision that the development of photoreactive stapled peptides will accelerate the discovery of novel and unanticipated protein interactions and how they impact health and disease. PMID:24974285

  13. Synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides bind with their hydrophobic parts to drug site II of human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many biologically active compounds bind to plasma transport proteins, and this binding can be either advantageous or disadvantageous from a drug design perspective. Human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the most important transport proteins in the cardiovascular system due to its great binding capacity and high physiological concentration. HSA has a preference for accommodating neutral lipophilic and acidic drug-like ligands, but is also surprisingly able to bind positively charged peptides. Understanding of how short cationic antimicrobial peptides interact with human serum albumin is of importance for developing such compounds into the clinics. Results The binding of a selection of short synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) to human albumin with binding affinities in the μM range is described. Competitive isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and NMR WaterLOGSY experiments mapped the binding site of the CAPs to the well-known drug site II within subdomain IIIA of HSA. Thermodynamic and structural analysis revealed that the binding is exclusively driven by interactions with the hydrophobic moieties of the peptides, and is independent of the cationic residues that are vital for antimicrobial activity. Both of the hydrophobic moieties comprising the peptides were detected to interact with drug site II by NMR saturation transfer difference (STD) group epitope mapping (GEM) and INPHARMA experiments. Molecular models of the complexes between the peptides and albumin were constructed using docking experiments, and support the binding hypothesis and confirm the overall binding affinities of the CAPs. Conclusions The biophysical and structural characterizations of albumin-peptide complexes reported here provide detailed insight into how albumin can bind short cationic peptides. The hydrophobic elements of the peptides studied here are responsible for the main interaction with HSA. We suggest that albumin binding should be taken into careful

  14. Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Activities of PR-39 Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Schneider, Viktoria A. F.; Agustiandari, Herfita; van Dijk, Albert; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Johanna L. M.; Bikker, Floris J.; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2014-01-01

    The porcine cathelicidin PR-39 is a host defence peptide that plays a pivotal role in the innate immune defence of the pig against infections. Besides direct antimicrobial activity, it is involved in immunomodulation, wound healing and several other biological processes. In this study, the antimicrobial- and immunomodulatory activity of PR-39, and N- and C-terminal derivatives of PR-39 were tested. PR-39 exhibited an unexpected broad antimicrobial spectrum including several Gram positive strains such as Bacillus globigii and Enterococcus faecalis. Of organisms tested, only Staphylococcus aureus was insensitive to PR-39. Truncation of PR-39 down to 15 (N-terminal) amino acids did not lead to major loss of activity, while peptides corresponding to the C-terminal part of PR-39 were hampered in their antimicrobial activity. However, shorter peptides were all much more sensitive to inhibition by salt. Active peptides induced ATP leakage and loss of membrane potential in Bacillus globigii and Escherichia coli, indicating a lytic mechanism of action for these peptides. Finally, only the mature peptide was able to induce IL-8 production in porcine macrophages, but some shorter peptides also had an effect on TNF-α production showing differential regulation of cytokine induction by PR-39 derived peptides. None of the active peptides showed high cytotoxicity highlighting the potential of these peptides for use as an alternative to antibiotics. PMID:24755622

  15. Peptide mini-scaffold facilitates JNK3 activation in cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xuanzhi; Stoy, Henriette; Kaoud, Tamer S.; Perry, Nicole A.; Chen, Qiuyan; Perez, Alejandro; Els-Heindl, Sylvia; Slagis, Jack V.; Iverson, Tina M.; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.; Dalby, Kevin N.; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2016-01-01

    Three-kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades are present in virtually all eukaryotic cells. MAPK cascades are organized by scaffold proteins, which assemble cognate kinases into productive signaling complexes. Arrestin-3 facilitates JNK activation in cells, and a short 25-residue arrestin-3 peptide was identified as the critical JNK3-binding element. Here we demonstrate that this peptide also binds MKK4, MKK7, and ASK1, which are upstream JNK3-activating kinases. This peptide is sufficient to enhance JNK3 activity in cells. A homologous arrestin-2 peptide, which differs only in four positions, binds MKK4, but not MKK7 or JNK3, and is ineffective in cells at enhancing activation of JNK3. The arrestin-3 peptide is the smallest MAPK scaffold known. This peptide or its mimics can regulate MAPKs, affecting cellular decisions to live or die. PMID:26868142

  16. Miniaturizing VEGF: Peptides mimicking the discontinuous VEGF receptor-binding site modulate the angiogenic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Lucia; Finetti, Federica; Diana, Donatella; di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Romanelli, Alessandra; Fattorusso, Roberto; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D’Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2016-08-01

    The angiogenic properties of VEGF are mediated through the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR2. The VEGF/VEGFR interface is constituted by a discontinuous binding region distributed on both VEGF monomers. We attempted to reproduce this discontinuous binding site by covalently linking into a single molecular entity two VEGF segments involved in receptor recognition. We designed and synthesized by chemical ligation a set of peptides differing in length and flexibility of the molecular linker joining the two VEGF segments. The biological activity of the peptides was characterized in vitro and in vivo showing a VEGF-like activity. The most biologically active mini-VEGF was further analyzed by NMR to determine the atomic details of its interaction with the receptor.

  17. Miniaturizing VEGF: Peptides mimicking the discontinuous VEGF receptor-binding site modulate the angiogenic response

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Lucia; Finetti, Federica; Diana, Donatella; Di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Romanelli, Alessandra; Fattorusso, Roberto; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D’Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The angiogenic properties of VEGF are mediated through the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR2. The VEGF/VEGFR interface is constituted by a discontinuous binding region distributed on both VEGF monomers. We attempted to reproduce this discontinuous binding site by covalently linking into a single molecular entity two VEGF segments involved in receptor recognition. We designed and synthesized by chemical ligation a set of peptides differing in length and flexibility of the molecular linker joining the two VEGF segments. The biological activity of the peptides was characterized in vitro and in vivo showing a VEGF-like activity. The most biologically active mini-VEGF was further analyzed by NMR to determine the atomic details of its interaction with the receptor. PMID:27498819

  18. Miniaturizing VEGF: Peptides mimicking the discontinuous VEGF receptor-binding site modulate the angiogenic response.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Lucia; Finetti, Federica; Diana, Donatella; Di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Romanelli, Alessandra; Fattorusso, Roberto; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D'Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The angiogenic properties of VEGF are mediated through the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR2. The VEGF/VEGFR interface is constituted by a discontinuous binding region distributed on both VEGF monomers. We attempted to reproduce this discontinuous binding site by covalently linking into a single molecular entity two VEGF segments involved in receptor recognition. We designed and synthesized by chemical ligation a set of peptides differing in length and flexibility of the molecular linker joining the two VEGF segments. The biological activity of the peptides was characterized in vitro and in vivo showing a VEGF-like activity. The most biologically active mini-VEGF was further analyzed by NMR to determine the atomic details of its interaction with the receptor. PMID:27498819

  19. Sequence of the phosphothreonyl regulatory site peptide from inactive maize leaf pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, C.A.; Kutny, R.M.; Budde, R.J.A.; Chollet, R.

    1988-05-15

    The regulatory site peptide sequence of phosphorylated inactive pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase from maize leaf tissue was determined by automated Edman degradation analysis of /sup 32/P-labeled peptides purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The overlapping phosphopeptides were products of a digestion of the (..beta..-/sup 32/P)ADP-inactivated dikinase with either trypsin or Pronase E. The sequence is Thr-Glu-Arg-Gly-Gly-Met-Thr(P)-Ser-His-Ala-Ala-Val-Val-Ala-Arg. The phosphothreonine residue, which appeared as either an anomalous proline or an unidentifiable phenylthiohydantoin derivative during sequencing, was verified by two-dimensional phosphoamino acid analysis of the phosphopeptides and by resequencing the tryptic peptide after dephosphorylation with exogenous alkaline phosphatase. This sequence, starting at position 4, is completely homologous to the previously published sequence of the tryptic dodecapeptide harboring the catalytically essential (phospho)histidyl residue in the active-site domain of the dikinase from the nonphotosynthetic bacterium, Bacteroides symbiosus. These comparative results indicate that the regulatory phosphothreonine causing complete inactivation of maize leaf dikinase is separated from the critical active-site (phospho)histidine by just one intervening residue in the primary sequence.

  20. Chemical activity of simple basic peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, André; Barbier, Bernard

    1990-03-01

    Alternating all-L poly(leucyl-lysyl) increases markedly the rate of hydrolysis of oligoribonucleotides. Pure D poly (leucyl-lysyl) is as active as the all-L polymer. The homochiral polypeptides adopt aβ-sheet structure when complexed to the oligonucleotides. Alternating poly(D,L-Leu-D,L-Lys) made of racemic amino acids is much less efficient and is unable to adopt aβ-sheet structure. A set of alternating poly (leucyl-lysyl) ranging from the racemic to the homochiral all-L polymer has been checked. Their conformations can be described as a mixture of random coil andβ-sheet conformations, the amount ofβ-sheet increasing with the optical purity of the polymer. The hydrolytic activity follows the proportion ofβ-sheets, suggesting that the chemical activity is related to the geometry of the chain. Short peptides were prepared in order to evaluate the critical chain length required for the hydrolytic activity. A decapeptide is long enough to present 90% of the activity of the corresponding polypeptide.

  1. Improving short antimicrobial peptides despite elusive rules for activity.

    PubMed

    Mikut, Ralf; Ruden, Serge; Reischl, Markus; Breitling, Frank; Volkmer, Rudolf; Hilpert, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can effectively kill a broad range of life threatening multidrug-resistant bacteria, a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, despite great hopes novel drugs based on AMPs are still rare. To accelerate drug development we studied different approaches to improve the antibacterial activity of short antimicrobial peptides. Short antimicrobial peptides seem to be ideal drug candidates since they can be synthesized quickly and easily, modified and optimized. In addition, manufacturing a short peptide drug will be more cost efficient than long and structured ones. In contrast to longer and structured peptides short AMPs seem hard to design and predict. Here, we designed, synthesized and screened five different peptide libraries, each consisting of 600 9-mer peptides, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Each library is presenting a different approach to investigate effectiveness of an optimization strategy. The data for the 3000 peptides were analyzed using models based on fuzzy logic bioinformatics and plausible descriptors. The rate of active or superior active peptides was improved from 31.0% in a semi-random library from a previous study to 97.8% in the best new designed library. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26687790

  2. A common landscape for membrane-active peptides

    PubMed Central

    Last, Nicholas B; Schlamadinger, Diana E; Miranker, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Three families of membrane-active peptides are commonly found in nature and are classified according to their initial apparent activity. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient components of the innate immune system and typically act by disruption of microbial membranes leading to cell death. Amyloid peptides contribute to the pathology of diverse diseases from Alzheimer's to type II diabetes. Preamyloid states of these peptides can act as toxins by binding to and permeabilizing cellular membranes. Cell-penetrating peptides are natural or engineered short sequences that can spontaneously translocate across a membrane. Despite these differences in classification, many similarities in sequence, structure, and activity suggest that peptides from all three classes act through a small, common set of physical principles. Namely, these peptides alter the Brownian properties of phospholipid bilayers, enhancing the sampling of intrinsic fluctuations that include membrane defects. A complete energy landscape for such systems can be described by the innate membrane properties, differential partition, and the associated kinetics of peptides dividing between surface and defect regions of the bilayer. The goal of this review is to argue that the activities of these membrane-active families of peptides simply represent different facets of what is a shared energy landscape. PMID:23649542

  3. Peptide-based, irreversible inhibitors of gamma-secretase activity.

    PubMed

    Piper, Siân C; Amtul, Zareen; Galiñanes-Garcia, Laura; Howard, Victor G; Ziani-Cherif, Chewki; McLendon, Chris; Rochette, Marjorie J; Fauq, Abdul; Golde, Todd E; Murphy, M Paul

    2003-06-01

    The characterization of the enzymes responsible for amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) production is considered to be a primary goal towards the development of future therapeutics for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Inhibitors of gamma-secretase activity were critical in demonstrating that the presenilins (PSs) likely comprised at least part of the active site of the gamma-secretase enzyme complex, with two highly conserved membrane aspartates presumably acting as catalytic residues. However, whether or not these aspartates are actually the catalytic residues of the enzyme complex or are merely essential for normal PS function and/or maturation is still unknown. In this paper, we report the development of reactive inhibitors of gamma-secretase activity that are functionally irreversible. Since such inhibitors have been shown to bind catalytic residues in other aspartyl proteases (e.g., HIV protease), they might be used to determine if the transmembrane aspartates of PSs are involved directly in substrate cleavage. PMID:12763025

  4. Peptide fibrils with altered stability, activity, and cell selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Liang, Jun F.

    2014-01-01

    Peptides have some unique and superior features compared to proteins. However, the use of peptides as therapeutics is hampered by their low stability and cell selectivity. In this study, a new lytic peptide (CL-1, FLGALFRALSRLL) was constructed. Under the physiological condition, peptide CL-1 self-assembled into dynamically stable aggregates with fibrils-like structures. Aggregated CL-1 demonstrated dramatically altered activity and stability in comparison with single molecule CL-1 and other lytic peptides: when incubated with co-cultured bacteria and tissue cells, CL-1 aggregates killed bacteria selectively but spared co-cultured human cells; CL-1 aggregates kept intact in human serum for more than five hours. Peptide-cell interaction studies performed on lipid monolayers and live human tissue cells revealed that in comparison with monomeric CL-1, aggregated CL-1 had decreased cell affinity and membrane insertion capability on tissue cells. A dynamic process involving aggregate dissociation and rearrangement seemed to be an essential step for membrane bound CL-1 aggregates to realize its cytotoxicity to tissue cells. Our study suggests that peptide aggregation could be as important as the charge and secondary structure of a peptide in affecting peptide-cell interactions. Controlling peptide self-assembly represents a new way to increase the stability and cell selectivity of bioactive peptides for wide biomedical applications. PMID:23713839

  5. Site-specific control of silica mineralization on DNA using a designed peptide.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Makoto; Nagai, Kazuma; Nishiyama, Hiroto; Tsuruoka, Takaaki; Fujii, Satoshi; Endoh, Tamaki; Imai, Takahito; Tomizaki, Kin-Ya; Usui, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    We developed a site-specific method for precipitating inorganic compounds using organic compounds, DNA, and designed peptides with peptide nucleic acids (PNAs). Such a system for site-specific precipitation represents a powerful tool for use in nanobiochemistry and materials chemistry. PMID:26690695

  6. Bactericidal Activity of Mammalian Cathelicidin-Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Sue M.; Anderson, Norma N.; Forsyth, William R.; Espiritu, Cesar; Conway, Barbara D.; Greenberg, E. P.; McCray, Paul B.; Lehrer, Robert I.; Welsh, Michael J.; Tack, Brian F.

    2000-01-01

    Endogenous antimicrobial peptides of the cathelicidin family contribute to innate immunity. The emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance in many commonly encountered bacteria requires the search for new bactericidal agents with therapeutic potential. Solid-phase synthesis was employed to prepare linear antimicrobial peptides found in cathelicidins of five mammals: human (FALL39/LL37), rabbit (CAP18), mouse (mCRAMP), rat (rCRAMP), and sheep (SMAP29 and SMAP34). These peptides were tested at ionic strengths of 25 and 175 mM against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Each peptide manifested activity against P. aeruginosa irrespective of the NaCl concentration. CAP18 and SMAP29 were the most effective peptides of the group against all test organisms under both low- and high-salt conditions. Select peptides of 15 to 21 residues, modeled on CAP18 (37 residues), retained activity against the gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, although the bactericidal activity was reduced compared to that of the parent peptide. In accordance with the behavior of the parent molecule, the truncated peptides adopted an α-helical structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol or lipopolysaccharide. The relationship between the bactericidal activity and several physiochemical properties of the cathelicidins was examined. The activities of the full-length peptides correlated positively with a predicted gradient of hydrophobicity along the peptide backbone and with net positive charge; they correlated inversely with relative abundance of anionic residues. The salt-resistant, antimicrobial properties of CAP18 and SMAP29 suggest that these peptides or congeneric structures have potential for the treatment of bacterial infections in normal and immunocompromised persons and individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:10768969

  7. Bactericidal activity of mammalian cathelicidin-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Travis, S M; Anderson, N N; Forsyth, W R; Espiritu, C; Conway, B D; Greenberg, E P; McCray, P B; Lehrer, R I; Welsh, M J; Tack, B F

    2000-05-01

    Endogenous antimicrobial peptides of the cathelicidin family contribute to innate immunity. The emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance in many commonly encountered bacteria requires the search for new bactericidal agents with therapeutic potential. Solid-phase synthesis was employed to prepare linear antimicrobial peptides found in cathelicidins of five mammals: human (FALL39/LL37), rabbit (CAP18), mouse (mCRAMP), rat (rCRAMP), and sheep (SMAP29 and SMAP34). These peptides were tested at ionic strengths of 25 and 175 mM against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Each peptide manifested activity against P. aeruginosa irrespective of the NaCl concentration. CAP18 and SMAP29 were the most effective peptides of the group against all test organisms under both low- and high-salt conditions. Select peptides of 15 to 21 residues, modeled on CAP18 (37 residues), retained activity against the gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, although the bactericidal activity was reduced compared to that of the parent peptide. In accordance with the behavior of the parent molecule, the truncated peptides adopted an alpha-helical structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol or lipopolysaccharide. The relationship between the bactericidal activity and several physiochemical properties of the cathelicidins was examined. The activities of the full-length peptides correlated positively with a predicted gradient of hydrophobicity along the peptide backbone and with net positive charge; they correlated inversely with relative abundance of anionic residues. The salt-resistant, antimicrobial properties of CAP18 and SMAP29 suggest that these peptides or congeneric structures have potential for the treatment of bacterial infections in normal and immunocompromised persons and individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:10768969

  8. Anti-Legionella activity of staphylococcal hemolytic peptides.

    PubMed

    Marchand, A; Verdon, J; Lacombe, C; Crapart, S; Héchard, Y; Berjeaud, J M

    2011-05-01

    A collection of various Staphylococci was screened for their anti-Legionella activity. Nine of the tested strains were found to secrete anti-Legionella compounds. The culture supernatants of the strains, described in the literature to produce hemolytic peptides, were successfully submitted to a two step purification process. All the purified compounds, except one, corresponded to previously described hemolytic peptides and were not known for their anti-Legionella activity. By comparison of the minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal permeabilization concentrations, decrease in the number of cultivable bacteria, hemolytic activity and selectivity, the purified peptides could be separated in two groups. First group, with warnericin RK as a leader, corresponds to the more hemolytic and bactericidal peptides. The peptides of the second group, represented by the PSMα from Staphylococcus epidermidis, appeared bacteriostatic and poorly hemolytic. PMID:21291938

  9. Prediction of Antibacterial Activity from Physicochemical Properties of Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Manuel N.; Ferre, Rafael; Feliu, Lídia; Bardají, Eduard; Planas, Marta; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

    2011-01-01

    Consensus is gathering that antimicrobial peptides that exert their antibacterial action at the membrane level must reach a local concentration threshold to become active. Studies of peptide interaction with model membranes do identify such disruptive thresholds but demonstrations of the possible correlation of these with the in vivo onset of activity have only recently been proposed. In addition, such thresholds observed in model membranes occur at local peptide concentrations close to full membrane coverage. In this work we fully develop an interaction model of antimicrobial peptides with biological membranes; by exploring the consequences of the underlying partition formalism we arrive at a relationship that provides antibacterial activity prediction from two biophysical parameters: the affinity of the peptide to the membrane and the critical bound peptide to lipid ratio. A straightforward and robust method to implement this relationship, with potential application to high-throughput screening approaches, is presented and tested. In addition, disruptive thresholds in model membranes and the onset of antibacterial peptide activity are shown to occur over the same range of locally bound peptide concentrations (10 to 100 mM), which conciliates the two types of observations. PMID:22194847

  10. Oncolytic Activities of Host Defense Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Shai, Yechiel; Jacobsen, Frank; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Cancer continues to be a leading source of morbidity and mortality worldwide in spite of progress in oncolytic therapies. In addition, the incidence of cancers affecting the breast, kidney, prostate and skin among others continue to rise. Chemotherapeutic drugs are widely used in cancer treatment but have the serious drawback of nonspecific toxicity because these agents target any rapidly dividing cell without discriminating between healthy and malignant cells. In addition, many neoplasms eventually become resistant to conventional chemotherapy due to selection for multidrug-resistant variants. The limitations associated with existing chemotherapeutic drugs have stimulated the search for new oncolytic therapies. Host defense peptides (HDPs) may represent a novel family of oncolytic agents that can avoid the shortcomings of conventional chemotherapy because they exhibit selective cytotoxicity against a broad spectrum of malignant human cells, including multi-drug-resistant neoplastic cells. Oncolytic activity by HDPs is usually via necrosis due to cell membrane lysis, but some HDPs can trigger apoptosis in cancer cells via mitochondrial membrane disruption. In addition, certain HDPs are anti-angiogenic which may inhibit cancer progression. This paper reviews oncolytic HDP studies in order to address the suitability of selected HDPs as oncolytic therapies. PMID:22174648

  11. Review: Production and functionality of active peptides from milk.

    PubMed

    Muro Urista, C; Álvarez Fernández, R; Riera Rodriguez, F; Arana Cuenca, A; Téllez Jurado, A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, research on the production of active peptides obtained from milk and their potential functionality has grown, to a great extent. Bioactive peptides have been defined as specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions or conditions, and they may ultimately have an influence on health. Individual proteins of casein or milk-derived products such as cheese and yogurt have been used as a protein source to study the isolation and activity of peptides with several applications. Currently, the milk whey waste obtained in the production of cheese also represents a protein source from which active peptides could be isolated with potential industrial applications. The active properties of milk peptides and the results found with regard to their physiological effects have led to the classification of peptides as belonging to the group of ingredients of protein nature, appropriate for use in functional foods or pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the main peptides obtained from milk protein and the past research studies about its production and biological activities will be explained. Second, an analysis will be made on the methods to determinate the biological activities, the separation of bioactive peptides and its structure identification. All of these form the base required to obtain synthetic peptides. Finally, we explain the experimental animal and human trials done in the past years. Nevertheless, more research is required on the design and implementation of equipment for the industrial production and separation of peptides. In addition, different authors suggest that more emphasis should therefore be given to preclinical studies, proving that results are consistent and that effects are demonstrated repeatedly by several research human groups. PMID:21917640

  12. Antimicrobial/cytolytic peptides from the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus amoreuxi: biochemical and functional characterization of natural peptides and a single site-substituted analog.

    PubMed

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Walker, Brian; Shaw, Chris

    2012-06-01

    The venoms of scorpions are complex cocktails of polypeptide toxins that fall into two structural categories: those that contain cysteinyl residues with associated disulfide bridges and those that do not. As the majority of lethal toxins acting upon ion channels fall into the first category, most research has been focused there. Here we report the identification and structural characterization of two novel 18-mer antimicrobial peptides from the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus amoreuxi. Named AamAP1 and AamAP2, both peptides are C-terminally amidated and differ in primary structure at just two sites: Leu-->Pro at position 2 and Phe-->Ile at position 17. Synthetic replicates of both peptides exhibited a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), a Gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and a yeast (Candida albicans), at concentrations ranging between 20 μM and 150 μM. In this concentration range, both peptides produced significant degrees of hemolysis. A synthetic replicate of AamAP1 containing a single substitution (His-->Lys) at position 8, generated a peptide (AamAP-S1) with enhanced antimicrobial potency (3-5 μM) against the three test organisms and within this concentration range, hemolytic effects were negligible. In addition, this His-->Lys variant exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity (ID(50) 25-40 μm) against several human cancer cell lines and endothelial cells that was absent in both natural peptides. Natural bioactive peptide libraries, such as those that occur in scorpion venoms, thus constitute a unique source of novel lead compounds with drug development potential whose biological properties can be readily manipulated by simple synthetic chemical means. PMID:22484288

  13. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Inhibits Spontaneous Contractile Activity of Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Lobov, G I; Pan'kova, M N

    2016-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide dose-dependently inhibited spontaneous phase and tonic activity of smooth muscle strips from the capsule of isolated bovine mesenteric lymph nodes. Pretreatment with L-NAME, diclofenac, and methylene blue had practically no effect on the peptide-induced relaxation responses. In contrast, glibenclamide significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of atrial natriuretic peptide. We suppose that the NO-dependent and cyclooxygenase signaling pathways are not involved in implementation of the inhibitory effects of atrial natriuretic peptide. ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels of the smooth muscle cell membrane are the last component in the signaling pathway leading to relaxation of smooth muscles of the lymph node capsule caused by atrial natriuretic peptide; activation of these channels leads to membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. PMID:27383173

  14. Peptides of the constant region of antibodies display fungicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Zanello, Pier Paolo; D'Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Arruda, Denise C; Pinto, Marcia R; Travassos, Luiz R; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA) of antibodies (Fc-peptides) exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents. PMID:22470523

  15. Antioxidant activities of a peptide derived from chicken dark meat.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Yoko; Mizutani, Saki; Nomura, Sarika; Hara, Wakana; Matsui, Riko; Nagai, Kumiko; Murakami, Yuki; Washio, Nanami; Ikemoto, Narumi; Terashima, Masaaki

    2016-05-01

    Antioxidant activities against hypochlorite ions and peroxyl radicals of a chicken dark meat hydrolysate digested with pepsin were examined with the myoglobin method based on the structure change of myoglobin due to redox reaction with reactive oxygen species (ROS). A peptide that showed strong antioxidant activity against the peroxyl radical was isolated from the hydrolysate using HPLC equipped with a hydrophobic-interacting column. The sequence of the first five amino acid residues of the peptide was determined as YASGR (Tyr-Ala-Ser-Gly-Arg), and this sequence matched with the amino acid residues 143-147 of chicken β-actin (GenBank: CAA25004.1). The synthetic peptide YASGR showed very high antioxidant activity against the peroxyl radical. Antioxidant activities of the free amino acids, confirmed that the tyrosine residue of this peptide was possibly responsible for antioxidant activity. PMID:27407214

  16. Antimicrobial peptides: a review of how peptide structure impacts antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Jason W.; Mello, Charlene M.

    2004-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been discovered in insects, mammals, reptiles, and plants to protect against microbial infection. Many of these peptides have been isolated and studied exhaustively to decipher the molecular mechanisms that impart protection against infectious bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms are still being debated within the scientific community but valuable clues have been obtained through structure/function relationship studies1. Biophysical studies have revealed that cecropins, isolated from insects and pigs, exhibit random structure in solution but undergo a conformational change to an amphipathic α-helix upon interaction with a membrane surface2. The lack of secondary structure in solution results in an extremely durable peptide able to survive exposure to high temperatures, organic solvents and incorporation into fibers and films without compromising antibacterial activity. Studies to better understand the antimicrobial action of cecropins and other AMPs have provided insight into the importance of peptide sequence and structure in antimicrobial activities. Therefore, enhancing our knowledge of how peptide structure imparts function may result in customized peptide sequences tailored for specific applications such as targeted cell delivery systems, novel antibiotics and food preservation additives. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge with respect to cell binding and antimicrobial activity of AMPs focusing primarily upon cecropins.

  17. Signal peptides are allosteric activators of the protein translocase.

    PubMed

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Gelis, Ioannis; Kalodimos, Charalampos G; Economou, Anastassios

    2009-11-19

    Extra-cytoplasmic polypeptides are usually synthesized as 'preproteins' carrying amino-terminal, cleavable signal peptides and secreted across membranes by translocases. The main bacterial translocase comprises the SecYEG protein-conducting channel and the peripheral ATPase motor SecA. Most proteins destined for the periplasm and beyond are exported post-translationally by SecA. Preprotein targeting to SecA is thought to involve signal peptides and chaperones like SecB. Here we show that signal peptides have a new role beyond targeting: they are essential allosteric activators of the translocase. On docking on their binding groove on SecA, signal peptides act in trans to drive three successive states: first, 'triggering' that drives the translocase to a lower activation energy state; second, 'trapping' that engages non-native preprotein mature domains docked with high affinity on the secretion apparatus; and third, 'secretion' during which trapped mature domains undergo several turnovers of translocation in segments. A significant contribution by mature domains renders signal peptides less critical in bacterial secretory protein targeting than currently assumed. Rather, it is their function as allosteric activators of the translocase that renders signal peptides essential for protein secretion. A role for signal peptides and targeting sequences as allosteric activators may be universal in protein translocases. PMID:19924216

  18. Separation of Peptide Isomers with Variant Modified Sites by High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Creese, Andrew; Smith, Richard D.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2010-10-01

    Many proteins and proteolytic peptides incorporate the same post-translational modification (PTM) at different sites, creating multiple localization variants with different functions or activities that may coexist in cells. Current analytical methods based on liquid chromatography (LC) followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) are challenged by such isomers that often co-elute in LC and/or produce non-unique fragments. Application of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has previously been explored, but success was limited by insufficient resolution. We show that the recently developed high-resolution differential ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) using helium-rich gases can readily separate phosphopeptides with variant modified sites. Specifically, use of He/N2 mixtures containing up to 74% He has allowed separating to >95% three monophosphorylated peptides of identical sequence. Similar separation was achieved at 50% He, using an elevated electric field. Bisphosphorylated isomers that differ in only one modification site were separated to the same extent. We anticipate the FAIMS capabilities for such separations to extend to other PTMs.

  19. Separation of Peptide Isomers with Variant Modified Sites by High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Creese, Andrew J.; Smith, Richard D.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2010-01-01

    Many proteins and proteolytic peptides incorporate the same post-translational modification (PTM) at different sites, creating multiple localization variants with different functions or activities that may coexist in cells. Current analytical methods based on liquid chromatography (LC) followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) are challenged by such isomers that often co-elute in LC and/or produce non-unique fragment ions. The application of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was explored, but success has been limited by insufficient resolution. We show that high-resolution differential ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) employing helium-rich gases can readily separate phosphopeptides with variant modification sites. Use of He/N2 mixtures containing up to 74% He has allowed separating to >95% three monophosphorylated peptides of identical sequence. Similar separation was achieved at 50% He, using an elevated electric field. Bisphosphorylated isomers that differ in only one modification site were separated to the same extent. We anticipate FAIMS capabilities for such separations to extend to other PTMs. PMID:20843012

  20. Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish) from 2006 to the present. PMID:25603351

  1. Exploration of the sequence specificity of pp60c-src tyrosine kinase. Minimal peptide sequence required for maximal activity.

    PubMed

    Edison, A M; Barker, S C; Kassel, D B; Luther, M A; Knight, W B

    1995-11-10

    The minimum length required for phosphorylation of a peptide by pp60c-src tyrosine kinase (srcTK) was delineated in this work. Budde (M.D. Anderson University of Texas, personal communication) suggested that the peptide (FGE)3Y(GEF)2GD (peptide I) was a "good" srcTK substrate. Peptide I yielded a 251-fold higher kcat/Km than RRLIEDAEYAARRG, a peptide substrate based upon the autophosphorylation site of srcTK. This was due to a 38-fold lower Km and a 6.6-fold increase in kcat.N-terminal truncation of up to 8 residues in a series of peptides yielded only a 3-fold decrease in activity. Removal of the final N-terminal residue resulted in a 10-fold loss in substrate activity, primarily as a result of an increase in the Km. C-terminal truncations ending in the amide yielded no significant loss in activity until the Y + 3 residue was removed, which resulted in a 73-fold decrease in kcat/Km relative to peptide I. The latter was due primarily to an increase in Km. The results from peptides truncated on both termini suggest that subsite recognition N- and C-terminal relative to the site of phosphorylation can be examined independently. In addition, the observation that only 5 residues are required for significant substrate activity suggests that small molecule inhibitors based upon interactions with the phosphoacceptor site may be developed. PMID:7592964

  2. [Biologically Active Peptides Isolated from Dill Anethum graveolens L].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, O G; Maltsev, D I; Ilyina, A P; Burdina, A V; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Peptide mixtures with molecular weights of 1000-2000 Da and in vivo membrano-trophic activity against mouse hepatocyte culture at very low concentrations were isolated from dill Anethum graveolens L. leaves. It has been found that plant peptides in aqueous solution formed larger nanosized particles of approximately 90 nm with a secondary structure mainly composed of β-structures and random coil structures. We demonstrated that peptides isolated from A. graveolens in vitro at an ultra-low dosage affected the size of the area of pigmented cells of amphibian liver, which are analogous to Kupffer cells of the mammalian liver, using roller organotypic newt liver culture models. PMID:26204780

  3. Active site specificity of plasmepsin II.

    PubMed Central

    Westling, J.; Cipullo, P.; Hung, S. H.; Saft, H.; Dame, J. B.; Dunn, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    Members of the aspartic proteinase family of enzymes have very similar three-dimensional structures and catalytic mechanisms. Each, however, has unique substrate specificity. These distinctions arise from variations in amino acid residues that line the active site subsites and interact with the side chains of the amino acids of the peptides that bind to the active site. To understand the unique binding preferences of plasmepsin II, an enzyme of the aspartic proteinase class from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, chromogenic octapeptides having systematic substitutions at various positions in the sequence were analyzed. This enabled the design of new, improved substrates for this enzyme (Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe*Nph-Ala/Glu-Leu-Lys, where * indicates the cleavage point). Additionally, the crystal structure of plasmepsin II was analyzed to explain the binding characteristics. Specific amino acids (Met13, Ser77, and Ile287) that were suspected of contributing to active site binding and specificity were chosen for site-directed mutagenesis experiments. The Met13Glu and Ile287Glu single mutants and the Met13Glu/Ile287Glu double mutant gain the ability to cleave substrates containing Lys residues. PMID:10548045

  4. PEP-SiteFinder: a tool for the blind identification of peptide binding sites on protein surfaces.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Adrien; Rey, Julien; Thévenet, Pierre; Zacharias, Martin; Moroy, Gautier; Tufféry, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Peptide-protein interactions are important to many processes of life, particularly for signal transmission or regulatory mechanisms. When no information is known about the interaction between a protein and a peptide, it is of interest to propose candidate sites of interaction at the protein surface, to assist the design of biological experiments to probe the interaction, or to serve as a starting point for more focused in silico approaches. PEP-SiteFinder is a tool that will, given the structure of a protein and the sequence of a peptide, identify protein residues predicted to be at peptide-protein interface. PEP-SiteFinder relies on the 3D de novo generation of peptide conformations given its sequence. These conformations then undergo a fast blind rigid docking on the complete protein surface, and we have found, as the result of a benchmark over 41 complexes, that the best poses overlap to some extent the experimental patch of interaction for close to 90% complexes. In addition, PEP-SiteFinder also returns a propensity index we have found informative about the confidence of the prediction. The PEP-SiteFinder web server is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/PEP-SiteFinder. PMID:24803671

  5. Covalent Conjugation of a Peptide Triazole to HIV-1 gp120 Enables Intramolecular Binding Site Occupancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein is the main viral surface protein responsible for initiation of the entry process and, as such, can be targeted for the development of entry inhibitors. We previously identified a class of broadly active peptide triazole (PT) dual antagonists that inhibit gp120 interactions at both its target receptor and coreceptor binding sites, induce shedding of gp120 from virus particles prior to host–cell encounter, and consequently can prevent viral entry and infection. However, our understanding of the conformational alterations in gp120 by which PT elicits its dual receptor antagonism and virus inactivation functions is limited. Here, we used a recently developed computational model of the PT–gp120 complex as a blueprint to design a covalently conjugated PT–gp120 recombinant protein. Initially, a single-cysteine gp120 mutant, E275CYU-2, was expressed and characterized. This variant retains excellent binding affinity for peptide triazoles, for sCD4 and other CD4 binding site (CD4bs) ligands, and for a CD4-induced (CD4i) ligand that binds the coreceptor recognition site. In parallel, we synthesized a PEGylated and biotinylated peptide triazole variant that retained gp120 binding activity. An N-terminally maleimido variant of this PEGylated PT, denoted AE21, was conjugated to E275C gp120 to produce the AE21–E275C covalent conjugate. Surface plasmon resonance interaction analysis revealed that the PT–gp120 conjugate exhibited suppressed binding of sCD4 and 17b to gp120, signatures of a PT-bound state of envelope protein. Similar to the noncovalent PT–gp120 complex, the covalent conjugate was able to bind the conformationally dependent mAb 2G12. The results argue that the PT–gp120 conjugate is structurally organized, with an intramolecular interaction between the PT and gp120 domains, and that this structured state embodies a conformationally entrapped gp120 with an altered bridging sheet but intact 2G12 epitope. The similarities of

  6. How Membrane-Active Peptides Get into Lipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Sani, Marc-Antoine; Separovic, Frances

    2016-06-21

    The structure-function relationship for a family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from the skin of Australian tree frogs is discussed and compared with that of peptide toxins from bee and Australian scorpion venoms. Although these membrane-active peptides induce a similar cellular fate by disrupting the lipid bilayer integrity, their lytic activity is achieved via different modes of action, which are investigated in relation to amino acid sequence, secondary structure, and membrane lipid composition. In order to better understand what structural features govern the interaction between peptides and lipid membranes, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which translocate through the membrane without compromising its integrity, are also discussed. AMPs possess membrane lytic activities that are naturally designed to target the cellular membrane of pathogens or competitors. They are extremely diverse in amino acid composition and often show specificity against a particular strain of microbe. Since our antibiotic arsenal is declining precariously in the face of the rise in multiantibiotic resistance, AMPs increasingly are seen as a promising alternative. In an effort to understand their molecular mechanism, biophysical studies of a myriad of AMPs have been reported, yet no unifying mechanism has emerged, rendering difficult the rational design of drug leads. Similarly, a wide variety of cytotoxic peptides are found in venoms, the best known being melittin, yet again, predicting their activity based on a particular amino acid composition or secondary structure remains elusive. A common feature of these membrane-active peptides is their preference for the lipid environment. Indeed, they are mainly unstructured in solution and, in the presence of lipid membranes, quickly adsorb onto the surface, change their secondary structure, eventually insert into the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, and finally disrupt the bilayer integrity. These steps define the molecular

  7. Engineering D-Amino Acid Containing Collagen Like Peptide at the Cleavage Site of Clostridium histolyticum Collagenase for Its Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Punitha; Jonnalagadda, Raghava Rao; Unni Nair, Balachandran

    2015-01-01

    Collagenase is an important enzyme which plays an important role in degradation of collagen in wound healing, cancer metastasis and even in embryonic development. However, the mechanism of this degradation has not yet been completely understood. In the field of biomedical and protein engineering, the design and development of new peptide based materials is of main concern. In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of DAla in collagen like peptide (imino-poor region of type I collagen) on the structure and stability of peptide against enzyme hydrolysis. Effect of replacement of DAla in the collagen like peptide has been studied using circular dichroic spectroscopy (CD). Our findings suggest that, DAla substitution leads to conformational changes in the secondary structure and favours the formation of polyproline II conformation than its L-counterpart in the imino-poor region of collagen like peptides. Change in the chirality of alanine at the cleavage site of collagenase in the imino-poor region inhibits collagenolytic activity. This may find application in design of peptides and peptidomimics for enzyme-substrate interaction, specifically with reference to collagen and other extra cellular matrix proteins. PMID:25973613

  8. Membrane-Active Peptides and the Clustering of Anionic Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwani, P.; Epand, R.F.; Heidenreich, N.; Bürck, J.; Ulrich, A.S.; Epand, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    There is some overlap in the biological activities of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). We compared nine AMPs, seven CPPs, and a fusion peptide with regard to their ability to cluster anionic lipids in a mixture mimicking the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, as measured by differential scanning calorimetry. We also studied their bacteriostatic effect on several bacterial strains, and examined their conformational changes upon membrane binding using circular dichroism. A remarkable correlation was found between the net positive charge of the peptides and their capacity to induce anionic lipid clustering, which was independent of their secondary structure. Among the peptides studied, six AMPs and four CPPs were found to have strong anionic lipid clustering activity. These peptides also had bacteriostatic activity against several strains (particularly Gram-negative Escherichia coli) that are sensitive to lipid clustering agents. AMPs and CPPs that did not cluster anionic lipids were not toxic to E. coli. As shown previously for several types of AMPs, anionic lipid clustering likely contributes to the mechanism of antibacterial action of highly cationic CPPs. The same mechanism could explain the escape of CPPs from intracellular endosomes that are enriched with anionic lipids. PMID:22853904

  9. Reactive Center Loop (RCL) Peptides Derived from Serpins Display Independent Coagulation and Immune Modulating Activities.

    PubMed

    Ambadapadi, Sriram; Munuswamy-Ramanujam, Ganesh; Zheng, Donghang; Sullivan, Colin; Dai, Erbin; Morshed, Sufi; McFadden, Baron; Feldman, Emily; Pinard, Melissa; McKenna, Robert; Tibbetts, Scott; Lucas, Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    Serpins regulate coagulation and inflammation, binding serine proteases in suicide-inhibitory complexes. Target proteases cleave the serpin reactive center loop scissile P1-P1' bond, resulting in serpin-protease suicide-inhibitory complexes. This inhibition requires a near full-length serpin sequence. Myxomavirus Serp-1 inhibits thrombolytic and thrombotic proteases, whereas mammalian neuroserpin (NSP) inhibits only thrombolytic proteases. Both serpins markedly reduce arterial inflammation and plaque in rodent models after single dose infusion. In contrast, Serp-1 but not NSP improves survival in a lethal murine gammaherpesvirus68 (MHV68) infection in interferon γ-receptor-deficient mice (IFNγR(-/-)). Serp-1 has also been successfully tested in a Phase 2a clinical trial. We postulated that proteolytic cleavage of the reactive center loop produces active peptide derivatives with expanded function. Eight peptides encompassing predicted protease cleavage sites for Serp-1 and NSP were synthesized and tested for inhibitory function in vitro and in vivo. In engrafted aorta, selected peptides containing Arg or Arg-Asn, not Arg-Met, with a 0 or +1 charge, significantly reduced plaque. Conversely, S-6 a hydrophobic peptide of NSP, lacking Arg or Arg-Asn with -4 charge, induced early thrombosis and mortality. S-1 and S-6 also significantly reduced CD11b(+) monocyte counts in mouse splenocytes. S-1 peptide had increased efficacy in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 serpin-deficient transplants. Plaque reduction correlated with mononuclear cell activation. In a separate study, Serp-1 peptide S-7 improved survival in the MHV68 vasculitis model, whereas an inverse S-7 peptide was inactive. Reactive center peptides derived from Serp-1 and NSP with suitable charge and hydrophobicity have the potential to extend immunomodulatory functions of serpins. PMID:26620556

  10. Autoradiographic localization and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the rat central nervous system and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.R.; Wildey, G.M.; Manaker, S.; Glembotski, C.C.

    1986-07-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3-/sup 125/I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and subfornical organ, and the olfactory apparatus. Moderate levels of ANP binding sites were present throughout the midbrain and brain stem, while low levels were found in the forebrain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum. The presence of ANP binding sites in the subfornical organ and the area postrema, regions considered to be outside the blood-brain barrier, suggests that peripheral ANP levels may regulate some aspects of CNS control of salt and water balance. The possible functions of ANP binding sites in other regions of the rat brain are not known, but, like many other peptides, ANP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator at these loci.

  11. Antimicrobial peptides with potential for biofilm eradication: synthesis and structure activity relationship studies of battacin peptides.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Gayan Heruka; Cameron, Alan James; Hegde, Veena V; Raghothama, Srinivasarao; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2015-01-22

    We report on the first chemical syntheses and structure-activity analyses of the cyclic lipopeptide battacin which revealed that conjugation of a shorter fatty acid, 4-methyl-hexanoic acid, and linearization of the peptide sequence improves antibacterial activity and reduces hemolysis of mouse blood cells. This surprising finding of higher potency in linear lipopeptides than their cyclic counterparts is economically beneficial. This novel lipopeptide was membrane lytic and exhibited antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and, for the first time, Pseudomonas syringe pv. actinidiae. The peptide was unstructured in aqueous buffer and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-polymerized diacetylene vesicles, with 12% helicity induced in 50% v/v of trifluoroethanol. Our results indicate that a well-defined secondary structure is not essential for the observed antibacterial activity of this novel lipopeptide. A truncated pentapeptide conjugated to 4-methyl hexanoic acid, having similar potency against Gram negative and Gram positive pathogens was identified through alanine scanning. PMID:25495219

  12. Self-assembly of cationic multidomain peptide hydrogels: supramolecular nanostructure and rheological properties dictate antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Linhai; Xu, Dawei; Sellati, Timothy J.; Dong, He

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials that have been widely utilized for a variety of biomedical/medical applications. The biological performance of hydrogels, particularly those used as wound dressing could be greatly advanced if imbued with inherent antimicrobial activity capable of staving off colonization of the wound site by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Possessing such antimicrobial properties would also protect the hydrogel itself from being adversely affected by microbial attachment to its surface. We have previously demonstrated the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of supramolecular assemblies of cationic multi-domain peptides (MDPs) in solution. Here, we extend the 1-D soluble supramolecular assembly to 3-D hydrogels to investigate the effect of the supramolecular nanostructure and its rheological properties on the antimicrobial activity of self-assembled hydrogels. Among designed MDPs, the bactericidal activity of peptide hydrogels was found to follow an opposite trend to that in solution. Improved antimicrobial activity of self-assembled peptide hydrogels is dictated by the combined effect of supramolecular surface chemistry and storage modulus of the bulk materials, rather than the ability of individual peptides/peptide assemblies to penetrate bacterial cell membrane as observed in solution. The structure-property-activity relationship developed through this study will provide important guidelines for designing biocompatible peptide hydrogels with built-in antimicrobial activity for various biomedical applications.Hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials that have been widely utilized for a variety of biomedical/medical applications. The biological performance of hydrogels, particularly those used as wound dressing could be greatly advanced if imbued with inherent antimicrobial activity capable of staving off colonization of the wound site by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Possessing such antimicrobial properties would

  13. Analysis of acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation sites using antibodies to synthetic peptides and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Safran, A; Neumann, D; Fuchs, S

    1986-01-01

    Three peptides corresponding to residues 354-367, 364-374, 373-387 of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) delta subunit were synthesized. These peptides represent the proposed phosphorylation sites of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, the tyrosine-specific protein kinase and the calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase respectively. Using these peptides as substrates for phosphorylation by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase it was shown that only peptides 354-367 was phosphorylated whereas the other two were not. These results verify the location of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site within the AChR delta subunit. Antibodies elicited against these peptides reacted with the delta subunit. The antipeptide antibodies and two monoclonal antibodies (7F2, 5.46) specific for the delta subunit were tested for their binding to non-phosphorylated receptor and to receptor phosphorylated by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Antibodies to peptide 354-367 were found to react preferentially with non-phosphorylated receptor whereas the two other anti-peptide antibodies bound equally to phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated receptors. Monoclonal antibody 7F2 reacted preferentially with the phosphorylated form of the receptor whereas monoclonal antibody 5.46 did not distinguish between the two forms. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3816758

  14. Electrophysiological activity of the C-peptide of the Locusta insulin-related peptide. Effect on the membrane conductance of Locusta neurones in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, I; Beadle, D J; Trifilieff, E; Luu, B; Hietter, H

    1991-11-18

    The C-peptide of Locusta insulin-related peptide, which is a 50 residue peptide originally isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the insect Locusta migratoria and to which we refer as 5-kDa peptide, has been synthesised chemically by the solid-phase method, using a BOC strategy. Since this peptide contains in its sequence a potential monobasic cleavage site, we also synthesised its 1-38 residue-related fragment, named 4-kDa peptide, although we have no hints of its natural occurrence in the corpora cardiaca. Electrophysiological studies have shown that both the 5-kDa and 4-kDa peptides depolarise the membrane and increase the membrane conductance of neurones freshly isolated from the thoracic ganglia of Locusta. Under voltage-clamp conditions, the current underlying these effects was inwardly directed and could be resolved into 2 components. One component, I(5-kDa)1, activated at potentials more hyperpolarised than -50 mV, peaked at about -75 mV and was blocked by the potassium channel blockers cesium and rubidium. The second component, I(5-kDa)2 was activated at potentials more depolarised than -50 mV, increased with depolarisation and was not blocked by cesium and rubidium. The effects of the 5-kDa and 4-kDa peptides on the membrane potential and membrane conductance of Locusta neurones suggest that these peptides may have a physiological role in the central nervous system of insects. PMID:1959647

  15. Processing of peptide and hormone precursors at the dibasic cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Rholam, Mohamed; Fahy, Christine

    2009-07-01

    Many functionally important cellular peptides and proteins, including hormones, neuropeptides, and growth factors, are synthesized as inactive precursor polypeptides, which require post-translational proteolytic processing to become biologically active polypeptides. This is achieved by the action of a relatively small number of proteases that belong to a family of seven subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (PCs) including furin. In view of this, this review focuses on the importance of privileged secondary structures and of given amino acid residues around basic cleavage sites in substrate recognition by these endoproteases. In addition to their participation in normal cell functions, PCs are crucial for the initiation and progress of many important diseases. Hence, these proteases constitute potential drug targets in medicine. Accordingly, this review also discusses the approaches used to shed light on the cleavage preference and the substrate specificity of the PCs, a prerequisite to select which PCs are promising drug targets in each disease. PMID:19300906

  16. Cellular Uptake and Ultrastructural Localization Underlie the Pro-apoptotic Activity of a Hydrocarbon-stapled BIM BH3 Peptide.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Amanda L; Wachter, Franziska; Lammert, Margaret; Huhn, Annissa J; Luccarelli, James; Bird, Gregory H; Walensky, Loren D

    2015-09-18

    Hydrocarbon stapling has been applied to restore and stabilize the α-helical structure of bioactive peptides for biochemical, structural, cellular, and in vivo studies. The peptide sequence, in addition to the composition and location of the installed staple, can dramatically influence the properties of stapled peptides. As a result, constructs that appear similar can have distinct functions and utilities. Here, we perform a side-by-side comparison of stapled peptides modeled after the pro-apoptotic BIM BH3 helix to highlight these principles. We confirm that replacing a salt-bridge with an i, i + 4 hydrocarbon staple does not impair target binding affinity and instead can yield a biologically and pharmacologically enhanced α-helical peptide ligand. Importantly, we demonstrate by electron microscopy that the pro-apoptotic activity of a stapled BIM BH3 helix correlates with its capacity to achieve cellular uptake without membrane disruption and accumulate at the organellar site of mechanistic activity. PMID:26151238

  17. Tumor-Specific Peptide, Selected from a Phage Peptide Library, Enhances Antitumor Activity of Lactaptin

    PubMed Central

    Makartsova, Anna A.; Fomin, Alexandr S.; Nushtaeva, Anna A.; Koval, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    A recombinant analogue of lactaptin (RL2), a new potential anticancer molecule, induces apoptosis in cultured tumor cells. The tumor suppression efficacy of RL2 was shown against mouse hepatoma-1 cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The RL2-based therapeutic drug lactaptin is distributed evenly throughout the organism, which reduces its antitumor efficacy. In the current study, we obtained a genetic construct that allows production of the recombinant fusion protein T3-RL2, consisting of RL2 and T3 peptide (YTYDPWLIFPAN), in E. coli cells. T3 peptide was selected from a phage peptide library as a result of two screenings: in vitro using MDA-MB-231 cell culture and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer MDA-MB-231. It was shown that the displayed peptide T3 provides binding and internalization of phage particles by MDA-MB-231 cells and their specific accumulation in MDA-MB-231 tumor tissue. In addition, based on the nucleotide sequences coding RL2 and the known tumor-targeting peptide iRGD, we obtained genetic constructs that provide synthesis of fusion proteins RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His. We studied the cytotoxic activity of fusion proteins T3-RL2, RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His in vitro using MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells. The in vitro results showed that the fusion proteins inhibit proliferation of both cell cultures, and their cytotoxic activity is higher than that of RL2. In vivo experiments on the study of the antitumor efficacy of the obtained fusion proteins demonstrated that T3-RL2 protein significantly inhibits MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in a xenograft model compared with RL2, while the antitumor effect of RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His proteins is comparable to the effect of RL2. PMID:27513518

  18. Design and characterization of an acid-activated antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Li, Lina; He, Jian; Eckert, Randal; Yarbrough, Daniel; Lux, Renate; Anderson, Maxwell; Shi, Wenyuan

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a microbial biofilm infection in which the metabolic activities of plaque bacteria result in a dramatic pH decrease and shift the demineralization/remineralization equilibrium on the tooth surface towards demineralization. In addition to causing a net loss in tooth minerals, creation of an acidic environment favors growth of acid-enduring and acid-generating species, which causes further reduction in the plaque pH. In this study, we developed a prototype antimicrobial peptide capable of achieving high activity exclusively at low environmental pH to target bacterial species like Streptococcus mutans that produce acid and thrive under the low pH conditions detrimental for tooth integrity. The features of clavanin A, a naturally occurring peptide rich in histidine and phenylalanine residues with pH-dependent antimicrobial activity, served as a design basis for these prototype 'acid-activated peptides' (AAPs). Employing the major cariogenic species S. mutans as a model system, the two AAPs characterized in this study exhibited a striking pH-dependent antimicrobial activity, which correlated well with the calculated charge distribution. This type of peptide represents a potential new way to combat dental caries. PMID:19878192

  19. Peptide Synthesis through Cell-Free Expression of Fusion Proteins Incorporating Modified Amino Acids as Latent Cleavage Sites for Peptide Release.

    PubMed

    Liutkus, Mantas; Fraser, Samuel A; Caron, Karine; Stigers, Dannon J; Easton, Christopher J

    2016-05-17

    Chlorinated analogues of Leu and Ile are incorporated during cell-free expression of peptides fused to protein, by exploiting the promiscuity of the natural biosynthetic machinery. They then act as sites for clean and efficient release of the peptides simply by brief heat treatment. Dehydro analogues of Leu and Ile are similarly incorporated as latent sites for peptide release through treatment with iodine under cold conditions. These protocols complement enzyme-catalyzed methods and have been used to prepare calcitonin, gastrin-releasing peptide, cholecystokinin-7, and prolactin-releasing peptide prohormones, as well as analogues substituted with unusual amino acids, thus illustrating their practical utility as alternatives to more traditional chemical peptide synthesis. PMID:26918308

  20. Cyclolinopeptides, cyclic peptides from flaxseed with osteoclast differentiation inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Toshio; Yoshida, Haruka; Nakajima, Yuki; Toishi, Minako; Nugroho, Alfarius Eko; Morita, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum seed) is widely used in food and natural health products. In our search for osteoclast differentiation inhibitors, some cyclic peptides isolated from flaxseed, known as the cyclolinopeptides, were discovered to have osteoclast differentiation inhibition activity. The osteoclast differentiation inhibition activity of cyclolinopeptides A-I (1-9) and their related derivatives (10-14) are described herein. Cyclolinopeptides F, H and I (6, 8 and 9), in particular, showed potent osteoclast differentiation inhibition activity. PMID:26923696

  1. OMP Peptides Activate the DegS Stress-Sensor Protease by a Relief of Inhibition Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; MIT

    2010-03-19

    In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the protease domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.

  2. Binding sites of atrial natriuretic peptide in tree shrew adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, E.; Shigematsu, K.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Adrenal gland binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126) (ANP) were quantitated in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) by incubation of adrenal sections with (3-(/sup 125/I)-iodotyrosyl28) atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126), followed by autoradiography with computerized microdensitometry. In the adrenal glands, there are three types of ANP binding sites. One is located in the zona glomerulosa (BMax 84 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein; Kd 122 +/- 9 pM); the second in the zona fasciculata and reticularis (BMax 29 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein; Kd 153 +/- 6 pM) and the third in the adrenal medulla (BMax 179 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein; Kd 70 +/- 2 pM). Besides the influence of ANP on the regulation of adrenocortical mineralcorticoid and glucocorticoid secretion our findings raise the possibility for a local site of action of atrial natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adrenomedullary catecholamines in the tree shrew, primates and man.

  3. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by plasmid expressed alphaMSH peptide.

    PubMed

    Etemad-Moghadam, Bijan; Chen, Hongmin; Yin, Peng; Aziz, Nazneen; Hedley, Mary Lynne

    2002-04-01

    Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (alphaMSH) is a neuroimmunomodulatory peptide with remarkable anti-inflammatory properties. Daily or twice daily administration of the peptide reduces the symptoms of several inflammatory animal disease models and the peptide has demonstrated safety in human trials. Unfortunately, the pharmacokinetics of peptide delivery are not favorable from the pharmaceutical perspective. For this reason, plasmid-based vectors were created that constitutively express the immunomodulatory peptide. The fusion constructs encode the 13 amino acids of alphaMSH in frame with the first domain of serum albumin, separated by a linker and furin cleavage sites. The fusion proteins were expressed and processed in human fetal kidney (293) cells. Supernatant from B16/F10 cells transfected with the constructs stimulated secretion of melanin from melanocytes. Furthermore, transfected cytoskeletal muscle (Sol8) cells secreted bioactive alphaMSH that reduced NF-kappaB-mediated transcriptional activation of a luciferase reporter gene. The activity of these vectors provides tools and the impetus for testing the constructs in several animal models of chronic inflammation. PMID:11960637

  4. Peptides from the scorpion Vaejovis punctatus with broad antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Carreto, Santos; Jiménez-Vargas, Juana María; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Corzo, Gerardo; Possani, Lourival D; Becerril, Baltazar; Ortiz, Ernesto

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial potential of two new non-disulfide bound peptides, named VpAmp1.0 (LPFFLLSLIPSAISAIKKI, amidated) and VpAmp2.0 (FWGFLGKLAMKAVPSLIGGNKSSSK) is here reported. These are 19- and 25-aminoacid-long peptides with +2 and +4 net charges, respectively. Their sequences correspond to the predicted mature regions from longer precursors, putatively encoded by cDNAs derived from the venom glands of the Mexican scorpion Vaejovis punctatus. Both peptides were chemically synthesized and assayed against a variety of microorganisms, including pathogenic strains from clinical isolates and strains resistant to conventional antibiotics. Two shorter variants, named VpAmp1.1 (FFLLSLIPSAISAIKKI, amidated) and VpAmp2.1 (FWGFLGKLAMKAVPSLIGGNKK), were also synthesized and tested. The antimicrobial assays revealed that the four synthetic peptides effectively inhibit the growth of both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiaea) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, with MICs in the range of 2.5-24.0 μM; yeasts (Candida albicans and Candida glabrata) with MICs of 3.1-50.0 μM; and two clinically isolated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-including a multi-drug resistant one- with MICs in the range of 4.8-30.5 μM. A comparison between the activities of the original peptides and their derivatives gives insight into the structural/functional role of their distinctive residues. PMID:26352292

  5. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides with High Anticancer Activity and Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Hao; Yu, Hui-Yuan; Chih, Ya-Han; Cheng, Hsi-Tsung; Chou, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Jya-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics. PMID:25970292

  6. Monitoring Criminal Activity through Invisible Fluorescent "Peptide Coding" Taggants.

    PubMed

    Gooch, James; Goh, Hilary; Daniel, Barbara; Abbate, Vincenzo; Frascione, Nunzianda

    2016-04-19

    Complementing the demand for effective crime reduction measures are the increasing availability of commercial forensic "taggants", which may be used to physically mark an object in order to make it uniquely identifiable. This study explores the use of a novel "peptide coding" reagents to establish evidence of contact transfer during criminal activity. The reagent, containing a fluorophore dispersed within an oil-based medium, also includes a unique synthetic peptide sequence that acts as a traceable "code" to identify the origin of the taggant. The reagent is detectable through its fluorescent properties, which then allows the peptide to be recovered by swabbing and extracted for electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis via a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The performance of the reagent in variable conditions that mimic the limits of a real world use are investigated. PMID:27010696

  7. Antibodies that neutralize human beta interferon biologic activity recognize a linear epitope: analysis by synthetic peptide mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, P N; Hoeprich, P D; Colby, C B; Grossberg, S E

    1991-01-01

    The location of biologically relevant epitopes on recombinant human beta interferon in which Ser-17 replaces Cys-17 (rh[Ser17]IFN-beta) was evaluated by testing the immunoreactivity of antibodies against 159 sequential, overlapping octamer peptides. Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize rh[Ser17]IFN-beta biologic activity, designated A1, A5, and A7, bound to peptides spanning only residues 39-48, whereas nonneutralizing mAb bound less specifically at multiple sites near the amino terminus. The immunoreactivity of peptides spanning residues 40-47 that contained a series of single amino acid substitutions suggested that residues 41-43 (Pro-Glu-Glu) and 46 (Gln) are important for the binding of neutralizing mAbs. The reactivity of mAbs to larger synthetic peptides containing rh[Ser17]IFN-beta sequences from residue 32 through residue 56 was evaluated. All mAbs except A7 reacted with synthetic peptides representing rh[Ser17]IFN-beta residues 32-47, 40-56, and 32-56, but only mAbs A1 and A5 bound to the core peptide composed of residues 40-47. Peptide 32-56 effectively blocked the binding of mAbs A1 and A5 to rh[Ser17]IFN-beta and markedly inhibited their neutralizing activity. Biologic activity of the peptides was undetectable. Rabbit antisera raised against peptides 32-47 and 40-56 recognized rh[Ser17]IFN-beta but did not neutralize its antiviral activity. Thus, structure-function analysis by peptide mapping has permitted the identification of a linear epitope recognized by neutralizing antibody on a biologically active cytokine. We conclude that the region spanning residues 32-56 is of major importance in the expression of the biologic activity of human IFN-beta. Images PMID:1708891

  8. [Regulation of peptide hydrolase activity in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Suworow, A P

    1990-01-01

    Clinico-biological examination of 154 patients with psoriasis resulted in data showing high activity of endo- and exopeptidases in efflorescences of that dermatosis. This was accompanied by depressed activity of trypsin inhibitor. At the same time magnesium deficiency, polysaccharide decrease and leucocyte increase were stated to be in the focus of skin damage. That character of interrelation, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of this widespread skin disease, is demonstrated. PMID:2257941

  9. Structure-Activity Relationship of Chlorotoxin-Like Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Abid; Alam, Mehtab; Abbasi, Atiya; Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Fry, Bryan Grieg; Kalbacher, Hubert; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Animal venom (e.g., scorpion) is a rich source of various protein and peptide toxins with diverse physio-/pharmaco-logical activities, which generally exert their action via target-specific modulation of different ion channel functions. Scorpion venoms are among the most widely-known source of peptidyl neurotoxins used for callipering different ion channels, such as; Na+, K+, Ca+, Cl−, etc. A new peptide of the chlorotoxin family (i.e., Bs-Tx7) has been isolated, sequenced and synthesized from scorpion Buthus sindicus (family Buthidae) venom. This peptide demonstrates 66% with chlorotoxin (ClTx) and 82% with CFTR channel inhibitor (GaTx1) sequence identities reported from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus venom. The toxin has a molecular mass of 3821 Da and possesses four intra-chain disulphide bonds. Amino acid sequence analysis of Bs-Tx7 revealed the presence of a scissile peptide bond (i.e., Gly-Ile) for human MMP2, whose activity is increased in the case of tumour malignancy. The effect of hMMP2 on Bs-Tx7, or vice versa, observed using the FRET peptide substrate with methoxycoumarin (Mca)/dinitrophenyl (Dnp) as fluorophore/quencher, designed and synthesized to obtain the lowest Km value for this substrate, showed approximately a 60% increase in the activity of hMMP2 upon incubation of Bs-Tx7 with the enzyme at a micromolar concentration (4 µM), indicating the importance of this toxin in diseases associated with decreased MMP2 activity. PMID:26848686

  10. Structure-Activity Relationship of Chlorotoxin-Like Peptides.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Abid; Alam, Mehtab; Abbasi, Atiya; Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan Grieg; Kalbacher, Hubert; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Animal venom (e.g., scorpion) is a rich source of various protein and peptide toxins with diverse physio-/pharmaco-logical activities, which generally exert their action via target-specific modulation of different ion channel functions. Scorpion venoms are among the most widely-known source of peptidyl neurotoxins used for callipering different ion channels, such as; Na⁺, K⁺, Ca⁺, Cl(-), etc. A new peptide of the chlorotoxin family (i.e., Bs-Tx7) has been isolated, sequenced and synthesized from scorpion Buthus sindicus (family Buthidae) venom. This peptide demonstrates 66% with chlorotoxin (ClTx) and 82% with CFTR channel inhibitor (GaTx1) sequence identities reported from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus venom. The toxin has a molecular mass of 3821 Da and possesses four intra-chain disulphide bonds. Amino acid sequence analysis of Bs-Tx7 revealed the presence of a scissile peptide bond (i.e., Gly-Ile) for human MMP2, whose activity is increased in the case of tumour malignancy. The effect of hMMP2 on Bs-Tx7, or vice versa, observed using the FRET peptide substrate with methoxycoumarin (Mca)/dinitrophenyl (Dnp) as fluorophore/quencher, designed and synthesized to obtain the lowest Km value for this substrate, showed approximately a 60% increase in the activity of hMMP2 upon incubation of Bs-Tx7 with the enzyme at a micromolar concentration (4 µM), indicating the importance of this toxin in diseases associated with decreased MMP2 activity. PMID:26848686

  11. Increase of anti-HIV activity of C-peptide fusion inhibitors using a bivalent drug design approach.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yanbo; Xue, Huifang; Jiang, Xifeng; Cai, Lifeng; Liu, Keliang

    2013-09-01

    We reported the design of fusion inhibitors with improved activity using a multivalent inhibitor design strategy. First, we chose C29 as the template sequence, which is a 29-mer peptide derived from HIV-1 gp41 CHR domain and has anti-HIV activity of IC50 118 nM in a cell-cell fusion assay. We optimized the crosslink sites and linkers of the template peptide. We found that N-terminal crosslink caused activity improvement based on the multivalent co-operative effect. Especially, the IC50 of peptide (CAcaC29)2 was improved from 49.02 (monomeric form) to 5.71 nM. Compared with long peptides, short peptides may be more suitable to analyze the co-operative effect. So we selected a shorter peptide C22 to synthesize the bivalent inhibitors. Due its weak helicity, no co-operative effect appeared. Therefore, we chose SC22EK, which were introduced salt bridges to consolidate the helicity based on the natural sequence C22. The cross-linked (CAcaSC22EK)2 was four times more potent than the monomer SC22EK in anti-HIV activity, with an IC50 value of 4.92 nM close to the high active peptide fusion inhibitor C34. The strategy used in this study may be used to design new fusion inhibitors to interfere similar processes. PMID:23906421

  12. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Fragmentation efficiencies of peptide ions following low energy collisional activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerfield, Scott G.; Gaskell, Simon J.

    1997-11-01

    Low energy fragmentations of protonated peptides in the gas phase are generally attributed to charge-directed processes. The extent and location of peptide backbone fragmentation is accordingly influenced by the extent to which charge is sequestered on amino acid side-chains. We describe systematic studies of the efficiencies of decomposition of peptide ions to assess in particular the influence of the presence of basic amino acid residues and of the protonation state. In a set of analogues containing two arginine, two histidine or two lysine residues, the extent of fragmentation of [M + 2H]2+ ions decreases with increased basicity, reflecting decreased backbone protonation. The collisionally activated dissociation of multiply protonated melittin ions shows an increase in fragmentation efficiency with higher charge state (using activation conditions which are similar for each charge state). For a single charge state, acetylation of primary amine groups increases fragmentation efficiency, consistent with the reduction in basicity of lysine side-chains. Conversion of arginine residues to the less basic dimethylpyrimidylornithine, however, decreases fragmentation efficiency, suggesting more effective sequestering of ionizing protons; the effect may be attributable to a disfavouring of proton-bridged structures but this hypothesis requires further study. Preliminary data for the decompositions of [M- 2H]2- ions derived from peptides containing two acidic residues suggest that the sequestration of charge away from the backbone is again detrimental to efficient fragmentation. Apparently diagnostic cleavages adjacent to aspartic acid residues are observed.

  14. Characterization and in vitro activity of a branched peptide boronic acid that interacts with HIV-1 RRE RNA.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jessica E; Zhang, Wenyu; Tebit, Denis M; Gray, Laurie R; Hammarskjold, Marie-Louise; Rekosh, David; Santos, Webster L

    2016-09-01

    A branched peptide containing multiple boronic acids was found to bind RRE IIB selectively and inhibit HIV-1 p24 capsid production in a dose-dependent manner. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that branching in the peptide is crucial for the low micromolar binding towards RRE IIB, and the peptide demonstrates selectivity towards RRE IIB in the presence of tRNA. Footprinting studies suggest a binding site on the upper stem and internal loop regions of the RNA, which induces enzymatic cleavage of the internal loops of RRE IIB upon binding. PMID:27091070

  15. Site of action of a pentapeptide agonist at the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. Insight into a small molecule agonist-binding pocket

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Maoqing; Pinon, Delia I.; Miller, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of small molecule agonists for class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has been quite challenging. With proof-of-concept that exenatide, the parenterally administered peptide agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor, is an effective treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus, the development of small molecule agonists could have substantial advantages. We previously reported a lead for small molecule GLP1 receptor agonist development representing the pentapeptide NRTFD. In this work, we have prepared an NRTFD derivative incorporating a photolabile benzoylphenylalanine and used it to define its site of action. This peptide probe was a full agonist with potency similar to NRTFD, which bound specifically and saturably to a single, distinct site within the GLP1 receptor. Peptide mapping using cyanogen bromide and endoproteinase Lys-C cleavage of labeled wild type and M397L mutant receptor constructs identified the site of covalent attachment of NRTFD within the third extracellular loop above the sixth transmembrane segment. This region is the same as that identified using an analogous photolabile probe based on secretin receptor sequences, and has been shown in mutagenesis studies to be important for natural agonist action of several members of this family. While these observations suggest that small molecule ligands can act at a site bordering the third extracellular loop to activate this class B GPCR, the relationship of this site to the site of action of the amino-terminal end of the natural agonist peptide is unclear. PMID:22079758

  16. Biologically active insulin-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Janet

    2014-06-01

    Insulin has many actions within cells many of which are dependent on the cell type. For example, insulin stimulates glucose uptake in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle but not in liver. In liver glucose influx will increase as insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of glucose and eventual storage in the form of glycogen. Insulin also increases glucose oxidation, decreases glucose production, decreases lipolysis, increases protein synthesis and inhibits protein degradation in addition to others. Many actions have been related to insulin binding to its receptor and subsequent phosphorylation cascades, but insulin action on protein degradation has been shown to be linked to insulin degradation, specifically insulin degradation by the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE). This activity has been shown to be due to an interaction of IDE with the proteasome, which is responsible for degradation of ubiquitin-tagged proteins. Smaller fragments of insulin that are produced by the action of IDE that do not bind to the insulin receptor show a small effect on protein degradation and a modest effect on mitogenesis. These small fragments do however inhibit lipolysis in a similar manner to insulin. If fragments are larger and can bind to the receptor they have been shown to increase glucose oxidation. Studies show that fragments of the insulin molecule have cellular activity, and that the varied actions of insulin are not completely controlled by insulin binding to the insulin receptor, even though the mechanisms may not be mutually exclusive. PMID:24559166

  17. Sequence-based prediction of protein-peptide binding sites using support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Taherzadeh, Ghazaleh; Yang, Yuedong; Zhang, Tuo; Liew, Alan Wee-Chung; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2016-05-15

    Protein-peptide interactions are essential for all cellular processes including DNA repair, replication, gene-expression, and metabolism. As most protein-peptide interactions are uncharacterized, it is cost effective to investigate them computationally as the first step. All existing approaches for predicting protein-peptide binding sites, however, are based on protein structures despite the fact that the structures for most proteins are not yet solved. This article proposes the first machine-learning method called SPRINT to make Sequence-based prediction of Protein-peptide Residue-level Interactions. SPRINT yields a robust and consistent performance for 10-fold cross validations and independent test. The most important feature is evolution-generated sequence profiles. For the test set (1056 binding and non-binding residues), it yields a Matthews' Correlation Coefficient of 0.326 with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 68%. This sequence-based technique shows comparable or more accurate than structure-based methods for peptide-binding site prediction. SPRINT is available as an online server at: http://sparks-lab.org/. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26833816

  18. Structure and Activity of Human Mitochondrial Peptide Deformylase, a Novel Cancer Target

    SciTech Connect

    Escobar-Alvarez, Sindy; Goldgur, Yehuda; Yang, Guangli; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Li, Yueming; Scheinberg, David A.

    2009-07-21

    Peptide deformylase proteins (PDFs) participate in the N-terminal methionine excision pathway of newly synthesized peptides. We show that the human PDF (HsPDF) can deformylate its putative substrates derived from mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins. The first structural model of a mammalian PDF (1.7 A), HsPDF, shows a dimer with conserved topology of the catalytic residues and fold as non-mammalian PDFs. The HsPDF C-terminus topology and the presence of a helical loop (H2 and H3), however, shape a characteristic active site entrance. The structure of HsPDF bound to the peptidomimetic inhibitor actinonin (1.7 A) identified the substrate-binding site. A defined S1' pocket, but no S2' or S3' substrate-binding pockets, exists. A conservation of PDF-actinonin interaction across PDFs was observed. Despite the lack of true S2' and S3' binding pockets, confirmed through peptide binding modeling, enzyme kinetics suggest a combined contribution from P2'and P3' positions of a formylated peptide substrate to turnover.

  19. Structure and activity of human mitochondrial peptide deformylase, a novel cancer target.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Alvarez, Sindy; Goldgur, Yehuda; Yang, Guangli; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Li, Yueming; Scheinberg, David A

    2009-04-17

    Peptide deformylase proteins (PDFs) participate in the N-terminal methionine excision pathway of newly synthesized peptides. We show that the human PDF (HsPDF) can deformylate its putative substrates derived from mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins. The first structural model of a mammalian PDF (1.7 A), HsPDF, shows a dimer with conserved topology of the catalytic residues and fold as non-mammalian PDFs. The HsPDF C-terminus topology and the presence of a helical loop (H2 and H3), however, shape a characteristic active site entrance. The structure of HsPDF bound to the peptidomimetic inhibitor actinonin (1.7 A) identified the substrate-binding site. A defined S1' pocket, but no S2' or S3' substrate-binding pockets, exists. A conservation of PDF-actinonin interaction across PDFs was observed. Despite the lack of true S2' and S3' binding pockets, confirmed through peptide binding modeling, enzyme kinetics suggest a combined contribution from P2'and P3' positions of a formylated peptide substrate to turnover. PMID:19236878

  20. The Use of Chromium(III) to Supercharge Peptides by Protonation at Low Basicity Sites

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Changgeng; Commodore, Juliette J.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of chromium(III) nitrate to solutions of peptides with seven or more residues greatly increases the formation of doubly protonated peptides, [M+2H]2+, by electrospray ionization. The test compound heptaalanine has only one highly basic site (the N-terminal amino group) and undergoes almost exclusive single protonation using standard solvents. When Cr(III) is added to the solution, abundant [M+2H]2+ forms, which involves protonation of the peptide backbone or the C-terminus. Salts of Al(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Fe(II), Cu(II), Zn (II), Rh(III), La(III), Ce(IV), and Eu(III) were also studied. While several metal ions slightly enhance protonation, Cr(III) has by far the greatest ability to generate [M+2H]2+. Cr(III) does not supercharge peptide methyl esters, which suggests that the mechanism involves interaction of Cr(III) with a carboxylic acid group. Other factors may include the high acidity of hexaaquochromium(III) and the resistance of Cr(III) to reduction. Nitrate salts enhance protonation more than chloride salts and a molar ratio of 10:1 Cr(III):peptide produces the most intense [M+2H]2+. Cr(III) also supercharges numerous other small peptides, including highly acidic species. For basic peptides, Cr(III) increases the charge state (2+ versus 1+) and causes the number of peptide molecules being protonated to double or triple. Chromium(III) does not supercharge the proteins cytochrome c and myoglobin. The ability of Cr(III) to enhance [M+2H]2+ intensity may prove useful in tandem mass spectrometry because of the resulting overall increase in signal-to-noise ratio, the fact that [M+2H]2+ generally dissociate more readily than [M+H]+, and the ability to produce [M+2H]2+ precursors for electron-based dissociation techniques. PMID:25395012

  1. The Use of Chromium(III) to Supercharge Peptides by Protonation at Low Basicity Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Changgeng; Commodore, Juliette J.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2015-02-01

    The addition of chromium(III) nitrate to solutions of peptides with seven or more residues greatly increases the formation of doubly protonated peptides, [M + 2H]2+, by electrospray ionization. The test compound heptaalanine has only one highly basic site (the N-terminal amino group) and undergoes almost exclusive single protonation using standard solvents. When Cr(III) is added to the solution, abundant [M + 2H]2+ forms, which involves protonation of the peptide backbone or the C-terminus. Salts of Al(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Fe(II), Cu(II), Zn (II), Rh(III), La(III), Ce(IV), and Eu(III) were also studied. Although several metal ions slightly enhance protonation, Cr(III) has by far the greatest ability to generate [M + 2H]2+. Cr(III) does not supercharge peptide methyl esters, which suggests that the mechanism involves interaction of Cr(III) with a carboxylic acid group. Other factors may include the high acidity of hexa-aquochromium(III) and the resistance of Cr(III) to reduction. Nitrate salts enhance protonation more than chloride salts and a molar ratio of 10:1 Cr(III):peptide produces the most intense [M + 2H]2+. Cr(III) also supercharges numerous other small peptides, including highly acidic species. For basic peptides, Cr(III) increases the charge state (2+ versus 1+) and causes the number of peptide molecules being protonated to double or triple. Chromium(III) does not supercharge the proteins cytochrome c and myoglobin. The ability of Cr(III) to enhance [M + 2H]2+ intensity may prove useful in tandem mass spectrometry because of the resulting overall increase in signal-to-noise ratio, the fact that [M + 2H]2+ generally dissociate more readily than [M + H]+, and the ability to produce [M + 2H]2+ precursors for electron-based dissociation techniques.

  2. Immunoregulatory activity of peptides related to platelet factor 4.

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, M B; Katz, I R; Thorbecke, G J; Milot, D C; Holt, J

    1989-01-01

    Platelet factor 4 (PF4), a secreted platelet protein, alleviates concanavalin A-induced immunosuppression in mice. We now find that activity also resides in (i) the C-terminal tridecapeptide of PF4 (P13S), (ii) an analog of this in which arginine replaces the lysine residues and in which the last two amino acids are absent, (iii) the C-terminal 18 amino acids of low-affinity platelet factor 4, which is very similar to P13S, and (iv) peptide fragments of P13S that contain only 5-9 amino acids. P13S treated with fluorescamine to derivatize the free amino groups retained immunoregulatory activity but did not bind to heparin-agarose. The N-terminal and middle portions of PF4, polylysine, protamine, and three unrelated peptides were inactive in this assay. PMID:2678107

  3. Delivery of a Protease-Activated Cytolytic Peptide Prodrug by Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jallouk, Andrew P; Palekar, Rohun U; Marsh, Jon N; Pan, Hua; Pham, Christine T N; Schlesinger, Paul H; Wickline, Samuel A

    2015-08-19

    Melittin is a cytolytic peptide derived from bee venom that inserts into lipid membranes and oligomerizes to form membrane pores. Although this peptide is an attractive candidate for treatment of cancers and infectious processes, its nonspecific cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity have limited its therapeutic applications. Several groups have reported the development of cytolytic peptide prodrugs that only exhibit cytotoxicity following activation by site-specific proteases. However, systemic administration of these constructs has proven difficult because of their poor pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we present a platform for the design of protease-activated melittin derivatives that may be used in conjunction with a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle delivery system. Although native melittin was substantially hemolytic (HD50: 1.9 μM) and cytotoxic (IC50: 2.4 μM), the prodrug exhibited 2 orders of magnitude less hemolytic activity (HD50: > 100 μM) and cytotoxicity (IC50: > 100 μM). Incubation with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) led to cleavage of the prodrug at the expected site and restoration of hemolytic activity (HD50: 3.4 μM) and cytotoxicity (IC50: 8.1 μM). Incubation of the prodrug with perfluorocarbon nanoparticles led to stable loading of 10,250 peptides per nanoparticle. Nanoparticle-bound prodrug was also cleaved and activated by MMP-9, albeit at a fourfold slower rate. Intravenous administration of prodrug-loaded nanoparticles in a mouse model of melanoma significantly decreased tumor growth rate (p = 0.01). Because MMPs and other proteases play a key role in cancer invasion and metastasis, this platform holds promise for the development of personalized cancer therapies directed toward a patient's individual protease expression profile. PMID:26083278

  4. The Rational Design of Specific Peptide Inhibitor against p38α MAPK at Allosteric-Site: A Therapeutic Modality for HNSCC

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Kamaldeep; Nigam, Lokesh; Singh, Ratnakar; Kumar, Suresh; Subbarao, Naidu; Chauhan, Shyam Singh; Dey, Sharmistha

    2014-01-01

    p38α is a significant target for drug designing against cancer. The overproduction of p38α MAPK promotes tumorigenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The ATP binding and an allosteric site referred as DFG are the key sites of the p38α mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) exploited for the design of inhibitors. This study demonstrated design of peptide inhibitor on the basis of allosteric site using Glide molecular docking software and the biochemical analysis of the best modeled peptide. The best fitted tetrapeptide (FWCS) in the allosteric site inhibited the pure recombinant and serum p38α of HNSCC patients by 74 and 72%, respectively. The potency of the peptide was demonstrated by its IC50 (4.6 nM) and KD (3.41×10−10 M) values, determined by ELISA and by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology, respectively. The cell viability of oral cancer i.e. KB cell line was reduced in dose dependent manner by 60 and 97% by the treatment of peptide and the IC50 was 600 and 210 µM after 24 and 72 h incubation, respectively. Our result provides an insight for the development of a proficient small peptide as a promising anticancer agent targeting DFG site of p38α kinase. PMID:24983631

  5. Biological activities of selected peptides: skin penetration ability of copper complexes with peptides.

    PubMed

    Mazurowska, Lena; Mojski, Miroslaw

    2008-01-01

    This study concerning the permeability through skin barriers of copper complexes with peptides is an important part of the research on their biological activity. The transport of copper complexes through the skin is essential in treatment of dermatological dysfunctions connected to the deficiency of these elements in the skin. During the last several years, a special interest in transepidermal copper delivery has been observed. This is the reason why copper compounds have been used as active compounds in care cosmetics. Yet, the transport process of copper complexes with tripeptides, glycyl-histidyl-lysine GHK, or gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine GSH through the stratum corneum has received very little attention in the literature so far. The penetration ability of GHK-Cu and GSH-Cu through the stratum corneum and the influence of the complexes with tripeptide on the copper ion transport process is the key factor in their cosmetic and pharmaceutical activity. The in vitro penetration process was studied in the model system, a Franz diffusion cell with a liposome membrane, where liquid crystalline systems of physicochemical properties similar to the ones of the intercellular cement of stratum corneum were used as a standard model of a skin barrier. The results obtained demonstrated that copper complexes permeate through the membranes modeling the horny lipid layer and showed the influence of peptides on the dynamics of copper ion diffusion. PMID:18350235

  6. Biologically active peptides obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of Adzuki bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Durak, Agata; Baraniak, Barbara; Jakubczyk, Anna; Świeca, Michał

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of peptides obtained from protein fractions of Adzuki bean seeds. Peptides were obtained by the use of hydrolytic enzymes in vitro under gastrointestinal conditions. A determination was made of the activity of the peptide inhibitors of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), and the antiradical and ion chelating activity of peptides from different protein fractions. The highest peptide levels after the absorption process (<7 kDa) were noted in the albumin fraction (50.69 μg/ml). Furthermore, it was found that peptides from the prolamin fraction were characterised by the highest antiradical activity and ACE inhibitory activity (IC50=0.17 mg/ml). Peptides obtained from the globulin fraction showed the highest ability to chelate iron ions, and peptides from the glutelin fraction were characterised as being the most effective in the chelation of copper ions. PMID:23870945

  7. Binding Site Prediction of Proteins with Organic Compounds or Peptides Using GALAXY Web Servers.

    PubMed

    Heo, Lim; Lee, Hasup; Baek, Minkyung; Seok, Chaok

    2016-01-01

    We introduce two GALAXY web servers called GalaxySite and GalaxyPepDock that predict protein complex structures with small organic compounds and peptides, respectively. GalaxySite predicts ligands that may bind the input protein and generates complex structures of the protein with the predicted ligands from the protein structure given as input or predicted from the input sequence. GalaxyPepDock takes a protein structure and a peptide sequence as input and predicts structures for the protein-peptide complex. Both GalaxySite and GalaxyPepDock rely on available experimentally resolved structures of protein-ligand complexes evolutionarily related to the target. With the continuously increasing size of the protein structure database, the probability of finding related proteins in the database is increasing. The servers further relax the complex structures to refine the structural aspects that are missing in the available structures or that are not compatible with the given protein by optimizing physicochemical interactions. GalaxyPepDock allows conformational change of the protein receptor induced by peptide binding. The atomistic interactions with ligands predicted by the GALAXY servers may offer important clues for designing new molecules or proteins with desired binding properties. PMID:27094284

  8. Phage-displayed peptides mimicking the discontinuous neutralization sites of puumala Hantavirus envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, T; Lundkvist, A; Soliymani, R; Koivunen, E; Vaheri, A; Lankinen, H

    1999-09-30

    We selected peptide ligands mimicking the surface structure of discontinuous binding sites of Puumala hantavirus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from a random 18-amino acid peptide library containing a disulfide bridge in a fixed position and displayed on a filamentous phage. The varying of selection conditions, either by shortening of the association time or by competitive elution with antigen, was crucial for the selection of peptide inserts that could be aligned with the primary sequences of the envelope glycoproteins G1 and G2. Correspondingly, when the envelope glycoprotein sequences were synthesized as overlapping peptides as spots on membrane, the same site in primary structure was found as with phage display, which corroborates the use of the two methods in mapping of conformational epitopes. Also, epitopes reactive with early-phase sera from Puumala virus infection were defined with the pepspot assay in the amino-terminal region of G1. Similarities of the selected phage clones to a monoclonal antibody-escape mutant site and to a linear early-phase epitope were found. PMID:10502511

  9. Effect of spacer length and type on the biological activity of peptide-polysaccharide matrices.

    PubMed

    Kumai, Jun; Hozumi, Kentaro; Yamada, Yuji; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2016-11-01

    Peptide-polysaccharide matrices can mimic extracellular matrix structure and function and are useful for tissue and cell engineering. The spacer between the peptide and the polysaccharide is important for both peptide conformation and the interaction between the peptide and receptors. Here, the effect of a spacer on the biological activity of peptide-polysaccharide matrices using various lengths of spacers consisting of glycine, β-alanine, and ε-aminocaproic acid has been examined. Active laminin-derived peptides, including a syndecan-binding peptide (AG73: RKRLQVQLSIRT), an integrin αvβ3-binding peptide (A99a: ALRGDN), and an integrin α6β1-binding peptide (A2G10: SYWYRIEASRTG), were used as the peptide ligands and chitosan was used as a polysaccharide matrix. The spacers did not influence the biological activity of the AG73-chitosan matrix. In contrast, the integrin-binding peptide-chitosan matrices showed spacer-dependent activity. Hydrophobic spacers enhanced the cell attachment activity of the A99a-chitosan matrix. A four-glycine spacer showed the strongest effect for the biological activity of the A2G10-chitosan matrix. These results suggested that spacer-optimization for each peptide is important for designing effective peptide-polysaccharide matrices. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 512-520, 2016. PMID:26588050

  10. Cationic Membrane Peptides: Atomic-Level Insight of Structure-Activity Relationships from Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongchao; Li, Shenhui; Hong, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Many membrane-active peptides, such as cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), conduct their biological functions by interacting with the cell membrane. The interactions of charged residues with lipids and water facilitate membrane insertion, translocation or disruption of these highly hydrophobic species. In this mini-review we will summarize high-resolution structural and dynamic findings towards the understanding of the structure-activity relationship of lipid membrane-bound CPPs and AMPs, as examples of the current development of solid-state NMR (SSNMR) techniques for studying membrane peptides. We will present the most recent atomic-resolution structure of the guanidinium-phosphate complex, as constrained from experimentally measured site-specific distances. These SSNMR results will be valuable specifically for understanding the intracellular translocation pathway of CPPs and antimicrobial mechanism of AMPs, and more generally broaden our insight into how cationic macromolecules interact with and cross the lipid membrane. PMID:23108593

  11. Allosterically Regulated Phosphatase Activity from Peptide-PNA Conjugates Folded Through Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Machida, Takuya; Dutt, Som; Winssinger, Nicolas

    2016-07-18

    The importance of spatial organization in short peptide catalysts is well recognized. We synthesized and screened a library of peptides flanked by peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) such that the peptide would be constrained in a hairpin loop upon hybridization. A screen for phosphatase activity led to the discovery of a catalyst with >25-fold rate acceleration over the linear peptide. We demonstrated that the hybridization-enforced folding of the peptide is necessary for activity, and designed a catalyst that is allosterically controlled using a complementary PNA sequence. PMID:27320214

  12. Role of extracellular domain dimerization in agonist-induced activation of natriuretic peptide receptor A.

    PubMed

    Parat, Marie; McNicoll, Normand; Wilkes, Brian; Fournier, Alain; De Léan, André

    2008-02-01

    Natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR) A is composed of an extracellular domain (ECD) with a ligand binding site, a single transmembrane region, a kinase homology domain, and a guanylyl cyclase domain. The natural agonists atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP) bind and activate NPRA, leading to cyclic GMP production, which is responsible for their role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Previous studies suggested that stabilization of a dimeric form of NPRA by agonist is essential for receptor activation. However, ligand specificity and sequential steps of this dimerization process have not been investigated. We used radioligand binding, fluorescence resonance energy transfer homoquenching, and molecular modeling to characterize the interaction of human NPRA-ECD with ANP, BNP, the superagonist (Arg(10),Leu(12),Ser(17),Leu(18))-rANP-(1-28), the minimized analog mini-ANP and the antagonist (Arg(6),beta-cyclohexyl-Ala(8),d-Tic(16),Arg(17),Cys(18))-rANP-(6-18)-amide (A71915). ANP binds to preformed ECD dimers and spontaneous dimerization is the rate-limiting step of the ligand binding process. All the studied peptides, including A71915 antagonist, induce a dose-dependent fluorescence homoquenching, specific to dimerization, with potencies highly correlated with their binding affinities. A71915 induced more quenching than other peptides, suggesting stabilization by the antagonist of ECD dimer in a distinct inactive conformation. In summary, these results indicate that the ligand-induced dimerization process of NPRA is different from that for cytokine receptor model. Agonists or antagonists bind to preformed dimeric ECD, leading to dimer stabilization in an active or inactive conformation, respectively. Furthermore, the highly sensitive fluorescence assay designed to assess dimerization could serve as a powerful tool for further detailing the kinetic steps involved in natriuretic peptide receptor binding and activation. PMID:17965196

  13. Influence of metallocene substitution on the antibacterial activity of multivalent peptide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Hoffknecht, Barbara C; Prochnow, Pascal; Bandow, Julia E; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2016-07-01

    Peptide dendrimers and derivatisation of peptides with metallocenes showed promising results in the search for new antibacterial agents. The two concepts are combined in this work leading to multivalent, metallocene-containing peptide derivates. These new peptides were synthesised utilising microwave assisted, copper(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC, "click" chemistry). Twelve new peptide conjugates, containing either a ferrocenoyl group or a ruthenocenoyl group on so-called ultrashort (i.e. < 5 amino acids) peptides, and ranging from monovalent to trivalent conjugates, were synthesised and their antibacterial activity was investigated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays on five different bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity was compared to the same peptide conjugates without metallocenes. The resulting MIC values showed a significant enhancement of the antibacterial activity of these peptide conjugates against Gram-positive bacteria by the metallocenoyl groups. Additionally, the compounds with two metallocenoyl groups presented the best antibacterial activities overall. PMID:26988572

  14. The immunology of host defence peptides: beyond antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Robert E W; Haney, Evan F; Gill, Erin E

    2016-05-01

    Host defence peptides (HDPs) are short, cationic amphipathic peptides with diverse sequences that are produced by various cells and tissues in all complex life forms. HDPs have important roles in the body's response to infection and inflammation. This Review focuses on human HDPs and explores the diverse immunomodulatory effects of HDPs from a systems biology perspective, which highlights the interconnected nature of the effect (or effects) of HDPs on the host. Studies have demonstrated that HDPs are expressed throughout the body and mediate a broad range of activities, which explains their association with various inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders. The diverse actions of HDPs, such as their roles in wound healing and in the maintenance of the microbiota, are also explored, in addition to potential therapeutic applications. PMID:27087664

  15. A Ligand Peptide Motif Selected from a Cancer Patient Is a Receptor-Interacting Site within Human Interleukin-11

    PubMed Central

    Cardó-Vila, Marina; Zurita, Amado J.; Giordano, Ricardo J.; Sun, Jessica; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Anobom, Cristiane D.; Valente, Ana P.; Almeida, Fábio C. L.; Lahdenranta, Johanna; Kolonin, Mikhail G.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a pleiotropic cytokine approved by the FDA against chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. From a combinatorial selection in a cancer patient, we isolated an IL-11-like peptide mapping to domain I of the IL-11 (sequence CGRRAGGSC). Although this motif has ligand attributes, it is not within the previously characterized interacting sites. Here we design and validate in-tandem binding assays, site-directed mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy to show (i) the peptide mimics a receptor-binding site within IL-11, (ii) the binding of CGRRAGGSC to the IL-11Rα is functionally relevant, (iii) Arg4 and Ser8 are the key residues mediating the interaction, and (iv) the IL-11-like motif induces cell proliferation through STAT3 activation. These structural and functional results uncover an as yet unrecognized receptor-binding site in human IL-11. Given that IL-11Rα has been proposed as a target in human cancer, our results provide clues for the rational design of targeted drugs. PMID:18941632

  16. The vaccine-site microenvironment induced by injection of incomplete Freund's adjuvant, with or without melanoma peptides

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Rebecca C.; Chianese-Bullock, Kimberly A.; Petroni, Gina R.; Schaefer, Jochen T.; Brill, Louis B.; Molhoek, Kerrington R.; Deacon, Donna H.; Patterson, James W.; Slingluff, Craig L.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer vaccines have not been optimized. They depend on adjuvants to create an immunogenic microenvironment for antigen presentation. However, remarkably little is understood about cellular and molecular changes induced by these adjuvants in the vaccine microenvironment. We hypothesized that vaccination induces dendritic cell activation in the dermal vaccination microenvironment but that regulatory processes may also limit the effectiveness of repeated vaccination. We evaluated biopsies from immunization sites in two clinical trials of melanoma patients. In one study (Mel38), patients received one injection with an adjuvant mixture alone, comprised of incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) plus granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In a second study, patients received multiple vaccinations with melanoma peptide antigens plus IFA. Single injections with adjuvant alone induced dermal inflammatory infiltrates consisting of B cells, T cells, mature dendritic cells (DC) and vessels resembling high endothelial venules (HEV). These cellular aggregates usually lacked organization and were transient. In contrast, multiple repeated vaccinations with peptides in adjuvant induced more organized and persistent lymphoid aggregates containing separate B and T cell areas, mature DC, HEV-like vessels, and lymphoid chemokines. Within these structures, there are proliferating CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as FoxP3+CD4+ lymphocytes, suggesting a complex interplay of lymphoid expansion and regulation within the dermal immunization microenvironment. Further study of the physiology of the vaccine site microenvironment promises to identify opportunities for enhancing cancer vaccine efficacy by modulating immune activation and regulation at the site of vaccination. PMID:22130163

  17. Modulation of host defense peptide-mediated human mast cell activation by LPS

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kshitij; Subramanian, Hariharan; Ali, Hydar

    2016-01-01

    Human β-defensin3 (hBD3) and the cathelicidin LL-37 are host defense peptides (HDPs) that directly kill microbes and display immunomodulatory/wound healing properties via the activation of chemokine, formylpeptide and epidermal growth factor receptors on monocytes and epithelial cells. A C-terminal 14 amino acid hBD3 peptide with all Cys residues replaced with Ser (CHRG01) and an LL-37 peptide consisting of residues 17-29 (FK-13) display antimicrobial activity but lack immunomodulatory property. Surprisingly, we found that CHRG01 and FK-13 caused Ca2+ mobilization and degranulation in human mast cells via a novel G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) known as Mas-related gene-X2 (MrgX2). At local sites of bacterial infection, the negatively charged LPS likely interacts with cationic HDPs to inhibit their activity and thus providing a mechanism for pathogens to escape the host defense mechanisms. We found that LPS caused almost complete inhibition of hBD3 and LL-37-induced Ca2+ mobilization and mast cell degranulation. In contrast, it had no effect on CHRG01 and FK-13-induced mast cell responses. These findings suggest that HDP derivatives that kill microbes, harness mast cell’s host defense and wound healing properties via the activation of MrgX2 but are resistant to inhibition by LPS could be utilized for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant microbial infections. PMID:26511058

  18. Proteolytic activity of Escherichia coli oligopeptidase B against proline-rich antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Mattiuzzo, Maura; De Gobba, Cristian; Runti, Giulia; Mardirossian, Mario; Bandiera, Antonella; Gennaro, Renato; Scocchi, Marco

    2014-02-28

    Oligopeptidase B (OpdB) is a serine peptidase widespread among bacteria and protozoa that has emerged as a virulence factor despite its function has not yet been precisely established. By using an OpdB-overexpressing Escherichia coli strain, we found that the overexpressed peptidase makes the bacterial cells specifically less susceptible to several proline-rich antimicrobial peptides known to penetrate into the bacterial cytosol, and that its level of activity directly correlates with the degree of resistance. We established that E. coli OpdB can efficiently hydrolyze in vitro cationic antimicrobial peptides up to 30 residues in length, even though they contained several prolines, shortening them to inactive fragments. Two consecutive basic residues are a preferred cleavage site for the peptidase. In the case of a single basic residue, there is no cleavage if proline residues are present in the P1 and P2 positions. These results also indicate that cytosolic peptidases may cause resistance to antimicrobial peptides that have an intracellular mechanism of action, such as the proline-rich peptides, and may contribute to define the substrate specificity of the E. coli OpdB. PMID:24225368

  19. Mass Spectrometric Strategies to Improve the Identification of Pt(II)-Modification Sites on Peptides and Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huilin; Snelling, Jonathon R.; Barrow, Mark P.; Scrivens, James H.; Sadler, Peter J.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2014-07-01

    To further explore the binding chemistry of cisplatin ( cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2) to peptides and also establish mass spectrometry (MS) strategies to quickly assign the platinum-binding sites, a series of peptides with potential cisplatin binding sites (Met(S), His(N), Cys(S), disulfide, carboxyl groups of Asp and Glu, and amine groups of Arg and Lys, were reacted with cisplatin, then analyzed by electron capture dissociation (ECD) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS). Radical-mediated side-chain losses from the charge-reduced Pt-binding species (such as CH3S• or CH3SH from Met, SH• from Cys, CO2 from Glu or Asp, and NH2 • from amine groups) were found to be characteristic indicators for rapid and unambiguous localization of the Pt-binding sites to certain amino acid residues. The method was then successfully applied to interpret the top-down ECD spectrum of an inter-chain Pt-crosslinked insulin dimer, insulin + Pt(NH3)2 + insulin (>10 kDa). In addition, ion mobility MS shows that Pt binds to multiple sites in Substance P, generating multiple conformers, which can be partially localized by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD). Platinum(II) (Pt(II)) was found to coordinate to amine groups of Arg and Lys, but not to disulfide bonds under the conditions used. The coordination of Pt to Arg or Lys appears to arise from the migration of Pt(II) from Met(S) as shown by monitoring the reaction products at different pH values by ECD. No direct binding of cisplatin to amine groups was observed at pH 3 ~ 10 unless Met residues were present in the sequence, but noncovalent interactions between cisplatin hydrolysis and amination [Pt(NH3)4]2+ products and these peptides were found regardless of pH.

  20. Haemoglobin binding with haptoglobin. Localization of the haptoglobin-binding sites on the beta-chain of human haemoglobin by synthetic overlapping peptides encompassing the entire chain.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, N; Atassi, M Z

    1986-03-01

    A synthetic approach was employed to identify the haptoglobin-binding sites on the beta-chain of human haemoglobin. This approach consists of the synthesis of a series of consecutive overlapping peptides that, together, systematically represent the entire protein chain. Fourteen synthetic peptides (beta 1-15, beta 11-25 etc.) were examined for their ability to bind human haptoglobin by quantitative solid-phase radiometric titrations of 125I-labelled haptoglobin. Of these 14 peptides only peptides beta 11-25 and beta 131-146 bound haptoglobin significantly; peptide beta 21-35 exhibited a small binding activity as a consequence of the overlap with peptide beta 11-25. On this basis and by examination of the three-dimensional structure of haemoglobin, it was concluded that the beta-chain of haemoglobin has two binding sites for haptoglobin that reside in, but do not necessarily encompass all of, the regions beta 11-25 and beta 131-146. PMID:3718478

  1. Three-dimensional structure of a peptide extending from one end of a class I MHC binding site.

    PubMed

    Collins, E J; Garboczi, D N; Wiley, D C

    1994-10-13

    Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules present peptides to CD8+ T cells for immunological surveillance (reviewed in ref. 1). The structures of complexes of class I MHC molecules with octamer, nonamer and decamer peptides determined until now show a common binding mode, with both peptide termini bound in conserved pockets at the ends of the peptide binding site. Length variations were accommodated by the peptide bulging or zig-zagging in the middle. Here we describe the structure of a decamer peptide which binds with the carboxy-terminal residue positioned outside the peptide binding site. Several protein side chains have rearranged to allow the peptide to exit. The structure suggests that even longer peptides could bind. The energetic effect of the altered mode of binding has been assessed by measuring the stability of the complex to thermal denaturation. Peptides bound in this novel manner are stable at physiological temperature, raising questions about their role in T-cell recognition and their production by proteolytic processing. PMID:7935798

  2. Data for identification of GPI-anchored peptides and ω-sites in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Masuishi, Yusuke; Kimura, Yayoi; Arakawa, Noriaki; Hirano, Hisashi

    2016-06-01

    We present data obtained using a focused proteomics approach to identify the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored peptides in 19 human cancer cell lines. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), which localize to the outer leaflet of the membrane microdomains commonly referred to as lipid rafts play important roles in diverse biological processes. Due to the complex structure of the GPI-anchor moiety, it has been difficult to identify GPI-anchored peptide sequences on the proteomic scale by database searches using tools such as MASCOT. Here we provide data from 73 ω-sites derived from 49 GPI-APs in 19 human cancer cell lines. This article contains data related to the research article entitled "Identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and ω-sites using TiO2-based affinity purification followed by hydrogen fluoride treatment" (Masuishi et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27141528

  3. Data for identification of GPI-anchored peptides and ω-sites in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Masuishi, Yusuke; Kimura, Yayoi; Arakawa, Noriaki; Hirano, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    We present data obtained using a focused proteomics approach to identify the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored peptides in 19 human cancer cell lines. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), which localize to the outer leaflet of the membrane microdomains commonly referred to as lipid rafts play important roles in diverse biological processes. Due to the complex structure of the GPI-anchor moiety, it has been difficult to identify GPI-anchored peptide sequences on the proteomic scale by database searches using tools such as MASCOT. Here we provide data from 73 ω-sites derived from 49 GPI-APs in 19 human cancer cell lines. This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and ω-sites using TiO2-based affinity purification followed by hydrogen fluoride treatment” (Masuishi et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27141528

  4. Swedish mutant APP-based BACE1 binding site peptide reduces APP β-cleavage and cerebral Aβ levels in Alzheimer’s mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Hou, Huayan; Mori, Takashi; Sawmiller, Darrell; Smith, Adam; Tian, Jun; Wang, Yanjiang; Giunta, Brian; Sanberg, Paul R.; Zhang, Sheqing; Tan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    BACE1 initiates amyloid-β (Aβ) generation and the resultant cerebral amyloidosis, as a characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thus, inhibition of BACE1 has been the focus of a large body of research. The most recent clinical trials highlight the difficulty involved in this type of anti-AD therapy as evidenced by side effects likely due to the ubiquitous nature of BACE1, which cleaves multiple substrates. The human Swedish mutant form of amyloid protein precursor (APPswe) has been shown to possess a higher affinity for BACE1 compared to wild-type APP (APPwt). We pursued a new approach wherein harnessing this greater affinity to modulate BACE1 APP processing activity. We found that one peptide derived from APPswe, containing the β-cleavage site, strongly inhibits BACE1 activity and thereby reduces Aβ production. This peptide, termed APPswe BACE1 binding site peptide (APPsweBBP), was further conjugated to the fusion domain of the HIV-1 Tat protein (TAT) at the C-terminus to facilitate its biomembrane-penetrating activity. APPwt and APPswe over-expressing CHO cells treated with this TAT-conjugated peptide resulted in a marked reduction of Aβ and a significant increase of soluble APPα. Intraperitoneal administration of this peptide to 5XFAD mice markedly reduced β-amyloid deposits as well as improved hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. PMID:26091071

  5. Anthranilate-Activating Modules from Fungal Nonribosomal Peptide Assembly Lines†

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Brian D.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal natural products containing benzodiazepinone- and quinazolinone-fused ring systems can be assembled by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) using the conformationally restricted β-amino acid anthranilate as one of the key building blocks. We validated that the first module of the acetylaszonalenin synthetase of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181 activates anthranilate to anthranilyl-AMP. With this as starting point, we then used bioinformatic predictions about fungal adenylation domain selectivities to identify and confirm an anthranilate-activating module in the fumiquinazoline A producer Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 as well as a second anthranilate-activating NRPS in N. fischeri. This establishes an anthranilate adenylation domain code for fungal NRPS and should facilitate detection and cloning of gene clusters for benzodiazepine- and quinazoline-containing polycyclic alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities. PMID:20225828

  6. Novel antimicrobial peptide specifically active against Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Suwandecha, T; Srichana, T; Balekar, N; Nakpheng, T; Pangsomboon, K

    2015-09-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, the major etiologic agent of chronic periodontitis, produces a broad spectrum of virulence factors, including outer membrane vesicles, lipopolysaccharides, hemolysins and proteinases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) including bacteriocins have been found to inhibit the growth of P. gingivalis; however, these peptides are relatively large molecules. Hence, it is difficult to synthesize them by a scale-up production. Therefore, this study aimed to synthesize a shorter AMP that was still active against P. gingivalis. A peptide that contained three cationic amino acids (Arg, His and Lys), two anionic amino acids (Glu and Asp), hydrophobic amino acids residues (Leu, Ile, Val, Ala and Pro) and hydrophilic residues (Ser and Gly) was obtained and named Pep-7. Its bioactivity and stability were tested after various treatments. The mechanism of action of Pep-7 and its toxicity to human red blood cells were investigated. The Pep-7 inhibited two pathogenic P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and P. gingivalis ATCC 53978 (wp50) strains at a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.7 µM, but was ineffective against other oral microorganisms (P. intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus sanguinis). From transmission electron microscopy studies, Pep-7 caused pore formation at the poles of the cytoplasmic membranes of P. gingivalis. A concentration of Pep-7 at four times that of its MBC induced some hemolysis but only at 0.3%. The Pep-7 was heat stable under pressure (autoclave at 110 and 121 °C) and possessed activity over a pH range of 6.8-8.5. It was not toxic to periodontal cells over a range of 70.8-4.4 μM and did not induce toxic pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Pep-7 showed selective activity against Porphyromonas sp. by altering the permeability barriers of P. gingivalis. The Pep-7 was not mutagenic in vitro. This work highlighted the potential for the use of this synthetic Pep-7 against P. gingivalis. PMID:26041027

  7. Structural Basis for Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein-Dependent Selective Peptide Recognition by a G Protein-Coupled Receptor.

    PubMed

    Booe, Jason M; Walker, Christopher S; Barwell, James; Kuteyi, Gabriel; Simms, John; Jamaluddin, Muhammad A; Warner, Margaret L; Bill, Roslyn M; Harris, Paul W; Brimble, Margaret A; Poyner, David R; Hay, Debbie L; Pioszak, Augen A

    2015-06-18

    Association of receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP1-3) with the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) enables selective recognition of the peptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin (AM) that have diverse functions in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. How peptides selectively bind GPCR:RAMP complexes is unknown. We report crystal structures of CGRP analog-bound CLR:RAMP1 and AM-bound CLR:RAMP2 extracellular domain heterodimers at 2.5 and 1.8 Å resolutions, respectively. The peptides similarly occupy a shared binding site on CLR with conformations characterized by a β-turn structure near their C termini rather than the α-helical structure common to peptides that bind related GPCRs. The RAMPs augment the binding site with distinct contacts to the variable C-terminal peptide residues and elicit subtly different CLR conformations. The structures and accompanying pharmacology data reveal how a class of accessory membrane proteins modulate ligand binding of a GPCR and may inform drug development targeting CLR:RAMP complexes. PMID:25982113

  8. Structural Basis for Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein-Dependent Selective Peptide Recognition by a G Protein-Coupled Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Booe, Jason M.; Walker, Christopher S.; Barwell, James; Kuteyi, Gabriel; Simms, John; Jamaluddin, Muhammad A.; Warner, Margaret L.; Bill, Roslyn M.; Harris, Paul W.; Brimble, Margaret A.; Poyner, David R.; Hay, Debbie L.; Pioszak, Augen A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Association of receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP1-3) with the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) enables selective recognition of the peptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin (AM) that have diverse functions in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. How peptides selectively bind GPCR:RAMP complexes is unknown. We report crystal structures of CGRP analog-bound CLR:RAMP1 and AM-bound CLR:RAMP2 extracellular domain heterodimers at 2.5 and 1.8 Å resolutions, respectively. The peptides similarly occupy a shared binding site on CLR with conformations characterized by a β-turn structure near their C termini rather than the α-helical structure common to peptides that bind related GPCRs. The RAMPs augment the binding site with distinct contacts to the variable C-terminal peptide residues and elicit subtly different CLR conformations. The structures and accompanying pharmacology data reveal how a class of accessory membrane proteins modulate ligand binding of a GPCR and may inform drug development targeting CLR:RAMP complexes. PMID:25982113

  9. Identification of the active-site serine in human lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Farooqui, J.; Wohl, R.C.; Kezdy, F.J.; Scanu, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) from human plasma reacts stoichiometrically with diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) resulting in the complete loss of transacylase activity. Purified LCAT was covalently labeled with (TH) DFP and the labeled protein was reduced and carboxymethylated. Cyanogen bromide cleavage followed by gel permeation chromatography yielded a peptide of 4-5 KDa (LCAT CNBr-III) containing most of the radioactive label. Preliminary studies comparing the amino acid composition of the LCAT-CNBr-III with the sequence of LCAT indicate that this peptide corresponds to fragment 168-220. Automated Edman degradation of the radioactive peptide recovered a radioactive PTC-amino acid at cycle 14. Of all predicted CNBr fragments only peptide 168-220 contained a serine at residue 14 from the amino terminus of the peptide. The authors conclude that serine 181 is the active site serine of LCAT.

  10. Antimicrobial activities of amphiphilic peptides covalently bonded to a water-insoluble resin.

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, S L; Crum, G A; Doele, B A

    1995-01-01

    A series of polymer-bound antimicrobial peptides was prepared, and the peptides were tested for their antimicrobial activities. The immobilized peptides were prepared by a strategy that used solid-phase peptide synthesis that linked the carboxy-terminal amino acid with an ethylenediamine-modified polyamide resin (PepsynK). The acid-stable, permanent amide bond between the support and the nascent peptide renders the peptide resistant to cleavage from the support during the final acid-catalyzed deprotection step in the synthesis. Select immobilized peptides containing amino acid sequences that ranged from the naturally occurring magainin to simpler synthetic sequences with idealized secondary structures were excellent antimicrobial agents against several organisms. The immobilized peptides typically reduced the number of viable cells by > or = 5 log units. We show that the reduction in cell numbers cannot be explained by the action of a soluble component. We observed no leached or hydrolyzed peptide from the resin, nor did we observe any antimicrobial activity in soluble extracts from the immobilized peptide. The immobilized peptides were washed and reused for repeated microbial contact and killing. These results suggest that the surface actions by magainins and structurally related antimicrobial peptides are sufficient for their lethal activities. PMID:7726486

  11. Cross-linking of atrial natriuretic peptide to binding sites in rat olfactory bulb membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Wildey, G.M.; Glembotski, C.C.

    1986-12-01

    Binding sites for /sup 125/I-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)2 in rat olfactory bulb membranes have been studied using pharmacological and biochemical methods. Various unlabeled ANP-related peptides were tested for the ability to inhibit the binding of the radioligand in membrane binding assays. ANP(92-126) and ANP(99-126) were the most potent inhibitors tested, both exhibiting an IC50 value of 0.40 nM. ANP(103-126) and ANP(103-123) were 3 and 70 times less potent, respectively. ANP(111-126) was unable to inhibit the binding of the radioligand at a concentration of 1 microM. Several peptides unrelated to ANP were unable to inhibit the binding of the radioligand to rat olfactory bulb membranes. Membranes labeled with /sup 125/I-ANP were incubated with cross-linking agents and subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by autoradiography. A band possessing an apparent molecular mass of 116 kDa was identified. The labeling of this band was progressively decreased by increasing concentrations of unlabeled ANP(99-126) (IC50 = 0.6 nM) and by several other ANP-related peptides at nanomolar concentrations. For comparison purposes, ANP binding sites in rat aorta membranes were labeled with /sup 125/I-ANP and cross-linked using identical techniques. Three bands possessing molecular masses of 120, 72, and 62 kDa were identified. These results indicate that the ANP binding site in rat olfactory bulb membranes displays pharmacological and biochemical properties similar to peripheral ANP receptors.

  12. Peptide biosensors for the electrochemical measurement of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kerman, Kagan; Song, Haifeng; Duncan, James S; Litchfield, David W; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2008-12-15

    The kinase activities are elucidated using the novel redox-active cosubstrate adenosine 5'-[gamma-ferrocene] triphosphate (Fc-ATP), which enables the kinase-catalyzed transfer of a redox active gamma-phosphate-Fc to a hydroxyamino acid. In this report, a versatile electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring the activity and inhibition of a serine/threonine kinase, casein kinase 2 (CK2), and protein tyrosine kinases, Abl1-T315I and HER2, in buffered solutions and in cell lysates. The method is based on the labeling of a specific phosphorylation event with Fc, followed by electrochemical detection. The electrochemical response obtained from the "ferrocenylated" peptides enables monitoring the activity of the kinase and its substrate, as well as the inhibition of small molecule inhibitors on protein phosphorylation. Kinetic information was extracted from the electrochemical measurements for the determination of K(m) and V(m) values, which were in agreement with those previously reported. Kinase reactions were also performed in the presence of well-defined inhibitors of CK2, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole, 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole, and E-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)acrylic acid as well as the nonspecific kinase inhibitors, staurosporine and N-benzoylstaurosporine. On the basis of the dependency of the Fc signal on inhibitor concentration, K(i) of the inhibitors was estimated, which were also in agreement with the literature values. The performance of the biosensor was optimized including the kinase reaction, incubation with Fc-ATP, and the small molecule inhibitors. Peptide modified electrochemical biosensors are promising candidates for cost-effective in vitro kinase activity and inhibitor screening assays. PMID:18989981

  13. Tuning the anticancer activity of a novel pro-apoptotic peptide using gold nanoparticle platforms

    PubMed Central

    Akrami, Mohammad; Balalaie, Saeed; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Alipour, Mohsen; Salehi, Fahimeh; Bahador, Abbas; Haririan, Ismaeil

    2016-01-01

    Pro-apoptotic peptides induce intrinsic apoptosis pathway in cancer cells. However, poor cellular penetration of the peptides is often associated with limited therapeutic efficacy. In this report, a series of peptide-gold nanoparticle platforms were developed to evaluate the anticancer activity of a novel alpha-lipoic acid-peptide conjugate, LA-WKRAKLAK, with respect to size and shape of nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were found to enhance cell internalization as well as anticancer activity of the peptide conjugates. The smaller nanospheres showed a higher cytotoxicity, morphological change and cellular uptake compared to larger nanospheres and nanorods, whereas nanorods showed more hemolytic activity compared to nanospheres. The findings suggested that the anticancer and biological effects of the peptides induced by intrinsic apoptotic pathway were tuned by peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (P-AuNPs) as a function of their size and shape. PMID:27491007

  14. Improved Identification and Relative Quantification of Sites of Peptide and Protein Oxidation for Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Zixuan; Xie, Boer; Sharp, Joshua S.

    2013-11-01

    Protein oxidation is typically associated with oxidative stress and aging and affects protein function in normal and pathological processes. Additionally, deliberate oxidative labeling is used to probe protein structure and protein-ligand interactions in hydroxyl radical protein footprinting (HRPF). Oxidation often occurs at multiple sites, leading to mixtures of oxidation isomers that differ only by the site of modification. We utilized sets of synthetic, isomeric "oxidized" peptides to test and compare the ability of electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID), as well as nano-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (nanoUPLC) separation, to quantitate oxidation isomers with one oxidation at multiple adjacent sites in mixtures of peptides. Tandem mass spectrometry by ETD generates fragment ion ratios that accurately report on relative oxidative modification extent on specific sites, regardless of the charge state of the precursor ion. Conversely, CID was found to generate quantitative MS/MS product ions only at the higher precursor charge state. Oxidized isomers having multiple sites of oxidation in each of two peptide sequences in HRPF product of protein Robo-1 Ig1-2, a protein involved in nervous system axon guidance, were also identified and the oxidation extent at each residue was quantified by ETD without prior liquid chromatography (LC) separation. ETD has proven to be a reliable technique for simultaneous identification and relative quantification of a variety of functionally different oxidation isomers, and is a valuable tool for the study of oxidative stress, as well as for improving spatial resolution for HRPF studies.

  15. Antifungal Activity and Action Mechanism of Histatin 5-Halocidin Hybrid Peptides against Candida ssp.

    PubMed

    Han, Juhye; Jyoti, Md Anirban; Song, Ho-Yeon; Jang, Woong Sik

    2016-01-01

    The candidacidal activity of histatin 5 is initiated through cell wall binding, followed by translocation and intracellular targeting, while the halocidin peptide exerts its activity by attacking the Candida cell membrane. To improve antimicrobial activities and to understand the killing mechanism of two peptides, six hybrid peptides were designed by conjugating histatin 5 and halocidin. A comparative approach was established to study the activity, salt tolerance, cell wall glucan binding assay, cytotoxicity, generation of ROS and killing kinetics. CD spectrometry was conducted to evaluate secondary structures of these hybrid peptides. Furthermore the cellular localization of hybrid peptides was investigated by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Of the six hybrid congeners, di-PH2, di-WP2 and HHP1 had stronger activities than other hybrid peptides against all tested Candida strains. The MIC values of these peptides were 1-2, 2-4 and 2-4 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, none of the hybrid peptides was cytotoxic in the hemolytic assay and cell-based cytotoxicity assay. Confocal laser microscopy showed that di-PH2 and HHP1 were translocated into cytoplasm whereas di-WP2 was accumulated on surface of C. albicans to exert their candidacidal activity. All translocated peptides (Hst 5, P113, di-PH2) were capable of generating intracellular ROS except HHP1. Additionally, the KFH residues at C-terminal end of these peptides were assumed for core sequence for active translocation. PMID:26918792

  16. Antifungal Activity and Action Mechanism of Histatin 5-Halocidin Hybrid Peptides against Candida ssp

    PubMed Central

    Han, Juhye; Jyoti, Md. Anirban; Song, Ho-Yeon; Jang, Woong Sik

    2016-01-01

    The candidacidal activity of histatin 5 is initiated through cell wall binding, followed by translocation and intracellular targeting, while the halocidin peptide exerts its activity by attacking the Candida cell membrane. To improve antimicrobial activities and to understand the killing mechanism of two peptides, six hybrid peptides were designed by conjugating histatin 5 and halocidin. A comparative approach was established to study the activity, salt tolerance, cell wall glucan binding assay, cytotoxicity, generation of ROS and killing kinetics. CD spectrometry was conducted to evaluate secondary structures of these hybrid peptides. Furthermore the cellular localization of hybrid peptides was investigated by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Of the six hybrid congeners, di-PH2, di-WP2 and HHP1 had stronger activities than other hybrid peptides against all tested Candida strains. The MIC values of these peptides were 1–2, 2–4 and 2–4 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, none of the hybrid peptides was cytotoxic in the hemolytic assay and cell-based cytotoxicity assay. Confocal laser microscopy showed that di-PH2 and HHP1 were translocated into cytoplasm whereas di-WP2 was accumulated on surface of C. albicans to exert their candidacidal activity. All translocated peptides (Hst 5, P113, di-PH2) were capable of generating intracellular ROS except HHP1. Additionally, the KFH residues at C-terminal end of these peptides were assumed for core sequence for active translocation. PMID:26918792

  17. Autoradiographic localization of peptide YY and neuropeptide Y binding sites in the medulla oblongata

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, R.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Robertson, H.A.

    1988-09-01

    Peptide YY is a highly potent emetic when given intravenously in dogs. We hypothesized that the area postrema, a small brain stem nucleus that acts as a chemoreceptive trigger zone for vomiting and lies outside the blood-brain barrier, might have receptors that PYY would bind to, in order to mediate the emetic response. We prepared (/sup 125/I)PYY and used autoradiography to show that high affinity binding sites for this ligand were highly localized in the area postrema and related nuclei of the dog medulla oblongata. Furthermore, the distribution of (/sup 125/I)PYY binding sites in the rat medulla oblongata was very similar to that in the dog; the distribution of (/sup 125/I)PYY binding sites throughout the rat brain was seen to be similar to the distribution of (/sup 125/I)NPY binding sites.

  18. High throughput peptide mapping method for analysis of site specific monoclonal antibody oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Wei; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Jia; Liu, Yan-Hui; Richardson, Daisy; Li, Huijuan; Shameem, Mohammed; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2016-08-19

    Oxidation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) often occurs on surface exposed methionine and tryptophan residues during their production in cell culture, purification, and storage, and can potentially impact the binding to their targets. Characterization of site specific oxidation is critical for antibody quality control. Antibody oxidation is commonly determined by peptide mapping/LC-MS methods, which normally require a long (up to 24h) digestion step. The prolonged sample preparation procedure could result in oxidation artifacts of susceptible methionine and tryptophan residues. In this paper, we developed a rapid and simple UV based peptide mapping method that incorporates an 8-min trypsin in-solution digestion protocol for analysis of oxidation. This method is able to determine oxidation levels at specific residues of a mAb based on the peptide UV traces within <1h, from either TBHP treated or UV light stressed samples. This is the simplest and fastest method reported thus far for site specific oxidation analysis, and can be applied for routine or high throughput analysis of mAb oxidation during various stability and degradation studies. By using the UV trace, the method allows more accurate measurement than mass spectrometry and can be potentially implemented as a release assay. It has been successfully used to monitor antibody oxidation in real time stability studies. PMID:27432793

  19. Histone H4-related osteogenic growth peptide (OGP): a novel circulating stimulator of osteoblastic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bab, I; Gazit, D; Chorev, M; Muhlrad, A; Shteyer, A; Greenberg, Z; Namdar, M; Kahn, A

    1992-01-01

    It has been established that regenerating marrow induces an osteogenic response in distant skeletal sites and that this activity is mediated by factors released into the circulation by the healing tissue. In the present study we have characterized one of these factors, a 14 amino acid peptide named osteogenic growth peptide (OGP). Synthetic OGP, identical in structure to the native molecule, stimulates the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblastic cells in vitro and increases bone mass in rats when injected in vivo. Immunoreactive OGP in high abundance is present physiologically in the serum, mainly in the form of an OGP-OGP binding protein complex. A marked increase in serum bound and unbound OGP accompanies the osteogenic phase of post-ablation marrow regeneration and associated systemic osteogenic response. Authentic OGP is identical to the C-terminus of histone H4 and shares a five residue motif with a T-cell receptor beta-chain V-region and the Bacillus subtilis outB locus. Since these latter proteins have not been implicated previously in the control of cell proliferation or differentiation, OGP may belong to a novel, heretofore unrecognized family of regulatory peptides. Perhaps more importantly, OGP appears to represent a new class of molecules involved in the systemic control of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Images PMID:1582415

  20. Site Covalent Modification of Methionyl Peptides for the Production of FRET Complexes.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Pramodkumar D; Shen, Jianheng; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Reaney, Martin J T

    2015-11-16

    Flax cyclic peptides (orbitides, linusorbs (LOs)) [1-8-NαC],[1-MetO2]-linusorb B1 ([MetO2]-LO1) and [1-9-NαC],[1-MetO2]-linusorb B2 ([MetO2]-LO2) are biologically active. These LOs lack active nuclei commonly used in peptide modification. We have developed reactions to activate methionine methyl sulphide to produce stable derivatives. In these reactions, LOs are converted to sulfonium intermediates and subsequently to derivatives containing active nuclei while preserving their fundamental structures. The reaction conditions preserved cyclic peptide fundamental structure and organic solvent solubility. [Met]-LO1 and [Met]-LO2 analogues containing activated groups (-CN, -COOEt, and -NH2 ) in the form of methionine, methionine (S)-oxide, and methionine (S,S)-dioxide amino acids were synthesized and characterized by LCMS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Coumarin orbitide complexes produced in this manner bind Eu(3+) yielding FRET compounds that absorb energy through coumarin antennae and emit photons at lanthanide wavelengths. PMID:26434760

  1. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, inhibits Helicobacter pylori peptide deformylase activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kunqiang; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lili; Shen, Xu; Huang, Jin

    2013-05-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative factor for gastrointestinal illnesses, H. pylori peptide deformylase (HpPDF) catalyzes the removal of formyl group from the N-terminus of nascent polypeptide chains, which is essential for H. pylori survival and is considered as a promising drug target for anti-H. pylori therapy. Propolis, a natural antibiotic from honeybees, is reported to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. In addition, previous studies suggest that the main active constituents in the propolis are phenolic compounds. Therefore, we evaluated a collection of phenolic compounds derived from propolis for enzyme inhibition against HpPDF. Our study results show that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main medicinal components of propolis, is a competitive inhibitor against HpPDF, with an IC50 value of 4.02 μM. Furthermore, absorption spectra and crystal structural characterization revealed that different from most well known PDF inhibitors, CAPE block the substrate entrance, preventing substrate from approaching the active site, but CAPE does not have chelate interaction with HpPDF and does not disrupt the metal-dependent catalysis. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the potential anti-H. pylori mechanism of propolis, and CAPE could be served as a lead compound for further anti-H. pylori drug discovery. PMID:23611786

  2. Identification of Site-Specific Stroke Biomarker Candidates by Laser Capture Microdissection and Labeled Reference Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Tingting; Qu, Daixin; Zhao, Xu; Yu, Lixia; Gao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The search to date for accurate protein biomarkers in acute ischemic stroke has taken into consideration the stage and/or the size of infarction, but has not accounted for the site of stroke. In the present study, multiple reaction monitoring using labeled reference peptide (LRP) following laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to identify site-specific protein biomarker candidates. In middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat models, both intact and infarcted brain tissue was collected by LCM, followed by on-film digestion and semi-quantification using triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thirty-four unique peptides were detected for the verification of 12 proteins in both tissue homogenates and LCM-captured samples. Six insoluble proteins, including neurofilament light polypeptide (NEFL), alpha-internexin (INA), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) and 2′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP), were found to be site-specific. Soluble proteins, such as neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL1), and some insoluble proteins, including neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and tubulin β-3 chain (TUBB3), were found to be evenly distributed in the brain. Therefore, we conclude that some insoluble protein biomarkers for stroke are site-specific, and would make excellent candidates for the design and analysis of relevant clinical studies in the future. PMID:26110384

  3. Identification of Site-Specific Stroke Biomarker Candidates by Laser Capture Microdissection and Labeled Reference Peptide.

    PubMed

    Lian, Tingting; Qu, Daixin; Zhao, Xu; Yu, Lixia; Gao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The search to date for accurate protein biomarkers in acute ischemic stroke has taken into consideration the stage and/or the size of infarction, but has not accounted for the site of stroke. In the present study, multiple reaction monitoring using labeled reference peptide (LRP) following laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to identify site-specific protein biomarker candidates. In middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat models, both intact and infarcted brain tissue was collected by LCM, followed by on-film digestion and semi-quantification using triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thirty-four unique peptides were detected for the verification of 12 proteins in both tissue homogenates and LCM-captured samples. Six insoluble proteins, including neurofilament light polypeptide (NEFL), alpha-internexin (INA), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) and 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), were found to be site-specific. Soluble proteins, such as neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL1), and some insoluble proteins, including neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and tubulin β-3 chain (TUBB3), were found to be evenly distributed in the brain. Therefore, we conclude that some insoluble protein biomarkers for stroke are site-specific, and would make excellent candidates for the design and analysis of relevant clinical studies in the future. PMID:26110384

  4. Modulation of CD44 Activity by A6-Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed throughout the extracellular matrix that plays a major role in cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. CD44, a multifunctional cell surface glycoprotein, is a receptor for HA. In addition, CD44 is known to interact with other receptors and ligands, and to mediate a number of cellular functions as well as disease progression. Studies have shown that binding of HA to CD44 in cancer cells activates survival pathways resulting in cancer cell survival. This effect can be blocked by anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies. A6 is a capped, eight l-amino acid peptide (Ac-KPSSPPEE-NH2) derived from the biologically active connecting peptide domain of the serine protease, human urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). A6 neither binds to the uPA receptor (uPAR) nor interferes with uPA/uPAR binding. A6 binds to CD44 resulting in the inhibition of migration, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells, and the modulation of CD44-mediated cell signaling. A6 has been shown to have no dose-limiting toxicity in animal studies. A6 has demonstrated efficacy and an excellent safety profile in Phase 1a, 1b, and 2 clinical trials. In animal models, A6 has also exhibited promising results for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and wet age-related macular degeneration through the reduction of retinal vascular permeability and inhibition of choroidal neovascularization, respectively. Recently, A6 has been shown to be directly cytotoxic for B-lymphocytes obtained from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia expressing the kinase, ZAP-70. This review will discuss the activity of A6, A6 modulation of HA and CD44, and a novel strategy for therapeutic intervention in disease. PMID:25870596

  5. Collagen-binding VEGF mimetic peptide: Structure, matrix interaction, and endothelial cell activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Tania R.

    Long term survival of artificial tissue constructs depends greatly on proper vascularization. In nature, differentiation of endothelial cells and formation of vasculature are directed by dynamic spatio-temporal cues in the extracellular matrix that are difficult to reproduce in vitro. In this dissertation, we present a novel bifunctional peptide that mimics matrix-bound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can be used to encode spatially controlled angiogenic signals in collagen-based scaffolds. The peptide, QKCMP, contains a collagen mimetic domain (CMP) that binds to type I collagen by a unique triple helix hybridization mechanism and a VEGF mimetic domain (QK) with pro-angiogenic activity. We demonstrate QKCMP's ability to hybridize with native and heat denatured collagens through a series of binding studies on collagen and gelatin substrates. Circular dichroism experiments show that the peptide retains the triple helical structure vital for collagen binding, and surface plasmon resonance study confirms the molecular interaction between the peptide and collagen strands. Cell culture studies demonstrate QKCMP's ability to induce endothelial cell morphogenesis and network formation as a matrix-bound factor in 2D and 3D collagen scaffolds. We also show that the peptide can be used to spatially modify collagen-based substrates to promote localized endothelial cell activation and network formation. To probe the biological events that govern these angiogenic cellular responses, we investigated the cell signaling pathways activated by collagen-bound QKCMP and determined short and long-term endothelial cell response profiles for p38, ERK1/2, and Akt signal transduction cascades. Finally, we present our efforts to translate the peptide's in vitro bioactivity to an in vivo burn injury animal model. When implanted at the wound site, QKCMP functionalized biodegradable hydrogels induce enhanced neovascularization in the granulation tissue. The results show QKCMP

  6. Rationally Designed Interfacial Peptides Are Efficient In Vitro Inhibitors of HIV-1 Capsid Assembly with Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Rebeca; Nevot, María; Doménech, Rosa; López, Inmaculada; Abián, Olga; Rodríguez-Huete, Alicia; Cavasotto, Claudio N.; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Gómez, Javier; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Neira, José Luis; Mateu, Mauricio G.

    2011-01-01

    Virus capsid assembly constitutes an attractive target for the development of antiviral therapies; a few experimental inhibitors of this process for HIV-1 and other viruses have been identified by screening compounds or by selection from chemical libraries. As a different, novel approach we have undertaken the rational design of peptides that could act as competitive assembly inhibitors by mimicking capsid structural elements involved in intersubunit interfaces. Several discrete interfaces involved in formation of the mature HIV-1 capsid through polymerization of the capsid protein CA were targeted. We had previously designed a peptide, CAC1, that represents CA helix 9 (a major part of the dimerization interface) and binds the CA C-terminal domain in solution. Here we have mapped the binding site of CAC1, and shown that it substantially overlaps with the CA dimerization interface. We have also rationally modified CAC1 to increase its solubility and CA-binding affinity, and designed four additional peptides that represent CA helical segments involved in other CA interfaces. We found that peptides CAC1, its derivative CAC1M, and H8 (representing CA helix 8) were able to efficiently inhibit the in vitro assembly of the mature HIV-1 capsid. Cocktails of several peptides, including CAC1 or CAC1M plus H8 or CAI (a previously discovered inhibitor of CA polymerization), or CAC1M+H8+CAI, also abolished capsid assembly, even when every peptide was used at lower, sub-inhibitory doses. To provide a preliminary proof that these designed capsid assembly inhibitors could eventually serve as lead compounds for development of anti-HIV-1 agents, they were transported into cultured cells using a cell-penetrating peptide, and tested for antiviral activity. Peptide cocktails that drastically inhibited capsid assembly in vitro were also able to efficiently inhibit HIV-1 infection ex vivo. This study validates a novel, entirely rational approach for the design of capsid assembly

  7. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.

  8. The Structure of the Amyloid-[beta] Peptide High-Affinity Copper II Binding Site in Alzheimer Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Streltsov, Victor A.; Titmuss, Stephen J.; Epa, V. Chandana; Barnham, Kevin J.; Masters, Colin L.; Varghese, Joseph N.

    2008-11-03

    Neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer disease (AD) is believed to be related to the toxicity from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the brain by the amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) protein bound primarily to copper ions. The evidence for an oxidative stress role of A{beta}-Cu redox chemistry is still incomplete. Details of the copper binding site in A{beta} may be critical to the etiology of AD. Here we present the structure determined by combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory analysis of A{beta} peptides complexed with Cu{sup 2+} in solution under a range of buffer conditions. Phosphate-buffered saline buffer salt (NaCl) concentration does not affect the high-affinity copper binding mode but alters the second coordination sphere. The XAS spectra for truncated and full-length A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} peptides are similar. The novel distorted six-coordinated (3N3O) geometry around copper in the A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} complexes include three histidines: glutamic, or/and aspartic acid, and axial water. The structure of the high-affinity Cu{sup 2+} binding site is consistent with the hypothesis that the redox activity of the metal ion bound to A{beta} can lead to the formation of dityrosine-linked dimers found in AD.

  9. Biological activity of Tat (47-58) peptide on human pathogenic fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hyun Jun; Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Dong Gun . E-mail: dglee222@knu.ac.kr

    2006-06-23

    Tat (47-58) peptide, a positively charged Arginine-rich peptide derived from HIV-1 regulatory protein Tat, is known for a peptidic delivery factor as a cell-penetrating peptide on mammalian cells. In this study, antifungal effect and its mode of action of Tat peptide were investigated on fungal cells. The results indicate that Tat peptide exhibits antifungal activity against pathogenic fungal cells without hemolytic effect on human erythrocytes. To understand the mechanism(s) of Tat peptide, the cellular distribution of the peptide was investigated. Tat peptide internalized in the fungal cells without any damage to cell membrane when examined using an artificial liposome (PC/cholesterol; 10:1, w/w). Moreover, flow cytometry analysis exhibited the uptake of Tat peptide by energy- and salt-independent pathway, and confocal scanning microscopy displayed that this peptide accumulated in the nucleus of fungal cells rapidly without any impediment by time or temperature, which generally influence on the viral infections. After penetration into the nuclear, the peptide affected the process of cell cycle of Candida albicans through the arrest at G1 phase.

  10. HomoSAR: bridging comparative protein modeling with quantitative structural activity relationship to design new peptides.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Mahesh R; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Coutinho, Evans C

    2013-11-15

    Peptides play significant roles in the biological world. To optimize activity for a specific therapeutic target, peptide library synthesis is inevitable; which is a time consuming and expensive. Computational approaches provide a promising way to simply elucidate the structural basis in the design of new peptides. Earlier, we proposed a novel methodology termed HomoSAR to gain insight into the structure activity relationships underlying peptides. Based on an integrated approach, HomoSAR uses the principles of homology modeling in conjunction with the quantitative structural activity relationship formalism to predict and design new peptide sequences with the optimum activity. In the present study, we establish that the HomoSAR methodology can be universally applied to all classes of peptides irrespective of sequence length by studying HomoSAR on three peptide datasets viz., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides, CAMEL-s antibiotic peptides, and hAmphiphysin-1 SH3 domain binding peptides, using a set of descriptors related to the hydrophobic, steric, and electronic properties of the 20 natural amino acids. Models generated for all three datasets have statistically significant correlation coefficients (r(2)) and predictive r2 (r(pred)2) and cross validated coefficient ( q(LOO)2). The daintiness of this technique lies in its simplicity and ability to extract all the information contained in the peptides to elucidate the underlying structure activity relationships. The difficulties of correlating both sequence diversity and variation in length of the peptides with their biological activity can be addressed. The study has been able to identify the preferred or detrimental nature of amino acids at specific positions in the peptide sequences. PMID:24105965

  11. Definition of neutralizing sites on African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP2 at the level of peptides.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Langeveld, J P; Meloen, R H; Casal, J I

    2001-10-01

    The antigenic structure of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 capsid protein VP2 has been determined at the peptide level by PEPSCAN analysis in combination with a large collection of polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies. VP2, the determinant for the virus serotype and an important target in virus neutralization, was found to contain 15 antigenic sites. A major antigenic region containing 12 of the 15 sites was identified in the region between residues 223 and 400. A second domain between residues 568 and 681 contained the three remaining sites. These sites were used for the synthesis of peptides, which were later tested in rabbits. Of the 15 synthetic peptides, three were able to induce neutralizing antibodies for AHSV-4, defining two neutralizing epitopes, 'a' and 'b', between residues 321 and 339, and 377 and 400, respectively. A combination of peptides representing both sites induced a more effective neutralizing response. Still, the relatively low neutralization titres make the possibility of producing a synthetic vaccine for AHSV unlikely. The complex protein-protein interaction of the outer shell of the viral capsid would probably require the presence of either synthetic peptides in the correct conformation or peptide segments from the different proteins VP2, VP5 and VP7. PMID:11562535

  12. Human 20S proteasome activity towards fluorogenic peptides of various chain lengths.

    PubMed

    Rut, Wioletta; Drag, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The proteasome is a multicatalytic protease responsible for the degradation of misfolded proteins. We have synthesized fluorogenic substrates in which the peptide chain was systematically elongated from two to six amino acids and evaluated the effect of peptide length on all three catalytic activities of human 20S proteasome. In the cases of five- and six-membered peptides, we have also synthesized libraries of fluorogenic substrates. Kinetic analysis revealed that six-amino-acid substrates are significantly better for chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activity than shorter peptidic substrates. In the case of trypsin-like activity, a five-amino-acid substrate was optimal. PMID:27176742

  13. Brain natriuretic peptide binding sites in rats: In vitro autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, E.M.; Thibault, G.; Pelletier, S.; Genest, J.; Cantin, M. )

    1990-08-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a recently discovered family of natriuretic peptides highly homologous to atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Quantitative in vitro autoradiography with a computerized microdensitometer demonstrated that the distribution of BNP binding sites is similar to the known distribution pattern of ANF binding sites in rat tissues. Analysis of saturation and competition curves disclosed that the maximal binding capacity for BNP-(Asp-81--Tyr-106) and ANF-(Ser-99--Tyr-126) is similar within the plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb, the choroid plexus, and the adrenal zona glomerulosa. Examination of the competition curves of BNP-(Asp-81--Tyr-106), ANF-(Ser-99--Tyr-126), and des-(Gln-116--Gly-120)ANF-(Asp-102--Cys-121)NH2 (C-ANF, a ligand highly specific for ANF-R2 receptors) for {sup 125}I-labeled BNP-(Asp-81--Tyr-106) and {sup 125}I-labeled ANF-(Ser-99--Tyr-126) binding revealed that ANF fully displaced {sup 125}I-BNP binding and, conversely, BNP completely displaced {sup 125}I-ANF binding in these tissues, whereas C-ANF partially displaced 125-BNP and 125-ANF binding. Angiotensin II, insulin, glucagon, and substance P had no influence on {sup 125}I-BNP binding in the above tissues. These results support the view that BNP and ANF share the same binding sites in rats.

  14. Antitumor Activity of Peptide Amphiphile Nanofiber-Encapsulated Camptothecin

    SciTech Connect

    Soukasene, Stephen; Toft, Daniel J.; Moyer, Tyson J.; Lu, Hsuming; Lee, Hyung-Kun; Standley, Stephany M.; Cryns, Vincent L.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2012-04-02

    Self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers were used to encapsulate camptothecin (CPT), a naturally occurring hydrophobic chemotherapy agent, using a solvent evaporation technique. Encapsulation by PA nanofibers was found to improve the aqueous solubility of the CPT molecule by more than 50-fold. PAs self-assembled into nanofibers in the presence of CPT as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Small-angle X-ray scattering results suggest a slight increase in diameter of the nanofiber to accommodate the hydrophobic cargo. In vitro studies using human breast cancer cells show an enhancement in antitumor activity of the CPT when encapsulated by the PA nanofibers. In addition, using a mouse orthotopic model of human breast cancer, treatment with PA nanofiber-encapsulated CPT inhibited tumor growth. These results highlight the potential of this model PA system to be adapted for delivery of hydrophobic therapies to treat a variety of diseases including cancer.

  15. Directed Evolution of an LBP/CD14 Inhibitory Peptide and Its Anti-Endotoxin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Li; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Guan-song; Ji, Fu-yun; Mei, Chun-xia; Liu, Juan; Wu, Guo-ming

    2014-01-01

    Background LPS-binding protein (LBP) and its ligand CD14 are located upstream of the signaling pathway for LPS-induced inflammation. Blocking LBP and CD14 binding might prevent LPS-induced inflammation. In previous studies, we obtained a peptide analog (MP12) for the LBP/CD14 binding site and showed that this peptide analog had anti-endotoxin activity. In this study, we used in vitro directed evolution for this peptide analog to improve its in vivo and in vitro anti-endotoxin activity. Methods We used error-prone PCR (ep-PCR) and induced mutations in the C-terminus of LBP and attached the PCR products to T7 phages to establish a mutant phage display library. The positive clones that competed with LBP for CD14 binding was obtained by screening. We used both in vivo and in vitro experiments to compare the anti-endotoxin activities of a polypeptide designated P1 contained in a positive clone and MP12. Results 11 positive clones were obtained from among target phages. Sequencing showed that 9 positive clones had a threonine (T) to methionine (M) mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. Compared to polypeptide MP12, polypeptide P1 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α expression and NF-κB activity in U937 cells (P<0.05). Compared to MP12, P1 significantly improved arterial oxygen pressure, an oxygenation index, and lung pathology scores in LPS-induced ARDS rats (P<0.05). Conclusion By in vitro directed evolution of peptide analogs for the LBP/CD14 binding site, we established a new polypeptide (P1) with a threonine (T)-to-methionine (M) mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. This polypeptide had high anti-endotoxin activity in vitro and in vivo, which suggested that amino acid 287 in the C-terminus of LBP may play an important role in LBP binding with CD14. PMID:25025695

  16. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1990-10-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites active on or after September 1988 and all transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites be monitored periodically to assure that radioactive contamination does not escape from the waste sites and pose a threat to the public or to the environment. This plan describes such a monitoring program for the active LLW disposal sites in SWSA 6 and the TRU waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Effects of biomineralization peptide topology on the structure and catalytic activity of Pd nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Janairo, Jose Isagani B; Sakaguchi, Tatsuya; Hara, Kenji; Fukuoka, Atsushi; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2014-08-25

    Highly branched, coral-like Pd nanostructures were formed using a biomineralization peptide conjugated to an oligomeric peptide that simultaneously controls the spatial orientation, arrangement and valency. The Pd nanocoral showed very high catalytic activity in the reduction of nitrophenol. The results highlight the importance of topological arrangement in nanostructure formation and catalytic activity. PMID:24963622

  18. Protocols to test the activity of antimicrobial peptides against the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    PubMed

    Khilnani, Jasmin C; Wing, Helen J

    2015-10-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causal agent of the honey bee disease American Foulbrood. Two enhanced protocols that allow the activity of antimicrobial peptides to be tested against P. larvae are presented. Proof of principle experiments demonstrate that the honey bee antimicrobial peptide defensin 1 is active in both assays. PMID:26210039

  19. Novel peptide inhibitors of Leishmania gp63 based on the cleavage site of MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate)-related protein.

    PubMed Central

    Corradin, Sally; Ransijn, Adriana; Corradin, Giampietro; Bouvier, Jacques; Delgado, Maria Belen; Fernandez-Carneado, Jimena; Mottram, Jeremy C; Vergères, Guy; Mauël, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    The zinc metalloprotease gp63 (leishmanolysin; promastigote surface protease) is expressed at high density at the surface of Leishmania promastigotes. Efficient non-toxic inhibitors of gp63 do not exist, and its precise role in parasite physiology remains unknown. MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) and MARCKS-related protein (MRP; MacMARCKS) are protein kinase C substrates in various cells, including macrophages. We reported previously that MRP is an excellent substrate for gp63. A major cleavage site was identified within the MRP effector domain (ED), a highly basic 24-amino-acid sequence, and the synthetic ED peptide (MRP(ED)) was shown to inhibit MRP hydrolysis. In the present study, MRP cleavage was used as an assay to measure the capacity of various MRP or MARCKS ED peptides to block gp63 activity. On a molar basis, MRP(ED) inhibited gp63 to a greater extent than two previously described gp63 inhibitors, o -phenanthroline and benzyloxycarbonyl-Tyr-Leu-NHOH. MARCKS(ED) analogues containing modifications in the gp63 consensus cleavage site showed significant differences in inhibitory capacity. As phosphorylation of ED serine residues prevented gp63-mediated MRP degradation, we synthesized a pseudophosphorylated peptide in which serine residues were substituted by aspartate (3DMRP(ED)). 3DMRP(ED) was a highly effective inhibitor of both soluble and parasite-associated gp63. Finally, MRP ED peptides were synthesized together with an N-terminal HIV-1 Tat transduction domain (TD) to obtain cell-permeant peptide constructs. Such peptides retained gp63 inhibitory activity and efficiently entered both macrophages and parasites in a Tat TD-dependent manner. These studies may provide the basis for developing potent cell-permeant inhibitors of gp63. PMID:12137567

  20. Common binding site for disialyllactose and tri-peptide in C-fragment of tetanus neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Seetharaman; Eswaramoorthy, Subramaniam; Kumaran, Desigan; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2005-11-01

    Clostridial neurotoxins are comprised of botulinum (BoNT) and tetanus (TeNT), which share significant structural and functional similarity. Crystal structures of the binding domain of TeNT complexed with disialyllactose (DiSia) and a tri-peptide Tyr-Glu-Trp (YEW) have been determined to 2.3 and 2.2 A, respectively. Both DiSia and YEW bind in a shallow cleft region on the surface of the molecule in the beta-trefoil domain, interacting with a set of common residues, Asp1147, Asp1214, Asn1216, and Arg1226. DiSia and YEW binding at the same site in tetanus toxin provides a putative site that could be occupied either by a ganglioside moiety or a peptide. Soaking experiments with a mixture of YEW and DiSia show that YEW competes with DiSia, suggesting that YEW can be used to block ganglioside binding. A comparison with the TeNT binding domain in complex with small molecules, BoNT/A and /B, provides insight into the different modes of ganglioside binding. PMID:16104015

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Synthetic Peptides Derived from Indolicidin and Ranalexin against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Hassan Mahmood; Le, Cheng Foh; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Velayuthan, Rukumani Devi; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Isa, Diyana Mohd; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics in order to defeat multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, thirteen antimicrobial peptides were designed based on two natural peptides indolicidin and ranalexin. Our results revealed that four hybrid peptides RN7-IN10, RN7-IN9, RN7-IN8, and RN7-IN6 possess potent antibacterial activity against 30 pneumococcal clinical isolates (MIC 7.81-15.62µg/ml). These four hybrid peptides also showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity (7.81µg/ml) against S. aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and E. coli. Furthermore, the time killing assay results showed that the hybrid peptides were able to eliminate S. pneumoniae within less than one hour which is faster than the standard drugs erythromycin and ceftriaxone. The cytotoxic effects of peptides were tested against human erythrocytes, WRL-68 normal liver cell line, and NL-20 normal lung cell line. The results revealed that none of the thirteen peptides have cytotoxic or hemolytic effects at their MIC values. The in silico molecular docking study was carried out to investigate the binding properties of peptides with three pneumococcal virulent targets by Autodock Vina. RN7IN6 showed a strong affinity to target proteins; autolysin, pneumolysin, and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) based on rigid docking studies. Our results suggest that the hybrid peptides could be suitable candidates for antibacterial drug development. PMID:26046345

  2. The effect of protonation site and conformation on surface-induced dissociation in a small, lysine containing peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Kulsum; Blackwood, Jacob; Barnes, George L.

    2015-09-01

    Simulations of surface induced dissociation (SID) of protonated peptides have provided significant insight into the energy transfer and mechanism of SID; however, they have been limited to glycine and alanine containing peptides. The chemical simplicity of these systems forces N-terminus protonation. Here we present results from simulations involving a lysine containing peptide that allowed for multiple protonation sites and conformations. We found that when the excess proton is located on the basic lysine side chain, fragmentation dynamics are typically slower and occur through a 'charge-remote' pathway. Additionally, conformation alone has a significant effect on the observed proton transfer pathways.

  3. Peptides presenting the binding site of human CD4 for the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Julia; Kassler, Kristin; Sticht, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Summary Based on the structure of the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 in complex with its cellular receptor CD4, we have designed and synthesized peptides that mimic the binding site of CD4 for gp120. The ability of these peptides to bind to gp120 can be strongly enhanced by increasing their conformational stability through cyclization, as evidenced by binding assays, as well as through molecular-dynamics simulations of peptide–gp120 complexes. The specificity of the peptide–gp120 interaction was demonstrated by using peptide variants, in which key residues for the interaction with gp120 were replaced by alanine or D-amino acids. PMID:23209523

  4. Eel calcitonin binding site distribution and antinociceptive activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Guidobono, F.; Netti, C.; Sibilia, V.; Villa, I.; Zamboni, A.; Pecile, A.

    1986-03-01

    The distribution of binding site for (/sup 125/I)-eel-calcitonin (ECT) to rat central nervous system, studied by an autoradiographic technique, showed concentrations of binding in the diencephalon, the brain stem and the spinal cord. Large accumulations of grains were seen in the hypothalamus, the amygdala, in the fasciculus medialis prosencephali, in the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, in the ventrolateral part of the periventricular gray matter, in the lemniscus medialis and in the raphe nuclei. The density of grains in the reticular formation and in the nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini was more moderate. In the spinal cord, grains were scattered throughout the dorsal horns. Binding of the ligand was displaced equally by cold ECT and by salmon CT(sCT), indicating that both peptides bind to the same receptors. Human CT was much weaker than sCT in displacing (/sup 125/I)-ECT binding. The administration of ECT into the brain ventricles of rats dose-dependently induced a significant and long-lasting enhancement of hot-plate latencies comparable with that obtained with sCT. The antinociceptive activity induced by ECT is compatible with the topographical distribution of binding sites for the peptide and is a further indication that fish CTs are active in the mammalian brain.

  5. Structure-Function Analysis of the Glioma Targeting NFL-TBS.40-63 Peptide Corresponding to the Tubulin-Binding Site on the Light Neurofilament Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Berges, Raphael; Balzeau, Julien; Takahashi, Masayuki; Prevost, Chantal; Eyer, Joel

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that a 24 amino acid peptide (NFL-TBS.40-63) corresponding to the tubulin-binding site located on the light neurofilament subunit, selectively enters in glioblastoma cells where it disrupts their microtubule network and inhibits their proliferation. Here, we analyzed the structure-function relationships using an alanine-scanning strategy, in order to identify residues essential for these biological activities. We showed that the majority of modified peptides present a decreased or total loss to penetrate in these cells, or to alter microtubules. Correspondingly, circular dichroism measurements showed that this peptide forms either β-sheet or α-helix structures according to the solvent and that alanine substitution modified or destabilized the structure, in relation with changes in the biological activities. Moreover, substitution of serine residues by phosphoserine or aspartic acid concomitantly decreased the cell penetrating activity and the structure stability. These results indicate the importance of structure for the activities, including selectivity to glioblastoma cells of this peptide, and its regulation by phosphorylation. PMID:23152907

  6. Peptide-Modulated Activity Enhancement of Acidic Protease Cathepsin E at Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Masayuki; Biyani, Madhu; Ghimire Gautam, Sunita; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Enzymes are regulated by their activation and inhibition. Enzyme activators can often be effective tools for scientific and medical purposes, although they are more difficult to obtain than inhibitors. Here, using the paired peptide method, we report on protease-cathepsin-E-activating peptides that are obtained at neutral pH. These selected peptides also underwent molecular evolution, after which their cathepsin E activation capability improved. Thus, the activators we obtained could enhance cathepsin-E-induced cancer cell apoptosis, which indicated their potential as cancer drug precursors. PMID:23365585

  7. Antimicrobial activity of mosquito cecropin peptides against Francisella.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Akanksha; Gupta, Kajal; Shah, Ruhee; van Hoek, Monique L

    2016-10-01

    Francisella tularensis is the cause of the zoonotic disease tularemia. In Sweden and Scandinavia, epidemiological studies have implicated mosquitoes as a vector. Prior research has demonstrated the presence of Francisella DNA in infected mosquitoes but has not shown definitive transmission of tularemia from a mosquito to a mammalian host. We hypothesized that antimicrobial peptides, an important component of the innate immune system of higher organisms, may play a role in mosquito host-defense to Francisella. We established that Francisella sp. are susceptible to two cecropin antimicrobial peptides derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus as well as Culex pipiens. We also demonstrated induced expression of Aedes albopictus antimicrobial peptide genes by Francisella infection C6/36 mosquito cell line. We demonstrate that mosquito antimicrobial peptides act against Francisella by disrupting the cellular membrane of the bacteria. Thus, it is possible that antimicrobial peptides may play a role in the inability of mosquitoes to establish an effective natural transmission of tularemia. PMID:27235883

  8. Amyloidogenic amyloid-β-peptide variants induce microbial agglutination and exert antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Philipp; Condic, Mateja; Herrmann, Martin; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Gilbert, Daniel F; Friedrich, Oliver; Grömer, Teja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lang, Roland; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the main components of the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, Aβ peptides are also detectable in secretory compartments and peripheral blood contains a complex mixture of more than 40 different modified and/or N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ peptides. Recently, anti-infective properties of Aβ peptides have been reported. Here, we investigated the interaction of Aβ peptides of different lengths with various bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans. The amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-42, Aβ2-42, and Aβ3p-42 but not the non-amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ2-40 bound to microbial surfaces. As observed by immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining, treatment of several bacterial strains and Candida albicans with Aβ peptide variants ending at position 42 (Aβx-42) caused the formation of large agglutinates. These aggregates were not detected after incubation with Aβx-40. Furthermore, Aβx-42 exerted an antimicrobial activity on all tested pathogens, killing up to 80% of microorganisms within 6 h. Aβ1-40 only had a moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Agglutination of Aβ1-42 was accelerated in the presence of microorganisms. These data demonstrate that the amyloidogenic Aβx-42 variants have antimicrobial activity and may therefore act as antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. PMID:27624303

  9. An integrated, peptide-based approach to site-specific protein immobilization for detection of biomolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Ilmar C; Löwik, Dennis W P M; Boelens, Wilbert C; van Hest, Jan C M; Pruijn, Ger J M

    2016-09-21

    We have developed an integrated solution for the site-specific immobilization of proteins on a biosensor surface, which may be widely applicable for high throughput analytical purposes. The gold surface of a biosensor was coated with an anti-fouling layer of zwitterionic peptide molecules from which leucine zipper peptides protrude. Proteins of interest, the autoantigenic proteins La and U1A, were immobilized via a simple incubation procedure by using the complementary leucine zipper sequence as a genetically fused binding tag. This tag forms a strong coiled-coil interaction that is stable during multiple consecutive measurements and under common regeneration conditions. Visualization of the immobilized proteins of interest via antibody binding with multiplex surface plasmon resonance imaging demonstrated 2.5 times higher binding responses than when these proteins were randomly attached to the surface via the commonly applied activated ester-mediated coupling. The proteins could also be immobilized in a leucine zipper-dependent manner directly from complex mixtures like bacterial lysates, eliminating the need for laborious purification steps. This method allows the production of uniform functional protein arrays by control over immobilized protein orientation and geometry and is compatible with high-throughput procedures. PMID:27328408

  10. Angiotensin peptides attenuate platelet-activating factor-induced inflammatory activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Yokoyama, Izumi; Ebina, Keiichi

    2015-11-01

    Angiotensin (Ang)--a peptide that is part of the renin-angiotensin system-induces vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure; Ang peptides, especially AngII, can also act as potent pro-inflammatory mediators. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent phospholipid mediator that is implicated in many inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ang peptides (AngII, AngIII, and AngIV) on PAF-induced inflammatory activity. In experiments using a rat hind-paw oedema model, AngII markedly and dose-dependently attenuated the paw oedema induced by PAF. The inhibitory effects of AngIII and AngIV on PAF-induced paw oedema were lower than that of AngII. Two Ang receptors, the AT1 and AT2 receptors, did not affect the AngII-mediated attenuation of PAF-induced paw oedema. Moreover, intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence studies demonstrated that AngII, AngIII, and AngIV interact with PAF, and that their affinities were closely correlated with their inhibitory effects on PAF-induced rat paw oedema. Also, AngII interacted with metabolite/precursor of PAF (lyso-PAF), and an oxidized phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), which bears a marked structural resemblance to PAF. Furthermore, POVPC dose-dependently inhibited AngII-mediated attenuation of PAF-induced paw oedema. These results suggest that Ang peptides can attenuate PAF-induced inflammatory activity through binding to PAF and lyso-PAF in rats. Therefore, Ang peptides may be closely involved in the regulation of many inflammatory diseases caused by PAF. PMID:26348270

  11. A new recombinant pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-derived peptide efficiently promotes glucose uptake and glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Luo, Tianjie; Xu, Wenna; Ye, Zulu; Hong, An

    2012-11-01

    The recombinant peptide, DBAYL, a promising therapeutic peptide for type 2 diabetes, is a new, potent, and highly selective agonist for VPAC2 generated through site-directed mutagenesis based on sequence alignments of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and related analogs. The recombinant DBAYL was used to evaluate its effect and mechanism in blood glucose metabolism and utilization. As much as 28.9 mg recombinant DBAYL peptide with purity over 98% can be obtained from 1 l of Luria-Bertani medium culture by the method established in this study and the prepared DBAYL with four mutations (N10Q, V18L, N29Q, and M added to the N-terminal) were much more stable than BAY55-9837. The half-life of recombinant DBAYL was about 25 folds compared with that of BAY55-9837 in vitro. The bioactivity assay of DBAYL showed that it displaced [(125)I]PACAP38 and [(125)I]VIP from VPAC2 with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 48.4 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 4.9 nM, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of BAY55-9837, one established VPAC2 agonists. DBAYL enhances the cAMP accumulation in CHO cells expressing human VPAC2 with a half-maximal stimulatory concentration (EC(50)) of 0.68 nM, whereas the receptor potency of DBAYL at human VPAC1 (EC(50) of 737 nM) was only 1/1083 of that at human VPAC2, and DBAYL had no activity toward human PAC1 receptor. Western blot analysis of the key proteins of insulin receptor signaling pathway: insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) indicated that the DBAYL could significantly induce the insulin-stimulated IRS-1 and GLUT4 expression more efficiently than BAY55-9837 and VIP in adipocytes. Compared with BAY55-9837 and PACAP38, the recombinant peptide DBAYL can more efficiently promote insulin release and decrease plasma glucose level in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. These results suggested that DBAYL could efficiently improve glucose

  12. Activation of p53-dependent responses in tumor cells treated with a PARC-interacting peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Vitali, Roberta; Cesi, Vincenzo; Tanno, Barbara; Ferrari-Amorotti, Giovanna; Dominici, Carlo; Calabretta, Bruno; Raschella, Giuseppe

    2008-04-04

    We tested the activity of a p53 carboxy-terminal peptide containing the PARC-interacting region in cancer cells with wild type cytoplasmic p53. Peptide delivery was achieved by fusing it to the TAT transduction domain (TAT-p53-C-ter peptide). In a two-hybrid assay, the tetramerization domain (TD) of p53 was necessary and sufficient to bind PARC. The TAT-p53-C-ter peptide disrupted the PARC-p53 complex. Peptide treatment caused p53 nuclear relocation, p53-dependent changes in gene expression and enhancement of etoposide-induced apoptosis. These studies suggest that PARC-interacting peptides are promising candidates for the enhancement of p53-dependent apoptosis in tumors with wt cytoplasmic p53.

  13. Activation of p53-dependent responses in tumor cells treated with a PARC-interacting peptide.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Roberta; Cesi, Vincenzo; Tanno, Barbara; Ferrari-Amorotti, Giovanna; Dominici, Carlo; Calabretta, Bruno; Raschellà, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    We tested the activity of a p53 carboxy-terminal peptide containing the PARC-interacting region in cancer cells with wild type cytoplasmic p53. Peptide delivery was achieved by fusing it to the TAT transduction domain (TAT-p53-C-ter peptide). In a two-hybrid assay, the tetramerization domain (TD) of p53 was necessary and sufficient to bind PARC. The TAT-p53-C-ter peptide disrupted the PARC-p53 complex. Peptide treatment caused p53 nuclear relocation, p53-dependent changes in gene expression and enhancement of etoposide-induced apoptosis. These studies suggest that PARC-interacting peptides are promising candidates for the enhancement of p53-dependent apoptosis in tumors with wt cytoplasmic p53. PMID:18230339

  14. Localization of the O-glycosylated sites in peptides by fixed-charge derivatization with a phosphonium group.

    PubMed

    Czeszak, Xavier; Morelle, Willy; Ricart, Guy; Tétaert, Daniel; Lemoine, Jérôme

    2004-08-01

    The present study demonstrates that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/postsource decay (MALDI/PSD) analysis of the molecular cation of glycopeptides derivatized at their amino terminus with a phosphonium group cleaves peptide backbone without removing the glycan. The predictable a-type fragment ions retain the glycan moiety, enabling unambiguous localization of O-glycans on the peptide chain. In contrast, collision-activated dissociation tandem mass spectrometry analysis carried out on the doubly charged protonated phosphonium cation results in the predominant loss of the sugar moiety from the peptide. This result supports the previously proposed charge-induced fragmentation mechanism of the sugar-peptide bond. MALDI/PSD analysis of glycopeptides converted to their acetyl phosphonium derivatives is an effective alternative to electron capture dissociation, as illustrated by the positioning of up to three GalNac residues along the full tandem repeat peptide sequence derived from the MUC 5AC mucin. PMID:15283567

  15. Specific binding sites for proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, H; Hirata, Y; Iwashina, M; Sato, K; Marumo, F

    1996-07-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM), a potent and novel vasodilator 52-residue peptide originally isolated from pheochromocytoma, is processed from a precursor molecule (preproAM) in which another unique 20-residue sequence, termed proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), exists. Using [125I Tyr0] rat PAMP as a radioligand, we have examined PAMP binding sites in various rat tissues and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from rat aorta. Specific binding sites for rat PAMP, although very low, were widely distributed in various rat tissues examined. The relatively more abundant sites were present in aorta and adrenal glands, followed by lung, kidney, brain, spleen, and heart. An equilibrium binding study using cultured rat VSMC revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity [dissociation constant (Kd): 3.5 x 10(-8) M] binding sites for rat PAMP with a maximal binding capacity of 4.5 x 10(6) sites per cell. Binding studies revealed that synthetic rat PAMP(1-19)-NH2 was about 10-fold less potent, and rat PAMP(1-20)-OH and human PAMP were about 20-fold less potent than rat PAMP(1-20)-NH2. SDS-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis after affinity-labeling of membranes from various rat tissues (aorta, adrenal glands, lung) and VSMC revealed a distinct labeled band with the apparent molecular mass of 90 kDa, which was diminished by excess unlabeled rat PAMP. A nonhydrolyzable GTP analog (GTP-gammaS) dose-dependently reduced binding of [125I] rat PAMP to VSMC membranes, while ATP-gammaS had no effect. Neither cyclic AMP nor inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate formation was affected by rat PAMP in rat VSMC. The present study demonstrates for the first time that PAMP receptors are widely distributed in various rat tissues, among which aorta and adrenal glands have the most abundant sites. Our data suggest that PAMP receptors are functionally coupled to G-proteins, although its signal transduction remains obscure. The present study also shows that amidation of C-terminal residue

  16. Biological activities of the peptides obtained by digestion of troponin C and calmodulin with thrombin.

    PubMed Central

    Wall, C M; Grand, R J; Perry, S V

    1981-01-01

    1. Troponin C and calmodulin were not digested by thrombin at a significant rate in the presence of Ca2+. 2. In the presence of EGTA, troponin C was digested by thrombin to yield three peptides, TH1 (residues 1--120), TH3 (residues 1--100) and TH2 (residues 121--159). 3. In the presence of EGTA calmodulin was digested by thrombin giving two peptides, TM1 (residues 1--106) and TM2 (residues 107--148). 4. The electrophoretic mobilities of peptides TH1 and TM1 were increased at pH 8.6 by Ca2+ both in the presence and absence of urea. The mobilities of peptides TH2 and TM2 were unaltered under these conditions. 5. Peptides TH1, TH2 and tM1 formed complexes with troponin I on polyacrylamide gels at pH 8.6 in the presence of Ca2+. 6. The phosphorylation of troponin I by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was significantly inhibited by peptides TH1 and TH3 and to a lesser extent by peptide TM1. 7. The calmodulin peptide TM1 activated myosin light-chain kinase when present in large molar excess. Peptide TM2 did not activate the enzyme. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:6895466

  17. Graphene oxide-peptide nanoassembly as a general approach for monitoring the activity of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zhan; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-06-20

    A novel fluorescent sensor using graphene oxide (GO)-peptide nanoassembly is developed for histone deacetylases (HDACs) based on deacetylation mediated cleavage of substrate peptides, which provides a simple, cost-effective platform for monitoring the activity of HDACs. PMID:27194207

  18. Activities of Venom Proteins and Peptides with Possible Therapeutic Applications from Bees and WASPS.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiujuan; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Charlene C W; Chan, Gabriel H H; Sze, Stephen C W; Zhang, Kalin Y; Naude, Ryno; Rolka, Krzysztof; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-01-01

    The variety of proteins and peptides isolated from honey bee venom and wasp venom includes melittin, adiapin, apamine, bradykinin, cardiopep, mast cell degranulating peptide, mastoparan, phospholipase A2 and secapin. Some of the activities they demonstrate may find therapeutic applications. PMID:27323949

  19. Switchable catalytic activity: selenium-containing peptides with redox-controllable self-assembly properties.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaoming; Cao, Wei; Zheng, Wenting; Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Xiaoli; Gao, Jie; Yang, Chengbiao; Kong, Deling; Xu, Huaping; Wang, Ling; Yang, Zhimou

    2013-07-22

    Mimicking nature: The reversible formation of self-assembled nanostructures of selenium-containing peptides can be controlled by redox triggers (see scheme, VC = vitamin C). As a consequence, the catalytic activity of these peptides is switchable. These results should lead to the development of nature-mimicking smart materials with promising properties. PMID:23784972

  20. Antiaging activity of low molecular weight peptide from Paphia undulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Pan, Jianyu; Chen, Deke; Sun, Huili

    2013-05-01

    Low molecular weight peptide (LMWP) was prepared from clam Paphia undulate and its antiaging effect on D-galactose-induced acute aging in rats, aged Kunming mice, ultraviolet-exposed rats, and thermally injured rats was investigated. P. undulate flesh was homogenized and digested using papain under optimal conditions, then subjected to Sephadex G-25 chromatography to isolate the LMWP. Administration of LMWP significantly reversed D-galactose-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), and by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). This process was accompanied by increased collagen synthesis. The LMWP prevented photoaging and promoted dermis recovery and remission of elastic fiber hyperplasia. Furthermore, treatment with the LMWP helped to regenerate elastic fibers and the collagen network, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the serum and significantly decreased MDA. Thermal scald-induced inflammation and edema were also relieved by the LWMP, while wound healing in skin was promoted. These results suggest that the LMWP from P. undulate could serve as a new antiaging substance in cosmetics.

  1. The Responses of Rat Intestinal Brush Border and Cytosol Peptide Hydrolase Activities to Variation in Dietary Protein Content DIETARY REGULATION OF INTESTINAL PEPTIDE HYDROLASES

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, J. Alex; McCarthy, Denis M.; Kim, Young S.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of variation in dietary protein content on small intestinal brush border and cytosol peptide hydrolase activities have been investigated. One group of rats was fed a high protein diet (55% casein) and another group was fed a low protein diet (10% casein). After 1 wk, brush border peptide hydrolase activity (L-leucyl-β-naphthylamide as substrate) and cytosol peptide hydrolase activity (L-prolyl-L-leucine as substrate) were determined in mucosae taken from the proximal, middle, and distal small intestine. As judged by several parameters, brush border peptide hydrolase activity was significantly greater in rats fed the high protein diet when data for corresponding segments were compared. In contrast, no significant difference was seen in cytosol peptide hydrolase activity. In a second study, brush border and cytosol peptide hydrolase activities were determined in the proximal intestine by utilizing an additional three peptide substrates: L-leucyl-L-alanine, L-phenylalanylglycine, and glycyl-L-phenylalanine. Sucrase, maltase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were also determined. As before, brush border peptide hydrolase activities were significantly greater in rats fed the high protein diet. However, activities of the nonproteolytic brush border enzymes did not vary significantly with diet. In contrast to the results obtained with L-prolyl-L-leucine as substrate for the cytosol enzymes, cytosol activity against the three additional peptide substrates was greater in rats fed the high protein diet. It is suggested that the brush border peptide hydrolase response to variation in dietary protein content represents a functional adaptation analogous to the regulation of intestinal disaccharidases by dietary carbohydrates. The implication of the differential responses of the cytosol peptide hydrolases is uncertain, since little is known of the functional role of these nonorgan-specific enzymes. PMID:4430719

  2. Phage-displayed peptide targeting on the Puumala hantavirus neutralization site.

    PubMed Central

    Heiskanen, T; Lundkvist, A; Vaheri, A; Lankinen, H

    1997-01-01

    We have selected ligands for Puumala hantavirus, the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, from a seven-amino-acid peptide library flanked by cysteines and displayed on a filamentous phage. To direct the selection to areas on the virus particle which are essential for infection, phages were competitively eluted with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific for the viral glycoproteins. The selected phage populations were specific for the same sites as the antibodies and mimicked their functions. The peptide insert, CHWMFSPWC, when displayed on the phages, completely inhibited Puumala virus infection in cell culture at the same effective concentration as the eluting antibody specific for envelope glycoprotein G2. The binding of the phage clones to the virus and inhibition of infection were not necessarily coincident; Pro-6 was critical for virus inhibition, while consensus residues Trp-2 and Phe-4 were essential for binding. The strategy described can be applied to any virus for production of molecules mimicking the effect of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9094664

  3. Educational Activity Sites for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutner, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    Finding quality Internet resources for high school students is a continuing challenge. Several high-quality web sites are presented for educators and students. These sites offer activities to learn how an art conservator looks at paintings, create a newspaper, research and develop an end product, build geometry and physics skills, explore science…

  4. Preparation and antihypertensive activity of peptides from Porphyra yezoensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was to develop an antihypertensive peptide, an efficient angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ACEI), from Porphyra yezoensis. Seven commercial enzymes were screened and then enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were optimised. The results showed that alcalase was the most effectiv...

  5. A new strategy for site-specific protein modification: analysis of a Tat peptide-TAR RNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Tamilarasu, N; Zhang, J; Hwang, S; Rana, T M

    2001-01-01

    Site-specific modification of proteins and peptides with reporter molecules provides a powerful research tool in chemistry and biology. We report the synthesis and application of a tyrosine analogue, N-alpha-Fmoc-3-acetyl-L-tyrosine, for selective modification of proteins. As a model system, we synthesized the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat peptide (amino acids 47-56) containing the arginine rich RNA-binding region and replaced the Tyr-47 with 3-acetyl-tyrosine. The acetyl-Tyr-Tat peptide was subsequently labeled with a fluorescein derivative to study RNA-protein interactions by fluorescence energy transfer experiments. Our results showed that the Tat peptide binds to the rhodamine labeled TAR RNA with a dissociation constant (KD) of 1.0 +/- 0.5 nM. This strategy of selective protein modification offers a versatile new procedure for labeling peptides of biological interest at a desired site when several nucleophilic side chains of lysine and cysteine are present. These methods would provide tools for postsynthetic peptide modification and introducing biophysical probes for structural and functional analysis of proteins. PMID:11312672

  6. Synthesis of Mixed α/β2,2-Peptides by Site-Selective Ring-Opening of Cyclic Quaternary Sulfamidates.

    PubMed

    Mazo, Nuria; García-González, Iván; Navo, Claudio D; Corzana, Francisco; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Avenoza, Alberto; Busto, Jesús H; Peregrina, Jesús M

    2015-12-01

    A method for site- and stereoselective peptide modification using a cyclic sulfamidate scaffold containing peptides is described. A peptide synthesis strategy allowing the rapid generation of mixed α/β-peptides incorporating a sulfamidate residue, derived from 2-methylisoserine, has been generalized. The unique electrophilic nature of this scaffold for nucleophilic substitution at a quaternary center with total inversion of its configuration, which was demonstrated computationally, allows for site-selective conjugation with various nucleophiles, such as anomeric thiocarbohydrates and pyridines. This strategy provides rapid access to complex thioglyco-α/β-conjugates and charged α/β-peptides. PMID:26569645

  7. Antibody Constant Region Peptides Can Display Immunomodulatory Activity through Activation of the Dectin-1 Signalling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cenci, Elio; Monari, Claudia; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Gatti, Rita; Bistoni, Francesco; Polonelli, Luciano; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that a synthetic peptide with sequence identical to a CDR of a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for difucosyl human blood group A exerted an immunomodulatory activity on murine macrophages. It was therapeutic against systemic candidiasis without possessing direct candidacidal properties. Here we demonstrate that a selected peptide, N10K, putatively deriving from the enzymatic cleavage of the constant region (Fc) of human IgG1, is able to induce IL-6 secretion and pIkB-α activation. More importantly, it causes an up-regulation of Dectin-1 expression. This leads to an increased activation of β-glucan-induced pSyk, CARD9 and pIkB-α, and an increase in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α. The increased activation of this pathway coincides with an augmented phagocytosis of non opsonized Candida albicans cells by monocytes. The findings suggest that some Fc-peptides, potentially deriving from the proteolysis of immunoglobulins, may cause an unexpected immunoregulation in a way reminiscent of innate immunity molecules. PMID:22952831

  8. How water molecules affect the catalytic activity of hydrolases - A XANES study of the local structures of peptide deformylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Peixin; Wang, Yu; Chu, Wangsheng; Guo, Xiaoyun; Yang, Feifei; Yu, Meijuan; Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Yuhui; Xie, Yaning; Gong, Weimin; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-12-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a prokaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the deformylation of nascent peptides generated during protein synthesis and water molecules play a key role in these hydrolases. Using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and ab initio calculations we accurately probe the local atomic environment of the metal ion binding in the active site of PDF at different pH values and with different metal ions. This new approach is an effective way to monitor existing correlations among functions and structural changes. We show for the first time that the enzymatic activity depends on pH values and metal ions via the bond length of the nearest coordinating water (Wat1) to the metal ion. Combining experimental and theoretical data we may claim that PDF exhibits an enhanced enzymatic activity only when the distance of the Wat1 molecule with the metal ion falls in the limited range from 2.15 to 2.55 Å.

  9. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of cathelicidins and short, synthetic peptides against Francisella.

    PubMed

    Amer, Lilian S; Bishop, Barney M; van Hoek, Monique L

    2010-05-28

    Francisella infects the lungs causing pneumonic tularemia. Focusing on the lung's host defense, we have examined antimicrobial peptides as part of the innate immune response to Francisella infection. Interest in antimicrobial peptides, such as the cathelicidins, has grown due their potential therapeutic applications and the increasing problem of bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Only one human cathelicidin, LL-37, has been characterized. Helical cathelicidins have also been discovered in snakes including the Chinese King Cobra, Naja atra (NA-CATH). Four synthetic 11-residue peptides (ATRA-1, -2, -1A and -1P) containing variations of a repeated motif within NA-CATH were designed. We hypothesized that these smaller synthetic peptides could have excellent antimicrobial effectiveness with shorter length (and less cost), making them strong potential candidates for development into broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds. We tested the susceptibility of F. novicida to four ATRA peptides, LL-37, and NA-CATH. Two of the ATRA peptides had high antimicrobial activity (microM), while the two proline-containing ATRA peptides had low activity. The ATRA peptides did not show significant hemolytic activity even at high peptide concentration, indicating low cytotoxicity against host cells. NA-CATH killed Francisella bacteria more quickly than LL-37. However, LL-37 was the most effective peptide against F. novicida (EC50=50 nM). LL-37 mRNA was induced in A549 cells by Francisella infection. We recently demonstrated that F. novicida forms in vitro biofilms. LL-37 inhibited F. novicida biofilm formation at sub-antimicrobial concentrations. Understanding the properties of these peptides, and their endogenous expression in the lung could lead to potential future therapeutic interventions for this lung infection. PMID:20399752

  10. New Milk Protein-Derived Peptides with Potential Antimicrobial Activity: An Approach Based on Bioinformatic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dziuba, Bartłomiej; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    New peptides with potential antimicrobial activity, encrypted in milk protein sequences, were searched for with the use of bioinformatic tools. The major milk proteins were hydrolyzed in silico by 28 enzymes. The obtained peptides were characterized by the following parameters: molecular weight, isoelectric point, composition and number of amino acid residues, net charge at pH 7.0, aliphatic index, instability index, Boman index, and GRAVY index, and compared with those calculated for known 416 antimicrobial peptides including 59 antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from milk proteins listed in the BIOPEP database. A simple analysis of physico-chemical properties and the values of biological activity indicators were insufficient to select potentially antimicrobial peptides released in silico from milk proteins by proteolytic enzymes. The final selection was made based on the results of multidimensional statistical analysis such as support vector machines (SVM), random forest (RF), artificial neural networks (ANN) and discriminant analysis (DA) available in the Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides (CAMP database). Eleven new peptides with potential antimicrobial activity were selected from all peptides released during in silico proteolysis of milk proteins. PMID:25141106

  11. Improved biological activity of antisense oligonucleotides conjugated to a fusogenic peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Bongartz, J P; Aubertin, A M; Milhaud, P G; Lebleu, B

    1994-01-01

    Recently several groups reported a dramatic improvement of reporter gene transfection efficiency using a fusogenic peptide, derived from the Influenza hemagglutinin envelop protein. This peptide changes conformation at acidic pH and destabilizes the endosomal membranes thus resulting in an increased cytoplasmic gene delivery. We describe the use of a similar fusogenic peptide in order to improve the antiviral potency of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (anti TAT) and oligophosphorothioates (S-dC28) on de novo HIV infected CEM-SS lymphocytes in serum-free medium. We observed as 5 to 10 fold improvement of the anti HIV activities of the phosphodiester antisense oligonucleotides after chemical coupling to the peptide in a one to one ratio by a disulfide or thioether bond. No toxicities were observed at the effective doses (0.1-1 microM). No sequence specificity was obtained and the fusogenic peptide possessed some antiviral activities on its own (IC50: 6 microM). A S-dC28-peptide disulfide linked conjugate and a streptavidin-peptide-biotinylated S-dC28 adduct showed similar activities as the free S-dC28 oligonucleotide (IC50: 0.1-1 nM). As expected, all the compounds were less potent in the presence of serum but the relative contribution of peptide coupling was maintained. Images PMID:7984418

  12. Enhanced antimicrobial activity of peptide-cocktails against common bacterial contaminants of ex vivo stored platelets.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K V K; Rao, S Sainath; Gao, Y; Atreya, C D

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood components such as ex vivo-stored platelets is a major safety risk in transfusion medicine. We have recently shown that synthetic antimicrobial peptides named PD1-PD4 derived from the thrombin-induced human platelet-derived antimicrobial proteins, and repeats of Arg-Trp (RW1-RW5) demonstrate microbicidal activity against selected bacteria and viruses. In the present study, we selected PD3, PD4, RW2, RW3 and RW4 and evaluated each individual peptide and their various combinations to see whether the cocktail regimen enhances the antimicrobial activity above and over the individual peptides. Stored platelet or plasma samples spiked with known titres of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were treated with either individual peptides or with peptides in various combinations. Analyses revealed that individual peptides show moderate microbicidal activity (10- to 100-fold reduction) against the tested bacteria relative to their combined regimen. The peptide combinations (RW2 + RW4, RW2 + RW3 + RW4 and PD4 + RW3 + RW4) on the other hand enhanced the microbicidal activity (c.10 000-fold reduction) and revealed a minimal inhibitory concentration of 5 μM. Time-kill kinetics indicated that these three peptide combinations exhibited enhanced antimicrobial activity bringing about a 100-fold reduction of bacterial titres within 20 min of incubation. The present study therefore demonstrates the synergistic effect of antimicrobial peptides when used in combinations and provides a proof-of-concept of its potential application as a molecular tool towards pathogen reduction and further extends the possibility of using peptide combinatorial therapeutics as broad-spectrum antibiotics or as alternatives to combat drug-resistant bacteria. PMID:23926880

  13. Nonopiate active proenkephalin-derived peptides are secreted by T helper cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, K A; Lorenz, R G; Unanue, R A; Weaver, C T

    1989-10-01

    Recent investigations have shown that the neuroendocrine and immune systems profoundly affect each other. In part, these interactions occur via common chemical messengers and receptors. One possible shared chemical messenger is the opioid precursor preproenkephalin, for which high concentrations of messenger RNA are present in brain, adrenal, and activated T helper cells. Because the biologic action of most peptide messengers depends on the posttranslational processing of the precursor, we have examined T helper cell lines for the production of proenkephalin-derived peptides. These peptides were characterized by multiple radioimmunoassays, gel filtration chromatography, and opiate radioreceptor assays. We found that activated T helper cells secrete significant concentrations of high-molecular-weight, opiate-inactive peptides, which are distinct from the proenkephalin-derived peptides of the neuroendocrine system. These studies clearly indicate cell-specific processing of proenkephalin, and suggest that the T helper cell-secreted products may have nonopiate receptor-mediated actions. PMID:2529160

  14. New peptide architectures through C–H activation stapling between tryptophan–phenylalanine/tyrosine residues

    PubMed Central

    Mendive-Tapia, Lorena; Preciado, Sara; García, Jesús; Ramón, Rosario; Kielland, Nicola; Albericio, Fernando; Lavilla, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Natural peptides show high degrees of specificity in their biological action. However, their therapeutical profile is severely limited by their conformational freedom and metabolic instability. Stapled peptides constitute a solution to these problems and access to these structures lies on a limited number of reactions involving the use of non-natural amino acids. Here, we describe a synthetic strategy for the preparation of unique constrained peptides featuring a covalent bond between tryptophan and phenylalanine or tyrosine residues. The preparation of such peptides is achieved in solution and on solid phase directly from the corresponding sequences having an iodo-aryl amino acid through an intramolecular palladium-catalysed C–H activation process. Moreover, complex topologies arise from the internal stapling of cyclopeptides and double intramolecular arylations within a linear peptide. Finally, as a proof of principle, we report the application to this new stapling method to relevant biologically active compounds. PMID:25994485

  15. Structure-function relationships in novel peptide dodecamerswith broad-spectrum bactericidal and endotoxin-neutralizing activities.

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, K H; Haseman, J; Young, H C; Mayo, J W

    2000-01-01

    A series of designed peptide 33-mers (betapep peptides) areknown to be bactericidal [Mayo, Haseman, Ilyina and Gray (1998)Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1425, 81-92]. Here dodecapeptides (SC-1-SC-8), which 'walk through' the sequence ofbetapep-25, were investigated for their ability to kill Gram-negativeand -positive bacteria and to neutralize endotoxin. SC-4 (KLFKRHLKWKI I-NH(2); the -NH(2) at the right of each sequenceindicates amidation of the C-terminal carboxylate group) is the mosteffective, more so than betapep-25, at killing Gram-negative bacteriawith nanomolar LD(50) values. Against Gram-positive bacteria,SC-4 also shows good activity with submicromolar LD(50)values. Leakage studies indicate rapid bacterial membrane permeability,with t(1/2) valuesof 10-15 min. SC-4 in the micromolar range also effectivelyneutralizes endotoxin and is not haemolytic below 10(-4)M. For all SC peptides, CD and NMR data indicate the presence of both 3(10)- and alpha-helix. For SC-4, nuclear-Overhauser-effect-based computational modelling yields an amphipathic helix with K1, K4,R5, and K8 arrayed on the same face (K is lysine, R is arginine).Activity differences among SC peptides and single-site variants of SC-4allow some structure-function relationships to be deduced.Relative to other known bactericidal peptides in the linear peptide,helix-forming category, SC-4 is the most potent broad-spectrumantibacterial identified to date. The present study contributes to thedevelopment of agents involved in combating the ever-recurring problemof drug-resistant micro-organisms. PMID:10903132

  16. Peptide Array on Cellulose Support—A Screening Tool to Identify Peptides with Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitory Activity within the Sequence of α-Lactalbumin

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Isabelle M. E.; Li-Chan, Eunice C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition of the enzyme dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is an effective pharmacotherapeutic approach for the management of type 2 diabetes. Recent findings have suggested that dietary proteins, including bovine α-lactalbumin, could be precursors of peptides able to inhibit DPP-IV. However, information on the location of active peptide sequences within the proteins is far from being comprehensive. Moreover, the traditional approach to identify bioactive peptides from foods can be tedious and long. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use peptide arrays to screen α-lactalbumin-derived peptides for their interaction with DPP-IV. Deca-peptides spanning the entire α-lactalbumin sequence, with a frame shift of 1 amino acid between successive sequences, were synthesized on cellulose membranes using “SPOT” technology, and their binding to and inhibition of DPP-IV was studied. Among the 114 α-lactalbumin-derived decamers investigated, the peptides 60WCKDDQNPHS69 (αKi = 76 µM), 105LAHKALCSEK114 (Ki = 217 µM) and 110LCSEKLDQWL119 (Ki = 217 µM) were among the strongest DPP-IV inhibitors. While the SPOT- and traditionally-synthesized peptides showed consistent trends in DPP-IV inhibitory activity, the cellulose-bound peptides’ binding behavior was not correlated to their ability to inhibit the enzyme. This research showed, for the first time, that peptide arrays are useful screening tools to identify DPP-IV inhibitory peptides from dietary proteins. PMID:25402645

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of the calcitonin gene-related peptide binding site in the primate trigeminovascular system using functional antagonist antibodies.

    PubMed

    Miller, Silke; Liu, Hantao; Warfvinge, Karin; Shi, Licheng; Dovlatyan, Mary; Xu, Cen; Edvinsson, Lars

    2016-07-22

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent vasodilator and a neuromodulator implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. It binds to the extracellular domains of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 that together form the CGRP receptor. Antagonist antibodies against CGRP and its binding site at the receptor are clinically effective in preventing migraine attacks. The blood-brain barrier penetration of these antagonist antibodies is limited, suggesting that a potential peripheral site of action is sufficient to prevent migraine attacks. To further understand the sites of CGRP-mediated signaling in migraine, we used immunohistochemical staining with recently developed antagonist antibodies specifically recognizing a fusion protein of the extracellular domains of RAMP1 and CLR that comprise the CGRP binding pocket at the CGRP receptor in monkey and man. We confirmed binding of the antagonist antibodies to human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of dural meningeal arteries and neurons in the trigeminal ganglion, both of which are likely sites of action for therapeutic antibodies in migraine patients. We further used one of these antibodies for detailed mapping on cynomolgus monkey tissue and found antagonist antibody binding sites at multiple levels in the trigeminovascular system: in the dura mater VSMCs, in neurons and satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion, and in neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis. These data reinforce and clarify our understanding of CGRP receptor localization in a pattern consistent with a role for CGRP receptors in trigeminal sensitization and migraine pathology. PMID:27155150

  18. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Seok, Heon; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il; Kim, Ho

    2014-06-06

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH{sub 2}-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27{sup Kip1} protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27{sup Kip1} significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27{sup Kip1} degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin.

  19. Major peptides from amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) protein inhibit HMG-CoA reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Mendonça, Simone; de Castro, Luíla Ívini Andrade; Menezes, Amanda Caroline Cardoso Corrêa Carlos; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:25690031

  20. Major Peptides from Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) Protein Inhibit HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Mendonça, Simone; de Castro, Luíla Ívini Andrade; Menezes, Amanda Caroline Cardoso Corrêa Carlos; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:25690031

  1. Identification of a potential hydrophobic peptide binding site in the C-terminal arm of trigger factor

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yi; Fan, Dong-Jie; Li, Shu-Xin; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Perrett, Sarah; Zhou, Jun-Mei

    2007-01-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is the first chaperone to interact with nascent chains and facilitate their folding in bacteria. Escherichia coli TF is 432 residues in length and contains three domains with distinct structural and functional properties. The N-terminal domain of TF is important for ribosome binding, and the M-domain carries the PPIase activity. However, the function of the C-terminal domain remains unclear, and the residues or regions directly involved in substrate binding have not yet been identified. Here, a hydrophobic probe, bis-ANS, was used to characterize potential substrate-binding regions. Results showed that bis-ANS binds TF with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a Kd of 16 μM, and it can be covalently incorporated into TF by UV-light irradiation. A single bis-ANS–labeled peptide was obtained by tryptic digestion and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Asn391-Lys392. In silico docking analysis identified a single potential binding site for bis-ANS on the TF molecule, which is adjacent to this dipeptide and lies in the pocket formed by the C-terminal arms. The bis-ANS-labeled TF completely lost the ability to assist GAPDH or lysozyme refolding and showed increased protection toward cleavage by α-chymotrypsin, suggesting blocking of hydrophobic residues. The C-terminal truncation mutant TF389 also showed no chaperone activity and could not bind bis-ANS. These results suggest that bis-ANS binding may mimic binding of a substrate peptide and that the C-terminal region of TF plays an important role in hydrophobic binding and chaperone function. PMID:17525465

  2. Preparation of an active recombinant peptide of crustacean androgenic gland hormone.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Atsuro; Hasegawa, Yuriko; Nishiyama, Makoto; Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Ko, Rinkei; Kurihara, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Shogo; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-03-01

    In crustaceans, male sexual characteristics are induced by a hormone referred to as androgenic gland hormone. We have recently cloned a candidate cDNA in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. In order to prove that this cDNA encodes the hormone, recombinant single-chain precursor molecules consisting of B chain, C peptide and A chain were produced using both baculovirus and bacterial expression systems. Neither recombinant precursors showed activity. Digestion of only the precursor carrying a glycan moiety with lysyl endopeptidase gave a heterodimeric peptide with hormonal activity by removing a part of C peptide. These results indicate that the cDNA encodes the hormone. PMID:11836008

  3. Acyl silicates and acyl aluminates as activated intermediates in peptide formation on clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Kennedy, R. M.; Macklin, J.

    1984-01-01

    Glycine reacts with heating on dried clays and other minerals to give peptides in much better yield than in the absence of mineral. This reaction was proposed to occur by way of an activated intermediate such as an acyl silicate or acyl aluminate analogous to acyl phosphates involved in several biochemical reactions including peptide bond synthesis. The proposed mechanism has been confirmed by trapping the intermediate, as well as by direct spectroscopic observation of a related intermediate. The reaction of amino acids on periodically dried mineral surfaces represents a widespead, geologically realistic setting for prebiotic peptide formation via in situ activation.

  4. The role of spontaneous lipid curvature in the interaction of interfacially active peptides with membranes.

    PubMed

    Koller, Daniel; Lohner, Karl

    2014-09-01

    Research on antimicrobial peptides is in part driven by urgent medical needs such as the steady increase in pathogens being resistant to antibiotics. Despite the wealth of information compelling structure-function relationships are still scarce and thus the interfacial activity model has been proposed to bridge this gap. This model also applies to other interfacially active (membrane active) peptides such as cytolytic, cell penetrating or antitumor peptides. One parameter that is strongly linked to interfacial activity is the spontaneous lipid curvature, which is experimentally directly accessible. We discuss different parameters such as H-bonding, electrostatic repulsion, changes in monolayer surface area and lateral pressure that affect induction of membrane curvature, but also vice versa how membrane curvature triggers peptide response. In addition, the impact of membrane lipid composition on the formation of curved membrane structures and its relevance for diverse mode of action of interfacially active peptides and in turn biological activity are described. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. PMID:24853655

  5. Signal peptide discrimination and cleavage site identification using SVM and NN.

    PubMed

    Kazemian, H B; Yusuf, S A; White, K

    2014-02-01

    About 15% of all proteins in a genome contain a signal peptide (SP) sequence, at the N-terminus, that targets the protein to intracellular secretory pathways. Once the protein is targeted correctly in the cell, the SP is cleaved, releasing the mature protein. Accurate prediction of the presence of these short amino-acid SP chains is crucial for modelling the topology of membrane proteins, since SP sequences can be confused with transmembrane domains due to similar composition of hydrophobic amino acids. This paper presents a cascaded Support Vector Machine (SVM)-Neural Network (NN) classification methodology for SP discrimination and cleavage site identification. The proposed method utilises a dual phase classification approach using SVM as a primary classifier to discriminate SP sequences from Non-SP. The methodology further employs NNs to predict the most suitable cleavage site candidates. In phase one, a SVM classification utilises hydrophobic propensities as a primary feature vector extraction using symmetric sliding window amino-acid sequence analysis for discrimination of SP and Non-SP. In phase two, a NN classification uses asymmetric sliding window sequence analysis for prediction of cleavage site identification. The proposed SVM-NN method was tested using Uni-Prot non-redundant datasets of eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins with SP and Non-SP N-termini. Computer simulation results demonstrate an overall accuracy of 0.90 for SP and Non-SP discrimination based on Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) tests using SVM. For SP cleavage site prediction, the overall accuracy is 91.5% based on cross-validation tests using the novel SVM-NN model. PMID:24480169

  6. Evidence of Antibacterial Activities in Peptide Fractions Originating from Snow Crab (Chionoecetes opilio) By-Products.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Lucie; Thibodeau, Jacinthe; Desbiens, Michel; Saint-Louis, Richard; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Thibault, Sharon

    2010-10-01

    Antibacterial peptide fractions generated via proteolytic processing of snow crab by-products exhibited activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Among the bacterial strains tested, peptide fractions demonstrated inhibitory activity against the Gram-negative bacteria such as Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Listonella anguillarum, Morganella morganii, Shewanella putrefasciens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus and against a few Gram-positive bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus agalactiae. The principal bioactive peptide fraction was comprised mainly of proteins and minerals (74.3 and 15.5%, respectively). Lipids were not detected. The amino acid content revealed that arginine (4.6%), glutamic acid (5.3%) and tyrosine (4.8%) residues were represented in the highest composition in the antibacterial peptide fraction. The optimal inhibitory activity was observed at alkaline pH. The V. vulnificus strain, most sensitive to the peptide fraction, was used to develop purification methods. The most promising chromatography resins selected for purification, in order to isolate peptides of interest and to carry out their detailed biochemical characterization, were the SP-Sepharose™ Fast Flow cation exchanger and the Phenyl Sepharose™ High Performance hydrophobic interaction media. The partially purified antibacterial peptide fraction was analyzed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination, and the value obtained was 25 μg ml(-1). Following mass spectrometry analysis, the active peptide fraction seems to be a complex of molecules comprised of several amino acids and other organic compounds. In addition, copper was the main metal found in the active peptide fraction. Results indicate the production of antibacterial molecules from crustacean by-products that support further applications for high-value bioproducts in several areas such as food and health

  7. Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2012-09-01

    Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

  8. Low dielectric response in enzyme active site

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Edward L.; Krishtalik, Lev I.

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of charge transfer depend crucially on the dielectric reorganization of the medium. In enzymatic reactions that involve charge transfer, atomic dielectric response of the active site and of its surroundings determines the efficiency of the protein as a catalyst. We report direct spectroscopic measurements of the reorganization energy associated with the dielectric response in the active site of α-chymotrypsin. A chromophoric inhibitor of the enzyme is used as a spectroscopic probe. We find that water strongly affects the dielectric reorganization in the active site of the enzyme in solution. The reorganization energy of the protein matrix in the vicinity of the active site is similar to that of low-polarity solvents. Surprisingly, water exhibits an anomalously high dielectric response that cannot be described in terms of the dielectric continuum theory. As a result, sequestering the active site from the aqueous environment inside low-dielectric enzyme body dramatically reduces the dielectric reorganization. This reduction is particularly important for controlling the rate of enzymatic reactions. PMID:10681440

  9. Anticancer and antioxidant activities of the peptide fraction from algae protein waste.

    PubMed

    Sheih, I-Chuan; Fang, Tony J; Wu, Tung-Kung; Lin, Peng-Hsiang

    2010-01-27

    Algae protein waste is a byproduct during production of algae essence from Chlorella vulgaris. There is no known report on the anticancer peptides derived from the microalgae protein waste. In this paper, the peptide fraction isolated from pepsin hydrolysate of algae protein waste had strong dose-dependent antiproliferation and induced a post-G1 cell cycle arrest in AGS cells; however, no cytotoxicity was observed in WI-38 lung fibroblasts cells in vitro. The peptide fraction also revealed much better antioxidant activity toward peroxyl radicals and LDL than those of Trolox. Among these peptides, a potent antiproliferative, antioxidant, and NO-production-inhibiting hendecapeptide was isolated, and its amino acid sequence was VECYGPNRPQF. These results demonstrate that inexpensive algae protein waste could be a new alternative to produce anticancer peptides. PMID:19916544

  10. Multiple biological activities for two peptides derived from the nerve growth factor precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Dicou, Eleni . E-mail: dicou@ipmc.cnrs.fr

    2006-09-01

    ProNGF can be cleaved proteolytically at dibasic residues and liberates two other peptides beside NGF, LIP1 a 29 amino acid (aa) peptide and LIP2 a 38 aa peptide. These peptides were found present in the rat intestine and shown to induce rapid phosphorylation of the Trk receptor in cell lines. The present study describes several novel biological properties for these peptides. They exert an anti-proliferative effect on the mitogenic activity of estrogen and IGF in MCF-7 cells. They protect against in vivo induction of excitotoxic lesions by the glutamatergic analogue ibotenate injected into the developing mouse brain and against in vitro NMDA-induced cell death in primary neuronal cultures. They bind to murine microglial cells and induce phosphorylation of Akt. These results suggest a role for LIP1 and LIP2 in cell survival.

  11. Resynthesis of reactive site peptide bond and temporary inhibition of Streptomyces metalloproteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Seeram, S S; Hiraga, K; Oda, K

    1997-10-01

    Streptomyces metalloproteinase inhibitor (SMPI) is a small proteinaceous inhibitor which inhibits metalloproteinases such as thermolysin (Ki =1.14 x 10(-10) M). When incubated with the enzyme, it is gradually hydrolyzed at the Cys64-Val65 peptide bond, which was identified as the reactive site by mutational analysis. To achieve a further understanding of the inhibition mechanism, we attempted to resynthesize the cleaved reactive site by using the enzyme catalytic action. The native inhibitor was resynthesized from the modified inhibitor (Ki =2.18 x 10(-8) M) by incubation with a catalytic amount of thermolysin under the same conditions as used for hydrolysis (pH 7.5, 25 degrees C), suggesting that SMPI follows the standard mechanism of inhibition of serine proteinase inhibitors. Temporary inhibition was observed when the native inhibitor and thermolysin were incubated at a 1:100 (mol/mol) enzyme-inhibitor ratio at 37 degrees C. SMPI showed temporary inhibition towards all the enzymes it inhibited. The inhibitory spectrum of SMPI was analyzed with various metalloproteinases based on the Ki values and limited proteolysis patterns. Pseudomonas elastase and Streptomyces griseus metalloproteinase II formed more stable complexes and showed much lower Ki values (approximately 2 pM) than thermolysin. In the limited proteolysis experiments weak inhibitors were degraded by the enzymes. SMPI did not inhibit almelysin, Streptomyces caespitosus neutral proteinase or matrix metalloproteinases. SMPI specifically inhibits metalloproteinases which are sensitive to phosphoramidon. PMID:9399583

  12. [The therapeutic activity of synthetic peptides, analogs of the renal natural peptide complex, in the late periods of a toxic lesion by ethylene glycol].

    PubMed

    Gaĭko, O A; Kaĭdashev, I P

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the work was study of the therapeutic activity of synthetic peptides, analogs of the natural renal peptide complexes, in late-term sequelae of a toxic affection caused by oral administration of ethylene glycol. Quite moderate disorders of renal function were encountered in the late-term periods after affection of the hepatic parenchyma. Under such conditions all the peptides under study produced a therapeutic effect, but of a different degree. It is thus obvious that study of these synthetic peptides, analogs of the natural renal complex, as potential drugs for the prevention of late-term toxic disorders of renal function is promising. PMID:10572753

  13. The self-assembly of redox active peptides: Synthesis and electrochemical capacitive behavior.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Julia P; Santos, Adriano; Santos-Filho, Norival A; Lorenzón, Esteban N; Cilli, Eduardo M; Bueno, Paulo R

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports on the synthesis of a redox-tagged peptide with self-assembling capability aiming applications in electrochemically active capacitive surfaces (associated with the presence of the redox centers) generally useful in electroanalytical applications. Peptide containing ferrocene (fc) molecular (redox) group (Ac-Cys-Ile-Ile-Lys(fc)-Ile-Ile-COOH) was thus synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). To obtain the electrochemically active capacitive interface, the side chain of the cysteine was covalently bound to the gold electrode (sulfur group) and the side chain of Lys was used to attach the ferrocene in the peptide chain. After obtaining the purified redox-tagged peptide, the self-assembly and redox capability was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance-based capacitance spectroscopy techniques. The obtained results confirmed that the redox-tagged peptide was successfully attached by forming an electroactive self-assembled monolayer onto gold electrode. The design of redox active self-assembly ferrocene-tagged peptide is predictably useful in the development of biosensor devices precisely to detect, in a label-free platform, those biomarkers of clinical relevance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 357-367, 2016. PMID:26832983

  14. Active sites of salivary proline-rich protein for binding to Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae.

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, K; Amano, A; Kuboniwa, M; Horie, H; Nagata, H; Shizukuishi, S

    1997-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae specifically bind salivary acidic proline-rich protein 1 (PRP1) through protein-protein interactions. The binding domains of fimbrillin (a subunit of fimbriae) for PRP1 were analyzed previously (A. Amano, A. Sharma, J.-Y. Lee, H. T. Sojar, P. A. Raj, and R. J. Genco, Infect. Immun. 64:1631-1637, 1996). In this study, we investigated the sites of binding of the PRP1 molecules to the fimbriae. PRP1 (amino acid residues 1 to 150) was proteolysed to three fragments (residues 1 to 74 [fragment 1-74], 75 to 129, and 130 to 150). 125I-labeled fimbriae clearly bound fragments 75-129 and 130-150, immobilized on a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane; both fragments also inhibited whole-cell binding to PRP1-coated hydroxyapatite (HAP) beads by 50 and 83%, respectively. However, the N-terminal fragment failed to show any effect. Analogous peptides corresponding to residues 75 to 89, 90 to 106, 107 to 120, 121 to 129, and 130 to 150 of PRP1 were synthesized. The fimbriae significantly bound peptide 130-150, immobilized on 96-well plates, and the peptide also inhibited binding of 125I-labeled fimbriae to PRP1-coated HAP beads by almost 100%. Peptides 75-89, 90-106, and 121-129, immobilized on plates, showed considerable ability to bind fimbriae. For further analysis of active sites in residues 130 to 150, synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 130 to 137, 138 to 145, and 146 to 150 were prepared. Peptide 138-145 (GRPQGPPQ) inhibited fimbrial binding to PRP1-coated HAP beads by 97%. This amino acid sequence was shared in the alignment of residues 75 to 89, 90 to 106, and 107 to 120. Six synthetic peptides were prepared by serial deletions of individual residues from the N and C termini of peptide GRPQGPPQ. Peptide PQGPPQ was as inhibitory as peptide GRPQGPPQ. Further deletions of the dipeptide Pro-Gln from the N and C termini of peptide PQGPPQ resulted in significant loss of the inhibitory effect. These results strongly suggest that PQGPPQ

  15. MULTIVALENT DISPLAY OF PENDANT PRO-APOPTOTIC PEPTIDES INCREASES CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Chu, David S.H.; Bocek, Michael J.; Shi, Julie; Ta, Anh; Ngambenjawong, Chayanon; Rostomily, Robert C.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2015-01-01

    Several cationic antimicrobial peptides have been investigated as potential anti-cancer drugs due to their demonstrated selective toxicity towards cancer cells relative to normal cells. For example, intracellular delivery of KLA, a pro-apoptotic peptide, results in toxicity against a variety of cancer cell lines; however, the relatively low activity and small size leads to rapid renal excretion when applied in vivo, limiting its therapeutic potential. In this work, apoptotic peptide-polymer hybrid materials were developed to increase apoptotic peptide activity via multivalent display. Multivalent peptide materials were prepared with comb-like structure by RAFT copolymerization of peptide macromonomers with N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA). Polymers displayed a GKRK peptide sequence for targeting p32, a protein often overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells, either fused with or as a comonomer to a KLA macromonomer. In three tested cancer cell lines, apoptotic polymers were significantly more cytotoxic than free peptides as evidenced by an order of magnitude decrease in IC50 values for the polymers compared to free peptide. The uptake efficiency and intracellular trafficking of one polymer construct was determined by radiolabeling and subcellular fractionation. Despite their more potent cytotoxic profile, polymeric KLA constructs have poor cellular uptake efficiency (<1%). A significant fraction (20%) of internalized constructs localize with intact mitochondrial fractions. In an effort to increase cellular uptake, polymer amines were converted to guanidines by reaction with O-methylisourea. Guanidinylated polymers disrupted function of isolated mitochondria more than their lysine-based analogs, but overall toxicity was decreased, likely due to inefficient mitochondrial trafficking. Thus, while multivalent KLA polymers are more potent than KLA peptides, these materials can be substantially improved by designing next generation materials with improved

  16. Selective Deletion of the Internal Lysine Residue from the Peptide Sequence by Collisional Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2012-11-01

    The gas-phase peptide ion fragmentation chemistry is always the center of attraction in proteomics to analyze the amino acid sequence of peptides and proteins. In this work, we describe the formation of an anomalous fragment ion, which corresponds to the selective deletion of the internal lysine residue from a series of lysine containing peptides upon collisional activation in the ion trap. We detected several water-loss fragment ions and the maximum number of water molecules lost from a particular fragment ion was equal to the number of lysine residues in that fragment. As a consequence of this water-loss phenomenon, internal lysine residues were found to be deleted from the peptide ion. The N,N-dimethylation of all the amine functional groups of the peptide stopped the internal lysine deletion reaction, but selective N-terminal α-amino acetylation had no effect on this process indicating involvement of the side chains of the lysine residues. The detailed mechanism of the lysine deletion was investigated by multistage CID of the modified and unmodified peptides, by isotope labeling and by energy resolved CID studies. The results suggest that the lysine deletion might occur through a unimolecular multistep mechanism involving a seven-membered cyclic imine intermediate formed by the loss of water from a lysine residue in the protonated peptide. This intermediate subsequently undergoes degradation reaction to deplete the interior imine ring from the peptide backbone leading to the deletion of an internal lysine residue.

  17. Self-assembling Peptide Nanotubes with Antiviral Activity Against Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Ana; Gastaminza, Pablo; Law, Mansun; Cheng, Guofeng; Chisari, Francis V.; Ghadiri, M. Reza

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects chronically 3% of the world population and the current therapy against this pathogen is only partially effective. With the aim of developing novel antiviral strategies against HCV, we screened a d,l-α-peptide library using an unbiased methodology based on a cell culture infection system for HCV. We found a family of highly active amphiphilic eight-residue cyclic d,l-α-peptides that specifically blocked entry of all tested HCV genotypes into target cells at a post-binding step without affecting infection by other enveloped RNA viruses. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies indicate that antiviral activity was dependent on cyclic d,l-α-peptide self-assembly processes and that, although they possesses a net neutral charge, they display a characteristic charge distribution. Our results indicate that supramolecular amphiphilic peptide structures constitute a novel class of highly selective HCV entry inhibitors. PMID:22118679

  18. Enhanced stability and activity of an antimicrobial peptide in conjugation with silver nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Pal, Indrani; Brahmkhatri, Varsha P; Bera, Swapna; Bhattacharyya, Dipita; Quirishi, Yasrib; Bhunia, Anirban; Atreya, Hanudatta S

    2016-12-01

    The conjugation of nanoparticles with antimicrobial peptides (AMP) is emerging as a promising route to achieve superior antimicrobial activity. However, the nature of peptide-nanoparticle interactions in these systems remains unclear. This study describes a system consisting of a cysteine containing antimicrobial peptide conjugated with silver nanoparticles, in which the two components exhibit a dynamic interaction resulting in a significantly enhanced stability and biological activity compared to that of the individual components. This was investigated using NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with other biophysical techniques. Using fluorescence assisted cell sorting and membrane mimics we carried out a quantitative comparison of the activity of the AMP-nanoparticle system and the free peptide. Taken together, the study provides new insights into nanoparticle-AMP interactions at a molecular level and brings out the factors that will be useful for consideration while designing new conjugates with enhanced functionality. PMID:27585423

  19. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides cause airway contraction and lung neutrophil infiltration via formyl peptide receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Wenceslau, Camilla Ferreira; Szasz, Theodora; McCarthy, Cameron G; Baban, Babak; NeSmith, Elizabeth; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory failure is a common characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Trauma and severe blood loss cause the release of endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MITs) are DAMPs that share similarities with bacterial N-formylated peptides, and are potent immune system activators. Recently, we observed that hemorrhagic shock-induced increases in plasma levels of F-MITs associated with lung damage, and that antagonism of formyl peptide receptors (FPR) ameliorated hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury in rats. Corroborating these data, in the present study, it was observed that F-MITs expression is higher in plasma samples from trauma patients with SIRS or sepsis when compared to control trauma group. Therefore, to better understand the role of F-MITs in the regulation of lung and airway function, we studied the hypothesis that F-MITs lead to airway contraction and lung inflammation. We observed that F-MITs induced concentration-dependent contraction in trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. However, pre-treatment with mast cells degranulator or FPR antagonist decreased this response. Finally, intratracheal challenge with F-MITs increased neutrophil elastase expression in lung and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cell division control protein 42 expression in all airway segments. These data suggest that F-MITs could be a putative target to treat respiratory failure in trauma patients. PMID:26923940

  20. Protease-Activated Pore-Forming Peptides for the Treatment and Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    LeBeau, Aaron M.; Denmeade, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    A common hallmark of cancers with highly aggressive phenotypes is increased proteolysis in the tumor and the surrounding microenvironment. Prostate cancer has a number of proteases uniquely associated with it that may play various important roles in disease progression. In this report, we utilize the peritumoral proteolytic activity of prostate cancer to activate engineered peptide constructs for the treatment and noninvasive imaging of prostate cancer. Using a modular "propeptide" approach, a cationic diastereomeric pore-forming peptide domain was linked to an inactivating acidic peptide domain. The inactivating acidic peptide domain was engineered to be a cleavable substrate for the secreted serine protease prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or the transmembrane metalloprotease prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). The propeptides were then evaluated in a direct comparison study. Both the PSA and PSMA activated propeptides were found to be cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, however, treatment of LNCaP and CWR22Rv1 xenografts with the PSMA propeptide resulted in a pronounced cytostatic effect when compared with xenografts treated with the PSA propeptide or the cationic diastereomeric peptide alone. The PSMA activated propeptide also proved to be an effective optical imaging probe in vivo when labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore. These data suggest that protease-activated pore-forming peptides could potentially be used for both imaging and treating prostate cancer. PMID:25537662

  1. Antimicrobial activities of chicken β-defensin (4 and 10) peptides against pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Haitham A.; Elazzazy, Ahmed M.; Abuzinadah, Osama A. H.; Al-Hejin, Ahmed M.; Mahmoud, Maged M.; Harakeh, Steve M.

    2015-01-01

    Host Defense Peptides (HDPs) are small cationic peptides found in several organisms. They play a vital role in innate immunity response and immunomodulatory stimulation. This investigation was designed to study the antimicrobial activities of β-defensin peptide-4 (sAvBD-4) and 10 (sAvBD-4) derived from chickens against pathogenic organisms including bacteria and fungi. Ten bacterial strains and three fungal species were used in investigation. The results showed that the sAvBD-10 displayed a higher bactericidal potency against all the tested bacterial strains than that of sAvBD-4. The exhibited bactericidal activity was significant against almost the different bacterial strains at different peptide concentrations except for that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Streptococcus bovis (Str. bovis) strains where a moderate effect was noted. Both peptides were effective in the inactivation of fungal species tested yielding a killing rate of up to 95%. The results revealed that the synthetic peptides were resistant to salt at a concentration of 50 mM NaCl. However, they lost antimicrobial potency when applied in the presence of high salt concentrations. Based on blood hemolysis studies, a little hemolytic effect was showed in the case of both peptides even when applied at high concentrations. The data obtained from this study indicated that synthetic avian peptides exhibit strong antibacterial and antifungal activity. In conclusion, future work and research should be tailored to a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of those peptides and their potential use in the pharmaceutical industry to help reduce the incidence and impact of infectious agent and be marketed as a naturally occurring antibiotic. PMID:25941665

  2. Antimicrobial activities of chicken β-defensin (4 and 10) peptides against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Haitham A; Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Abuzinadah, Osama A H; Al-Hejin, Ahmed M; Mahmoud, Maged M; Harakeh, Steve M

    2015-01-01

    Host Defense Peptides (HDPs) are small cationic peptides found in several organisms. They play a vital role in innate immunity response and immunomodulatory stimulation. This investigation was designed to study the antimicrobial activities of β-defensin peptide-4 (sAvBD-4) and 10 (sAvBD-4) derived from chickens against pathogenic organisms including bacteria and fungi. Ten bacterial strains and three fungal species were used in investigation. The results showed that the sAvBD-10 displayed a higher bactericidal potency against all the tested bacterial strains than that of sAvBD-4. The exhibited bactericidal activity was significant against almost the different bacterial strains at different peptide concentrations except for that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Streptococcus bovis (Str. bovis) strains where a moderate effect was noted. Both peptides were effective in the inactivation of fungal species tested yielding a killing rate of up to 95%. The results revealed that the synthetic peptides were resistant to salt at a concentration of 50 mM NaCl. However, they lost antimicrobial potency when applied in the presence of high salt concentrations. Based on blood hemolysis studies, a little hemolytic effect was showed in the case of both peptides even when applied at high concentrations. The data obtained from this study indicated that synthetic avian peptides exhibit strong antibacterial and antifungal activity. In conclusion, future work and research should be tailored to a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of those peptides and their potential use in the pharmaceutical industry to help reduce the incidence and impact of infectious agent and be marketed as a naturally occurring antibiotic. PMID:25941665

  3. Conserved sequences of sperm-activating peptide and its receptor throughout evolution, despite speciation in the sea star Asterias amurensis and closely related species.

    PubMed

    Nakachi, Mia; Hoshi, Motonori; Matsumoto, Midori; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2008-08-01

    The asteroidal sperm-activating peptides (asterosaps) from the egg jelly bind to their sperm receptor, a membrane-bound guanylate cyclase, on the tail to activate sperm in sea stars. Asterosaps are produced as single peptides and then cleaved into shorter peptides. Sperm activation is followed by the acrosome reaction, which is subfamily specific. In order to investigate the molecular details of the asterosap-receptor interaction, corresponding cDNAs have been cloned, sequenced and analysed from the Asteriinae subfamily including Asterias amurensis, A. rubens, A. forbesi and Aphelasterias japonica, as well as Distolasterias nipon from the Coscinasteriinae subfamily. Averages of 29% and 86% identity were found from the deduced amino acid sequences in asterosap and its receptor extracellular domains, respectively, across all species examined. The phylogenic tree topology for asterosap and its receptor was similar to that of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. In spite of a certain homology, the amino acid sequences exhibited speciation. Conservation was found in the asterosap residues involved in disulphide bonding and proteinase-cleaving sites. Conversely, similarities were detected between potential asterosap-binding sites and the structure of the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor. Although the sperm-activating peptide and its receptor share certain common sequences, they may serve as barriers that ensure speciation in the sea star A. amurensis and closely related species. PMID:18578950

  4. Synthesis, characterization and anti-cancer activity of a peptide nucleolipid bioconjugate.

    PubMed

    Rana, Niki; Huang, Suiying; Patel, Pradeepkumar; Samuni, Uri; Sabatino, David

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis, characterization and anti-cancer activity of a novel peptide nucleolipid bioconjugate is reported in this study. The prerequisite 5'-carboxy derived nucleolipid was synthesized following a five-step solution-phase approach and then coupled to the cytotoxic D-(KLAKLAK)2 sequence by solid-phase bioconjugation. The biophysical and structural properties of the peptide-nucleolipid bioconjugate were evaluated and compared to the peptide controls. These characterization studies revealed that the amphiphilic peptides favored helical-type secondary structures and well-defined nanoparticle formulations that were found to be contributive towards their biological activity. The peptide-nucleolipid bioconjugate displayed greater lethality in comparison to the native D-(KLAKLAK)2AK sequence when treated within the human A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line. Thus, the amphiphilic peptide-nucleolipid forms a new class of anti-cancer peptides that may be developed into promising leads in the fight against cancer. PMID:27329798

  5. Fusion peptide of HIV-1 as a site of vulnerability to neutralizing antibody.

    PubMed

    Kong, Rui; Xu, Kai; Zhou, Tongqing; Acharya, Priyamvada; Lemmin, Thomas; Liu, Kevin; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Soto, Cinque; Taft, Justin D; Bailer, Robert T; Cale, Evan M; Chen, Lei; Choi, Chang W; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Gorman, Jason; Huang, Jinghe; Joyce, M Gordon; Louder, Mark K; Ma, Xiaochu; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Pancera, Marie; Yang, Yongping; Blanchard, Scott C; Mothes, Walther; Burton, Dennis R; Koff, Wayne C; Connors, Mark; Ward, Andrew B; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R

    2016-05-13

    The HIV-1 fusion peptide, comprising 15 to 20 hydrophobic residues at the N terminus of the Env-gp41 subunit, is a critical component of the virus-cell entry machinery. Here, we report the identification of a neutralizing antibody, N123-VRC34.01, which targets the fusion peptide and blocks viral entry by inhibiting conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 subunits of Env required for entry. Crystal structures of N123-VRC34.01 liganded to the fusion peptide, and to the full Env trimer, revealed an epitope consisting of the N-terminal eight residues of the gp41 fusion peptide and glycan N88 of gp120, and molecular dynamics showed that the N-terminal portion of the fusion peptide can be solvent-exposed. These results reveal the fusion peptide to be a neutralizing antibody epitope and thus a target for vaccine design. PMID:27174988

  6. Human neutrophils are activated by a peptide fragment of Clostridium difficile toxin B presumably via formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Goy, Sebastian D; Olling, Alexandra; Neumann, Detlef; Pich, Andreas; Gerhard, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium difficile may induce antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and, in severe cases, pseudomembranous colitis characterized by tremendous neutrophil infiltration. All symptoms are caused by two exotoxins: TcdA and TcdB. We describe here the activation of isolated human blood neutrophils by TcdB and, moreover, by toxin fragments generated by limited proteolytical digestion. Kinetics and profiles of TcdB-induced rise in intracellular-free Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species production were similar to that induced by fMLF, which activates the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) recognizing formylated bacterial peptide sequences. Transfection assays with the FPR-1 isoform hFPR26 in HEK293 cells, heterologous desensitization experiments and FPR inhibition via cyclosporine H strongly suggest activation of cells via FPR-1. Domain analyses revealed that the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain of TcdB is a potent activator of FPR pointing towards an additional mechanism that might contribute to pathogenesis. This pro-inflammatory ligand effect can be triggered even by cleaved and, thus, non-cytotoxic toxin. In summary, we report (i) a ligand effect on neutrophils as completely new molecular mode of action, (ii) pathogenic potential of truncated or proteolytically cleaved 'non-cytotoxic' fragments and (iii) an interaction of the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain instead of the C-terminal receptor binding domain of TcdB with target cells. PMID:25529763

  7. Anticancer activity of a synthetic peptide derived from harmoniasin, an antibacterial peptide from the ladybug Harmonia axyridis.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Kwon, Young-Nam; Yun, Eun-Young; Nam, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Mi-Young; Kang, Dong-Chul; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2013-08-01

    Harmoniasin is a defensin-like antimicrobial peptide identified from the ladybug Harmonia axyridis. Among the synthetic homodimer peptide analogues derived from harmoniasin, HaA4 has been found to have antibacterial activity without hemolytic activity. In this study, we investigated whether HaA4 has anticancer activity against human leukemia cell lines such as U937 and Jurkat cells. HaA4 manifested cytotoxicity and decreased the cell viability of U937 and Jurkat cells in MTS assay and LDH release assay. We found that HaA4 induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death of the leukemia cells using flow cytometric analysis, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and nucleosomal fragmentation of genomic DNA. Activation of caspase-7 and -9 and fragmentation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase was detected in the HaA4-treated leukemia cells, suggesting induction of a caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway by HaA4. Caspase-dependent apoptosis was further confirmed by reversal of the HaA4-induced viability reduction by treatment of Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. In conclusion, HaA4 caused necrosis and caspase-dependent apoptosis in both U937 and Jurkat leukemia cells, which suggests potential utility of HaA4 as a cancer therapeutic agent. PMID:23732481

  8. Activity Prediction and Molecular Mechanism of Bovine Blood Derived Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Nie, Shaoping; Liu, Boqun; Yu, Yiding; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    Development of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1) inhibitory peptides from food protein is under extensive research as alternative for the prevention of hypertension. However, it is difficult to identify peptides released from food sources. To accelerate the progress of peptide identification, a three layer back propagation neural network model was established to predict the ACE-inhibitory activity of pentapeptides derived from bovine hemoglobin by simulated enzyme digestion. The pentapeptide WTQRF has the best predicted value with experimental IC50 23.93 μM. The potential molecular mechanism of the WTQRF / ACE interaction was investigated by flexible docking. PMID:25768442

  9. Calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide transcription unit: tissue-specific expression involves selective use of alternative polyadenylation sites.

    PubMed Central

    Amara, S G; Evans, R M; Rosenfeld, M G

    1984-01-01

    Different 3' coding exons in the rat calcitonin gene are used to generate distinct mRNAs encoding either the hormone calcitonin in thyroidal C-cells or a new neuropeptide referred to as calcitonin gene-related peptide in neuronal tissue, indicating the RNA processing regulation is one strategy used in tissue-specific regulation of gene expression in the brain. Although the two mRNAs use the same transcriptional initiation site and have identical 5' terminal sequences, their 3' termini are distinct. The polyadenylation sites for calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide mRNAs are located at the end of the exons 4 and 6, respectively. Termination of transcription after the calcitonin exon does not dictate the production of calcitonin mRNA, because transcription proceeds through both calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide exons irrespective of which mRNA is ultimately produced. In isolated nuclei, both polyadenylation sites appear to be utilized; however, the proximal (calcitonin) site is preferentially used in nuclei from tissues producing calcitonin mRNA. These data suggest that the mechanism dictating production of each mRNA involves the selective use of alternative polyadenylation sites. Images PMID:6334229

  10. REDV Peptide Conjugated Nanoparticles/pZNF580 Complexes for Actively Targeting Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Changcan; Li, Qian; Zhang, Wencheng; Feng, Yakai; Ren, Xiangkui

    2015-09-16

    Herein, we demonstrate that the REDV peptide modified nanoparticles (NPs) can serve as a kind of active targeting gene carrier to condensate pZNF580 for specific promotion of the proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs). First, we synthesized a series of biodegradable amphiphilic copolymers by ring-opening polymerization reaction and graft modification with REDV peptide. Second, we prepared active targeting NPs via self-assembly of the amphiphilic copolymers using nanoprecipitation technology. After condensation with negatively charged pZNF580, the REDV peptide modified NPs/pZNF580 complexes were formed finally. Due to the binding affinity toward ECs of the specific peptide, these REDV peptide modified NPs/pZNF580 complexes could be recognized and adhered specifically by ECs in the coculture system of ECs and human artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro. After expression of ZNF580, as the key protein to promote the proliferation of ECs, the relative ZNF580 protein level increased from 15.7% to 34.8%. The specificity in actively targeting ECs of the REDV peptide conjugated NPs/pZNF580 complexes was still retained in the coculture system. These findings in the present study could facilitate the development of actively targeting gene carriers for the endothelialization of artificial blood vessels. PMID:26373583

  11. Local atomic structure and oxidation processes of Cu(I) binding site in amyloid beta peptide: XAS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremennaya, M. A.; Soldatov, M. A.; Stretsov, V. A.; Soldatov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    There are two different motifs of X-ray absorption spectra for Cu(I) K-edge in amyloid-β peptide which could be due to two different configurations of local Cu(I) environment. Two or three histidine ligands can coordinate copper ion in varying conformations. On the other hand, oxidation of amyloid-β peptide could play an additional role in local copper environment. In order to explore the peculiarities of local atomic and electronic structure of Cu(I) binding sites in amyloid-β peptide the x-ray absorption spectra were simulated for various Cu(I) environments including oxidized amyloid-β and compared with experimental data.

  12. Silver adducts of four-branched histidine rich peptides exhibit synergistic antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Leng, Qixin; Woodle, Martin C; Liu, Yijia; Mixson, A James

    2016-09-01

    Previously, a four branched histidine-lysine rich peptide, H3K4b, was shown to demonstrate selective antifungal activity with minimal antibacterial activity. Due to the potential breakdown from proteases, H3K4b was further evaluated in the current study by varying the D- and l-amino acid content in its branches. Whereas analogues of H3K4b that selectively replaced l-amino acids (H3k4b, h3K4b) had improved antifungal activity, the all d-amino acid analogue, h3k4b, had reduced activity, suggesting that partial breakdown of the peptide may be necessary. Moreover, because histidines form coordination bonds with the silver ion, we examined whether silver adducts can be formed with these branched histidine-lysine peptides, which may improve antifungal activity. For Candida albicans, the silver adduct of h3K4b or H3k4b reduced the MIC compared to peptide and silver ions alone by 4- and 5-fold, respectively. For Aspergillus fumigatus, the silver adducts showed even greater enhancement of activity. Although the silver adducts of H3k4b or h3K4b showed synergistic activity, the silver adduct with the all l-amino acid H3K4b surprisingly showed the greatest synergistic and growth inhibition of A. fumigatus: the silver adduct of H3K4b reduced the MIC compared to the peptide and silver ions alone by 30- and 26-fold, respectively. Consistent with these antifungal efficacy results, marked increases in free oxygen radicals were produced with the H3K4b and silver combination. These studies suggest that there is a balance between stability and breakdown for optimal antifungal activity of the peptide alone and for the peptide-silver adduct. PMID:27387239

  13. Cytochrome c peroxidase activity of heme bound amyloid β peptides.

    PubMed

    Seal, Manas; Ghosh, Chandradeep; Basu, Olivia; Dey, Somdatta Ghosh

    2016-09-01

    Heme bound amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), can catalytically oxidize ferrocytochrome c (Cyt c(II)) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The rate of catalytic oxidation of Cyt(II) c has been found to be dependent on several factors, such as concentration of heme(III)-Aβ, Cyt(II) c, H2O2, pH, ionic strength of the solution, and peptide chain length of Aβ. The above features resemble the naturally occurring enzyme cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) which is known to catalytically oxidize Cyt(II) c in the presence of H2O2. In the absence of heme(III)-Aβ, the oxidation of Cyt(II) c is not catalytic. Thus, heme-Aβ complex behaves as CCP. PMID:27270708

  14. Mammalian peptide isomerase: platypus-type activity is present in mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jennifer M S; Chow, Stephanie J P; Crossett, Ben; Kuchel, Philip W

    2010-06-01

    Male platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venom has a peptidyl aminoacyl L/D-isomerase (hereafter called peptide isomerase) that converts the second amino acid residue in from the N-terminus from the L- to the D-form, and vice versa. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) assay has been developed to monitor the interconversion using synthetic hexapeptides derived from defensin-like peptide-2 (DLP-2) and DLP-4 as substrates. It was hypothesised that animals other than the platypus would have peptide isomerase with the same substrate specificity. Accordingly, eight mouse tissues were tested and heart was shown to have the activity. This is notable for being the first evidence of a peptide isomerase being present in a higher mammal and heralds finding the activity in man. PMID:20564672

  15. Solid-Phase Synthesis, Characterization, and Cellular Activities of Collagen-Model Nanodiamond-Peptide Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Knapinska, Anna M.; Tokmina-Roszyk, Dorota; Amar, Sabrina; Tokmina-Roszyk, Michal; Mochalin, Vadym N.; Gogotsi, Yury; Cosme, Patrick; Terentis, Andrew C.; Fields, Gregg B.

    2015-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) have received considerable attention as potential drug delivery vehicles. NDs are small (~5 nm diameter), can be surface modified in a controllable fashion with a variety of functional groups, and have little observed toxicity in vitro and in vivo. However, most biomedical applications of NDs utilize surface adsorption of biomolecules, as opposed to covalent attachment. Covalent modification provides reliable and reproducible ND–biomolecule ratios, and alleviates concerns over biomolecule desorption prior to delivery. The present study has outlined methods for the efficient solid-phase conjugation of ND to peptides and characterization of ND–peptide conjugates. Utilizing collagen-derived peptides, the ND was found to support or even enhance the cell adhesion and viability activities of the conjugated sequence. Thus, NDs can be incorporated into peptides and proteins in a selective manner, where the presence of the ND could potentially enhance the in vivo activities of the biomolecule it is attached to. PMID:25753561

  16. Double Strain-Promoted Macrocyclization for the Rapid Selection of Cell-Active Stapled Peptides.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yu Heng; Wu, Yuteng; Rossmann, Maxim; Tan, Ban Xiong; de Andrade, Peterson; Tan, Yaw Sing; Verma, Chandra; McKenzie, Grahame J; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Hyvönen, Marko; Spring, David R

    2015-12-14

    Peptide stapling is a method for designing macrocyclic alpha-helical inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. However, obtaining a cell-active inhibitor can require significant optimization. We report a novel stapling technique based on a double strain-promoted azide-alkyne reaction, and exploit its biocompatibility to accelerate the discovery of cell-active stapled peptides. As a proof of concept, MDM2-binding peptides were stapled in parallel, directly in cell culture medium in 96-well plates, and simultaneously evaluated in a p53 reporter assay. This in situ stapling/screening process gave an optimal candidate that showed improved proteolytic stability and nanomolar binding to MDM2 in subsequent biophysical assays. α-Helicity was confirmed by a crystal structure of the MDM2-peptide complex. This work introduces in situ stapling as a versatile biocompatible technique with many other potential high-throughput biological applications. PMID:26768531

  17. A cactus-derived toxin-like cystine knot Peptide with selective antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Aboye, Teshome L; Strömstedt, Adam A; Gunasekera, Sunithi; Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham; Rosengren, K Johan; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    Naturally occurring cystine knot peptides show a wide range of biological activity, and as they have inherent stability they represent potential scaffolds for peptide-based drug design and biomolecular engineering. Here we report the discovery, sequencing, chemical synthesis, three-dimensional solution structure determination and bioactivity of the first cystine knot peptide from Cactaceae (cactus) family: Ep-AMP1 from Echinopsis pachanoi. The structure of Ep-AMP1 (35 amino acids) conforms to that of the inhibitor cystine knot (or knottin) family but represents a novel diverse sequence; its activity was more than 500 times higher against bacterial than against eukaryotic cells. Rapid bactericidal action and liposome leakage implicate membrane permeabilisation as the mechanism of action. Sequence homology places Ec-AMP1 in the plant C6-type of antimicrobial peptides, but the three dimensional structure is highly similar to that of a spider neurotoxin. PMID:25821084

  18. Salusins: newly identified bioactive peptides with hemodynamic and mitogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Shichiri, Masayoshi; Ishimaru, Shinya; Ota, Toshio; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Isogai, Takao; Hirata, Yukio

    2003-09-01

    The discovery of endogenous bioactive peptides has typically required a lengthy identification process. Computer-assisted analysis of cDNA and genomic DNA sequence information can markedly shorten the process. A bioinformatic analysis of full-length, enriched human cDNA libraries searching for previously unidentified bioactive peptides resulted in the identification and characterization of two related peptides of 28 and 20 amino acids, which we designated salusin-alpha and salusin-beta. Salusins are translated from an alternatively spliced mRNA of TOR2A, a gene encoding a protein of the torsion dystonia family. Intravenous administration of salusin-alpha or salusin-beta to rats causes rapid, profound hypotension and bradycardia. Salusins increase intracellular Ca2+, upregulate a variety of genes and induce cell mitogenesis. Salusin-beta stimulates the release of arginine-vasopressin from rat pituitary. Expression of TOR2A mRNA and its splicing into preprosalusin are ubiquitous, and immunoreactive salusin-alpha and salusin-beta are detected in many human tissues, plasma and urine, suggesting that salusins are endocrine and/or paracrine factors. PMID:12910263

  19. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Seok, Heon; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il; Kim, Ho

    2014-06-01

    We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH2-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson's disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27(Kip1) protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27(Kip1) significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27(Kip1) degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin. PMID:24796676

  20. Imaging site-specific peptide-targeting in tumor tissues using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixin; Zhang, Miao; Yu, Ping

    2011-03-01

    We report imaging studies on site-specific peptide-targeting in tumor tissues using newly developed optical peptide probes and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The system used two broadband superluminescent light emission diodes with different central wavelengths. An electro-optic modulation in the reference beam was used to get full-range deep imaging inside tumor tissues. The optical probes were based on Bombesin (BBN) that is a fourteen amino acid peptide. BBN has high binding affinity to gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors overexpressed on several human cancer cell lines. Fluorescence BBN probes were developed by conjugating the last eight residues of BBN, -Q-W-A-V-G-H-L-M-(NH2), with Alexa Flour 680 or Alexa Fluor 750 dye molecules via amino acid linker -G-G-G. The SD-OCT imaging can identify normal tissue and tumor tissue through the difference in scattering coefficient, and trace the BBN conjugate probes through the absorption of the dye molecules using the twowavelength algorithm. We performed the specific uptake and receptor-blocking experiments of the optical BBN probes in severely compromised immunodeficient mouse model bearing human PC-3 prostate tumor xenografts. Tumor and muscle tissues were collected and used for SD-OCT imaging. The SD-OCT images showed fluorescence traces of the BBN probes in the peptide-targeted tumor tissues. Our results demonstrated that SD-OCT is a potential tool for preclinical and clinical early cancer detection.

  1. Influence of Selective Fluorination on the Biological Activity and Proteolytic Stability of Glucagon-like Peptide-1

    PubMed Central

    Meng, He; Krishnaji, Subrahmanian Tarakkad; Beinborn, Martin; Kumar, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    The relative simplicity and high specificity of peptide therapeutics has fueled recent interest. However, peptide and protein drugs generally require injection and suffer from low metabolic stability. We report here the design, synthesis and characterization of fluorinated analogues of the gut hormone peptide, GLP-1. Overall, fluorinated GLP-1 analogues displayed higher proteolytic stability with simultaneous retention of biological activity (efficacy). Fluorinated amino acids are useful for engineering peptide drug candidates and probing ligand-receptor interactions. PMID:18950150

  2. Coordination of two high-affinity hexamer peptides to copper(II) and palladium(II) models of the peptide-metal chelation site on IMAC resins

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Pasquinelli, R.; Ataai, M.; Koepsel, R.R.; Kortes, R.A.; Shepherd, R.E.

    2000-03-20

    The coordination of peptides Ser-Pro-His-His-Gly-Gly (SPHHGG) and (His){sub 6} (HHHHHH) to [Pd{sup II}(mida)(D{sub 2}O)] (mida{sup 2{minus}} = N-methyliminodiacetate) was studied by {sup 1}H NMR as model reactions for Cu{sup II}(iminodiacetate)-immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) sites. This is the first direct physical description of peptide coordination for IMAC. A three-site coordination is observed which involves the first, third, and fourth residues along the peptide chain. The presence of proline in position 2 of SPHHGG achieves the best molecular mechanics and bonding angles in the coordinated peptide and enhances the interaction of the serine amino nitrogen. Histidine coordination of H{sub 1}, H{sub 3}, and H{sub 4} of (His){sub 6} and H{sub 3} and H{sub 4} of SPHHGG was detected by {sup 1}H NMR contact shifts and H/D exchange of histidyl protons. The EPR spectra of SPHHGG and HHHHHH attached to the [Cu{sup II}(mida)] unit were obtained for additional modeling of IMAC sites. EPR parameters of the parent [Cu(mida)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] complex are representative: g{sub zz} = 2.31; g{sub yy} = 2.086; g{sub xx} = 2.053; A{sub {vert_bar}{vert_bar}} = 161 G; A{sub N} = 19G (three line, one N coupling). Increased rhombic distortion is detected relative to the starting aqua complex in the order of [Cu(mida)L] for distortion of HHHHHH > SPHHGG > (H{sub 2}O){sub 2}. The lowering of symmetry is also seen in the decrease in the N-shf coupling, presumably to the imino nitrogen of mida{sup 2{minus}} in the order 19 G (H{sub 2}O), 16 G (SPHHGG) and 11 G (HHHHHH). Visible spectra of the [Cu(mida)(SPHHGG)] and [Cu(mida)(HHHHHH)] as a function of pH indicate coordination of one histidyl donor at ca. 4.5, two in the range of pH 5--7, and two chelate ring attachments involving the terminal amino donor for SPHHGG or another histidyl donor of HHHHHH in the pH domain of 7--8 in agreement with the [Pd{sup II}(mida)L] derivatives which form the two

  3. Effect of probiotics on antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of crude peptide extract from yogurt.

    PubMed

    Sah, B N P; Vasiljevic, T; McKechnie, S; Donkor, O N

    2014-08-01

    Search for bioactive peptides is intensifying because of the risks associated with the use of synthetic therapeutics, thus peptide liberation by lactic acid bacteria and probiotics has received a great focus. However, proteolytic capacity of these bacteria is strain specific. The study was conducted to establish proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC® 4356™), Lactobacillus casei (ATCC® 393™) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (ATCC® BAA52™) in yogurt. Crude peptides were separated by high-speed centrifugation and tested for antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. The degree of proteolysis highly correlated with these bioactivities, and its value (11.91%) for samples containing all the cultures was double that of the control. Liberated peptides showed high radical scavenging activities with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), IC50 1.51 and 1.63mg/ml, respectively and strong antimutagenicity (26.35%). These probiotics enhanced the generation of bioactive peptides and could possibly be commercially applied in new products, or production of novel anticancer peptides. PMID:24629967

  4. Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Chicken Cathelicidin-2 Derived Peptides.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Albert; van Eldik, Mandy; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Hanne L M; de Zoete, Marcel R; Bikker, Floris J; Haagsman, Henk P

    2016-01-01

    Host Defence Peptides and derived peptides are promising classes of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory lead compounds. For this purpose we examined whether chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2)-derived peptides modulate the function and inflammatory response of avian immune cells. Using a chicken macrophage cell line (HD11) we found that full-length CATH-2 dose-dependently induced transcription of chemokines CXCLi2/IL-8, MCP-3 and CCLi4/RANTES, but not of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In addition, CATH-2 efficiently inhibited IL-1β and nitric oxide production by HD11 cells induced by different sources of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). N-terminal truncated CATH-2 derived peptides maintained the capacity to selectively induce chemokine transcription, but despite their high LPS affinity several analogs lacked LPS-neutralizing capacity. Substitution of phenylalanine residues by tryptophan introduced endotoxin neutralization capacity in inactive truncated CATH-2 derived peptides. In contrast, amino acid substitution of phenylalanine by tyrosine abrogated endotoxin neutralization activity of CATH-2 analogs. These findings support a pivotal role for aromatic residues in peptide-mediated endotoxin neutralization by CATH-2 analogs and were shown to be independent of LPS affinity. The capacity to modulate chemokine production and dampen endotoxin-induced pro-inflammatory responses in chicken immune cells implicates that small CATH-2 based peptides could serve as leads for the design of CATH-2 based immunomodulatory anti-infectives. PMID:26848845

  5. Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Chicken Cathelicidin-2 Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Albert; van Eldik, Mandy; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Hanne L. M.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Bikker, Floris J.; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2016-01-01

    Host Defence Peptides and derived peptides are promising classes of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory lead compounds. For this purpose we examined whether chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2)-derived peptides modulate the function and inflammatory response of avian immune cells. Using a chicken macrophage cell line (HD11) we found that full-length CATH-2 dose-dependently induced transcription of chemokines CXCLi2/IL-8, MCP-3 and CCLi4/RANTES, but not of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In addition, CATH-2 efficiently inhibited IL-1β and nitric oxide production by HD11 cells induced by different sources of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). N-terminal truncated CATH-2 derived peptides maintained the capacity to selectively induce chemokine transcription, but despite their high LPS affinity several analogs lacked LPS-neutralizing capacity. Substitution of phenylalanine residues by tryptophan introduced endotoxin neutralization capacity in inactive truncated CATH-2 derived peptides. In contrast, amino acid substitution of phenylalanine by tyrosine abrogated endotoxin neutralization activity of CATH-2 analogs. These findings support a pivotal role for aromatic residues in peptide-mediated endotoxin neutralization by CATH-2 analogs and were shown to be independent of LPS affinity. The capacity to modulate chemokine production and dampen endotoxin-induced pro-inflammatory responses in chicken immune cells implicates that small CATH-2 based peptides could serve as leads for the design of CATH-2 based immunomodulatory anti-infectives. PMID:26848845

  6. Function-based classification of carbohydrate-active enzymes by recognition of short, conserved peptide motifs.

    PubMed

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2013-06-01

    Functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes is difficult due to low sequence identity. However, similar enzymes often share a few short motifs, e.g., around the active site, even when the overall sequences are very different. To exploit this notion for functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes, we developed a simple algorithm, peptide pattern recognition (PPR), that can divide proteins into groups of sequences that share a set of short conserved sequences. When this method was used on 118 glycoside hydrolase 5 proteins with 9% average pairwise identity and representing four characterized enzymatic functions, 97% of the proteins were sorted into groups correlating with their enzymatic activity. Furthermore, we analyzed 8,138 glycoside hydrolase 13 proteins including 204 experimentally characterized enzymes with 28 different functions. There was a 91% correlation between group and enzyme activity. These results indicate that the function of carbohydrate-active enzymes can be predicted with high precision by finding short, conserved motifs in their sequences. The glycoside hydrolase 61 family is important for fungal biomass conversion, but only a few proteins of this family have been functionally characterized. Interestingly, PPR divided 743 glycoside hydrolase 61 proteins into 16 subfamilies useful for targeted investigation of the function of these proteins and pinpointed three conserved motifs with putative importance for enzyme activity. Furthermore, the conserved sequences were useful for cloning of new, subfamily-specific glycoside hydrolase 61 proteins from 14 fungi. In conclusion, identification of conserved sequence motifs is a new approach to sequence analysis that can predict carbohydrate-active enzyme functions with high precision. PMID:23524681

  7. Antioxidant activity of cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysates: Fractionation and characterisation of peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Sabeena Farvin, K H; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Otte, Jeanette; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Jessen, Flemming; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to characterise peptide fractions (>5kDa, 3-5kDa and <3kDa) with antioxidative activity obtained from a cod protein hydrolysate. The free amino acids in all fractions were dominated by Ala, Gly, Glu and Ser. The total amino acid composition had high proportions of Lys, Ala and Glu. The 3-5kDa and <3kDa fractions were further fractionated by size exclusion chromatography. All sub-fractions showed high Fe(2+) chelating activity. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the 3-5kDa fraction was exerted mainly by one sub-fraction dominated by peptides with masses below 600Da. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the <3kDa fraction was exerted by sub-fractions with low molecular weight. The highest reducing power was found in a sub-fraction containing peptides rich in Arg, Tyr and Phe. Both free amino acids and low molecular weight peptides thus seemed to contribute to the antioxidative activity of the peptide fractions, and Tyr seemed to play a major role in the antioxidant activity. PMID:26988519

  8. Antibacterial and leishmanicidal activities of temporin-SHd, a 17-residue long membrane-damaging peptide.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, Feten; Raja, Zahid; Oury, Bruno; Gazanion, Elodie; Piesse, Christophe; Sereno, Denis; Nicolas, Pierre; Foulon, Thierry; Ladram, Ali

    2013-02-01

    Temporins are a family of short antimicrobial peptides (8-17 residues) that mostly show potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Herein, we demonstrate that temporin-SHd, a 17-residue peptide with a net charge of +2 (FLPAALAGIGGILGKLF(amide)), expressed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. This peptide displayed potent antibacterial activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, as well as antiparasitic activity against promastigote and the intracellular stage (amastigote) of Leishmania infantum, at concentration not toxic for the macrophages. Temporin-SHd that is structured in a non-amphipathic α-helix in anionic membrane-mimetic environments, strongly and selectively perturbs anionic bilayer membranes by interacting with the polar head groups and acyl region of the phospholipids, with formation of regions of two coexisting phases: one phase rich in peptide and the other lipid-rich. The disruption of lipid packing within the bilayer may lead to the formation of transient pores and membrane permeation/disruption once a threshold peptide accumulation is reached. To our knowledge, Temporin-SHd represents the first known 17-residue long temporin expressing such broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity including members of the trypanosomatidae family. Additionally, since only a few shorter members (13 residues) of the temporin family are known to display antileishmanial activity (temporins-TA, -TB and -SHa), SHd is an interesting tool to analyze the antiparasitic mechanism of action of temporins. PMID:23116712

  9. Antibodies to synthetic peptides as probes for the binding site on the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Gershoni, J M; Fridkin, M; Fuchs, S

    1985-01-01

    Synthetic peptides and their respective antibodies were used in an attempt to localize and identify the ligand-binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Two peptides of the receptor alpha subunit were synthesized, the first corresponding to the NH2-terminal domain (positions 1-20) and the other, to a segment (residues 126-143) that contains the first two cysteine residues. Specific antipeptide antibodies were elicited in rabbits after immunization with the peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin. The antipeptide antibodies thus obtained cross-reacted with the receptor and bound specifically to its alpha subunit. The antipeptide antibodies were used to test whether the peptide sequences corresponded to the alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX)-binding site. Staphylococcus aureus V8-protease digestion of the isolated receptor alpha subunit generated several fragments. Antipeptide (1-20) and antipeptide (126-143) both bound a 26-kDa fragment, whereas only antipeptide (126-143) bound a 17-kDa fragment. None of these fragments were found to bind alpha-BTX. On the other hand, alpha-BTX bound to an 18-kDa fragment that did not react with either of the antipeptide antibodies. Moreover, the 26-kDa and 17-kDa fragments were also found to contain the endoglycosidase H-susceptible oligosaccharide chain. Our results indicate that the toxin-binding site lies beyond the first possible V8 protease cleavage site after residues 126-143: i.e., Asp-152. This location is in agreement with the possibility that cysteine residues 192 and/or 193 are in close proximity to or contiguous with the ligand-binding site. Images PMID:2582416

  10. Soluble peptide-MHC monomers cause activation of CD8+ T cells through transfer of the peptide to T cell MHC molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qing; Stone, Jennifer D.; Thompson, M. Todd; Cochran, Jennifer R.; Rushe, Mia; Eisen, Herman N.; Chen, Jianzhu; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2002-10-01

    T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of CD4+ T cells is known to require multivalent engagement of the TCR by, for example, oligomeric peptide-MHC complexes. In contrast, for CD8+ T cells, there is evidence for TCR-mediated activation by univalent engagement of the TCR. We have here compared oligomeric and monomeric Ld and Kb peptide-MHC complexes and free peptide as stimulators of CD8+ T cells expressing the 2C TCR. We found that the monomers are indeed effective in activating naïve and effector CD8+ T cells, but through an unexpected mechanism that involves transfer of peptide from soluble monomers to T cell endogenous MHC (Kb) molecules. The result is that T cells, acting as antigen-presenting cells, are able to activate other naïve T cells.

  11. The peptide LSARLAF causes platelet secretion and aggregation by directly activating the integrin alphaIIbbeta3.

    PubMed Central

    Derrick, J M; Taylor, D B; Loudon, R G; Gartner, T K

    1997-01-01

    A novel peptide (designed to bind to alphaIIbbeta3) caused platelet aggregation and aggregation-independent secretion of the contents of alpha-granules in an alphaIIbbeta3-dependent fashion. The agonist peptide induced secretion in the presence of prostaglandin E1. In cell-free assays, alphaIIbbeta3 bound specifically to immobilized agonist peptide and the peptide enhanced the binding of fibrinogen to immobilized alphaIIbbeta3. The agonist peptide apparently activates alphaIIbbeta3 by directly inducing a conformational change in the receptor. This change activates the platelets and causes secretion in a manner independent of fibrinogen binding. PMID:9230107

  12. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  13. Solution structure and antiparasitic activity of scorpine-like peptides from Hoffmannihadrurus gertschi.

    PubMed

    Flores-Solis, David; Toledano, Yanis; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; Ramírez-Cordero, Belen Ernestina; Landa, Abraham; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; Del Rio-Portilla, Federico

    2016-07-01

    Scorpine-like peptides are two domain peptides found in different scorpion venoms displaying various antimicrobial, cytolytic, and potassium channel-blocking activities. The relative contribution of each domain to their different activities remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the recombinant production, solution structure, and antiparasitic activity of Hge36, first identified as a naturally occurring truncated form of a Scorpine-like peptide from the venom of Hoffmannihadrurus gertschi. We also show that removing the first four residues from Hge36 renders a molecule with enhanced potassium channel-blocking and antiparasitic activities. Our results are important to rationalize the structure-function relationships of a pharmacologically versatile molecular scaffold. PMID:27314815

  14. Analysis of the antimicrobial activities of a chemokine-derived peptide (CDAP-4) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Becerra, Francisco; Dominguez-Ramirez, Lenin; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Lopez-Vidal, Yolanda; Soldevila, Gloria . E-mail: garciaze@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-04-06

    Chemokines are key molecules involved in the control of leukocyte trafficking. Recently, a novel function as antimicrobial proteins has been described. CCL13 is the only member of the MCP chemokine subfamily displaying antimicrobial activity. To determine Key residues involved in its antimicrobial activity, CCL13 derived peptides were synthesized and tested against several bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One of these peptides, corresponding to the C-terminal region of CCL13 (CDAP-4) displayed good antimicrobial activity. Electron microscopy studies revealed remarkable morphological changes after CDAP-4 treatment. By computer modeling, CDAP-4 in {alpha} helical configuration generated a positive electrostatic potential that extended beyond the surface of the molecule. This feature is similar to other antimicrobial peptides. Altogether, these findings indicate that the antimicrobial activity was displayed by CCL13 resides to some extent at the C-terminal region. Furthermore, CDAP-4 could be considered a good antimicrobial candidate with a potential use against pathogens including P. aeruginosa.

  15. Evidence for a prevalent dimorphism in the activation peptide of human coagulation factor IX.

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, R A; Davis, L M; Noyes, C M; Lundblad, R L; Roberts, H R; Graham, J B; Stafford, D W

    1985-01-01

    We have independently isolated and characterized cDNA and genomic clones for the human coagulation factor IX. Sequence analysis in both cases indicates that threonine is encoded by the triplet ACT as the third residue of the activation peptide. This is in agreement with some earlier reports but in disagreement with others that show the alanine triplet GCT at this position. The discrepancy can thus be accounted for by natural variation of a single nucleotide in the normal population. Amino acid sequence analyses of activated factor IX from plasma samples of four individuals yielded two cases of alanine and two cases of threonine at the third position of the activation peptide. In factor IX from pooled plasma and in factor IX from a heterozygous individual, however, both alanine and threonine were found. Taken together, the findings show that a prevalent nondeleterious dimorphism exists in the activation peptide of human coagulation factor IX. PMID:3857619

  16. Electrochemical assay of active prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using ferrocene-functionalized peptide probes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Ning; He, Yuqing; Mao, Xun; Sun, Yuhan; Zhang, Xibao; Li, Chen-Zhong; Lin, Yuehe; Liu, Guodong

    2010-03-24

    This paper presents a novel approach to electrochemically determine enzymatically active PSA using ferrocene-functionalized helix peptide (CHSSLKQK). The principle of electrochemical measurement is based on the specific proteolytic cleavage events of the FC-peptide on the gold electrode surface in the presence of PSA, resulting the change of the current signal of the electrode. The percentage of the decreased current is linear with the concentration of active PSA at the range of 0.5-40 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.2 ng/mL. The direct transduction of peptide cleavage events into an electrical signal provides a simple, sensitive method for detecting the enzymatic activity of PSA and determining the active PSA concentration.

  17. The Peptide Microarray-Based Resonance Light Scattering Assay for Sensitively Detecting Intracellular Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Liu, Xia; Liu, Dianjun; Wang, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    The peptide microarray technology is a robust, reliable, and efficient technique for large-scale determination of enzyme activities, and high-throughput profiling of substrate/inhibitor specificities of enzymes. Here, the activities of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) in different cell lysates have been detected by a peptide microarray-based resonance light scattering (RLS) assay with gold nanoparticle (GNP) probes. Highly sensitive detection of PKA activity in 0.1 μg total cell proteins of SHG-44 (human glioma cell) cell lysate (corresponding to 200 cells) is achieved by a selected peptide substrate. The experimental results also demonstrate that the RLS assay can be employed to evaluate the chemical regulation of intracellular kinase activity. PMID:26490469

  18. Peptide microarrays for the profiling of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity using minimum numbers of cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Antje; Bagû, Ana-Cristina; André, Thomas; Roth, Günter; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Gückel, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    The identification of epitopes that elicit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity is a prerequisite for the development of cancer-specific immunotherapies. However, especially the parallel characterization of several epitopes is limited by the availability of T cells. Microarrays have enabled an unprecedented miniaturization and parallelization in biological assays. Here, we developed peptide microarrays for the detection of CTL activity. MHC class I-binding peptide epitopes were pipetted onto polymer-coated glass slides. Target cells, loaded with the cell-impermeant dye calcein, were incubated on these arrays, followed by incubation with antigen-expanded CTLs. Cytotoxic activity was detected by release of calcein and detachment of target cells. With only 200,000 cells per microarray, CTLs could be detected at a frequency of 0.5% corresponding to 1,000 antigen-specific T cells. Target cells and CTLs only settled on peptide spots enabling a clear separation of individual epitopes. Even though no physical boundaries were present between the individual spots, peptide loading only occurred locally and cytolytic activity was confined to the spots carrying the specific epitope. The peptide microarrays provide a robust platform that implements the whole process from antigen presentation to the detection of CTL activity in a miniaturized format. The method surpasses all established methods in the minimum numbers of cells required. With antigen uptake occurring on the microarray, further applications are foreseen in the testing of antigen precursors that require uptake and processing prior to presentation. PMID:20512327

  19. Site-specific DNA cleavage by artificial zinc finger-type nuclease with cerium-binding peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsukasa, Takako; Shiraishi, Yasuhisa; Negi, Shigeru; Imanishi, Miki; Futaki, Shiroh; Sugiura, Yukio . E-mail: sugiura@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-04-29

    The addition of a new function to native proteins is one of the most attractive protein-based designs. In this study, we have converted a C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-type zinc finger as a DNA-binding motif into a novel zinc finger-type nuclease by connecting two distinct zinc finger proteins (Sp1 and GLI) with a functional linker possessing DNA cleavage activity. As a DNA cleavage domain, we chose an analogue of the metal-binding loop (12 amino acid residues), peptide P1, which has been reported to exhibit a strong binding affinity for a lanthanide ion and DNA cleavage ability in the presence of Ce(IV). Our newly designed nucleases, Sp1(P1)GLI and Sp1(P1G)GLI, can strongly bind to a lanthanide ion and show a unique DNA cleavage pattern, in which certain positions between the two DNA-binding sites are specifically cleaved. The present result provides useful information for expanding the design strategy for artificial nucleases.

  20. Anticancer Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptide Scolopendrasin VII Derived from the Centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Ha; Kim, In-Woo; Kim, Sang-Hee; Kim, Mi-Ae; Yun, Eun-Young; Nam, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Mi-Young; Kang, Dongchul; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2015-08-01

    Previously, we performed de novo RNA sequencing of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans using high-throughput sequencing technology and identified several antimicrobial peptide candidates. Among them, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, scolopendrasin VII, was selected based on its physicochemical properties, such as length, charge, and isoelectric point. Here, we assessed the anticancer activities of scolopendrasin VII against U937 and Jurkat leukemia cell lines. The results showed that scolopendrasin VII decreased the viability of the leukemia cells in MTS assays. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining revealed that scolopendrasin VII induced necrosis in the leukemia cells. Scolopendrasin VII-induced necrosis was mediated by specific interaction with phosphatidylserine, which is enriched in the membrane of cancer cells. Taken together, these data indicated that scolopendrasin VII induced necrotic cell death in leukemia cells, probably through interaction with phosphatidylserine. The results provide a useful anticancer peptide candidate and an efficient strategy for new anticancer peptide development. PMID:25907065

  1. Site-specific effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kallingal, George J.; Mintz, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are dependent on the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the SCN. In this study, the interaction between GRP, glutamate and serotonin in the regulation of circadian phase in Syrian hamsters was evaluated. Microinjection of GRP into the third ventricle induced c-fos and p-ERK expression throughout the SCN. Coadministration of an NMDA antagonist or 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino-tetralin [a serotonin (5-HT)1A,7 agonist, DPAT] with GRP limited c-fos expression in the SCN to a region dorsal to GRP cell bodies. Similar to the effects of NMDA antagonists, DPAT attenuated GRP-induced phase shifts in the early night, suggesting that the actions of serotonin on the photic phase shifting mechanism occur downstream from retinorecipient cells. c-fos and p-ERK immunoreactivity in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei also increased following ventricular microinjection of GRP. Because of this finding, a second set of experiments was designed to test a potential role for the SON in the regulation of clock function. Syrian hamsters were given microinjections of GRP into the peri-SON during the early night. GRP-induced c-fos activity in the SCN was similar to that following ventricular administration of GRP. GRP or bicuculline (a γ-aminobutyric acidA antagonist) administered near the SON during the early night elicited phase delays of circadian activity rhythms. These data suggest that GRP-induced phase-resetting is dependent on levels of glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the SCN and implicate activity in the SON as a potential regulator of photic signaling in the SCN. PMID:24528136

  2. Novel chimeric peptide with enhanced cell specificity and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Nam-Hong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Jang, Jin-Sun; Park, Yung-Hoon; Park, Seong-Cheol; Jang, Mi-Kyeong

    2015-07-31

    An antimicrobial peptide (AMP), Hn-Mc, was designed by combining the N-terminus of HPA3NT3 and the C-terminus of melittin. This chimeric AMP exhibited potent antibacterial activity with low minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), ranging from 1 to 2 μM against four drug-susceptible bacteria and ten drug-resistant bacteria. Moreover, the hemolysis and cytotoxicity was reduced significantly compared to those of the parent peptides, highlighting its high cell selectivity. The morphological changes in the giant unilamellar vesicles and bacterial cell surfaces caused by the Hn-Mc peptide suggested that it killed the microbial cells by damaging the membrane envelope. An in vivo study also demonstrated the antibacterial activity of the Hn-Mc peptide in a mouse model infected with drug-resistant bacteria. In addition, the chimeric peptide inhibited the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells by preventing the interaction between LPS and Toll-like receptors. These results suggest that this chimeric peptide is an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory candidate as a pharmaceutic agent. PMID:26028561

  3. Characterization and Biological Activities of Ocellatin Peptides from the Skin Secretion of the Frog Leptodactylus pustulatus.

    PubMed

    Marani, Mariela Mirta; Dourado, Flávio Santos; Quelemes, Patrick Veras; de Araujo, Alyne Rodrigues; Perfeito, Márcia Luana Gomes; Barbosa, Eder Alves; Véras, Leiz Maria Costa; Coelho, Andreia Luísa Rodrigues; Andrade, Etielle Barroso; Eaton, Peter; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Leite, José Roberto S A

    2015-07-24

    Eight new peptides were isolated from the skin secretion of the frog Leptodactylus pustulatus and their amino acid sequences determined by de novo sequencing and by cDNA cloning. Structural similarities between them and other antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretion of Leptodactylus genus frogs were found. Ocellatins-PT1 to -PT5 (25 amino acid residues) are amidated at the C-terminus, while ocellatins-PT6 to -PT8 (32 amino acid residues) have free carboxylates. Antimicrobial activity, hemolytic tests, and cytotoxicity against a murine fibroblast cell line were investigated. All peptides, except for ocellatin-PT2, have antimicrobial activity against at least one Gram-negative strain. Ocellatin-PT8 inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis strains with MICs in the 60-240 μM range. No significant effect was observed in human erythrocytes and in a murine fibroblast cell line after exposure to the peptides at MICs. A comparison between sequences obtained by both direct HPLC-MS de novo sequencing and cDNA cloning demonstrates the secretion of mature peptides derived from a pre-pro-peptide structure. PMID:26107622

  4. Identification of the active-site lysine residues of two biosynthetic 3-dehydroquinases.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, S; Duncan, K; Graham, L D; Coggins, J R

    1991-01-01

    The lysine residues involved in Schiff-base formation at the active sites of both the 3-dehydroquinase component of the pentafunctional arom enzyme of Neurospora crassa and of the monofunctional 3-dehydroquinase of Escherichia coli were labelled by treatment with 3-dehydroquinate in the presence of NaB3H4. Radioactive peptides were isolated by h.p.l.c. following digestion with CNBr (and in one case after further digestion with trypsin). The sequence established for the N. crassa peptide was ALQHGDVVKLVVGAR, and that for the E. coli peptide was QSFDADIPKIA. An amended nucleotide sequence for the E. coli gene (aroD) that encode 3-dehydroquinase is also presented, along with a revised alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences for the biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:1826831

  5. Peptide modulators of alpha-glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Roskar, Irena; Molek, Peter; Vodnik, Miha; Stempelj, Mateja; Strukelj, Borut; Lunder, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Acute glucose fluctuations during the postprandial period pose great risk for cardiovascular complications and thus represent an important therapeutic approach in type 2 diabetes. In the present study, screening of peptide libraries was used to select peptides with an affinity towards mammalian intestinal alpha-glucosidase as potential leads in antidiabetic agent development. Materials and Methods Three phage-displayed peptide libraries were used in independent selections with different elution strategies to isolate target-binding peptides. Selected peptides displayed on phage were tested to compete for an enzyme-binding site with known competitive inhibitors, acarbose and voglibose. The four best performing peptides were synthesized. Their binding to the mammalian alpha-glucosidase and their effect on enzyme activity were evaluated. Results Two linear and two cyclic heptapeptides with high affinity towards intestinal alpha-glucosidase were selected. Phage-displayed as well as synthetic peptides bind into or to the vicinity of the active site on the enzyme. Both cyclic peptides inhibited enzyme activity, whereas both linear peptides increased enzyme activity. Conclusions Although natural substrates of glycosidase are polysaccharides, in the present study we successfully isolated novel peptide modulators of alpha-glucosidase. Modulatory activity of selected peptides could be further optimized through peptidomimetic design. They represent promising leads for development of efficient alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. PMID:26543535

  6. The influence of isoleucine and arginine on biological activity and peptide-membrane interactions of antimicrobial peptides from the bactericidal domain of AvBD4.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wan-Ning; Jiao, Wen-Jing; Ma, Zhi; Dong, Na; Ma, Qing-Quan; Shao, Chang-Xuan; Shan, An-Shan

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the influence of isoleucine and arginine on the biological activity and peptide-membrane interactions of linear avian β-defensin-4 (RL38) analogs was investigated. Results of biological activities showed that the antimicrobial activities of AvBD-4 analogs were closely related to hydrophobicity and amphipathicity. The peptide GLI19 with high hydrophobicity value and amphipathicity displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive, whereas GLR19 with increasing multiple charges only exhibited activity against gram-negative. The interaction between peptides and the liposome membrane demonstrated that the peptides preferentially bound to negatively charged phospholipids over zwitterionic phospholipids, which supported the antimicrobial activity data. The outer membranes assay further demonstrated that GLI19 had a greater capacity than the other tested peptides to penetrate the cell membrane at a low concentration. Collectively, the peptides derived from the bactericidal domain of linear β- defensins by truncation and hydrophobic amino acid substitution may be effective high-potential antibacterial agents. PMID:23746111

  7. Oxidation Protection in Metal-Binding Peptide Motif and Its Application to Antibody for Site-Selective Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hye-Shin; Lee, Sunbae; Park, Soon Jae

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that a metal ion binding motif could serve as an efficient and robust tool for site-specific conjugation strategy. Cysteine-containing metal binding motifs were constructed as single repeat or tandem repeat peptides and their metal binding characteristics were investigated. The tandem repeats of the Cysteine-Glycine-Histidine (CGH) metal ion binding motif exhibited concerted binding to Co(II) ions, suggesting that conformational transition of peptide was triggered by the sequential metal ion binding. Evaluation of the free thiol content after reduction by reducing reagent showed that metal-ion binding elicited strong retardation of cysteine oxidation in the order of Zn(II)>Ni(II)>Co(II). The CGH metal ion binding motif was then introduced to the C-terminus of antibody heavy chain and the metal ion-dependent characteristics of oxidation kinetics were investigated. As in the case of peptides, CGH-motif-introduced antibody exhibited strong dependence on metal ion binding to protect against oxidation. Zn(II)-saturated antibody with tandem repeat of CGH motif retains the cysteine reactivity as long as 22 hour even with saturating O2 condition. Metal-ion dependent fluorophore labeling clearly indicated that metal binding motifs could be employed as an efficient tool for site-specific conjugation. Whereas Trastuzumab without a metal ion binding site exhibited site-nonspecific dye conjugation, Zn(II) ion binding to antibody with a tandem repeat of CGH motif showed that fluorophores were site-specifically conjugated to the heavy chain of antibody. We believe that this strong metal ion dependence on oxidation protection and the resulting site-selective conjugation could be exploited further to develop a highly site-specific conjugation strategy for proteins that contain multiple intrinsic cysteine residues, including monoclonal antibodies. PMID:27420328

  8. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: II. Activity against periopathogenic biofilms and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Hua, J; Scott, R W; Diamond, G

    2010-12-01

    Whereas periodontal disease is ultimately of bacterial etiology, from multispecies biofilms of gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms, much of the deleterious effects are caused by the resultant epithelial inflammatory response. Hence, development of a treatment that combines anti-biofilm antibiotic activity with anti-inflammatory activity would be of great utility. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as defensins are naturally occurring peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum activity as well as a variety of immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, bacteria do not readily develop resistance to these agents. However, clinical studies have suggested that they do not represent optimal candidates for exogenous therapeutic agents. Small-molecule mimetics of these AMPs exhibit similar activities to the parent peptides, in addition to having low toxicity, high stability and low cost. To determine whether AMP mimetics have the potential for treatment of periodontal disease, we examined the activity of one mimetic, mPE, against biofilm cultures of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Metabolic assays as well as culture and biomass measurement assays demonstrated that mPE exhibits potent activity against biofilm cultures of both species. Furthermore, as little as 2 μg ml(-1) mPE was sufficient to inhibit interleukin-1β-induced secretion of interleukin-8 in both gingival epithelial cells and THP-1 cells. This anti-inflammatory activity is associated with a reduction in activation of nuclear factor-κB, suggesting that mPE can act both as an anti-biofilm agent in an anaerobic environment and as an anti-inflammatory agent in infected tissues. PMID:21040516

  9. Structure diversification of vancomycin through peptide-catalyzed, site-selective lipidation: A catalysis-based approach to combat glycopeptide-resistant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Yoganathan, Sabesan; Miller, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of antibiotic-resistant infections highlights the need for novel antibiotic leads, perhaps with a broader spectrum of activity. Herein, we disclose a semisynthetic, catalytic approach for structure diversification of vancomycin. We have identified three unique peptide catalysts that exhibit site-selectivity for the lipidation of the aliphatic hydroxyls on vancomycin, generating three new derivatives 9a, 9b and 9c. Incorporation of lipid chains into vancomycin scaffold provides promising improvement of its bioactivity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (Van A and Van B phenotypes of VRE). The MICs for 9a, 9b, and 9c against MRSA and VRE (Van B phenotype) range from 0.12 to 0.25 μg/mL. We have also performed a structure activity relationship (SAR) study to investigate the effect of lipid chain length at the newly accessible G4-OH derivatization site. PMID:25671771

  10. Anti-biofilm and sporicidal activity of peptides based on wheat puroindoline and barley hordoindoline proteins.

    PubMed

    Shagaghi, Nadin; Alfred, Rebecca L; Clayton, Andrew H A; Palombo, Enzo A; Bhave, Mrinal

    2016-07-01

    The broad-spectrum activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and low probability of development of host resistance make them excellent candidates as novel bio-control agents. A number of AMPs are found to be cationic, and a small proportion of these are tryptophan-rich. The puroindolines (PIN) are small, basic proteins found in wheat grains with proposed roles in biotic defence of seeds and seedlings. Synthetic peptides based on their unique tryptophan-rich domain (TRD) display antimicrobial properties. Bacterial endospores and biofilms are highly resistant cells, with significant implications in both medical and food industries. In this study, the cationic PIN TRD-based peptides PuroA (FPVTWRWWKWWKG-NH2 ) and Pina-M (FSVTWRWWKWWKG-NH2 ) and the related barley hordoindoline (HIN) based Hina (FPVTWRWWTWWKG-NH2 ) were tested for effects on planktonic cells and biofilms of the common human pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and the non-pathogenic Listeria innocua. All peptides showed significant bactericidal activity. Further, PuroA and Pina-M at 2 × MIC prevented initial biomass attachment by 85-90% and inhibited >90% of 6-h preformed biofilms of all three organisms. However Hina, with a substitution of Lys-9 with uncharged Thr, particularly inhibited Listeria biofilms. The PIN based peptides were also tested against vegetative cells and endospores of Bacillus subtilis. The results provided evidence that these tryptophan-rich peptides could kill B. subtilis even in sporulated state, reducing the number of viable spores by 4 log units. The treated spores appeared withered under scanning electron microscopy. The results establish the potential of these tryptophan-rich peptides in controlling persistent pathogens of relevance to food industries and human health. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27238815

  11. The anti-cancer activity of a cationic anti-microbial peptide derived from monomers of polyhydroxyalkanoate.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Stephen; Szwej, Emilia; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; O'Connor, Aisling; Byrne, Annette T; Devocelle, Marc; O'Donovan, Norma; Gallagher, William M; Babu, Ramesh; Kenny, Shane T; Zinn, Manfred; Zulian, Qun Ren; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2013-04-01

    The biodegradable polymer medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mclPHA), produced by Pseudomonas putida CA-3, was depolymerised and the predominant monomer (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid (R10) purified. R10 was conjugated to a d-peptide DP18 and its derivatives. All peptides conjugated with R10 exhibited greater anti-cancer activity compared to the unconjugated peptides. Unconjugated and conjugated peptides were cytocidal for cancer cells. Conjugation of R10 to peptides was essential for enhanced anti-proliferation activity, as unconjugated mixes did not result in enhancement of anti-cancer activity. The conjugation of R10 resulted in more rapid uptake of peptides into HeLa and MiaPaCa cells compared to unconjugated peptide. Both unconjugated and R10 conjugated peptides localized to the mitochondria of HeLa and MiaPaCa cells and induced apoptosis. Peptide conjugated with a terminally hydroxylated decanoic acid (ω-hydroxydecanoic acid) exhibited 3.3 and 6.3 fold higher IC(50) values compared to R10 conjugated peptide indicating a role for the position of the hydroxyl moiety in enhancement of anti-cancer activity. Conjugation of decanoic acid (C10) to peptides resulted in similar or higher IC(50) values compared to R10 conjugates but C10 conjugates did not exhibit any cancer selectivity. Combination studies showed that R10DP18L exhibited synergy with cisplatin, gemcitabine, and taxotere with IC(50) values in the nanomolar range. PMID:23343631

  12. Identification of peptides in human Hsp20 and Hsp27 that possess molecular chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities

    PubMed Central

    Nahomi, Rooban B.; DiMauro, Michael A.; Wang, Benlian; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified peptides in the ‘crystallin-domain’ of the small heat-shock protein (sHSP) α-crystallin with chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. We found that peptides in heat-shock protein Hsp20 (G71HFSVLLDVKHFSPEEIAVK91) and Hsp27 (D93RWRVSLDVNHFAPDELTVK113) with sequence homology to α-crystallin also have robust chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. Both peptides inhibited hyperthermic and chemically induced aggregation of client proteins. The scrambled peptides of Hsp20 and Hsp27 showed no such effects. The chaperone activities of the peptides were better than those from αA- and αB-crystallin. HeLa cells took up the FITC-conjugated Hsp20 peptide and, when the cells were thermally stressed, the peptide was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The two peptides inhibited apoptosis in HeLa cells by blocking cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and caspase-3 activation. We found that scrambling the last four amino acids in the two peptides (KAIV in Hsp20 and KTLV in Hsp27) made them unable to enter cells and ineffective against stress-induced apoptosis. Intraperitoneal injection of the peptides prevented sodium-selenite-induced cataract formation in rats by inhibiting protein aggregation and oxidative stress. Our study has identified peptides from Hsp20 and Hsp27 that may have therapeutic benefit in diseases where protein aggregation and apoptosis are contributing factors. PMID:25332102

  13. Corrosion Research And Web Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers corrosion-related activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 2000. The NASA Kennedy Space Center's corrosion web site, corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov, was updated with new information based on feedback over the past two years. The methodology for a two-year atmospheric exposure testing program to study the effectiveness of commercial chemicals sold for rinsing aircraft and other equipment was developed and some preliminary laboratory chemical analyses are presented.

  14. Corrosion Research and Web Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    This report covers corrosion-related activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 2000. The NASA Kennedy Space Center's corrosion web site, corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov, was updated with new information based on feedback over the past two years. The methodology for a two-year atmospheric exposure testing program to study the effectiveness of commercial chemicals sold for rinsing aircraft and other equipment was developed and some preliminary laboratory chemical analyses are presented.

  15. Modulation of the Activity of Secretory Phospholipase A2 by Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongxia; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2003-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptides magainin 2, indolicidin, and temporins B and L were found to modulate the hydrolytic activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from bee venom and in human lacrimal fluid. More specifically, hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes by bee venom sPLA2 at 10 μM Ca2+ was attenuated by these peptides while augmented product formation was observed in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+. The activity of sPLA2 towards anionic liposomes was significantly enhanced by the antimicrobial peptides at low [Ca2+] and was further enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+. Similarly, with 5 mM Ca2+ the hydrolysis of anionic liposomes was enhanced significantly by human lacrimal fluid sPLA2, while that of PC liposomes was attenuated. These results indicate that concerted action of antimicrobial peptides and sPLA2 could improve the efficiency of the innate response to infections. Interestingly, inclusion of a cationic gemini surfactant in the vesicles showed an essentially similar pattern on sPLA2 activity, suggesting that the modulation of the enzyme activity by the antimicrobial peptides may involve also charge properties of the substrate surface. PMID:12604528

  16. Characterization of ovolin, an orally active tryptic peptide released from ovalbumin with anxiolytic-like activity.

    PubMed

    Oda, Ayako; Kaneko, Kentaro; Mizushige, Takafumi; Lazarus, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2012-07-01

    We found that tryptic digest of ovalbumin after oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration exhibited anxiolytic-like activity in mice, and then searched for orally active low-molecular-weight peptides with anxiolytic-like activity in the tryptic digest. Val-Tyr-Leu-Pro-Arg, named ovolin, corresponding to ovalbumin (280-284), mimicked the anxiolytic-like activity after p.o. and i.p. administration. The anxiolytic-like activity of ovolin was inhibited by indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, or BWA868C, an antagonist of the DP1 receptor for prostaglandin (PG) D2 . Ovolin-induced anxiolytic-like activity was also blocked by SCH58261 or bicuculline, antagonists of the adenosine A2A and GABAA receptors, respectively. Ovolin has no affinity for the DP1 , A2A and GABAA receptors. Taken together, ovolin may exhibit anxiolytic-like activity in a manner dependent on the PGD2 -DP1 system coupled to the A2A and GABAA receptors. PMID:22564055

  17. Tuning Liposome Membrane Permeability by Competitive Peptide Dimerization and Partitioning-Folding Interactions Regulated by Proteolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seng Koon; Sandén, Camilla; Selegård, Robert; Liedberg, Bo; Aili, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Membrane active peptides are of large interest for development of drug delivery vehicles and therapeutics for treatment of multiple drug resistant infections. Lack of specificity can be detrimental and finding routes to tune specificity and activity of membrane active peptides is vital for improving their therapeutic efficacy and minimize harmful side effects. We describe a de novo designed membrane active peptide that partition into lipid membranes only when specifically and covalently anchored to the membrane, resulting in pore-formation. Dimerization with a complementary peptide efficiently inhibits formation of pores. The effect can be regulated by proteolytic digestion of the inhibitory peptide by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7, an enzyme upregulated in many malignant tumors. This system thus provides a precise and specific route for tuning the permeability of lipid membranes and a novel strategy for development of recognition based membrane active peptides and indirect enzymatically controlled release of liposomal cargo. PMID:26892926

  18. Tuning Liposome Membrane Permeability by Competitive Peptide Dimerization and Partitioning-Folding Interactions Regulated by Proteolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seng Koon; Sandén, Camilla; Selegård, Robert; Liedberg, Bo; Aili, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Membrane active peptides are of large interest for development of drug delivery vehicles and therapeutics for treatment of multiple drug resistant infections. Lack of specificity can be detrimental and finding routes to tune specificity and activity of membrane active peptides is vital for improving their therapeutic efficacy and minimize harmful side effects. We describe a de novo designed membrane active peptide that partition into lipid membranes only when specifically and covalently anchored to the membrane, resulting in pore-formation. Dimerization with a complementary peptide efficiently inhibits formation of pores. The effect can be regulated by proteolytic digestion of the inhibitory peptide by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7, an enzyme upregulated in many malignant tumors. This system thus provides a precise and specific route for tuning the permeability of lipid membranes and a novel strategy for development of recognition based membrane active peptides and indirect enzymatically controlled release of liposomal cargo. PMID:26892926

  19. Tuning Liposome Membrane Permeability by Competitive Peptide Dimerization and Partitioning-Folding Interactions Regulated by Proteolytic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Seng Koon; Sandén, Camilla; Selegård, Robert; Liedberg, Bo; Aili, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Membrane active peptides are of large interest for development of drug delivery vehicles and therapeutics for treatment of multiple drug resistant infections. Lack of specificity can be detrimental and finding routes to tune specificity and activity of membrane active peptides is vital for improving their therapeutic efficacy and minimize harmful side effects. We describe a de novo designed membrane active peptide that partition into lipid membranes only when specifically and covalently anchored to the membrane, resulting in pore-formation. Dimerization with a complementary peptide efficiently inhibits formation of pores. The effect can be regulated by proteolytic digestion of the inhibitory peptide by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7, an enzyme upregulated in many malignant tumors. This system thus provides a precise and specific route for tuning the permeability of lipid membranes and a novel strategy for development of recognition based membrane active peptides and indirect enzymatically controlled release of liposomal cargo.

  20. Molecular Design, Structural Analysis and Antifungal Activity of Derivatives of Peptide CGA-N46.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Fang; Lu, Zhi-Fang; Sun, Ya-Nan; Chen, Shi-Hua; Yi, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Ru; Yang, Shuo-Ye; Yu, Guang-Hai; Huang, Liang; Li, Chao-Nan

    2016-09-01

    Chromogranin A (CGA)-N46, a derived peptide of human chromogranin A, has antifungal activity. To further research the active domain of CGA-N46, a series of derivatives were designed by successively deleting amino acid from both terminus of CGA-N46, and the amino acid sequence of each derivative was analyzed by bioinformatic software. Based on the predicted physicochemical properties of the peptides, including half-life time in mammalian reticulocytes (in vitro), yeast (in vivo) and E. coli (in vivo), instability index, aliphatic index and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY), the secondary structure, net charge, the distribution of hydrophobic residues and hydrophilic residues, the final derivatives CGA-N15, CGA-N16, CGA-N12 and CGA-N8 were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The results of bioinformatic analysis showed that CGA-N46 and its derivatives were α-helix, neutral or weak positive charge, hydrophilic, and CGA-N12 and CGA-N8 were more stable than the other derivatives. The results of circular dichroism confirmed that CGA-N46 and its derived peptides displayed α-helical structure in an aqueous solution and 30 mM sodium dodecylsulfate, but α-helical contents decreased in hydrophobic lipid vesicles. CGA-N15, CGA-N16, CGA-N12 and CGA-N8 had higher antifungal activities than their mother peptide CGA-N46. Among of the derived peptides, CGA-N12 showed the least hemolytic activity. In conclusion, we have successfully identified the active domain of CGA-N46 with strong antifungal activity and weak hemolytic activity, which provides the possibility to develop a new class of antibiotics. PMID:27165480

  1. Physical Activity, Blood Glucose and C-Peptide in Healthy School-Children, a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Aim To further elucidate the relationship between physical activity and several risk factors for development of diabetes (glucose, C-peptide and obesity) over time. Methods A prospective longitudinal study where physical activity was measured on 199 children from Kalmar and Linköping at age 8, and the same 107 children from Linköping again at age 12. Anthropometric data was collected and blood was analyzed for C-peptide and f-glucose. The children in the study were representative for the general Swedish child population, and on an average lean. Results High physical activity was related to lower C-peptide at age 8 and 12. This correlation was especially pronounced in boys, who also were more physically active than girls at both time points. The association seen at 8 years of age was similar at age 12 in most children. Children with higher BMI Z-Score had a higher fasting C-peptide (age 12) but linear regression showed that children with more steps per day were less likely to have a higher fasting C-peptide irrespective of BMI. Longitudinal follow-up showed that a decrease in physical activity increased insulin resistance and β-cell load. Conclusions Already in young children, physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and decreases the need of C-peptide over time. This seems to become even more pronounced with increasing age when children are followed longitudinally. Low physical activity increases the load on insulin producing β-cells, might increase the risk for both type 1- and 2 diabetes. PMID:27270732

  2. Modulation of Backbone Flexibility for Effective Dissociation of Antibacterial and Hemolytic Activity in Cyclic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Alberto; Thomsen, Thomas T; Britt, Hannah M; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Thulstrup, Peter W; Sanderson, John M; Hansen, Paul R

    2016-08-11

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapy is on the rise and threatens to evolve into a worldwide emergency: alternative solutions to current therapies are urgently needed. Cationic amphipathic peptides are potent membrane-active agents that hold promise as the next-generation therapy for multidrug-resistant infections. The peptides' behavior upon encountering the bacterial cell wall is crucial, and much effort has been dedicated to the investigation and optimization of this amphipathicity-driven interaction. In this study we examined the interaction of a novel series of nine-membered flexible cyclic AMPs with liposomes mimicking the characteristics of bacterial membranes. Employed techniques included circular dichroism and marker release assays, as well as microbiological experiments. Our analysis was aimed at correlating ring flexibility with their antimicrobial, hemolytic, and membrane activity. By doing so, we obtained useful insights to guide the optimization of cyclic antimicrobial peptides via modulation of their backbone flexibility without loss of activity. PMID:27563396

  3. Determination of angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity in cell culture using fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, R A; Bersanetti, P A; Farias, S L; Juliano, L; Juliano, M A; Casarini, D E; Carmona, A K; Paiva, A C M; Pesquero, J B

    2007-04-15

    An assay using fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides was developed to assess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity directly on the membrane of transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) stably expressing the full-length somatic form of the enzyme. The advantage of the new method is the possibility of using selective substrates for the two active sites of the enzyme, namely Abz-FRK(Dnp)P-OH for somatic ACE, Abz-SDK(Dnp)P-OH for the N domain, and Abz-LFK(Dnp)-OH for the C domain. Hydrolysis of a peptide bond between the donor/acceptor pair (Abz/Dnp) generates detectable fluorescence, allowing quantitative measurement of the enzymatic activity. The kinetic parameter K(m) for the hydrolysis of the three substrates by ACE in this system was also determined and the values are comparable to those obtained using the purified enzyme in solution. The specificity of the activity was demonstrated by the complete inhibition of the hydrolysis by the ACE inhibitor lisinopril. Therefore, the results presented in this work show for the first time that determination of ACE activity directly on the surface of intact CHO cells is feasible and that the method is reliable and sensitive. In conclusion, we describe a methodology that may represent a new tool for the assessment of ACE activity which will open the possibility to study protein interactions in cells in culture. PMID:17320031

  4. Membrane-active host defense peptides – Challenges and perspectives for the development of novel anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Sabrina; Zweytick, Dagmar; Lohner, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Although much progress has been achieved in the development of cancer therapies in recent decades, problems continue to arise particularly with respect to chemotherapy due to resistance to and low specificity of currently available drugs. Host defense peptides as effector molecules of innate immunity represent a novel strategy for the development of alternative anticancer drug molecules. These cationic amphipathic peptides are able to discriminate between neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells interacting specifically with negatively charged membrane components such as phosphatidylserine (PS), sialic acid or heparan sulfate, which differ between cancer and non-cancer cells. Furthermore, an increased number of microvilli has been found on cancer cells leading to an increase in cell surface area, which may in turn enhance their susceptibility to anticancer peptides. Thus, part of this review will be devoted to the differences in membrane composition of non-cancer and cancer cells with a focus on the exposure of PS on the outer membrane. Normally, surface exposed PS triggers apoptosis, which can however be circumvented by cancer cells by various means. Host defense peptides, which selectively target differences between cancer and non-cancer cell membranes, have excellent tumor tissue penetration and can thus reach the site of both primary tumor and distant metastasis. Since these molecules kill their target cells rapidly and mainly by perturbing the integrity of the plasma membrane, resistance is less likely to occur. Hence, a chapter will also describe studies related to the molecular mechanisms of membrane damage as well as alternative non-membrane related mechanisms. In vivo studies have demonstrated that host defense peptides display anticancer activity against a number of cancers such as e.g. leukemia, prostate, ascite and ovarian tumors, yet so far none of these peptides has made it on the market. Nevertheless, optimization of host defense peptides using various

  5. Regulation and therapeutic targeting of peptide-activated receptor guanylyl cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Lincoln R.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic GMP is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates a wide array of physiologic processes such as blood pressure, long bone growth, intestinal fluid secretion, phototransduction and lipolysis. Soluble and single-membrane-spanning enzymes called guanylyl cyclases (GC) synthesize cGMP. In humans, the latter group consists of GC-A, GC-B, GC-C, GC-E and GC-F, which are also known as NPR-A, NPR-B, StaR, Ret1-GC and Ret2-GC, respectively. Membrane GCs are activated by peptide ligands such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), guanylin, uroguanylin, heat stable enterotoxin and GC-activating proteins. Nesiritide and carperitide are clinically approved peptide-based drugs that activate GC-A. CD-NP is an experimental heart failure drug that primarily activates GC-B but also activates GC-A at high concentrations and is resistant to degradation. Inactivating mutations in GC-B cause acromesomelic dysplasia type Maroteaux dwarfism and chromosomal mutations that increase CNP concentrations are associated with Marfanoid-like skeletal overgrowth. Pump-based CNP infusions increase skeletal growth in a mouse model of the most common type of human dwarfism, which supports CNP/GC-B-based therapies for short stature diseases. Linaclotide is a peptide activator of GC-C that stimulates intestinal motility and is in late-stage clinical trials for the treatment of chronic constipation. This review discusses the discovery of cGMP, guanylyl cyclases, the general characteristics and therapeutic applications of GC-A, GC-B and GC-C, and emphasizes the regulation of transmembrane guanylyl cyclases by phosphorylation and ATP. PMID:21185863

  6. AMP-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Activation by Resveratrol Modulates Amyloid-β Peptide Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Vingtdeux, Valérie; Giliberto, Luca; Zhao, Haitian; Chandakkar, Pallavi; Wu, Qingli; Simon, James E.; Janle, Elsa M.; Lobo, Jessica; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition into cerebral amyloid plaques. The natural polyphenol resveratrol promotes anti-aging pathways via the activation of several metabolic sensors, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Resveratrol also lowers Aβ levels in cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism responsible for this effect is largely unknown. Moreover, the bioavailability of resveratrol in the brain remains uncertain. Here we show that AMPK signaling controls Aβ metabolism and mediates the anti-amyloidogenic effect of resveratrol in non-neuronal and neuronal cells, including in mouse primary neurons. Resveratrol increased cytosolic calcium levels and promoted AMPK activation by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β. Direct pharmacological and genetic activation of AMPK lowered extracellular Aβ accumulation, whereas AMPK inhibition reduced the effect of resveratrol on Aβ levels. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the AMPK target mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) to trigger autophagy and lysosomal degradation of Aβ. Finally, orally administered resveratrol in mice was detected in the brain where it activated AMPK and reduced cerebral Aβ levels and deposition in the cortex. These data suggest that resveratrol and pharmacological activation of AMPK have therapeutic potential against Alzheimer disease. PMID:20080969

  7. LL-37: Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide with pleiotropic activity.

    PubMed

    Fabisiak, Adam; Murawska, Natalia; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is a large family of compounds serving as natural antibiotics, widely distributed across the organism, mainly in mucus layers. They are designed to prevent pathogens from colonization. Among them, defensins and cathelicidins could be found. LL-37, the sole human cathelicidin draws particular attention because of its outstanding abilities. In addition to being a broad spectrum antibiotic, LL-37 has potent chemotactic and immunomodulatory properties. In this review, we discussed the potency of LL-37 as a therapeutic agent in four systems: immunological, respiratory, gastrointestinal and in the skin. We analyzed the main molecular pathways dependent on human cathelicidin and related them to specific diseases. We conclude that LL-37 shows a great potential to be further investigated and developed as a drug with clinical use. PMID:27117377

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE9 protein has high activity binding peptides which inhibit target cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Diana P; Ocampo, Marisol; Pabón, Laura; Herrera, Chonny; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Munoz, Marina; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2016-05-01

    PE/PPE proteins are involved in several processes during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection of target cells; studying them is extremely interesting as they are the only ones from the Mycobacterium genus, they abound in pathogenic species such as Mtb and their function remains yet unknown. The PE9 protein (Rv1088) was characterised, the rv1088 gene was identified by PCR in Mtb complex strains and its expression and localisation on mycobacterial surface was confirmed by Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy. Bioinformatics tools were used for predicting PE9 protein structural aspects and experimental study involved the circular dichroism of synthetic peptides. The peptides were tested in binding assays involving U937 and A549 cells; two high activity binding peptides (HABPs) were found for both cell lines (39226-(1)MSYMIATPAALTAAATDIDGI(21) and 39232-(125)YQRHFGTGGQPEFRQHSEHRR(144)), one for U937 (39231-(104)YAGAGRRQRRRRSGDGQWRLRQ(124)) and one for A549 (39230-(83)YGTGVFRRRRGRQTVTAAEHRA(103)). HABP 39232 inhibited mycobacterial entry to A549 cells (∼70%) and U937 cells (∼50%), peptides 39226 and 39231 inhibited entry to U937 cells (∼60% and 80%, respectively) and peptide 39230 inhibited entry to A549 cells (∼60%). This emphasised HABPs' functional importance in recognition between Mtb H37Rv and target cell receptors. These peptide sequences could be involved in invasion and were recognised by the host's immune system, thereby highlighting their use when designing an efficient anti-tuberculosis multiantigenic vaccine. PMID:26851205

  9. Scolopendin 2, a cationic antimicrobial peptide from centipede, and its membrane-active mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heejeong; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Lee, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Il; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-02-01

    Scolopendin 2 is a 16-mer peptide (AGLQFPVGRIGRLLRK) derived from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. We observed that this peptide exhibited antimicrobial activity in a salt-dependent manner against various fungal and bacterial pathogens and showed no hemolytic effect in the range of 1.6 μM to 100 μM. Circular dichroism analysis showed that the peptide has an α-helical properties. Furthermore, we determined the mechanism(s) of action using flow cytometry and by investigating the release of intracellular potassium. The results showed that the peptide permeabilized the membranes of Escherichia coli O157 and Candida albicans, resulting in loss of intracellular potassium ions. Additionally, bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol and 3,3'-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide assays showed that the peptide caused membrane depolarization. Using giant unilamellar vesicles encapsulating calcein and large unilamellar vesicles containing fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, which were similar in composition to typical E. coli O157 and C. albicans membranes, we demonstrated that scolopendin 2 disrupts membranes, resulting in a pore size between 4.8 nm and 5.0 nm. Thus, we have demonstrated that a cationic antimicrobial peptide, scolopendin 2, exerts its broad-spectrum antimicrobial effects by forming pores in the cell membrane. PMID:25462167

  10. Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Peptide-Modified Lysin Against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    The global emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a growing threat to public health worldwide. Natural bacteriophage lysins are promising alternatives in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, but not Gram-negative ones, like Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the barriers posed by their outer membranes. Recently, modifying a natural lysin with an antimicrobial peptide was found able to break the barriers, and to kill Gram-negative pathogens. Herein, a new peptide-modified lysin (PlyA) was constructed by fusing the cecropin A peptide residues 1–8 (KWKLFKKI) with the OBPgp279 lysin and its antibacterial activity was studied. PlyA showed good and broad antibacterial activities against logarithmic phase A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, but much reduced activities against the cells in stationary phase. Addition of outer membrane permeabilizers (EDTA and citric acid) could enhance the antibacterial activity of PlyA against stationary phase cells. Finally, no antibacterial activity of PlyA could be observed in some bio-matrices, such as culture media, milk, and sera. In conclusion, we reported here a novel peptide-modified lysin with significant antibacterial activity against both logarithmic (without OMPs) and stationary phase (with OMPs) A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa cells in buffer, but further optimization is needed to achieve broad activity in diverse bio-matrices. PMID:26733995

  11. Machine Learning Assisted Design of Highly Active Peptides for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Giguère, Sébastien; Laviolette, François; Marchand, Mario; Tremblay, Denise; Moineau, Sylvain; Liang, Xinxia; Biron, Éric; Corbeil, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of peptides possessing high biological activity is very challenging due to the enormous diversity for which only a minority have the desired properties. To lower cost and reduce the time to obtain promising peptides, machine learning approaches can greatly assist in the process and even partly replace expensive laboratory experiments by learning a predictor with existing data or with a smaller amount of data generation. Unfortunately, once the model is learned, selecting peptides having the greatest predicted bioactivity often requires a prohibitive amount of computational time. For this combinatorial problem, heuristics and stochastic optimization methods are not guaranteed to find adequate solutions. We focused on recent advances in kernel methods and machine learning to learn a predictive model with proven success. For this type of model, we propose an efficient algorithm based on graph theory, that is guaranteed to find the peptides for which the model predicts maximal bioactivity. We also present a second algorithm capable of sorting the peptides of maximal bioactivity. Extensive analyses demonstrate how these algorithms can be part of an iterative combinatorial chemistry procedure to speed up the discovery and the validation of peptide leads. Moreover, the proposed approach does not require the use of known ligands for the target protein since it can leverage recent multi-target machine learning predictors where ligands for similar targets can serve as initial training data. Finally, we validated the proposed approach in vitro with the discovery of new cationic antimicrobial peptides. Source code freely available at http://graal.ift.ulaval.ca/peptide-design/. PMID:25849257

  12. Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitory activity of peptides derived from tuna cooking juice hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Li; Jao, Chia-Ling; Ho, Kit-Pan; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2012-05-01

    The in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity of isolated peptides from of tuna cooking juice hydrolyzed by Protease XXIII (PR) and orientase (OR) was determined. The results showed that the peptide fractions with the molecular weight over 1,422 Da possessed the greatest DPP-IV inhibitory activity. The amino acid sequences of the three peptides isolated from PR and OR hydrolysates were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS, and they were Pro-Gly-Val-Gly-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Pro-Cys-Tyr-Glu (1412.7 Da), Cys-Ala-Tyr-Gln-Trp-Gln-Arg-Pro-Val-Asp-Arg-Ile-Arg (1690.8 Da) and Pro-Ala-Cys-Gly-Gly-Phe-Try-Ile-Ser-Gly-Arg-Pro-Gly (1304.6 Da), while they showed the dose-dependent inhibition effect of DPP-IV with IC(50) values of 116.1, 78.0 and 96.4 μM, respectively. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion retained or even improved the DPP-IV inhibitory activities of the three peptides. The results suggest that tuna cooking juice would be a good precursor of DPP-IV inhibitor, and the DPP-IV inhibitory peptides can successfully passed through the digestive tract. PMID:22450467

  13. Initial characterization of a dually radiolabeled peptide for simultaneous monitoring of protein targets and enzymatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Mebrahtu, Efrem; Zheleznyak, Alexander; Hur, Minjun A.; Laforest, Richard; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to develop dually radiolabeled peptides for simultaneous imaging of cancer cell localization by targeting the αvβ3 integrin and their pathophysiology by targeting the activity of the proteolytic enzyme MMP2, involved in the metastatic process. Methods A hybrid peptide c(RGDfE)K(DOTA)PLGVRY containing a RGD motif for binding to the αvβ3 integrin, a metal chelator (DOTA) for radiolabeling with [64Cu], and the MMP2 substrate cleavage sequence PLGVRY with terminal tyrosine for labeling with [123I] was synthesized, labeled with [64Cu] and [123I], and evaluated in vitro as a potential imaging agent. Results The peptide was synthesized and labeled with [64Cu] and [123I] with 300 and 40 μCi/μg (542 and 72.2 mCi/μmol) specific activities, respectively, and radiochemical purity of>98%.c(RGDfE)K(DOTA)PLGVRY demonstrated high affinity for αvβ3 integrins(Kd = 83.4 ± 13.2 nM) in both substrate competition and cell binding assays. c(RGDfE)K(DOTA)PLGVRY peptide, but not the scrambled version, c(RGDfE)K(DOTA)GRPLVY was specifically cleaved by MMP2. Conclusions These results demonstrate the feasibility of developing dually radiolabeled peptides for the simultaneous imaging of cancer cells and their pathophysiologic activity. PMID:23154178

  14. Nanoparticles of cationic chimeric peptide and sodium polyacrylate exhibit striking antinociception activity at lower dose.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kshitij; Singh, Vijay P; Kurupati, Raj K; Mann, Anita; Ganguli, Munia; Gupta, Yogendra K; Singh, Yogendra; Saleem, Kishwar; Pasha, Santosh; Maiti, Souvik

    2009-02-20

    The current study investigates the performance of polyelectrolyte complexes based nanoparticles in improving the antinociceptive activity of cationic chimeric peptide-YFa at lower dose. Size, Zeta potential and morphology of the nanoparticles were determined. Size of the nanoparticles decreases and zeta potential increases with concomitant increase in charge ratio (Z(+/-)). The nanoparticles at Z(+/-)12 are spherical with 70+/-7 nm diameter in AFM and displayed positive surface charge and similar sizes (83+/-8 nm) by Zetasizer. The nanoparticles of Z(+/-) 12 are used in this study. Cytotoxicity by MTT assay on three different mammalian cell lines (liver, neuronal and kidney) revealed lower toxicity of nanoparticles. Hematological parameters were also not affected by nanoparticles compared to normal counts of water treated control group. Nanoparticles containing 10 mg/kg YFa produced increased antinociception, approximately 36%, in tail-flick latency test in mice, whereas the neat peptide at the same concentration did not show any antinociception activity. This enhancement in activity is attributed to the nanoparticle associated protection of peptide from proteolytic degradation. In vitro peptide release study in plasma also supported the antinociception profile of nanoparticles. Thus, our results suggest of a potential nanoparticle delivery system for cationic peptide drug candidates for improving their stability and bioavailability. PMID:19014986

  15. Correlated structural kinetics and retarded solvent dynamics at the metalloprotease active site

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Moran; Born, Benjamin; Heyden, Matthias; Tworowski, Dmitry; Fields, Gregg B; Sagi, Irit; Havenith, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Solvent dynamics can play a major role in enzyme activity, but obtaining an accurate, quantitative picture of solvent activity during catalysis is quite challenging. Here, we combine terahertz spectroscopy and X-ray absorption analyses to measure changes in the coupled water-protein motions during peptide hydrolysis by a zinc-dependent human metalloprotease. These changes were tightly correlated with rearrangements at the active site during the formation of productive enzyme-substrate intermediates and were different from those in an enzyme–inhibitor complex. Molecular dynamics simulations showed a steep gradient of fast-to-slow coupled protein-water motions around the protein, active site and substrate. Our results show that water retardation occurs before formation of the functional Michaelis complex. We propose that the observed gradient of coupled protein-water motions may assist enzyme-substrate interactions through water-polarizing mechanisms that are remotely mediated by the catalytic metal ion and the enzyme active site. PMID:21926991

  16. Correlated structural kinetics and retarded solvent dynamics at the metalloprotease active site

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, Moran; Born, Benjamin; Heyden, Matthias; Tworowski, Dmitry; Fields, Gregg B.; Sagi, Irit; Havenith, Martina

    2011-09-18

    Solvent dynamics can play a major role in enzyme activity, but obtaining an accurate, quantitative picture of solvent activity during catalysis is quite challenging. Here, we combine terahertz spectroscopy and X-ray absorption analyses to measure changes in the coupled water-protein motions during peptide hydrolysis by a zinc-dependent human metalloprotease. These changes were tightly correlated with rearrangements at the active site during the formation of productive enzyme-substrate intermediates and were different from those in an enzyme–inhibitor complex. Molecular dynamics simulations showed a steep gradient of fast-to-slow coupled protein-water motions around the protein, active site and substrate. Our results show that water retardation occurs before formation of the functional Michaelis complex. We propose that the observed gradient of coupled protein-water motions may assist enzyme-substrate interactions through water-polarizing mechanisms that are remotely mediated by the catalytic metal ion and the enzyme active site.

  17. Acylpeptide hydrolase: inhibitors and some active site residues of the human enzyme.

    PubMed

    Scaloni, A; Jones, W M; Barra, D; Pospischil, M; Sassa, S; Popowicz, A; Manning, L R; Schneewind, O; Manning, J M

    1992-02-25

    Acylpeptide hydrolase may be involved in N-terminal deacetylation of nascent polypeptide chains and of bioactive peptides. The activity of this enzyme from human erythrocytes is sensitive to anions such as chloride, nitrate, and fluoride. Furthermore, blocked amino acids act as competitive inhibitors of the enzyme. Acetyl leucine chloromethyl ketone has been employed to identify one active site residue as His-707. Diisopropylfluorophosphate has been used to identify a second active site residue as Ser-587. Chemical modification studies with a water-soluble carbodiimide implicate a carboxyl group in catalytic activity. These results and the sequence around these active site residues, especially near Ser-587, suggest that acylpeptide hydrolase contains a catalytic triad. The presence of a cysteine residue in the vicinity of the active site is suggested by the inactivation of the enzyme by sulfhydryl-modifying agents and also by a low amount of modification by the peptide chloromethyl ketone inhibitor. Ebelactone A, an inhibitor of the formyl aminopeptidase, the bacterial counterpart of eukaryotic acylpeptide hydrolase, was found to be an effective inhibitor of this enzyme. These findings suggest that acylpeptidase hydrolase is a member of a family of enzymes with extremely diverse functions. PMID:1740429

  18. Molecular Design, Structures, and Activity of Antimicrobial Peptide-Mimetic Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Haruko; Palermo, Edmund F.; Yasuhara, Kazuma; Caputo, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics which are effective against drug-resistant bacteria without contributing to resistance development. We have designed and developed antimicrobial copolymers with cationic amphiphilic structures based on the mimicry of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. These copolymers exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with no adverse hemolytic activity. Notably, these polymers also did not result in any measurable resistance development in E. coli. The peptide-mimetic design principle offers significant flexibility and diversity in the creation of new antimicrobial materials and their potential biomedical applications. PMID:23832766

  19. Structural Insights into the Activation of Human Relaxin Family Peptide Receptor 1 by Small-Molecule Agonists.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Myhr, Courtney; Huang, Zaohua; Xiao, Jingbo; Barnaeva, Elena; Ho, Brian A; Agoulnik, Irina U; Ferrer, Marc; Marugan, Juan J; Southall, Noel; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2016-03-29

    The GPCR relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) mediates the action of relaxin peptide hormone, including its tissue remodeling and antifibrotic effects. The peptide has a short half-life in plasma, limiting its therapeutic utility. However, small-molecule agonists of human RXFP1 can overcome this limitation and may provide a useful therapeutic approach, especially for chronic diseases such as heart failure and fibrosis. The first small-molecule agonists of RXFP1 were recently identified from a high-throughput screening, using a homogeneous cell-based cAMP assay. Optimization of the hit compounds resulted in a series of highly potent and RXFP1 selective agonists with low cytotoxicity, and excellent in vitro ADME and pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we undertook extensive site-directed mutagenesis studies in combination with computational modeling analysis to probe the molecular basis of the small-molecule binding to RXFP1. The results showed that the agonists bind to an allosteric site of RXFP1 in a manner that closely interacts with the seventh transmembrane domain (TM7) and the third extracellular loop (ECL3). Several residues were determined to play an important role in the agonist binding and receptor activation, including a hydrophobic region at TM7 consisting of W664, F668, and L670. The G659/T660 motif within ECL3 is crucial to the observed species selectivity of the agonists for RXFP1. The receptor binding and activation effects by the small molecule ML290 were compared with the cognate ligand, relaxin, providing valuable insights on the structural basis and molecular mechanism of receptor activation and selectivity for RXFP1. PMID:26866459

  20. MODELING OF THE ENDOSOMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF HA2-TAT PEPTIDES WITH RED BLOOD CELLS AND GHOSTS†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Jung; Johnson, Gregory; Pellois, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    HA2-TAT is a peptide-based delivery agent that combines the pH-sensitive HA2 fusion peptide from Influenza and the cell-penetrating peptide TAT from HIV. This chimeric peptide is engineered to induce the cellular uptake of macromolecules into endosomes via the TAT moiety and to respond to the acidifying lumen of endosomes to cause membrane leakage and release of macromolecules into cells via the HA2 moiety. The question of how HA2 and TAT affect the properties of one another remains, however, unanswered and the behavior of the peptide inside endosomes is mostly uncharacterized. To address these issues, the binding and membrane leakage activity of a glutamic acid-enriched analogue E5-TAT was assessed with red blood cells and giant unilamellar vesicles as membrane models for endosomes. Hemolysis and microscopy assays reveal that E5-TAT binds to membranes in a pH-dependent manner and causes membrane leakage by inducing the formation of pores through which macromolecules can escape. The TAT moiety contributes to this activity by causing a shift in the pH response of E5 and by binding to negatively charged phospholipids. On the other hand, TAT binding to glycosaminoglycans reduces the lytic activity of E5-TAT. Addition of TAT to the C-terminus of E5 can therefore either increase or inhibit the activity of E5 depending on the cellular components present at the membrane. Taken together, these results suggest a model for the endosomolytic activity of the peptide and provide the basis for the molecular design of future delivery agents. PMID:20704453

  1. Exceptional Amyloid β Peptide Hydrolyzing Activity of Nonphysiological Immunoglobulin Variable Domain Scaffolds*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Hiroaki; Planque, Stephanie; Sapparapu, Gopal; Boivin, Stephane; Hara, Mariko; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Paul, Sudhir

    2008-01-01

    Nucleophilic sites in the paired variable domains of the light and heavy chains (VL and VH domains) of Ig can catalyze peptide bond hydrolysis. Amyloid β (Aβ)-binding Igs are under consideration for immunotherapy of Alzheimer disease. We searched for Aβ-hydrolyzing human IgV domains (IgVs) in a library containing a majority of single chain Fv clones mimicking physiological VL-VH-combining sites and minority IgV populations with nonphysiological structures generated by cloning errors. Random screening and covalent selection of phage-displayed IgVs with an electrophilic Aβ analog identified rare IgVs that hydrolyzed Aβ mainly at His14-Gln15. Inhibition of IgV catalysis and irreversible binding by an electrophilic hapten suggested a nucleophilic catalytic mechanism. Structural analysis indicated that the catalytic IgVs are nonphysiological structures, a two domain heterodimeric VL (IgVL2-t) and single domain VL clones with aberrant polypeptide tags (IgVL-t′). The IgVs hydrolyzed Aβ at rates superior to naturally occurring Igs by 3-4 orders of magnitude. Forced pairing of the single domain VL with VH or VL domains resulted in reduced Aβ hydrolysis, suggesting catalysis by the unpaired VL domain.Ångstrom level amino acid displacements evident in molecular models of the two domain and unpaired VL domain clones explain alterations of catalytic activity. In view of their superior catalytic activity, the VL domain IgVs may help attain clearance of medically important antigens more efficiently than natural Igs. PMID:18974093

  2. Active immunizations with peptide-DC vaccines and passive transfer with antibodies protect neutropenic mice against disseminated candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. PMID:26620842

  3. Activatable iRGD-based peptide monolith: Targeting, internalization, and fluorescence activation for precise tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Jun; Lee, Sung-Jin; Park, Sung-Jun; Paik, Chang H; Lee, Sang-Myung; Kim, Sehoon; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2016-09-10

    A disulfide-bridged cyclic RGD peptide, named iRGD (internalizing RGD, c(CRGDK/RGPD/EC)), is known to facilitate tumor targeting as well as tissue penetration. After the RGD motif-induced targeting on αv integrins expressed near tumor tissue, iRGD encounters proteolytic cleavage to expose the CendR motif that promotes penetration into cancer cells via the interaction with neuropilin-1. Based on these proteolytic cleavage and internalization mechanism, we designed an iRGD-based monolithic imaging probe that integrates multiple functions (cancer-specific targeting, internalization and fluorescence activation) within a small peptide framework. To provide the capability of activatable fluorescence signaling, we conjugated a fluorescent dye to the N-terminal of iRGD, which was linked to the internalizing sequence (CendR motif), and a quencher to the opposite C-terminal. It turned out that fluorescence activation of the dye/quencher-conjugated monolithic peptide probe requires dual (reductive and proteolytic) cleavages on both disulfide and amide bond of iRGD peptide. Furthermore, the cleavage of the iRGD peptide leading to fluorescence recovery was indeed operative depending on the tumor-related angiogenic receptors (αvβ3 integrin and neuropilin-1) in vitro as well as in vivo. Compared to an 'always fluorescent' iRGD control probe without quencher conjugation, the dye/quencher-conjugated activatable monolithic peptide probe visualized tumor regions more precisely with lower background noise after intravenous injection, owing to the multifunctional responses specific to tumor microenvironment. All these results, along with minimal in vitro and in vivo toxicity profiles, suggest potential of the iRGD-based activatable monolithic peptide probe as a promising imaging agent for precise tumor diagnosis. PMID:27349354

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides Developed Using an Amino Acid-Based Activity Prediction Method

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaozhe; Wang, Zhenling; Li, Xiaolu; Fan, Yingzi; He, Gu; Wan, Yang; Yu, Chaoheng; Tang, Jianying; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Hailong; Xiang, Rong; Pan, Ying; Liu, Yan; Lu, Lian

    2014-01-01

    To design and discover new antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with high levels of antimicrobial activity, a number of machine-learning methods and prediction methods have been developed. Here, we present a new prediction method that can identify novel AMPs that are highly similar in sequence to known peptides but offer improved antimicrobial activity along with lower host cytotoxicity. Using previously generated AMP amino acid substitution data, we developed an amino acid activity contribution matrix that contained an activity contribution value for each amino acid in each position of the model peptide. A series of AMPs were designed with this method. After evaluating the antimicrobial activities of these novel AMPs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, DP7 was chosen for further analysis. Compared to the parent peptide HH2, this novel AMP showed broad-spectrum, improved antimicrobial activity, and in a cytotoxicity assay it showed lower toxicity against human cells. The in vivo antimicrobial activity of DP7 was tested in a Staphylococcus aureus infection murine model. When inoculated and treated via intraperitoneal injection, DP7 reduced the bacterial load in the peritoneal lavage solution. Electron microscope imaging and the results indicated disruption of the S. aureus outer membrane by DP7. Our new prediction method can therefore be employed to identify AMPs possessing minor amino acid differences with improved antimicrobial activities, potentially increasing the therapeutic agents available to combat multidrug-resistant infections. PMID:24982064

  5. Acyl Silicates and Acyl Aluminates as Activated Intermediates in Peptide Formation on Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, David H.; Kennedy, Robert M.; Macklin, John

    1984-12-01

    Glycine reacts with heating on dried clays and other minerals to give peptides in much better yield than in the absence of mineral. This reaction was proposed to occur by way of an activated intermediate such as an acyl silicate or acyl aluminate (i.e., the anhydride of a carboxylic acid with Si-OH or Al-OH), analogous to acyl phosphates involved in several biochemical reactions including peptide bond synthesis. We confirmed the proposed mechanism by trapping the intermediate, as well as by direct spectroscopic observation of a related intermediate. The reaction of amino acids on periodically dried mineral surfaces represents a widespread, geologically realistic setting for prebiotic peptide formation via in situ activation.

  6. Design, recombinant expression, and antibacterial activity of the cecropins-melittin hybrid antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Yu, Rong Qing; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Huo Xiang; Song, Ling Ling; Cao, Yi; Qiao, Dai Rong

    2010-09-01

    In order to evaluate their antibacterial activities and toxicities, the cecropins-melittin hybrid antimicrobial peptide, CA(1-7)-M(4-11) (CAM) and CB(1-7)-M(4-11) (CBM), were designed by APD2 database. The recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptides were successfully expressed and purified in Pichia pastoris. Antimicrobial activity assay showed that both of the two hybrid antimicrobial peptides had strong antibacterial abilities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Salmonella derby. The potency of CAM and CBM to E. coli 25922 were 0.862 and 0.849, respectively, slightly lower than Amp's 0.957. The hemolytic assays indicated CAM and CBM had no hemolytic in vivo and in vitro, and so they had a good application prospect. PMID:20111863

  7. Novel, dually radiolabeled peptides for simultaneous monitoring of enzymatic activity and protein targets

    SciTech Connect

    Efrem Mebrahtu, Suzanne Lapi

    2012-12-13

    This application investigated a novel imaging approach to develop methods to incorporate multiple radionuclides into a single peptide at chemoselective sites for simultaneous monitoring of cell-bound protein targets as well as specific enzymatic activity, both of which are associated with enhanced tumor growth and metastasis. This imaging construct was synthesized in such a manner so that the PET radionuclide will remain associated with the tumor cells and the SPECT radionuclide was cleaved from the imaging agent. Measurement of the PET agent only will yield information about the tumor marker density while measurement of the amount of co-localization and mismatch of the two radionuclides will yield information about the enzymatic activity. This coincident measuring technique using both PET and SPECT agents allows us to draw correlations involving the interactions of enzymes (cathepsin, serine-protease urokinase (uPA) and matrix metalloproteases) and other cellular proteins which play a role in cancer growth and metastasis. This technique will allow for studies in xenograft or genetic models of cancer in the same animal at the same time, thus eliminating problems that may occur when trying to invoke comparisons across animals or timepoints. By using radionuclide imaging as opposed to other imaging modalities, this technique has the potential to be translatable and can exploit the high specific activity probes which can be generated with radiotracers. The proof of principle test of this system investigated simultaneous monitoring of matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity in the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as density of integrins on the cell surface, both of which can serve as tumor markers. The outcomes/deliverables of this project were as follows: 1. Peptides were synthesized dually labeled at chemospecific sites with PET and SPECT agents. 2. Stability (intrinsic and to radiolysis) and specific activity of these labeled compounds were determined. 3. The

  8. Natriuretic peptides in fish physiology.

    PubMed

    Loretz, C A; Pollina, C

    2000-02-01

    Natriuretic peptides exist in the fishes as a family of structurally-related isohormones including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and ventricular natriuretic peptide (VNP); to date, brain natriuretic peptide (or B-type natriuretic peptide, BNP) has not been definitively identified in the fishes. Based on nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity, the natriuretic peptide family of isohormones may have evolved from a neuromodulatory, CNP-like brain peptide. The primary sites of synthesis for the circulating hormones are the heart and brain; additional extracardiac and extracranial sites, including the intestine, synthesize and release natriuretic peptides locally for paracrine regulation of various physiological functions. Membrane-bound, guanylyl cyclase-coupled natriuretic peptide receptors (A- and B-types) are generally implicated in mediating natriuretic peptide effects via the production of cyclic GMP as the intracellular messenger. C- and D-type natriuretic peptide receptors lacking the guanylyl cyclase domain may influence target cell function through G(i) protein-coupled inhibition of membrane adenylyl cyclase activity, and they likely also act as clearance receptors for circulating hormone. In the few systems examined using homologous or piscine reagents, differential receptor binding and tissue responsiveness to specific natriuretic peptide isohormones is demonstrated. Similar to their acute physiological effects in mammals, natriuretic peptides are vasorelaxant in all fishes examined. In contrast to mammals, where natriuretic peptides act through natriuresis and diuresis to bring about long-term reductions in blood volume and blood pressure, in fishes the primary action appears to be the extrusion of excess salt at the gills and rectal gland, and the limiting of drinking-coupled salt uptake by the alimentary system. In teleosts, both hypernatremia and hypervolemia are effective stimuli for cardiac secretion of

  9. Purification of labeled cyanogen bromide peptides of the alpha polypeptide from sodium ion and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase modified with N-(/sup 3/H)ethylmaleimide

    SciTech Connect

    Le, D.T.

    1986-05-06

    Sodium ion and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase, isolated from canine kidney, was reacted with N-(/sup 3/H)ethylmaleimide while it was poised in three different conformations, ostensibly E2-P, E2, and E1, respectively. These assignments were made from a consideration of the particular concentrations of ligands in the respective alkylation mixtures. After a 30-min reaction, the remaining enzymatic activity was found to vary among these three different samples from 90 to 30% of that of unalkylated controls. In all cases, the alpha polypeptide was purified and subjected to digestion with cyanogen bromide, and in each digest the same two distinct radioactive peptides were identified and purified by gel filtration on a column of Sephadex LH-60. The incorporation of N-(/sup 3/H)ethylmaleimide into one of these two peptides correlated closely with enzymatic inactivation, while the incorporation into the other was most extensive when the portion of the active site to which ATP binds was unoccupied. Alkylation of the residue within the latter peptide, however, does not result in inactivation of the enzyme. Both peptides were further purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and their amino-terminal sequences were determined by manual dansyl Edman or solid-phase techniques. The peptide containing the sulfhydryl protected by ATP has, as its amino terminus, the lysine that reacts exclusively with fluoresceinyl 5'-isothiocyanate.

  10. A peptide with a cysteine terminus: probe for label-free fluorescent detection of thrombin activity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingjing; Zhuo, Caixia; Ma, Xuejuan; Li, Shuangqin; Zhang, Yaodong

    2016-07-21

    Thrombin has been implicated in atherosclerotic disease development. However, thrombin activity detection is currently limited because of the lack of convenient fluorescent probes. We developed a label-free fluorescent method to assay thrombin activity on the basis of a designed peptide probe with a thrombin-cleavable peptide sequence and a cysteine terminus. The peptide probe can be conjugated to DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) through Ag-S bonding; as a result, the fluorescence of DNA-AgNCs was enhanced. As the DNA-AgNCs-peptide conjugate was adsorbed to graphene oxide (GO), the enhanced fluorescence of DNA-AgNCs was quenched. Once the peptide probe was cleaved by thrombin, the resulting release of the DNA-AgNCs from the surface of GO restored the enhanced fluorescence. Thrombin can be determined with a linear range of 0.0-50.0 nM with a detection limit of 1 nM. The thrombin-sensitive probe with a cysteine terminus may be developed into probes to detect other proteases. PMID:27187619

  11. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Esther; Campo, Sonia; Badosa, Esther; Rossignol, Michel; Montesinos, Emilio; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation. PMID:26760761

  12. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Laura; Bundó, Mireia; Izquierdo, Esther; Campo, Sonia; Badosa, Esther; Rossignol, Michel; Montesinos, Emilio; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation. PMID:26760761

  13. Mapping of the SecA signal peptide binding site and dimeric interface by using the substituted cysteine accessibility method.

    PubMed

    Bhanu, Meera K; Zhao, Ping; Kendall, Debra A

    2013-10-01

    SecA is an ATPase nanomotor critical for bacterial secretory protein translocation. Secretory proteins carry an amino-terminal signal peptide that is recognized and bound by SecA followed by its transfer across the SecYEG translocon. While this process is crucial for the onset of translocation, exactly where the signal peptide interacts with SecA is unclear. SecA protomers also interact among themselves to form dimers in solution, yet the oligomeric interface and the residues involved in dimerization are unknown. To address these issues, we utilized the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM); we generated a library of 23 monocysteine SecA mutants and probed for the accessibility of each mutant cysteine to maleimide-(polyethylene glycol)2-biotin (MPB), a sulfhydryl-labeling reagent, both in the presence and absence of a signal peptide. Dramatic differences in MPB labeling were observed, with a select few mutants located at the preprotein cross-linking domain (PPXD), the helical wing domain (HWD), and the helical scaffold domain (HSD), indicating that the signal peptide binds at the groove formed between these three domains. The exposure of this binding site is varied under different conditions and could therefore provide an ideal mechanism for preprotein transfer into the translocon. We also identified residues G793, A795, K797, and D798 located at the two-helix finger of the HSD to be involved in dimerization. Adenosine-5'-(γ-thio)-triphosphate (ATPγS) alone and, more extensively, in conjunction with lipids and signal peptides strongly favored dimer dissociation, while ADP supports dimerization. This study provides key insight into the structure-function relationships of SecA preprotein binding and dimer dissociation. PMID:23935053

  14. Engineering Amyloid-Like Assemblies from Unstructured Peptides via Site-Specific Lipid Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    López Deber, María Pilar; Hickman, David T.; Nand, Deepak; Baldus, Marc; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) into oligomers and fibrils is believed to play an important role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To gain further insight into the principles of aggregation, we have investigated the induction of β-sheet secondary conformation from disordered native peptide sequences through lipidation, in 1–2% hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Several parameters, such as type and number of lipid chains, peptide sequence, peptide length and net charge, were explored keeping the ratio peptide/HFIP constant. The resulting lipoconjugates were characterized by several physico-chemical techniques: Circular Dichroism (CD), Attenuated Total Reflection InfraRed (ATR-IR), Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy (EM). Our data demonstrate the generation of β-sheet aggregates from numerous unstructured peptides under physiological pH, independent of the amino acid sequence. The amphiphilicity pattern and hydrophobicity of the scaffold were found to be key factors for their assembly into amyloid-like structures. PMID:25207975

  15. Rational design of tryptophan-rich antimicrobial peptides with enhanced antimicrobial activities and specificities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Yuan; Huang, Kuo-Chun; Yip, Bak-Sau; Tu, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Heng-Li; Cheng, Hsi-Tsung; Cheng, Jya-Wei

    2010-11-01

    Trp-rich antimicrobial peptides play important roles in the host innate defense mechanism of many plants and animals. A series of short Trp-rich peptides derived from the C-terminal region of Bothrops asper myothoxin II, a Lys49 phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), were found to reproduce the antimicrobial activities of their parent molecule. Of these peptides, KKWRWWLKALAKK-designated PEM-2-was found to display improved activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. To improve the antimicrobial activity of PEM-2 for potential clinical applications further, we determined the solution structure of PEM-2 bound to membrane-mimetic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles by two-dimensional NMR methods. The DPC micelle-bound structure of PEM-2 adopts an α-helical conformation and the positively charged residues are clustered together to form a hydrophilic patch. The surface electrostatic potential map indicates that two of the three tryptophan residues are packed against the peptide backbone and form a hydrophobic face with Leu7, Ala9, and Leu10. A variety of biophysical and biochemical experiments, including circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry, were used to show that PEM-2 interacted with negatively charged phospholipid vesicles and efficiently induced dye release from these vesicles, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of PEM-2 could be due to interactions with bacterial membranes. Potent analogues of PEM-2 with enhanced antimicrobial and less pronounced hemolytic activities were designed with the aid of these structural studies. PMID:20865718

  16. Cationic Peptide Conjugation Enhances the Activity of Peroxidase-Mimicking DNAzymes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lu; Zhou, Zhaojuan; Feng, Mengli; Tong, Aijun; Xiang, Yu

    2016-03-16

    Peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes containing G-quadruplex structures are widely applied in chemistry as catalysts and signal amplification for biosensing. Enhancing the catalytic activity of these DNAzymes can therefore improve the performance of many catalysts and biosensors using them. In this work, we synthesized cationic peptide conjugates of peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes, which were found to exhibit both enhanced peroxidase and oxidase activities up to 4-fold and 3-fold compared with the original DNAzymes, respectively. Further investigation suggested that the enhanced activity was ascribed to the stabilization of parallel DNA G-quadruplex structures and hemin binding by the cationic peptide covalently attached to the DNAzyme. Such a mechanism of activity enhancement was successfully utilized for biosensing applications with improved sensitivity and broadened target range. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection in K(+)-free solutions by the DNAzyme-peptide conjugate showed 2-fold sensitivity enhancement over the unmodified DNAzyme under the same condition, and the activity switch by target-induced cleavage of the DNAzyme-peptide conjugate was also used for the detection of caspase 3 protease with enzymatic amplification in homogeneous solutions. PMID:26751843

  17. Bacterial Peptide Recognition and Immune Activation Facilitated by Human Peptide Transporter PEPT2

    PubMed Central

    Swaan, Peter W.; Bensman, Timothy; Bahadduri, Praveen M.; Hall, Mark W.; Sarkar, Anasuya; Bao, Shengying; Khantwal, Chandra M.; Ekins, Sean; Knoell, Daren L.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial detection requires the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are distributed on the cell surface and within the cytosol. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family functions as an intracellular PRR that triggers the innate immune response. The mechanism by which PAMPs enter the cytosol to interact with NLRs, particularly muropeptides derived from the bacterial proteoglycan cell wall, is poorly understood. PEPT2 is a proton-dependent transporter that mediates the active translocation of di- and tripeptides across epithelial tissues, including the lung. Using computational tools, we initially established that bacterial dipeptides, particularly γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (γ-iE-DAP), are suitable substrates for PEPT2. We then determined in primary cultures of human upper airway epithelia and transiently transfected CHO-PEPT2 cell lines that γ-iE-DAP uptake was mediated by PEPT2 with an affinity constant of approximately 193 μM, whereas muramyl dipeptide was not transported. Exposure to γ-iE-DAP at the apical surface of differentiated, polarized cultures resulted in activation of the innate immune response in an NOD1- and RIP2-dependent manner, resulting in release of IL-6 and IL-8. Based on these findings we report that PEPT2 plays a vital role in microbial recognition by NLR proteins, particularly with regard to airborne pathogens, thereby participating in host defense in the lung. PMID:18474668

  18. Enzyme Design From the Bottom Up: An Active Nickel Electrocatalyst with a Structured Peptide Outer Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Reback, Matthew L.; Buchko, Garry W.; Kier, Brandon L.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Xiong, Yijia; Lense, Sheri; Hou, Jianbo; Roberts, John A.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Raugei, Simone; Squier, Thomas C.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-02-03

    Functional, peptide-containing metal complexes with a well-defined peptide structure have the potential to enhance molecular catalysts via an enzyme-like outer coordination sphere. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of an active, peptide-based metal complex built upon the well characterized hydrogen production catalyst, Ni(PPh2NPh)2. The incorporated peptide maintains its B-hairpin structure when appended to the metal core, and the electrocatalytic activity of the peptide-based metal complex (~100,000 s-1) is fully retained. The combination of an active molecular catalyst with a structured peptide outer coordination sphere provides a scaffold that permits the incorporation of features of an enzyme-like outer-coordination sphere necessary to create molecular electrocatalysts with en-hanced functionality.

  19. Affinity labeling and characterization of the active site histidine of glucosephosphate isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.R.; Gracy, R.W.; Hartman, F.C.

    1980-10-10

    N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate was found to act as a specific affinity label for the active center of glucosephosphate isomerase. The inactivation process followed pseudo-first order kinetics, was irreversible, and exhibited rate saturation kinetics with minimal half-lives of inactivation of 4.5 and 6.3 min for the enzyme isolated from human placenta and rabbit muscle, respectively. The pH dependence of the inactivation process closely paralleled the pH dependence of the overall catalytic process with pK/sub a/ values at pH 6.4 and 9.0. The stoichiometry of labeling of either enzyme, as determined with N-bromo(/sup 14/C/sub 2/)acetylethanolamine phosphate, was 1 eq of the affinity label/subunit of enzyme. After acid hydrolysis and amino acid analysis of the radioactive affinity-labeled human enzyme, only radioactive 3-carboxymethyl histidine was found. In the case of the rabbit enzyme, the only radioactive derivative obtained was 1-carboxymethyl histidine. Active site tryptic peptides were isolated by solvent extraction, thin layer peptide fingerprinting, and ion exchange chromatography before and after removal of the phosphate from the active site peptide. Amino acid analysis of the labeled peptides from the two species were very similar. Using high sensitivity methods for sequence analysis, the primary structure of the active site was established as Val-Leu-His-Ala-Glu-Asn-Val-Asp (Gly,Thr,Ser) Glu-Ile (Thr-Gly-His-Lys-Glx)-Tyr-Phe. Apparent sequence homology between the catalytic center of glucosephosphate isomerase and triosephosphate isomerase suggest that the two enzymes may have evolved from a common ancestral gene.

  20. Kinetically Tunable Photostability of Fluorogen-Activating Peptide-Fluorogen Complexes.

    PubMed

    Saurabh, Saumya; Zhang, Ming; Mann, Victor R; Costello, Andrea M; Bruchez, Marcel P

    2015-10-01

    Ease of genetic encoding, labeling specificity, and high photostability are the most sought after qualities in a fluorophore for biological detection. Furthermore, many applications can gain from the fluorogenic nature of fluoromodules and the ability to turn on the same fluoromodules multiple times. Fluorogen-activating peptides (FAPs) bind noncovalently to their cognate fluorogens and exhibit enhanced photostability. Herein, the photostabilities of malachite green (MG)-binding and thiazole-orange-binding FAPs are compared under limiting- and excess-fluorogen conditions to establish distinct mechanisms for photostability that correspond to the dissociation rate of the FAP-fluorogen complex. FAPs with slow dissociation show evidence of dye encapsulation and protection from photo or environmental degradation and single-step bleaching at the single molecule level, whereas those with rapid dissociation show repeated cycles of binding and enhanced photostability by exchange of bleached fluorogen with a new dye. A combination of generalizable selection pressure based on bleaching, flow cytometry, and site-specific amino acid mutagenesis is used to obtain a modified FAP with enhanced photostability, due to rapid dissociation of the MG fluorogen. These studies shed light on the basic mechanisms by which noncovalent association can effect photostable labeling, and demonstrate novel reagents for photostable and intermittent labeling of biological targets. PMID:26310607

  1. Airway Epithelial Cells are the Site of Expression of a Mammalian Antimicrobial Peptide Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, Gill; Jones, Douglas E.; Bevins, Charles L.

    1993-05-01

    We previously reported the isolation and characterization of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide from the bovine tracheal mucosa, which we called tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP). We now show the TAP gene is expressed throughout the adult conducting airway, from nasal to bronchiolar tissue, but not in tissues other than airway mucosa, as determined by Northern blot analysis. In situ hybridization of airway sections localizes TAP mRNA to columnar cells of the pseudostratified epithelium. We report the structural organization of the TAP gene and show that TAP is a member of a large family of related sequences with high nucleotide identity in the 5'exon. The data support the hypothesis that antimicrobial peptides contribute to host defense of the respiratory tract.

  2. Minimal determinants for binding activated G-alpha from the structure of a G-alpha-i1/peptide dimer†

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Christopher A.; Lobanova, Ekaterina S.; Shavkunov, Alexander S.; Low, Justin; Ramer, J. Kevin; Blaesius, Rainer; Fredericks, Zoey; Willard, Francis S.; Kuhlman, Brian; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.; Siderovski, David P.

    2008-01-01

    G-proteins cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and active GTP-bound state, serving as molecular switches that coordinate cellular signaling. We recently used phage-display to identify a series of peptides that bind Gα subunits in a nucleotide-dependent manner [Johnston, C. A., Willard, F. S., Jezyk, M. R., Fredericks, Z., Bodor, E. T., Jones, M. B., Blaesius, R., Watts, V. J., Harden, T. K., Sondek, J., Ramer, J. K., and Siderovski, D. P. (2005) Structure 13, 1069–1080]. Here we describe the structural features and functions of KB-1753, a peptide that binds selectively to GDP·AlF4−- and GTPγS-bound states of Gαi subunits. KB-1753 blocks interaction of Gαtransducin with its effector, cGMP phosphodiesterase, and inhibits transducin-mediated activation of cGMP degradation. Additionally, KB-1753 interferes with RGS protein binding and resultant GAP activity. A fluorescent KB-1753 variant was found to act as a sensor for activated Gα in vitro. The crystal structure of KB-1753 bound to Gαi1·GDP·AlF4− reveals binding to a conserved hydrophobic groove between switch II and α3 helices, and, along with supporting biochemical data and previous structural analyses, supports the notion that this is the site of effector interactions for Gαi subunits. PMID:16981699

  3. Minimal Determinants for Binding Activated G alpha from the Structure of a G alpha i1-Peptide Dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston,C.; Lobanova, E.; Shavkunov, A.; Low, J.; Ramer, J.; Blasesius, R.; Fredericks, Z.; willard, F.; Kuhlman, B.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    G-Proteins cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state, serving as molecular switches that coordinate cellular signaling. We recently used phage display to identify a series of peptides that bind G{alpha}subunits in a nucleotide-dependent manner [Johnston, C. A., Willard, F. S., Jezyk, M. R., Fredericks, Z., Bodor, E. T., Jones, M. B., Blaesius, R., Watts, V. J., Harden, T. K., Sondek, J., Ramer, J. K., and Siderovski, D. P. (2005) Structure 13, 1069-1080]. Here we describe the structural features and functions of KB-1753, a peptide that binds selectively to GDP{center_dot}AlF{sub 4{sup -}}- and GTP{gamma}S-bound states of G{alpha}{sup i} subunits. KB-1753 blocks interaction of G{alpha}{sub transducin} with its effector, cGMP phosphodiesterase, and inhibits transducin-mediated activation of cGMP degradation. Additionally, KB-1753 interferes with RGS protein binding and resultant GAP activity. A fluorescent KB-1753 variant was found to act as a sensor for activated G{alpha} in vitro. The crystal structure of KB-1753 bound to G{alpha}{sub i1}-GDP{center_dot}AlF{sub 4{sup -}} reveals binding to a conserved hydrophobic groove between switch II and 3 helices and, along with supporting biochemical data and previous structural analyses, supports the notion that this is the site of effector interactions for G{alpha}i subunits.

  4. Acyl lipidation of a peptide: effects on activity and epidermal permeability in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Daniel; Ross, James; Murray, Paul E; Caccetta, Rima

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain lipid conjugates can increase permeability of a small peptide across human epidermis; however, the emerging lipoaminoacid (LAA) conjugation technique is costly and can deliver mixed synthetic products of varied biological potential. LAA conjugation using a racemic mixture produces a mixture of D- and L-stereoisomers. Individual enantiomers can be produced at an extra cost. We investigated an affordable technique that produces only one synthetic product: short-chain (C7–C8) acyl lipidation. Acyl lipidation of Ala-Ala-Pro-Val, an inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase (HNE; believed to lead to abnormal tissue destruction and disease development), was investigated as an alternative to LAA conjugation. The current study aimed to assess the effects of acyl lipidation (either at the N-terminal or at the C-terminal) on neutrophil elastase activity in vitro and on transdermal delivery ex vivo. The inhibitory capacity of the acyl conjugates was compared to LAA conjugates (conjugated at the N-terminal) of the same peptide. The L-stereoisomer appears to rapidly degrade, but it represents a significantly (P<0.05) better inhibitor of HNE than the parent peptide (Ala-Ala-Pro-Val). Although the D-stereoisomer appears to permeate human epidermal skin sections in a better fashion than the L-stereoisomer, it is not a significantly better inhibitor of HNE than the parent peptide. Acyl lipidation (with a C7 lipid chain) at either end of the peptide substantially enhances the permeability of the peptide across human skin epidermis as well as significantly (P<0.005) increases its elastase inhibitory potential. Therefore, our current study indicates that acyl lipidation of a peptide is a more economical and effective alternative to LAA conjugation. PMID:27468224

  5. The effect of thiol functional group incorporation into cationic helical peptides on antimicrobial activities and spectra.

    PubMed

    Wiradharma, Nikken; Khan, Majad; Yong, Lin-Kin; Hauser, Charlotte A E; Seow, See Voon; Zhang, Shuguang; Yang, Yi-Yan

    2011-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been proposed as blueprints for the development of new antimicrobial agents for the treatment of drug resistant infections. A series of synthetic AMPs capable of forming α-helical structures and containing free-sulfhydryl groups are designed in this study ((LLKK)(2)C, C(LLKK)(2)C, (LLKK)(3)C, C(LLKK)(3)C). In particular, the AMP with 2 cysteine residues at the terminal ends of the peptide and 2 repeat units of LLKK, i.e., C(LLKK)(2)C, has been demonstrated to have high selectivity towards a wide range of microbes from Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, and yeast Candida albicans over red blood cells. At the MIC levels, this peptide does not induce significant hemolysis, and its MIC values occur at the concentration of more than 10 times of their corresponding 50% hemolysis concentrations (HC(50)). Microscopy studies suggest that this peptide kills microbial cells by inducing pores of ∼20-30 nm in size in microbial membrane on a short time scale, which further develops to grossly damaged membrane envelope on a longer time scale. Multiple treatments of microbes with this peptide at sub MIC concentration do not induce resistance, even up to passage 10. However, the same treatment with conventional antibiotics penicillin G or ciprofloxacin easily develop resistance in the treated microbes. In addition, the peptides are shown not to induce secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α in human monocytes as compared to lipopolysaccharide, which implies additional safety aspects of the peptides to be used as both systemic and topical antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this study provides an excellent basis to develop promising antimicrobial agents that possess a broad range of antimicrobial activities with less susceptibility for development of drug resistance. PMID:21906803

  6. Active site of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.; Stringer, C.D.; Milanez, S.; Lee, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Previous affinity labeling studies and comparative sequence analyses have identified two different lysines at the active site of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and have suggested their essentiality to function. The essential lysines occupy positions 166 and 329 in the Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme and positions 175 and 334 in the spinach enzyme. Based on the pH-dependencies of inactivations of the two enzymes by trinitrobenzene sulfonate, Lys-166 (R. rubrum enzyme) exhibits a pK/sub a/ of 7.9 and Lys-334 (spinach enzyme) exhibits a pK/sub a/ of 9.0. These low pK/sub a/ values as well as the enhanced nucleophilicities of the lysyl residues argue that both are important to catalysis rather than to substrate binding. Lys-166 may correspond to the essential base that initiates catalysis and that displays a pK/sub a/ of 7.5 in the pH-curve for V/sub max//K/sub m/. Cross-linking experiments with 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonate stilbene demonstrate that the two active-site lysines are within 12 A. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Amino acids and peptides activate at least five members of the human bitter taste receptor family.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Susann; Behrens, Maik; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides represent important flavor molecules eliciting various taste sensations. Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of the interaction of various peptides and all proteinogenic amino acids with the 25 human TAS2Rs expressed in cell lines. L-Phenylalanine and L-tryptophan activate TAS2R1 and TAS2R4, respectively, whereas TAS2R4 and TAS2R39 responded to D-tryptophan. Structure-function analysis uncovered the basis for the lack of stereoselectivity of TAS2R4. The same three TAS2Rs or subsets thereof were also sensitive to various dipeptides containing L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, or L-leucine and to Trp-Trp-Trp, whereas Leu-Leu-Leu specifically activated TAS2R4. Trp-Trp-Trp also activated TAS2R46 and TAS2R14. Two key bitter peptides from Gouda cheese, namely, Tyr-Pro-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro-Ile-His-Asn-Ser and Leu-Val-Tyr-Pro-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro-Ile-His-Asn, both activated TAS2R1 and TAS2R39. Thus, the data demonstrate that the bitterness of amino acids and peptides is not mediated by specifically tuned TAS2Rs but rather is brought about by an unexpectedly complex pattern of sensitive TAS2Rs. PMID:23214402

  8. Synthesis and Evaluation of Biological Activity of Antimicrobial – Pro-Proliferative Peptide Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Langa, Paulina; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Obuchowski, Michał; Lesner, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Skin represents the largest organ of the human body and plays a crucial role in its protection from the negative impact of the outside environment, maintains its homeostasis, enables sensory interaction and thermoregulation. The traumatized skin tissue undergoes several phenotype switches due to progressive reoxygenation and release of cytokine and growth factors, that activate mechanisms of reparative processes. However, in case of wounds colonized with pathogenic microflora natural regenerative mechanisms become substantially impaired, that could lead to chronic inflammatory states with non-healing skin lesions. Herein, we present the initial results of our studies aimed at the design of bifunctional peptide-based compounds. The chemical approach, that was utilized in this work, was based on the conjugation of antimicrobial peptides with the peptides, that have potential pro-proliferative and/or cytoprotective activity towards human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, in order to obtain antimicrobials with reduced cytotoxicity or compounds that maintain both activities, i.e. inhibit bacterial or fungi growth and activate cell proliferation/migration in in vitro tests. As a result, we obtained a group of peptide conjugates that effectively inhibited the growth of selected bacterial and fungi strains and were able to stimulate proliferation and migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts under their effective microbicidal concentrations. PMID:26473368

  9. Antiviral activity of a Bacillus sp. P34 peptide against pathogenic viruses of domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Débora Scopel e; de Castro, Clarissa Caetano; Silva, Fábio da Silva e; Sant’anna, Voltaire; Vargas, Gilberto D’Avila; de Lima, Marcelo; Fischer, Geferson; Brandelli, Adriano; da Motta, Amanda de Souza; Hübner, Silvia de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    P34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by a Bacillus sp. strain isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish in the Brazilian Amazon basin with reported antibacterial activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the peptide P34 for its in vitro antiviral properties against canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), equine arteritis virus (EAV), equine influenza virus (EIV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1). The results showed that the peptide P34 exhibited antiviral activity against EAV and FHV-1. The peptide P34 inhibited the replication of EAV by 99.9% and FHV-1 by 94.4%. Virucidal activity was detected only against EAV. When P34 and EAV were incubated for 6 h at 37 °C the viral titer reduced from 104.5 TCID50 to 102.75 TCID50, showing a percent of inhibition of 98.6%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that P34 inhibited EAV and FHV-1 replication in infected cell cultures and it showed virucidal activity against EAV. Since there is documented resistance to the current drugs used against herpesviruses and there is no treatment for equine viral arteritis, it is advisable to search for new antiviral compounds to overcome these infections. PMID:25477947

  10. Membrane Thinning and Thickening Induced by Membrane-Active Amphipathic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Grage, Stephan L; Afonin, Sergii; Kara, Sezgin; Buth, Gernot; Ulrich, Anne S

    2016-01-01

    Membrane thinning has been discussed as a fundamental mechanism by which antimicrobial peptides can perturb cellular membranes. To understand which factors play a role in this process, we compared several amphipathic peptides with different structures, sizes and functions in their influence on the lipid bilayer thickness. PGLa and magainin 2 from X. laevis were studied as typical representatives of antimicrobial cationic amphipathic α-helices. A 1:1 mixture of these peptides, which is known to possess synergistically enhanced activity, allowed us to evaluate whether and how this synergistic interaction correlates with changes in membrane thickness. Other systems investigated here include the α-helical stress-response peptide TisB from E. coli (which forms membrane-spanning dimers), as well as gramicidin S from A. migulanus (a natural antibiotic), and BP100 (designer-made antimicrobial and cell penetrating peptide). The latter two are very short, with a circular β-pleated and a compact α-helical structure, respectively. Solid-state (2)H-NMR and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) on oriented phospholipid bilayers were used as complementary techniques to access the hydrophobic thickness as well as the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance including the water layer in between. This way, we found that magainin 2, gramicidin S, and BP100 induced membrane thinning, as expected for amphiphilic peptides residing in the polar/apolar interface of the bilayer. PGLa, on the other hand, decreased the hydrophobic thickness only at very high peptide:lipid ratios, and did not change the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance. TisB even caused an increase in the hydrophobic thickness and repeat distance. When reconstituted as a mixture, PGLa and magainin 2 showed a moderate thinning effect which was less than that of magainin 2 alone, hence their synergistically enhanced activity does not seem to correlate with a modulation of membrane thickness. Overall, the absence of

  11. Branched phospholipids render lipid vesicles more susceptible to membrane-active peptides.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Natalie J; Seaton, Pamela; Pokorny, Antje

    2016-05-01

    Iso- and anteiso-branched lipids are abundant in the cytoplasmic membranes of bacteria. Their function is assumed to be similar to that of unsaturated lipids in other organisms - to maintain the membrane in a fluid state. However, the presence of terminally branched membrane lipids is likely to impact other membrane properties as well. For instance, lipid acyl chain structure has been shown to influence the activity of antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, the development of resistance to antimicrobial agents in Staphylococcus aureus is accompanied by a shift in the fatty acid composition toward a higher fraction of anteiso-branched lipids. Little is known about how branched lipids and the location of the branch point affect the activity of membrane-active peptides. We hypothesized that bilayers containing lipids with low phase transition temperatures would tend to exclude peptides and be less susceptible to peptide-induced perturbation than those made from higher temperature melting lipids. To test this hypothesis, we synthesized a series of asymmetric phospholipids that only differ in the type of fatty acid esterified at the sn-2 position of the lipid glycerol backbone. We tested the influence of acyl chain structure on peptide activity by measuring the kinetics of release from dye-encapsulated lipid vesicles made from these synthetic lipids. The results were compared to those obtained using vesicles made from S. aureus and Staphylococcus sciuri membrane lipid extracts. Anteiso-branched phospholipids, which melt at very low temperatures, produced lipid vesicles that were only slightly less susceptible to peptide-induced dye release than those made from the iso-branched isomer. However, liposomes made from bacterial phospholipid extracts were generally much more resistant to peptide-induced perturbation than those made from any of the synthetic lipids. The results suggest that the increase in the fraction of anteiso-branched fatty acids in antibiotic-resistant strains

  12. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  13. Contractile effects of angiotensin peptides in rat aorta are differentially dependent on tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, G; Costuleanu, M; Slatineanu, S M; Costuleanu, N; Foia, L; Costuleanu, A

    2001-09-01

    It has been suggested that tyrosine kinase activity participates in the regulation of signal transduction associated with angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced pharmaco-mechanical coupling in rat aortic smooth muscle. We further tested the effects of genistein, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, and its inactive analogue, daidzein, on angiotensin I (Ang I), angiotensin III (Ang III) and angiotensin IV (Ang IV) contractions, as compared with those on Ang II. Genistein partially inhibited Ang II- and Ang I-induced contractions. The genistein-induced inhibition was more evident on Ang III and especially important on Ang IV contractile effects. Thus, Ang IV- and Ang III-induced contractions seem to be more dependent on tyrosine kinase activity than those evoked by Ang II or Ang I. Daidzein did not significantly affect the contractile effects of any of angiotensin peptides tested. These results clearly suggest that the inhibition of the action of angiotensin peptides actions by genistein is mediated by inhibition of endogenous tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, our data show that the type and/or intensity of tyrosine kinase activity is differentially associated with the contractile effects of different angiotensin peptides in rat aorta. Nifedipine, a blocker of membrane L-type Ca2+ channels, strongly inhibited Ang IV-induced contractions. At the same time, it significantly inhibited Ang III contractile effects as compared with Ang II and Ang I contractions. Meanwhile, we observed a close relationship between calcium influx and tyrosine kinase phosphorylation activity under the stimulatory effects of angiotensin peptides. Furthermore, genistein did not significantly influence the phasic contractions induced by angiotensin peptides in Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution. Thus, it appears that Ca2+ influx, rather than the release of Ca2+ from IP3-sensitive stores, may play a major role in the contractile effects of angiotensin peptides in rat aorta via tyrosine kinase activation

  14. A sperm-activating peptide controls a cGMP-signaling pathway in starfish sperm.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Midori; Solzin, Johannes; Helbig, Annika; Hagen, Volker; Ueno, Sei-ichi; Kawase, Osamu; Maruyama, Yoshinori; Ogiso, Manabu; Godde, Matthias; Minakata, Hiroyuki; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Hoshi, Motonori; Weyand, Ingo

    2003-08-15

    Peptides released from eggs of marine invertebrates play a central role in fertilization. About 80 different peptides from various phyla have been isolated, however, with one exception, their respective receptors on the sperm surface have not been unequivocally identified and the pertinent signaling pathways remain ill defined. Using rapid mixing techniques and novel membrane-permeable caged compounds of cyclic nucleotides, we show that the sperm-activating peptide asterosap evokes a fast and transient increase of the cGMP concentration in sperm of the starfish Asterias amurensis, followed by a transient cGMP-stimulated increase in the Ca(2+) concentration. In contrast, cAMP levels did not change significantly and the Ca(2+) response evoked by photolysis of caged cAMP was significantly smaller than that using caged cGMP. By cloning of cDNA and chemical crosslinking, we identified a receptor-type guanylyl cyclase in the sperm flagellum as the asterosap-binding protein. Sperm respond exquisitely sensitive to picomolar concentrations of asterosap, suggesting that the peptide serves a chemosensory function like resact, a peptide involved in chemotaxis of sperm of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. A unifying principle emerges that chemosensory transduction in sperm of marine invertebrates uses cGMP as the primary messenger, although there may be variations in the detail. PMID:12921734

  15. Active Hydrogenation Catalyst with a Structured, Peptide-Based Outer-Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Avijita; Buchko, Garry W.; Reback, Matthew L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Linehan, John C.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-10-05

    The synthesis, catalytic activity, and structural features of a rhodium-based hydrogenation catalyst containing a phosphine ligand coupled to a 14-residue peptide are reported. Both CD and NMR spectroscopy show that the peptide adopts a helical structure in 1:1:1 TFE/MeCN/H2O that is maintained when the peptide is attached to the ligand and when the ligand is attached to the metal complex. The metal complex hydrogenates aqueous solutions of 3-butenol to 1-butanol at 360 ± 50 turnovers/Rh/h at 294 K. This peptide- based catalyst represents a starting point for developing and characterizing a peptide-based outer-coordination sphere that can be used to introduce enzyme-like features into molecular catalysts. This work was funded by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geoscience and Biosciences Division (AJ, JCL and WJS), the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (GWB, MLR and WJS). Part of the research was conducted at the W.R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Biolog-ical and Environmental Research (BER) program located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Isolation and characterization of two antigenically active peptides from bovine β-lactoglobulin-A

    PubMed Central

    Bing, D. H.; Stavitsky, A. B.

    1968-01-01

    Bovine β-lactoglobulin-A was hydrolysed with trypsin to yield a mixture of peptides which would not precipitate with rabbit antibody against the native protein, but would still inhibit the antigen—antibody reaction. The hydrolysate was fractionated by ion exchange chromatography and found to contain seven antigenically active fractions. Two of these fractions were found to be homogeneous peptides. Each inhibited the reaction of antigen with antibody against the intact protein in haemagglutination, flocculation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in guinea-pigs. One of the peptides had a molecular weight of 950 and the other had a molecular weight of 575. Both contained about equal numbers of polar and apolar amino acids. PMID:5673287

  17. Contribution of Amphipathicity and Hydrophobicity to the Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity of β-Hairpin Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have acquired extensive resistance mechanisms to protect themselves against antibiotic action. Today the bacterial membrane has become one of the “final frontiers” in the search for new compounds acting on novel targets to address the threat of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and XDR bacterial pathogens. β-Hairpin antimicrobial peptides are amphipathic, membrane-binding antibiotics that exhibit a broad range of activities against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal pathogens. However, most members of the class also possess adverse cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity that preclude their development as candidate antimicrobials. We examined peptide hydrophobicity, amphipathicity, and structure to better dissect and understand the correlation between antimicrobial activity and toxicity, membrane binding, and membrane permeability. The hydrophobicity, pI, net charge at physiological pH, and amphipathic moment for the β-hairpin antimicrobial peptides tachyplesin-1, polyphemusin-1, protegrin-1, gomesin, arenicin-3, and thanatin were determined and correlated with key antimicrobial activity and toxicity data. These included antimicrobial activity against five key bacterial pathogens and two fungi, cytotoxicity against human cell lines, and hemolytic activity in human erythrocytes. Observed antimicrobial activity trends correlated with compound amphipathicity and, to a lesser extent, with overall hydrophobicity. Antimicrobial activity increased with amphipathicity, but unfortunately so did toxicity. Of note, tachyplesin-1 was found to be 8-fold more amphipathic than gomesin. These analyses identify tachyplesin-1 as a promising scaffold for rational design and synthetic optimization toward an antibiotic candidate. PMID:27331141

  18. Determining the Binding Sites of β-Cyclodextrin and Peptides by Electron-Capture Dissociation High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yulin; Geib, Timon; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2015-07-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a group of cyclic oligosaccharides, which readily form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic compounds to increase bioavailability, thus making CDs ideal drug excipients. Recent studies have also shown that CDs exhibit a wide range of protective effects, preventing proteins from aggregation, degradation, and folding. These effects strongly depend on the binding sites on the protein surface. CDs only exhibit weak interactions with amino acids, however; conventional analytical techniques therefore usually fail to reveal the exact location of the binding sites. Moreover, some studies even suggest that CD inclusion complexes are merely electrostatic adducts. Here, electron capture dissociation (ECD) was applied in this proof-of-concept study to examine the exact nature of the CD/peptide complexes, and CD binding sites were unambiguously located for the first time via Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) tandem mass spectrometry.

  19. Identification of a Peptide Produced by Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7210 with Antirotaviral Activity.

    PubMed

    Chenoll, Empar; Casinos, Beatriz; Bataller, Esther; Buesa, Javier; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador; Fábrega, Joan; Rivero Urgell, Montserrat; Moreno Muñoz, José A

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is one of the main causes of acute diarrhea and enteritis in infants. Currently, studies are underway to assess the use of probiotics to improve rotavirus vaccine protection. A previous work demonstrated that the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 is able to hinder rotavirus replication both in vitro and in vivo. The present study takes a systematic approach in order to identify the molecule directly involved in rotavirus inhibition. Supernatant protease digestions revealed both the proteinaceous nature of the active substance and the fact that the molecule responsible for inhibiting rotavirus replication is released to the supernatant. Following purification by cationic exchange chromatography, active fractions were obtained and the functional compound was identified as an 11-amino acid peptide (MHQPHQPLPPT, named 11-mer peptide) with a molecular mass of 1.282 KDa. The functionality of 11-mer was verified using the synthesized peptide in Wa, Ito, and VA70 rotavirus infections of both HT-29 and MA-104 cell lines. Finally, protease activity was detected in B. longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 supernatant, which releases 11-mer peptide. A preliminary identification of the protease is also included in the study. PMID:27199974

  20. Reductant and sequence effects on the morphology and catalytic activity of peptide-capped Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Beverly D; Li, Yue; Swihart, Mark T; Knecht, Marc R

    2015-04-29

    The use of peptides as capping ligands for materials synthesis has been widely explored. The ambient conditions of bio-inspired syntheses using molecules such as peptides represent an attractive route for controlling the morphology and activity of nanomaterials. Although various reductants can be used in such syntheses, no comprehensive comparison of the same bio-based ligand with different reductants has been reported. In this contribution, peptides AuBP1, AuBP2, and Pd4 are used in the synthesis of Au nanoparticles. The reductant strength is varied by using three different reducing agents: NaBH4, hydrazine, and ascorbic acid. These changes in reductant produce significant morphological differences in the final particles. The weakest reductant, ascorbic acid, yields large, globular nanoparticles with rough surfaces, whereas the strongest reductant, NaBH4, yields small, spherical, smooth nanomaterials. Studies of 4-nitrophenol reduction using the Au nanoparticles as catalysts reveal a decrease in activation energy for the large, globular, rough materials relative to the small, spherical, smooth materials. These studies demonstrate that modifying the reductant is a simple way to control the activity of peptide-capped nanoparticles. PMID:25839335

  1. Identification of a Peptide Produced by Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7210 with Antirotaviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chenoll, Empar; Casinos, Beatriz; Bataller, Esther; Buesa, Javier; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador; Fábrega, Joan; Rivero Urgell, Montserrat; Moreno Muñoz, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is one of the main causes of acute diarrhea and enteritis in infants. Currently, studies are underway to assess the use of probiotics to improve rotavirus vaccine protection. A previous work demonstrated that the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 is able to hinder rotavirus replication both in vitro and in vivo. The present study takes a systematic approach in order to identify the molecule directly involved in rotavirus inhibition. Supernatant protease digestions revealed both the proteinaceous nature of the active substance and the fact that the molecule responsible for inhibiting rotavirus replication is released to the supernatant. Following purification by cationic exchange chromatography, active fractions were obtained and the functional compound was identified as an 11-amino acid peptide (MHQPHQPLPPT, named 11-mer peptide) with a molecular mass of 1.282 KDa. The functionality of 11-mer was verified using the synthesized peptide in Wa, Ito, and VA70 rotavirus infections of both HT-29 and MA-104 cell lines. Finally, protease activity was detected in B. longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 supernatant, which releases 11-mer peptide. A preliminary identification of the protease is also included in the study. PMID:27199974

  2. Sensitive and site-specific identification of carboxymethylated and carboxyethylated peptides in tryptic digests of proteins and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Greifenhagen, Uta; Nguyen, Viet Duc; Moschner, Johann; Giannis, Athanassios; Frolov, Andrej; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Glycation refers to a nonenzymatic post-translational modification formed by the reaction of amino groups and reducing sugars. Consecutive oxidation and degradation can produce advanced glycation end products (AGEs), such as N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML). Although CEL and CML are considered to be markers of arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and aging, the modified proteins and the exact modification sites are mostly unknown due to their low frequency and a lack of enrichment strategies. Here, we report characteristic fragmentation patterns of CML- and CEL-containing peptides and two modification-specific reporter ions for each modification (CML, m/z 142.1 and 187.1; CEL, m/z 156.1 and 201.1). The protocol allowed sensitive and selective precursor ion scans to detect the modified peptides in complex sample mixtures. The corresponding m/z values identified eight CEL/CML-modification sites in glycated human serum albumin (HSA) by targeted nano-RPC-MS/MS. The same strategy revealed 21 CML sites in 17 different proteins, including modified lysine residues 88 and 396 of human serum albumin, in a pooled plasma sample that was obtained from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25423611

  3. How water molecules affect the catalytic activity of hydrolases--a XANES study of the local structures of peptide deformylase.

    PubMed

    Cui, Peixin; Wang, Yu; Chu, Wangsheng; Guo, Xiaoyun; Yang, Feifei; Yu, Meijuan; Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Yuhui; Xie, Yaning; Gong, Weimin; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a prokaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the deformylation of nascent peptides generated during protein synthesis and water molecules play a key role in these hydrolases. Using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and ab initio calculations we accurately probe the local atomic environment of the metal ion binding in the active site of PDF at different pH values and with different metal ions. This new approach is an effective way to monitor existing correlations among functions and structural changes. We show for the first time that the enzymatic activity depends on pH values and metal ions via the bond length of the nearest coordinating water (Wat1) to the metal ion. Combining experimental and theoretical data we may claim that PDF exhibits an enhanced enzymatic activity only when the distance of the Wat1 molecule with the metal ion falls in the limited range from 2.15 to 2.55 Å. PMID:25503313

  4. Peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor can modulate cardiac ryanodine receptor channel activity and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

    PubMed Central

    Dulhunty, Angela F; Curtis, Suzanne M; Cengia, Louise; Sakowska, Magdalena; Casarotto, Marco G

    2004-01-01

    We show that peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor II-III loop alter cardiac RyR (ryanodine receptor) channel activity in a cytoplasmic Ca2+-dependent manner. The peptides were AC (Thr-793-Ala-812 of the cardiac dihydropyridine receptor), AS (Thr-671-Leu-690 of the skeletal dihydropyridine receptor), and a modified AS peptide [AS(D-R18)], with an extended helical structure. The peptides added to the cytoplasmic side of channels in lipid bilayers at > or = 10 nM activated channels when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 100 nM, but either inhibited or did not affect channel activity when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 10 or 100 microM. Both activation and inhibition were independent of bilayer potential. Activation by AS, but not by AC or AS(D-R18), was reduced at peptide concentrations >1 mM in a voltage-dependent manner (at +40 mV). In control experiments, channels were not activated by the scrambled AS sequence (ASS) or skeletal II-III loop peptide (NB). Resting Ca2+ release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum was not altered by peptide AC, but Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release was depressed. Resting and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release were enhanced by both the native and modified AS peptides. NMR revealed (i) that the structure of peptide AS(D-R18) is not influenced by [Ca2+] and (ii) that peptide AC adopts a helical structure, particularly in the region containing positively charged residues. This is the first report of specific functional interactions between dihydropyridine receptor A region peptides and cardiac RyR ion channels in lipid bilayers. PMID:14678014

  5. Therapeutic effects of cell-permeant peptides that activate G proteins downstream of growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Gary S.; Aznar, Nicolas; Kalogriopoulos, Nicholas; Midde, Krishna K.; Lopez-Sanchez, Inmaculada; Sato, Emi; Dunkel, Ying; Gallo, Richard L.; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and trimeric G proteins are two major signaling hubs. Signal transduction via trimeric G proteins has long been believed to be triggered exclusively by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This paradigm has recently been challenged by several studies on a multimodular signal transducer, Gα-Interacting Vesicle associated protein (GIV/Girdin). We recently demonstrated that GIV’s C terminus (CT) serves as a platform for dynamic association of ligand-activated RTKs with Gαi, and for noncanonical transactivation of G proteins. However, exogenous manipulation of this platform has remained beyond reach. Here we developed cell-permeable GIV-CT peptides by fusing a TAT-peptide transduction domain (TAT-PTD) to the minimal modular elements of GIV that are necessary and sufficient for activation of Gi downstream of RTKs, and used them to engineer signaling networks and alter cell behavior. In the presence of an intact GEF motif, TAT-GIV-CT peptides enhanced diverse processes in which GIV’s GEF function has previously been implicated, e.g., 2D cell migration after scratch-wounding, invasion of cancer cells, and finally, myofibroblast activation and collagen production. Furthermore, topical application of TAT-GIV-CT peptides enhanced the complex, multireceptor-driven process of wound repair in mice in a GEF-dependent manner. Thus, TAT-GIV peptides provide a novel and versatile tool to manipulate Gαi activation downstream of growth factors in a diverse array of pathophysiologic conditions. PMID:25926659

  6. Alkyl isocyanates as active site-directed inactivators of guinea pig liver transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Gross, M; Whetzel, N K; Folk, J E

    1975-10-10

    Alkyl isocyanates are effective inactivators of guinea pig liver transglutaminase. Based on the specificity of the reaction the protection against inactivation by glutamine substrate, and the essential nature of calcium for the inactivation reaction, it is concluded that these reagents act as amide substrate analogs and, thus function in an active site-specific manner. Support for the contention that inactivation results from alkyl thiocarbamate ester formation through the single active site sulfhydryl group of the enzyme is (a) the loss of one free--SH group and the incorporation of 1 mol of reagent/mol of enzyme in the reaction, (b) similarity in chemical properties of the inactive enzyme derivative formed to those previously reported for another alkyl thiocarbamoylenzyme and an alkyl thiocarbamoylcysteine derivative, and (c) the finding that labeled peptides from digests of [methyl-14C]thiocarbamoyltransglutaminase and those from digests of iodoacetamide-inactivated enzyme occupy similar positions on peptide maps. Transglutaminase was found to be inactivated neither by urethan anlogs of its active ester substrates nor by urea analogs of its amide substrates. It is concluded on the basis of these findings that inactive carbamoylenzyme derivatives are formed only by direct addition of the transglutaminase active--SH group to the isocyanate C--N double bond, and not, like several serine active site enzymes, by nucleophilic displacement with urethan analogs of substrate, or by nucleophilic displacement with urea analogs of substrate. PMID:240837

  7. Effect of vasoactive peptides in Tetrahymena: chemotactic activities of adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP).

    PubMed

    Kőhidai, László; Tóth, Katalin; Samotik, Paul; Ranganathan, Kiran; Láng, Orsolya; Tóth, Miklós; Ruskoaho, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AMD), proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were studied for chemotaxis, chemotactic selection and G-actin/F-actin transition in Tetrahymena. The aim of the experiments was to study the effects of two different peptides encoded by the same gene compared to a peptide related to one of the two, but encoded by a different gene, at a low level of phylogeny. The positive, chemotactic effect of ADM and the strong negative, chemorepellent effect of PAMP suggest that in Tetrahymena, the two peptides elicit their chemotactic effects via different signalling mechanisms. The complexity of swimming behaviour modulated by the three peptides underlines that chemotaxis, chemokinesis and some characteristics of migratory behaviour (velocity, tortuosity) are working as a sub-population level complex functional unit. Chemotactic responsiveness to ADM and CGRP is short-term, in contrast to PAMP, which as a chemorepellent ligand, has the ability to select sub-populations with negative chemotactic responsiveness. The different effects of ADM and PAMP on the polymerization of actin networks show that the microtubular structure of cilia is more essential to chemotactic response than are transitions of the actin network. The results draw attention to the characteristic effects of vasoactive peptides at this low level of phylogeny. PMID:26481478

  8. Fibromodulin Interacts with Collagen Cross-linking Sites and Activates Lysyl Oxidase*

    PubMed Central

    Bihan, Dominique; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Rubin, Kristofer; Farndale, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of fibrotic disorders is a highly cross-linked and dense collagen matrix, a property driven by the oxidative action of lysyl oxidase. Other fibrosis-associated proteins also contribute to the final collagen matrix properties, one of which is fibromodulin. Its interactions with collagen affect collagen cross-linking, packing, and fibril diameter. We investigated the possibility that a specific relationship exists between fibromodulin and lysyl oxidase, potentially imparting a specific collagen matrix phenotype. We mapped the fibromodulin-collagen interaction sites using the collagen II and III Toolkit peptide libraries. Fibromodulin interacted with the peptides containing the known collagen cross-linking sites and the MMP-1 cleavage site in collagens I and II. Interestingly, the interaction sites are closely aligned within the quarter-staggered collagen fibril, suggesting a multivalent interaction between fibromodulin and several collagen helices. Furthermore, we detected an interaction between fibromodulin and lysyl oxidase (a major collagen cross-linking enzyme) and mapped the interaction site to 12 N-terminal amino acids on fibromodulin. This interaction also increases the activity of lysyl oxidase. Together, the data suggest a fibromodulin-modulated collagen cross-linking mechanism where fibromodulin binds to a specific part of the collagen domain and also forms a complex with lysyl oxidase, targeting the enzyme toward specific cross-linking sites. PMID:26893379

  9. Design and analysis of structure-activity relationship of novel antimicrobial peptides derived from the conserved sequence of cecropin.

    PubMed

    Hao, Gang; Shi, Yong-Hui; Han, Jing-Hui; Li, Qi-Hui; Tang, Ya-Li; Le, Guo-Wei

    2008-03-01

    We have de novo designed four antimicrobial peptides AMP-A/B/C/D, the 51-residues peptides, which are based on the conserved sequence of cecropin. In the present study, the four peptides were chemically synthesized and their activities assayed. Their secondary structure, amphipathic property, electric field distribution and transmembrane domain were subsequently predicted by bioinformatics tools. Finally, the structure-activity relationship was analyzed from the results of activity experiments and prediction. The results of activity experiments indicated that AMP-B/C/D clearly possessed excellent broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, whereas AMP-A was almost inactive against most of the bacterial strains tested. AMP-B/C/D showed more potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative bacteria. By utilizing bioinformatics analysis tools, we found that the secondary structure of the four cation peptides was mainly alpha-helix, and the result of CD spectrum also displayed that all the peptides had considerable alpha-helix in the presence of either 50% TFE or SDS micelles. AMP-C showed much better activity than other peptides against most of the bacteria tested, owing to its remarkable cation property and the amphipathic character of its N-terminal. The study of structure-activity relationship of the designed peptides confirmed that amphipathic structure and high net positive charge were prerequisites for maintaining their activities. PMID:17929330

  10. A structure-activity relationship for induction of meningeal inflammation by muramyl peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, M; Rozdzinski, E; Geelen, S; Tuomanen, E

    1993-01-01

    Components of bacterial peptidoglycans have potent biological activities, including adjuvant effects, cytotoxicity, and induction of sleep. Mixtures of peptidoglycan components also induce inflammation in the lung, subarachnoid space, and joint, but the structural requirements for activity are unknown. Using a rabbit model for meningitis, we determined the biological activities of 14 individual muramyl peptides constituting > 90% of the peptidoglycan of the gram-negative pediatric pathogen Haemophilus influenzae. Upon intracisternal inoculation, most of the muropeptides induced leukocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), influx of protein into CSF, or brain edema, alone or in combination. The disaccharide-tetrapeptide, the major component of all gram-negative peptidoglycans, induced CSF leukocytosis and protein influx at doses as low as 0.4 microgram (0.42 nM). Modification of the N-acetyl muramic acid or substitution of the alanine at position four in the peptide side chain decreased leukocytosis but enhanced brain edema. As the size of the muropeptide increased, the inflammatory activity decreased. Muropeptide carrying the diaminopimelyl-diaminopimelic acid cross-link specifically induced cytotoxic brain edema. These findings significantly expand the spectrum of biological activities of natural muramyl peptides and provide the basis for a structure-activity relationship for the inflammatory properties of bacterial muropeptides. PMID:8325996

  11. Enhanced Amphiphilic Profile of a Short β-Stranded Peptide Improves Its Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Manzo, Giorgia; Scorciapino, Mariano A.; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Bürck, Jochen; Montaldo, Nicola Pietro; Pintus, Manuela; Sanna, Roberta; Casu, Mariano; Giuliani, Andrea; Pirri, Giovanna; Luca, Vincenzo; Ulrich, Anne S.; Rinaldi, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    SB056 is a novel semi-synthetic antimicrobial peptide with a dimeric dendrimer scaffold. Active against both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, its mechanism has been attributed to a disruption of bacterial membranes. The branched peptide was shown to assume a β-stranded conformation in a lipidic environment. Here, we report on a rational modification of the original, empirically derived linear peptide sequence [WKKIRVRLSA-NH2, SB056-lin]. We interchanged the first two residues [KWKIRVRLSA-NH2, β-SB056-lin] to enhance the amphipathic profile, in the hope that a more regular β-strand would lead to a better antimicrobial performance. MIC values confirmed that an enhanced amphiphilic profile indeed significantly increases activity against both Gram-positive and -negative strains. The membrane binding affinity of both peptides, measured by tryptophan fluorescence, increased with an increasing ratio of negatively charged/zwitterionic lipids. Remarkably, β-SB056-lin showed considerable binding even to purely zwitterionic membranes, unlike the original sequence, indicating that besides electrostatic attraction also the amphipathicity of the peptide structure plays a fundamental role in binding, by stabilizing the bound state. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism and solid-state 19F-NMR were used to characterize and compare the conformation and mobility of the membrane bound peptides. Both SB056-lin and β-SB056-lin adopt a β-stranded conformation upon binding POPC vesicles, but the former maintains an intrinsic structural disorder that also affects its aggregation tendency. Upon introducing some anionic POPG into the POPC matrix, the sequence-optimized β-SB056-lin forms well-ordered β-strands once electro-neutrality is approached, and it aggregates into more extended β-sheets as the concentration of anionic lipids in the bilayer is raised. The enhanced antimicrobial activity of the analogue correlates with the formation of these extended β-sheets, which

  12. Biological Activity of Aminophosphonic Acids and Their Short Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejczak, Barbara; Kafarski, Pawel

    The biological activity and natural occurrence of the aminophosphonic acids were described half a century ago. Since then the chemistry and biology of this class of compounds have developed into the separate field of phosphorus chemistry. Today it is well acknowledged that these compounds possess a wide variety of promising, and in some cases commercially useful, physiological activities. Thus, they have found applications ranging from agrochemical (with the herbicides glyphosate and bialaphos being the most prominent examples) to medicinal (with the potent antihypertensive fosinopril and antiosteoporetic bisphosphonates being examples).

  13. Early eukaryotic origins for cilia-associated bioactive peptide-amidating activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhivya; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Mains, Richard E; King, Stephen M; Eipper, Betty A

    2016-03-01

    Ciliary axonemes and basal bodies were present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and play crucial roles in sensing and responding to environmental cues. Peptidergic signaling, generally considered a metazoan innovation, is essential for organismal development and homeostasis. Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is crucial for the last step of bioactive peptide biosynthesis. However, identification of a complete PAM-like gene in green algal genomes suggests ancient evolutionary roots for bioactive peptide signaling. We demonstrate that the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PAM gene encodes an active peptide-amidating enzyme (CrPAM) that shares key structural and functional features with the mammalian enzyme, indicating that components of the peptide biosynthetic pathway predate multicellularity. In addition to its secretory pathway localization, CrPAM localizes to cilia and tightly associates with the axonemal superstructure, revealing a new axonemal enzyme activity. This localization pattern is conserved in mammals, with PAM present in both motile and immotile sensory cilia. The conserved ciliary localization of PAM adds to the known signaling capabilities of the eukaryotic cilium and provides a potential mechanistic link between peptidergic signaling and endocrine abnormalities commonly observed in ciliopathies. PMID:26787743

  14. Apoptotic human neutrophil peptide-1 anti-tumor activity revealed by cellular biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Diana; Freire, João M; Pacheco, Teresa R; Barata, João T; Castanho, Miguel A R B

    2015-02-01

    Cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although progress has been made regarding chemotherapeutic agents, new therapies that combine increased selectivity and efficacy with low resistance are still needed. In the search for new anticancer agents, therapies based on biologically active peptides, in particular, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), have attracted attention for their decreased resistance development and low cytotoxicity. Many AMPs have proved to be tumoricidal agents against human cancer cells, but their mode of action is still controversial. The existence of common properties shared by the membranes of bacteria and tumor cells points to similar lipid-targeting mechanisms in both cases. On the other hand, anticancer peptides (ACPs) also induce apoptosis and inhibit angiogenesis. Human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1) is an endogenous AMP that has been implicated in different cellular phenomena such as tumor proliferation. The presence of HNP-1 in the serum/plasma of oncologic patients turns this peptide into a potential tumor biomarker. The present work reveals the different effects of HNP-1 on the biophysical and nanomechanical properties of solid and hematological tumor cells. Studies on cellular morphology, cellular stiffness, and membrane ultrastructure and charge using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and zeta potential measurements show a preferential binding of HNP-1 to solid tumor cells from human prostate adenocarcinoma when compared to human leukemia cells. AFM also reveals induction of apoptosis with cellular membrane defects at very low peptide concentrations. Understanding ACPs mode(s) of action will certainly open innovative pathways for drug development in cancer treatment. PMID:25447543

  15. Cellular Uptake and Cytotoxicity of Drug-Peptide Conjugates Regulated by Conjugation Site

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengcheng; Cheetham, Andrew G.; Lock, Lye Lin; Cui, Honggang

    2013-01-01

    Conjugation of anticancer drugs to hydrophilic peptides such as Tat is a widely adopted strategy to improve the drug’s solubility, cellular uptake and potency against cancerous cells. Here we report that attachment of an anticancer drug doxorubicin to the N- or C-terminal of the Tat peptide can have a significant impact on their cellular uptake, cytotoxicity against both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cells. We observed higher cellular uptake by both cell lines for C-terminal conjugate relative to the N-terminal analogue. Our results reveal that the C-terminal conjugate partially overcame the multi-drug resistance of cervical cancer cells, while the N-terminal conjugate showed no significant improvement in cytotoxicity when compared with free doxorubicin. We also found that both N- and C- conjugates offers a mechanism to circumvent drug efflux associated with multidrug resistance. PMID:23514455

  16. Site-directed gene mutation at mixed sequence targets by psoralen-conjugated pseudo-complementary peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Nielsen, Peter E; Glazer, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding molecules such as triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) provide a means for inducing site-specific mutagenesis and recombination at chromosomal sites in mammalian cells. However, the utility of TFOs is limited by the requirement for homopurine stretches in the target duplex DNA. Here, we report the use of pseudo-complementary peptide nucleic acids (pcPNAs) for intracellular gene targeting at mixed sequence sites. Due to steric hindrance, pcPNAs are unable to form pcPNA-pcPNA duplexes but can bind to complementary DNA sequences by Watson-Crick pairing via double duplex-invasion complex formation. We show that psoralen-conjugated pcPNAs can deliver site-specific photoadducts and mediate targeted gene modification within both episomal and chromosomal DNA in mammalian cells without detectable off-target effects. Most of the induced psoralen-pcPNA mutations were single-base substitutions and deletions at the predicted pcPNA-binding sites. The pcPNA-directed mutagenesis was found to be dependent on PNA concentration and UVA dose and required matched pairs of pcPNAs. Neither of the individual pcPNAs alone had any effect nor did complementary PNA pairs of the same sequence. These results identify pcPNAs as new tools for site-specific gene modification in mammalian cells without purine sequence restriction, thereby providing a general strategy for designing gene targeting molecules. PMID:17977869

  17. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the

  18. A peptide encoded by a transcript annotated as long noncoding RNA enhances SERCA activity in muscle.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Benjamin R; Makarewich, Catherine A; Anderson, Douglas M; Winders, Benjamin R; Troupes, Constantine D; Wu, Fenfen; Reese, Austin L; McAnally, John R; Chen, Xiongwen; Kavalali, Ege T; Cannon, Stephen C; Houser, Steven R; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2016-01-15

    Muscle contraction depends on release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and reuptake by the Ca(2+)adenosine triphosphatase SERCA. We discovered a putative muscle-specific long noncoding RNA that encodes a peptide of 34 amino acids and that we named dwarf open reading frame (DWORF). DWORF localizes to the SR membrane, where it enhances SERCA activity by displacing the SERCA inhibitors, phospholamban, sarcolipin, and myoregulin. In mice, overexpression of DWORF in cardiomyocytes increases peak Ca(2+) transient amplitude and SR Ca(2+) load while reducing the time constant of cytosolic Ca(2+) decay during each cycle of contraction-relaxation. Conversely, slow skeletal muscle lacking DWORF exhibits delayed Ca(2+) clearance and relaxation and reduced SERCA activity. DWORF is the only endogenous peptide known to activate the SERCA pump by physical interaction and provides a means for enhancing muscle contractility. PMID:26816378

  19. Antagonistic Activities of Novel Peptides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14 against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Gwon; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kwon, Kee-Deok; Seo, Chang Ho; Lee, Hyang Burm; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus species have recently drawn attention due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. This paper reports on the antifungal activity of novel peptides isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that B. amyloliquefaciens PT14 produces five peptides (PT14-1, -2, -3, -4a, and -4b) that exhibit antifungal activity but are inactive against bacterial strains. In particular, PT14-3 and PT14-4a showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. The PT14-4a N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified through Edman degradation, and a BLAST homology analysis showed it not to be identical to any other protein or peptide. PT14-4a displayed strong fungicidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 3.12 mg/L (F. solani) and 6.25 mg/L (F. oxysporum), inducing severe morphological deformation in the conidia and hyphae. On the other hand, PT14-4a had no detectable hemolytic activity. This suggests PT14-4a has the potential to serve as an antifungal agent in clinical therapeutic and crop-protection applications. PMID:26496638

  20. Amyloid β peptide oligomers directly activate NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Texidó, Laura; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Alberdi, Elena; Solsona, Carles; Matute, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers accumulate in the brain tissue of Alzheimer disease patients and are related to disease pathogenesis. The precise mechanisms by which Aβ oligomers cause neurotoxicity remain unknown. We recently reported that Aβ oligomers cause intracellular Ca(2+) overload and neuronal death that can be prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists. This study investigated whether Aβ oligomers directly activated NMDA receptors (NMDARs) using NR1/NR2A and NR1/NR2B receptors that were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Indeed, Aβ oligomers induced inward non-desensitizing currents that were blocked in the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonists memantine, APV, and MK-801. Intriguingly, the amplitude of the responses to Aβ oligomers was greater for NR1/NR2A heteromers than for NR1/NR2B heteromers expressed in oocytes. Consistent with these findings, we observed that the increase in the cytosolic concentration of Ca(2+) induced by Aβ oligomers in cortical neurons is prevented by AP5, a broad spectrum NMDA receptor antagonist, but slightly attenuated by ifenprodil which blocks receptors with the NR2B subunit. Together, these results indicate that Aβ oligomers directly activate NMDA receptors, particularly those with the NR2A subunit, and further suggest that drugs that attenuate the activity of such receptors may prevent Aβ damage to neurons in Alzheimeŕs disease. PMID:21349580

  1. Injection of Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide into the nucleus accumbens does not inhibit caffeine-induced locomotor activity: Implications for CART peptide mechanism.

    PubMed

    Job, Martin O

    2016-09-01

    Much evidence suggests that intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) CART peptide (CART 55-102) injection inhibits locomotor activity (LMA) when there is an increase in the release and activity of dopamine (DA) in the NAc. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested. One way to examine this is to determine if there is a lack of effect of intra-NAc CART peptide on LMA that does not involve increases in DA release in the NAc. Several studies have suggested that caffeine-induced LMA does not involve extracellular DA release in the NAc core. Therefore, in this study, we have examined the effect of injections of CART peptide (2.5μg) into the NAc core on the locomotor effects of caffeine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Several LMA relevant doses of caffeine were used (0, 10, 20mg/kg i.p.), and an inverted U response curve was found as expected. We determined, in the same animals, that intra-NAc CART peptide had no effect on caffeine-induced LMA whereas it blunted cocaine-mediated LMA, as shown by other reports. We also extended a previous observation in mice by showing that at a LMA activating dose of caffeine there is no alteration of CART peptide levels in the NAc of rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the inhibitory effects of CART peptide in the NAc may be exerted only under conditions of increased extracellular DA release and activity in this region. Our results also suggest that intra-NAc CART 55-102 does not generally inhibit increases in LMA due to all drugs, but has a more specific inhibitory effect on dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:27168116

  2. Design and Characterization of a Multifunctional pH-Triggered Peptide C8 for Selective Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng; Bennett, W F Drew; Ding, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Helen Y; Zhao, Danyang; Zheng, Tao; Ouyang, Ping-Kai; Li, Jason; Wu, Yan; Xu, Wen; Chu, Dafeng; Yuan, Yongfang; Heerklotz, Heiko; Karttunen, Mikko; Chen, P

    2015-12-01

    Most drug delivery systems have been developed for efficient delivery to tumor sites via targeting and on-demand strategies, but the carriers rarely execute synergistic therapeutic actions. In this work, C8, a cationic, pH-triggered anticancer peptide, is developed by incorporating histidine-mediated pH-sensitivity, amphipathic helix, and amino acid pairing self-assembly design. We designed C8 to function as a pH-responsive nanostructure whose cytotoxicity can be switched on and off by its self-assembly: Noncytotoxic β-sheet fibers at high pH with neutral histidines, and positively charged monomers with membrane lytic activity at low pH. The selective activity of C8, tested for three different cancer cell lines and two noncancerous cell lines, is shown. Based on liposome leakage assays and multiscale computer simulations, its physical mechanisms of pore-forming action and selectivity are proposed, which originate from differences in the lipid composition of the cellular membrane and changes in hydrogen bonding. C8 is then investigated for its potential as a drug carrier. C8 forms a nanocomplex with ellipticine, a nonselective model anticancer drug. It selectively targets cancer cells in a pH-responsive manner, demonstrating enhanced efficacy and selectivity. This study provides a novel powerful strategy for the design and development of multifunctional self-assembling peptides for therapeutic and drug delivery applications. PMID:26474414

  3. Porcine pituitary peptides with opiate-like activity: partial purification and effects in the rat after intraventricular injection.

    PubMed

    Teschemacher, H; Bläsig, J; Kromer, W

    1976-09-01

    A peptide material with opiate-like activity in the guinea-pig ileum was extracted from porcine pituitaries using a hot glacial acetic acid extraction method and was partially purified by gel filtration. When injected intraventricularly in rats, these purified peptides induced strong analgesia, catelepsy, respiratory depression and other opiate-like effects, which lasted for several hours. PMID:1034219

  4. Design of an α-helical antimicrobial peptide with improved cell-selective and potent anti-biofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Kun; Song, Jin-Wen; Gong, Feng; Li, Su-Bo; Chang, Hong-Yu; Xie, Hui-Min; Gao, Hong-Wei; Tan, Ying-Xia; Ji, Shou-Ping

    2016-01-01

    AR-23 is a melittin-related peptide with 23 residues. Like melittin, its high α-helical amphipathic structure results in strong bactericidal activity and cytotoxicity. In this study, a series of AR-23 analogues with low amphipathicity were designed by substitution of Ala1, Ala8 and Ile17 with positively charged residues (Arg or Lys) to study the effect of positively charged residue distribution on the biological viability of the antimicrobial peptide. Substitution of Ile17 on the nonpolar face with positively charged Lys dramatically altered the hydrophobicity, amphipathicity, helicity and the membrane-penetrating activity against human cells as well as the haemolytic activity of the peptide. However, substitution on the polar face only slightly affected the peptide biophysical properties and biological activity. The results indicate that the position rather than the number of positively charged residue affects the biophysical properties and selectivity of the peptide. Of all the analogues, A(A1R, A8R, I17K), a peptide with Ala1-Arg, Ala8-Arg and Ile17-Lys substitutions, exhibited similar bactericidal activity and anti-biofilm activity to AR-23 but had much lower haemolytic activity and cytotoxicity against mammalian cells compared with AR-23. Therefore, the findings reported here provide a rationalization for peptide design and optimization, which will be useful for the future development of antimicrobial agents. PMID:27271216

  5. Design of an α-helical antimicrobial peptide with improved cell-selective and potent anti-biofilm activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi-Kun; Song, Jin-wen; Gong, Feng; Li, Su-Bo; Chang, Hong-Yu; Xie, Hui-Min; Gao, Hong-Wei; Tan, Ying-Xia; Ji, Shou-Ping

    2016-01-01

    AR-23 is a melittin-related peptide with 23 residues. Like melittin, its high α-helical amphipathic structure results in strong bactericidal activity and cytotoxicity. In this study, a series of AR-23 analogues with low amphipathicity were designed by substitution of Ala1, Ala8 and Ile17 with positively charged residues (Arg or Lys) to study the effect of positively charged residue distribution on the biological viability of the antimicrobial peptide. Substitution of Ile17 on the nonpolar face with positively charged Lys dramatically altered the hydrophobicity, amphipathicity, helicity and the membrane-penetrating activity against human cells as well as the haemolytic activity of the peptide. However, substitution on the polar face only slightly affected the peptide biophysical properties and biological activity. The results indicate that the position rather than the number of positively charged residue affects the biophysical properties and selectivity of the peptide. Of all the analogues, A(A1R, A8R, I17K), a peptide with Ala1-Arg, Ala8-Arg and Ile17-Lys substitutions, exhibited similar bactericidal activity and anti-biofilm activity to AR-23 but had much lower haemolytic activity and cytotoxicity against mammalian cells compared with AR-23. Therefore, the findings reported here provide a rationalization for peptide design and optimization, which will be useful for the future development of antimicrobial agents. PMID:27271216

  6. Why does threonine, and not serine, function as the active site nucleophile in proteasomes?

    PubMed

    Kisselev, A F; Songyang, Z; Goldberg, A L

    2000-05-19

    Proteasomes belong to the N-terminal nucleophile group of amidases and function through a novel proteolytic mechanism, in which the hydroxyl group of the N-terminal threonines is the catalytic nucleophile. However, it is unclear why threonine has been conserved in all proteasomal active sites, because its replacement by a serine in proteasomes from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum (T1S mutant) does not alter the rates of hydrolysis of Suc-LLVY-amc (Seemüller, E., Lupas, A., Stock, D., Lowe, J., Huber, R., and Baumeister, W. (1995) Science 268, 579-582) and other standard peptide amide substrates. However, we found that true peptide bonds in decapeptide libraries were cleaved by the T1S mutant 10-fold slower than by wild type (wt) proteasomes. In degrading proteins, the T1S proteasome was 3.5- to 6-fold slower than the wt, and this difference increased when proteolysis was stimulated using the proteasome-activating nucleotidase (PAN) ATPase complex. With mutant proteasomes, peptide bond cleavage appeared to be rate-limiting in protein breakdown, unlike with wt. Surprisingly, a peptide ester was hydrolyzed by both particles much faster than the corresponding amide, and the T1S mutant cleaved it faster than the wt. Moreover, the T1S mutant was inactivated by the ester inhibitor clasto-lactacystin-beta-lactone severalfold faster than the wt, but reacted with nonester irreversible inhibitors at similar rates. T1A and T1C mutants were completely inactive in all these assays. Thus, proteasomes lack additional active sites, and the N-terminal threonine evolved because it allows more efficient protein breakdown than serine. PMID:10809725

  7. Allosteric receptor activation by the plant peptide hormone phytosulfokine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jizong; Li, Hongju; Han, Zhifu; Zhang, Heqiao; Wang, Tong; Lin, Guangzhong; Chang, Junbiao; Yang, Weicai; Chai, Jijie

    2015-09-10

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a disulfated pentapeptide that has a ubiquitous role in plant growth and development. PSK is perceived by its receptor PSKR, a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK). The mechanisms underlying the recognition of PSK, the activation of PSKR and the identity of the components downstream of the initial binding remain elusive. Here we report the crystal structures of the extracellular LRR domain of PSKR in free, PSK- and co-receptor-bound forms. The structures reveal that PSK interacts mainly with a β-strand from the island domain of PSKR, forming an anti-β-sheet. The two sulfate moieties of PSK interact directly with PSKR, sensitizing PSKR recognition of PSK. Supported by biochemical, structural and genetic evidence, PSK binding enhances PSKR heterodimerization with the somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases (SERKs). However, PSK is not directly involved in PSKR-SERK interaction but stabilizes PSKR island domain for recruitment of a SERK. Our data reveal the structural basis for PSKR recognition of PSK and allosteric activation of PSKR by PSK, opening up new avenues for the design of PSKR-specific small molecules. PMID:26308901

  8. Peptide YY receptors in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, A.; Oya, M.; Okita, M.; Inoue, T.; Sakatani, N.; Morioka, H.; Shii, K.; Yokono, K.; Mizuno, N.; Baba, S.

    1988-01-15

    Radiolabelled ligand binding studies demonstrated that specific receptors for peptide YY are present in the porcine as well as the canine brains. Peptide YY was bound to brain tissue membranes via high-affinity (dissociation constant, 1.39 X 10(-10)M) and low-affinity (dissociation constant, 3.72 X 10(-8)M) components. The binding sites showed a high specificity for peptide YY and neuropeptide Y, but not for pancreatic polypeptide or structurally unrelated peptides. The specific activity of peptide YY binding was highest in the hippocampus, followed by the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and the amygdala of the porcine brain, this pattern being similarly observed in the canine brain. The results suggest that peptide YY and neuropeptide Y may regulate the function of these regions of the brain through interaction with a common receptor site.

  9. Structure–activity relationships for α-calcitonin gene-related peptide

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Harriet A; Rathbone, Dan L; Barwell, James; Hay, Debbie L; Poyner, David R

    2013-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a member of the calcitonin (CT) family of peptides. It is a widely distributed neuropeptide implicated in conditions such as neurogenic inflammation. With other members of the CT family, it shares an N-terminal disulphide-bonded ring which is essential for biological activity, an area of potential α-helix, and a C-terminal amide. CGRP binds to the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) in complex with receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), a member of the family B (or secretin-like) GPCRs. It can also activate other CLR or calcitonin-receptor/RAMP complexes. This 37 amino acid peptide comprises the N-terminal ring that is required for receptor activation (residues 1–7); an α-helix (residues 8–18), a region incorporating a β-bend (residues 19–26) and the C-terminal portion (residues 27–37), that is characterized by bends between residues 28–30 and 33–34. A few residues have been identified that seem to make major contributions to receptor binding and activation, with a larger number contributing either to minor interactions (which collectively may be significant), or to maintaining the conformation of the bound peptide. It is not clear if CGRP follows the pattern of other family B GPCRs in binding largely as an α-helix. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Neuropeptides. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-7 PMID:23186257

  10. Enhancing cellular uptake of activable cell-penetrating peptide-doxorubicin conjugate by enzymatic cleavage.

    PubMed

    Shi, Nian-Qiu; Gao, Wei; Xiang, Bai; Qi, Xian-Rong

    2012-01-01

    The use of activable cell-penetrating peptides (ACPPs) as molecular imaging probes is a promising new approach for the visualization of enzymes. The cell-penetrating function of a polycationic cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is efficiently blocked by intramolecular electrostatic interactions with a polyanionic peptide. Proteolysis of a proteinase-sensitive substrate present between the CPP and polyanionic peptide affords dissociation of both domains and enables the activated CPP to enter cells. This ACPP strategy could also be used to modify antitumor agents for tumor-targeting therapy. Here, we aimed to develop a conjugate of ACPP with antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) sensitive to matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2/9) for tumor-targeting therapy purposes. The ACPP-DOX conjugate was successfully synthesized. Enzymatic cleavage of ACPP-DOX conjugate by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 indicated that the activation of ACPP-DOX occurred in an enzyme concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry and laser confocal microscope studies revealed that the cellular uptake of ACPP-DOX was enhanced after enzymatic-triggered activation and was higher in HT-1080 cells (overexpressed MMPs) than in MCF-7 cells (under-expressed MMPs). The antiproliferative assay showed that ACPP had little toxicity and that ACPP-DOX effectively inhibited HT-1080 cell proliferation. These experiments revealed that the ACPP-DOX conjugate could be triggered by MMP-2/9, which enabled the activated CPP-DOX to enter cells. ACPP-DOX conjugate may be a potential prodrug delivery system used to carry antitumor drugs for MMP-related tumor therapy. PMID:22619516

  11. Upregulation of RNase E activity by mutation of a site that uncompetitively interferes with RNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minho; Shin, Eunkyoung; Jeon, Che Ok; Cha, Chang-Jun; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Su-Jin; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Younghoon; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli RNase E contains a site that selectively binds to RNAs containing 5′-monophosphate termini, increasing the efficiency of endonucleolytic cleavage of these RNAs. Random mutagenesis of N-Rne, the N-terminal catalytic region of RNase E, identified a hyperactive variant that remains preferentially responsive to phosphorylation at 5′ termini. Biochemical analyses showed that the mutation (Q36R), which replaces glutamine with arginine at a position distant from the catalytic site, increases formation of stable RNA-protein complexes without detectably affecting the enzyme's secondary or tertiary structure. Studies of cleavage of fluorogenic substrate and EMSA experiments indicated that the Q36R mutation increases catalytic activity and RNA binding. however, UV crosslinking and mass spectrometry studies suggested that the mutant enzyme lacks an RNA binding site present in its wild-type counterpart. Two substrate-bound tryptic peptides, 65HGFLPLK71—which includes amino acids previously implicated in substrate binding and catalysis—and 24LYDLDIESPGHEQK37—which includes the Q36 locus—were identified in wild-type enzyme complexes, whereas only the shorter peptide was observed for complexes containing Q36R. Our results identify a novel RNase E locus that disparately affects the number of substrate binding sites and catalytic activity of the enzyme. We propose a model that may account for these surprising effects. PMID:22186084

  12. Elucidation of peptide sequence effects that control the activity, size, and function of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppage, Ryan

    Bio-inspired nanoparticle catalysis offers the opportunity to improve on current catalytic standards with respect to turnover efficiency, organic solvent use, and thermal activation. Unfortunately, projected energy demands will soon outweigh our fuel supplies. The task of creating multifunctional catalysts that both lower thermal activation and possess a number of functions in aqueous conditions is daunting. Similar to these needs, nature has evolved to create a wide range of highly specialized catalytic processes, which incorporate inorganic materials, take place in ambient temperatures, and in an aqueous environment. These specialized biological systems provide inspiration, but are not applicable to current needs. Exploitation of these biotic-abiotic systems could allow for green, multifunctional catalysts. In the resulting works, a peptide sequence has been isolated via phage display with affinity for Pd surfaces, that forms stable, peptide-capped nanoparticles. Substitution of residues results in the tuning of both nanocatalyst activity and nanoparticle size, such that a peptide surface-controlling effect can be noted. These characteristics can be exploited to ultimately understand the binding interactions among bio-inorganic interfaces, such that a rational design of biomolecules can be realized for the synthesis of highly active, green, multifunctional nanomaterials.

  13. An antifungal peptide with antiproliferative activity toward tumor cells from red kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-06-01

    A 7.3-kDa antifungal peptide was purified from dried red kidney beans. The purification procedure entailed ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, followed by fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose. It exhibited a molecular mass of 7.3 kDa in gel filtration and also in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that it is a single-chained protein. The N-terminal sequence of the peptide was DGVCFGGLANGDRT. The peptide exerted an antifungal action on Fusarium oxysporum with an IC₅₀ of 3.8±0.4 µM (mean±SD, n=3). It also inhibited mycelial growth in Mycosphaerella arachidicola. It suppressed growth of lymphoma MBL2 cells and leukemia L1210 cells with an IC₅₀ of 5.2±0.4 µM and 7.6±0.6 µM, respectively. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was inhibited with an IC₅₀ of 40±3.2 µM. However, no activity was demonstrated toward other viral enzymes. PMID:21309741

  14. Novel antimicrobial peptides that exhibit activity against select agents and other drug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Divakaramenon; Klapper, David; Srouji, Antoine H; Bhonsle, Jayendra B; Borschel, Richard; Mueller, Allen; Russell, Amanda L; Williams, Brittany C; Hicks, Rickey P

    2010-07-15

    One of the greatest challenges facing modern medicine is the evolution of drug resistant strains of bacteria. In addition to traditional methods of exposure to traditional bacterial organisms there is a growing concerned of the use of bacteria as bio-terrorism agents. To counter the evolution of drug resistant and potential bio-terrorism bacterial agents new antibiotic drugs must be developed. One potential source of new therapeutic agents that act via a novel mechanism of action are natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In our laboratories we have developed a series of AMPs incorporating the un-natural amino acids Tic-Oic to impart organism selectivity and potency while increasing metabolic stability. Herein the in vitro activity of these peptides, including ten new compounds, against eight potential bio-terrorism bacterial agents and three other bacterial strains is presented and discussed. These peptides exhibit a wide range of organism potency and selectivity. Calcein fluorescence leakage and circular dichroism studies were conducted to confirm that these peptides interact with zwitterionic and anionic liposomes. PMID:20558071

  15. Novel Peptides from Skins of Amphibians Showed Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Lee, Wen-Hui; Yang, Xinwang; Zhang, Yun

    2016-03-01

    Peptide agents are often considered as potential biomaterials for developing new drugs that can overcome the rising resistance of pathogenic micro-organisms to classic antibiotic treatments. One key source of peptide agents is amphibian skin, as they provide a great deal of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide (AMP) templates awaiting further exploitation and utilization. In this study, 12 novel AMPs from the skins of 3 ranid frogs, Rana limnocharis, R. exilispinosa, and Amolops afghanus, were identified using a 5' PCR primer. A total of 11 AMPs exhibited similarities with currently known AMP families, including brevinin-1, brevinin-2, esculentin-1, and nigrocin, besides, one AMP, named as Limnochariin, represented a novel AMP family. All 12 AMPs contain a C-terminus cyclic motif and most of them show obvious antimicrobial activities against 18 standard and clinically isolated strains of bacteria, including 4 Gram-positive bacteria, 11 Gram-negative bacteria, and 3 fungus. These findings provide helpful insight that will be useful in the design of anti-infective peptide agents. PMID:26452973

  16. Enhanced efficacy (intrinsic activity) of cyclic opioid peptide analogs at the. mu. -receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, P.W.; Lemieux, C.; Nguyen, T.M.D.; Maziak, L.A.

    1986-05-01

    Side-chain to end group cyclized enkephalin analogs (e.g. H-Tyr-cyclo(-D-Lys-Gly-Phe-Leu-) and cyclic opioid peptide analogs obtained through covalent linkage of two side-chains (e.g. H-Tyr-D-Cys-Gly-Phe-Cys-NH/sub 2/ or H-Tyr-D-Lys-Gly-Phe-Glu-NH/sub 3/) were tested in the ..mu..-receptor-representative guinea pig ileum (GPI) bioassay and in a binding assay based on displacement of the ..mu..-ligand (/sup 3/H)DAGO from rat brain membranes. The cyclic analogs were 5 to 70 times more potent in the GPI assay than in the binding assay, whereas linear analogs showed equal potency in the two assays. These results suggest that the efficacy (intrinsic activity) of cyclic opioid peptide analogs at the ..mu..-receptor is increased as a consequence of the conformation constraint imposed through ring closure. This effect was most pronounced in analogs containing a long hydrophobic sidechain as part of the ring structure in the 2-position of the peptide sequence. Further experimental evidence ruled out the possibilities that these potency discrepancies may be due to differences in enzymatic degradation, dissimilar exposure of the receptors in their lipid environment or interaction with different receptor types in the two assay systems. It can be hypothesized that the semi-rigid cyclic analogs may induce a more productive conformational change in the receptor protein than the linear peptides.

  17. Lysine-tagged peptide coupling onto polylactide nanoparticles coated with activated ester-based amphiphilic copolymer: a route to highly peptide-functionalized biodegradable carriers.

    PubMed

    Handké, Nadège; Ficheux, Damien; Rollet, Marion; Delair, Thierry; Mabrouk, Kamel; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Verrier, Bernard; Trimaille, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Efficient biomolecule conjugation to the surface of biodegradable colloidal carriers is crucial for their targeting efficiency in drug/vaccine delivery applications. We here propose a potent strategy to drastically improve peptide immobilization on biodegradable polylactide (PLA) nanoparticles (NPs). Our approach particularly relies on the use of an amphiphilic block copolymer PLA-b-poly(N-acryloxysuccinimide-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PLA-b-P(NAS-co-NVP)) as NP surface modifier, whose the N-succinimidyl (NS) ester functions of the NAS units along the polymer chain ensure N-terminal amine peptide coupling. The well-known immunostimulatory peptide sequence derived from the human interleukin 1β (IL-1β), VQGEESNDK, was coupled on the NPs of 169 nm mean diameter in phosphate buffer (pH 8, 10 mM). A maximum amount of 2 mg immobilized per gram of NPs (i.e. 0.042 peptidenm(-2)) was obtained. Introduction of a three lysine tag at the peptide N-terminus (KKKVQGEESNDK) resulted in a dramatic improvement of the immobilized peptide amounts (27.5 mg/g NP, i.e. 0.417 peptidenm(-2)). As a comparison, the density of tagged peptide achievable on surfactant free PLA NPs of similar size (140 nm), through classical EDC or EDC/NHS activation of the surface PLA carboxylic end-groups, was found to be 6 mg/g NP (i.e. 0.075 peptidenm(-2)), showing the decisive impact of the P(NAS-co-NVP)-based hairy corona for high peptide coupling. These results demonstrate that combined use of lysine tag and PLA-b-P(NAS-co-NVP) surfactant represents a valuable platform to tune and optimize surface bio-functionalization of PLA-based biodegradable carriers. PMID:23277324

  18. The antimicrobial peptide pardaxin exerts potent anti-tumor activity against canine perianal gland adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chieh-Yu; Lin, Chao-Nan; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Yu, Chao Yuan; Chen, Jyh-Yih; Chien, Chi-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Pardaxin is an antimicrobial peptide of 33 amino acids, originally isolated from marine fish. We previously demonstrated that pardaxin has anti-tumor activity against murine fibrosarcoma, both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the anti-tumor activity, toxicity profile, and maximally-tolerated dose of pardaxin treatment in dogs with different types of refractory tumor. Local injection of pardaxin resulted in a significant reduction of perianal gland adenoma growth between 28 and 38 days post-treatment. Surgical resection of canine histiocytomas revealed large areas of ulceration, suggesting that pardaxin acts like a lytic peptide. Pardaxin treatment was not associated with significant variations in blood biochemical parameters or secretion of immune-related proteins. Our findings indicate that pardaxin has strong therapeutic potential for treating perianal gland adenomas in dogs. These data justify the veterinary application of pardaxin, and also provide invaluable information for veterinary medicine and future human clinical trials. PMID:25544775

  19. Structure and antimicrobial activity of platypus 'intermediate' defensin-like peptide.

    PubMed

    Torres, Allan M; Bansal, Paramjit; Koh, Jennifer M S; Pagès, Guilhem; Wu, Ming J; Kuchel, Philip W

    2014-05-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a chemically synthesized peptide that we have called 'intermediate' defensin-like peptide (Int-DLP), from the platypus genome, was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; and its antimicrobial activity was investigated. The overall structural fold of Int-DLP was similar to that of the DLPs and β-defensins, however the presence of a third antiparallel β-strand makes its structure more similar to the β-defensins than the DLPs. Int-DLP displayed potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The four arginine residues at the N-terminus of Int-DLP did not affect the overall fold, but were important for its antimicrobial potency. PMID:24694388

  20. Enzymatic activity of soluble and membrane tethered peptide pro-hormone convertase 1.

    PubMed

    Bruzzaniti, Angela; Mains, Richard E

    2002-05-01

    Pro-hormone convertases PC1 and PC2 perform endoproteolytic cleavages of precursors in peptide-containing secretory granules. PC1 and PC2 are soluble, secreted with bioactive peptides. Evolutionarily related PCs have membrane tethers, not secreted. We tethered PC1 to the transmembrane-cytoplasmic domains (CD) of a granule enzyme (peptidylglycine-alpha-amidating monooxygenase; PAM) and Golgi-localized PC8. The tethered PC1 is far more stable to elevated temperature and denaturants than soluble PC1, and more active. Both tethers allow PC1 to visit the cell surface transiently, cleaving soluble molecules outside the cell. Both membrane-bound PC1 chimeras cleave membrane PAM into soluble active fragments when PAM is expressed on adjacent cells. PMID:12084516

  1. [Expression, purification of recombinant cationic peptide AIK in Escherichia coli and its antitumor activity].

    PubMed

    Fan, Fangfang; Sun, Huiying; Xu, Hui; Liu, Jiawei; Zhang, Haiyuan; Li, Yilan; Ning, Xuelian; Sun, Yue; Bai, Jing; Fu, Songbin; Zhou, Chunshui

    2015-12-01

    AIK is a novel cationic peptide with potential antitumor activity. In order to construct the AIK expression vector by Gateway technology, and establish an optimal expression and purification method for recombinant AIK, a set of primers containing AttB sites were designed and used to create the AttB-TEV-FLAG-AIR fusion gene by overlapping PCR. The resulting fusion gene was cloned into the donor vector pDONR223 by attB and attP mediated recombination (BP reaction), then, transferred into the destination vector pDESTl 5 by attL and attR mediated recombination (LR reaction). All the cloning was verified by both colony PCR and DNA sequencing. The BL21 F. coli transformed by the GST-AIR expression plasmid was used to express the GST-AIK fusion protein with IPTG induction and the induction conditions were optimized. GST-AIR fusion protein was purified by glutathione magnetic beads, followed by rTEV cleavage to remove GST tag and MTS assay to test the growth inhibition activity of the recombinant AIR on human leukemia HL-60 cells. We found that a high level of soluble expression of GST-AIK protein (more than 30% out of the total bacterial proteins) was achieved upon 0.1 mmol/L ITPG induction for 4 h at 37 °C in the transformed BL21 F. coli with starting OD₆₀₀ at 1.0. Through GST affinity purification and rTEV cleavage, the purity of the resulting recombinant AIK was greater than 95%. And the MTS assays on HL-60 cells confirmed that the recombinant AIK retains an antitumor activity at a level similar to the chemically synthesized AIK. Taken together, we have established a method for expression and purification of recombinant AIK with a potent activity against tumor cells, which will be beneficial for the large-scale production and application of recombinant AIK in the future. PMID:27093838

  2. Recombinant expression and isolation of human L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and identification of its active-site cysteine residue.

    PubMed Central

    Humm, A; Fritsche, E; Mann, K; Göhl, M; Huber, R

    1997-01-01

    Creatine and its phosphorylated form play a central role in the energy metabolism of muscle and nerve tissues. l-Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AT) catalyses the committed step in the formation of creatine. The mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of the enzyme are believed to derive from the same gene by alternative splicing. We have expressed recombinant human AT in Escherichia coli with two different N-termini, resembling the longest two forms of the enzyme that we had isolated recently from porcine kidney mitochondria as a mixture. The enzymes were expressed with N-terminal histidine tags followed by factor Xa-cleavage sites. We established a new method for the removal of N-terminal fusion peptides by means of an immobilized snake venom prothrombin activator. We identified cysteine-407 as the active-site residue of AT by radioactive labelling and isolation of labelled peptides, and by site-directed mutagenesis of the protein. PMID:9148748

  3. Towards rice bran protein utilization: In silico insight on the role of oryzacystatins in biologically-active peptide production.

    PubMed

    Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-01-15

    Rice bran proteins (RBP) have been demonstrated to harbour biologically active peptides, which can be released by proteases and applied in human health promotion. In this study, the roles of rice bran cysteine protease inhibitors, oryzacystatins, were considered for efficient production of bioactive peptides from RBP. In silico evidence demonstrates that aspartate protease (pepsin at pH>2) and metalloproteinase (thermolysin) have strong prospects for use in simultaneously cleaving the QXVXGX motif of oryzacystatins, which can lead to their inactivation, and in releasing bioactive sequences from the protease inhibitors. The cleaved bioactive peptides are known to possess activities that can be applied in the management of hypertension, oxidative stress, type 2 diabetes mellitus and other aberrant cellular processes. Moreover, several potentially bioactive di- and tripeptides were identified in oryzacystatin peptide pools. This study provides an important consideration and a direction that can lead to efficient release of bioactive peptides from rice bran proteins for functional food applications. PMID:26258712

  4. Antibacterial activity of lactoferrin and a pepsin-derived lactoferrin peptide fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, K; Tomita, M; Giehl, T J; Ellison, R T

    1993-01-01

    Although the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin has been well described, its mechanism of action has been poorly characterized. Recent work has indicated that in addition to binding iron, human lactoferrin damages the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we determined whether bovine lactoferrin and a pepsin-derived bovine lactoferrin peptide (lactoferricin) fragment have similar activities. We found that both 20 microM bovine lactoferrin and 20 microM lactoferricin release intrinsically labeled [3H]lipopolysaccharide ([3H]LPS) from three bacterial strains, Escherichia coli CL99 1-2, Salmonella typhimurium SL696, and Salmonella montevideo SL5222. Under most conditions, more LPS is released by the peptide fragment than by whole bovine lactoferrin. In the presence of either lactoferrin or lactoferricin there is increased killing of E. coli CL99 1-2 by lysozyme. Like human lactoferrin, bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin have the ability to bind to free intrinsically labeled [3H]LPS molecules. In addition to these effects, whereas bovine lactoferrin was at most bacteriostatic, lactoferricin demonstrated consistent bactericidal activity against gram-negative bacteria. This bactericidal effect is modulated by the cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ but is independent of the osmolarity of the medium. Transmission electron microscopy of bacterial cells exposed to lactoferricin show the immediate development of electron-dense "membrane blisters." These experiments offer evidence that bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin damage the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, the peptide fragment lactoferricin has direct bactericidal activity. As lactoferrin is exposed to proteolytic factors in vivo which could cleave the lactoferricin fragment, the effects of this peptide are of both mechanistic and physiologic relevance. Images PMID:8423097

  5. [A comparative study of the activity of a natural peptide complex in the kidneys and its synthetic analogs in autoimmune nephritis].

    PubMed

    Geĭko, O A; Bobrova, N A; Kaĭdashev, I P

    1998-01-01

    The activity of the natural peptide complex of the kidneys and of its synthetic analogs (PEKDLRK, PEKDSRK, PEKDDRL) in autoimmune nephritis was studied on golden hamsters. All the peptides under study demonstrated therapeutic activity but were characterized by peculiarity of their effect. The peptide PEKDLRK possessed the most marked capacity for stimulating phagocytic reactions, PEKDDRL apparently activated the system of natural killers. It is concluded that the study of peptides-analogs as potential drugs is promising. PMID:9783109

  6. Binding sites for. alpha. -bungarotoxin and the noncompetitive inhibitor phencyclidine on a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the. alpha. -subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly-Roberts, D.L.; Lentz, T.L. )

    1991-07-30

    The binding of the competitive antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-Btx) and the noncompetitive inhibitor phencyclidine (PCP) to a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the {alpha}-subunit of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor has been characterized. {sup 125}I-{alpha}-Btx bound to the 172-227 peptide in a solid-phase assay and was competed by {alpha}-Btx d-tubocurarine and NaCl. In the presence of 0.02% sodium dodecyl sulfate, {sup 125}I-{alpha}-Btx bound to the 56-residue peptide with a K{sub D} of 3.5 nM, as determined by equilibrium saturation binding studies. Because {alpha}Btx binds to a peptide comprising residues 173-204 with the same affinity and does not bind to a peptide comprising residues 205-227, the competitive antagonist and hence agonist binding site lies between residues 173 and 204. After photoaffinity labeling, ({sup 3}H)PCP was bound to the 172-227 peptide. ({sup 3}H)PCP binding was inhibited by chlorpromazine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. It is concluded that a high-affinity binding site for PCP is located between residues 205 and 227, which includes the first 18 residues of transmembrane segment M1, and that a low-affinity site is located in the competitive antagonist binding site between residues 173 and 204. These results show that a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the {alpha} subunit contains three binding sites, one for {alpha}-Btx and two for PCP. Previous studies on the intact receptor indicate high-affinity PCP binding occurs in the receptor channel.

  7. Crystal structure of X-prolyl aminopeptidase from Caenorhabditis elegans: A cytosolic enzyme with a di-nuclear active site.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Shalini; La-Borde, Penelope J; Payne, Karl A P; Parsons, Mark R; Turner, Anthony J; Isaac, R Elwyn; Acharya, K Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic aminopeptidase P1 (APP1), also known as X-prolyl aminopeptidase (XPNPEP1) in human tissues, is a cytosolic exopeptidase that preferentially removes amino acids from the N-terminus of peptides possessing a penultimate N-terminal proline residue. The enzyme has an important role in the catabolism of proline containing peptides since peptide bonds adjacent to the imino acid proline are resistant to cleavage by most peptidases. We show that recombinant and catalytically active Caenorhabditis elegans APP-1 is a dimer that uses dinuclear zinc at the active site and, for the first time, we provide structural information for a eukaryotic APP-1 in complex with the inhibitor, apstatin. Our analysis reveals that C. elegans APP-1 shares similar mode of substrate binding and a common catalytic mechanism with other known X-prolyl aminopeptidases. PMID:25905034

  8. Crystal structure of X-prolyl aminopeptidase from Caenorhabditis elegans: A cytosolic enzyme with a di-nuclear active site

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Shalini; La-Borde, Penelope J.; Payne, Karl A.P.; Parsons, Mark R.; Turner, Anthony J.; Isaac, R. Elwyn; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic aminopeptidase P1 (APP1), also known as X-prolyl aminopeptidase (XPNPEP1) in human tissues, is a cytosolic exopeptidase that preferentially removes amino acids from the N-terminus of peptides possessing a penultimate N-terminal proline residue. The enzyme has an important role in the catabolism of proline containing peptides since peptide bonds adjacent to the imino acid proline are resistant to cleavage by most peptidases. We show that recombinant and catalytically active Caenorhabditis elegans APP-1 is a dimer that uses dinuclear zinc at the active site and, for the first time, we provide structural information for a eukaryotic APP-1 in complex with the inhibitor, apstatin. Our analysis reveals that C. elegans APP-1 shares similar mode of substrate binding and a common catalytic mechanism with other known X-prolyl aminopeptidases. PMID:25905034

  9. A conjugate of the lytic peptide Hecate and gallic acid: structure, activity against cervical cancer, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Paulo R S; Carneiro, Bruno M; Batista, Mariana N; Braga, Ana Cláudia S; Lorenzón, Esteban N; Rahal, Paula; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud

    2015-07-01

    Conjugate compounds constitute a new class of molecules of important biological interest mainly for the treatment of diseases such as cancer. The N-terminus region of cationic peptides has been described as important for their biological activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lytic peptide Hecate (FALALKALKKALKKLKKALKKAL) and the effect of conjugating this macromolecule with gallic acid (C7H6O5) in terms of structure, anti-cancer activity, and toxicity. An N-terminus GA-Hecate peptide conjugate was synthesized to provide information regarding the relationship between the amino-terminal region and its charge and the secondary structure and biological activity of the peptide; and the effects of gallic acid on these parameters. Peptide secondary structure was confirmed using circular dichroism (CD). The CD measurements showed that the peptide has a high incidence of α-helical structures in the presence of SDS and LPC, while GA-Hecate presented lower incidence of α-helical structures in the same chemical environment. An evaluation of the anti-cancer activity in HeLa cancer cells indicated that both peptides are active, but that coupling gallic acid at the N-terminus decreased the activity of the free peptide. GA-Hecate showed lower activity in non-tumor keratinocyte cells but higher hemolytic activity. Our findings suggest that the N-terminus of Hecate plays an important role in its activity against cervical cancer by affecting it secondary structure, toxicity, and hemolytic activity. This study highlights the importance of the N-terminus in antitumor activity and could provide an important tool for developing new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:25868656

  10. RV-23, a Melittin-Related Peptide with Cell-Selective Antibacterial Activity and High Hemocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Kun; Ma, Qian; Li, Su-Bo; Gao, Hong-Wei; Tan, Ying-Xia; Gong, Feng; Ji, Shou-Ping

    2016-06-28

    RV-23 is a melittin-related antibacterial peptide (MRP) with lower cytotoxicity than either melittin or AR-23, another MRP. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of RV- 23's antibacterial selectivity and its hemocompatibility. The results showed that all the peptides exhibited lytic activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, with RV-23 showing the highest potency. Moreover, RV-23 had lower cytotoxicity than melittin or AR-23 at their minimal inhibitory concentration. In addition, CD experiments showed that melittin, RV-23, and AR-23 all had a typical α-helical structure, and RV-23 had the lowest α-helix content. The structural information showed that RV-23 has the lowest hydrophobicity and highest hydrophobic moment. Because hydrophobicity and α-helix content are believed to correlate with hemolysis, the results indicate that the selective lytic activity against bacteria of RV-23 may be due to its low hydrophobicity and α-helicity, which lead to low cytotoxicity without affecting antibacterial activity. Furthermore, RV-23 did not affect the structure and function of blood components such as red blood cells, platelets, albumin, and the blood coagulation system. In conclusion, RV-23 is a cell-selective antibacterial peptide with high hemocompatibility due to its unique structure. PMID:26975766

  11. Helical 1:1 α/Sulfono-γ-AA Heterogeneous Peptides with Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    She, Fengyu; Nimmagadda, Alekhya; Teng, Peng; Su, Ma; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cai, Jianfeng

    2016-05-01

    As one of the greatest threats facing the 21st century, antibiotic resistance is now a major public health concern. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) offer an alternative approach to combat emerging multi-drug-resistant bacteria. It is known that helical HDPs such as magainin 2 and its analogs adopt cationic amphipathic conformations upon interaction with bacterial membranes, leading to membrane disruption and subsequent bacterial cell death. We have previously shown that amphipathic sulfono-γ-AApeptides could mimic magainin 2 and exhibit bactericidal activity. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that amphipathic helical 1:1 α/sulfono-γ-AA heterogeneous peptides, in which regular amino acids and sulfono-γ-AApeptide building blocks are alternatively present in a 1:1 pattern, display potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) suggests that the lead sequences adopt defined helical structures. The subsequent studies including fluorescence microscopy and time-kill experiments indicate that these hybrid peptides exert antimicrobial activity by mimicking the mechanism of HDPs. Our findings may lead to the development of HDP-mimicking antimicrobial peptidomimetics that combat drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. In addition, our results also demonstrate the effective design of a new class of helical foldamer, which could be employed to interrogate other important biological targets such as protein-protein interactions in the future. PMID:27030636

  12. Structure-activity relationship of lipid core peptide-based Group A Streptococcus vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy; Hussein, Waleed M; Ghaffar, Khairunnisa Abdul; Marasini, Nirmal; Mostafa, Ahmed; Eskandari, Sharareh; Batzloff, Michael R; Good, Michael F; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-07-15

    Infection with Group A Streptococcus (GAS) can result in a range of different illnesses, some of which are fatal. Currently, our efforts to develop a vaccine against GAS focuses on the lipid core peptide (LCP) system, a subunit vaccine containing a lipoamino acid (LAA) moiety which allows the stimulation of systemic antibody activity. In the present study, a peptide (J14) representing the B-cell epitope from the GAS M protein was incorporated alongside a universal T-helper epitope (P25) in four LCP constructs of different spatial orientation or LAA lengths. Through structure-activity studies, it was discovered that while the alteration of the LCP orientation had a weaker effect on immunostimulation, increasing the LAA side chain length within the construct increased antibody responses in murine models. Furthermore, the mice immunised with the lead LCP construct were also able to maintain antibody activity throughout the course of five months. These findings highlight the importance of LAA moieties in the development of intranasal peptide vaccines and confirmed that its side chain length has an effect on the immunogenicity of the structure. PMID:27246859

  13. Trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of different antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) isolated from aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, S E; Miletti, L C; Steindel, M; Bachère, E; Barracco, M A

    2008-02-01

    Most of the available animal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been tested against bacteria and fungi, but very few against protozoan parasites. In the present study, we investigated the antiparasitic activity of different AMPs isolated from aquatic animals: tachyplesin (Tach, from Tachypleus tridentatus), magainin (Mag, from Xenopus laevis), clavanin (Clav, from Styela clava), penaeidin (Pen, from Litopenaeus vannamei), mytilin (Myt, from Mytilus edulis) and anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF, from Penaeus monodon). The antiparasitic activity was evaluated against the promastigote form of Leishmania braziliensis and epi and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, through the MTT method. Tach was the most potent peptide, killing completely L. braziliensis and trypomastigote T. cruzi from 12.5microM, whereas Pen and Clav were weakly active against trypomastigotes and Myt against L. braziliensis, only at a high concentration (100microM). Tach and Mag were markedly hemolytic at high concentrations, whereas the other peptides caused only a slight hemolysis (<10% up to 50microM). Our results point to Tach as the only potential candidate for further investigation and potential application as a therapeutic agent. PMID:17888907

  14. Recent Research in Antihypertensive Activity of Food Protein-derived Hydrolyzates and Peptides.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahmed S M; Zhang, Qing; Shen, Qun

    2016-04-01

    Year to year obesity prevalence, reduced physical activities, bad habits/or stressful lifestyle, and other environmental and physiological impacts lead to increase in diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension worldwide. Hypertension is considered as one of the most common serious chronic diseases; however, discovery of medications with high efficacy and without side effects for treatment of patients remains a challenge for scientists. Recent trends in functional foods have evidenced that food bioactive proteins play a major role in the concepts of illness and curing; therefore, nutritionists, biomedical scientists, and food scientists are working together to develop improved systems for the discovery of peptides with increased potency and therapeutic benefits. This review presents a recent research carried out to date for the purpose of isolation and identification of bioactive hydrolyzates and peptides with angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect from animal, marine, microbial, and plant food proteins. Effects of food processing and hydrolyzation conditions as well as some other impacts on formation, activity, and stability of these hydrolyzates and peptides are also presented. PMID:25036695

  15. Mutation in the Pro-Peptide Region of a Cysteine Protease Leads to Altered Activity and Specificity—A Structural and Biochemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sruti; Choudhury, Debi; Roy, Sumana; Dattagupta, Jiban Kanti; Biswas, Sampa

    2016-01-01

    Papain-like proteases contain an N-terminal pro-peptide in their zymogen form that is important for correct folding and spatio-temporal regulation of the proteolytic activity of these proteases. Catalytic removal of the pro-peptide is required for the protease to become active. In this study, we have generated three different mutants of papain (I86F, I86L and I86A) by replacing the residue I86 in its pro-peptide region, which blocks the specificity determining S2-subsite of the catalytic cleft of the protease in its zymogen form with a view to investigate the effect of mutation on the catalytic activity of the protease. Steady-state enzyme kinetic analyses of the corresponding mutant proteases with specific peptide substrates show significant alteration of substrate specificity—I86F and I86L have 2.7 and 29.1 times higher kcat/Km values compared to the wild-type against substrates having Phe and Leu at P2 position, respectively, while I86A shows lower catalytic activity against majority of the substrates tested. Far-UV CD scan and molecular mass analyses of the mature form of the mutant proteases reveal similar CD spectra and intact masses to that of the wild-type. Crystal structures of zymogens of I86F and I86L mutants suggest that subtle reorganization of active site residues, including water, upon binding of the pro-peptide may allow the enzyme to achieve discriminatory substrate selectivity and catalytic efficiency. However, accurate and reliable predictions on alteration of substrate specificity require atomic resolution structure of the catalytic domain after zymogen activation, which remains a challenging task. In this study we demonstrate that through single amino acid substitution in pro-peptide, it is possible to modify the substrate specificity of papain and hence the pro-peptide of a protease can also be a useful target for altering its catalytic activity/specificity. PMID:27352302

  16. Short, Synthetic Cationic Peptides Have Antibacterial Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis by Forming Pores in Membrane and Synergizing with Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kajal; Singh, Sameer; van Hoek, Monique L.

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular organisms are constantly exposed to a multitude of pathogenic microbes. Infection is inhibited in vivo by the innate and adaptive immune system. Mycobacterium species have emerged that are resistant to most antibiotics. We identified several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides that were active at low micromolar concentrations against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Human-derived cathelicidin LL-37 is well characterized and studied against M. smegmatis; we compared LL-37 with Chinese cobra-derived cathelicidin NA-CATH and mouse cathelicidin (mCRAMP). Two synthetic 11-residue peptides (ATRA-1A and ATRA-2) containing variations of a repeated motif within NA-CATH were tested for their activity against M. smegmatis along with a short synthetic peptide derivative from the human beta-defensin hBD3 (hBD3-Pep4). We hypothesized that these smaller synthetic peptides may demonstrate antimicrobial effectiveness with shorter length (and at less cost), making them strong potential candidates for development into broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds or use in combination with antibiotics. These peptides have antimicrobial activity with EC50 ranging from 0.05 to 1.88 μg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The ATRA-1A short peptide was found to be the most effective antimicrobial peptide (AMP) (EC50 = 0.05 μg/mL). High bactericidal activity correlated with bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization activities. The efficacy of the peptides was further analyzed through Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assays. The MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The peptide mCRAMP showed the best MIC activity at 15.6 μg/mL. Neither of the effective short synthetic peptides demonstrated synergy with the antibiotic rifampicin, although both demonstrated synergy with the cyclic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B. The peptides LL-37 and mCRAMP displayed synergism with rifampicin in MIC assays, whereas antibiotic polymyxin B displayed synergism

  17. The Spider Venom Peptide Lycosin-II Has Potent Antimicrobial Activity against Clinically Isolated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Ling; Yang, Huali; Xiao, Haoliang; Farooq, Athar; Liu, Zhonghua; Hu, Min; Shi, Xiaoliu

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been accepted as excellent candidates for developing novel antibiotics against drug-resistant bacteria. Recent studies indicate that spider venoms are the source for the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides. In the present study, we isolated and characterized an antibacterial peptide named lycosin-II from the venom of the spider Lycosa singoriensis. It contains 21 amino acid residue lacking cysteine residues and forms a typical linear amphipathic and cationic α-helical conformation. Lycosin-II displays potent bacteriostatic effect on the tested drug-resistant bacterial strains isolated from hospital patients, including multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, which has presented a huge challenge for the infection therapy. The inhibitory ability of lycosin-II might derive from its binding to cell membrane, because Mg(2+) could compete with the binding sites to reduce the bacteriostatic potency of lycosin-II. Our data suggest that lycosin-II might be a lead in the development of novel antibiotics for curing drug-resistant bacterial infections. PMID:27128941

  18. The Spider Venom Peptide Lycosin-II Has Potent Antimicrobial Activity against Clinically Isolated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Ling; Yang, Huali; Xiao, Haoliang; Farooq, Athar; Liu, Zhonghua; Hu, Min; Shi, Xiaoliu

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been accepted as excellent candidates for developing novel antibiotics against drug-resistant bacteria. Recent studies indicate that spider venoms are the source for the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides. In the present study, we isolated and characterized an antibacterial peptide named lycosin-II from the venom of the spider Lycosa singoriensis. It contains 21 amino acid residue lacking cysteine residues and forms a typical linear amphipathic and cationic α-helical conformation. Lycosin-II displays potent bacteriostatic effect on the tested drug-resistant bacterial strains isolated from hospital patients, including multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, which has presented a huge challenge for the infection therapy. The inhibitory ability of lycosin-II might derive from its binding to cell membrane, because Mg2+ could compete with the binding sites to reduce the bacteriostatic potency of lycosin-II. Our data suggest that lycosin-II might be a lead in the development of novel antibiotics for curing drug-resistant bacterial infections. PMID:27128941

  19. Transformable Peptide Nanocarriers for Expeditious Drug Release and Effective Cancer Therapy via Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Activation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Tianjiao; Zhao, Ying; Ding, Yanping; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Ruifang; Lang, Jiayan; Qin, Hao; Liu, Xiaoman; Shi, Jian; Tao, Ning; Qin, Zhihai; Nie, Guangjun; Zhao, Yuliang

    2016-01-18

    A novel cleavable amphiphilic peptide (CAP) was designed to be specifically responsive to fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α), a protease specifically expressed on the surface of cancer-associated fibroblasts. The CAP self-assembled into fiber-like nanostructures in solution, while the presence of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs readily transformed the assemblies into drug-loaded spherical nanoparticles. The disassembly of these nanoparticles (CAP-NPs) upon FAP-α cleavage resulted in rapid and efficient release of the encapsulated drugs specifically at tumor sites. This Transformers-like drug delivery strategy could allow them to disrupt the stromal barrier and enhance local drug accumulation. Therapeutic results suggested that drug-loaded CAP-NPs hold promising tumor specificity and therapeutic efficacy for various solid tumor models, confirming its potential utility and versatility in antitumor therapy. PMID:26283097

  20. Antibacterial activity of novel cationic peptides against clinical isolates of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed F; Hammac, G Kenitra; Guptill, Lynn; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals and has zoonotic potential. Additionally, methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged with resistance to virtually all classes of antimicrobials. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of six synthetic short peptides against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and MRSP isolated from infected dogs. All six peptides demonstrated potent anti-staphylococcal activity regardless of existing resistance phenotype. The most effective peptides were RRIKA (with modified C terminus to increase amphipathicity and hydrophobicity) and WR-12 (α-helical peptide consisting exclusively of arginine and tryptophan) with minimum inhibitory concentration50 (MIC50) of 1 µM and MIC90 of 2 µM. RR (short anti-inflammatory peptide) and IK8 "D isoform" demonstrated good antimicrobial activity with MIC50 of 4 µM and MIC90 of 8 µM. Penetratin and (KFF)3K (two cell penetrating peptides) were the least effective with MIC50 of 8 µM and MIC90 of 16 µM. Killing kinetics revealed a major advantage of peptides over conventional antibiotics, demonstrating potent bactericidal activity within minutes. Studies with propidium iodide and transmission electron microscopy revealed that peptides damaged the bacterial membrane leading to leakage of cytoplasmic contents and consequently, cell death. A potent synergistic increase in the antibacterial effect of the cell penetrating peptide (KFF)3K was noticed when combined with other peptides and with antibiotics. In addition, all peptides displayed synergistic interactions when combined together. Furthermore, peptides demonstrated good therapeutic indices with minimal toxicity toward mammalian cells. Resistance to peptides did not evolve after 10 passages of S. pseudintermedius at sub-inhibitory concentration. However, the MICs of amikacin and

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Novel Cationic Peptides against Clinical Isolates of Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed F.; Hammac, G. Kenitra; Guptill, Lynn; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals and has zoonotic potential. Additionally, methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged with resistance to virtually all classes of antimicrobials. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of six synthetic short peptides against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and MRSP isolated from infected dogs. All six peptides demonstrated potent anti-staphylococcal activity regardless of existing resistance phenotype. The most effective peptides were RRIKA (with modified C terminus to increase amphipathicity and hydrophobicity) and WR-12 (α-helical peptide consisting exclusively of arginine and tryptophan) with minimum inhibitory concentration50 (MIC50) of 1 µM and MIC90 of 2 µM. RR (short anti-inflammatory peptide) and IK8 “D isoform” demonstrated good antimicrobial activity with MIC50 of 4 µM and MIC90 of 8 µM. Penetratin and (KFF)3K (two cell penetrating peptides) were the least effective with MIC50 of 8 µM and MIC90 of 16 µM. Killing kinetics revealed a major advantage of peptides over conventional antibiotics, demonstrating potent bactericidal activity within minutes. Studies with propidium iodide and transmission electron microscopy revealed that peptides damaged the bacterial membrane leading to leakage of cytoplasmic contents and consequently, cell death. A potent synergistic increase in the antibacterial effect of the cell penetrating peptide (KFF)3K was noticed when combined with other peptides and with antibiotics. In addition, all peptides displayed synergistic interactions when combined together. Furthermore, peptides demonstrated good therapeutic indices with minimal toxicity toward mammalian cells. Resistance to peptides did not evolve after 10 passages of S. pseudintermedius at sub-inhibitory concentration. However, the MICs of amikacin and

  2. Enabling the Discovery and Virtual Screening of Potent and Safe Antimicrobial Peptides. Simultaneous Prediction of Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Ruso, Juan M; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Dias Soeiro Cordeiro, M Natália

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising alternatives to fight against bacterial pathogens. However, cellular toxicity remains one of the main concerns in the early development of peptide-based drugs. This work introduces the first multitasking (mtk) computational model focused on performing simultaneous predictions of antibacterial activities, and cytotoxicities of peptides. The model was created from a data set containing 3592 cases, and it displayed accuracy higher than 96% for classifying/predicting peptides in both training and prediction (test) sets. The technique known as alanine scanning was computationally applied to illustrate the calculation of the quantitative contributions of the amino acids (in their respective positions of the sequence) to the biological effects of a defined peptide. A small library formed by 10 peptides was generated, where peptides were designed by considering the interpretations of the different descriptors in the mtk-computational model. All the peptides were predicted to exhibit high antibacterial activities against multiple bacterial strains, and low cytotoxicity against various cell types. The present mtk-computational model can be considered a very useful tool to support high throughput research for the discovery of potent and safe AMPs. PMID:27280735

  3. Interleukin-4 receptor α-based hybrid peptide effectively induces antitumor activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Seto, Kahori; Shoda, Junichi; Horibe, Tomohisa; Warabi, Eiji; Ishige, Kazunori; Yamagata, Kenji; Kohno, Masayuki; Yanagawa, Toru; Bukawa, Hiroki; Kawakami, Koji

    2013-06-01

    Interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is highly expressed on the surface of various human solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We designed a novel IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide composed of a binding peptide to IL-4Rα and a cell-lytic peptide. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor activity of the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide as a novel molecular-targeted therapy in HNSCC. Immunoblot analysis revealed that IL-4Rα was expressed in all tested HNSCC cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22 and OSC-19), but not in a human normal keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line. Immunohistochemical expression levels of IL-4Rα in HNSCC tissues were higher compared to those in normal epithelial tissue. The IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide showed cytotoxic activity in all five cancer cell lines with a concentration that killed 50% of all cells (IC50) as low as 10 µM. HaCaT cells were less sensitive to this peptide with an IC50 of >30 µM. In addition, intratumoral administration of IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model of human HNSCC in vivo. These results indicate that the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide may serve as a potent agent to provide a novel therapy for patients with HNSCC. PMID:23563734

  4. Modulating the activity of short arginine-tryptophan containing antibacterial peptides with N-terminal metallocenoyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Albada, H Bauke; Chiriac, Alina-Iulia; Wenzel, Michaela; Penkova, Maya; Bandow, Julia E; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2012-01-01

    Summary A series of small synthetic arginine and tryptophan containing peptides was prepared and analyzed for their antibacterial activity. The effect of N-terminal substitution with metallocenoyl groups such as ferrocene (FcCO) and ruthenocene (RcCO) was investigated. Antibacterial activity in different media, growth inhibition, and killing kinetics of the most active peptides were determined. The toxicity of selected derivatives was determined against erythrocytes and three human cancer cell lines. It was shown that the replacement of an N-terminal arginine residue with a metallocenoyl moiety modulates the activity of WRWRW-peptides against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MIC values of 2–6 µM for RcCO-W(RW)2 and 1–11 µM for (RW)3 were determined. Interestingly, W(RW)2-peptides derivatized with ferrocene were significantly less active than those derivatized with ruthenocene which have similar structural but different electronic properties, suggesting a major influence of the latter. The high activities observed for the RcCO-W(RW)2- and (RW)3-peptides led to an investigation of the origin of activity of these peptides using several important activity-related parameters. Firstly, killing kinetics of the RcCO-W(RW)2-peptide versus killing kinetics of the (RW)3 derivative showed faster reduction of the colony forming units for the RcCO-W(RW)2-peptide, although MIC values indicated higher activity for the (RW)3-peptide. This was confirmed by growth inhibition studies. Secondly, hemolysis studies revealed that both peptides did not lead to significant destruction of erythrocytes, even up to 500 µg/mL for (RW)3 and 250 µg/mL for RcCO-W(RW)2. In addition, toxicity against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HT29, MCF7) showed that the (RW)3-peptide had an IC50 value of ~140 µM and the RcW(RW)2 one of ~90 µM, indicating a potentially interesting therapeutic window. Both the killing kinetics and growth inhibition studies presented in this work point to

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Imaging of Peptide-Encapsulated Polymer Nanoparticles for Cancer Biomarker Activated Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew B.; Cheng, Felice; Haque, Munima; Choi, Hyungsoo; Kim, Kyekyoon; O’Brien, William D.; Liu, G. Logan

    2014-01-01

    Gelatin nanoparticles coated with Cathepsin D-specific peptides were developed as a vehicle for the targeted delivery of the cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) to treat breast malignancy. Cathepsin D, a breast cancer cell secretion enzyme, triggered the release of DOX by digesting the protective peptide-coating layer of nanoparticles. Fabricated nanoparticles were successfully detected with ultrasound imaging in both in vitro conditions and in vivo mouse cancer models. Cell viability experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of biomarker activation specific to breast cancer cell lines. These experimental results were compared with the outcome of a viability experiment conducted on noncancerous cells. Viability decreased in human MCF7 mammary adenocarcinoma and mouse 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells, while that of noncancerous 3T3 fibroblast cells remained unaffected. Next, a real-time video of nanoparticle flow in mouse models was obtained using in vivo ultrasound imaging. The fluorescent profile of DOX was used as a means to examine nanoparticle localization in vivo. Results show the distribution of nanoparticles concentrated primarily within bladder and tumor sites of subject mice bodies. These findings support the use of biomarker coated nanoparticles in target specific therapy for breast cancer treatment. PMID:23955780

  6. Activity Based High-Throughput Screening for Novel O-GlcNAc Transferase Substrates Using a Dynamic Peptide Microarray.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie; Sharif, Suhela; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Pieters, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible and dynamic protein post-translational modification in mammalian cells. The O-GlcNAc cycle is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). O-GlcNAcylation plays important role in many vital cellular events including transcription, cell cycle regulation, stress response and protein degradation, and altered O-GlcNAcylation has long been implicated in cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, numerous approaches have been developed to identify OGT substrates and study their function, but there is still a strong demand for highly efficient techniques. Here we demonstrated the utility of the peptide microarray approach to discover novel OGT substrates and study its specificity. Interestingly, the protein RBL-2, which is a key regulator of entry into cell division and may function as a tumor suppressor, was identified as a substrate for three isoforms of OGT. Using peptide Ala scanning, we found Ser 420 is one possible O-GlcNAc site in RBL-2. Moreover, substitution of Ser 420, on its own, inhibited OGT activity, raising the possibility of mechanism-based development for selective OGT inhibitors. This approach will prove useful for both discovery of novel OGT substrates and studying OGT specificity. PMID:26960196

  7. Activity Based High-Throughput Screening for Novel O-GlcNAc Transferase Substrates Using a Dynamic Peptide Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jie; Sharif, Suhela; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Pieters, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible and dynamic protein post-translational modification in mammalian cells. The O-GlcNAc cycle is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). O-GlcNAcylation plays important role in many vital cellular events including transcription, cell cycle regulation, stress response and protein degradation, and altered O-GlcNAcylation has long been implicated in cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, numerous approaches have been developed to identify OGT substrates and study their function, but there is still a strong demand for highly efficient techniques. Here we demonstrated the utility of the peptide microarray approach to discover novel OGT substrates and study its specificity. Interestingly, the protein RBL-2, which is a key regulator of entry into cell division and may function as a tumor suppressor, was identified as a substrate for three isoforms of OGT. Using peptide Ala scanning, we found Ser 420 is one possible O-GlcNAc site in RBL-2. Moreover, substitution of Ser 420, on its own, inhibited OGT activity, raising the possibility of mechanism-based development for selective OGT inhibitors. This approach will prove useful for both discovery of novel OGT substrates and studying OGT specificity. PMID:26960196

  8. Two roles for the Drosophila IKK complex in the activation of Relish and the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes

    PubMed Central

    Ertürk-Hasdemir, Deniz; Broemer, Meike; Leulier, François; Lane, William S.; Paquette, Nicholas; Hwang, Daye; Kim, Chan-Hee; Stöven, Svenja; Meier, Pascal; Silverman, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila NF-κB transcription factor Relish is an essential regulator of antimicrobial peptide gene induction after Gram-negative bacterial infection. Relish is a bipartite NF-κB precursor protein, with an N-terminal Rel homology domain and a C-terminal IκB-like domain, similar to mammalian p100 and p105. Unlike these mammalian homologs, Relish is endoproteolytically cleaved after infection, allowing the N-terminal NF-κB module to translocate to the nucleus. Signal-dependent activation of Relish, including cleavage, requires both the Drosophila IκB kinase (IKK) and death-related ced-3/Nedd2-like protein (DREDD), the Drosophila caspase-8 like protease. In this report, we show that the IKK complex controls Relish by direct phosphorylation on serines 528 and 529. Surprisingly, these phosphorylation sites are not required for Relish cleavage, nuclear translocation, or DNA binding. Instead they are critical for recruitment of RNA polymerase II and antimicrobial peptide gene induction, whereas IKK functions noncatalytically to support Dredd-mediated cleavage of Relish. PMID:19497884

  9. Solution structures, dynamics, and ice growth inhibitory activity of peptide fragments derived from an antarctic yeast protein.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Hussinien H; Kar, Rajiv K; Asmawi, Azren A; Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin A; Murad, Abdul Munir A; Mahadi, Nor M; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha A; Salleh, Abu B; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Tejo, Bimo A; Bhunia, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    Exotic functions of antifreeze proteins (AFP) and antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGP) have recently been attracted with much interest to develop them as commercial products. AFPs and AFGPs inhibit ice crystal growth by lowering the water freezing point without changing the water melting point. Our group isolated the Antarctic yeast Glaciozyma antarctica that expresses antifreeze protein to assist it in its survival mechanism at sub-zero temperatures. The protein is unique and novel, indicated by its low sequence homology compared to those of other AFPs. We explore the structure-function relationship of G. antarctica AFP using various approaches ranging from protein structure prediction, peptide design and antifreeze activity assays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies and molecular dynamics simulation. The predicted secondary structure of G. antarctica AFP shows several α-helices, assumed to be responsible for its antifreeze activity. We designed several peptide fragments derived from the amino acid sequences of α-helical regions of the parent AFP and they also showed substantial antifreeze activities, below that of the original AFP. The relationship between peptide structure and activity was explored by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation. NMR results show that the antifreeze activity of the peptides correlates with their helicity and geometrical straightforwardness. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation also suggests that the activity of the designed peptides can be explained in terms of the structural rigidity/flexibility, i.e., the most active peptide demonstrates higher structural stability, lower flexibility than that of the other peptides with lower activities, and of lower rigidity. This report represents the first detailed report of downsizing a yeast AFP into its peptide fragments with measurable antifreeze activities. PMID:23209600

  10. Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Iversen, Frank; Liu, Zhuo; Thomsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Skrydstrup, Troels; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Ploug, Michael; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery.Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific

  11. Site-Selective Binding of Nanoparticles to Double-Stranded DNA via Peptide Nucleic Acid "Invasion"

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, A.L.; van der Lelie, D.; Sun, D.; Maye, M. M.; Gang, O.

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel method for by-design placement of nano-objects along double-stranded (ds) DNA. A molecular intercalator, designed as a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-DNA chimera, is able to invade dsDNA at the PNA-side due to the hybridization specificity between PNA and one of the duplex strands. At the same time, the single-stranded (ss) DNA tail of the chimera, allows for anchoring of nano-objects that have been functionalized with complementary ssDNA. The developed method is applied for interparticle attachment and for the fabrication of particle clusters using a dsDNA template. This method significantly broadens the molecular toolbox for constructing nanoscale systems by including the most conventional not yet utilized DNA motif, double helix DNA.

  12. Formyl Peptide Receptor Activation Elicits Endothelial Cell Contraction and Vascular Leakage.

    PubMed

    Wenceslau, Camilla F; McCarthy, Cameron G; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-01-01

    The major pathophysiological characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis is the loss of control of vascular tone and endothelial barrier dysfunction. These changes are attributed to pro-inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed that in patients and rats without infection, cell components from damaged tissue are the primary instigators of vascular damage. Mitochondria share several characteristics with bacteria, and when fragments of mitochondria are released into the circulation after injury, they are recognized by the innate immune system. N-Formyl peptides are common molecular signatures of bacteria and mitochondria and are known to play a role in the initiation of inflammation by activating the formyl peptide receptor (FPR). We have demonstrated that infusion of mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) leads to sepsis-like symptoms, including vascular leakage. We have also observed that F-MIT, via FPR activation, elicits changes in cytoskeleton-regulating proteins in endothelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that these FPR-mediated changes in cytoskeleton can cause endothelial cell contraction and, consequently vascular leakage. Here, we propose that endothelial FPR is a key contributor to impaired barrier function in SIRS and sepsis patients following trauma. PMID:27532003

  13. Formyl Peptide Receptor Activation Elicits Endothelial Cell Contraction and Vascular Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Wenceslau, Camilla F.; McCarthy, Cameron G.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2016-01-01

    The major pathophysiological characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis is the loss of control of vascular tone and endothelial barrier dysfunction. These changes are attributed to pro-inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed that in patients and rats without infection, cell components from damaged tissue are the primary instigators of vascular damage. Mitochondria share several characteristics with bacteria, and when fragments of mitochondria are released into the circulation after injury, they are recognized by the innate immune system. N-Formyl peptides are common molecular signatures of bacteria and mitochondria and are known to play a role in the initiation of inflammation by activating the formyl peptide receptor (FPR). We have demonstrated that infusion of mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) leads to sepsis-like symptoms, including vascular leakage. We have also observed that F-MIT, via FPR activation, elicits changes in cytoskeleton-regulating proteins in endothelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that these FPR-mediated changes in cytoskeleton can cause endothelial cell contraction and, consequently vascular leakage. Here, we propose that endothelial FPR is a key contributor to impaired barrier function in SIRS and sepsis patients following trauma. PMID:27532003

  14. Immunologically active peptides that accompany hen egg yolk immunoglobulin Y: separation and identification.

    PubMed

    Polanowski, Antoni; Sosnowska, Agnieszka; Zabłocka, Agnieszka; Janusz, Maria; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2013-07-01

    The protein mixture of cytokine-inducing activity accompanying chicken immunoglobulin Y, named yolkin, consists of several peptides of molecular weight (MW) ranging from over 1 to 35 kDa. Yolkin and its constituent peptides were found to be efficient inducers of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 secretion. N-terminal amino acid sequences of eight of the electrophoretically purified yolkin constituents revealed that all of them are homological to some fragments of the C-terminal domain of vitellogenin II. The fractions of MW about 4 and 12 kDa are free of carbohydrates and start at position 1732 in the vitellogenin amino acid sequence; whereas the other fractions (MW about 16, 19, 23, 29, 32 and 35 kDa) appeared to be glycoproteins corresponding to the amino acid sequence of vitellogenin starting at position 1572. From these data, it is concluded that yolkin most likely represents vitellogenin-derived peptides that possess cytokine-inducing activity and are, at least partially, responsible for such properties of separated immunoglobulin Y preparation. This finding reveals a new role for vitellogenin as a reservoir of polypeptides that may play an important role in the innate immune system of the developing embryo. PMID:23492558

  15. Alarin but not its alternative-splicing form, GALP (Galanin-like peptide) has antimicrobial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Akihiro; Wong, Pooi-Fong; Hojo, Hironobu; Hasegawa, Makoto; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Llanes, Rafael; Kubo, Yoshinao; Senba, Masachika; Ichinose, Yoshio

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: • Alarin inhibits the growth of E. coli but not S. aureus. • Alarin’s potency is comparable to LL-37 in inhibiting the growth of E. coli. • Alarin can cause bacterial membrane blebbing. • Alalin does not induce hemolysis on erythrocytes. -- Abstract: Alarin is an alternative-splicing form of GALP (galanin-like peptide). It shares only 5 conserved amino acids at the N-terminal region with GALP which is involved in a diverse range of normal brain functions. This study seeks to investigate whether alarin has additional functions due to its differences from GALP. Here, we have shown using a radial diffusion assay that alarin but not GALP inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (strain ML-35). The conserved N-terminal region, however, remained essential for the antimicrobial activity of alarin as truncated peptides showed reduced killing effect. Moreover, alarin inhibited the growth of E. coli in a similar potency as human cathelicidin LL-37, a well-studied antimicrobial peptide. Electron microscopy further showed that alarin induced bacterial membrane blebbing but unlike LL-37, it did not cause hemolysis of erythrocytes. In addition, alarin is only active against the gram-negative bacteria, E. coli but not the gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, these data suggest that alarin has potentials as an antimicrobial and should be considered for the development in human therapeutics.

  16. CS-AMPPred: An Updated SVM Model for Antimicrobial Activity Prediction in Cysteine-Stabilized Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Porto, William F.; Pires, Állan S.; Franco, Octavio L.

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been proposed as an alternative to control resistant pathogens. However, due to multifunctional properties of several AMP classes, until now there has been no way to perform efficient AMP identification, except through in vitro and in vivo tests. Nevertheless, an indication of activity can be provided by prediction methods. In order to contribute to the AMP prediction field, the CS-AMPPred (Cysteine-Stabilized Antimicrobial Peptides Predictor) is presented here, consisting of an updated version of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) model for antimicrobial activity prediction in cysteine-stabilized peptides. The CS-AMPPred is based on five sequence descriptors: indexes of (i) α-helix and (ii) loop formation; and averages of (iii) net charge, (iv) hydrophobicity and (v) flexibility. CS-AMPPred was based on 310 cysteine-stabilized AMPs and 310 sequences extracted from PDB. The polynomial kernel achieves the best accuracy on 5-fold cross validation (85.81%), while the radial and linear kernels achieve 84.19%. Testing in a blind data set, the polynomial and radial kernels achieve an accuracy of 90.00%, while the linear model achieves 89.33%. The three models reach higher accuracies than previously described methods. A standalone version of CS-AMPPred is available for download at and runs on any Linux machine. PMID:23240023

  17. Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Huang, Yunxuan; Qin, Chuixin; Liang, Ming; Mao, Xinliang; Li, Shuiming; Zou, Yongdong; Jia, Weizhang; Li, Haifeng; Ma, Chung Wah; Huang, Zebo

    2016-01-01

    Since excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be associated with aging and age-related diseases, strategies modulating ROS level and antioxidant defense systems may contribute to the delay of senescence. Here we show that the protein hydrolyzate from Angelica sinensis was capable of increasing oxidative survival of the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans intoxicated by paraquat. The hydrolyzate was then fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the antioxidant fraction (<3 kDa) was purified by gel filtration to obtain the antioxidant A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps), which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues. Further studies demonstrate that AsiPeps were able to reduce the endogenous ROS level, increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decrease the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in nematodes treated with paraquat or undergoing senescence. AsiPeps were also shown to reduce age pigments accumulation and extend lifespan but did not affect the food-intake behavior of the nematodes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps) are able to delay aging process in C. elegans through antioxidant activities independent of dietary restriction. PMID:26941890

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Lactoferrin-Related Peptides and Applications in Human and Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Natascia; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Biasibetti, Elena; Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona; Giraudo, Leonardo; Corona, Antonio; Dosio, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a vast array of molecules produced by virtually all living organisms as natural barriers against infection. Among AMP sources, an interesting class regards the food-derived bioactive agents. The whey protein lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that plays a significant role in the innate immune system, and is considered as an important host defense molecule. In search for novel antimicrobial agents, Lf offers a new source with potential pharmaceutical applications. The Lf-derived peptides Lf(1-11), lactoferricin (Lfcin) and lactoferrampin exhibit interesting and more potent antimicrobial actions than intact protein. Particularly, Lfcin has demonstrated strong antibacterial, anti-fungal and antiparasitic activity with promising applications both in human and veterinary diseases (from ocular infections to osteo-articular, gastrointestinal and dermatological diseases). PMID:27294909

  19. Short Self-Assembling Peptides Are Able to Bind to Copper and Activate Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Makhlynets, Olga V; Gosavi, Pallavi M; Korendovych, Ivan V

    2016-07-25

    We have shown that de novo designed peptides self-assemble in the presence of copper to create supramolecular assemblies capable of carrying out the oxidation of dimethoxyphenol in the presence of dioxygen. Formation of the supramolecular assembly, which is akin to a protein fold, is critical for productive catalysis since peptides possessing the same functional groups but lacking the ability to self-assemble do not catalyze substrate oxidation. The ease with which we have discovered robust and productive oxygen activation catalysts suggests that these prion-like assemblies might have served as intermediates in the evolution of enzymatic function and opens the path for the development of new catalyst nanomaterials. PMID:27276534

  20. Site-Specifically Labeled Immunoconjugates for Molecular Imaging—Part 2: Peptide Tags and Unnatural Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Adumeau, Pierre; Sharma, Sai Kiran; Brent, Colleen; Zeglis, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging using radioisotope- or fluorophore-labeled antibodies is increasingly becoming a critical component of modern precision medicine. Yet despite this promise, the vast majority of these immunoconjugates are synthesized via the random coupling of amine-reactive bifunctional probes to lysines within the antibody, a process that can result in heterogeneous and poorly defined constructs with suboptimal pharmacological properties. In an effort to circumvent these issues, the last 5 years have played witness to a great deal of research focused on the creation of effective strategies for the site-specific attachment of payloads to antibodies. These chemoselective modification methods yield immunoconjugates that are more homogenous and better defined than constructs created using traditional synthetic approaches. Moreover, site-specifically labeled immunoconjugates have also been shown to exhibit superior in vivo behavior compared to their randomly modified cousins. The over-arching goal of this two-part review is to provide a broad yet detailed account of the various site-specific bioconjugation approaches that have been used to create immunoconjugates for positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and fluorescence imaging. In Part 1, we covered site-specific bioconjugation techniques based on the modification of cysteine residues and the chemoenzymatic manipulation of glycans. In Part 2, we will detail two families of bioconjugation approaches that leverage biochemical tools to achieve site-specificity. First, we will discuss modification methods that employ peptide tags either as sites for enzyme-catalyzed ligations or as radiometal coordination architectures. And second, we will examine bioconjugation strategies predicated on the incorporation of unnatural or non-canonical amino acids into antibodies via genetic engineering. Finally, we will compare the advantages and disadvantages of the modification

  1. Site-Specifically Labeled Immunoconjugates for Molecular Imaging--Part 2: Peptide Tags and Unnatural Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Adumeau, Pierre; Sharma, Sai Kiran; Brent, Colleen; Zeglis, Brian M

    2016-04-01

    Molecular imaging using radioisotope- or fluorophore-labeled antibodies is increasingly becoming a critical component of modern precision medicine. Yet despite this promise, the vast majority of these immunoconjugates are synthesized via the random coupling of amine-reactive bifunctional probes to lysines within the antibody, a process that can result in heterogeneous and poorly defined constructs with suboptimal pharmacological properties. In an effort to circumvent these issues, the last 5 years have played witness to a great deal of research focused on the creation of effective strategies for the site-specific attachment of payloads to antibodies. These chemoselective modification methods yield immunoconjugates that are more homogenous and better defined than constructs created using traditional synthetic approaches. Moreover, site-specifically labeled immunoconjugates have also been shown to exhibit superior in vivo behavior compared to their randomly modified cousins. The over-arching goal of this two-part review is to provide a broad yet detailed account of the various site-specific bioconjugation approaches that have been used to create immunoconjugates for positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and fluorescence imaging. In Part 1, we covered site-specific bioconjugation techniques based on the modification of cysteine residues and the chemoenzymatic manipulation of glycans. In Part 2, we will detail two families of bioconjugation approaches that leverage biochemical tools to achieve site-specificity. First, we will discuss modification methods that employ peptide tags either as sites for enzyme-catalyzed ligations or as radiometal coordination architectures. And second, we will examine bioconjugation strategies predicated on the incorporation of unnatural or non-canonical amino acids into antibodies via genetic engineering. Finally, we will compare the advantages and disadvantages of the modification

  2. Inhibition of NF-kappa B activation by peptides targeting NF-kappa B essential modulator (nemo) oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Agou, Fabrice; Courtois, Gilles; Chiaravalli, Jeanne; Baleux, Françoise; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Traincard, François; Israël, Alain; Véron, Michel

    2004-12-24

    NF-kappa B essential modulator/IKK-gamma (NEMO/IKK-gamma) plays a key role in the activation of the NF-kappa B pathway in response to proinflammatory stimuli. Previous studies suggested that the signal-dependent activation of the IKK complex involves the trimerization of NEMO. The minimal oligomerization domain of this protein consists of two coiled-coil subdomains named Coiled-coil 2 (CC2) and leucine zipper (LZ) (Agou, F., Traincard, F., Vinolo, E., Courtois, G., Yamaoka, S., Israel, A., and Veron, M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 27861-27869). To search for drugs inhibiting NF-kappa B activation, we have rationally designed cell-permeable peptides corresponding to the CC2 and LZ subdomains that mimic the contact areas between NEMO subunits. The peptides were tagged with the Antennapedia/Penetratin motif and delivered to cells prior to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Peptide transduction was monitored by fluorescence-activated cell sorter, and their effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappa B activation was quantified using an NF-kappa B-dependent beta-galactosidase assay in stably transfected pre-B 70Z/3 lymphocytes. We show that the peptides corresponding to the LZ and CC2 subdomains inhibit NF-kappa B activation with an IC(50) in the mum range. Control peptides, including mutated CC2 and LZ peptides and a heterologous coiled-coil peptide, had no inhibitory effect. The designed peptides are able to induce cell death in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells exhibiting constitutive NF-kappa B activity. Our results provide the "proof of concept" for a new and promising strategy for the inhibition of NF-kappa B pathway activation through targeting the oligomerization state of the NEMO protein. PMID:15466857

  3. Cell Penetrating Peptide-Mediated Caveolae-Dependent Activation of Lung Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Tarun E; Hu, Hanbo; Patel, Jawaharlal M

    2016-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides can be used as therapeutic agents via modulation of selective cell functions. Nitric oxide (NO) generated by vascular endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a critical role in the NO/ cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated pulmonary vascular function. Here we examined whether internalization of a fifteen amino acid (KRFNSISCSSWRRKR) synthetic peptide (P3) enhances the catalytic activity of eNOS via caveolae/eNOS dissociation leading to NO release and increased cGMP production in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (EC). ECs were treated with varying concentrations of P3 and used to monitor internalization, isolation of caveolae-enriched fraction, the catalytic activity of eNOS, NO/cGMP production, and intracellular Ca(2+) release. Confocal images show timedependent internalization of P3 in EC. Treatment of EC with P3, but not scrambled P3, increased the catalytic activity of eNOS in a dose-dependent manner without change in eNOS expression or phosphorylation. Treatment of EC with P3 stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) release, increased the catalytic activity of phospatidylinsositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and resulted in eNOS/caveolae-1 (Cav-1) dissociation leading to translocation of eNOS to intracellular compartment in EC. P3- mediated activation of eNOS was abolished by intracellular Ca(2+) chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenooxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'- tertraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM), PI3K inhibition, or by siRNA-mediated Cav-1 suppression. These results demonstrate that exogenous peptide consisting of cationic amino acids can internalize and enhance the catalytic activity of eNOS via modulation of caveolar signaling and intracellular Ca(2+) release in EC. PMID:26655728

  4. Dissociation Behavior of a TEMPO-Active Ester Cross-Linker for Peptide Structure Analysis by Free Radical Initiated Peptide Sequencing (FRIPS) in Negative ESI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Christoph; Ihling, Christian H.; Götze, Michael; Schäfer, Mathias; Sinz, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We have synthesized a homobifunctional amine-reactive cross-linking reagent, containing a TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy) and a benzyl group (Bz), termed TEMPO-Bz-linker, to derive three-dimensional structural information of proteins. The aim for designing this novel cross-linker was to facilitate the mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked products by free radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS). In an initial study, we had investigated the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-derivatized peptides upon collision activation in (+)-electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS/MS) experiments. In addition to the homolytic NO-C bond cleavage FRIPS pathway delivering the desired odd-electron product ions, an alternative heterolytic NO-C bond cleavage, resulting in even-electron product ions mechanism was found to be relevant. The latter fragmentation route clearly depends on the protonation of the TEMPO-Bz-moiety itself, which motivated us to conduct (-)-ESI-MS, CID-MS/MS, and MS3 experiments of TEMPO-Bz-cross-linked peptides to further clarify the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-peptide molecular ions. We show that the TEMPO-Bz-linker is highly beneficial for conducting FRIPS in negative ionization mode as the desired homolytic cleavage of the NO-C bond is the major fragmentation pathway. Based on characteristic fragments, the isomeric amino acids leucine and isoleucine could be discriminated. Interestingly, we observed pronounced amino acid side chain losses in cross-linked peptides if the cross-linked peptides contain a high number of acidic amino acids.

  5. The anabolic effects of vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) and a novel small peptide on bone.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gary B; Grecco, Kristina J; Safadi, Fayez F; Popoff, Steven N

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) has previously been shown to stimulate bone resorption and correct the skeletal defects associated with osteopetrosis in two nonallelic mutations in rats. This same protein and a small fragment of the protein have now been shown to demonstrate an anabolic effect on the skeleton of both newborn and young adult, intact rats. The novel peptide fragment was synthetically produced based on the human amino acid sequence at the site of glycosylation in the third domain of the native protein (DBP). The peptide tested is 14 amino acids in length and demonstrates no homologies other than to that region of DBP. Newborn rats were injected i.p. with saline, peptide (0.4 ng/g body wt.) or DBP-MAF (2 ng/g body wt.) every other day from birth to 14 days of age. On day 16 the rats were euthanized and the long bones collected for bone densitometry by pQCT. After 2 weeks of treatment with either the whole protein (DBP-MAF) or the small peptide, bone density was significantly increased in the treated animals compared to the saline controls. Young adult female rats (180 grams) were given s.c. injections of saline or peptide (0.4 ng/g body wt. or 5 ng/g body wt.) every other day for 2 weeks; 2 days after the final injections, the rats were euthanized and the femurs and tibias collected for bone densitometry. Both doses of the peptide resulted in significant increases in bone density as determined by pQCT. Young adult rats were injected locally with a single dose of the peptide (1 microg) or saline into the marrow cavity of the distal femur. One week after the single injection, the bones were collected for radiographic and histological evaluation. The saline controls showed no evidence of new bone formation, whereas the peptide-treated animals demonstrated osteoinduction in the marrow cavity and osteogenesis of surrounding cortical and metaphyseal bone. These data suggest that DBP-MAF and the synthetic peptide represent

  6. Dissecting the active site of a photoreceptor protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Wouter; Hara, Miwa; Ren, Jie; Moghadam, Farzaneh; Xie, Aihua; Kumauchi, Masato

    While enzymes are quite large molecules, functionally important chemical events are often limited to a small region of the protein: the active site. The physical and chemical properties of residues at such active sites are often strongly altered compared to the same groups dissolved in water. Understanding such effects is important for unraveling the mechanisms underlying protein function and for protein engineering, but has proven challenging. Here we report on our ongoing efforts on using photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a bacterial photoreceptor, as a model system for such effects. We will report on the following questions: How many residues affect active site properties? Are these residues in direct physical contact with the active site? Can functionally important residues be recognized in the crystal structure of a protein? What structural resolution is needed to understand active sites? What spectroscopic techniques are most informative? Which weak interactions dominate active site properties?

  7. Interaction between a Cationic Surfactant-like Peptide and Lipid Vesicles and Its Relationship to Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the properties of an antimicrobial surfactant-like peptide (Ala)6(Arg), A6R, containing a cationic headgroup. The interaction of this peptide with zwitterionic (DPPC) lipid vesicles is investigated using a range of microscopic, X-ray scattering, spectroscopic, and calorimetric methods. The β-sheet structure adopted by A6R is disrupted in the presence of DPPC. A strong effect on the small-angle X-ray scattering profile is observed: the Bragg peaks from the DPPC bilayers in the vesicle walls are eliminated in the presence of A6R and only bilayer form factor peaks are observed. All of these observations point to the interaction of A6R with DPPC bilayers. These studies provide insight into interactions between a model cationic peptide and vesicles, relevant to understanding the action of antimicrobial peptides on lipid membranes. Notably, peptide A6R exhibits antimicrobial activity without membrane lysis. PMID:24156610

  8. Ethnicity-tailored novel set of ESAT-6 peptides for differentiating active and latent tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Salam Bhopen; Biswas, Debasis; Rawat, Jagdish; Sindhwani, Girish; Patras, Abhishek; Devrani, Suraj; Sarkar, Pronoti; Mitra, Soumik; Gupta, Shailendra K

    2013-11-01

    Differentiation between active and latent TB is a diagnostic challenge in TB-endemic regions. The commercially available IFN-γ-release assays are unsuitable for achieving this discrimination. We, therefore, screened ESAT-6 and CFP-10 proteins through population coverage analysis to identify minimal sets of peptides that can discriminate between these two forms of TB in a North Indian population. Comparing the diagnostic performance of a set of 2 ESAT-6 peptides (positions: 16-36; 59-79) to that of the QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold IT (QFTGIT) assay, we observed significant difference in IFN-γ and TNF-α levels between patients (n = 15) and their age- and sex-matched healthy household contacts (n = 15). While the mean (±SD) IFNγ titer was 241.8 (±219.24) IU/ml for patients, the same in controls was 564.2 (±334.82) IU/ml (p = 0.039). Similarly the TNFα response was significantly higher in patients, compared to controls (796.47 ± 175.21 IU/ml vs. 481.81 ± 378.72 IU/ml; p = 0.047). IL-4 response to these peptides was non- discriminatory between the two groups. The QFTGIT Assay, however, elicited no significant difference in IFN-γ, TNF-α or IL-4 levels. Hence we conclude that IFN-γ or TNF-α response to these ESAT-6 peptides has the potential to differentiate between active and latent TB in our population. PMID:24011630

  9. A Novel Beta-Defensin Antimicrobial Peptide in Atlantic Cod with Stimulatory Effect on Phagocytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Jareeporn; Kitani, Yoichiro; Kiron, Viswanath; Lokesh, Jep; Brinchmann, Monica F.; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2013-01-01

    A novel defensin antimicrobial peptide gene was identified in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. This three exon/two intron defensin gene codes for a peptide precursor consisting of two domains: a signal peptide of 26 amino acids and a mature peptide of 40 residues. The mature cod defensin has six conserved cysteine residues that form 1–5, 2–4 and 3–6 disulphide bridges. This pattern is typical of beta-defensins and this gene was therefore named cod beta-defensin (defb). The tertiary structure of Defb exhibits an α/β fold with one α helix and β1β2β3 sheets. RT-PCR analysis indicated that defb transcripts were present mainly in the swim bladder and peritoneum wall but could also be detected at moderate to low levels in skin, head- and excretory kidneys. In situ hybridisation revealed that defb was specifically expressed by cells located in the swim bladder submucosa and the oocytes. During embryonic development, defb gene transcripts were detectable from the golden eye stage onwards and their expression was restricted to the swim bladder and retina. Defb was differentially expressed in several tissues following antigenic challenge with Vibrio anguillarum, being up-regulated up to 25-fold in head kidney. Recombinant Defb displayed antibacterial activity, with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.4–0.8 µM and 25–50 µM against the Gram-(+) bacteria Planococcus citreus and Micrococcus luteus, respectively. In addition, Defb stimulated phagocytic activity of cod head kidney leucocytes in vitro. These findings imply that beta-defensins may play an important role in the innate immune response of Atlantic cod. PMID:23638029

  10. A cell penetrating peptide-integrated and enediyne-energized fusion protein shows potent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Ru, Qin; Shang, Bo-Yang; Miao, Qing-Fang; Li, Liang; Wu, Shu-Ying; Gao, Rui-Juan; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2012-11-20

    Arginine-rich peptides belong to a subclass of cell penetrating peptides that are taken up by living cells and can be detected freely diffusing inside the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. This phenomenon has been attributed to either an endocytotic mode of uptake and a subsequent release from vesicles or a direct membrane penetration. Lidamycin is an antitumor antibiotic, which consists of an active enediyne chromophore (AE) and a noncovalently bound apoprotein (LDP). In the present study, a fusion protein (Arg)(9)-LDP composed of cell penetrating peptide (Arg)(9) and LDP was prepared by DNA recombination, and the enediyne-energized fusion protein (Arg)(9)-LDP-AE was prepared by molecular reconstitution. The data in fixed cells demonstrated that (Arg)(9)-LDP could rapidly enter cells, and the results based on fluorescence activated cell sorting indicated that the major route for (Arg)(9)-mediated cellular uptake of protein molecules was endocytosis. (Arg)(9)-LDP-AE demonstrated more potent cytotoxicity against different carcinoma cell lines than lidamycin in vitro. In the mouse hepatoma 22 model, (Arg)(9)-LDP-AE (0.3mg/kg) suppressed the tumor growth by 89.2%, whereas lidamycin (0.05 mg/kg) by 74.6%. Furthermore, in the glioma U87 xenograft model in nude mice, (Arg)(9)-LDP-AE at 0.2mg/kg suppressed tumor growth by 88.8%, compared with that of lidamycin by 62.9% at 0.05 mg/kg. No obvious toxic effects were observed in all groups during treatments. The results showed that energized fusion protein (Arg)(9)-LDP-AE was more effective than lidamycin and would be a promising candidate for glioma therapy. In addition, this approach to manufacturing fusion proteins might serve as a technology platform for the development of new cell penetrating peptides-based drugs. PMID:22982402

  11. Transparent, conductive, and SERS-active Au nanofiber films assembled on an amphiphilic peptide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod, T. P.; Zarzhitsky, Shlomo; Morag, Ahiud; Zeiri, Leila; Levi-Kalisman, Yael; Rapaport, Hanna; Jelinek, Raz

    2013-10-01

    The use of biological materials as templates for functional molecular assemblies is an active research field at the interface between chemistry, biology, and materials science. We demonstrate the formation of gold nanofiber films on β-sheet peptide domains assembled at the air/water interface. The gold deposition scheme employed a recently discovered chemical process involving spontaneous crystallization and reduction of water-soluble Au(SCN)41- upon anchoring to surface-displayed amine moieties. Here we show that an interlinked network of crystalline Au nanofibers is readily formed upon incubation of the Au(iii) thiocyanate complex with the peptide monolayers. Intriguingly, the resultant films were optically transparent, enabled electrical conductivity, and displayed pronounced surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activity, making the approach a promising avenue for construction of nano-structured films exhibiting practical applications.The use of biological materials as templates for functional molecular assemblies is an active research field at the interface between chemistry, biology, and materials science. We demonstrate the formation of gold nanofiber films on β-sheet peptide domains assembled at the air/water interface. The gold deposition scheme employed a recently discovered chemical process involving spontaneous crystallization and reduction of water-soluble Au(SCN)41- upon anchoring to surface-displayed amine moieties. Here we show that an interlinked network of crystalline Au nanofibers is readily formed upon incubation of the Au(iii) thiocyanate complex with the peptide monolayers. Intriguingly, the resultant films were optically transparent, enabled electrical conductivity, and displayed pronounced surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activity, making the approach a promising avenue for construction of nano-structured films exhibiting practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM analysis of the

  12. Pegylation of Antimicrobial Peptides Maintains the Active Peptide Conformation, Model Membrane Interactions, and Antimicrobial Activity while Improving Lung Tissue Biocompatibility following Airway Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Beck, Konrad; Fox, Marc A.; Ulaeto, David; Clark, Graeme C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have therapeutic potential, particularly for localized infections such as those of the lung. Here we show that airway administration of a pegylated AMP minimizes lung tissue toxicity while nevertheless maintaining antimicrobial activity. CaLL, a potent synthetic AMP (KWKLFKKIFKRIVQRIKDFLR) comprising fragments of LL-37 and cecropin A peptides, was N-terminally pegylated (PEG-CaLL). PEG-CaLL derivatives retained significant antimicrobial activity (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s] 2- to 3-fold higher than those of CaLL) against bacterial lung pathogens even in the presence of lung lining fluid. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that conformational changes associated with the binding of CaLL to model microbial membranes were not disrupted by pegylation. Pegylation of CaLL reduced AMP-elicited cell toxicity as measured using in vitro lung epithelial primary cell cultures. Further, in a fully intact ex vivo isolated perfused rat lung (IPRL) model, airway-administered PEG-CaLL did not result in disruption of the pulmonary epithelial barrier, whereas CaLL caused an immediate loss of membrane integrity leading to pulmonary edema. All AMPs (CaLL, PEG-CaLL, LL-37, cecropin A) delivered to the lung by airway administration showed limited (<3%) pulmonary absorption in the IPRL with extensive AMP accumulation in lung tissue itself, a characteristic anticipated to be beneficial for the treatment of pulmonary infections. We conclude that pegylation may present a means of improving the lung biocompatibility of AMPs designed for the treatment of pulmonary infections. PMID:22430978

  13. Synthesis of novel, peptidic kinase inhibitors with cytostatic/cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Wiktor; Zwolinska, Magdalena; Klossowski, Szymon; Młynarczuk-Biały, Izabela; Biały, Lukasz; Issat, Tadeusz; Malejczyk, Jacek; Ostaszewski, Ryszard

    2014-03-01

    The utility of a novel, chemoenzymatic procedure for the stereocontrolled synthesis of small peptides is presented in the preparation and structure optimisation of dipeptides with cytostatic/cytotoxic activity. The method uses Passerini multicomponent reaction for the preparation of racemic scaffold which is then enantioselectively hydrolysed by hydrolytic enzymes. Products of these transformations are further functionalised towards title compounds. Both activity and selectivity towards tumor cells is optimised. Final compound is shown to be an inhibitor of the protein kinase signaling pathway. PMID:24507826

  14. In Vitro and Intracellular Activities of Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 against Legionella pneumophila Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Jacques; Dubois, Maïtée; Martel, Jean-François; Aubart, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    GSK1322322, a novel peptide deformylase inhibitor currently in development as an oral and intravenous agent for the treatment of hospitalized community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, showed poor in vitro activity against a panel of 50 Legionella pneumophila strains, with MICs ranging from 1 to 16 μg/ml and an MIC90 of 16 μg/ml, but very potent intracellular activity, with the minimum extracellular concentrations capable of inhibiting intracellular proliferation (MIECs) ranging from 0.12 to 2 μg/ml and 98% of the strains being inhibited by concentrations of ≤1 μg/ml. PMID:25348534

  15. Structure-Activity Analysis of the Dermcidin-derived Peptide DCD-1L, an Anionic Antimicrobial Peptide Present in Human Sweat*

    PubMed Central

    Paulmann, Maren; Arnold, Thomas; Linke, Dirk; Özdirekcan, Suat; Kopp, Annika; Gutsmann, Thomas; Kalbacher, Hubert; Wanke, Ines; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Habeck, Michael; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S.; Schittek, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Dermcidin encodes the anionic amphiphilic peptide DCD-1L, which displays a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity under conditions resembling those in human sweat. Here, we have investigated its mode of antimicrobial activity. We found that DCD-1L interacts preferentially with negatively charged bacterial phospholipids with a helix axis that is aligned flat on a lipid bilayer surface. Upon interaction with lipid bilayers DCD-1L forms oligomeric complexes that are stabilized by Zn2+. DCD-1L is able to form ion channels in the bacterial membrane, and we propose that Zn2+-induced self-assembly of DCD-1L upon interaction with bacterial lipid bilayers is a prerequisite for ion channel formation. These data allow us for the first time to propose a molecular model for the antimicrobial mechanism of a naturally processed human anionic peptide that is active under the harsh conditions present in human sweat. PMID:22262861

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Synthetic Peptides Derived from Lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212

    PubMed Central

    León-Calvijo, María A.; Leal-Castro, Aura L.; Almanzar-Reina, Giovanni A.; Rosas-Pérez, Jaiver E.; García-Castañeda, Javier E.; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J.

    2015-01-01

    Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i) the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii) reduction or (iii) elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv) synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR) and I.4 ((RRWQWR)4K2Ahx2C2) exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4–33 μM) and E. faecalis (MIC 10–33 μM) when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF) and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA) and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE). It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield. PMID:25815317

  17. Antibacterial activity of synthetic peptides derived from lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212.

    PubMed

    León-Calvijo, María A; Leal-Castro, Aura L; Almanzar-Reina, Giovanni A; Rosas-Pérez, Jaiver E; García-Castañeda, Javier E; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J

    2015-01-01

    Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i) the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii) reduction or (iii) elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv) synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR) and I.4 ((RRWQWR)4K2Ahx2C2) exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4-33 μM) and E. faecalis (MIC 10-33 μM) when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF) and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA) and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE). It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield. PMID:25815317

  18. Structural analysis and insertion study reveal the ideal sites for surface displaying foreign peptides on a betanodavirus-like particle.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junfeng; Li, Kunpeng; Gao, Yuanzhu; Huang, Runqing; Lai, Yuxiong; Shi, Yan; Yang, Shaowei; Zhu, Guohua; Zhang, Qinfen; He, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Betanodavirus infection causes fatal disease of viral nervous necrosis in many cultured marine and freshwater fish worldwide and the virus-like particles (VLP) are effective vaccines against betanodavirus. But vaccine and viral vector designs of betanodavirus VLP based on their structures remain lacking. Here, the three-dimensional structure of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV) VLP (RBS) at 3.9 Å reveals the organization of capsid proteins (CP). Based on the structural results, seven putative important sites were selected to genetically insert a 6× histidine (His)-tag for VLP formation screen, resulting in four His-tagged VLP (HV) at positions N-terminus, Ala220, Pro292 and C-terminus. The His-tags of N-terminal HV (NHV) were concealed inside virions while those of 220HV and C-terminal HV (CHV) were displayed at the outer surface. NHV, 220HV and CHV maintained the same cell entry ability as RBS in the Asian sea bass (SB) cell line, indicating that their similar surface structures can be recognized by the cellular entry receptor(s). For application of vaccine design, chromatography-purified CHV could provoke NNV-specific antibody responses as strong as those of RBS in a sea bass immunization assay. Furthermore, in carrying capacity assays, N-terminus and Ala220 can only carry short peptides and C-terminus can even accommodate large protein such as GFP to generate fluorescent VLP (CGV). For application of a viral vector, CGV could be real-time visualized to enter SB cells in invasion study. All the results confirmed that the C-terminus of CP is a suitable site to accommodate foreign peptides for vaccine design and viral vector development. PMID:26754256

  19. Oriented Circular Dichroism: A Method to Characterize Membrane-Active Peptides in Oriented Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Bürck, Jochen; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Fanghänel, Susanne; Ulrich, Anne S

    2016-02-16

    The structures of membrane-bound polypeptides are intimately related to their functions and may change dramatically with the lipid environment. Circular dichroism (CD) is a rapid analytical method that requires relatively low amounts of material and no labeling. Conventional CD is routinely used to monitor the secondary structure of peptides and proteins in solution, for example, in the presence of ligands and other binding partners. In the case of membrane-active peptides and transmembrane proteins, these measurements can be applied to, and remain limited to, samples containing detergent micelles or small sonicated lipid vesicles. Such traditional CD analysis reveals only secondary structures. With the help of an oriented circular dichroism (OCD) setup, however, based on the preparation of macroscopically oriented lipid bilayers, it is possible to address the membrane alignment of a peptide in addition to its conformation. This approach has been mostly used for α-helical peptides so far, but other structural elements are conceivable as well. OCD analysis relies on Moffitt's theory, which predicts that the electronic transition dipole moments of the backbone amide bonds in helical polypeptides are polarized either parallel or perpendicular to the helix axis. The interaction of the electric field vector of the circularly polarized light with these transitions results in an OCD spectrum of a membrane-bound α-helical peptide, which exhibits a characteristic line shape and reflects the angle between the helix axis and the bilayer normal. For parallel alignment of a peptide helix with respect to the membrane surface (S-state), the corresponding "fingerprint" CD band around 208 nm will exhibit maximum negative amplitude. If the helix changes its alignment via an obliquely tilted (T-state) to a fully inserted transmembrane orientation (I-state), the ellipticity at 208 nm decreases and the value approaches zero due to the decreased interactions between the field and the

  20. A novel peptide inhibitor of classical and lectin complement activation including ABO incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Mauriello, Clifford T.; Pallera, Haree K.; Sharp, Julia A.; Woltmann, Jon L.; Qian, Shizhi; Hair, Pamela S.; van der Pol, Pieter; van Kooten, Cees; Thielens, Nicole M.; Lattanzio, Frank A.; Cunnion, Kenji M.; Krishna, Neel K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments from our laboratories have identified peptides derived from the human astrovirus coat protein (CP) that bind C1q and mannose binding lectin (MBL) inhibiting activation of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, respectively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the function of these coat protein peptides (CPPs) in an in vitro model of complement-mediated disease (ABO incompatibility), preliminarily assess their in vivo complement suppression profile and develop more highly potent derivatives of these molecules. E23A, a 30 amino acid CPP derivative previously demonstrated to inhibit classical pathway activation was able to dose-dependently inhibit lysis of AB erythrocytes treated with mismatched human O serum. Additionally, when injected into rats, E23A inhibited the animals’ serum from lysing antibody-sensitized erythrocytes, providing preliminary in vivo functional evidence that this CPP can cross the species barrier to inhibit serum complement activity in rodents. A rational drug design approach was implemented to identify more potent CPP derivatives, resulting in the identification and characterization of a 15 residue peptide (Polar Assortant (PA)), which demonstrated both superior inhibition of classical complement pathway activation and robust binding to C1q collagen-like tails. PA also inhibited ABO incompatibility in vitro and demonstrated in vivo complement suppression up to 24 hours post-injection. CPP’s ability to inhibit ABO incompatibility in vitro, proof of concept in vivo inhibitory activity in rats and the development of the highly potent PA derivative set the stage for preclinical testing of this molecule in small animal models of complement-mediated disease. PMID:22906481

  1. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide induces long-lasting neuroprotection through the induction of activity-dependent signaling via the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein-regulated transcription co-activator 1

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Paul S; Martel, Marc-Andre; McMahon, Aoife; Kind, Peter C; Hardingham, Giles E

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a neuroprotective peptide which exerts its effects mainly through the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Here, we show that in cortical neurons, PACAP-induced PKA signaling exerts a major part of its neuroprotective effects indirectly, by triggering action potential (AP) firing. Treatment of cortical neurons with PACAP induces a rapid and sustained PKA-dependent increase in AP firing and associated intracellular Ca2+ transients, which are essential for the anti-apoptotic actions of PACAP. Transient exposure to PACAP induces long-lasting neuroprotection in the face of apoptotic insults which is reliant on AP firing and the activation of cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB)-mediated gene expression. Although direct, activity-independent PKA signaling is sufficient to trigger phosphorylation on CREB’s activating serine-133 site, this is insufficient for activation of CREB-mediated gene expression. Full activation is dependent on CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 1 (CRTC1), whose PACAP-induced nuclear import is dependent on firing activity-dependent calcineurin signaling. Over-expression of CRTC1 is sufficient to rescue PACAP-induced CRE-mediated gene expression in the face of activity-blockade, while dominant negative CRTC1 interferes with PACAP-induced, CREB-mediated neuroprotection. Thus, the enhancement of AP firing may play a significant role in the neuroprotective actions of PACAP and other adenylate cyclase-coupled ligands. PMID:21623792

  2. A conserved secondary structural motif in 23S rRNA defines the site of interaction of amicetin, a universal inhibitor of peptide bond formation.

    PubMed Central

    Leviev, I G; Rodriguez-Fonseca, C; Phan, H; Garrett, R A; Heilek, G; Noller, H F; Mankin, A S

    1994-01-01

    The binding site and probable site of action have been determined for the universal antibiotic amicetin which inhibits peptide bond formation. Evidence from in vivo mutants, site-directed mutations and chemical footprinting all implicate a highly conserved motif in the secondary structure of the 23S-like rRNA close to the central circle of domain V. We infer that this motif lies at, or close to, the catalytic