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Sample records for active soil microcosms

  1. Identification of active oxalotrophic bacteria by Bromodeoxyuridine DNA labeling in a microcosm soil experiments.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Daniel; Martin, Gaëtan; David, Maude M; Cailleau, Guillaume; Verrecchia, Eric; Junier, Pilar

    2013-11-01

    The oxalate-carbonate pathway (OCP) leads to a potential carbon sink in terrestrial environments. This process is linked to the activity of oxalotrophic bacteria. Although isolation and molecular characterizations are used to study oxalotrophic bacteria, these approaches do not give information on the active oxalotrophs present in soil undergoing the OCP. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of active oxalotrophic bacteria in soil microcosms using the Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) DNA labeling technique. Soil was collected near an oxalogenic tree (Milicia excelsa). Different concentrations of calcium oxalate (0.5%, 1%, and 4% w/w) were added to the soil microcosms and compared with an untreated control. After 12 days of incubation, a maximal pH of 7.7 was measured for microcosms with oxalate (initial pH 6.4). At this time point, a DGGE profile of the frc gene was performed from BrdU-labeled soil DNA and unlabeled soil DNA. Actinobacteria (Streptomyces- and Kribbella-like sequences), Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were found as the main active oxalotrophic bacterial groups. This study highlights the relevance of Actinobacteria as members of the active bacterial community and the identification of novel uncultured oxalotrophic groups (i.e. Kribbella) active in soils.

  2. A coexisting fungal-bacterial community stabilizes soil decomposition activity in a microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Ushio, Masayuki; Miki, Takeshi; Balser, Teri C

    2013-01-01

    How diversity influences the stability of a community function is a major question in ecology. However, only limited empirical investigations of the diversity-stability relationship in soil microbial communities have been undertaken, despite the fundamental role of microbial communities in driving carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we conducted a microcosm experiment to investigate the relationship between microbial diversity and stability of soil decomposition activities against changes in decomposition substrate quality by manipulating microbial community using selective biocides. We found that soil respiration rates and degradation enzyme activities by a coexisting fungal and bacterial community (a taxonomically diverse community) are more stable against changes in substrate quality (plant leaf materials) than those of a fungi-dominated or a bacteria-dominated community (less diverse community). Flexible changes in the microbial community composition and/or physiological state in the coexisting community against changes in substrate quality, as inferred by the soil lipid profile, may be the mechanism underlying this positive diversity-stability relationship. Our experiment demonstrated that the previously found positive diversity-stability relationship could also be valid in the soil microbial community. Our results also imply that the functional/taxonomic diversity and community ecology of soil microbes should be incorporated into the context of climate-ecosystem feedbacks. Changes in substrate quality, which could be induced by climate change, have impacts on decomposition process and carbon dioxide emission from soils, but such impacts may be attenuated by the functional diversity of soil microbial communities.

  3. Manure biochar influence upon soil properties, phosphorus distribution and phosphatase activities: A microcosm incubation study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Liang, Xinqiang; He, Miaomiao; Liu, Yu; Tian, Guangming; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Using manure-derived-biochar as an alternative phosphorus (P) source has bright future prospects to improve soil P status. A 98-day microcosm incubation experiment was set up for two soils which were amended with manure biochar at proportions of 0, 0.5% and 1.5%. Swine manure samples were air-dried and manure biochar was prepared by pyrolysis at 400 °C for 4 h. As determined by P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) spectroscopy, manure biochar mainly increased the contents and fractions of orthophosphate and pyrophosphate in two soils, while decreased those of monoesters (P<0.05). At the end of incubation, 1.5% of manure biochar raised soil pH by 0.5 and 0.6 units, cation exchange capacity by 16.9% and 32.2%, and soil total P by 82.1% and 81.1% for silt loam and clay loam soils, respectively, as compared with those soils without biochar. Simultaneously, 1.5% of manure biochar decreased acid phosphomonoesterase activities by 18.6% and 34.0% for clay loam and silt loam, respectively; while it increased alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities by 28.5% and 95.1% for clay loam and silt loam, respectively. The enhancement of soil P availability after manure biochar addition was firstly due to the orthophosphate and pyrophosphate as the major P species in manure biochar which directly increased contents of soil inorganic P, and also attributed to the decomposition of some organic P like monoesters by enhanced alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities from manure biochar addition.

  4. Application of electrical methods to measure microbial activity in soils: Preliminary microcosm results

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.L. Sweet, A.; Majer, E.

    1997-12-01

    The application of the geophysical technique known as self-potential to the measurement of microbial activity was tested on laboratory microcosms containing ferric iron and iron-reducing bacteria Shewanella alga BrY. Measurements of the electrical response of silver-coated copper electrodes distributed along a Teflon probe inserted into sterile and inoculated layers containing either ferric chloride, ferric citrate, or ferric oxide rich soil were recorded over hours or days. Strong electrical signals reached values more negative than {minus}400 mV for all types of inoculated ferric iron layers. Electric signals in sterile control layers, by contrast, rarely reached values more negative than {minus}150 mV. These preliminary experiments indicate that it may be possible to apply the self-potential geophysical method to monitor bioremediation in the field.

  5. Citrate and malonate increase microbial activity and alter microbial community composition in uncontaminated and diesel-contaminated soil microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Belinda C.; George, Suman J.; Price, Charles A.; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Ball, Andrew S.; Tibbett, Mark; Ryan, Megan H.

    2016-09-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) are among the most prevalent sources of environmental contamination. It has been hypothesized that plant root exudation of low molecular weight organic acid anions (carboxylates) may aid degradation of PHCs by stimulating heterotrophic microbial activity. To test their potential implication for bioremediation, we applied two commonly exuded carboxylates (citrate and malonate) to uncontaminated and diesel-contaminated microcosms (10 000 mg kg-1; aged 40 days) and determined their impact on the microbial community and PHC degradation. Every 48 h for 18 days, soil received 5 µmol g-1 of (i) citrate, (ii) malonate, (iii) citrate + malonate or (iv) water. Microbial activity was measured daily as the flux of CO2. After 18 days, changes in the microbial community were assessed by a community-level physiological profile (CLPP) and 16S rRNA bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Saturated PHCs remaining in the soil were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Cumulative soil respiration increased 4- to 6-fold with the addition of carboxylates, while diesel contamination resulted in a small, but similar, increase across all carboxylate treatments. The addition of carboxylates resulted in distinct changes to the microbial community in both contaminated and uncontaminated soils but only a small increase in the biodegradation of saturated PHCs as measured by the n-C17 : pristane biomarker. We conclude that while the addition of citrate and malonate had little direct effect on the biodegradation of saturated hydrocarbons present in diesel, their effect on the microbial community leads us to suggest further studies using a variety of soils and organic acids, and linked to in situ studies of plants, to investigate the role of carboxylates in microbial community dynamics.

  6. Identification of Unknown Carboxydovore Bacteria Dominant in Deciduous Forest Soil via Succession of Bacterial Communities, coxL Genotypes, and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Activity in Soil Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of the coxL gene, encoding the large subunit of the CO dehydrogenase, are used as a standard approach in ecological studies of carboxydovore bacteria scavenging atmospheric CO. Recent soil surveys unveiled that the distribution of coxL sequences encompassing the atypical genotype coxL type I group x was correlated to the CO oxidation activity. Based on phylogenetic analysis including the available coxL reference genome sequences, this unusual genotype was assigned to an unknown member of the Deltaproteobacteria, with the coxL sequence from Haliangium ochraceum being the sole and closest reference sequence. Here we seek to challenge the proposed taxonomic assignation of the coxL group x genotype through the monitoring of CO consumption activity and microbial community successions during the colonization of sterile soil microcosms inoculated with indigenous microorganisms. In our study, we established that the estimated population density of Deltaproteobacteria was too small to account for the abundance of the coxL group x genotype detected in soil. Furthermore, we computed a correlation network to relate 16S rRNA gene profiles with the succession of coxL genotypes and CO uptake activity in soil. We found that most of the coxL genotypes for which the colonization profile displayed covariance with CO uptake activity were related to potential carboxydovore bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Our analysis did not provide any evidence that coxL group x genotypes belonged to Deltaproteobacteria. Considering the colonization profile of CO-oxidizing bacteria and the theoretical energy yield of measured CO oxidation rates in soil microcosms, we propose that unknown carboxydovore bacteria harboring the atypical coxL group x genotype are mixotrophic K-strategists. PMID:26682854

  7. Identification of Unknown Carboxydovore Bacteria Dominant in Deciduous Forest Soil via Succession of Bacterial Communities, coxL Genotypes, and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Activity in Soil Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Isabelle; Constant, Philippe

    2015-12-18

    Surveys of the coxL gene, encoding the large subunit of the CO dehydrogenase, are used as a standard approach in ecological studies of carboxydovore bacteria scavenging atmospheric CO. Recent soil surveys unveiled that the distribution of coxL sequences encompassing the atypical genotype coxL type I group x was correlated to the CO oxidation activity. Based on phylogenetic analysis including the available coxL reference genome sequences, this unusual genotype was assigned to an unknown member of the Deltaproteobacteria, with the coxL sequence from Haliangium ochraceum being the sole and closest reference sequence. Here we seek to challenge the proposed taxonomic assignation of the coxL group x genotype through the monitoring of CO consumption activity and microbial community successions during the colonization of sterile soil microcosms inoculated with indigenous microorganisms. In our study, we established that the estimated population density of Deltaproteobacteria was too small to account for the abundance of the coxL group x genotype detected in soil. Furthermore, we computed a correlation network to relate 16S rRNA gene profiles with the succession of coxL genotypes and CO uptake activity in soil. We found that most of the coxL genotypes for which the colonization profile displayed covariance with CO uptake activity were related to potential carboxydovore bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Our analysis did not provide any evidence that coxL group x genotypes belonged to Deltaproteobacteria. Considering the colonization profile of CO-oxidizing bacteria and the theoretical energy yield of measured CO oxidation rates in soil microcosms, we propose that unknown carboxydovore bacteria harboring the atypical coxL group x genotype are mixotrophic K-strategists.

  8. The use of integrated soil microcosms to assess the impact of carbendazim on soil ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Lisa A; Edwards, Clive A

    2004-01-01

    Our investigation used carbendazim as a representative pesticide for testing an integrated soil microcosm (ISM) test protocol. Microcosms, set up in a greenhouse, consisted of cylinders made from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe, 7.5 cm (i.d.) x 15 cm high. A fine nylon mesh was placed across the bottom of each microcosm for leachate collection. Field soil, (silty clay loam), collected from Flörsheim, Germany, was sieved through a 5 mm screen and mixed thoroughly. Earthworms, enchytraeids, and microarthropods were added to each microcosm. Each microcosm contained five wheat seedlings, and was maintained at a 12 h-12 h light-dark cycle. Artificial rainwater was used to water microcosms as required. Soil microcosms were treated with carbendazim at concentrations 1, 3, 9, 27, and 81 times higher than the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of 0.76 mg a.i./kg soil dry weight. A water-only control treatment was also used. The key soil processes used as endpoints were microbial activity, nitrogen mineralization. soil enzymatic activity, ammonium and nitrate leaching, organic matter decomposition and biological feeding activity. Key structural parameters measured were microbial biomass, nematode communities, microarthropod populations and diversity, enchytraeid and earthworm populations and plant growth. Pesticide degradation, leaching and uptake into plants and earthworms were also assessed. Carbendazim had significant effects on several key soil processes including soil ammonium-N and nitrate-N concentrations and soil dehydrogenase activity. Wheat growth, nematode and earthworm populations, and invertebrate feeding activity were soil structural parameters affected significantly by carbendazim. Earthworm biomass was the most sensitive parameter measured with an EC50 of 1.9 mg a.i./kg soil dry weight 28 days after treatment. A comparison of these results with results from single-species tests, small microcosms, large terrestrial model ecosystems, and field

  9. Acidic sandy soil improvement with biochar - A microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Farkas, Éva; Ujaczki, Éva; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Tolner, Mária; Klebercz, Orsolya; Kirchkeszner, Csaba; Gruiz, Katalin; Uzinger, Nikolett; Feigl, Viktória

    2016-09-01

    Biochar produced from a wide range of organic materials by pyrolysis has been reported as a means to improve soil physical properties, fertility and crop productivity. However, there is a lack of studies on the complex effects of biochar both on the degraded sandy soil physico-chemical properties and the soil biota as well as on toxicity, particularly in combined application with fertilizer and compost. A 7-week microcosm experiment was conducted to improve the quality of an acidic sandy soil combining variations in biochar types and amounts, compost and fertilizer application rates. The applied biochars were produced from different feedstocks such as grain husks, paper fibre sludge and wood screenings. The main purpose of the microcosm experiment was to assess the efficiency and applicability of different biochars as soil amendment prior to field trials and to choose the most efficient biochar to improve the fertility, biological activity and physical properties of acidic sandy soils. We complemented the methodology with ecotoxicity assessment to evaluate the possible risks to the soil as habitat for microbes, plants and animals. There was clear evidence of biochar-soil interactions positively affecting both the physico-chemical properties of the tested acidic sandy soil and the soil biota. Our results suggest that the grain husk and the paper fibre sludge biochars applied to the tested soil at 1% and 0.5 w/w% rate mixed with compost, respectively can supply a more liveable habitat for plants and soil living animals than the acidic sandy soil without treatment.

  10. Acidic sandy soil improvement with biochar - A microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Farkas, Éva; Ujaczki, Éva; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Tolner, Mária; Klebercz, Orsolya; Kirchkeszner, Csaba; Gruiz, Katalin; Uzinger, Nikolett; Feigl, Viktória

    2016-09-01

    Biochar produced from a wide range of organic materials by pyrolysis has been reported as a means to improve soil physical properties, fertility and crop productivity. However, there is a lack of studies on the complex effects of biochar both on the degraded sandy soil physico-chemical properties and the soil biota as well as on toxicity, particularly in combined application with fertilizer and compost. A 7-week microcosm experiment was conducted to improve the quality of an acidic sandy soil combining variations in biochar types and amounts, compost and fertilizer application rates. The applied biochars were produced from different feedstocks such as grain husks, paper fibre sludge and wood screenings. The main purpose of the microcosm experiment was to assess the efficiency and applicability of different biochars as soil amendment prior to field trials and to choose the most efficient biochar to improve the fertility, biological activity and physical properties of acidic sandy soils. We complemented the methodology with ecotoxicity assessment to evaluate the possible risks to the soil as habitat for microbes, plants and animals. There was clear evidence of biochar-soil interactions positively affecting both the physico-chemical properties of the tested acidic sandy soil and the soil biota. Our results suggest that the grain husk and the paper fibre sludge biochars applied to the tested soil at 1% and 0.5 w/w% rate mixed with compost, respectively can supply a more liveable habitat for plants and soil living animals than the acidic sandy soil without treatment. PMID:26850860

  11. Effect of simulated acid rain on the litter decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Pinus massoniana in forest soil microcosms and the relationship with soil enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyan; Guo, Peng; Han, Guomin; Feng, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Peng; Tian, Xingjun

    2010-06-01

    With the continuing increase in human activities, ecologists are increasingly interested in understanding the effects of acid rain on litter decomposition. Two dominant litters were chosen from Zijin Mountain in China: Quercus acutissima from a broad-leaved forest and Pinus massoniana from a coniferous forest. The litters were incubated in microcosms and treated with simulated acid rain (gradient pH levels). During a six-month incubation, changes in chemical composition (i.e., lignin, total carbohydrate, and nitrogen), litter mass losses, soil pH values, and activities of degradative enzymes were determined. Results showed that litter mass losses were depressed after exposure to acid rain and the effects of acid rain on the litter decomposition rates of needles were higher than on those of leaves. Results also revealed that simulated acid rain restrained the activities of cellulase, invertase, nitrate reductase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, and urease, while it enhanced the activities of catalase in most cases during the six-month decomposition process. Catalase and polyphenol oxidase were primarily responsible for litter decomposition in the broad-leaved forest, while invertase, nitrate reductase, and urease were primarily responsible for litter decomposition in the coniferous forest. The results suggest acid rain-restrained litter decomposition may be due to the depressed enzymatic activities. According to the results of this study, soil carbon in subtropical forests would accumulate as a long-term consequence of continued acid rain. This may presumably alter the balance of ecosystem carbon flux, nutrient cycling, and humus formation, which may, in turn, have multiple effects on forest ecosystems.

  12. Effect of simulated acid rain on the litter decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Pinus massoniana in forest soil microcosms and the relationship with soil enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyan; Guo, Peng; Han, Guomin; Feng, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Peng; Tian, Xingjun

    2010-06-01

    With the continuing increase in human activities, ecologists are increasingly interested in understanding the effects of acid rain on litter decomposition. Two dominant litters were chosen from Zijin Mountain in China: Quercus acutissima from a broad-leaved forest and Pinus massoniana from a coniferous forest. The litters were incubated in microcosms and treated with simulated acid rain (gradient pH levels). During a six-month incubation, changes in chemical composition (i.e., lignin, total carbohydrate, and nitrogen), litter mass losses, soil pH values, and activities of degradative enzymes were determined. Results showed that litter mass losses were depressed after exposure to acid rain and the effects of acid rain on the litter decomposition rates of needles were higher than on those of leaves. Results also revealed that simulated acid rain restrained the activities of cellulase, invertase, nitrate reductase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, and urease, while it enhanced the activities of catalase in most cases during the six-month decomposition process. Catalase and polyphenol oxidase were primarily responsible for litter decomposition in the broad-leaved forest, while invertase, nitrate reductase, and urease were primarily responsible for litter decomposition in the coniferous forest. The results suggest acid rain-restrained litter decomposition may be due to the depressed enzymatic activities. According to the results of this study, soil carbon in subtropical forests would accumulate as a long-term consequence of continued acid rain. This may presumably alter the balance of ecosystem carbon flux, nutrient cycling, and humus formation, which may, in turn, have multiple effects on forest ecosystems. PMID:20382410

  13. Activity and distribution of methane-oxidizing bacteria in flooded rice soil microcosms and in rice plants (Oryza sativa)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosse, U.; Frenzel, P.

    1997-04-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and its atmospheric concentration has been increasing for decades. Flooded rice fields are one of the major sources of methane emissions to the atmosphere. These emissions are the net result of methane production by methanogenic bacteria in anoxic environments and methane oxidation by methane oxidizing bacteria in oxic environments. This study describes both the activity and distribution of methane oxidizing bacteria in microcosms used as a model for flooded rice fields. Then the process was characterized and localized, and finally the distribution of these organisms on the roots and culm, the size of the rhizosphere and the changes associated with plant age were examined. 59 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. ANAEROBIC SOIL DISINFESTATION IN MICROCOSMS OF TWO SANDY SOILS.

    PubMed

    Stremińska, M A; Runia, W T; Termorshuizen, A J; Feil, H; Van Der Wurff, A W G

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been proposed as an alternative control method of soil-borne plant pathogens. It involves adding a labile carbon source, irrigating the soil to stimulate decomposition of organic material and then covering the soil with air-tight plastic to limit gas exchange. During the ASD process, soil microorganisms switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. As a result, by-products of anaerobic metabolism are released into the soil environment such as various organic acids and gases. These by-products are reported to have a negative effect on survival of soil-borne plant pathogens. However, the efficacy of ASD to reduce soil-borne pathogens in practice may vary significantly. Therefore, we studied the efficacy of the ASD process in two different soils. In addition, it was investigated whether a pre-treatment with an anaerobic bacterial inoculum prior to ASD affected the efficacy of the process. Two sandy soils (dune sand and glacial sand) were inoculated in 2 L soil microcosms. We tested the efficacy of ASD treatment against the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. For each soil, three treatments were used: control treatment (no Herbie addition, aerobic incubation), ASD 1 (organic substrate addition, anaerobic incubation) and ASD 2 (organic substrate and anaerobic bacterial inoculum addition, anaerobic incubation). Soil microcosms were incubated in the dark at 20°C for two weeks. We observed that anaerobic soil disinfestation treatments were highly effective against Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN), with pathogen being eradicated totally in all but one ASD treatment (glacial sand ASD2) within two weeks. The relative abundance of Firmicutes (spore-forming bacteria, often fermentative) in total bacteria increased significantly in ASD treated soils. Numbers of these bacteria correlated positively with increased concentrations of acetic and butyric acids in soil water phase in ASD treatments. PMID:26084078

  15. Introduction of anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria into soil slurry microcosms and nested-PCR monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    el Fantroussi, S; Mahillon, J; Naveau, H; Agathos, S N

    1997-01-01

    Desulfomonile tiedjei and Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans were chosen as model bacteria to demonstrate the introduction of an anaerobic microbia reductive dechlorination activity into nonsterile soil slurry microcosms by inoculation. De novo 3-chlorobenzoate dechlorination activity was established with the bacterium D. tiedjei in microcosms normally devoid of this dechlorination capacity. The addition of D. tiedjei to microcosms supplemented with 20 mM pyruvate as the cosubstrate resulted in total biotransformation of 1.5 mM 3-chlorobenzoate within 7 days. The introduction of the bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans into nonsterile microcosms resulted in a shortening of the period required for dechlorination activity to be established. In microcosms inoculated with Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans, total degradation of 6 mM 3-chloro-4-hydroxy phenoxyacetic acid (3-Cl-4-OHPA) was observed after 4 days in contrast to the result in noninoculated microcosms, where the total degradation of 3-Cl-4-OHPA by indigenous microorganisms was observed after 11 days. Both externally introduced bacterial strains were detected in soil slurry microcosms by a nested-PCR methodology. PMID:9023963

  16. Microbial degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) in soil slurry microcosms.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsi-Ling; Hwa, Mei-Yin; Lee, Yao-Chuan; Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang

    2016-03-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE), which has been identified as an endocrine disrupting compound, is used as brominated flame retardant, and this can result in serious bioaccumulation within ecological systems. The objective of this study was to explore DBDE bioremediation (25 mg/kg) using laboratory scale soil slurry microcosms. It was found that effective biodegradation of DBDE occurred in all microcosms. Various biometabolites were identified, namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers congeners and hydroxylated brominated diphenyl ether. Reductive debrominated products such as tri-BDE to hepta-BDE congeners were also detected, and their total concentrations ranged from 77.83 to 91.07 ng/g. The mechanism of DBDE biodegradation in soil slurry microcosms is proposed to consist of a series of biological reactions involving hydroxylation and debromination. Catechol 2,3-oxygenase genes, which are able to bring about meta-cleavage at specific unbrominated locations in carbon backbones, were identified as present during the DBDE biodegradation. No obvious effect on the ecological functional potential based on community-level physiological profiling was observed during DBDE biodegradation, and one major facultative Pseudomonas sp. (99 % similarity) was identified in the various soil slurry microcosms. These findings provide an important basis that should help environmental engineers to design future DBDE bioremediation systems that use a practical microcosm system. A bacterial-mixed culture can be selected as part of the bioaugmentation process for in situ DBDE bioremediation. A soil/water microcosm system can be successfully applied to carry out ex situ DBDE bioremediation. PMID:26561328

  17. Microbial degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) in soil slurry microcosms.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsi-Ling; Hwa, Mei-Yin; Lee, Yao-Chuan; Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang

    2016-03-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE), which has been identified as an endocrine disrupting compound, is used as brominated flame retardant, and this can result in serious bioaccumulation within ecological systems. The objective of this study was to explore DBDE bioremediation (25 mg/kg) using laboratory scale soil slurry microcosms. It was found that effective biodegradation of DBDE occurred in all microcosms. Various biometabolites were identified, namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers congeners and hydroxylated brominated diphenyl ether. Reductive debrominated products such as tri-BDE to hepta-BDE congeners were also detected, and their total concentrations ranged from 77.83 to 91.07 ng/g. The mechanism of DBDE biodegradation in soil slurry microcosms is proposed to consist of a series of biological reactions involving hydroxylation and debromination. Catechol 2,3-oxygenase genes, which are able to bring about meta-cleavage at specific unbrominated locations in carbon backbones, were identified as present during the DBDE biodegradation. No obvious effect on the ecological functional potential based on community-level physiological profiling was observed during DBDE biodegradation, and one major facultative Pseudomonas sp. (99 % similarity) was identified in the various soil slurry microcosms. These findings provide an important basis that should help environmental engineers to design future DBDE bioremediation systems that use a practical microcosm system. A bacterial-mixed culture can be selected as part of the bioaugmentation process for in situ DBDE bioremediation. A soil/water microcosm system can be successfully applied to carry out ex situ DBDE bioremediation.

  18. Microbial ecology on the microcosm level: Activity and population dynamics of methanotrophic bacteria during early succession in a flooded rice field soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, S.; Frenzel, P.

    2009-04-01

    Methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) play an important role in natural wetlands and rice fields preventing large amounts of methane from escaping into the atmosphere. The occurrence of both type I and type II methanotrophs in the soil surface layer has been demonstrated in many studies. However, there is no profound understanding which of them are responsible for the oxidizing activity and how they differ ecologically. Hence, a gradient microcosm system was applied simulating oxic-anoxic interfaces of water saturated soils to unravel population dynamics in early succession of methanotrophs in a flooded rice paddy. Additionally, environmental parameters were analyzed to link environment, populations, and their specific activity. We measured pmoA-based (particulate methane monooxygenase) terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles both on transcription and population level. DNA T-RFLP patterns showed no major differences in the methanotrophic community structure remaining relatively constant over time. In contrast the active methanotrophic community structure as detected by pmoA mRNA T-RFLP analysis clearly demonstrated a distinct pattern from DNA T-RFLP profiles. While type II represented the most prominent group on the population level it seems to play a minor role on the transcription level. Furthermore there were no clear implications towards a link between soil parameters (e.g. NH4+ concentration) and methanotrophic community structure.

  19. TRANSFORMATION OF CHIRAL POLLUTANTS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transformation rates and enantiomeric ratios of several chiral pollutants were determined in laboratory microcosms (25oC). Aerobic and anaerobic agricultural soil slurries were separately dosed with the following chiral pesticides: o,p'-DDT, o,p'-methoxychlor, cis-chlordane, ...

  20. Morphological Alteration and Survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Chareonsudjai, Pisit; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Chareonsudjai, Sorujsiri

    2015-11-01

    The resilience of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was evaluated in control soil microcosms and in soil microcosms containing NaCl or FeSO4 at 30°C. Iron (Fe(II)) promoted the growth of B. pseudomallei during the 30-day observation, contrary to the presence of 1.5% and 3% NaCl. Scanning electron micrographs of B. pseudomallei in soil revealed their morphological alteration from rod to coccoid and the formation of microcolonies. The smallest B. pseudomallei cells were found in soil with 100 μM FeSO4 compared with in the control soil or soil with 0.6% NaCl (P < 0.05). The colony count on Ashdown's agar and bacterial viability assay using the LIVE/DEAD(®) BacLight(™) stain combined with flow cytometry showed that B. pseudomallei remained culturable and viable in the control soil microcosms for at least 120 days. In contrast, soil with 1.5% NaCl affected their culturability at day 90 and their viability at day 120. Our results suggested that a low salinity and iron may influence the survival of B. pseudomallei and its ability to change from a rod-like to coccoid form. The morphological changes of B. pseudomallei cells may be advantageous for their persistence in the environment and may increase the risk of their transmission to humans. PMID:26324731

  1. Carbazole degradation in the soil microcosm by tropical bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Lateef B.; Ilori, Matthew O.; Amund, Olukayode O.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, three bacterial strains isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and phylogenetically identified as Achromobacter sp. strain SL1, Pseudomonas sp. strain SL4 and Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL6 displayed angular dioxygenation and mineralization of carbazole in batch cultures. In this study, the ability of these isolates to survive and enhance carbazole degradation in soil were tested in field-moist microcosms. Strain SL4 had the highest survival rate (1.8 x 107 cfu/g) after 30 days of incubation in sterilized soil, while there was a decrease in population density in native (unsterilized) soil when compared with the initial population. Gas chromatographic analysis after 30 days of incubation showed that in sterilized soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg), 66.96, 82.15 and 68.54% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6, respectively, with rates of degradation of 0.093, 0.114 and 0.095 mg kg−1 h−1. The combination of the three isolates as inoculum in sterilized soil degraded 87.13% carbazole at a rate of 0.121 mg kg−1 h−1. In native soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg), 91.64, 87.29 and 89.13% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6 after 30 days of incubation, with rates of degradation of 0.127, 0.121 and 0.124 mg kg−1 h−1, respectively. This study successfully established the survivability (> 106 cfu/g detected after 30 days) and carbazole-degrading ability of these bacterial strains in soil, and highlights the potential of these isolates as seed for the bioremediation of carbazole-impacted environments. PMID:26691461

  2. Carbazole degradation in the soil microcosm by tropical bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Salam, Lateef B; Ilori, Matthew O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, three bacterial strains isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and phylogenetically identified as Achromobacter sp. strain SL1, Pseudomonas sp. strain SL4 and Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL6 displayed angular dioxygenation and mineralization of carbazole in batch cultures. In this study, the ability of these isolates to survive and enhance carbazole degradation in soil were tested in field-moist microcosms. Strain SL4 had the highest survival rate (1.8 x 107 cfu/g) after 30 days of incubation in sterilized soil, while there was a decrease in population density in native (unsterilized) soil when compared with the initial population. Gas chromatographic analysis after 30 days of incubation showed that in sterilized soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg), 66.96, 82.15 and 68.54% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6, respectively, with rates of degradation of 0.093, 0.114 and 0.095 mg kg-1 h-1. The combination of the three isolates as inoculum in sterilized soil degraded 87.13% carbazole at a rate of 0.121 mg kg-1 h-1. In native soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg), 91.64, 87.29 and 89.13% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6 after 30 days of incubation, with rates of degradation of 0.127, 0.121 and 0.124 mg kg-1 h-1, respectively. This study successfully established the survivability (> 106 cfu/g detected after 30 days) and carbazole-degrading ability of these bacterial strains in soil, and highlights the potential of these isolates as seed for the bioremediation of carbazole-impacted environments.

  3. Biodegradation of veterinary ionophore antibiotics in broiler litter and soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel L; Huang, Ching-Hua; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2014-01-01

    Ionophore antibiotics (IPAs) are polyether compounds used in broiler feed to promote growth and control coccidiosis. Most of the ingested IPAs are excreted into broiler litter (BL), a mixture of excreta and bedding material. BL is considered a major source of IPAs released into the environment as BL is commonly used to fertilize agricultural fields. This study investigated IPA biodegradation in BL and soil microcosms, as a process affecting the fate of IPAs in the environment. The study focused on the most widely used IPAs, monensin (MON), salinomycin (SAL), and narasin (NAR). MON was stable in BL microcosms at 24-72% water content (water/wet litter, w/w) and 35-60 °C, whereas SAL and NAR degraded under certain conditions. Factor analysis was conducted to delineate the interaction of water and temperature on SAL and NAR degradation in the BL. A major transformation product of SAL and NAR was identified. Abiotic reaction(s) were primarily responsible for the degradation of MON and SAL in nonfertilized soil microcosms, whereas biodegradation contributed significantly in BL-fertilized soil microcosms. SAL biotransformation in soil microcosms yielded the same product as in the BL microcosms. A new primary biotransformation product of MON was identified in soil microcosms. A field study showed that MON and SAL were stable during BL stacking, whereas MON degraded after BL was applied to grassland. The biotransformation product of MON was also detected in the top soil layer where BL was applied.

  4. Effect of application solvents on heterotrophic and nitrifying populations in soil microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.L.; Sardo, M.A.; Thompson, T.L.; Miller, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    Agricultural practices may cause contamination of soil and ground water with a combination of organic compounds (pesticides and fuel) and nitrogen fertilizers. In coupled microcosm studies that monitored the mineralization of naphthalene and the nitrification of ammonia, it was observed that the solvent (dichloromethane) used to apply naphthalene to the soil inhibited nitrification, although there was no effect on naphthalene mineralization. Further studies were performed with a series of application solvents: methanol, acetonitrile, trichloromethane, and dichloromethane. Soil and solvent were allowed to equilibrate with ambient air for various times before capping and incubation of microcosms. Results indicated that dichloromethane equilibrated for 5 mins inhibited nitrification for at least 3 weeks relative to the control (water). Acetonitrile and trichloromethane similarly inhibited nitrification. Methanol and dichloromethane equilibrated for 60 mins also significantly delayed nitrification, although to a lesser extent. Inhibition of nitrification was not permanent, and nitrification activity was eventually restored in all systems tested. None of the solvents inhibited mineralization of the added carbon source. These results indicate that special care must be taken to ensure that applications solvents do not affect the activity of sensitive microbial populations, such as the nitrifiers, that may be part of a study.

  5. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L; Mattes, Timothy E

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent, and bioaccumulative. In this study, we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77, and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal, and redox cycling (i.e., sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting, and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after 2 weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests that they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein. PMID:25820643

  6. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent and bioaccumulative. In this study we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77 and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal and redox cycling (i.e. sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after two weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms, and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein. PMID:25820643

  7. Inhibition of nitrate reduction by chromium (VI) in anaerobic soil microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Kourtev, P. S.; Nakatsu, C. H.; Konopka, Allan

    2009-10-01

    Chromium (VI) is often found as a co-contaminant at sites polluted with organic compounds. We used microcosms amended with glucose or protein, nitrate and increasing concentrations of chromium to study nitrate reduction in Cr(VI) polluted soils. Organic carbon stimulated bacterial activity, but the addition of Cr(VI) caused a lag and then slower rates 5 of CO2 accumulation. Nitrate reduction only occurred after Cr(VI) had been reduced. Bacterial activity was again inhibited when Cr(VI) was added a second time; thus not all Cr-sensitive bacteria were removed in the first phase. Glucose and protein selected for relatively similar bacterial communities, as assayed by PCR-DGGE of the 16S rRNA gene; this selection was modified by the addition of 10 Cr(VI). Cr-resistant bacteria isolated from microcosms were closely related to members of Bacillus, Enterococcus and Propionibacterium sp. Our results indicate that carbon utilization and nitrate reduction in these soils in the presence of Cr(VI) are contingent upon the reduction of the added heavy metal by a limited subset of the bacterial community. The amount of Cr(VI) required to inhibit nitrate reduction was 10-fold less than for aerobic catabolism of the same 15 substrate. We hypothesize that the resistance level of a microbial process is directly related to the diversity of microbes capable of conducting it.

  8. Anaerobic subsurface soil microcosms: The effect of anthropogenic organic compounds on microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The experiments were divided into two phases. Phase One was designed to select enzymatic activity and biomass estimation methodologies that would work well under the conditions encountered in the microcosms. Phase Two was designed to determine the effect of pollutants on the structure and activity of the indigenous microbial community by using those methods proved sensitive and efficient in Phase One. In Phase Two the microcosms were divided into three groups: control, biotic chemical, and abiotic chemical. The chemical groups received additions of three organic pollutants in varying concentrations: phenothiazine, chloronapthalene, and polychlorinated biphenyl. Microbial activity was monitored in all groups using the following enzyme assays and biomass estimates: amylase, dehydrogenase, esterase, phosphatase, protease, soil protein concentration, acridine orange direct counts, aerobic and anaerobic plate counts. Diversity indices based on gross morphology and Gram stains were computed for all plate counts. Redox potential and pH were also monitored. Significant differences were seen among groups in specific assays on specific sample dates. However, values fluctuated with time due to successional changes in the microbial consortia which made it difficult to detect changes due solely to pollutant effects.

  9. AEROBIC SOIL MICROCOSMS FOR LONG-TERM BIODEGRADATION OF HYDROCARBON VAPORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aims of this research project included the development of laboratory protocols for the preparation of aerobic soil microcosms using aseptic field soil samples, and for the gas chromatographic analysis of hydrocarbon vapor biodegradation based on vapor samples obtained from th...

  10. Soil microcosm for testing the effects of chemical pollutants on soil fauna communities and trophic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Parmelee, R.W. . Dept. of Entomology); Wentsel, R.S.; Phillips, C.T.; Checkai, R.T. ); Simini, M. )

    1993-08-01

    A microcosm technique is presented that uses community and trophic-level analysis of soil nematodes and microarthropods to determine the effects of chemicals on soil systems. Forest soil was treated with either copper, p-nitrophenol, or trinitrotoluene. Nematodes were sorted into bacterivore, fungivore, herbivore, and omnivore-predator trophic groups, and a hatchling category. Microarthropods were sorted to the acarine suborders Prostigmata, Mesostigmata, and Oribatida; the insectan order Collembola; and a miscellaneous group. Omnivore-predator nematodes and meso-stigmatid and oribatid mites were the groups most sensitive to copper and were significantly reduced at levels as low as 100 [mu]g g[sup [minus]1] copper. Total nematode and microarthropod numbers declined above 200 [mu]g g[sup [minus]1] copper. Trophic structure analysis suggested that high sensitivity of nematode predators to intermediate levels of copper reduced predation on herbivore nematodes and resulted in greater numbers of nematodes compared to controls. p-Nitrophenol was very toxic to the nematode community, and all trophic groups were significantly reduced above 20 [mu]g g[sup [minus]1]. However, there was no effect of p-nitrophenol on microarthropods. Trinitrotoluene had no significant negative effect on total abundance of either groups of soil fauna, but oribatids were significantly reduced at 200 [mu]g g[sup [minus]1]. The results demonstrated that soil nematodes and microarthropods were sensitive indicators of environmental contaminants and that trophic-structure and community analysis has the potential to detect more subtle indirect effects of chemicals on soil food-web structure. The authors conclude that microcosms with field communities of soil microfauna offer high resolution of the ecotoxicological effects of chemicals in complex soil systems.

  11. A soil microcosm to test the effects of pollutants on soil nematode and microarthropod communities

    SciTech Connect

    Parmelee, R.W.; Wentsel, R.S.; Checkai, R.T.; Phillips, C.T.; Bohlen, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Previous studies have demonstrated that microcosms with field collected soil nematode and microarthropod communities are suitable model systems to detect effects of toxins on soil food web structure and function. The authors investigated the toxicity of copper, cadmium, malathion, and Aroclor 1254 to nematodes (total, bacterivores, fungivores, herbivores, omnivore-predators, hatchlings) and microarthropods (Prostigmata, Mesostigmata, Oribatida, Collembola, other arthropods). Nematodes were sensitive indicators of copper application, and total numbers were reduced at 100 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}. Fungivore, bacterivore and omnivore-predators were the most susceptible trophic groups. Cadmium had no effects on either nematode or microarthropod communities. Microarthropods were more sensitive to malathion than nematodes, and total microarthropod abundance was lower than controls at 320 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}. Prostigmatid mites and other arthropods were the most affected groups. Only the herbivore nematode trophic group was affected by malathion, and numbers did not decline until 1,280 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}. Aroclor 1254 also had a greater negative impact on microarthropods than on nematodes. Total microarthropod abundance declined at 2,500 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}, while there was no effect on nematodes. Prostigmatid and oribatid mites were the most susceptible groups to PCB application. Strong differential sensitivity between nematode and microarthropod communities indicates that both groups need to be examined to fully evaluate the impact of chemicals on soil systems. The authors conclude that microcosms with field-collected communities of soil microfauna offer high resolution of the ecotoxicological effects of chemicals in complex soil systems.

  12. Intact soil-core microcosms for evaluating the fate and ecological impact of the release of genetically engineered microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Van Voris, P.; Li, S.W. ); Bentjen, S.A. )

    1989-01-01

    Intact soil-core microcosms were studied to determine their applicability for evaluating the transport, survival, and potential ecosystem effects of genetically engineered microorganisms before they are released into the environment. Soil-core microcosms were planted with wheat and maize seeds and inoculated with Azospirillum lipoferum SpBr17 and SpRG20a Tn5 mutants, respectively. Microcosm leachate, rhizosphere soil, plant endorhizosphere, insects, and xylem exudate were sampled for A. lipoferum Tn5 mutant populations. A. lipoferum TN5 populations, determined by most-probable-number technique-DNA hybridization, varied from bellow detection to 10{sup 6} g of dry root{sup {minus}1} in the rhizosphere, with smaller populations detected in the endorhizosphere. Intact soil-core microcosms were found to maintain some of the complexities of the natural ecosystem and should be particularly useful for initial evaluations of the fate of plant-associated genetically engineered bacteria.

  13. Pyrene and chrysene fate in surface soil and sand microcosms.

    PubMed

    Roper, J C; Pfaender, F K

    2001-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major components of wastes from municipal gas plants and many wood preservatives. Soil contaminated with these wastes is a potential threat to human health because of the carcinogenicity of many PAHs. This study follows the fate of two four-ring PAHs, pyrene and chrysene, in three matrices: an adapted soil (obtained from a site contaminated with PAHs for more than 75 years), an uncontaminated soil (with and without an inoculum of adapted soil), and sand mixed with an inoculum of adapted soil. Radiolabeled pyrene, chrysene, and salicylic acid (a metabolite of PAH biodegradation) were used to trace the mineralization, transformation, extractability, and formation of an unextractable residual over time. Linear approximations of the rates of these processes were made. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of extracts from inoculated soil showed the transient formation of two known metabolites: 1-hydroxypyrene (from pyrene) and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (from chrysene). The amount of extractable label diminished steadily over the course of the study in systems that were not inhibited with sodium azide, whereas the amount of extractable label remained relatively constant in inhibited systems. Correspondingly, the amount of nonextractable residual label generally increased during each incubation in uninhibited systems, whereas the amount of this residual label remained relatively constant in inhibited systems. In contrast, the rate and extent of mineralization varied widely across matrix types. This suggests that alterations of the PAH that impact extractability and residual formation are common, in contrast to mineralization, which was apparently limited to adapted communities.

  14. Natural transformation and availability of transforming DNA to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in soil microcosms.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, K M; van Weerelt, M D; Berg, T N; Bones, A M; Hagler, A N; van Elsas, J D

    1997-01-01

    A small microcosm, based on optimized in vitro transformation conditions, was used to study the ecological factors affecting the transformation of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD413 in soil. The transforming DNA used was A. calcoaceticus homologous chromosomal DNA with an inserted gene cassette containing a kanamycin resistance gene, nptII. The effects of soil type (silt loam or loamy sand), bacterial cell density, time of residence of A. calcoaceticus or of DNA in soil before transformation, transformation period, and nutrient input were investigated. There were clear inhibitory effects of the soil matrix on transformation and DNA availability. A. calcoaceticus cells reached stationary phase and lost the ability to be transformed shortly after introduction into sterile soil. The use of an initially small number of A. calcoaceticus cells and nutrients, resulting in bacterial growth, enhanced transformation frequencies within a limited period. The availability of introduced DNA for transformation of A. calcoaceticus cells disappeared within a few hours in soil. Differences in transformation frequencies between soils were found; A. calcoaceticus cells were transformed at a higher rate and for a longer period in a silt loam than in a loamy sand. Physical separation of DNA and A. calcoaceticus cells had a negative effect on transformation. Transformation was also detected in nonsterile soil microcosms, albeit only in the presence of added nutrients and at a reduced frequency. These results suggest that chromosomal DNA released into soil rapidly becomes unavailable for transformation of A. calcoaceticus. In addition, strain BD413 quickly loses the ability to receive, stabilize, and/or express exogenous DNA after introduction into soil. PMID:9143126

  15. Field calibration of soil-core microcosms for evaluating fate and effects of genetically engineered microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, H Jr; Fredrickson, J K; Bentjen, S A; Workman, D J; Li, S W; Thomas, J M

    1991-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory compared intact soil-core microcosms and the field for ecosystem structural and functional properties after the introduction of a model genetically engineered microorganism (GEM). This project used two distinct microbial types as model GEMs, Gram-negative Pseudomonas sp. RC1, which was an aggressive root colonizer, and Gram-positive Streptomyces lividans TK24. The model GEMs were added to surface soil in separate studies, with RC1 studied throughout the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), while TK24 was studied throughout a ten month period. Also, RC1 was used in studies conducted during two consecutive field seasons (1988 to 1990) to determine how year-to-year field variability influenced the calibration of microcosms with the field. The main conclusions of this research were that intact soil-core microcosms can be useful to simulate the field for studies of microbial fate and effects on ecosystem structural and functional properties. In general, microcosms in the growth chamber, which simulated average field variations, were similar to the field for most parameters or differences could be attributed to the great extremes in temperature that occurred in the field compared to the microcosms. Better controls of environmental variables including temperature and moisture will be necessary to more closely simulate the field for future use of microcosms for risk assessment. 126 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Microcosm enrichment of biphenyl-degrading microbial communities from soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner-Doebler, I.; Bennasar, A.; Stroempl, C.; Bruemmer, I.; Eichner, C.; Grammel, I.; Moore, E.R.B.; Vancanneyt, M.

    1998-08-01

    A microcosm enrichment approach was employed to isolate bacteria which are representative of long-term biphenyl-adapted microbial communities. Growth of microorganisms was stimulated by incubating soil and sediment samples from polluted and nonpolluted sites with biphenyl crystals. After 6 months, stable population densities between 8 {times} 10{sup 9} and 2 {times} 10{sup 11} CFU/ml were established in the microcosms, and a large percentage of the organisms were able to grow on biphenyl-containing minimal medium plates. A total of 177 biphenyl-degrading strains were subsequently isolated and characterized by their ability to grow on biphenyl in liquid culture and to accumulate a yellow meta cleavage product when they were sprayed with dihydroxy-biphenyl. Isolates were identified by using a polyphasic approach, including fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins, and genomic fingerprinting based on sequence variability in the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region. In all of the microcosms, isolates identified as Rhodococcus opacus dominated the cultivable microbial community, comprising a cluster of 137 isolates with very similar FAME profiles (Euclidean distances, <10) and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences.

  17. Microbial degradation of street dust polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in microcosms simulating diffuse pollution of urban soil.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Anders R; de Lipthay, Julia R; Sørensen, Søren J; Ekelund, Flemming; Christensen, Peter; Andersen, Ole; Karlson, Ulrich; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2006-03-01

    Diffuse pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of topsoil in urban regions has caused increasing concerns in recent years. We simulated diffuse pollution of soil in microcosms by spiking sandy topsoil (A-horizon) and coarse, mineral subsoil (C-horizon) with street dust (PM63) isolated from municipal street sweepings from central Copenhagen. The microbial communities adapted to PAH degradation in microcosms spiked with street dust in both A-horizon and C-horizon soils, in spite of low PAH-concentrations. The increased potential for PAH degradation was demonstrated on several levels: by slowly diminishing PAH-concentrations, increased mineralization of 14C-PAHs, increasing numbers of PAH degraders and increased prevalence of nah and pdo1 PAH degradation genes, i.e. the microbial communities quickly adapted to PAH degradation. Three- and 4-ring PAHs from the street dust were biodegraded to some extent (10-20%), but 5- and 6-ring PAHs were not biodegraded in spite of frequent soil mixing and high PAH degradation potentials. In addition to biodegradation, leaching of 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs from the A-horizon to the C-horizon seems to reduce PAH-levels in surface soil. Over time, levels of 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs in surface soil may reach equilibrium between input and the combination of biodegradation and leaching. However, levels of the environmentally critical 5- and 6-ring PAHs will probably continue to rise. We presume that sorption to black carbon particles is responsible for the persistence and low bioaccessibility of 5- and 6-ring PAHs in diffusely polluted soil.

  18. Impact of Bt corn on rhizospheric and soil eubacterial communities and on beneficial mycorrhizal symbiosis in experimental microcosms.

    PubMed

    Castaldini, M; Turrini, A; Sbrana, C; Benedetti, A; Marchionni, M; Mocali, S; Fabiani, A; Landi, S; Santomassimo, F; Pietrangeli, B; Nuti, M P; Miclaus, N; Giovannetti, M

    2005-11-01

    A polyphasic approach has been developed to gain knowledge of suitable key indicators for the evaluation of environmental impact of genetically modified Bt 11 and Bt 176 corn lines on soil ecosystems. We assessed the effects of Bt corn (which constitutively expresses the insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis, encoded by the truncated Cry1Ab gene) and non-Bt corn plants and their residues on rhizospheric and bulk soil eubacterial communities by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of 16S rRNA genes, on the nontarget mycorrhizal symbiont Glomus mosseae, and on soil respiration. Microcosm experiments showed differences in rhizospheric eubacterial communities associated with the three corn lines and a significantly lower level of mycorrhizal colonization in Bt 176 corn roots. In greenhouse experiments, differences between Bt and non-Bt corn plants were detected in rhizospheric eubacterial communities (both total and active), in culturable rhizospheric heterotrophic bacteria, and in mycorrhizal colonization. Plant residues of transgenic plants, plowed under at harvest and kept mixed with soil for up to 4 months, affected soil respiration, bacterial communities, and mycorrhizal establishment by indigenous endophytes. The multimodal approach utilized in our work may be applied in long-term field studies aimed at monitoring the real hazard of genetically modified crops and their residues on nontarget soil microbial communities.

  19. Arbuscular-mycorrhizal networks inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta seedlings in rain forest soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Janos, David P; Scott, John; Aristizábal, Catalina; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta) host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments) separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks-previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect-probably help to maintain the rain forest-savanna boundary.

  20. Introduction of mercury resistant bacterial strains to Hg(II) amended soil microcosms increases the resilience of the natural microbial community to mercury stress

    SciTech Connect

    de Lipthay, Julia R.; Rasmussen, Lasse D.; Serensen, Soren J.

    2004-03-17

    Heavy metals are among the most important groups of pollutant compounds, and they are highly persistent in the soil environment. Techniques that can be used for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments thus need to be evolved. In the present study we evaluated the effect of introducing a Hg resistance plasmid in subsurface soil communities. This was done in microcosms with DOE subsurface soils amended with 5-10 ppm of HgCl2. Two microcosms were set up. In microcosm A we studied the effect of adding strain S03539 containing either the Hg resistance conjugative plasmid, pJORD 70, or the Hg resistance mobilizable plasmid, pPB117. In microcosm B we studied the effect of adding strain KT2442 with and without pJORD70. For both microcosms, the effect on the resilience of the indigenous bacterial community as well as the effect on the soil concentration of Hg was evaluated.

  1. Roots affect the response of heterotrophic soil respiration to temperature in tussock grass microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Scott L.; Millard, Peter; Hunt, John E.; Rogers, Graeme N. D.; Whitehead, David

    2012-01-01

    Aims and Background While the temperature response of soil respiration (RS) has been well studied, the partitioning of heterotrophic respiration (RH) by soil microbes from autotrophic respiration (RA) by roots, known to have distinct temperature sensitivities, has been problematic. Further complexity stems from the presence of roots affecting RH, the rhizosphere priming effect. In this study the short-term temperature responses of RA and RH in relation to rhizosphere priming are investigated. Methods Temperature responses of RA, RH and rhizosphere priming were assessed in microcosms of Poa cita using a natural abundance δ13C discrimination approach. Results The temperature response of RS was found to be regulated primarily by RA, which accounted for 70 % of total soil respiration. Heterotrophic respiration was less sensitive to temperature in the presence of plant roots, resulting in negative priming effects with increasing temperature. Conclusions The results emphasize the importance of roots in regulating the temperature response of RS, and a framework is presented for further investigation into temperature effects on heterotrophic respiration and rhizosphere priming, which could be applied to other soil and vegetation types to improve models of soil carbon turnover. PMID:22492330

  2. Persistence of pentolite (PETN and TNT) in soil microcosms and microbial enrichment cultures.

    PubMed

    Arbeli, Ziv; Garcia-Bonilla, Erika; Pardo, Cindy; Hidalgo, Kelly; Velásquez, Trigal; Peña, Luis; C, Eliana Ramos; Avila-Arias, Helena; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolás; Brandão, Pedro F B; Roldan, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    Pentolite is a mixture (1:1) of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and little is known about its fate in the environment. This study was aimed to determine the dissipation of pentolite in soils under laboratory conditions. Microcosm experiments conducted with two soils demonstrated that dissipation rate of PETN was significantly slower than that of TNT. Interestingly, the dissipation of PETN was enhanced by the presence of TNT, while PETN did not enhanced the dissipation of TNT. Pentolite dissipation rate was significantly faster under biostimulation treatment (addition of carbon source) in soil from the artificial wetland, while no such stimulation was observed in soil from detonation field. In addition, the dissipation rate of TNT and PETN in soil from artificial wetland under biostimulation was significantly faster than the equivalent abiotic control, although it seems that non-biological processes might also be important for the dissipation of TNT and PETN. Transformation of PETN was also slower during establishment of enrichment culture using pentolite as the sole nitrogen source. In addition, transformation of these explosives was gradually reduced and practically stopped after the forth cultures transfer (80 days). DGGE analysis of bacterial communities from these cultures indicates that all consortia were dominated by bacteria from the order Burkholderiales and Rhodanobacter. In conclusion, our results suggest that PETN might be more persistent than TNT. PMID:26832872

  3. Persistence of pentolite (PETN and TNT) in soil microcosms and microbial enrichment cultures.

    PubMed

    Arbeli, Ziv; Garcia-Bonilla, Erika; Pardo, Cindy; Hidalgo, Kelly; Velásquez, Trigal; Peña, Luis; C, Eliana Ramos; Avila-Arias, Helena; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolás; Brandão, Pedro F B; Roldan, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    Pentolite is a mixture (1:1) of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and little is known about its fate in the environment. This study was aimed to determine the dissipation of pentolite in soils under laboratory conditions. Microcosm experiments conducted with two soils demonstrated that dissipation rate of PETN was significantly slower than that of TNT. Interestingly, the dissipation of PETN was enhanced by the presence of TNT, while PETN did not enhanced the dissipation of TNT. Pentolite dissipation rate was significantly faster under biostimulation treatment (addition of carbon source) in soil from the artificial wetland, while no such stimulation was observed in soil from detonation field. In addition, the dissipation rate of TNT and PETN in soil from artificial wetland under biostimulation was significantly faster than the equivalent abiotic control, although it seems that non-biological processes might also be important for the dissipation of TNT and PETN. Transformation of PETN was also slower during establishment of enrichment culture using pentolite as the sole nitrogen source. In addition, transformation of these explosives was gradually reduced and practically stopped after the forth cultures transfer (80 days). DGGE analysis of bacterial communities from these cultures indicates that all consortia were dominated by bacteria from the order Burkholderiales and Rhodanobacter. In conclusion, our results suggest that PETN might be more persistent than TNT.

  4. Consortia of low-abundance bacteria drive sulfate reduction-dependent degradation of fermentation products in peat soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Bela; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Schreck, Katharina; Tringe, Susannah G; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Loy, Alexander; Pester, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in peatlands is sustained by a cryptic sulfur cycle and effectively competes with methanogenic degradation pathways. In a series of peat soil microcosms incubated over 50 days, we identified bacterial consortia that responded to small, periodic additions of individual fermentation products (formate, acetate, propionate, lactate or butyrate) in the presence or absence of sulfate. Under sulfate supplementation, net sulfate turnover (ST) steadily increased to 16-174 nmol cm(-3) per day and almost completely blocked methanogenesis. 16S rRNA gene and cDNA amplicon sequencing identified microorganisms whose increases in ribosome numbers strongly correlated to ST. Natively abundant (⩾0.1% estimated genome abundance) species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed no significant response to sulfate. In contrast, low-abundance OTUs responded significantly to sulfate in incubations with propionate, lactate and butyrate. These OTUs included members of recognized sulfate-reducing taxa (Desulfosporosinus, Desulfopila, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio) and also members of taxa that are either yet unknown sulfate reducers or metabolic interaction partners thereof. Most responsive OTUs markedly increased their ribosome content but only weakly increased in abundance. Responsive Desulfosporosinus OTUs even maintained a constantly low population size throughout 50 days, which suggests a novel strategy of rare biosphere members to display activity. Interestingly, two OTUs of the non-sulfate-reducing genus Telmatospirillum (Alphaproteobacteria) showed strongly contrasting preferences towards sulfate in butyrate-amended microcosms, corroborating that closely related microorganisms are not necessarily ecologically coherent. We show that diverse consortia of low-abundance microorganisms can perform peat soil sulfate reduction, a process that exerts control on methane production in these climate-relevant ecosystems. PMID:27015005

  5. Consortia of low-abundance bacteria drive sulfate reduction-dependent degradation of fermentation products in peat soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Bela; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Schreck, Katharina; Tringe, Susannah G; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Loy, Alexander; Pester, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in peatlands is sustained by a cryptic sulfur cycle and effectively competes with methanogenic degradation pathways. In a series of peat soil microcosms incubated over 50 days, we identified bacterial consortia that responded to small, periodic additions of individual fermentation products (formate, acetate, propionate, lactate or butyrate) in the presence or absence of sulfate. Under sulfate supplementation, net sulfate turnover (ST) steadily increased to 16-174 nmol cm(-3) per day and almost completely blocked methanogenesis. 16S rRNA gene and cDNA amplicon sequencing identified microorganisms whose increases in ribosome numbers strongly correlated to ST. Natively abundant (⩾0.1% estimated genome abundance) species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed no significant response to sulfate. In contrast, low-abundance OTUs responded significantly to sulfate in incubations with propionate, lactate and butyrate. These OTUs included members of recognized sulfate-reducing taxa (Desulfosporosinus, Desulfopila, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio) and also members of taxa that are either yet unknown sulfate reducers or metabolic interaction partners thereof. Most responsive OTUs markedly increased their ribosome content but only weakly increased in abundance. Responsive Desulfosporosinus OTUs even maintained a constantly low population size throughout 50 days, which suggests a novel strategy of rare biosphere members to display activity. Interestingly, two OTUs of the non-sulfate-reducing genus Telmatospirillum (Alphaproteobacteria) showed strongly contrasting preferences towards sulfate in butyrate-amended microcosms, corroborating that closely related microorganisms are not necessarily ecologically coherent. We show that diverse consortia of low-abundance microorganisms can perform peat soil sulfate reduction, a process that exerts control on methane production in these climate-relevant ecosystems.

  6. Consortia of low-abundance bacteria drive sulfate reduction-dependent degradation of fermentation products in peat soil microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Bela; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Schreck, Katharina; Tringe, Susannah G; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Loy, Alexander; Pester, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in peatlands is sustained by a cryptic sulfur cycle and effectively competes with methanogenic degradation pathways. In a series of peat soil microcosms incubated over 50 days, we identified bacterial consortia that responded to small, periodic additions of individual fermentation products (formate, acetate, propionate, lactate or butyrate) in the presence or absence of sulfate. Under sulfate supplementation, net sulfate turnover (ST) steadily increased to 16–174 nmol cm–3 per day and almost completely blocked methanogenesis. 16S rRNA gene and cDNA amplicon sequencing identified microorganisms whose increases in ribosome numbers strongly correlated to ST. Natively abundant (⩾0.1% estimated genome abundance) species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed no significant response to sulfate. In contrast, low-abundance OTUs responded significantly to sulfate in incubations with propionate, lactate and butyrate. These OTUs included members of recognized sulfate-reducing taxa (Desulfosporosinus, Desulfopila, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio) and also members of taxa that are either yet unknown sulfate reducers or metabolic interaction partners thereof. Most responsive OTUs markedly increased their ribosome content but only weakly increased in abundance. Responsive Desulfosporosinus OTUs even maintained a constantly low population size throughout 50 days, which suggests a novel strategy of rare biosphere members to display activity. Interestingly, two OTUs of the non-sulfate-reducing genus Telmatospirillum (Alphaproteobacteria) showed strongly contrasting preferences towards sulfate in butyrate-amended microcosms, corroborating that closely related microorganisms are not necessarily ecologically coherent. We show that diverse consortia of low-abundance microorganisms can perform peat soil sulfate reduction, a process that exerts control on methane production in these climate-relevant ecosystems. PMID:27015005

  7. Biodegradation of organic chemicals in soil/water microcosms system: Model development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, L.; Tindall, J.A.; Friedel, M.J.; Zhang, W.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical interactions of hydrophobic organic contaminants with soils and sediments may result in strong binding and slow subsequent release rates that significantly affect remediation rates and endpoints. In order to illustrate the recalcitrance of chemical to degradation on sites, a sorption mechanism of intraparticle sequestration was postulated to operate on chemical remediation sites. Pseudo-first order sequestration kinetics is used in the study with the hypothesis that sequestration is an irreversibly surface-mediated process. A mathematical model based on mass balance equations was developed to describe the fate of chemical degradation in soil/water microcosm systems. In the model, diffusion was represented by Fick's second law, local sorption-desorption by a linear isotherm, irreversible sequestration by a pseudo-first order kinetics and biodegradation by Monod kinetics. Solutions were obtained to provide estimates of chemical concentrations. The mathematical model was applied to a benzene biodegradation batch test and simulated model responses correlated well compared to measurements of biodegradation of benzene in the batch soil/water microcosm system. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the effects of several parameters on model behavior. Overall chemical removal rate decreased and sequestration increased quickly with an increase in the sorption partition coefficient. When soil particle radius, a, was greater than 1 mm, an increase in radius produced a significant decrease in overall chemical removal rate as well as an increase in sequestration. However, when soil particle radius was less than 0.1 mm, an increase in radius resulted in small changes in the removal rate and sequestration. As pseudo-first order sequestration rate increased, both chemical removal rate and sequestration increased slightly. Model simulation results showed that desorption resistance played an important role in the bioavailability of organic chemicals in porous

  8. Final Technical Report: Optimization and Directed, Natural Evolution of Biologically-Mediated Chromate Reduction in Subsurface Soil Microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Dorothea K; Wickham, Gene S; Layton, Alice C

    2012-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with the complex challenge of remediating or containing the various mixed wastes present in the subsurface environments of numerous DOE sites. The development of scientifically grounded strategies for the effective management and reclamation of these contaminated sites requires fundamental knowledge on the composition, dynamics, and metabolic potential of indigenous microbial communities, which are of primary importance in the fate and transport of heavy metals and radionuclides in subsurface environments. To date, the complex effect of environmental (both geochemical and biological) parameters on the bioremediative potential of subsurface microbial populations is only partially understood; this is primarily because the majority of microbial ecological studies have focused only on a qualitative analysis of subsurface microbial diversity, while the impact of quantitative changes in microbial communities as a function of environmental factors has been ignored. The project described here directly addresses the need for a more comprehensive, molecular understanding of how microbial growth and activity quantitatively relate to mineral and contaminant biotransformation (Science Element: Subsurface Microbial Ecology and Community, Notice DE-FG02-06ER06-12). The proposed study uses a truly novel combination of standard molecular phylogenetic analyses, rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization, and mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to investigate the biological response to experimentally controlled conditions and the concomitant effect on chromate reduction in situ. This response will be characterized in terms of microbial community structure (principally, population number and spatial distribution) and community proteome dynamics. Towards this overarching goal, we will (1) set up aerobic and anaerobic laboratory microcosms derived from subsurface soil collected from a chromate [Cr(VI)]-contaminated DOE site, and

  9. Bioaugmentation of copper polluted soil microcosms with Amycolatopsis tucumanensis to diminish phytoavailable copper for Zea mays plants.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Amoroso, María Julia; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2010-03-01

    Amycolatopsis tucumanensis DSM 45259, the strain of a recently recognized novel species of the genus Amycolatopsis with remarkable copper resistance, was used to bioaugment soil microcosms experimentally polluted with copper and for studying the ability of this strain to effectively diminish phytoavailable copper from soils. Our results demonstrated that A. tucumanensis was capable of profusely colonizing both, copper polluted and non-polluted soil. Copper bioimmobilization ability of A. tucumanensis on soil was assessed measuring the bioavailable copper in the soil solution extracted from polluted soil by using chemical and physical methods and, in this way, 31% lower amounts of the metal were found in soil solution as compared to non-bioaugmented soil. The results obtained when using Zea mays as bioindicator correlated well with the values obtained by the chemical and physical procedures: 20% and 17% lower tissue contents of copper were measured in roots and leaves, respectively. These data confirmed the efficiency of the bioremediation process using A. tucumanensis and at the same time proved that chemical, physical and biological methods for assessing copper bioavailability in soils were correlated. These results suggest a potential use of this strain at large scale in copper soil bioremediation strategies. To our knowledge, this work is the first to apply and to probe the colonization ability of an Amycolatopsis strain in soil microcosms and constitutes the first application of an Amycolatopsis strain on bioremediation of polluted soils. PMID:20163821

  10. Determining the effects of pollutants on soil faunal communities and trophic structure using a refined microcosm system

    SciTech Connect

    Parmelee, R.W.; Phillips, C.T.; Checkai, R.T.; Bohlen, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors used a refined microcosm technique to investigate the toxicity of copper, cadmium, malathion, and the polychlorinated biphenyl, to trophic groups of soil nematodes and to the microarthropod community. Comparisons of changes in nematode abundance in control soils through time indicated that day 7 was the most appropriate time to sample the microcosms after chemical application. Nematode abundance was reduced after exposure to copper at 100 {micro}g/g, with fungivore, bacterivore, and omnivore-predator nematodes being the most sensitive groups. Cadmium did not affect the nematode or microarthropod communities. Microarthropods were far more sensitive to malathion than were nematodes, and total microarthropod abundance was lower than controls at 400 {micro}g/g. Prostigmatid mites and other arthropods were the most affected groups. PCB also had a greater negative impact on microarthropods than on nematodes. Total microarthropod abundance declined at 2,500 {micro}g/g, with prostigmatid and oribatid mites exhibiting the highest susceptibility. Strong differential sensitivity between nematode and microarthropod communities indicates that both groups should be examined to fully evaluate the biological impact of chemicals on soils. The authors conclude that microcosms with field-collected soil microfaunal communities offer high resolution of the ecotoxicologic effects of chemicals in complex soil systems.

  11. The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils.

    PubMed

    Winder, Richard S; Lamarche, Josyanne; Constabel, C Peter; Hamelin, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of leaf litter from genetically modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria significantly increased. β-Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high-tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low-tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051). Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA (principal coordinate analyses) partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i) those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii) those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii) those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a β-glucuronidase control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in

  12. The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Richard S.; Lamarche, Josyanne; Constabel, C. Peter; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of leaf litter from genetically modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria significantly increased. β-Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high-tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low-tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051). Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA (principal coordinate analyses) partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i) those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii) those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii) those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a β-glucuronidase control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in

  13. Linking stoichiometric homeostasis of microorganisms with soil phosphorus dynamics in wetlands subjected to microcosm warming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Li, Hongyi; Zhang, Zhijian; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D; He, Qiang; Xu, Xinhua; Yue, Chunlei; Jiang, Daqian

    2014-01-01

    Soil biogeochemical processes and the ecological stability of wetland ecosystems under global warming scenarios have gained increasing attention worldwide. Changes in the capacity of microorganisms to maintain stoichiometric homeostasis, or relatively stable internal concentrations of elements, may serve as an indicator of alterations to soil biogeochemical processes and their associated ecological feedbacks. In this study, an outdoor computerized microcosm was set up to simulate a warmed (+5°C) climate scenario, using novel, minute-scale temperature manipulation technology. The principle of stoichiometric homeostasis was adopted to illustrate phosphorus (P) biogeochemical cycling coupled with carbon (C) dynamics within the soil-microorganism complex. We hypothesized that enhancing the flux of P from soil to water under warming scenarios is tightly coupled with a decrease in homeostatic regulation ability in wetland ecosystems. Results indicate that experimental warming impaired the ability of stoichiometric homeostasis (H) to regulate biogeochemical processes, enhancing the ecological role of wetland soil as an ecological source for both P and C. The potential P flux from soil to water ranged from 0.11 to 34.51 mg m(-2) d(-1) in the control and 0.07 to 61.26 mg m(-2) d(-1) in the warmed treatment. The synergistic function of C-P acquisition is an important mechanism underlying C∶P stoichiometric balance for soil microorganisms under warming. For both treatment groups, strongly significant (p<0.001) relationships fitting a negative allometric power model with a fractional exponent were found between n-HC∶P (the specialized homeostatic regulation ability as a ratio of soil highly labile organic carbon to dissolved reactive phosphorus in porewater) and potential P flux. Although many factors may affect soil P dynamics, the n-HC∶P term fundamentally reflects the stoichiometric balance or interactions between the energy landscape (i.e., C) and flow of resources

  14. Biogeochemical modeling of CO2 and CH4 production in anoxic Arctic soil microcosms

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Guoping; Zheng, Jianqiu; Xu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Painter, Scott L.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2016-09-12

    Soil organic carbon turnover to CO2 and CH4 is sensitive to soil redox potential and pH conditions. But, land surface models do not consider redox and pH in the aqueous phase explicitly, thereby limiting their use for making predictions in anoxic environments. Using recent data from incubations of Arctic soils, we extend the Community Land Model with coupled carbon and nitrogen (CLM-CN) decomposition cascade to include simple organic substrate turnover, fermentation, Fe(III) reduction, and methanogenesis reactions, and assess the efficacy of various temperature and pH response functions. Incorporating the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) enables us to approximately describe themore » observed pH evolution without additional parameterization. Though Fe(III) reduction is normally assumed to compete with methanogenesis, the model predicts that Fe(III) reduction raises the pH from acidic to neutral, thereby reducing environmental stress to methanogens and accelerating methane production when substrates are not limiting. Furthermore, the equilibrium speciation predicts a substantial increase in CO2 solubility as pH increases, and taking into account CO2 adsorption to surface sites of metal oxides further decreases the predicted headspace gas-phase fraction at low pH. Without adequate representation of these speciation reactions, as well as the impacts of pH, temperature, and pressure, the CO2 production from closed microcosms can be substantially underestimated based on headspace CO2 measurements only. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of geochemical models for simulating soil biogeochemistry and provide predictive understanding and mechanistic representations that can be incorporated into land surface models to improve climate predictions.« less

  15. Biogeochemical modeling of CO2 and CH4 production in anoxic Arctic soil microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guoping; Zheng, Jianqiu; Xu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Painter, Scott L.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2016-09-01

    Soil organic carbon turnover to CO2 and CH4 is sensitive to soil redox potential and pH conditions. However, land surface models do not consider redox and pH in the aqueous phase explicitly, thereby limiting their use for making predictions in anoxic environments. Using recent data from incubations of Arctic soils, we extend the Community Land Model with coupled carbon and nitrogen (CLM-CN) decomposition cascade to include simple organic substrate turnover, fermentation, Fe(III) reduction, and methanogenesis reactions, and assess the efficacy of various temperature and pH response functions. Incorporating the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) enables us to approximately describe the observed pH evolution without additional parameterization. Although Fe(III) reduction is normally assumed to compete with methanogenesis, the model predicts that Fe(III) reduction raises the pH from acidic to neutral, thereby reducing environmental stress to methanogens and accelerating methane production when substrates are not limiting. The equilibrium speciation predicts a substantial increase in CO2 solubility as pH increases, and taking into account CO2 adsorption to surface sites of metal oxides further decreases the predicted headspace gas-phase fraction at low pH. Without adequate representation of these speciation reactions, as well as the impacts of pH, temperature, and pressure, the CO2 production from closed microcosms can be substantially underestimated based on headspace CO2 measurements only. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of geochemical models for simulating soil biogeochemistry and provide predictive understanding and mechanistic representations that can be incorporated into land surface models to improve climate predictions.

  16. Evolution of organic matter fractions after application of co-compost of sewage sludge with pruning waste to four Mediterranean agricultural soils. A soil microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lomas, A L; Delgado, G; Párraga, J; Delgado, R; Almendros, G; Aranda, V

    2010-10-01

    The effect of co-compost application from sewage sludge and pruning waste, on quality and quantity of soil organic carbon (SOC) in four Mediterranean agricultural soils (South Spain), was studied in soil microcosm conditions. Control soil samples (no co-compost addition) and soils treated with co-composts to a rate equivalent of 140 Mg ha(-1) were incubated for 90 days at two temperatures: 5 and 35 degrees C. The significances of incubation temperature and the addition of co-compost, on the evolution of the different fractions of SOC, were studied using a 2(3) factorial design. The co-compost amendment increased the amounts of humic fractions: humic acids (HA) (1.9 times), fulvic acids (FA) (3.3 times), humin (1.5 times), as well as the free organic matter (1.4 times) and free lipids (21.8 times). Incubation of the soils enhanced its biological activity mainly in the amended soils and at 35 degrees C, leading to progressive SOC mineralization and humification, concomitant to the preferential accumulation of HA. The incubation results show large differences depending on temperature and soil types. This fact allows us to select suitable organic amendment for the soil when a rapid increase in nutrients through mineralization is preferred, or in cases intending the stabilization and preservation of the SOC through a process of humification. In soils with HA of more than 5 E(4)/E(6) ratio, the incubation temperature increased rates of mineralization and humification, whereas lower temperatures limited the extent of both processes. In these soils the addition of co-compost in spring or summer is the most recommendable. In soils with HA of lower E(4)/E(6) ratio (<5), the higher temperature favoured mineralization but not humification, whereas the low temperature maintained the SOC levels and even increased the HA/FA ratio. In these soils the moment of addition of organic amendment should be decided depending on the effect intended. On the other hand, the lower the SOC

  17. Evaluating a bioremediation tool for atrazine contaminated soils in open soil microcosms: the effectiveness of bioaugmentation and biostimulation approaches.

    PubMed

    Lima, D; Viana, P; André, S; Chelinho, S; Costa, C; Ribeiro, R; Sousa, J P; Fialho, A M; Viegas, C A

    2009-01-01

    A previously developed potential cleanup tool for atrazine contaminated soils was evaluated in larger open soil microcosms for optimization under more realistic conditions, using a natural crop soil spiked with an atrazine commercial formulation (Atrazerba FL). The doses used were 20x or 200x higher than the recommended dose (RD) for an agricultural application, mimicking over-use or spill situations. Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP was used for bioaugmentation (around 10(7) or 10(8) viable cells g(-1) of soil) and citrate for biostimulation (up to 4.8 mg g(-1) of soil). Bioremediation treatments providing fastest and higher atrazine biodegradation proved to differ according to the initial level of soil contamination. For 20x RD of Atrazerba FL, a unique inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. ADP (9 +/- 1 x 10(7) CFU g(-1)) resulted in rapid atrazine removal (99% of the initial 7.2 +/- 1.6 microg g(-1) after 8d), independent of citrate. For 200x RD, an inoculation with the atrazine-degrading bacteria (8.5 +/- 0.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1)) supplemented with citrate amendment (2.4 mg g(-1)) resulted in improved biodegradation (87%) compared with bioaugmentation alone (79%), even though 7.8 +/- 2.1 microg of atrazine g(-1) still remained in the soil after 1 wk. However, the same amount of inoculum, distributed over three successive inoculations and combined with citrate, increased Pseudomonas sp. ADP survival and atrazine biodegradation (to 98%, in 1 wk). We suggest that this bioremediation tool may be valuable for efficient removal of atrazine from contaminated field soils thus minimizing atrazine and its chlorinated derivatives from reaching water compartments.

  18. Crude oil degradation efficiency of a recombinant Acinetobacter baumannii strain and its survival in crude oil-contaminated soil microcosm.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sanjeet; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Lal, Banwari

    2004-06-15

    A hydrocarbon degrading Acinetobacter baumannii S30 strain, isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil, was inserted with the lux gene from the luciferase gene cassette luxCDABE. Soil microcosms were designed to study the degradation efficacy for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of crude oil by lux-tagged A. baumannii S30 pJES. Bioaugmentation of a TPH-contaminated microcosm with A baumannii S30 pJES showed that TPH levels were reduced from 89.3 to 53.9 g/kg soil in 90 days. Biodegradation of TPH by A baumannii S30 pJES was also monitored in shake flask conditions, which showed a reduction of initial TPH levels by over 50% at the end of 120 h. A lux-PCR-based approach along with the standard dilution plating with selective antibiotics was successfully utilized to monitor the survivability of the lux-tagged strain A. baumannii S30 pJES in soil microcosms and stability of the lux insert in the host strain A. baumannii S30. The selective plating technique indicated the population of A. baumannii S30 pJES to be 6.5+/-0.13 x 10(8) CFU/g at day zero (just after bioaugmentation) and 2.09+/-0.08 x 10(8) CFU/g of soil after 90 days of incubation. lux-PCR confirmed the stability of the insert in all the randomly selected colonies of A. baumannii strains from the antibiotic plates. The lux insert was stable after 50 generations in Luria Bertini broth and storage at -70 degrees C as glycerol stocks for over a year. These results revealed that the lux insert was stable and lux-tagged A. baumannii S30 strain could survive in a TPH-contaminated soil microcosm and could degrade TPH in the soil microcosm conditions. It can be used as an effective marker to monitor the survival of augmented strains at a bioremediation site. PMID:15183881

  19. Microcosm studies of the role of land plants in elevating soil carbon dioxide and chemical weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, C.; Hefin Jones, T.; Edwards, Dianne

    2008-09-01

    A decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration during the mid-Palaeozoic is postulated to have been partially the consequence of the evolution of rooted land plants. Root development increased the amount of carbonic acid generated by root respiration within soils. This led to increased chemical weathering of silicates and subsequent formation of carbonates, resulting in lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations. To test this assumption, analog (morphologically equivalent) plant species, ranging from those possessing no roots to those with complex rhizomatous rooting systems, were grown in trays within microcosms at ambient (360 ppm/0.37 mbar) and highly elevated (3500 ppm/3.55 mbar) atmospheric CO2 concentrations in a controlled environment facility. Substrate CO2 concentrations increased significantly under elevated atmospheric CO2, and Equisetum hyemale (L.). The latter is postulated to result from the effects of deeply rooted plants, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, or both. Plants with simple or no rooting systems or the addition of dead organic matter as a substrate for microorganisms did not enhance substrate CO2 concentrations.

  20. Stimulation of anaerobic biodegradation of DDT and its metabolites in a muck soil: laboratory microcosm and mesocosm studies.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Hiral; Ogram, Andrew; Thomas, John

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of selected electron donors and electron acceptors on the anaerobic biodegradation of DDT and its major metabolites in a muck soil with a long history of exposure to the pesticide. Loss of DDT was measured in anaerobic microcosms supplemented with H2, lactate, and acetate. The greatest loss of DDT (approximately 87 %) was observed in microcosms amended with lactate and no additional electron acceptor compared to the no additional electron donor or acceptor sets. An increase in measureable concentrations of DDx was observed in un-amended microcosms. In larger scale mesocosms, significant increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) corresponded with low redox potentials. Increases in DOC corresponded with sharp increases in measured concentrations of DDx, followed by a decrease in measured DDT concentrations in lactate-amended mesocosms. Our studies indicate that sorbed DDx is released upon anaerobic incubation, and that indigenous microorganisms capable of DDx degradation respond to lactate additions. Both the potential for release of sorbed DDx and the potential for biodegradation of DDx should be considered during remediation of DDx-contaminated organic soils at low redox potentials.

  1. The influence of nickel on the bioremediation of multi-component contaminated tropical soil: microcosm and batch bioreactor studies.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Natália Franco; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Rizzo, Andrea Camardella de Lima; Tsai, Siu Mui; da Cunha, Cláudia Duarte

    2015-07-01

    Large petrochemical discharges are responsible for organic and inorganic pollutants in the environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of nickel, one of the most abundant inorganic element in crude oil and the main component of hydrogen catalysts for oil refining, on the microbial community structure in artificially petroleum-contaminated microcosms and in solid phase bioreactor studies. In the presence of metals, the oil biodegradation in microcosms was significantly delayed during the first 7 days of operation. Also, increasing amounts of moisture generated a positive influence on the biodegradation processes. The oil concentration, exhibiting the most negative influence at the end of the treatment period. Molecular fingerprinting analyses (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis--DGGE) indicated that the inclusion of nickel into the contaminated soil promoted direct changes to the microbial community structure. By the end of the experiments, the results of the total petroleum hydrocarbons removal in the bioreactor and the microcosm were similar, but reductions in the treatment times were observed with the bioreactor experiments. An analysis of the microbial community structure by DGGE using various markers showed distinct behaviors between two treatments containing high nickel concentrations. The main conclusion of this study was that Nickel promotes a significant delay in oil biodegradation, despite having only a minor effect over the microbial community.

  2. The influence of nickel on the bioremediation of multi-component contaminated tropical soil: microcosm and batch bioreactor studies.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Natália Franco; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Rizzo, Andrea Camardella de Lima; Tsai, Siu Mui; da Cunha, Cláudia Duarte

    2015-07-01

    Large petrochemical discharges are responsible for organic and inorganic pollutants in the environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of nickel, one of the most abundant inorganic element in crude oil and the main component of hydrogen catalysts for oil refining, on the microbial community structure in artificially petroleum-contaminated microcosms and in solid phase bioreactor studies. In the presence of metals, the oil biodegradation in microcosms was significantly delayed during the first 7 days of operation. Also, increasing amounts of moisture generated a positive influence on the biodegradation processes. The oil concentration, exhibiting the most negative influence at the end of the treatment period. Molecular fingerprinting analyses (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis--DGGE) indicated that the inclusion of nickel into the contaminated soil promoted direct changes to the microbial community structure. By the end of the experiments, the results of the total petroleum hydrocarbons removal in the bioreactor and the microcosm were similar, but reductions in the treatment times were observed with the bioreactor experiments. An analysis of the microbial community structure by DGGE using various markers showed distinct behaviors between two treatments containing high nickel concentrations. The main conclusion of this study was that Nickel promotes a significant delay in oil biodegradation, despite having only a minor effect over the microbial community. PMID:25940327

  3. Small-scale soil water repellency in pine rizhosphere associated with ectomycorrhiza is affected by nutrient patchiness: a soil microcosms study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Elena; Hallett, Paul; Johnson, David; Moore, Lucy; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Jiménez-Pinilla, Patricia; Arcenegui, Victoria

    2014-05-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) or hydrophobicity has been commonly related to organic compounds released from the roots or decomposition of different plant species (Doerr et al., 2000). In addition, fungi and microorganisms that are associated with specific plants, could also influence SWR through the production of exudates or cellular material that form hydrophobic coatings on soil surfaces (Feeney et al., 2004; Hallett and Young, 1999) or act as surfactants. Nutrient availability, microbial biomass, organic matter and specific exudates have all been associated with the development of SWR. In terms of plant productivity, these impacts can be significant as their interaction with pore structure changes at the root-soil interface regulates both water transport and storage (Sperry et al., 1998). In boreal forests, basidiomycetous fungi are known to have a large impact on the development of SWR. These fungi are important degraders of organic material and symbionts forming ectomycorrhizal fungi (EF) associations with trees. Although many researchers have suggested a strong positive impact of EF on the ability of plants to capture water from soils, their impact on SWR at the root-soil interface and spatially within soil with a patchy nutrient distribution has not yet been investigated. This study used microcosms with mycelia systems of the EF extending from Pinus sylvestris host plants. Each microcosm was incubated during 15 days and contained plastic cup with 33P under the roots. The transfer of P from the mycelium to the host plant was monitored using a radioactive tracers and a non-destructive electronic autoradiography system in another study (data not published). SWR was measured using different approaches; as repellency index, R using a microinfiltrometer with a contact radius of 0.1 mm (modified from Hallet et al., 2002) and with the water drop penetration time test (WDPT). Sorptivity and SWR were measured between 40-50 points/microcosms. Results obtained with both

  4. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Tiina S; Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. PMID:26363398

  5. Assessment of metal toxicity and bioavailability in metallophyte leaf litters and metalliferous soils using Eisenia fetida in a microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Nirola, Ramkrishna; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Aryal, Rupak; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-07-01

    The leaf litters of tree species, Acacia pycnantha (Ap) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Ec), predominantly growing at an abandoned copper (Cu) mine and mine soils including controls, were assessed for determining the metal toxicity and bioavailability using earthworm species Eisenia fetida, in a microcosm. Significant reduction in body weight as well as mortality were observed when the worms were introduced into mine soil or its combination with mine Ap litter. Virtually, there were no juveniles when the worms were fed on substratum that contained mine soil or mine leaf litter. The extent of bioaccumulation was dependent on water-soluble fraction of a metal in soil. The accumulation of cadmium, lead and copper in worm tissue was significantly more in treatments that received mine soil with or without mine leaf litter. However, the tissue concentration of zinc did not differ much in earthworms irrespective of its exposure to control or contaminated samples. Mine leaf litter from Ec, a known Cu hyperaccumulator, was more hospitable to earthworm survival and juvenile than that of Ap litter. Validation of the data on bioaccumulation of metals indicated that the mine leaf litter significantly contributed to metal bioavailability. However, it was primarily the metal concentration in mine soil that was responsible for earthworm toxicity and bioavailability. Our data also indicate that detrivores like earthworm is greatly responsible for heavy metal transfer from mines into the ecosystem. PMID:27057994

  6. Patterns in species persistence and biomass production in soil microcosms recovering from a disturbance reject a neutral hypothesis for bacterial community assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fen-Guo; Zhang, Quan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    The neutral theory of biodiversity has emerged as a major null hypothesis in community ecology. The neutral theory may sufficiently well explain the structuring of microbial communities as the extremely high microbial diversity has led to an expectation of high ecological equivalence among species. To address this possibility, we worked with microcosms of two soils; the microcosms were either exposed, or not, to a dilution disturbance which reduces community sizes and removes some very rare species. After incubation for recovery, changes in bacterial species composition in microcosms compared with the source soils were assessed by pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Our assays could detect species with a proportional abundance ≥ 0.0001 in each community, and changes in the abundances of these species should have occurred during the recovery growth, but not be caused by the disturbance per se. The undisturbed microcosms showed slight changes in bacterial species diversity and composition, with a small number of initially low-abundance species going extinct. In microcosms recovering from the disturbance, however, species diversity decreased dramatically (by > 50%); and in most cases there was not a positive relationship between species initial abundance and their chance of persistence. Furthermore, a positive relationship between species richness and community biomass was observed in microcosms of one soil, but not in those of the other soil. The results are not consistent with a neutral hypothesis that predicts a positive abundance-persistence relationship and a null effect of diversity on ecosystem functioning. Adaptation mechanisms, in particular those associated with species interactions including facilitation and predation, may provide better explanations.

  7. Patterns in Species Persistence and Biomass Production in Soil Microcosms Recovering from a Disturbance Reject a Neutral Hypothesis for Bacterial Community Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fen-Guo; Zhang, Quan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    The neutral theory of biodiversity has emerged as a major null hypothesis in community ecology. The neutral theory may sufficiently well explain the structuring of microbial communities as the extremely high microbial diversity has led to an expectation of high ecological equivalence among species. To address this possibility, we worked with microcosms of two soils; the microcosms were either exposed, or not, to a dilution disturbance which reduces community sizes and removes some very rare species. After incubation for recovery, changes in bacterial species composition in microcosms compared with the source soils were assessed by pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Our assays could detect species with a proportional abundance ≥ 0.0001 in each community, and changes in the abundances of these species should have occurred during the recovery growth, but not be caused by the disturbance per se. The undisturbed microcosms showed slight changes in bacterial species diversity and composition, with a small number of initially low-abundance species going extinct. In microcosms recovering from the disturbance, however, species diversity decreased dramatically (by > 50%); and in most cases there was not a positive relationship between species initial abundance and their chance of persistence. Furthermore, a positive relationship between species richness and community biomass was observed in microcosms of one soil, but not in those of the other soil. The results are not consistent with a neutral hypothesis that predicts a positive abundance-persistence relationship and a null effect of diversity on ecosystem functioning. Adaptation mechanisms, in particular those associated with species interactions including facilitation and predation, may provide better explanations. PMID:25961300

  8. Expression and transfer of engineered catabolic pathways harbored by Pseudomonas spp. introuduced into activated sludge microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Nublein, K.; Maris, D.; Timmis, K.; Dwyer, D.F. )

    1992-10-01

    Two genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs), Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 FR1(pFRC20P) (FR120) and Pseudomonas putida KT2440(pWWO-EB62) (EB62), were introduced into activated sludge microcosms that had the level of aeration, nutrient makeup, and microbial community structure of activated sludge reactors. FR120 contains an experimentally assembled ortho cleavage route for simultaneous degradation of 3-chlorobenzoate (3CB) and 4-methyl benzoate (4MB); EB62 contains a derivative TOL plasmid-encoded degradative pathway for toluene experimentally evolved so that it additionally processes 4-ethyl benzoate (4EB). Experiments assessed survival of the GEMs, their ability to degrade target substrates, and lateral transfer of plasmid-encoded recombinant DNA.

  9. Unusual isotopic composition of C-CO2 from sterilized soil microcosms: a new way to separate intracellular from extracellular respiratory metabolisms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kéraval, Benoit; Alvarez, Gaël; Lehours, Anne Catherine; Amblard, Christian; Fontaine, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The mineralization of organic C requires two main steps. First, microorganisms secrete exoenzymes in soil in order to depolymerize plant and microbial cell walls and release soluble substrates for microbial assimilation. The second step of mineralization, during which C is released as CO2, implies the absorption and utilization of solubilized substrates by microbial cells with the aim to produce energy (ATP). In cells, soluble substrates are carried out by a cascade of respiratory enzymes, along which protons and electrons are transferred from a substrate to oxygen. Given the complexity of this oxidative metabolism and the typical fragility of respiratory enzymes, it is traditionally considered that respiration (second step of C mineralization process) is strictly an intracellular metabolism process. The recurrent observations of substantial CO2 emissions in soil microcosms where microbial cells have been reduced to extremely low levels challenges this paradigm. In a recent study where some respiratory enzymes have shown to function in an extracellular context in soils, Maire et al. (2013) suggested that an extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET) substantially contributes to CO2 emission from soils. This idea is supported by the recent publication of Blankinship et al., 2014 who showed the presence of active enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle on soil particles. Many controversies subsist in the scientific community due to the presence of non-proliferating but morphologically intact cells after irradiation that could substantially contribute to those soil CO2 emissions. To test whether a purely extracellular oxidative metabolism contribute to soil CO2 emissions, we combined high doses of gamma irradiations to different time of soil autoclaving. The presence of active and non-active cells in soil was checked by DNA and RNA extraction and by electronic microscopy. None active cells (RNA-containing cells) were detectable after irradiation, but some morphological

  10. Functional and structural responses of soil N-cycling microbial communities to the herbicide mesotrione: a dose-effect microcosm approach.

    PubMed

    Crouzet, Olivier; Poly, Franck; Bonnemoy, Frédérique; Bru, David; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques; Philippot, Laurent; Mallet, Clarisse

    2016-03-01

    Microbial communities driving the nitrogen cycle contribute to ecosystem services such as crop production and air, soil, and water quality. The responses to herbicide stress of ammonia-oxidizing and ammonia-denitrifying microbial communities were investigated by an analysis of changes in structure-function relationships. Their potential activities, abundances (quantitative PCR), and genetic structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) were assessed in a microcosm experiment. The application rate (1 × FR, 0.45 μg g(-1) soil) of the mesotrione herbicide did not strongly affect soil N-nutrient dynamics or microbial community structure and abundances. Doses of the commercial product Callisto® (10 × FR and 100 × FR) or pure mesotrione (100 × FR) exceeding field rates induced short-term inhibition of nitrification and a lasting stimulation of denitrification. These effects could play a part in the increase in soil ammonium content and decrease in nitrate contents observed in treated soils. These functional impacts were mainly correlated with abundance shifts of ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) and Archaea (AOA) or denitrifying bacteria. The sustained restoration of nitrification activity, from day 42 in the 100 × FR-treated soils, was likely promoted by changes in the community size and composition of AOB, which suggests a leading role, rather than AOA, for soil nitrification restoration after herbicide stress. This ecotoxicological community approach provides a nonesuch multiparameter assessment of responses of N-cycling microbial guilds to pesticide stress. PMID:26122568

  11. Functional and structural responses of soil N-cycling microbial communities to the herbicide mesotrione: a dose-effect microcosm approach.

    PubMed

    Crouzet, Olivier; Poly, Franck; Bonnemoy, Frédérique; Bru, David; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques; Philippot, Laurent; Mallet, Clarisse

    2016-03-01

    Microbial communities driving the nitrogen cycle contribute to ecosystem services such as crop production and air, soil, and water quality. The responses to herbicide stress of ammonia-oxidizing and ammonia-denitrifying microbial communities were investigated by an analysis of changes in structure-function relationships. Their potential activities, abundances (quantitative PCR), and genetic structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) were assessed in a microcosm experiment. The application rate (1 × FR, 0.45 μg g(-1) soil) of the mesotrione herbicide did not strongly affect soil N-nutrient dynamics or microbial community structure and abundances. Doses of the commercial product Callisto® (10 × FR and 100 × FR) or pure mesotrione (100 × FR) exceeding field rates induced short-term inhibition of nitrification and a lasting stimulation of denitrification. These effects could play a part in the increase in soil ammonium content and decrease in nitrate contents observed in treated soils. These functional impacts were mainly correlated with abundance shifts of ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) and Archaea (AOA) or denitrifying bacteria. The sustained restoration of nitrification activity, from day 42 in the 100 × FR-treated soils, was likely promoted by changes in the community size and composition of AOB, which suggests a leading role, rather than AOA, for soil nitrification restoration after herbicide stress. This ecotoxicological community approach provides a nonesuch multiparameter assessment of responses of N-cycling microbial guilds to pesticide stress.

  12. Field and microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of agricultural Cu treatment on the density and genetic structure of microbial communities in two different soils.

    PubMed

    Ranjard, Lionel; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Nowak, Virginie; Lejon, David P H; Nouaïm, Rachida; Chaussod, Rémi

    2006-11-01

    The effects of Cu amendment on indigenous soil microorganisms were investigated in two soils, a calcareous silty clay (Ep) and a sandy soil (Au), by means of a 1-year field experiment and a two-month microcosm incubation. Cu was added as 'Bordeaux mixture' [CuSO(4), Ca(OH)(2)] at the standard rate used in viticulture (B1=16 kg Cu kg(-1) soil) and at a higher level of contamination (B3=48 kg Cu ha(-1) soil). More extractable Cu was observed in sandy soil (Au) than in silty soil (Ep). Furthermore, total Cu and Cu-EDTA declined with time in Au soil, whereas they remained stable in Ep soil. Quantitative modifications of the microflora were assessed by C-biomass measurements and qualitative modifications were assessed by the characterization of the genetic structure of bacterial and fungal communities from DNA directly extracted from the soil, using B- and F-ARISA (bacterial and fungal automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis). In the field study, no significant modifications were observed in C-biomass whereas microcosm incubation showed a decrease in B3 contamination only. ARISA fingerprinting showed slight but significant modifications of bacterial and fungal communities in field and microcosm incubation. These modifications were transient in all cases, suggesting a short-term effect of Cu stress. Microcosm experiments detected the microbial community modifications with greater precision in the short-term, while field experiments showed that the biological effects of Cu contamination may be overcome or hidden by pedo-climatic variations. PMID:17064271

  13. Field and microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of agricultural Cu treatment on the density and genetic structure of microbial communities in two different soils.

    PubMed

    Ranjard, Lionel; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Nowak, Virginie; Lejon, David P H; Nouaïm, Rachida; Chaussod, Rémi

    2006-11-01

    The effects of Cu amendment on indigenous soil microorganisms were investigated in two soils, a calcareous silty clay (Ep) and a sandy soil (Au), by means of a 1-year field experiment and a two-month microcosm incubation. Cu was added as 'Bordeaux mixture' [CuSO(4), Ca(OH)(2)] at the standard rate used in viticulture (B1=16 kg Cu kg(-1) soil) and at a higher level of contamination (B3=48 kg Cu ha(-1) soil). More extractable Cu was observed in sandy soil (Au) than in silty soil (Ep). Furthermore, total Cu and Cu-EDTA declined with time in Au soil, whereas they remained stable in Ep soil. Quantitative modifications of the microflora were assessed by C-biomass measurements and qualitative modifications were assessed by the characterization of the genetic structure of bacterial and fungal communities from DNA directly extracted from the soil, using B- and F-ARISA (bacterial and fungal automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis). In the field study, no significant modifications were observed in C-biomass whereas microcosm incubation showed a decrease in B3 contamination only. ARISA fingerprinting showed slight but significant modifications of bacterial and fungal communities in field and microcosm incubation. These modifications were transient in all cases, suggesting a short-term effect of Cu stress. Microcosm experiments detected the microbial community modifications with greater precision in the short-term, while field experiments showed that the biological effects of Cu contamination may be overcome or hidden by pedo-climatic variations.

  14. Response of forest seedling/soil microcosms to elevated CO{sub 2} and soil temperature, water, and light: Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, M.L.; Perry, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    Soils from 500-year-old old-growth Douglas-fir forests in the western Oregon Cascade Mtns. (945m and 1325m sites) were {open_quotes}incubated{close_quotes} for 32 weeks in controlled-environment chambers. Objectives were (1) to determine the interacting effects of soil temperature and atmospheric CO{sub 2} on N availability in soils, growth of Douglas-fir seedlings, and resulting C & N fluxes among trees, soils, and the atmosphere, and (2) to model these interactions with a version of Fregro linked with the GEM soil-decomposition model. The experiment was a split-plot with a factorial treatment combination containing two leves each of atmospheric CO{sub 2} (350/700 ppm), soil temperature (13.8/17.7{degrees}C), soil C & N (1325m soils had 2.3x more C and 1.25x more N than 945m soils), and vegetation (+/-seedlings). Each wholeplot (chamber) treatment (CO{sub 2} x temperature) was replicated three times. Photosynthetic photon flux density, soil temperature, and volume of added water were determined for each pot and analyzed as covariates. Responses measured include differences in soil C & N mineralization and total soil C & N in the presence/absence of seedlings, the extent to which subsequent seedling growth offsets potential {open_quote}system{close_quote} losses of C & N, and allocation of C & N to foliage and fine roots. Previously reported early results (ESA, 1994) suggest that (1) as hypothesized, soil temperatures is the main driver of changes in both N mineralization and biomass production in seedling microcosms, (2) allocation is primarily influenced by atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, and (3) a soil type x soil temperature x CO{sub 2} interaction influences seedling growth.

  15. Small-scale microcosms to detect chemical induced changes in soil nematode communities--effects of crystal proteins and Bt-maize plant material.

    PubMed

    Höss, Sebastian; Reiff, Nicola; Nguyen, Hang T; Jehle, Johannes A; Hermes, Hanna; Traunspurger, Walter

    2014-02-15

    Small-scale laboratory microcosms (30 g soil in 50 ml tubes) were evaluated for their suitability to assess the impact of chemicals on in situ soil nematode communities. For this purpose, appropriate conditions in the microcosms were explored to ensure stable conditions and a homogenous distribution of the nematodes. Then, the microcosms were used to assess the toxicity of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry3Bb1) present in genetically modified maize (MON89034×MON88017) on in situ nematode communities. Highly abundant and genus rich nematode communities could be maintained over a period of 12 weeks. Due to a low variance between the replicates of the treatments, low detection limits could be achieved. Using meaningful stress indices, such as the maturity indices, the microcosm study revealed dose-dependent effects of the insecticidal Cry proteins that could be verified as toxic effects by comparing with effects of two positive controls (Cu, nematicidal Cry5B). Moreover, toxic effects could be differentiated from organic enrichment effects that were induced by the addition of plant material. With a NOECCommunity of 0.1 mg kg(-1) dry wt, the nematode communities reacted considerably more sensitive to the Cry proteins than a single-species nematode toxicity test (NOEC: 29 mg l(-1)). The small-scale microcosm set-up turned out to be a suitable, low-budget tool for assessing the toxicity of chemicals on soil nematodes on community level, representing a link between single-species toxicity tests and large scale outdoor mesocosms. PMID:24317172

  16. Effect of Municipal Wastewater as a Wetland Water Source on Soil Microbial Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial activity, as determined by CO2 evolution, was compared between two soils irrigated with either municipal wastewater effluent or Missouri River water. Irrigation of soils was conducted in greenhouse microcosms with irrigation timing and quantity designed to simulate wetland moist-soil mana...

  17. The effect of the potential fuel additive isobutanol on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene degradation in aerobic soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liang; Cupples, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Isobutanol is being considered as a fuel additive; however, the effect of this chemical on gasoline degradation (following a spill) has yet to be fully explored. To address this, the current study investigated the effect of isobutanol on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene (BTEX) degradation in 14 sets of experiments in saturated soils. This involved four hydrocarbons for three soils (12 experiments) and two extra experiments with a lower level of isobutanol (for toluene only). Each soil and hydrocarbon combination involved four abiotic control microcosms and 12 sample microcosms (six with and six without isobutanol). The time for complete degradation of each hydrocarbon varied between treatments. Both toluene and ethylbenzene were rapidly degraded (5-13 days for toluene and 3-13 days for ethylbenzene). In contrast, the time for complete degradation for benzene ranged from 5 to 47 days. The hydrocarbon p-xylene was the most recalcitrant chemical (time for removal ranged from 14 to 86 days) and, in several microcosms, no p-xylene degradation was observed. The effect of isobutanol on hydrocarbon degradation was determined by comparing degradation lag times with and without isobutanol addition. From the 14 treatments, isobutanol only affected degradation lag times in three cases. In two cases (benzene and p-xylene), an enhancement of degradation (reduced lag times) was observed in the presence of isobutanol. In contrast, toluene degradation in one soil was inhibited (increased lag time). These results indicate that co-contamination with isobutanol should not inhibit aerobic BTEX degradation rates.

  18. Using Microcosms To Teach about the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Donald G.; Taylor, Lisa

    A microcosm is a small, completely sealed, self-sustaining ecosystem. Once a microcosm has been sealed in a transparent container, only light and some heat can enter and only excess heat can leave. This manual describes how to set up aquatic microcosms using glass jars and little or no collecting equipment. The activities can be tailored to suit…

  19. Red spruce germination and growth in soil-mediated regeneration microcosms under acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the past three decades, atmospheric pollution has caused substantial problems for the environment as well as for many biological processes. The objective of this study focuses on red spruce (Picea ruben Sarg.) regeneration potential and chemical change within the soil-water-plant continuum following simulated acid rain treatments. Inceptisols from three forests at 1735, 1920, and 2015 m at Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina had lower pH, bulk density, and higher organic matter, and base cations as altitude increased. Red spruce seeds were collected from two nearby standing trees at the 1735 m site. A strip-split-split plot experiment was constructed using soils from the two lower elevations, which support natural red spruce stands. Besides a control (pH 5.6, NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratio 0.10), eight treatments corresponding to two pHs (3.5 and 4.2) with four NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratios (0.20, 0.33, 0.40, and 0.67) each were used. Seedling emergence and growth, chemistry of soil. Soil leachate, and plant tissue were analyzed to test soil differences and treatment effects of acidity, nitrate, and sulfate. Temporal patterns of germination respond more to soil than to rain chemistry, but significant interactions were found. Besides higher survival, faster germinating seedlings in the 1735 m soil also produced more complex root system and more biomass. Lower root-to-shoot ratios at more acidic treatments suggest a negative effect of acidity on root growth. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that factors controlling overall soil chemistry were dominated by soil origin, then by rain pH.

  20. Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of OCDD-contaminated soils by Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU: microcosm, pilot-scale, and gene studies.

    PubMed

    Tu, Y T; Liu, J K; Lin, W C; Lin, J L; Kao, C M

    2014-08-15

    In this study, microcosm and pilot-scale experiments were performed to investigate the capability and effectiveness of Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU (P. mendocina NSYSU) on the bioremediation of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD)-contaminated soils. The objectives were to evaluate the (1) characteristics of P. mendocina NSYSU, (2) feasibility of enhancing OCDD biodegradation with the addition of P. mendocina NSYSU and lecithin, and (3) variation in microbial diversity and genes responsible for the dechlorination of OCDD. P. mendocina NSYSU was inhibited when salinity was higher than 7%, and it could biodegrade OCDD under reductive dechlorinating conditions. Lecithin could serve as the solubilization agent causing the enhanced solubilization and dechlorination of OCDD. Up to 71 and 62% of OCDD could be degraded after 65 days of incubation under anaerobic conditions with and without the addition of lecithin, respectively. Decreased OCDD concentrations caused significant increase in microbial diversity. Results from the pilot-scale study show that up to 75% of OCDD could be degraded after a 2.5-month operational period with lecithin addition. Results from the gene analyses show that two genes encoding the extradiol/intradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenase and five genes encoding the hydrolase in P. mendocina NSYSU were identified and played important roles in OCDD degradation.

  1. Microbial secondary succession in soil microcosms of a desert oasis in the Cuatro Cienegas Basin, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    López-Lozano, Nguyen E.; Heidelberg, Karla B.; Nelson, William C.; García-Oliva, Felipe; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological succession is one of the most important concepts in ecology. However for microbial community succession, there is a lack of a solid theoretical framework regarding succession in microorganisms. This is in part due to microbial community complexity and plasticity but also because little is known about temporal patterns of microbial community shifts in different kinds of ecosystems, including arid soils. The Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB) in Coahuila, Mexico, is an arid zone with high diversity and endemisms that has recently been threatened by aquifer overexploitation. The gypsum-based soil system of the CCB is one of the most oligotrophic places in the world. We undertook a comparative 16S rRNA 454 pyrosequencing study to evaluate microbial community succession and recovery over a year after disturbance at two sites. Results were related to concurrent measurements of humidity, organic matter and total C and N content. While each site differed in both biogeochemistry and biodiversity, both present similar pattern of change at the beginning of the succession that diverged in later stages. After one year, experimentally disturbed soil was not similar to established and undisturbed adjacent soil communities indicating recovery and succession in disturbed soils is a long process. PMID:23638384

  2. Experimental terrestrial soil-core microcosm test protocol. A method for measuring the potential ecological effects, fate, and transport of chemicals in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Voris, P.; Tolle, D.A.; Arthur, M.F.

    1985-06-01

    In order to protect the environment properly and have a realistic appraisal of how a chemical will act in the environment, tests of ecological effects and chemical fate must be performed on complex assemblages of biotic and abiotic components (i.e., microcosms) as well as single species. This protocol is one which could be added to a series of tests recently developed as guidelines for Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (P.L. 94-469; U.S.C., Section 2601-2629). The terrestrial soil-core microcosm is designed to supply site-specific and possibly regional information on the probable chemical fate and ecological effects resulting from release of a chemical substance to a terrestrial ecosystem. The EPA will use the data resulting from this test system to compare the potential hazards of a chemical with others that have been previously evaluated.

  3. Interactions of Bacterial and Amoebal Populations in Soil Microcosms with Fluctuating Moisture Content

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, R. J.; Woods, L. E.; Coleman, D. C.; Fairbanks, B. C.; McClellan, J. F.; Cole, C. V.

    1982-01-01

    Sterilized soil samples (20 g of soil per 50-ml flask), amended with 600 μg of glucose-carbon and 60 μg of NH4-N · g of dry soil−1, were inoculated with bacteria (Pseudomonas paucimobilis) alone or with bacteria and amoebae (Acanthamoeba polyphaga). We used wet-dry treatments, which involved air drying the samples to a moisture content of approximately 2% and remoistening the samples three times during the 83-day experiment. Control treatments were kept moist. In the absence of amoebae, bacterial populations were reduced by the first drying to about 60% of the moist control populations, but the third drying had no such effect. With amoebae present, bacterial numbers were not significantly affected by the dryings. Amoebal grazing reduced bacterial populations to 20 to 25% of the ungrazed bacterial populations in both moisture treatments. Encystment was an efficient survival mechanism for amoebae subjected to wet-dry cycles. The amoebal population was entirely encysted in dry soil, but the total number of amoebae was not affected by the three dryings. Growth efficiencies for amoebae feeding on bacteria were 0.33 and 0.39 for wet-dry and constantly moist treatments, respectively, results that compared well with those previously reported for Acanthamoeba spp. PMID:16345984

  4. Induction of the viable but nonculturable state of Ralstonia solanacearum by low temperature in the soil microcosm and its resuscitation by catalase.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Bae, Ju Young; Lee, Hyoung Ju; Joo, Hae Jin; Jung, Eun Joo; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt on a wide variety of plants, and enters a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state under stress conditions in soil and water. Here, we adopted an artificial soil microcosm (ASM) to investigate the VBNC state of R. solanacearum induced by low temperature. The culturability of R. solanacearum strains SL341 and GMI1000 rapidly decreased at 4°C in modified ASM (mASM), while it was stably maintained at 25°C in mASM. We hypothesized that bacterial cells at 4°C in mASM are viable but nonculturable. Total protein profiles of SL341 cells at 4°C in mASM did not differ from those of SL341 culturable cells at 25°C in mASM. Moreover, the VBNC cells maintained in the mASM retained respiration activity. Catalase treatment effectively restored the culturability of nonculturable cells in mASM, while temperature increase or other treatments used for resuscitation of other bacteria were not effective. The resuscitated R. solanacearum from VBNC state displayed normal level of bacterial virulence on tomato plants compared with its original culturable bacteria. Expression of omp, oxyR, rpoS, dps, and the 16S rRNA gene quantified by RT-qPCR did not differ significantly between the culturable and VBNC states of R. solanacearum. Our results suggested that the VBNC bacterial cells in mASM induced by low temperature exist in a physiologically unique state.

  5. Degradation of methyl bromide and methyl chloride in soil microcosms: Use of stable C isotope fractionation and stable isotope probing to identify reactions and the responsible microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laurence G.; Warner, Karen L.; Baesman, Shaun M.; Oremland, Ronald S.; McDonald, Ian R.; Radajewski, Stefan; Murrell, J. Colin

    2004-08-01

    Bacteria in soil microcosm experiments oxidized elevated levels of methyl chloride (MeCl) and methyl bromide (MeBr), the former compound more rapidly than the latter. MeBr was also removed by chemical reactions while MeCl was not. Chemical degradation dominated the early removal of MeBr and accounted for more than half of its total loss. Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes during chemical degradation of MeBr resulted in a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 59 ± 7‰. Soil bacterial oxidation dominated the later removal of MeBr and MeCl and was characterized by different KIEs for each compound. The KIE for MeBr oxidation was 69 ± 9‰ and the KIE for MeCl oxidation was 49 ± 3‰. Stable isotope probing revealed that different populations of soil bacteria assimilated added 13C-labeled MeBr and MeCl. The identity of the active MeBr and MeCl degrading bacteria in soil was determined by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from 13C-DNA fractions, which identified a number of sequences from organisms not previously thought to be involved in methyl halide degradation. These included Burkholderia, the major clone type in the 13C-MeBr fraction, and Rhodobacter, Lysobacter and Nocardioides the major clone types in the 13C-MeCl fraction. None of the 16S rRNA gene sequences for methyl halide oxidizing bacteria currently in culture (including Aminobacter strain IMB-1 isolated from fumigated soil) were identified. Functional gene clone types closely related to Aminobacter spp. were identified in libraries containing the sequences for the cmuA gene, which codes for the enzyme known to catalyze the initial step in the oxidation of MeBr and MeCl. The cmuA gene was limited to members of the alpha-Proteobacteria whereas the greater diversity demonstrated by the 16S rRNA gene may indicate that other enzymes catalyze methyl halide oxidation in different groups of bacteria.

  6. Degradation of methyl bromide and methyl chloride in soil microcosms: Use of stable C isotope fractionation and stable isotope probing to identify reactions and the responsible microorganisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Warner, K.L.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.; McDonald, I.R.; Radajewski, S.; Murrell, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria in soil microcosm experiments oxidized elevated levels of methyl chloride (MeCl) and methyl bromide (MeBr), the former compound more rapidly than the latter. MeBr was also removed by chemical reactions while MeCl was not. Chemical degradation dominated the early removal of MeBr and accounted for more than half of its total loss. Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes during chemical degradation of MeBr resulted in a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 59 ?? 7???. Soil bacterial oxidation dominated the later removal of MeBr and MeCl and was characterized by different KIEs for each compound. The KIE for MeBr oxidation was 69 ?? 9??? and the KIE for MeCl oxidation was 49 ?? 3???. Stable isotope probing revealed that different populations of soil bacteria assimilated added 13C-labeled MeBr and MeCl. The identity of the active MeBr and MeCl degrading bacteria in soil was determined by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from 13C-DNA fractions, which identified a number of sequences from organisms not previously thought to be involved in methyl halide degradation. These included Burkholderia , the major clone type in the 13C-MeBr fraction, and Rhodobacter, Lysobacter and Nocardioides the major clone types in the 13C-MeCl fraction. None of the 16S rRNA gene sequences for methyl halide oxidizing bacteria currently in culture (including Aminobacter strain IMB-1 isolated from fumigated soil) were identified. Functional gene clone types closely related to Aminobacter spp. were identified in libraries containing the sequences for the cmuA gene, which codes for the enzyme known to catalyze the initial step in the oxidation of MeBr and MeCl. The cmuA gene was limited to members of the alpha-Proteobacteria whereas the greater diversity demonstrated by the 16S rRNA gene may indicate that other enzymes catalyze methyl halide oxidation in different groups of bacteria. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of salivary pellicle on antibacterial activity of novel antibacterial dental adhesives using a dental plaque microcosm biofilm model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Fouad, Ashraf F.; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Antibacterial primer and adhesive are promising to inhibit biofilms and caries. Since restorations in vivo are exposed to saliva, one concern is the attenuation of antibacterial activity due to salivary pellicles. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of salivary pellicles on bonding agents containing a new monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) or nanoparticles of silver (NAg) against biofilms for the first time. Methods DMADDM and NAg were synthesized and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer. Specimens were either coated or not coated with salivary pellicles. A microcosm biofilm model was used with mixed saliva from ten donors. Two types of culture medium were used: an artificial saliva medium (McBain), and Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) medium without salivary proteins. Metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU), and lactic acid production of plaque microcosm biofilms were measured (n = 6). Results Bonding agents containing DMADDM and NAg greatly inhibited biofilm activities, even with salivary pellicles. When using BHI, the pre-coating of salivary pellicles on resin surfaces significantly decreased the antibacterial effect (p < 0.05). When using artificial saliva medium, pre-coating of salivary pellicles on resin did not decrease the antibacterial effect. These results suggest that artificial saliva yielded medium-derived pellicles on resin surfaces, which provided attenuating effects on biofilms similar to salivary pellicles. Compared with the commercial control, the DMADDM-containing bonding agent reduced biofilm CFU by about two orders of magnitude. Significance Novel DMADDM- and NAg-containing bonding agents substantially reduced biofilm growth even with salivary pellicle coating on surfaces, indicating a promising usage in saliva-rich environment. DMADDM and NAg may be useful in a wide range of primers, adhesives and other restoratives to achieve antibacterial and anti

  8. Fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons in soil microcosms following the application of treated residual municipal wastewater solids.

    PubMed

    Burch, Tucker R; Sadowsky, Michael J; LaPara, Timothy M

    2014-05-20

    Substantial quantities of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are discharged with treated residual municipal wastewater solids and subsequently applied to soil. The objective of this work was to determine the decay rates for ARGs and class 1 integrons following simulated land application of treated wastewater solids. Treated residual solids from two full-scale treatment plants were applied to sets of triplicate soil microcosms in two independent experiments. Experiment 1 investigated loading rates of 20, 40, and 100 g kg(-1) of residual solids to a sandy soil, while experiment 2 investigated a loading rate of 40 g kg(-1) to a silty-loamy soil. Five ARGs (erm(B), sul1, tet(A), tet(W), and tet(X)), the integrase of class 1 integrons (intI1), 16S rRNA genes, 16S rRNA genes of all Bacteroides spp., and 16S rRNA genes of human-specific Bacteroides spp. were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. ARGs and intI1 quantities declined in most microcosms, with statistically significant (P < 0.05) half-lives varying between 13 d (erm(B), experiment 1, 100 g kg(-1)) and 81 d (intI1, experiment 1, 40 g kg(-1)). These kinetic rates were much slower than have been previously reported for unit operations used to treat wastewater solids (e.g., anaerobic digestion). This research suggests that the design and operation of municipal wastewater treatment facilities with the explicit goal of mitigating the release of ARGs should focus on using technologies within the treatment facility, rather than depending on attenuation subsequent to land application.

  9. Determining the environmental fate of a filamentous fungus, Trichoderma reesei, in laboratory-contained intact soil-core microcosms using competitive PCR and viability plating.

    PubMed

    Providenti, Miguel A; Mautner, Selma I; Chaudhry, Omar; Bombardier, Manon; Scroggins, Richard; Gregorich, Edward; Smith, Myron L

    2004-08-01

    Trichoderma spp. are used extensively in industry and are routinely disposed of in landfill sites as spent biomass from fermentation plants. However, little is known regarding the environmental fate of this biomass. We tracked the survival of T. reesei strain QM6A#4 (a derivative of strain QM6A marked with a recombinant construct) over a 6-month period in laboratory-contained, intact soil-core microcosms incubated in a growth chamber. Survival was tested in 3 different soils and the effect of a plant rhizosphere (bush lima beans, Phaseolus limensis) was investigated. Levels and viability of the fungus were determined, respectively, by quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction analysis of total soil DNA extracts and dilution-plating of soil on a semiselective growth medium. Whereas chemically killed QM6A#4 became undetectable within 3 d, QM6A#4 added as a live inoculum decreased approximately 4- to approximately 160-fold over the first 1-3 months and then reached a steady state. After 4 months, soil cores were subjected to a 1.5-month simulated winter period, which did not significantly affect QM6A#4 levels. Throughout the experiment, QM6A#4 remained viable. These results indicate that, following release into the environment, live T. reesei will persist in soil for at least 2 seasons.

  10. Links between sulphur oxidation and sulphur-oxidising bacteria abundance and diversity in soil microcosms based on soxB functional gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Tourna, Maria; Maclean, Paul; Condron, Leo; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Wakelin, Steven A

    2014-06-01

    Sulphur-oxidising bacteria (SOB) play a key role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulphur in soil ecosystems. However, the ecology of SOB is poorly understood, and there is little knowledge about the taxa capable of sulphur oxidation, their distribution, habitat preferences and ecophysiology. Furthermore, as yet there are no conclusive links between SOB community size or structure and rates of sulphur oxidation. We have developed a molecular approach based on primer design targeting the soxB functional gene of nonfilamentous chemolithotrophic SOB that allows assessment of both abundance and diversity. Cloning and sequencing revealed considerable diversity of known soxB genotypes from agricultural soils and also evidence for previously undescribed taxa. In a microcosm experiment, abundance of soxB genes increased with sulphur oxidation rate in soils amended with elemental sulphur. Addition of elemental sulphur to soil had a significant effect in the soxB gene diversity, with the chemolithotrophic Thiobacillus-like Betaproteobacteria sequences dominating clone libraries 6 days after sulphur application. Using culture-independent methodology, the study provides evidence for links between abundance and diversity of SOB and sulphur oxidation. The methodology provides a new tool for investigation of the ecology and role of SOB in soil sulphur biogeochemistry.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizae alleviate negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle and zinc accumulation in maize plants--A soil microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fayuan; Liu, Xueqin; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Adams, Catharine A; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an emerging contaminant when in high concentration, and their effects on crops and soil microorganisms pose new concerns and challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF) form mutualistic symbioses with most vascular plants, and putatively contribute to reducing nanotoxicity in plants. Here, we studied the interactions between ZnO NPs and maize plants inoculated with or without AMF in ZnO NPs-spiked soil. ZnO NPs had no significant adverse effects at 400 mg/kg, but inhibited both maize growth and AM colonization at concentrations at and above 800 mg/kg. Sufficient addition of ZnO NPs decreased plant mineral nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and root activity. Furthermore, ZnO NPs caused Zn concentrations in plants to increase in a dose-dependent pattern. As the ZnO NPs dose increased, we also found a positive correlation with soil diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn. However, AM inoculation significantly alleviated the negative effects induced by ZnO NPs: inoculated-plants experienced increased growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment content, and SOD activity in leaves. Mycorrhizal plants also exhibited decreased ROS accumulation, Zn concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF), and lower soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations at high ZnO NPs doses. Our results demonstrate that, at high contamination levels, ZnO NPs cause toxicity to AM symbiosis, but AMF help alleviate ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity by decreasing Zn bioavailability and accumulation, Zn partitioning to shoots, and ROS production, and by increasing mineral nutrients and antioxidant capacity. AMF may play beneficial roles in alleviating the negative effects and environmental risks posed by ZnO NPs in agroecosystems. PMID:26761602

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizae alleviate negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle and zinc accumulation in maize plants--A soil microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fayuan; Liu, Xueqin; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Adams, Catharine A; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an emerging contaminant when in high concentration, and their effects on crops and soil microorganisms pose new concerns and challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF) form mutualistic symbioses with most vascular plants, and putatively contribute to reducing nanotoxicity in plants. Here, we studied the interactions between ZnO NPs and maize plants inoculated with or without AMF in ZnO NPs-spiked soil. ZnO NPs had no significant adverse effects at 400 mg/kg, but inhibited both maize growth and AM colonization at concentrations at and above 800 mg/kg. Sufficient addition of ZnO NPs decreased plant mineral nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and root activity. Furthermore, ZnO NPs caused Zn concentrations in plants to increase in a dose-dependent pattern. As the ZnO NPs dose increased, we also found a positive correlation with soil diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn. However, AM inoculation significantly alleviated the negative effects induced by ZnO NPs: inoculated-plants experienced increased growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment content, and SOD activity in leaves. Mycorrhizal plants also exhibited decreased ROS accumulation, Zn concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF), and lower soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations at high ZnO NPs doses. Our results demonstrate that, at high contamination levels, ZnO NPs cause toxicity to AM symbiosis, but AMF help alleviate ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity by decreasing Zn bioavailability and accumulation, Zn partitioning to shoots, and ROS production, and by increasing mineral nutrients and antioxidant capacity. AMF may play beneficial roles in alleviating the negative effects and environmental risks posed by ZnO NPs in agroecosystems.

  13. Changes in Denitrifier Abundance, Denitrification Gene mRNA Levels, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Denitrification in Anoxic Soil Microcosms Amended with Glucose and Plant Residues▿

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Sherri L.; Dandie, Catherine E.; Patten, Cheryl L.; Zebarth, Bernie J.; Burton, David L.; Trevors, Jack T.; Goyer, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    In agricultural cropping systems, crop residues are sources of organic carbon (C), an important factor influencing denitrification. The effects of red clover, soybean, and barley plant residues and of glucose on denitrifier abundance, denitrification gene mRNA levels, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, and denitrification rates were quantified in anoxic soil microcosms for 72 h. nosZ gene abundances and mRNA levels significantly increased in response to all organic carbon treatments over time. In contrast, the abundance and mRNA levels of Pseudomonas mandelii and closely related species (nirSP) increased only in glucose-amended soil: the nirSP guild abundance increased 5-fold over the 72-h incubation period (P < 0.001), while the mRNA level significantly increased more than 15-fold at 12 h (P < 0.001) and then subsequently decreased. The nosZ gene abundance was greater in plant residue-amended soil than in glucose-amended soil. Although plant residue carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratios varied from 15:1 to 30:1, nosZ gene and mRNA levels were not significantly different among plant residue treatments, with an average of 3.5 × 107 gene copies and 6.9 × 107 transcripts g−1 dry soil. Cumulative N2O emissions and denitrification rates increased over 72 h in both glucose- and plant-tissue-C-treated soil. The nirSP and nosZ communities responded differently to glucose and plant residue amendments. However, the targeted denitrifier communities responded similarly to the different plant residues under the conditions tested despite changes in the quality of organic C and different C:N ratios. PMID:20154105

  14. Mucilage microcosms.

    PubMed

    Del Negro, Paola; Crevatin, Erica; Larato, Chiara; Ferrari, Carla; Totti, Cecilia; Pompei, Marinella; Giani, Michele; Berto, Daniela; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2005-12-15

    In the summers of 2000, 2001 and 2002, large amounts of sticky mucilaginous material aggregated to form masses of impressive dimensions over large areas of the Adriatic Sea, particularly in its northern part. Aggregates differing in size were sampled by SCUBA divers and submitted to chemical (nutrient and organic matter concentrations) and biological analysis (virus, bacteria and phytoplankton abundances and bacterial metabolism). Suspended and sinking mucilaginous aggregates were biota-rich environments where the abundance of planktonic organisms and the concentration of nutrients were orders of magnitude higher than in the surrounding seawater. The embedded phytoplankton was mostly composed of diatoms, but the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax fragilis, previously reported in association with the aggregates, was also present. A variety of processes occurred within the mucilaginous aggregates which resulted in the transformation of the organic matter composition and lability and contributed to a partial degradation of mucilage. For an efficient degradation of mucilage, several conditions are necessary: high bacterial abundance and activity and an efficient recycling of nutrients within the aggregates. Most of these conditions, appear to change depending on the type and age of the aggregate. During the first phase of aggregation (cobwebs and ribbons), bacterial activities addressed the degradation of organic matter, particularly that of the nitrogen fraction. The degradation products were rapidly taken up by bacteria, supporting an increase in their abundance and production. In aged mucilage (clouds), the degradation processes decreased and the bacterial metabolism suggested the presence of new organic labile compounds probably due to phytoplankton production. On the basis of our results, stringers, generally considered the first step of the aggregation process, seemed to be the result of a mechanical disruption of other types of aggregates.

  15. Microbial activity in Alaskan taiga soils contaminated by crude oil in 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, E.M.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.; Raddock, J.F. |

    1995-12-31

    Biodegradation, often measured via microbial activity, includes destruction of environmental pollutants by living microorganisms and is dependent upon many physical and chemical factors. Effects of mineral nutrients and organic matter on biodegradation of Prudhoe Bay crude oil were investigated at a nineteen-year-old oil spill site in Alaskan taiga. Microcosms of two different soil types from the spill site; one undeveloped soil with forest litter and detritus (O horizon) and one more developed with lower organic content (A horizon), were treated with various nitrogen and phosphorus amendments, and incubated for up to six weeks. Each microcosm was sampled periodically and assayed for hydrocarbon mineralization potential using radiorespirometry, for total carbon dioxide respired using gas chromatography, and for numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria using most probable number counting techniques. Organic matter in the O horizon soil along with combinations of mineral nutrients were found to stimulate microbial activity. No combination of mineral nutrient additions to the A horizon soil stimulated any of the parameters above those measured in control microcosms. The results of this study indicate that adding mineral nutrients and tilling the O horizon into the A horizon of subarctic soils contaminated with crude oil, would stimulate microbial activity, and therefore the biodegradation potential, ultimately increasing the rate of destruction of crude oil in these soils.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of the Activated Carbon-Nylon Beads: Novel Material for In Situ Microbe Sampler and Microcosm Experiment in Groundwater Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Liu, H.

    2015-12-01

    The organic pollution of groundwater is a widespread problem in the word. It is significant to study the microbial community especially related to organic contaminant biodegradation and their variation with groundwater environment parameters, so as to evaluate the biodegradability of the organic contaminants and then make a right decision for bioremediation. One of good ways for this study is to build a microcosm in groundwater containing target contaminant, where microbes especially relating to biodegradation will grow in the microcosm and be collected for analysis. This research aims to prepare a novel material for in situ microbe sampler and microcosm experiment in groundwater environment. The novel material, namely, the activated carbon-nylon (AC-N) beads, was prepared using activated carbon and nylon as main raw materials. The material consists of 3-4mm diameter spherical beads (Fig.1A and Fig.2 A) which have an internal surface area greater than 500 m2 g-1. FT-IR spectra (Fig.3) indicated the composition of activated carbon and nylon due to the variation of the peaks at the near 1627 cm-1and 1558 -1538 cm-1 before and after complex reaction. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of benzene on the beads was 16.76 mg/g at the initial concentration of 100 mg/L. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (Fig.4). The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Camera and SEM images (Fig.1 B and Fig.2 A and B) showed that the beads had an open and channel pore structures, the microbes might enter into and grow up in the beads (Fig.1 C and Fig.2 C). All these results showed that the AC-N beads could form the in situ microcosm of organic pollutants and microbes, which provided a promising prospect for assessing the biodegradability of the organic pollutants by intrinsic microbes in the groundwater.

  17. Dynamics of indigenous bacterial communities associated with crude oil degradation in soil microcosms during nutrient-enhanced bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Chikere, Chioma B; Surridge, Karen; Okpokwasili, Gideon C; Cloete, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    Bacterial population dynamics were examined during bioremediation of an African soil contaminated with Arabian light crude oil and nutrient enrichment (biostimulation). Polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to generate bacterial community fingerprints of the different treatments employing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene as molecular marker. The DGGE patterns of the nutrient-amended soils indicated the presence of distinguishable bands corresponding to the oil-contaminated-nutrient-enriched soils, which were not present in the oil-contaminated and pristine control soils. Further characterization of the dominant DGGE bands after excision, reamplification and sequencing revealed that Corynebacterium spp., Dietzia spp., Rhodococcus erythropolis sp., Nocardioides sp., Low G+C (guanine plus cytosine) Gram positive bacterial clones and several uncultured bacterial clones were the dominant bacterial groups after biostimulation. Prominent Corynebacterium sp. IC10 sequence was detected across all nutrient-amended soils but not in oil-contaminated control soil. Total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial counts increased significantly in the nutrient-amended soils 2 weeks post contamination whereas oil-contaminated and pristine control soils remained fairly stable throughout the experimental period. Gas chromatographic analysis of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second to the sixth week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks were seen in the oil-contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Results obtained indicated that nutrient amendment of oil-contaminated soil selected and enriched the bacterial communities mainly of the Actinobacteria phylogenetic group capable of surviving in toxic contamination with concomitant biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The

  18. Nitrification Is a Primary Driver of Nitrous Oxide Production in Laboratory Microcosms from Different Land-Use Soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Hu, Hangwei; Suter, Helen; Hayden, Helen L; He, Jizheng; Mele, Pauline; Chen, Deli

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on soil N2O emissions have focused either on the quantifying of agricultural N2O fluxes or on the effect of environmental factors on N2O emissions. However, very limited information is available on how land-use will affect N2O production, and nitrifiers involved in N2O emissions in agricultural soil ecosystems. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the relative importance of nitrification and denitrification to N2O emissions from different land-use soils and identifying the potential underlying microbial mechanisms. A (15)N-tracing experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions on four agricultural soils collected from different land-use. We measured N2O fluxes, nitrate ([Formula: see text]), and ammonium ([Formula: see text]) concentration and (15)N2O, (15)[Formula: see text], and (15)[Formula: see text] enrichment during the incubation. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Our results showed that nitrification was the main contributor to N2O production in soils from sugarcane, dairy pasture and cereal cropping systems, while denitrification played a major role in N2O production in the vegetable soil under the experimental conditions. Nitrification contributed to 96.7% of the N2O emissions in sugarcane soil followed by 71.3% in the cereal cropping soil and 70.9% in the dairy pasture soil, while only around 20.0% of N2O was produced from nitrification in vegetable soil. The proportion of nitrified nitrogen as N2O (PN2O-value) varied across different soils, with the highest PN2O-value (0.26‰) found in the cereal cropping soil, which was around 10 times higher than that in other three systems. AOA were the abundant ammonia oxidizers, and were significantly correlated to N2O emitted from nitrification in the sugarcane soil, while AOB were significantly correlated with N2O emitted from nitrification in the cereal cropping soil. Our findings suggested that soil

  19. Nitrification Is a Primary Driver of Nitrous Oxide Production in Laboratory Microcosms from Different Land-Use Soils

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Hu, Hangwei; Suter, Helen; Hayden, Helen L.; He, Jizheng; Mele, Pauline; Chen, Deli

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on soil N2O emissions have focused either on the quantifying of agricultural N2O fluxes or on the effect of environmental factors on N2O emissions. However, very limited information is available on how land-use will affect N2O production, and nitrifiers involved in N2O emissions in agricultural soil ecosystems. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the relative importance of nitrification and denitrification to N2O emissions from different land-use soils and identifying the potential underlying microbial mechanisms. A 15N-tracing experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions on four agricultural soils collected from different land-use. We measured N2O fluxes, nitrate (NO3-), and ammonium (NH4+) concentration and 15N2O, 15NO3-, and 15NH4+ enrichment during the incubation. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Our results showed that nitrification was the main contributor to N2O production in soils from sugarcane, dairy pasture and cereal cropping systems, while denitrification played a major role in N2O production in the vegetable soil under the experimental conditions. Nitrification contributed to 96.7% of the N2O emissions in sugarcane soil followed by 71.3% in the cereal cropping soil and 70.9% in the dairy pasture soil, while only around 20.0% of N2O was produced from nitrification in vegetable soil. The proportion of nitrified nitrogen as N2O (PN2O-value) varied across different soils, with the highest PN2O-value (0.26‰) found in the cereal cropping soil, which was around 10 times higher than that in other three systems. AOA were the abundant ammonia oxidizers, and were significantly correlated to N2O emitted from nitrification in the sugarcane soil, while AOB were significantly correlated with N2O emitted from nitrification in the cereal cropping soil. Our findings suggested that soil type and land-use might have strongly affected the relative

  20. Nitrification Is a Primary Driver of Nitrous Oxide Production in Laboratory Microcosms from Different Land-Use Soils

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Hu, Hangwei; Suter, Helen; Hayden, Helen L.; He, Jizheng; Mele, Pauline; Chen, Deli

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on soil N2O emissions have focused either on the quantifying of agricultural N2O fluxes or on the effect of environmental factors on N2O emissions. However, very limited information is available on how land-use will affect N2O production, and nitrifiers involved in N2O emissions in agricultural soil ecosystems. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the relative importance of nitrification and denitrification to N2O emissions from different land-use soils and identifying the potential underlying microbial mechanisms. A 15N-tracing experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions on four agricultural soils collected from different land-use. We measured N2O fluxes, nitrate (NO3-), and ammonium (NH4+) concentration and 15N2O, 15NO3-, and 15NH4+ enrichment during the incubation. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Our results showed that nitrification was the main contributor to N2O production in soils from sugarcane, dairy pasture and cereal cropping systems, while denitrification played a major role in N2O production in the vegetable soil under the experimental conditions. Nitrification contributed to 96.7% of the N2O emissions in sugarcane soil followed by 71.3% in the cereal cropping soil and 70.9% in the dairy pasture soil, while only around 20.0% of N2O was produced from nitrification in vegetable soil. The proportion of nitrified nitrogen as N2O (PN2O-value) varied across different soils, with the highest PN2O-value (0.26‰) found in the cereal cropping soil, which was around 10 times higher than that in other three systems. AOA were the abundant ammonia oxidizers, and were significantly correlated to N2O emitted from nitrification in the sugarcane soil, while AOB were significantly correlated with N2O emitted from nitrification in the cereal cropping soil. Our findings suggested that soil type and land-use might have strongly affected the relative

  1. Resistance of Undisturbed Soil Microbiomes to Ceftriaxone Indicates Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gatica, Joao; Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yan, Tao; Cytryn, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, and specifically resistance to third generation cephalosporins associated with extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) activity, is one of the greatest epidemiological challenges of our time. In this study we addressed the impact of the third generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone on microbial activity and bacterial community composition of two physically and chemically distinct undisturbed soils in highly regulated microcosm experiments. Surprisingly, periodical irrigation of the soils with clinical doses of ceftriaxone did not affect their microbial activity; and only moderately impacted the microbial diversity (α and β) of the two soils. Corresponding slurry experiments demonstrated that the antibiotic capacity of ceftriaxone rapidly diminished in the presence of soil, and ∼70% of this inactivation could be explained by biological activity. The biological nature of ceftriaxone degradation in soil was supported by microcosm experiments that amended model Escherichia coli strains to sterile and non-sterile soils in the presence and absence of ceftriaxone and by the ubiquitous presence of ESBL genes (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaOXA) in soil DNA extracts. Collectively, these results suggest that the resistance of soil microbiomes to ceftriaxone stems from biological activity and even more, from broad-spectrum β-lactamase activity; raising questions regarding the scope and clinical implications of ESBLs in soil microbiomes. PMID:26617578

  2. The influence of salinity on the abundance, transcriptional activity, and diversity of AOA and AOB in an estuarine sediment: a microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Wen, Donghui

    2015-11-01

    Estuarine sediment-seawater microcosms were established to evaluate the influence of salinity on the population, transcriptional activity, and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). AOA was found to show the most abundant and the highest transcriptional activity under moderate salinity; on the other hand, AOB abundance was not sensitive to salinity variation but showed the highest transcriptional activity in the low-salinity microcosms. AOA exhibited more advantages than AOB on growth and ammonia-oxidizing activity under moderate- and high-salinity environments. The highest richness and diversity of active AOA were found under salinity of 15 psu. All the active AOA detected under the salinities studied were clustered into Nitrosopumilus maritimus linage, with the composition shifted from N. maritimus C12 cluster, N. maritimus like 1.1 cluster, N. maritimus SCM1 cluster, and N. maritimus like 1.2 cluster to N. maritimus C12 and N. maritimus A10 clusters when salinity was increased from 5 to 30 psu.

  3. Extending the Marine Microcosm Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryswyk, Hal Van; Hall, Eric W.; Petesch, Steven J.; Wiedeman, Alice E.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional range of marine microcosm laboratory experiments is presented as an ideal environment to teach the entire analysis process. The microcosm lab provides student-centered approach with opportunities for collaborative learning and to develop critical communication skills.

  4. Influence of earthworm activity on gene transfer from Pseudomonas fluorescens to indigenous soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Daane, L L; Molina, J A; Berry, E C; Sadowsky, M J

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a model system to assess the influence of earthworm activity on the transfer of plasmid pJP4 from an inoculated donor bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens C5t (pJP4), to indigenous soil microorganisms. Three different earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus rubellus, and Aporrectodea trapezoides), each with unique burrowing, casting, and feeding behaviors, were evaluated. Soil columns were inoculated on the surface with 10(8) cells per g of soil of the donor bacterium, and after a 2-week incubation period, donor, transconjugant, and total bacteria were enumerated at 5-cm-depth intervals. Transconjugants were confirmed by use of colony hybridization with a mer gene probe. In situ gene transfer of plasmid pJP4 from P. fluorescens C5t to indigenous soil bacteria was detected in all inoculated microcosms. In the absence of earthworms, the depth of recovery was limited to the top 5 cm of the column, with approximately 10(3) transconjugants per g of soil. However, the total number of transconjugants recovered from soil was significantly greater in microcosms containing either L. rubellus or A. trapezoides, with levels reaching about 10(5) CFU/g of soil. In addition, earthworms distributed donor and transconjugant bacteria throughout the microcosm columns, with the depth of recovery dependent on the burrowing behavior of each earthworm species. Donor and transconjugant bacteria were also recovered from earthworm casts and inside developing cocoons. Transconjugant bacteria from the indigenous soil microflora were classified as belonging to Acidovorax spp., Acinetobacter spp., Agrobacterium spp., Pasteurella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Xanthomonas spp. PMID:8593052

  5. Activation of Methanogenesis in Arid Biological Soil Crusts Despite the Presence of Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Roey; Matthies, Diethart; Conrad, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Methanogenesis is traditionally thought to occur only in highly reduced, anoxic environments. Wetland and rice field soils are well known sources for atmospheric methane, while aerated soils are considered sinks. Although methanogens have been detected in low numbers in some aerated, and even in desert soils, it remains unclear whether they are active under natural oxic conditions, such as in biological soil crusts (BSCs) of arid regions. To answer this question we carried out a factorial experiment using microcosms under simulated natural conditions. The BSC on top of an arid soil was incubated under moist conditions in all possible combinations of flooding and drainage, light and dark, air and nitrogen headspace. In the light, oxygen was produced by photosynthesis. Methane production was detected in all microcosms, but rates were much lower when oxygen was present. In addition, the δ13C of the methane differed between the oxic/oxygenic and anoxic microcosms. While under anoxic conditions methane was mainly produced from acetate, it was almost entirely produced from H2/CO2 under oxic/oxygenic conditions. Only two genera of methanogens were identified in the BSC-Methanosarcina and Methanocella; their abundance and activity in transcribing the mcrA gene (coding for methyl-CoM reductase) was higher under anoxic than oxic/oxygenic conditions, respectively. Both methanogens also actively transcribed the oxygen detoxifying gene catalase. Since methanotrophs were not detectable in the BSC, all the methane produced was released into the atmosphere. Our findings point to a formerly unknown participation of desert soils in the global methane cycle. PMID:21655270

  6. Is it clean or contaminated soil? Using petrogenic versus biogenic GC-FID chromatogram patterns to mathematically resolve false petroleum hydrocarbon detections in clean organic soils: a crude oil-spiked peat microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hooper, Francine; Farwell, Andrea J; Pike, Glenna; Kennedy, Jocelyn; Wang, Zhendi; Grunsky, Eric C; Dixon, D George

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) reference method for the Canada-wide standard (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) in soil provides chemistry analysis standards and guidelines for the management of contaminated sites. However, these methods can coextract natural biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) from organic soils, causing false exceedences of toxicity guidelines. The present 300-d microcosm experiment used CWS PHC tier 1 soil extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis to develop a new tier 2 mathematical approach to resolving this problem. Carbon fractions F2 (C10-C16), F3 (C16-C34), and F4 (>C34) as well as subfractions F3a (C16-C22) and F3b (C22-C34) were studied in peat and sand spiked once with Federated crude oil. These carbon ranges were also studied in 14 light to heavy crude oils. The F3 range in the clean peat was dominated by F3b, whereas the crude oils had approximately equal F3a and F3b distributions. The F2 was nondetectable in the clean peat but was a significant component in crude oil. The crude oil–spiked peat had elevated F2 and F3a distributions. The BOC-adjusted PHC F3 calculation estimated the true PHC concentrations in the spiked peat. The F2:F3b ratio of less than 0.10 indicated PHC absence in the clean peat, and the ratio of greater than or equal to 0.10 indicated PHC presence in the spiked peat and sand. Validation studies are required to confirm whether this new tier 2 approach is applicable to real-case scenarios. Potential adoption of this approach could minimize unnecessary ecological disruptions of thousands of peatlands throughout Canada while also saving millions of dollars in management costs.

  7. Short-term emissions of ammonia and carbon dioxide from cattle urine contaminated tropical grassland microcosm.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Patel, Manoj; Drabar, Reena; Vyas, Manish

    2006-11-01

    The study was designed to understand the emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from a single cattle urination event on a tropical grassland and underline the significance of the emissions in the context of huge animal population grazing on large pasture areas in some countries. Emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were monitored for three weeks from a tropical grassland (dominated by Cynodon dactylon Pers.) microcosm contaminated with cow and buffalo urine. The grassland microcosms were treated with urine (50 and 100 ml of each) only once and irrigated with water once every week. Ammonia was sampled by an automatic sampling system comprising of a vacuum pump, three-way stopcocks and rubber tubing and an impinger containing suitable absorbing solution (H(2)SO(4)), connected to the tubing suitably. The sampled gas, after sucked by the vacuum pump and absorbed in H(2)SO(4), was allowed to enter the closed microcosm again maintaining internal pressure of the microcosm. Carbon dioxide was sampled by absorption in an alkali (NaOH) trap inside the microcosm. Both NH(3) and CO(2) emissions were highly variable temporally and there was no continuous increasing or decreasing emission trend with time. Respectively, 45 and 46% of total NH(3)-N were emitted within first 48 h from 50 and 100 ml cow urine application while the corresponding values for buffalo urine were 34 and 32%. Total NH(3)-N emissions, integrated for sampling days (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 15, 18 and 21st) were 11 and 6% in cow and 8 and 5% in buffalo urine, of the total-N added through 50 and 100 ml urine samples. Carbon dioxide emissions were standardized at 25 degrees C by using a suitable formula which were lower than actual emissions at actual soil temperature (> 25 degrees C). Carbon dioxide emission rates were classified on the basis of soil repiratory classification and classes ranged from moderately low soil activity up to unusually high soil activity, the latter

  8. Active synthetic soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Henninger, Donald L. (Inventor); Allen, Earl R. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic soil/fertilizer for horticultural application having all the agronutrients essential for plant growth is disclosed. The soil comprises a synthetic apatite fertilizer having sulfur, magnesium and micronutrients dispersed in a calcium phosphate matrix, a zeolite cation exchange medium saturated with a charge of potassium and nitrogen cations, and an optional pH buffer. Moisture dissolves the apatite and mobilizes the nutrient elements from the apatite matrix and the zeolite charge sites.

  9. Active synthetic soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Henninger, Donald L. (Inventor); Allen, Earl R. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic soil/fertilizer for horticultural application having all the agronutrients essential for plant growth is disclosed. The soil comprises a synthetic apatite fertilizer having sulfur, magnesium, and micronutrients dispersed in a calcium phosphate matrix, a zeolite cation exchange medium saturated with a charge of potassium and nitrogen cations, and an optional pH buffer. Moisture dissolves the apatite and mobilizes the nutrient elements from the apatite matrix and the zeolite charge sites.

  10. Responses of mcrA and pmoA Gene Copies and Methane Fluxes to Soil Temperature Changes in Rice Microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sithole, A.; Flores, G. E.; Reysenbach, A. L.; Shearer, M. J.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Khalil, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Methane generated from microbial activity in rice fields and wetlands is a major source of atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas. The potency of this gas makes understanding the effect of global warming on methane emissions a key challenge in projecting the impact of future global warming. Methane is actively generated in-situ by methanogens, who use H2 and either CO2 or acetate produced by other organisms that degrade the organics. Our work determined the feedback of global warming on methane emissions from rice agriculture by looking at the links between populations of microbial consortia and increased soil temperature conducive to both methane production and consumption within the rhizosphere. Duplicate vertical soil profile samples were collected from temperature-controlled tubs with rice plants. The four waterbaths, set at different temperatures, each contained four tubs, with one bare tub (control) and three planted with rice. The soil samples were immediately frozen and stored at -80 deg. C, and were homogenized before DNA extraction. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) and particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) genes in the extracted soil DNA. The mcrA and pmoA were used as the functional gene probes for methanogens (methane producing bacteria) and methanotrophs (methane oxidizing bacteria), respectively. An FID-equipped Gas Chromatography was used to measure the methane concentration in air samples collected from acrylic flux chambers. Results from our experiments showed that methanogens and methanotrophs were preferentially located to certain regions of the soil profile under different temperature regimes. Our results also indicated that higher global temperatures will increase methanogens populations, but not as much for methanotrophs, and hence increase methane fluxes from rice agriculture. Considering that the mechanisms of methane production in rice

  11. Active Ammonia Oxidizers in an Acidic Soil Are Phylogenetically Closely Related to Neutrophilic Archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baozhan; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Xue; Wang, Dongmei; He, Yuanqiu

    2014-01-01

    All cultivated ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the Nitrososphaera cluster (former soil group 1.1b) are neutrophilic. Molecular surveys also indicate the existence of Nitrososphaera-like phylotypes in acidic soil, but their ecological roles are poorly understood. In this study, we present molecular evidence for the chemolithoautotrophic growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in an acidic soil with pH 4.92 using DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP). Soil microcosm incubations demonstrated that nitrification was stimulated by urea fertilization and accompanied by a significant increase in the abundance of AOA rather than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Real-time PCR analysis of amoA genes as a function of the buoyant density of the DNA gradient following the ultracentrifugation of the total DNA extracted from SIP microcosms indicated a substantial growth of soil AOA during nitrification. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes in the “heavy” DNA fractions suggested that archaeal communities were labeled to a much greater extent than soil AOB. Acetylene inhibition further showed that 13CO2 assimilation by nitrifying communities depended solely on ammonia oxidation activity, suggesting a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis of both 13C-labeled amoA and 16S rRNA genes revealed that most of the active AOA were phylogenetically closely related to the neutrophilic strains Nitrososphaera viennensis EN76 and JG1 within the Nitrososphaera cluster. Our results provide strong evidence for the adaptive growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in acidic soil, suggesting a greater metabolic versatility of soil AOA than previously appreciated. PMID:24375137

  12. Active ammonia oxidizers in an acidic soil are phylogenetically closely related to neutrophilic archaeon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baozhan; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Xue; Wang, Dongmei; He, Yuanqiu; Jia, Zhongjun

    2014-03-01

    All cultivated ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the Nitrososphaera cluster (former soil group 1.1b) are neutrophilic. Molecular surveys also indicate the existence of Nitrososphaera-like phylotypes in acidic soil, but their ecological roles are poorly understood. In this study, we present molecular evidence for the chemolithoautotrophic growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in an acidic soil with pH 4.92 using DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP). Soil microcosm incubations demonstrated that nitrification was stimulated by urea fertilization and accompanied by a significant increase in the abundance of AOA rather than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Real-time PCR analysis of amoA genes as a function of the buoyant density of the DNA gradient following the ultracentrifugation of the total DNA extracted from SIP microcosms indicated a substantial growth of soil AOA during nitrification. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes in the "heavy" DNA fractions suggested that archaeal communities were labeled to a much greater extent than soil AOB. Acetylene inhibition further showed that (13)CO2 assimilation by nitrifying communities depended solely on ammonia oxidation activity, suggesting a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis of both (13)C-labeled amoA and 16S rRNA genes revealed that most of the active AOA were phylogenetically closely related to the neutrophilic strains Nitrososphaera viennensis EN76 and JG1 within the Nitrososphaera cluster. Our results provide strong evidence for the adaptive growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in acidic soil, suggesting a greater metabolic versatility of soil AOA than previously appreciated.

  13. Soil disturbance increases soil microbial enzymatic activity in arid ecoregion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional diversity of the soil microbial community is commonly used in the assessment of soil health as it relates to the activity of soil microflora involved in carbon cycling. Soil microbes in different microenvironments will have varying responses to different substrates, thus catabolic fingerp...

  14. Ecotoxicological assessment of biosolids by microcosms.

    PubMed

    Groth, Vitor Avelar; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana; da Silva, Eduardo Mendes; Niemeyer, Júlia Carina

    2016-10-01

    Biosolids have been applied as soil amendments to improve and maintain the soil fertility and faster plant growth. In spite of its beneficial use, the potential risks of land disposal should be analyzed, considering potential ecological receptors in soil and water. This work describes the use of an early warning laboratory microcosm system to evaluate the integrated ecotoxicological potential of two biosolids: BIO-1 and BIO-2 (18 and 28 months after landfarming, respectively), from an effluent treatment station in a petrochemical and industrial district. The endpoints related to habitat function were: a) germination, growth and biomass of Phaseolus vulgaris; b) survival, biomass and number of cocoons of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta) and; c) reproduction of Folsomia candida (Collembola). The retention function was evaluated by testing the leachates using the tropical cladoceran Latonopsis australis (Cladocera) in a 48-h acute toxicity test, and growth of the aquatic plant Lemna minor in a 7-d chronic test. Tropical artificial soil (TAS) and a natural soil (NS) from the region were used as control soils. Results showed no chronic toxicity of BIO-1 and BIO-2 to the soil organisms tested, but acute toxicity of BIO-1 in the leachate for 50% of L. australis, and chronic toxicity of both biosolid leachates to L. minor (inhibition of growth rate), indicating potential risks to aquatic ecosystems. The results confirmed the ability of this microcosm system as a rapid tool to assess biosolid toxicity over time and its potential for hazardous waste characterization in environmental risk assessment, in a screening phase. PMID:27448314

  15. Application of microcosmic system for assessment of insecticide effects on biomarker responses in ecologically different earthworm species.

    PubMed

    Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K

    2014-06-01

    Earthworms from different ecological categories--epigeic Eisenia andrei and Lumbricus rubellus, endogeic Octolasion lacteum and anecic Lumbricus terrestris--were exposed in a microcosmic system to three commonly used insecticides. The effects of the insecticides were evaluated by measuring the following molecular biomarkers-the activities of AChE, CES, CAT, GST and the concentration of GSH. The results showed that environmentally relevant doses of organophosphates dimethoate and pirimiphos-methyl significantly affected the measured biomarkers, whereas pyrethroid deltamethrin did not affect the earthworms at the recommended agricultural dose. Considering the ecological category of earthworms, the results were inhomogeneous and species-specific differences in the biomarker responses were recorded. Since the biomarker responses of the investigated earthworm species were different after exposure to organophosphates in a microcosm compared to the exposure via standardized toxicity tests, two types of species sensitivity should be distinguished-physiological and environmental sensitivity. In addition, the hormetic effect of organophosphates on AChE and CES activities was recorded. The detection of hormesis in a microcosm is of great importance for future environmental research and soil biomonitoring, since in a realistic environment pollutants usually occur at low concentrations that could cause a hormetic effect. The results demonstrate the importance of the application of microcosmic systems in the assessment of the effects of environmental pollutants and the necessity of taking into account the possible differences between physiological and environmental species sensitivity.

  16. Application of microcosmic system for assessment of insecticide effects on biomarker responses in ecologically different earthworm species.

    PubMed

    Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K

    2014-06-01

    Earthworms from different ecological categories--epigeic Eisenia andrei and Lumbricus rubellus, endogeic Octolasion lacteum and anecic Lumbricus terrestris--were exposed in a microcosmic system to three commonly used insecticides. The effects of the insecticides were evaluated by measuring the following molecular biomarkers-the activities of AChE, CES, CAT, GST and the concentration of GSH. The results showed that environmentally relevant doses of organophosphates dimethoate and pirimiphos-methyl significantly affected the measured biomarkers, whereas pyrethroid deltamethrin did not affect the earthworms at the recommended agricultural dose. Considering the ecological category of earthworms, the results were inhomogeneous and species-specific differences in the biomarker responses were recorded. Since the biomarker responses of the investigated earthworm species were different after exposure to organophosphates in a microcosm compared to the exposure via standardized toxicity tests, two types of species sensitivity should be distinguished-physiological and environmental sensitivity. In addition, the hormetic effect of organophosphates on AChE and CES activities was recorded. The detection of hormesis in a microcosm is of great importance for future environmental research and soil biomonitoring, since in a realistic environment pollutants usually occur at low concentrations that could cause a hormetic effect. The results demonstrate the importance of the application of microcosmic systems in the assessment of the effects of environmental pollutants and the necessity of taking into account the possible differences between physiological and environmental species sensitivity. PMID:24650551

  17. A Natal Microcosm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In the quest to better understand the birth of stars and the formation of new worlds, astronomers have used NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope to examine the massive stars contained in a cloudy region called Sharpless 140. This cloud is a fascinating microcosm of a star-forming region since it exhibits, within a relatively small area, all of the classic manifestations of stellar birth.

    Sharpless 140 lies almost 3000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cepheus. At its heart is a cluster of three deeply embedded young stars, which are each several thousand times brighter than the Sun. Though they are strikingly visible in this image from Spitzer's infrared array camera, they are completely obscured in visible light, buried within the core of the surrounding dust cloud.

    The extreme youth of at least one of these stars is indicated by the presence of a stream of gas moving at high velocities. Such outflows are signatures of the processes surrounding a star that is still gobbling up material as part of its formation.

    The bright red bowl, or arc, seen in this image traces the outer surface of the dense dust cloud encasing the young stars. This arc is made up primarily of organic compounds called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which glow on the surface of the cloud. Ultraviolet light from a nearby bright star outside of the image is 'eating away' at these molecules. Eventually, this light will destroy the dust envelope and the masked young stars will emerge.

    This false-color image was taken on Oct. 11, 2003 and is composed of photographs obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red).

  18. Responses of the Anaerobic Bacterial Community to Addition of Organic C in Chromium(VI)- and Iron(III)-Amended Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Kourtev, Peter S.; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Konopka, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Chromium (VI) is toxic to microorganisms and can inhibit the biodegradation of organic pollutants in contaminated soils. We used microcosms amended with either glucose or protein (to drive bacterial community change) and Fe(III) (to stimulate iron-reducing bacteria) to study the effect of various concentrations of Cr(VI) on anaerobic bacterial communities. Microcosms were destructively sampled based on microbial activity (measured as evolution of CO2) and analyzed for the following: (i) dominant bacterial community by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene; (ii) culturable Cr-resistant bacteria; and (iii) enrichment of iron-reducing bacteria of the Geobacteraceae family by real-time PCR. The addition of organic C stimulated the activities of anaerobic communities. Cr(VI) amendment resulted in lower rates of CO2 production in glucose microcosms and a slow mineralization phase in protein-amended microcosms. Glucose and protein amendments selected for different bacterial communities. This selection was modified by the addition of Cr(VI), since some DGGE bands were intensified and new bands appeared in Cr(VI)-amended microcosms. A second dose of Cr(VI), added after the onset of activity, had a strong inhibitory effect when higher levels of Cr were added, indicating that the developing Cr-resistant communities had a relatively low tolerance threshold. Most of the isolated Cr-resistant bacteria were closely related to previously studied Cr-resistant anaerobes, such as Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter species. Geobacteraceae were not enriched during the incubation. The studied Cr(VI)-contaminated soil contained a viable anaerobic bacterial community; however, Cr(VI) altered its composition, which could affect the soil biodegradation potential. PMID:16391100

  19. In situ microcosms in aquifer bioremediation studies.

    PubMed

    Mandelbaum, R T; Shati, M R; Ronen, D

    1997-07-01

    The extent to which aquifer microbiota can be studied under laboratory or simulated conditions is limited by our inability to authentically duplicate natural conditions in the laboratory. Therefore, extrapolation of laboratory results to real aquifer situations is often criticized, unless validation of the data is performed in situ. Reliable data acquisition is critical for the estimation of chemical and biological reaction rates of biodegradation processes in groundwater and as input data for mathematical models. Typically, in situ geobiochemical studies relied on the injection of groundwater spiked with compounds or bacteria of interest into the aquifer, followed by monitoring the changes over time and space. In situ microcosms provide a more confined study site for measurements of microbial reactions, yet closer to natural conditions than laboratory microcosms. Two basic types of in situ aquifer microcosm have been described in recent years, and both originated from in situ instruments initially designed for geochemical measurements. Gillham et al. [Ground Water 28 (1990) 858-862] constructed an instrument that isolates a portion of an aquifer for in situ biochemical rate measurements. More recently Shati et al. [Environ. Sci. Technol. 30 (1996) 2646-2653] modified a multilayer sampler for studying the activity of inoculated bacteria in a contaminated aquifer Keeping in mind recent advances in environmental microbiology methodologies such as immunofluorescence direct counts, oligonucleotide and PCR probes, fatty acid methyl esther analysis for the detection and characterization of bacterial communities, measurement of mRNA and expression of proteins, it is evident that much new information can now be gained from in situ work. Using in situ microcosms to study bioremediation efficiencies, the fate of introduced microorganisms and general geobiochemical aquifer processes can shed more realistic light on the microbial underworld. The aim of this paper is to

  20. Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)

  1. Dry/Wet cycles change the activity and population dynamics of methanotrophs in rice field soil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Conrad, Ralf; Lu, Yahai

    2013-08-01

    The methanotrophs in rice field soil are crucial in regulating the emission of methane. Drainage substantially reduces methane emission from rice fields. However, it is poorly understood how drainage affects microbial methane oxidation. Therefore, we analyzed the dynamics of methane oxidation rates, composition (using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism [T-RFLP]), and abundance (using quantitative PCR [qPCR]) of methanotroph pmoA genes (encoding a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase) and their transcripts over the season and in response to alternate dry/wet cycles in planted paddy field microcosms. In situ methane oxidation accounted for less than 15% of total methane production but was enhanced by intermittent drainage. The dry/wet alternations resulted in distinct effects on the methanotrophic communities in different soil compartments (bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, surface soil). The methanotrophic communities of the different soil compartments also showed distinct seasonal dynamics. In bulk soil, potential methanotrophic activity and transcription of pmoA were relatively low but were significantly stimulated by drainage. In contrast, however, in the rhizosphere and surface soils, potential methanotrophic activity and pmoA transcription were relatively high but decreased after drainage events and resumed after reflooding. While type II methanotrophs dominated the communities in the bulk soil and rhizosphere soil compartments (and to a lesser extent also in the surface soil), it was the pmoA of type I methanotrophs that was mainly transcribed under flooded conditions. Drainage affected the composition of the methanotrophic community only minimally but strongly affected metabolically active methanotrophs. Our study revealed dramatic dynamics in the abundance, composition, and activity of the various type I and type II methanotrophs on both a seasonal and a spatial scale and showed strong effects of dry/wet alternation cycles, which enhanced

  2. Freezing skeletal muscle tissue does not affect its decomposition in soil: evidence from temporal changes in tissue mass, microbial activity and soil chemistry based on excised samples.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Kathryn L; Forbes, Shari L; Tibbett, Mark

    2009-01-10

    The study of decaying organisms and death assemblages is referred to as forensic taphonomy, or more simply the study of graves. This field is dominated by the fields of entomology, anthropology and archaeology. Forensic taphonomy also includes the study of the ecology and chemistry of the burial environment. Studies in forensic taphonomy often require the use of analogues for human cadavers or their component parts. These might include animal cadavers or skeletal muscle tissue. However, sufficient supplies of cadavers or analogues may require periodic freezing of test material prior to experimental inhumation in the soil. This study was carried out to ascertain the effect of freezing on skeletal muscle tissue prior to inhumation and decomposition in a soil environment under controlled laboratory conditions. Changes in soil chemistry were also measured. In order to test the impact of freezing, skeletal muscle tissue (Sus scrofa) was frozen (-20 degrees C) or refrigerated (4 degrees C). Portions of skeletal muscle tissue (approximately 1.5 g) were interred in microcosms (72 mm diameter x 120 mm height) containing sieved (2mm) soil (sand) adjusted to 50% water holding capacity. The experiment had three treatments: control with no skeletal muscle tissue, microcosms containing frozen skeletal muscle tissue and those containing refrigerated tissue. The microcosms were destructively harvested at sequential periods of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 23, 30 and 37 days after interment of skeletal muscle tissue. These harvests were replicated 6 times for each treatment. Microbial activity (carbon dioxide respiration) was monitored throughout the experiment. At harvest the skeletal muscle tissue was removed and the detritosphere soil was sampled for chemical analysis. Freezing was found to have no significant impact on decomposition or soil chemistry compared to unfrozen samples in the current study using skeletal muscle tissue. However, the interment of skeletal muscle tissue had a

  3. Evaluation of simulated acid precipitation effects on forest microcosms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.M.; Strickland, R.C.; Weatherford, F.P.; Noggle, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    Microcosms were treated for a 30-month period with simulated precipitation acidified to four pH levels (5.7, 4.5, 4.0, and 3.5) to evaluate the impact of acid precipitation on foliar leaching, plant nutrient content, soil leaching, soil nutrient content, and litter decomposition. Direct effects of acid precipitation on diameter growth, bud break, leaf senescence, chlorophyll content, stomatal size, stomatal density, photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and cuticle erosion were evaluated on tulip poplar, white oak, and Virginia pine seedlings growing as mixed stands in the microcosms. None of the plant physiological or morphological parameters evaluated responded in a statistically significant manner as a result of treatment. A significant treatment canopy interaction was observed in the form of a 60 percent increase in calcium input in throughfall in response to the pH 3.5 treatment. Foliar nutrient content did not change in response to treatment nor did field measurements of decomposer activity. Soil analysis indicated a significantly lower concentration of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in the top 3.5 cm of the mineral soil in association with the pH 3.5 treatment. Soil leachate concentrations exhibited significant increases at both the 25 and 50 cm depths. However, at the 100 cm depth no significant response in concentration or elemental loss from the system was observed. Laboratory respiration measurements indicated a small, but statistically significant reduction in decomposer activity in the lower litter (02) horizon. This reduction was masked in the field measurements of decomposer activity due to the relatively small contribution of the 02 to total soil respiration. 38 references, 12 figures, 18 tables.

  4. Know Thyself: Macrocosm and Microcosm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    There was a time when, in the Liberal Arts, philosophy and education enjoyed the most intimate and productive relationship. Drawing together philosophy and nature they sought to understand the greatest of human mysteries. This meant thinking about both the macrocosm and the microcosm and especially the relation between them. In this relation lies…

  5. Development of amplified fragment length polymorphism-derived functional strain-specific markers to assess the persistence of 10 bacterial strains in soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Xiang, S-R; Cook, M; Saucier, S; Gillespie, P; Socha, R; Scroggins, R; Beaudette, L A

    2010-11-01

    To augment the information on commercial microbial products, we investigated the persistence patterns of high-priority bacterial strains from the Canadian Domestic Substance List (DSL). Specific DNA markers for each of the 10 DSL bacterial strains were developed using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique, and the fates of DSL strains introduced in soil were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results indicated that all DNA markers had high specificity at the functional strain level and that detection of the target microorganisms was sensitive at a detection limitation range from 1.3 × 10² to 3.25 × 10⁵ CFU/g of dry soil. The results indicated that all introduced strains showed a trend toward a declining persistence in soil and could be categorized into three pattern types. The first type was long-term persistence exemplified by Pseudomonas stutzeri (ATCC 17587) and Pseudomonas denitrificans (ATCC 13867) strains. In the second pattern, represented by Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051) and Escherichia hermannii (ATCC 700368), the inoculated strain populations dropped dramatically below the detection threshold after 10 to 21 days, while in the third pattern there was a gradual decrease, with the population falling below the detectable level within the 180-day incubation period. These patterns indicate a selection effect of a microbial community related to the ecological function of microbial strains introduced in soil. As a key finding, the DSL strains can be quantitatively tracked in soil with high sensitivity and specificity at the functional strain level. This provides the basic evidence for further risk assessment of the priority DSL strains.

  6. Potential effects of earthworm activity on C and N dynamics in tropical paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Katharina; Zaitsev, Andrey S.; Wolters, Volkmar

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms are involved in key ecosystem processes and are generally considered important for sustainable crop production. However, their provision of essential ecosystem services and contribution to tropical soil carbon and nitrogen balance in rice-based agroecosystems are not yet completely understood. We carried out two microcosm experiments to quantify the impact of a tropical earthworm Pheretima sp. from the Philippines on C and N turnover in rice paddy soils. First one was conducted to understand the modulation impact of soil water saturation level and nitrogen fertilizer input intensity on C and N cycles. The second one focused on the importance of additional organic matter (rice straw) amendment on the earthworm modulation of mineralization in non-flooded conditions. We measured CO2, CH4 (Experiments 1 and 2) and N2O evolution (Experiment 2) from rice paddy soil collected at the fields of the International Rice Research Institute (Philippines). Further we analysed changes in soil C and N content as well as nutrient loss via leaching induced by earthworms (Experiment 2). Addition of earthworms resulted in the strong increase of CH4 release under flooded conditions as well as after rice straw amendment. Compared to flooded conditions, earthworms suppressed the distinct CO2 respiration maximum at intermediate soil water saturation levels. In the first few days after the experiment establishment (Experiment 1) intensive nitrogen application resulted in the suppression of CO2 emission by earthworms at non-flooded soil conditions. However, at the longer term perspective addressed in the second experiment (30 days) earthworm activity rather increased average soil respiration under intensive fertilization or rice straw amendment. The lowest N2O release rates were revealed in the microcosms with earthworm and straw treatments. The combined effect of N fertilizer and straw addition to microcosms resulted in the increased leachate volume due to earthworm bioturbation

  7. Cometabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene in microcosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Allen C.; Wilson, Timothy P.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory microcosms were used to determine the concentrations of oxygen (O2) and methane (CH4) that optimize trichloroethylene (TCE) biodegradation in sediment and ground-water samples from a TCE-contaminated aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, Morris County, New Jersey. The mechanism for degradation is the cometabolic activity of methanotrophic bacteria. The laboratory data will be used to support a field study designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of combining air sparging with cometabolic degradation of TCE for the purpose of aquifer remediation. Microcosms were constructed in autoclaved 250-mL (milliliter) amber glass bottles with valves for repeated headspace sampling. Equal volumes (25 mL) of sediment and ground water, collected from a depth of 40 feet, were added. TCE was added to attain initial aqueous concentrations equal to the field level of 1,400 mu g/L (micrograms per liter). Nine microcosms were constructed with initial headspace O2 concentrations of 5%, 10%, or 14% and CH4 concentrations of 0.5%, 3%, or 5%, with nitrogen making up the balance. Sterile controls, controls without CH4, and controls without sediment were also constructed. A 4-mL gas sample was removed periodically and TCE, O2 , CH4 , and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured by using gas chromatography. As biodegradation proceeded, the decrease in O2, CH4 , and TCE concentrations and the production of CO2 were monitored. An initial acclimation period of at least 100 days was observed in those microcosms in which significant microbial activity occurred, as determined from decreases in O2 and CH4 concentrations and an increase in CO2 content. Degradation of TCE occurred with O2 concentrations of 2.7 to 8.7% and CH4 concentrations of 0.5 to 3.5%. Microcosms that initially contained 10% O2 and 3% CH4 showed the greatest microbial activity and the greatest amount of TCE degradation. The greatest rates of TCE degradation occurred when O2 and CH4 headspace concentrations reached

  8. Short-term parasite-infection alters already the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun-Min; Jin, Ze-Xin; Hagedorn, Frank; Li, Mai-He

    2014-11-01

    Native parasitic plants may be used to infect and control invasive plants. We established microcosms with invasive Mikania micrantha and native Coix lacryma-jobi growing in mixture on native soils, with M. micrantha being infected by parasitic Cuscuta campestris at four intensity levels for seven weeks to estimate the top-down effects of plant parasitism on the biomass and functional diversity of soil microbial communities. Parasitism significantly decreased root biomass and altered soil microbial communities. Soil microbial biomass decreased, but soil respiration increased at the two higher infection levels, indicating a strong stimulation of soil microbial metabolic activity (+180%). Moreover, a Biolog assay showed that the infection resulted in a significant change in the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that microbial biomass declined significantly with decreasing root biomass, particularly of the invasive M. micrantha. Also, the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities were positively correlated with soil microbial biomass. Therefore, the negative effects on the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial community by the seven week long plant parasitism was very likely caused by decreased root biomass and root exudation of the invasive M. micrantha.

  9. Metagenomic and functional analyses of the consequences of reduction of bacterial diversity on soil functions and bioremediation in diesel-contaminated microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaejoon; Philippot, Laurent; Park, Woojun

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between microbial biodiversity and soil function is an important issue in ecology, yet most studies have been performed in pristine ecosystems. Here, we assess the role of microbial diversity in ecological function and remediation strategies in diesel-contaminated soils. Soil microbial diversity was manipulated using a removal by dilution approach and microbial functions were determined using both metagenomic analyses and enzymatic assays. A shift from Proteobacteria- to Actinobacteria-dominant communities was observed when species diversity was reduced. Metagenomic analysis showed that a large proportion of functional gene categories were significantly altered by the reduction in biodiversity. The abundance of genes related to the nitrogen cycle was significantly reduced in the low-diversity community, impairing denitrification. In contrast, the efficiency of diesel biodegradation was increased in the low-diversity community and was further enhanced by addition of red clay as a stimulating agent. Our results suggest that the relationship between microbial diversity and ecological function involves trade-offs among ecological processes, and should not be generalized as a positive, neutral, or negative relationship. PMID:26972977

  10. Impacts of Activated Carbon Amendment on Hg Methylation, Demethylation and Microbial Activity in Marsh Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, C. C.; Ghosh, U.; Santillan, E. F. U.; Soren, A.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.; Brown, S.; Henry, E.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ sorbent amendments are a low-impact approach for remediation of contaminants in sediments, particular in habitats like wetlands that provide important ecosystem services. Laboratory microcosm trials (Gilmour et al. 2013) and early field trials show that activated carbon (AC) can effectively increase partitioning of both inorganic Hg and methylmercury to the solid phase. Sediment-water partitioning can serve as a proxy for Hg and MeHg bioavailability in soils. One consideration in using AC in remediation is its potential impact on organisms. For mercury, a critical consideration is the potential impact on net MeHg accumulation and bioavailability. In this study, we specifically evaluated the impact of AC on rates of methylmercury production and degradation, and on overall microbial activity, in 4 different Hg-contaminated salt marsh soils. The study was done over 28 days in anaerobic, sulfate-reducing slurries. A double label of enriched mercury isotopes (Me199Hg and inorganic 201Hg) was used to separately follow de novo Me201Hg production and Me199Hg degradation. AC amendments decreased both methylation and demethylation rate constants relative to un-amended controls, but the impact on demethylation was stronger. The addition of 5% (dry weight) regenerated AC to soil slurries drove demethylation rate constants to nearly zero; i.e. MeHg sorption to AC almost totally blocked its degradation. The net impact was increased solid phase MeHg concentrations in some of the soil slurries with the highest methylation rate constants. However, the net impact of AC amendments was to increase MeHg (and inorganic Hg) partitioning to the soil phase and decrease concentrations in the aqueous phase. AC significantly decreased aqueous phase inorganic Hg and MeHg concentrations after 28 days. Overall, the efficacy of AC in reducing aqueous MeHg was highest in the soils with the highest MeHg concentrations. The AC addition did not significantly impact microbial activity, as

  11. Quantitative assessment on soil enzyme activities of heavy metal contaminated soils with various soil properties.

    PubMed

    Xian, Yu; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping

    2015-11-01

    Soil enzyme activities are greatly influenced by soil properties and could be significant indicators of heavy metal toxicity in soil for bioavailability assessment. Two groups of experiments were conducted to determine the joint effects of heavy metals and soil properties on soil enzyme activities. Results showed that arylsulfatase was the most sensitive soil enzyme and could be used as an indicator to study the enzymatic toxicity of heavy metals under various soil properties. Soil organic matter (SOM) was the dominant factor affecting the activity of arylsulfatase in soil. A quantitative model was derived to predict the changes of arylsulfatase activity with SOM content. When the soil organic matter content was less than the critical point A (1.05% in our study), the arylsulfatase activity dropped rapidly. When the soil organic matter content was greater than the critical point A, the arylsulfatase activity gradually rose to higher levels showing that instead of harm the soil microbial activities were enhanced. The SOM content needs to be over the critical point B (2.42% in our study) to protect its microbial community from harm due to the severe Pb pollution (500mgkg(-1) in our study). The quantitative model revealed the pattern of variation of enzymatic toxicity due to heavy metals under various SOM contents. The applicability of the model under wider soil properties need to be tested. The model however may provide a methodological basis for ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soil.

  12. Key high molecular weight PAH-degrading bacteria in a soil consortium enriched using a sand-in-liquid microcosm system.

    PubMed

    Tauler, Margalida; Vila, Joaquim; Nieto, José María; Grifoll, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    A novel biphasic system containing mineral medium and sand coated with a biologically weathered creosote-PAH mixture was developed to specifically enrich the high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (HMW PAH)-degrading community from a creosote-polluted soil. This consortium (UBHP) removed 70% of the total HMW PAHs and their alkyl-derivatives in 12 weeks. Based on a combined culture-dependent/independent approach, including clone library analysis, detection of catabolic genes, metabolomic profiles, and characterization of bacterial isolates, 10 phylotypes corresponding to five major genera (Sphingobium, Sphingomonas, Achromobacter, Pseudomonas, and Mycobacterium) were pointed out as key players within the community. In response to exposure to different single PAHs, members of sphingomonads were associated to the utilization of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene, while the degradation of pyrene was mainly associated to low-abundance mycobacteria. In addition to them, a number of uncultured phylotypes were detected, being of special relevance a group of Gammaproteobacteria closely related to a group previously associated with pyrene degradation that were here related to benzo(a)anthracene degradation. The overall environmental relevance of these phylotypes was confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial community shift in the creosote-polluted soil during a lab-scale biostimulation.

  13. Soil solid-phase controls lead activity in soil solution.

    PubMed

    Badawy, S H; Helal, M I D; Chaudri, A M; Lawlor, K; McGrath, S P

    2002-01-01

    Lead pollution of the environment is synonymous with civilization. It has no known biological function, and is naturally present in soil, but its presence in food crops is deemed undesirable. The concern regarding Pb is mostly due to chronic human and animal health effects, rather then phytotoxicity. However, not much is known about the chemistry and speciation of Pb in soils. We determined the activity of Pb2+, in near neutral and alkaline soils, representative of alluvial, desertic and calcareous soils of Egypt, using the competitive chelation method. Lead activity ranged from 10(-6.73) to 10(-4.83) M, and was negatively correlated with soil and soil solution pH (R2 = -0.92, P < 0.01 and R2 = -0.89, P < 0.01, respectively). It could be predicted in soil solution from the equation: log(Pb2+) = 9.9 - 2pH. A solubility diagram for the various Pb minerals found in soil was constructed using published thermodynamic data obtained from the literature, and our measured Pb2+ activities compared with this information. The measured Pb2+ activities were undersaturated with regard to the solubility of PbSiO3 in equilibrium with SiO2 (soil). However, they were supersaturated with regard to the solubilities of the Pb carbonate minerals PbCO3 (cerussite) and Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 and hydroxide Pb(OH)2. They were also supersaturated with regard to the solubilities of the Pb phosphate minerals Pb3(PO4)2, Pb5(PO4)3OH, and Pb4O(PO4)2 in equilibrium with tricalcium phosphate and CaCO3. The activity of Pb2+ was not regulated by any mineral of known solubility in our soils, but possibly by a mixture of Pb carbonate and phosphate minerals.

  14. Strong Impact on the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-Degrading Community of a PAH-Polluted Soil but Marginal Effect on PAH Degradation when Priming with Bioremediated Soil Dominated by Mycobacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Schmidt, Stine; Hybholt, Trine K.; Henriksen, Sidsel; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Bioaugmentation of soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often disappointing because of the low survival rate and low activity of the introduced degrader bacteria. We therefore investigated the possibility of priming PAH degradation in soil by adding 2% of bioremediated soil with a high capacity for PAH degradation. The culturable PAH-degrading community of the bioremediated primer soil was dominated by Mycobacterium spp. A microcosm containing pristine soil artificially polluted with PAHs and primed with bioremediated soil showed a fast, 100- to 1,000-fold increase in numbers of culturable phenanthrene-, pyrene-, and fluoranthene degraders and a 160-fold increase in copy numbers of the mycobacterial PAH dioxygenase gene pdo1. A nonpolluted microcosm primed with bioremediated soil showed a high rate of survival of the introduced degrader community during the 112 days of incubation. A nonprimed control microcosm containing pristine soil artificially polluted with PAHs showed only small increases in the numbers of culturable PAH degraders and no pdo1 genes. Initial PAH degradation rates were highest in the primed microcosm, but later, the degradation rates were comparable in primed and nonprimed soil. Thus, the proliferation and persistence of the introduced, soil-adapted degraders had only a marginal effect on PAH degradation. Given the small effect of priming with bioremediated soil and the likely presence of PAH degraders in almost all PAH-contaminated soils, it seems questionable to prime PAH-contaminated soil with bioremediated soil as a means of large-scale soil bioremediation. PMID:17209064

  15. Reconciling Apparent Variability in Effects of Biochar Amendment on Soil Enzyme Activities by Assay Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Smith, Jeffery L.; Bolton, Harvey

    2011-02-01

    Applying biochar to soils as an ameliorative substance and mechanism for C sequestration has received a great deal of interest in light of the sustained fertility observed in the Terra Preta soils of Brazil. The effects of synthetic biochars on biochemical processes needs to be better understood in order to determine if this is a reasonable practice in managed systems. The biochar studied was formed from the fast-pyrolysis of a switchgrass feedstock. Four soil enzymes were studied: β-glucosidase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase. Both colorimetric and fluorescent assays were used for β-glucosidase and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Seven days after biochar was added to microcosms of a Palouse silt loam, the fluorescence-based assays indicated increased activities of the four enzymes, compared to non-amended soil. To clarify the mechanisms of the observed effects,in the absence of soil, purified enzymes or substrates were briefly exposed to biochar and then assayed. Except for β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, the exposure of substrate to biochar reduced the apparent activity of the remaining three enzymes in vitro, suggesting that sorption reactions between the substrate and biochar either removed the substrate from the assays or impeded the enzyme binding. The activity of purified β-N-acetylglucosaminidase increased significantly following biochar exposure, suggesting a chemical stimulation of enzyme functioning. We conclude that biochar added to soil acts as a substrate that can stimulate the soil microbial biomass and its activity. Our in vitro study suggests that biochar is not biochemically inert. Biochar amendments are likely to have effects that are currently difficult to predict, and that could impact overall soil function.

  16. Evaluation-of soil enzyme activities as soil quality indicators in sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Dindar, Efsun; Şağban, Fatma Olcay Topaç; Başkaya, Hüseyin Savaş

    2015-07-01

    Soil enzymatic activities are commonly used as biomarkers of soil quality. Several organic and inorganic compounds found in municipal wastewater sludges can possibly be used as fertilizers. Monitoring and evaluating the quality of sludge amended soils with enzyme activities accepted as a beneficial practice with respect to sustainable soil management. In the present study, variation of some enzyme activities (Alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase, urease and beta-glucosidase activities) in soils amended with municipal wastewater sludge at different application rates (50, 100 and 200 t ha(-1) dry sludge) was evaluated. Air dried sludge samples were applied to soil pots and sludge-soil mixtures were incubated during a period of three months at 28 degrees C. The results of the study showed that municipal wastewater sludge amendment apparently increased urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and P-glucosidase activities in soil by 48-70%, 14-47%, 33-66% and 9-14%, respectively. The maximum activity was generally observed in sludge amended soil with dose of 200 t ha(-1). Urease activity appeared to be a better indicator of soil enhancement with wastewater sludge, as its activity was more strongly increased by sludge amendment. Accordingly, urease activity is suggested to be soil quality indicator best suited for measuring existing conditions and potential changes in sludge-amended soil.

  17. Effect of rice straw application on microbial community and activity in paddy soil under different water status.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-03-01

    Rice straw application and flooding are common practices in rice production, both of which can induce changes in the microbial community. This study used soil microcosms to investigate the impact of water status (saturated and nonsaturated) and straw application (10 g kg(-1) soil) on soil microbial composition (phospholipid fatty acid analysis) and activity (MicroResp(™) method). Straw application significantly increased total PLFA amount and individual PLFA components independent of soil moisture level. The amount of soil fungal PLFA was less than Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and actinomycete PLFA, except the drained treatment with rice straw application, which had higher fungal PLFA than actinomycete PLFA at the initial incubation stage. Straw amendment and waterlogging had different effects on microbial community structure and substrate-induced pattern. PLFA profiles were primarily influenced by straw application, whereas soil water status had the greater influence on microbial respiration. Of the variation in PLFA and respiration data, straw accounted for 30.1 and 16.7 %, while soil water status explained 7.5 and 29.1 %, respectively. Our results suggest that (1) the size of microbial communities in paddy soil is more limited by carbon substrate availability rather than by the anaerobic conditions due to waterlogging and (2) that soil water status is more important as a control of fungal growth and microbial community activity. PMID:26596827

  18. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper in outdoor freshwater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-05-01

    This study characterizes the effects of copper (Cu) on Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) and mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) using a replicated outdoor microcosm design. Soils used in this study were collected from two Cu-enriched citrus agricultural sites in South Florida (Agler property (AGLR) in St. Lucie County and Sunrise Boys property (SRB) in Palm Beach County) and a reference site (Equus property) in St. Lucie County. The study included a 5-week aging phase, an 11 month exposure phase, and a 3 month post-treatment (exposure) phase. The aging phase was initiated by flooding agricultural soils with rainwater in 4 m(3) fiberglass microcosm tanks. Introducing juvenile apple snails (≤7 d old) and mosquito fish (2-3 cm) into the microcosm tanks initiated the exposure phase. Survival, growth, and reproduction of apple snails and fish, and Cu uptake in apple snails, fish, and periphyton were determined in this study. Water chemistry (e.g., dissolved Cu concentration, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved oxygen concentrations, pH, hardness, alkalinity, etc.) was measured daily or weekly during the study. Initial soil Cu concentrations in Equus, SRB, and AGLR microcosms were 7, 55, and 99 mg/kg dw, respectively. Dissolved Cu concentrations in Equus, SRB and AGLR microcosms at the beginning of the study were 3, 82, and 43 μg/L, respectively and decreased to low saturation levels of about ≤9 μg/L Cu after the first 3 months of the study. The decrease of dissolved Cu concentrations was likely due to the dilution of rainwater. Snail and fish mortality appeared to be higher in SRB microcosms than in Equus and AGLR microcosms. There was no significant difference in growth of the snails between treatments. Snail growth data followed the von Bertalanffy Model. The maximum shell length, shell height, and shell width of the snails calculated by the von Bertalanffy Model (L(∞)) were 2.76, 2.05, and 2.18 cm, respectively. The maximum wet weight was 9.38 g

  19. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper in outdoor freshwater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-05-01

    This study characterizes the effects of copper (Cu) on Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) and mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) using a replicated outdoor microcosm design. Soils used in this study were collected from two Cu-enriched citrus agricultural sites in South Florida (Agler property (AGLR) in St. Lucie County and Sunrise Boys property (SRB) in Palm Beach County) and a reference site (Equus property) in St. Lucie County. The study included a 5-week aging phase, an 11 month exposure phase, and a 3 month post-treatment (exposure) phase. The aging phase was initiated by flooding agricultural soils with rainwater in 4 m(3) fiberglass microcosm tanks. Introducing juvenile apple snails (≤7 d old) and mosquito fish (2-3 cm) into the microcosm tanks initiated the exposure phase. Survival, growth, and reproduction of apple snails and fish, and Cu uptake in apple snails, fish, and periphyton were determined in this study. Water chemistry (e.g., dissolved Cu concentration, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved oxygen concentrations, pH, hardness, alkalinity, etc.) was measured daily or weekly during the study. Initial soil Cu concentrations in Equus, SRB, and AGLR microcosms were 7, 55, and 99 mg/kg dw, respectively. Dissolved Cu concentrations in Equus, SRB and AGLR microcosms at the beginning of the study were 3, 82, and 43 μg/L, respectively and decreased to low saturation levels of about ≤9 μg/L Cu after the first 3 months of the study. The decrease of dissolved Cu concentrations was likely due to the dilution of rainwater. Snail and fish mortality appeared to be higher in SRB microcosms than in Equus and AGLR microcosms. There was no significant difference in growth of the snails between treatments. Snail growth data followed the von Bertalanffy Model. The maximum shell length, shell height, and shell width of the snails calculated by the von Bertalanffy Model (L(∞)) were 2.76, 2.05, and 2.18 cm, respectively. The maximum wet weight was 9.38 g

  20. Impact of dry-wet and freeze-thaw events on pesticide mineralizing populations and their activity in wetland ecosystems: A microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Vandermeeren, Pieter; Baken, Stijn; Vanderstukken, Ruben; Diels, Jan; Springael, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Riparian wetlands are proposed to mitigate diffuse pollution of surface water by pesticides in agricultural landscapes. Wetland ecosystems though are highly dynamic environments and seasonal disturbances such as freezing and drying can affect microbial population sizes in the sediment and their functionality including pesticide biodegradation, which has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of artificially induced dry-wet or freeze-thaw events on the mineralization of the pesticides isoproturon (IPU) and 2-methoxy-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) in wetland microcosms, either without or with prior enrichment of IPU/MCPA degrading populations. Without prior enrichment, mineralization of IPU and MCPA was significantly reduced after exposure to especially freeze-thaw events, as evidenced by lower mineralization rates and longer lag times compared to non-exposed microcosms. However, herbicide mineralization kinetics correlated poorly with cell numbers of herbicide mineralizers as estimated by a most probable number (MPN) approach and the number of IPU and MCPA mineralizers was unexpectedly higher in freeze-thaw and dry-wet cycle exposed setups compared to the control setups. This suggested that the observed effects of season-bound disturbances were due to other mechanisms than decay of pesticide mineralizers. In addition, in systems in which the growth of pesticide mineralizing bacteria was stimulated by amendment of IPU and MCPA, exposure to a freeze-thaw or dry-wet event only marginally affected the herbicide mineralization kinetics. Our results show that season bound environmental disturbances can affect pesticide mineralization kinetics in wetlands but that this effect can depend on the history of pesticide applications. PMID:26714290

  1. Enhancement and inhibition of microbial activity in hydrocarbon- contaminated arctic soils: Implications for nutrient-amended bioremediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, J.F.; Ruth, M.L.; Catterall, P.H.; Walworth, J.L.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (<1%) end low moisture (1-3%) contents. We examined the effects of nutrient additions on microorganisms in contaminated soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition. The total soil-water potentials ranged from -2 to -15 bar with increasing levels of fertilizer. Semivolatile hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (<1%) and low moisture (1-3%) contents. We examined the effects of nutrient additions on microorganisms in contaminated soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus

  2. Methanogenic activities in alpine soils.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andreas O; Hofmann, Katrin; Prem, Eva; Illmer, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Uncontrolled microbial methane production is playing an important role in global warming. In the present study, we showed that water content and incubation temperature increase the potential for methane formation in the two alpine soils under investigation. Beside these factors, the grazing of cows and thus the amendment of methanogenic microorganisms by cattle dung is the most important factor determining the potential of methane production in those soils.

  3. Evaluation of terrestrial microcosms for detection, fate, and survival analysis of genetically engineered microorganisms and their recombinant genetic material

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Seidler, R.J.

    1989-02-01

    The research included in this document represents the current scientific information available regarding the applicability of terrestrial microcosms and related methodologies for evaluating detection methods and the fate and survival of microorganisms in the environment. The three terrestrial microcosms described in this document were used to evaluate the survival and fate of recombinant bacteria in soils and in association with plant surfaces and insects and their transport through soil with percolating water and root systems, and to test new methods and procedures to improve detection and enumeration of bacteria in soil. Simple (potting soil composed of peat mix and perlite, lacking environmental control and monitoring) and complex microcosms (agricultural soil with partial control and monitoring of environmental conditions) were demonstrated to be useful tools for preliminary assessments of microbial viability in terrestrial ecosystems. These studies evaluated the survival patterns of Enterobacter cloacae (pBR322) in soil and on plant surfaces and the ingestion of this same microorganism by cutworms and survival in the foregut and frass. The Versacore microcosm design was used to monitor the fate and competitiveness of genetically engineered bacteria in soil. Both selective media and gene probes were used successfully to follow the fate of two recombinant Pseudomonas sp. introduced into Versacore microcosms. Intact soil-core microcosms were employed to evaluate the fate and transport of genetically altered Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in soil and the plant rhizosphere. The usefulness of these various microcosms as a tool for risk assessment is underscored by the ease in obtaining soil from a proposed field release site to evaluate subsequent GEM fate and survival.

  4. Advancements in the application of NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy to investigate the activity of microbial cells in soils

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Strasser, Florian; Woyke, Tanja; Schintlmeister, Arno; Wagner, Michael; Woebken, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    The combined approach of incubating environmental samples with stable isotope-labeled substrates followed by single-cell analyses through high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) or Raman microspectroscopy provides insights into the in situ function of microorganisms. This approach has found limited application in soils presumably due to the dispersal of microbial cells in a large background of particles. We developed a pipeline for the efficient preparation of cell extracts from soils for subsequent single-cell methods by combining cell detachment with separation of cells and soil particles followed by cell concentration. The procedure was evaluated by examining its influence on cell recoveries and microbial community composition across two soils. This approach generated a cell fraction with considerably reduced soil particle load and of sufficient small size to allow single-cell analysis by NanoSIMS, as shown when detecting active N2-fixing and cellulose-responsive microorganisms via 15N2 and 13C-UL-cellulose incubations, respectively. The same procedure was also applicable for Raman microspectroscopic analyses of soil microorganisms, assessed via microcosm incubations with a 13C-labeled carbon source and deuterium oxide (D2O, a general activity marker). The described sample preparation procedure enables single-cell analysis of soil microorganisms using NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy, but should also facilitate single-cell sorting and sequencing. PMID:26324854

  5. Advancements in the application of NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy to investigate the activity of microbial cells in soils.

    PubMed

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Strasser, Florian; Woyke, Tanja; Schintlmeister, Arno; Wagner, Michael; Woebken, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    The combined approach of incubating environmental samples with stable isotope-labeled substrates followed by single-cell analyses through high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) or Raman microspectroscopy provides insights into the in situ function of microorganisms. This approach has found limited application in soils presumably due to the dispersal of microbial cells in a large background of particles. We developed a pipeline for the efficient preparation of cell extracts from soils for subsequent single-cell methods by combining cell detachment with separation of cells and soil particles followed by cell concentration. The procedure was evaluated by examining its influence on cell recoveries and microbial community composition across two soils. This approach generated a cell fraction with considerably reduced soil particle load and of sufficient small size to allow single-cell analysis by NanoSIMS, as shown when detecting active N2-fixing and cellulose-responsive microorganisms via (15)N2 and (13)C-UL-cellulose incubations, respectively. The same procedure was also applicable for Raman microspectroscopic analyses of soil microorganisms, assessed via microcosm incubations with a (13)C-labeled carbon source and deuterium oxide (D2O, a general activity marker). The described sample preparation procedure enables single-cell analysis of soil microorganisms using NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy, but should also facilitate single-cell sorting and sequencing.

  6. Metatranscriptomic census of active protists in soils

    PubMed Central

    Geisen, Stefan; Tveit, Alexander T; Clark, Ian M; Richter, Andreas; Svenning, Mette M; Bonkowski, Michael; Urich, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The high numbers and diversity of protists in soil systems have long been presumed, but their true diversity and community composition have remained largely concealed. Traditional cultivation-based methods miss a majority of taxa, whereas molecular barcoding approaches employing PCR introduce significant biases in reported community composition of soil protists. Here, we applied a metatranscriptomic approach to assess the protist community in 12 mineral and organic soil samples from different vegetation types and climatic zones using small subunit ribosomal RNA transcripts as marker. We detected a broad diversity of soil protists spanning across all known eukaryotic supergroups and revealed a strikingly different community composition than shown before. Protist communities differed strongly between sites, with Rhizaria and Amoebozoa dominating in forest and grassland soils, while Alveolata were most abundant in peat soils. The Amoebozoa were comprised of Tubulinea, followed with decreasing abundance by Discosea, Variosea and Mycetozoa. Transcripts of Oomycetes, Apicomplexa and Ichthyosporea suggest soil as reservoir of parasitic protist taxa. Further, Foraminifera and Choanoflagellida were ubiquitously detected, showing that these typically marine and freshwater protists are autochthonous members of the soil microbiota. To the best of our knowledge, this metatranscriptomic study provides the most comprehensive picture of active protist communities in soils to date, which is essential to target the ecological roles of protists in the complex soil system. PMID:25822483

  7. Metatranscriptomic census of active protists in soils.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Stefan; Tveit, Alexander T; Clark, Ian M; Richter, Andreas; Svenning, Mette M; Bonkowski, Michael; Urich, Tim

    2015-10-01

    The high numbers and diversity of protists in soil systems have long been presumed, but their true diversity and community composition have remained largely concealed. Traditional cultivation-based methods miss a majority of taxa, whereas molecular barcoding approaches employing PCR introduce significant biases in reported community composition of soil protists. Here, we applied a metatranscriptomic approach to assess the protist community in 12 mineral and organic soil samples from different vegetation types and climatic zones using small subunit ribosomal RNA transcripts as marker. We detected a broad diversity of soil protists spanning across all known eukaryotic supergroups and revealed a strikingly different community composition than shown before. Protist communities differed strongly between sites, with Rhizaria and Amoebozoa dominating in forest and grassland soils, while Alveolata were most abundant in peat soils. The Amoebozoa were comprised of Tubulinea, followed with decreasing abundance by Discosea, Variosea and Mycetozoa. Transcripts of Oomycetes, Apicomplexa and Ichthyosporea suggest soil as reservoir of parasitic protist taxa. Further, Foraminifera and Choanoflagellida were ubiquitously detected, showing that these typically marine and freshwater protists are autochthonous members of the soil microbiota. To the best of our knowledge, this metatranscriptomic study provides the most comprehensive picture of active protist communities in soils to date, which is essential to target the ecological roles of protists in the complex soil system. PMID:25822483

  8. Metatranscriptomic census of active protists in soils.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Stefan; Tveit, Alexander T; Clark, Ian M; Richter, Andreas; Svenning, Mette M; Bonkowski, Michael; Urich, Tim

    2015-10-01

    The high numbers and diversity of protists in soil systems have long been presumed, but their true diversity and community composition have remained largely concealed. Traditional cultivation-based methods miss a majority of taxa, whereas molecular barcoding approaches employing PCR introduce significant biases in reported community composition of soil protists. Here, we applied a metatranscriptomic approach to assess the protist community in 12 mineral and organic soil samples from different vegetation types and climatic zones using small subunit ribosomal RNA transcripts as marker. We detected a broad diversity of soil protists spanning across all known eukaryotic supergroups and revealed a strikingly different community composition than shown before. Protist communities differed strongly between sites, with Rhizaria and Amoebozoa dominating in forest and grassland soils, while Alveolata were most abundant in peat soils. The Amoebozoa were comprised of Tubulinea, followed with decreasing abundance by Discosea, Variosea and Mycetozoa. Transcripts of Oomycetes, Apicomplexa and Ichthyosporea suggest soil as reservoir of parasitic protist taxa. Further, Foraminifera and Choanoflagellida were ubiquitously detected, showing that these typically marine and freshwater protists are autochthonous members of the soil microbiota. To the best of our knowledge, this metatranscriptomic study provides the most comprehensive picture of active protist communities in soils to date, which is essential to target the ecological roles of protists in the complex soil system.

  9. Microbial activity in soils following steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ruth E; James, C Andrew; Bhupathiraju, Vishvesh K; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Steam enhanced extraction (SEE) is an aquifer remediation technique that can be effective at removing the bulk of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination from the subsurface, particularly highly volatile contaminants. However, low volatility compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are less efficiently removed by this process. This research evaluated the effects of steam injection on soil microbial activity, community structure, and the potential for biodegradation of contaminants following steam treatment. Three different soils were evaluated: a laboratory-prepared microbially-enriched soil, soil from a creosote contaminated field site, and soil from a chlorinated solvent and waste oil contaminated field site. Results from field-scale steaming are also presented. Microbial activity before and after steam treatment was evaluated using direct epifluorescent microscopy (DEM) using the respiratory activity dye 5-cyano-2,3, ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) in conjunction with the fluorochrome 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (DTAF) to yield a quantitative assessment of active and total microbial numbers. DEM results indicate that steamed soils that were analyzed while still hot exhibited microbial activity levels that were below detection. However, soil samples that were slowly cooled, more closely reflecting the conditions of applied SEE, exhibited microbial activity levels that were comparable to presteamed soils. Samples from a field-site where steam was applied continuously for 6 weeks also showed high levels of microbial activity following cooling. The metabolic capabilities of the steamed communities were investigated by measuring cell growth in enrichment cultures on various substrates. These studies provided evidence that organisms capable of biodegradation were among the mesophilic populations that survived steam treatment. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the soils with domain-level rRNA probes suggest

  10. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Nora B; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Lasso, Daniel Hidalgo; van der Zaan, Bas; van Gaans, Pauline; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-03-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in two diesel-contaminated soils (peat and fill). Chemical oxidant and soil type affected the microbial community diversity and biodegradation activity; however, this was only observed following treatment with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent, and in the biotic control without oxidation. Differences in the highest overall removal efficiencies of 69 % for peat (biotic control) and 59 % for fill (Fenton's reagent) were partially explained by changes in contaminant soil properties upon oxidation. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA and alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene abundances indicated that oxidation with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent negatively affected microbial abundance. However, regeneration occurred, and final relative alkB abundances were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in chemically treated microcosms than in the biotic control. 16S rRNA gene fragment fingerprinting with DGGE and prominent band sequencing illuminated microbial community composition and diversity differences between treatments and identified a variety of phylotypes within Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Understanding microbial community dynamics during coupled chemical oxidation and bioremediation is integral to improved biphasic field application.

  11. Factors affecting microbial 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene mineralization in contaminated soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of selected environmental factors on microbial TNT mineralization in soils collected from a TNT-contaminated site at Weldon Spring, MO, was examined using uniformly ring-labeled [14C]TNT. Microbial TNT mineralization was significantly inhibited by the addition of cellobiose and syringate. This response suggests that the indigenous microorganisms are capable of metabolizing TNT but preferentially utilize less recalcitrant substrates when available. The observed inhibition of TNT mineralization by TNT concentrations higher than 100 ??mol/kg of soil and by dry soil conditions suggests that toxic inhibition of microbial activity at high TNT concentrations and the periodic drying of these soils have contributed to the long-term persistence of TNT at Weldon Spring. In comparison to aerobic microcosms, mineralization was inhibited in anaerobic microcosms and in microcosms with a headspace of air amended with oxygen, suggesting that a mosaic of aerobic and anaerobic conditions may optimize TNT degradation at this site.

  12. Enhancing degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons and uptake of heavy metals in a wetland microcosm planted with Phragmites communis by humic acids addition.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kijune; Kim, Ki Seob; Park, Soyoung

    2013-01-01

    The effects of humic acid (HA) on heavy-metal uptake by plants and degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in a wetland microcosm planted with Phragmites communis were evaluated by comparing waterlogged soils and water-drained upland soils. Experiments were conducted on soils artificially contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni) and diesel fuel. HA showed a positive influence on biomass increase for all conditions, but more for belowground than aboveground biomass, and lower in contaminated than uncontaminated soil. The bioavailability and leachability factor (BLF) for all heavy metals except Ni increased with HA addition in both the control and the P. communis planted microcosms, suggesting that more heavy metals could be potentially phytoavailable for plant uptake. Microbial activities were not affected by both heavy metals and TPH contamination, and HA effects on stimulating microbial activities were much greater in the contaminated soil than under uncontaminated conditions. HA addition enhanced the degradation of TPH and n-alkane in waterlogged conditions. The results show that HA can increase the remedial performance in P. communis dominated wetlands simultaneously contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons and thus prevent contamination of groundwater or other adjacent ecosystems.

  13. Improving the biotreatment of hydrocarbons-contaminated soils by addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Pierre; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy; Lépine, François; Ratheau, Valérie; Beaudet, Réjean; Villemur, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery to a soil contaminated with oily sludge stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in microcosms, bioreactors and biopile. Microcosms containing 50 g of soil to which 0.07% (w/w) of activated sludge was added presented a higher degradation of alkanes (80% vs 24%) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (77% vs 49%) as compared to the one receiving only water, after 30 days of incubation at room temperature. Addition of ammonium nitrate or sterile sludge filtrate instead of activated sludge resulted in a similar removal of PAHs but not of alkanes suggesting that the nitrogen contained in the activated sludge plays a major role in the degradation of PAHs while microorganisms of the sludge are active against alkanes. Addition of sludge also stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in 10-kg bioreactors operated during 60 days and in a 50-m3 biopile operated during 126 days. This biopile treatment allowed the use of the soil for industrial purpose based on provincial regulation ("C" criteria). In contrast, the soil of the control biopile that received only water still exceeded C criteria for C10-C50 hydrocarbons, total PAHs, chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene. The stimulation effect of sludge was stronger on the 4-rings than on 2-rings PAHs. The soil of the biopile that received sludge was 4-5 times less toxic than the control. These results suggest that this particular type of activated sludge could be used to increase the efficiency of the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in a biopile.

  14. Impact of hydroquinone used as a redox effector model on potential denitrification, microbial activity and redox condition of a cultivable soil.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Elda B R

    2015-01-01

    In this microcosm study, we analyzed the effect produced by hydroquinone on the expression of soil biological denitrification, in relation to the redox state of the soil, both in terms of intensity factor (Eh') and capacity factor (amount of oxidized or reduced compounds). The supplementation of an Argiudoll soil with hydroquinone decreased the soil apparent reduction potential (Eh') and soil dehydrogenase activity (formazan production from tetrazolium chloride reduction; redox capacity factor), the relationship between both factors being highly significative, r=0.99 (p<0.001). The bacterial population (measured by colony forming units) increased, and the production of N2O was greater (p<0.001) at 200 and 400μg/g dry soil doses. Furthermore, there was an inverse relationship between soil dehydrogenase activity and the number of bacteria (r=-0.82; p<0.05), increased denitrification activity and changes in the CO2/N2O ratio value. These results suggest that hydroquinone at supplemented doses modified the soil redox state and the functional structure of the microbial population. Acetate supplementation on soil with hydroquinone, to ensure the availability of an energy source for microbial development, confirmed the tendency of the results obtained with the supplementation of hydroquinone alone. The differences observed at increased doses of hydroquinone might be explained by differences on the hydroquinone redox species between treatments.

  15. [Relationship between soil enzyme activities and trace element contents in Eucalyptus plantation soil].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuelin; Peng, Shaolin; Li, Zhihui; Ren, Hai; Li, Zhi'an

    2003-03-01

    Canonical correlation analysis on soil enzyme activities and trace element contents in Eucalyptus plantation soil showed that among the test elements, only Zn and Mn affected enzyme activity. Both Zn and Mn increased soil proteinase activity. Zn decreased the activities of soil urease and peroxidase, while Mn promoted them. "Integral soil enzyme factor" could be used as an index of soil fertility. Together with other growth factors, this index should be considered when evaluating soil fertility of Eucalyptus forest sites. It also had a definite significance on the division of Eucalyptus soil families. PMID:12836538

  16. Fate of neptunium in an anaerobic, methanogenic microcosm

    SciTech Connect

    Banaszak, J.E.; Webb, S.M.; Rittmann, B.E.; Gaillard, J.F.; Reed, D.T.

    1999-07-01

    Neptunium is found predominantly as Np(IV) in reducing environments, but as Np(V) in aerobic environments. Currently, it is not known how the interplay between biotic and abiotic processes affects Np redox speciation in the environment. To evaluate the effect of anaerobic microbial activity on the fate of Np in natural systems, Np(V) was added to a microcosm inoculated with anaerobic sediments from a metal-contaminated freshwater lake. The consortium included metal-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms, and acetate was supplied as the only exogenous substrate. Addition of more than 10{sup {minus}5} M Np did not inhibit methane production. Total Np solubility in the active microcosm, as well as in sterilized control samples, decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude. A combination of analytical techniques, including VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy and XANES, identified Np(IV) as the oxidation state associated with the sediments. The similar results from the active microcosm and the abiotic controls suggest that microbially produced Mn(II/III) and Fe(II) may serve as electron donors for Np reduction.

  17. Biodegradation of ethylene dibromide (1,2-dibromoethane [EDB]) in microcosms simulating in situ and biostimulated conditions.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Robert; Sheppard, Diane; Nüsslein, Klaus; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Rieber, Khalil; Ergas, Sarina J; Forbes, Rose; Hilyard, Mark; Park, Chul

    2012-03-30

    Although 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) is a common groundwater contaminant, there is the lack of knowledge surrounding EDB biodegradation, especially under aerobic conditions. We have performed an extensive microcosm study to investigate the biodegradation of EDB under simulated in situ and biostimulated conditions. The materials for soil microcosms were collected from an EDB-contaminated aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation in Cape Cod, MA. This EDB plume has persisted for nearly 40 years in both aerobic and anaerobic EDB zones of the aquifer. Microcosms were constructed under environmentally relevant conditions (field EDB and DO concentrations; incubated at 12°C). The results showed that natural attenuation occurred under anaerobic conditions but not under aerobic conditions, explaining why aerobic EDB contamination is so persistent. EDB degradation rates were greater under biostimulated conditions for both the aerobic and anaerobic microcosms. Particularly for aerobic biostimulation, methane-amended microcosms degraded EDB, on average, at a first order rate eight times faster than unamended microcosms. The best performing replicate achieved an EDB degradation rate of 7.0 yr(-1) (half-life (t(1/2))=0.10 yr). Residual methane concentrations and the emergence of methanotrophic bacteria, measured by culture independent bacterial analysis, provided strong indications that EDB degradation in aerobic methane-amended microcosms occurred via cometabolic degradation. These results indicate the potential for enhanced natural attenuation of EDB and that methane could be considered co-substrate for EDB bioremediation for the EDB-contaminated groundwater in aerobic zone.

  18. Soil and Water Conservation Activities for Scouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the learning activities outlined in this booklet is to help Scouts understand some conservation principles which hopefully will lead to the development of an attitude of concern for the environment and a commitment to help with the task of using and managing soil, water, and other natural resources for long range needs as well as…

  19. CO2 and CH4 Production and CH4 Oxidation in Low Temperature Soil Incubations from Flat- and High-Centered Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer

    David E. Graham; Jianqiu Zheng; Taniya RoyChowdhury

    2016-08-31

    The dataset consists of respiration and methane production rates and methane oxidation potential obtained from soil microcosm studies carried out under controlled temperature and incubation conditions. Soils cores collected in 2012 represent the flat- and high-centered polygon active layers and permafrost (when present) from the NGEE Arctic Intensive Study Site 1, Barrow, Alaska.

  20. CO2 and CH4 Production in Low-Temperature Soil Incubations from Low and High Centered Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Taniya RoyChowdhury; David Graham; Stan Wullschleger

    2016-08-29

    The dataset consists of respiration and methane production rates obtained from soil microcosm studies carried out under controlled temperature and incubation conditions. Soils represent the low- and high-centered polygon active layers and permafrost (when present) from the NGEE-Arctic Intensive Study Site 1.

  1. Enzyme activities by indicator of quality in organic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raigon Jiménez, Mo; Fita, Ana Delores; Rodriguez Burruezo, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The analytical determination of biochemical parameters, as soil enzyme activities and those related to the microbial biomass is growing importance by biological indicator in soil science studies. The metabolic activity in soil is responsible of important processes such as mineralization and humification of organic matter. These biological reactions will affect other key processes involved with elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus , and all transformations related in soil microbial biomass. The determination of biochemical parameters is useful in studies carried out on organic soil where microbial processes that are key to their conservation can be analyzed through parameters of the metabolic activity of these soils. The main objective of this work is to apply analytical methodologies of enzyme activities in soil collections of different physicochemical characteristics. There have been selective sampling of natural soils, organic farming soils, conventional farming soils and urban soils. The soils have been properly identified conserved at 4 ° C until analysis. The enzyme activities determinations have been: catalase, urease, cellulase, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, which bring together a representative group of biological transformations that occur in the soil environment. The results indicate that for natural and agronomic soil collections, the values of the enzymatic activities are within the ranges established for forestry and agricultural soils. Organic soils are generally higher level of enzymatic, regardless activity of the enzyme involved. Soil near an urban area, levels of activities have been significantly reduced. The vegetation cover applied to organic soils, results in greater enzymatic activity. So the quality of these soils, defined as the ability to maintain their biological productivity is increased with the use of cover crops, whether or spontaneous species. The practice of cover based on legumes could be used as an ideal choice

  2. Comparative community responses to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} in microcosms and intact grassland

    SciTech Connect

    Chiariello, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Ecosystem responses to elevated CO{sub 2} involve components that are difficult to resolve in spatially varying, intact systems. Depending on their functional similarity to the field, experimental microcosms may provide more uniform, accessible analogues. At Stanford University`s Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, research on grassland responses to elevated CO{sub 2} combines field studies and microcosm experiments on annual communities established from seed. Parallel measurements from year 3 of CO{sub 2} treatments in the field and year 2 in the microcosms (after self-seeding) provide a test of their functional similarity. In both, nutrient-poor serpentine soils supported high plant density (>10,000 m{sup -2}), diverse phenology, and low aboveground production (100-200 g m{sup -2}). Elevated CO{sub 2} (720 ppm) favored late-flowering, taprooted annuals in both and had little or no effect on early annuals. Exotic species that were rare in field plots were lost from microcosms by year 2. Annual grasses contributed more to production in microcosms than in the field.

  3. Standard use conditions of terrestrial gastropods in active biomonitoring of soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Viard, Bénédicte; Maul, Armand; Pihan, Jean-Claude

    2004-02-01

    The rehabilitation of contaminated sites is becoming a rising preoccupation which requires the knowledge of their past before realization of a suitable remediation. Physicochemical analysis must be realized jointly with the use of bioindicator organisms, which, owing to their bioaccumulation capacities, will reveal the bioavailability of metals in soils. Among terrestrial invertebrates, gastropods like Helix aspersa aspersa possess an important organotropism for metals in their digestive gland and they can be used in active biomonitoring. During in situ monitoring, two parameters are tested: growth and accumulation of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr in viscera of snails. Environmental conditions, like humidity or autochthonous vegetation, are able to modify growth or bioaccumulation. In order to remove the variation of these factors, microcosms previously used must be improved: they were equipped with porous candles, which continually humidify soil. Concerning vegetation, an experimental plan was realized to determine the combination of food with the best compromise between growth and bioaccumulation: the combination clover-snail feed was chosen. Thus, in situ, the experimental environment will be repeated in all investigated sites and used to allow follow up of their contamination levels and intercomparison between different sites. PMID:14760452

  4. Biochemical activities in soil overlying Paraho processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Microbial activity development in soil materials placed over processed oil shale is vital to the plant litter decomposition, cycling of nutrients, and soil organic matter accumulation and maintenance. Samples collected in the summers of 1979, 1980, and 1981 from revegetated soil 30-, 61-, and 91-cm deep overlying spent oil shale in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado were assayed for dehydrogenease activity with glucose and without glucose, for phosphatase activity, and for acetylene reduction activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates and potential denitrification rates were determined in 1981. Zymogenous dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, nitrogenase activity, potential denitrification rates, and direct microscopic counts were lower in surface soil 30 cm deep, and were frequently lower in surface soil 61 cm deep over processed shale than in a surface-disturbed control area soil. Apparently, microbial activities are stressed in these more shallow replaced soils. Soil 61 cm deep over a coarse-rock capillary barrier separating the soil from the spent shale, frequently had improved biochemical activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates were lower in all replaced soils than in the disturbed control soil. Soil core samples taken in 1981 were assayed for dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, viable bacteria, and viable fungal propagules. In general, microbial activity decreased quickly below the surface. At depths greater than 45 cm, microbial activities were similar in buried spent shale and surface-disturbed control soil.

  5. Pyrene degradation in forest humus microcosms with or without pine and its mycorrhizal fungus.

    PubMed

    Koivula, Teija T; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Peltola, Rainer; Romantschuk, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The mineralization potential of forest humus and the self-cleaning potential of a boreal coniferous forest environment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds was studied using a model ecosystem of acid forest humus (pH = 3.6) and pyrene as the model compound. The matrix was natural humus or humus mixed with oil-polluted soil in the presence and absence of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and its mycorrhizal fungus (Paxillus involutus). The rates of pyrene mineralization in the microcosms with humus implants (without pine) were initially insignificant but increased from Day 64 onward to 47 microg kg(-1) d(-1) and further to 144 microg kg(-1) d(-1) after Day 105. In the pine-planted humus microcosms the rate of mineralization also increased, reaching 28 microg kg(-1) d(-1) after Day 105. The 14CO2 emission was already considerable in nonplanted microcosms containing oily soil at Day 21 and the pyrene mineralization continued throughout the study. The pyrene was converted to CO2 at rates of 0.07 and 0.6 microg kg(-1) d(-1) in the oily-soil implanted microcosms with and without pine, respectively. When the probable assimilation of 14CO2 by the pine and ground vegetation was taken into account the most efficient microcosm mineralized 20% of the 91.2 mg kg(-1) pyrene in 180 d. The presence of pine and its mycorrhizal fungus had no statistically significant effect on mineralization yields. The rates of pyrene mineralization observed in this study for forest humus exceeded the total annual deposition rate of PAHs in southern Finland. This indicates that accumulation in forest soil is not to be expected.

  6. The spatial relationship between human activities and C, N, P, S in soil based on landscape geochemical interpretation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan; He, Zheng-Wei; Kong, Bo; Weng, Zhong-Yin; Shi, Ze-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The development and formation of chemical elements in soil are affected not only by parent material, climate, biology, and topology factors, but also by human activities. As the main elements supporting life on earth system, the C, N, P, S cycles in soil have been altered by human activity through land-use change, agricultural intensification, and use of fossil fuels. The present study attempts to analyze whether and how a connection can be made between macroscopical control and microcosmic analysis, to estimate the impacts of human activities on C, N, P, S elements in soil, and to determine a way to describe the spatial relationship between C, N, P, S in soil and human activities, by means of landscape geochemical theories and methods. In addition, the disturbances of human activities on C, N, P, S are explored through the analysis of the spatial relationship between human disturbed landscapes and element anomalies, thereby determining the diversified rules of the effects. The study results show that the rules of different landscapes influencing C, N, P, S elements are diversified, and that the C element is closely related to city landscapes; furthermore, the elements N, P, and S are shown to be closely related to river landscapes; the relationships between mine landscapes and the elements C, N, P, S are apparent; the relationships between the elements C, N, P, S and road landscapes are quite close, which shows that road landscapes have significant effects on these elements. Therefore, the conclusion is drawn that the response mechanism analysis of human disturbance and soil chemical element aggregation is feasible, based on the landscape geochemical theories and methods. The spatial information techniques, such as remote sensing and geographic information systems, are effective for research on soil element migration. PMID:26055456

  7. Degradation of trichloroethylene in wetland microcosms containing broad-leaved cattail and eastern cottonwood.

    PubMed

    Bankston, Jamie L; Sola, Daniel L; Komor, Andrew T; Dwyer, Daryl F

    2002-03-01

    Remediation of aquifers containing trichloroethylene (TCE) relies primarily on physical extraction of contaminated groundwater and soil. Unfortunately, this is typically expensive and does not always attain the desired treatment goals. In situ bioremediation via natural attenuation is an alternative treatment process in which TCE is transformed by indigenous microorganisms and plants. In this study, TCE was observed in a surficial aquifer that discharges into a wetland. Experiments were undertaken to determine whether natural attenuation of TCE in the wetland was possible. Microcosms were constructed using sandy soil+/-eastern cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) from the wetland's edge and organic soil+broad-leaved cattails (Typha latifolia) from the wetland's interior. [14C] TCE was added to each microcosm (1.27 microCi). Overtime, 14C was recovered from four microcosm compartments: (1) as 14C bound to soil and water, (2) as volatilized [14C] TCE, (3) as [14C] CO2 produced by mineralization of [14C] TCE, and (4) as 14C incorporated into the plants. Total recoveries of the 14C-label ranged from 73.6% to 95.8%. Volatilized [14C] TCE accounted for the majority ( > 50%) of the recovered label. In microcosms without plants, [14C] CO2 represented 3.2% (organic soil) to 15.6% (sandy soil) of the recovered 14C, indicating that TCE was mineralized by indigenous microorganisms. The presence of the broad-leaved cattail resulted in increased production of [14C] CO2 to 5.3% in the organic soil. The data thus suggest that natural attenuation is a potential bioremediative strategy for TCE-contaminated wetlands.

  8. Effect of a cold shock on the activity and composition of the communities of ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms in a chestnut soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherobaeva, A. S.; Stepanov, A. L.; Kravchenko, I. K.

    2012-05-01

    The simulation of a cold shock was performed in an incubation experiment with soil microcosms by a sharp decrease of the temperature to negative values and the subsequent analysis of the nitrification rate of the ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms. Three procedures of the cold shock effect were selected: long, short-time, and cyclic. A significant decrease of the nitrifying activity was recorded after the long effect, whereas the 8-, 16-, and 24-hour cold shocks did not affect the intensity of nitrification. A cyclic temperature decrease alternating with periods of incubation under high temperatures also did not affect the nitrifying activity of the microorganisms. We suppose that the domination of mesophilic microorganisms with a resistant enzyme system or of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant microorganisms contributes to the preservation of a high nitrification level in soils with frequent alternations of high and low temperatures.

  9. Effect of elevated temperature and enhanced drainage on carbon balance of tundra microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.C.; Shaver, G.R.; Giblin, A.E.; Nadelhoffer, K.J.; Rastetter, E.B.; Laundre, J.A.; Murray, G.L. )

    1994-06-01

    We tested effects of temperature and drainage on C balance of intact soil and tundra vegetation over a simulated season. We measured C budgets (CO[sub 2] and CH[sub 4] emissions and dissolved CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and DOC in soil water) of Eriophorum vaginatum tussock and moss-dominated interussock microcosms at two temperatures (7[degrees] and 15[degrees]C, season maxima) and two water regimes (saturated and field capacity). Net ecosystem productivity was strongly affected by water. Averaged over temperature and microhabitat, the rate of net C loss from microcosms at field capacity was [approximately]5[times] the saturated microcosms. Only saturated, 15[degrees]C tussock microcosms showed net C storage integrated over the whole season. Ecosystem respiration was strongly affected by water and less by temperature. Respiration rates at field capacity were [approximately]2[times] the rates under saturated conditions. Elevated temperature caused a 1.5[times] increase. Other C components were <20% of gaseous CO[sub 2] losses. Results indicate that C in tundra exists in a fragile balance between storage and release that is controlled mainly by water regime.

  10. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) applications activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP mea...

  11. Comparative assessment of fungal augmentation treatments of a fine-textured and historically oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Covino, Stefano; Stella, Tatiana; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthaml, Tomas; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    The removal of aged hydrophobic contaminants from fine-textured soils is a challenging issue in remediation. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of augmentation treatments to that of biostimulation in terms of total aliphatic hydrocarbon (TAH) and toxicity removal from a historically contaminated clay soil and to assess their impact on the resident microbial community. To this aim, Pleurotus ostreatus, Botryosphaeria rhodina and a combination of both were used as the inoculants while the addition of a sterilized lignocellulose mixture to soil (1:5, w/w) was used as a biostimulation approach. As opposed to the non-amended control soil, where no changes in TAH concentration and residual toxicity were observed after 60days, the activation of specialized bacteria was found in the biostimulated microcosms resulting in significant TAH removal (79.8%). The bacterial community structure in B. rhodina-augmented microcosms did not differ from the biostimulated microcosms due to the inability of the fungus to be retained within the resident microbiota. Best TAH removals were observed in microcosms inoculated with P. ostreatus alone (Po) and in binary consortium with B. rhodina (BC) (86.8 and 88.2%, respectively). In these microcosms, contaminant degradation exceeded their bioavailability thresholds determined by sequential supercritical CO2 extraction. Illumina metabarcoding of 16S rRNA gene showed that the augmentation with Po and BC led to lower relative abundances of Gram(+) taxa, Actinobacteria in particular, than those in biostimulated microcosms. Best detoxification, with respect to the non-amended incubation control, was found in Po microcosms where a drop in collembola mortality (from 90 to 22%) occurred. At the end of incubation, in both Po and BC, the relative abundances of P. ostreatus sequences were higher than 60% thus showing the suitability of this fungus in bioaugmentation-based remediation applications. PMID:27220102

  12. Comparative assessment of fungal augmentation treatments of a fine-textured and historically oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Covino, Stefano; Stella, Tatiana; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthaml, Tomas; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    The removal of aged hydrophobic contaminants from fine-textured soils is a challenging issue in remediation. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of augmentation treatments to that of biostimulation in terms of total aliphatic hydrocarbon (TAH) and toxicity removal from a historically contaminated clay soil and to assess their impact on the resident microbial community. To this aim, Pleurotus ostreatus, Botryosphaeria rhodina and a combination of both were used as the inoculants while the addition of a sterilized lignocellulose mixture to soil (1:5, w/w) was used as a biostimulation approach. As opposed to the non-amended control soil, where no changes in TAH concentration and residual toxicity were observed after 60days, the activation of specialized bacteria was found in the biostimulated microcosms resulting in significant TAH removal (79.8%). The bacterial community structure in B. rhodina-augmented microcosms did not differ from the biostimulated microcosms due to the inability of the fungus to be retained within the resident microbiota. Best TAH removals were observed in microcosms inoculated with P. ostreatus alone (Po) and in binary consortium with B. rhodina (BC) (86.8 and 88.2%, respectively). In these microcosms, contaminant degradation exceeded their bioavailability thresholds determined by sequential supercritical CO2 extraction. Illumina metabarcoding of 16S rRNA gene showed that the augmentation with Po and BC led to lower relative abundances of Gram(+) taxa, Actinobacteria in particular, than those in biostimulated microcosms. Best detoxification, with respect to the non-amended incubation control, was found in Po microcosms where a drop in collembola mortality (from 90 to 22%) occurred. At the end of incubation, in both Po and BC, the relative abundances of P. ostreatus sequences were higher than 60% thus showing the suitability of this fungus in bioaugmentation-based remediation applications.

  13. Role of arthropods in developing soils on mine spoils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, W.G.; Elkins, N.Z.; Parker, L.W.

    1981-06-01

    In laboratory microcosms of coal mine spoil amended with bark and wood chips, the activity of termites increased organic matter and increased total nitrogen. Termite survival was reduced in microcosms with spoil and paper or straw amendments. Field studies evaluating the efficacy of organic amendments in developing a soil biota showed that decomposition rates of wood chip-bark amended spoil were the same as unmined soil and that decomposition rates were lower than all other mulch-spoil combinations. Wood and bark amended-spoil had the highest density and diversity of soil fauna. Top dressing spoils with borrow soil did not improve any of the soil biological parameters measured. Based on these data it was recommended that reclamation procedures be changed to eliminate borrow soil top-dressing and that wood removed from mined areas be returned to the contoured spoil as wood chip amendment in addition to straw mulch.

  14. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  15. Removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and toxicological response of Cyperus alternifolius exposed to PhACs in microcosm constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Feng, Guozhong; Gao, Xu; Sun, Chengxiao; Guo, Jin-song; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of selected four pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, and roxithromycin) on the photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes of Cyperus alternifolius in constructed wetlands (CWs). Moreover, the removal and kinetics of PhACs in CWs were evaluated to explore the related removal mechanisms. Results showed that C. alternifolius can uptake and withstand certain PhACs. The PhAC tolerance of C. alternifolius might be attributed to their capacity to maintain relatively normal photosynthetic activity and elevated antioxidative defense. CWs offered comparable or even higher removal efficiencies for the selected PhACs compared with conventional WWTPs. The removal of the target PhACs was enhanced in the planted CWs versus the unplanted CWs mostly because of plant uptake and rhizosphere effects. In particular, carbamazepine, which is considered the most recalcitrant of the PhACs, was significantly reduced (p<0.05). The removal of target PhACs fitted into two distinct periods. The initial fast step (within the first 2 h) was essentially attributed to the adsorption onto the CW medium surface. The subsequent slow process (2-12 h) closely followed first-order kinetics probably because of the interaction between microorganisms and plants. The obtained results indicate that C. alternifolius can phytoremediate PhAC-contaminated waters in CWs. PMID:26465971

  16. Removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and toxicological response of Cyperus alternifolius exposed to PhACs in microcosm constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Feng, Guozhong; Gao, Xu; Sun, Chengxiao; Guo, Jin-song; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of selected four pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, and roxithromycin) on the photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes of Cyperus alternifolius in constructed wetlands (CWs). Moreover, the removal and kinetics of PhACs in CWs were evaluated to explore the related removal mechanisms. Results showed that C. alternifolius can uptake and withstand certain PhACs. The PhAC tolerance of C. alternifolius might be attributed to their capacity to maintain relatively normal photosynthetic activity and elevated antioxidative defense. CWs offered comparable or even higher removal efficiencies for the selected PhACs compared with conventional WWTPs. The removal of the target PhACs was enhanced in the planted CWs versus the unplanted CWs mostly because of plant uptake and rhizosphere effects. In particular, carbamazepine, which is considered the most recalcitrant of the PhACs, was significantly reduced (p<0.05). The removal of target PhACs fitted into two distinct periods. The initial fast step (within the first 2 h) was essentially attributed to the adsorption onto the CW medium surface. The subsequent slow process (2-12 h) closely followed first-order kinetics probably because of the interaction between microorganisms and plants. The obtained results indicate that C. alternifolius can phytoremediate PhAC-contaminated waters in CWs.

  17. Activity of soil dehydrogenases, urease, and acid and alkaline phosphatases in soil polluted with petroleum.

    PubMed

    Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) determine the effects of petroleum pollution on changes in the biochemical properties of soil and (2) demonstrate whether the application of compost, bentonite, and calcium oxide is likely to restore biological balance. Petroleum soil pollution at a dose ranging from 2.5 to 10 cm(3)/kg disturbed the biochemical balance as evidenced by inhibition of the activities of soil dehydrogenases (SDH), urease (URE), and acid phosphatase (ACP). The greatest change was noted in the activity of SDH, whereas the least change occurred in URE. Petroleum significantly increased the activity of soil alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in soil used for spring rape, whereas in soil used for oat harvest there was decreased ALP activity. The application of compost, bentonite, and calcium oxide to soil proved effective in mitigating the adverse effects of petroleum on the activities of soil enzymes. Soil enrichment with compost, bentonite, and calcium oxide was found to stimulate the activities of URE and ALP and inhibit the activity of ACP. The influence of bentonite and calcium oxide was greater than that of compost. Calcium oxide and, to a lesser extent, compost were found to increase the activity of SDH, whereas bentonite exerted the opposite effect, especially in the case of the main crop, spring rape. The activities of SDH, URE, and ACP were higher in soil used for rape than that for oats. In contrast the activity of ALP was higher in soil used for oats. Data thus indicate that compost and especially bentonite and calcium oxide exerted a positive effect on activities of some enzymes in soil polluted with petroleum. Application of neutralizing additives to soil restored soil biological balance by counteracting the negative influence of petroleum on activities of URE and ALP. PMID:20706945

  18. Evaluation of soil biological activity after a diesel fuel spill.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Tejada, M; Gallego, M; Gonzalez, J L

    2009-06-15

    Diesel fuel contamination in soils may be toxic to soil microorganisms and plants and acts as a source of groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil biological activity and phytotoxicity to garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) in a soil polluted with diesel fuel. For this, a diesel fuel spill was simulated on agricultural soil at dose 1 l m(-2). During the experiment (400 days) the soil was not covered in vegetation and no agricultural tasks were carried out. A stress period of 18 days following the spill led to a decrease in soil biological activity, reflected by the soil microbial biomass and soil enzymatic activities, after which it increased again. The n-C(17)/Pristine and n-C(18)/Phytane ratios were correlated negatively and significantly with the dehydrogenase, arylsulphatase, protease, phosphatase and urease activities and with the soil microbial biomass during the course of the experiment. The beta-glucosidase activity indicated no significant connection with the parameters related with the evolution of hydrocarbons in the soil. Finally, the germination activity of the soil was seen to recover 200 days after the spill.

  19. Fate of neptunium in an anaerobic, methanogenic microcosm.

    SciTech Connect

    Banaszak, J. E.

    1998-12-21

    Neptunium is found predominantly as Np(IV) in reducing environments, but Np(V) in aerobic environments. However, currently it is not known how the interplay between biotic and abiotic processes affects Np redox speciation in the environment. In order to evaluate the effect of anaerobic microbial activity on the fate of Np in natural systems, Np(V) was added to a microcosminoculated with anaerobic sediments from a metal-contaminated fresh water lake. The consortium included metal-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms, and acetate was supplied as the only exogenous substrate. Addition of more than 10{sup {minus}5} M Np did not inhibit methane production. Total Np volubility in the active microcosm, as well as in sterilized control samples, decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude. A combination of analytical techniques, including VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy and XANES, identified Np(IV) as the oxidation state associated with the sediments. The similar results from the active microcosm and the abiotic controls suggest that microbian y produced Mn(II/HI) and Fe(II) may serve as electron donors for Np reduction.

  20. Effects of copper fungicide residues on the microbial function of vineyard soils.

    PubMed

    Wightwick, Adam M; Salzman, Scott A; Reichman, Suzanne M; Allinson, Graeme; Menzies, Neal W

    2013-03-01

    The use of copper-based fungicides leads to an accumulation of copper (Cu) in vineyard soils, potentially causing adverse effects to the microbial function and fertility of the soil. This study used a soil microcosm approach to assess the effects of Cu accumulation on microbial function in vineyard soils. Surface soil samples were collected from 10 vineyards and a number of un-impacted reference sites in each of three different viticultural regions of Australia. The field-collected soils were transferred to microcosms and maintained for up to 93 days in the laboratory at 20-22 °C and 60 % of their maximum water-holding capacity. The microbial function of the soils was indicated by measuring phosphomonoesterase, arylsulfatase, urease, and phenol oxidase activities. In general, the vineyard soils had greater concentrations of Cu and lower enzyme activities than in the reference soils, although a weak negative relationship between Cu and enzyme activity could only be found for phosphomonoesterase activity. The results show that soil physical-chemical properties (i.e., organic carbon, pH) are greater determinants of soil enzyme activity than increased soil Cu concentration at the Cu concentrations present in vineyard soils. PMID:22890509

  1. Effects of butachlor on microbial enzyme activities in paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Min, Hang; Ye, Yang-Fang; Chen, Zhong-Yun; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Du, Yu-Feng

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports the influences of the herbicide butachlor (n-butoxymethl-chloro-2', 6'-diethylacetnilide) on microbial respiration, nitrogen fixation and nitrification, and on the activities of dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxidase in paddy soil. The results showed that after application of butachlor with concentrations of 5.5 micrograms/g dried soil, 11.0 micrograms/g dried soil and 22.0 micrograms/g dried soil, the application of butachlor enhanced the activity of dehydrogenase at increasing concentrations. The soil dehydrogenase showed the highest activity on the 16th day after application of 22.0 micrograms/g dried soil of butachlor. The hydrogen peroxidase could be stimulated by butachlor. The soil respiration was depressed within a period from several days to more than 20 days, depending on concentrations of butachlor applied. Both the nitrogen fixation and nitrification were stimulated in the beginning but reduced greatly afterwards in paddy soil.

  2. Soil Microbial Activity Elucidates Unique Soil Carbon Transport Patterns within Resource Islands on Semi-Arid Hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLain, J. E.; Lohse, K. A.; Harman, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Shrublands in semi-arid regions are associated with heterogeneous landscapes with infertile bare areas separated by nutrient rich vegetated areas known as resource islands. However this conceptual understanding of plant-soil feedbacks is based predominantly on research performed on stable or depositional geomorphic surfaces, and it is unclear whether these patterns and autogenic processes hold on sloping terrain. We used vegetation mapping and soil sampling to investigate the spatial distribution of soil organic matter and microtopography on two steeper hillslopes of contrasting lithology (one granite, one schist) in the Sonoran desert foothills of the Catalina Mountains. Soil samples were collected from ten transects at each site, and aimed to quantify the spatial redistribution of the soil organic matter under individual canopies. Five of the transects were oriented downslope below woody shrubs and Velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina). Samples were taken directly below the center of the canopy, at three points upslope, and three points downslope. Surface grab samples were collected and brought to the laboratory, where they were sieved to 2 mm, and 10 g (air-dry weight) samples were placed into microcosms, brought to 80% field capacity with sterile water, and net carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution was measured over 4 days in triplicate microcosms for each soil sample. Highest net microbial CO2 evolution (8.3 μg CO2 g-1 soil d-1) was observed immediately downslope from woody plants on gently sloping granite sites and gradually decreased to a minimum of 3.0 μg CO2 g-1 soil d-1 at the farthest downslope collection point. The upslope transect showed highest net microbial CO2 evolution closest to the canopy (6.3 μg CO2 g-1 soil d-1) but upslope decreased to the lowest measured CO2 production measured (averaging < 1.5 μg CO2 g-1 soil d-1 at both upslope sampling sites). The CO2 evolution patterns were less pronounced on the schist sites, where slopes were much steeper

  3. Biotic and abiotic degradation of CL-20 and RDX in soils.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Fiona H; Thompson, Karen T; Szecsody, James E; Fredrickson, Herbert L

    2005-01-01

    The caged cyclic nitramine 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) is a new explosive that has the potential to replace existing military explosives, but little is known about its environmental toxicity, transport, and fate. We quantified and compared the aerobic environmental fate of CL-20 to the widely used cyclic nitramine explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in surface and subsurface soil microcosms. Soil-free controls and biologically attenuated soil controls were used to separate abiotic processes from biologically mediated processes. Both abiotic and biological processes significantly degraded CL-20 in all soils examined. Apparent abiotic, first-order degradation rates (k) for CL-20 were not significantly different between soil-free controls (0.018 < k < 0.030 d(-1)) and biologically attenuated soil controls (0.003 < k < 0.277 d(-1)). The addition of glucose to biologically active soil microcosms significantly increased CL-20 degradation rates (0.068 < k < 1.22 d(-1)). Extents of mineralization of (14)C-CL-20 to (14)CO(2) in biologically active soil microcosms were 41.1 to 55.7%, indicating that the CL-20 cage was broken, since all carbons are part of the heterocyclic cage. Under aerobic conditions, abiotic degradation rates of RDX were generally slower (0 < k < 0.032 d(-1)) than abiotic CL-20 degradation rates. In biologically active soil microcosms amended with glucose aerobic RDX degradation rates varied between 0.010 and 0.474 d(-1). Biodegradation was a key factor in determining the environmental fate of RDX, while a combination of biotic and abiotic processes was important with CL-20. Our data suggest that CL-20 should be less recalcitrant than RDX in aerobic soils. PMID:16275722

  4. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide exchange in bog microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, A.; Klinger, L.F.; Erickson, D.J. III )

    1993-01-22

    Measurements of Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) fluxes were carried out on bog microcosms using chamber sampling and tunable diode laser analysis. Intact bog microcosms (vascular plants, mosses, and peat) removed ambient levels of OCS in the light and dark with rates from [minus]2.4 to [minus]8.1 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2]. Peat and peat plus mosses emitted OCS in the light with rates of 17.4 and 10.9 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2], respectively. In the dark, the mosses apparently removed OCS at a rate equivalent to the peat emissions. A 3-D numerical tracer model using this data indicated that boreal bog ecosystems remove at most 1% of ambient OCS, not sufficient to account for an observed OCS depletion in boreal air masses. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Effects of soil type and farm management on soil ecological functional genes and microbial activities

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, Jennifer; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne; Kang, S.; Zhou, Jizhong; Reganold, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil function are the subject of much debate. Process-level analyses have shown that microbial function varies with soil type and responds to soil management. However, such measurements cannot determine the role of community structure and diversity in soil function. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of gene frequency and diversity, measured by microarray analysis, on soil processes. The study was conducted in an agro-ecosystem characterized by contrasting management practices and soil types. Eight pairs of adjacent commercial organic and conventional strawberry fields were matched for soil type, strawberry variety, and all other environmental conditions. Soil physical, chemical and biological analyses were conducted including functional gene microarrays (FGA). Soil physical and chemical characteristics were primarily determined by soil textural type (coarse vs fine-textured), but biological and FGA measures were more influenced by management (organic vs conventional). Organically managed soils consistently showed greater functional activity as well as FGA signal intensity (SI) and diversity. Overall FGA SI and diversity were correlated to total soil microbial biomass. Functional gene group SI and/or diversity were correlated to related soil chemical and biological measures such as microbial biomass, cellulose, dehydrogenase, ammonium and sulfur. Management was the dominant determinant of soil biology as measured by microbial gene frequency and diversity, which paralleled measured microbial processes.

  6. Extracellular proteases are released by ciliates in defined seawater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Thao, Ngo Vy; Nozawa, Akino; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Yokokawa, Taichi; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-08-01

    The biodegradation of proteins in seawater requires various proteases which are commonly thought to be mainly derived from heterotrophic bacteria. We, however, found that protists showed a high protease activity and continuously produced trypsin-type enzymes. The free-living marine heterotrophic ciliate Paranophrys marina together with an associated bacterium was isolated and used for microcosm incubation with different concentrations of killed bacteria as food for 10 days. The results showed that the co-existence of the ciliate with its associated bacterium produced a significant protease activity in both cell-associated and cell-free fractions while that in the associated bacterium only microcosm was negligible. The protease profiles are different between cell-associated and cell-free fractions, and a trypsin-type enzyme hydrolyzing Boc-Val-Leu-Lys-MCA was detected throughout the period in the presence of ciliates. This suggests that ciliates release proteases into the surrounding environment which could play a role in protein digestion outside cells. It has been previously suggested that bacteria are the major transformers in seawater. We here present additional data which indicates that protists, or at least ciliates with their specific enzymes, are a potential player in organic matter degradation in water columns.

  7. Extracellular proteases are released by ciliates in defined seawater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Thao, Ngo Vy; Nozawa, Akino; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Yokokawa, Taichi; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-08-01

    The biodegradation of proteins in seawater requires various proteases which are commonly thought to be mainly derived from heterotrophic bacteria. We, however, found that protists showed a high protease activity and continuously produced trypsin-type enzymes. The free-living marine heterotrophic ciliate Paranophrys marina together with an associated bacterium was isolated and used for microcosm incubation with different concentrations of killed bacteria as food for 10 days. The results showed that the co-existence of the ciliate with its associated bacterium produced a significant protease activity in both cell-associated and cell-free fractions while that in the associated bacterium only microcosm was negligible. The protease profiles are different between cell-associated and cell-free fractions, and a trypsin-type enzyme hydrolyzing Boc-Val-Leu-Lys-MCA was detected throughout the period in the presence of ciliates. This suggests that ciliates release proteases into the surrounding environment which could play a role in protein digestion outside cells. It has been previously suggested that bacteria are the major transformers in seawater. We here present additional data which indicates that protists, or at least ciliates with their specific enzymes, are a potential player in organic matter degradation in water columns. PMID:26115436

  8. Effects of organic dairy manure amendment on soil phosphatase activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairy production is increasing in the U.S. due to concerns over environmental, human, and animal health. It is well known that the application of livestock manure to soil can influence enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling and soil fertility, such as soil phosphatases; however, orga...

  9. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.

    2004-01-01

    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  10. [Relationship among soil enzyme activities, vegetation state, and soil chemical properties of coal cinder yard].

    PubMed

    Wang, Youbao; Zhang, Li; Liu, Dengyi

    2003-01-01

    From field investigation and laboratory analysis, the relationships among soil enzyme activities, vegetation state and soil chemical properties of coal cinder yard in thermal power station were studied. The results showed that vegetation on coal cinder yard was distributed in scattered patch mainly with single species of plant, and herbs were the dominant species. At the same time, the activity of three soil enzymes had a stronger relativity to environment conditions, such as vegetation state and soil chemical properties. The sensitivity of three soil enzymes to environmental stress was in order of urease > sucrase > catalase. The relativity of three soil enzymes to environmental factor was in order of sucrase > urease > catalase. Because of urease being the most susceptible enzyme to environmental conditions, and it was marked or utmost marked interrelated with vegetation state and soil chemical properties, urease activity could be used as an indicator for the reclamation of wasteland.

  11. Creating a Community. A Microcosm that Develops Career Awareness. Career Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winograd, Myra

    Intended for use by teachers in elementary and junior high schools, this booklet offers ten classroom activities to create a community microcosm which would enable students to develop awareness of career opportunities and of community values and priorities. As a lead-in exercise, lesson 1 suggests two films for the class to view and discuss.…

  12. Alteration of Rock Fragments from Columbia River Basalt Microcosms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Velbel, Michael A.; McKay, David S.; Stevens, Todd O.

    1999-01-01

    During an earlier study, microorganisms were grown microcosms consisting of sterilized chips of Columbia River Basalt (CRB) and natural CRB ground water with its natural microflora; environmental conditions simulated a deep subsurface, anaerobic, dark environment. Subsequent scanning and transmission electron microscope (SEM and TEM) studies revealed the presence of several types of bacteria and biofilm, some of which were mineralized. Some of these biological features are very similar to possible biogenic features found in two meteorites from Mars, ALH84001 (found in Antarctica) and Nakhla (observed to fall in Egypt). Both ALH84001 and Nakhla contain traces of low-temperature aqueous alteration of silicates, oxides, and sulfides. The goals of this study are to use high-resolution field-emission SEM (FE-SEM) to examine the CRB samples for evidence of alteration features similar to those in the martian meteorites, to determine the extent of alteration during the CRB microcosm experiments, and to determine whether effects of biological activity can be distinguished from inorganic effects.

  13. Biotic and Abiotic Degradation of CL-20 and RDX in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, Fiona H.; Thompson, Karen T.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.

    2005-11-01

    The caged cyclic nitramine 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) is a new explosive that has the potential to replace existing military explosives, but little is known about its environmental toxicity, transport, and fate. We quantified and compared the aerobic environmental fate of CL-20 to the widely used cyclic nitramine explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in surface and subsurface soil microcosms. Soil-free controls and biologically mediated processes. Both abiotic and biological processes significantly degraded CL-20 in all soils examined. Apparent abiotic, first-order degradation rates (k) for CL-20 were not significantly different between soil-free controls (0.018 < k < 0.030 d-1) and biologically attenuated soil controls (0.003 active soil microcosms significantly increased CL-20 degradation rates (0.068 < k <1.22 d-1). Extents of mineralization of 14C–CL-20 to 14CO2 in biologically active soil microcosms were 41.1 to 55.7%, indicating that the CL-20 cage was broken, since all carbons are part of the heterocyclic cage. Under aerobic conditions, abiotic degradation rates of RDX were generally slower (0 < k < 0.032 d-1) than abiotic CL-20 degradation rates. In biologically active soil microcosms amended with glucose aerobic RDX degradation rates varied between 0.010 and 0.474 d-1. Biodegradation was a key factor in determining the environmental fate of RDX, while a combination of biotic and abiotic processes was important with CL-20. Our data suggest that CL-20 should be less recalcitrant than RDX in aerobic soils.

  14. Response of soil microbial activity and biodiversity in soils polluted with different concentrations of cypermethrin insecticide.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Manuel; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez, Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    We performed a laboratory study into the effect of cypermethrin insecticide applied to different concentrations on biological properties in two soils [Typic Xerofluvent (soil A) and Xerollic Calciorthid (soil B)]. Two kg of each soil were polluted with cypermethrin at a rate of 60, 300, 600, and 1,200 g ha(-1) (C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments). A nonpolluted soil was used as a control (C0 treatment). For all treatments and each experimental soil, soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and arylsulphatase activities and soil microbial community were analysed by phospholipid fatty acids, which were measured at six incubation times (3, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The behavior of the enzymatic activities and microbial population were dependent on the dose of insecticide applied to the soil. Compared with the C0 treatment, in soil A, the maximum inhibition of the enzymatic activities was at 15, 30, 45, and 90 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. However, in soil B, the maximum inhibition occurred at 7, 15, 30, and 45 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the cypermethrin insecticide caused a negative effect on soil enzymatic activities and microbial diversity. This negative impact was greater when a greater dose of insecticide was used; this impact was also greater in soil with lower organic matter content. For both soils, and from these respective days onward, the enzymatic activities and microbial populations progressively increased by the end of the experimental period. This is possibly due to the fact that the insecticide or its breakdown products and killed microbial cells, subsequently killed by the insecticide, are being used as a source of energy or as a carbon source for the surviving microorganisms for cell proliferation.

  15. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Moran, Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP measurements will allow global and high-resolution mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state at resolutions from 3-40 km. These measurements will have high value for a wide range of environmental applications that underpin many weather-related decisions including drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate predictions, and human health risk. In 2007, NASA was tasked by The National Academies to ensure that emerging scientific knowledge is actively applied to obtain societal benefits by broadening community participation and improving means for use of information. SMAP is one of the first missions to come out of this new charge, and its Applications Plan forms the basis for ensuring its commitment to its users. The purpose of this paper is to outline the methods and approaches of the SMAP applications activity, which is designed to increase and sustain the interaction between users and scientists involved in mission development.

  16. Stimulation of Mercury Methylation by Coal Ash in Anaerobic Sediment Microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, G.; Hsu-Kim, H.; Redfern, L.; Gunsch, C.; Vengosh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coal combustion products (coal ash) represent one of the largest industrial waste streams in the United States. Coal ash contains elevated levels of toxic, bioaccumulative elements such as mercury (Hg), yet the majority of coal ash waste is stored in unlined impoundments and landfills. These impoundments have a long history of environmental degradation, including: groundwater contamination, surface water contamination through impoundment effluent discharge, and impoundment failures resulting in catastrophic ash release events. The fate of toxic elements associated with coal ash is greatly influenced by environmental parameters, such as redox potential and microbial activity, which induce transformations and leaching of contaminants. Here we used anaerobic sediment-ash microcosms to determine how coal ash impacts methyl mercury (MeHg) production in a simulated benthic aquatic environment. We used two coal ash types in the microcosms: a weathered ash with low sulfate/Hg content and a fresh fly ash that was relatively enriched in sulfate/Hg compared to the weathered ash. Two different sediments were used in the microcosms: one was a pristine sediment (containing 0.03 mg/kg Hg) and the other was a relatively Hg-contaminated sediment (containing 0.29 mg/kg Hg). Results showed that microcosms amended with the low sulfate/low Hg ash had no net MeHg production. In contrast, microcosms amended with high sulfate/high Hg ash showed increases in MeHg concentrations that were 2 to 3 times greater than control microcosms without ash, indicating that coal ash can stimulate MeHg production by providing spikes of Hg and labile sulfate to the aquatic system. MeHg production in ash-amended microcosms containing contaminated sediment was no greater than in the ash-amended pristine sediment microcosms. This may indicate that Hg associated with coal ash is more bioavailable than the Hg present in historically contaminated sediments. Illumina sequencing is underway to investigate the

  17. [Effect of fertilization levels on soil microorganism amount and soil enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fu-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2013-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Shangluo pharmaceutical base in Shaanxi province to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different fertilization levels on Platycodon grandiflorum soil microorganism and activities of soil enzyme, using three-factor D-saturation optimal design with random block design. The results showed that N0P2K2, N2P2K0, N3P1K3 and N3P3K1 increased the amount of bacteria in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 144.34%, 39.25%, 37.17%, 53.58%, respectively. The amount of bacteria in 2040 cm of soil of N3P1K3 increased by 163.77%, N0P0K3 increased the amount of soil actinomycetes significantly by 192.11%, while other treatments had no significant effect. N2P0K2 and N3P1K3 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0, increased by 35.27% and 92.21%, respectively. N3P0K0 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 20-40 cm of soil by 165.35%, while other treatments had no significant effect. All treatments decrease soil catalase activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil except for N2P0K2, and while N2P2K0 and NPK increased catalase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil. Fertilization regime increased invertase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil, and decreased phosphatase activity inordinately in 0-20 cm of soil, while increased phosphatase activity in 2040 cm of soil other than N1P3K3. N3P0K0, N0P0K3, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and NPK increased soil urease activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 18.22%, 14.87%,17.84%, 27.88%, 24.54%, respectively. Fertilization regime increased soil urease activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil other than N0P2K2. PMID:24558863

  18. Measurement of microbial biomass and activity in landfill soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J. E.; Miller, R. M.; Spokas, K.; Environmental Research

    1995-01-01

    Two complementary techniques, which have been widely used to provide a general measure of microbial biomass or microbial activity in natural soils, were evaluated for their applicability to soils from the Mallard North and Mallard Lake Landfills, DuPage County, Illinois, U.S.A. Included were: (1) a potassium sulphate extraction technique with quantification of organic carbon for measurement of microbial biomass; and (2) an arginine ammonification technique for microbial activity. Four profiles consisting of replaced soils were sampled for this study; units included topsoil (mixed mollisol A and B horizons), compacted clay cover (local calcareous Wisconsinan age glacial till), and mixed soil/refuse samples. Internally consistent results across the four profiles and good correlations with other independent indicators of microbial activity (moisture, organic matter content, nitrogen, and phosphorus) suggest that, even though these techniques were developed mainly for natural mineral soils, they are also applicable to disturbed landfill soils.

  19. Evaluation of terrestrial microcosms for assessing the fate and effects of genetically engineered microorganisms on ecological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Bentjen, S.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McFadden, K.M.; Van Voris, P.

    1989-04-01

    This project evaluates and modifies the existing US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (EPA/OPTS) terrestrial microcosm test system and test protocols such that they can be used to determine the environmental fate and ecological hazards of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). The intact soil-core microcosm represents terrestrial ecosystems, and when coupled with appropriate test protocols, such microcosms may be appropriate to define and limit risks associated with the intentional release of GEMs. The terrestrial microcosm test system was used to investigate the survival and transport of two model GEMs (Azospirillum lipoferum and Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants) to various trophic levels and niches and through intact soil cores. Subsequent effects on nutrient cycling and displacement of indigenous microorganisms were evaluated. The model organisms were a diazotrophic root-colonizing bacterium (A. lipoferum) and a wheat root growth-inhibiting rhizobacterium (Pseudomonas sp.). The transposable element Tn5 was used as a genetic marker for both microorganisms in two separate experiments. The organisms were subjected to transposon mutagenesis using a broad host-range-mobilizable suicide plasmid. The transposon Tn5 conferred levels of kanamycin resistance up to 500 ..mu..g/ml (Pseudomonas sp.), which allowed for selection of the bacteria from environmental samples. The presence of Tn5 DNA in the genome of the model GEMs also allowed the use of Tn5 gene probes to confirm and enumerate the microorganisms in different samples from the microcosms. Two types of root growth-inhibiting Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants were obtained and used in microcosm studies: those that lacked the ability to inhibit either wheat root growth or the growth of other microorganisms in vitro (tox/sup /minus//) and those which retained these properties (tox/sup +/). 53 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Microbial Community Structure and Enzyme Activities in Semiarid Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-Martinez, V. A.; Zobeck, T. M.; Gill, T. E.; Kennedy, A. C.

    2002-12-01

    The effect of agricultural management practices on the microbial community structure and enzyme activities of semiarid soils of different textures in the Southern High Plains of Texas were investigated. The soils (sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam and loam) were under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or in rotations with peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and had different water management (irrigated or dryland) and tillage (conservation or conventional). Microbial community structure was investigated using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis by gas chromatography and enzyme activities, involved in C, N, P and S cycling of soils, were measured (mg product released per kg soil per h). The activities of b-glucosidase, b-glucosaminidase, alkaline phosphatase, and arylsulfatase were significantly (P<0.05) increased in soils under cotton rotated with sorghum or wheat, and due to conservation tillage in comparison to continuous cotton under conventional tillage. Principal component analysis showed FAME profiles of these soils separated distinctly along PC1 (20 %) and PC2 (13 %) due to their differences in soil texture and management. No significant differences were detected in FAME profiles due to management practices for the same soils in this sampling period. Enzyme activities provide early indications of the benefits in microbial populations and activities and soil organic matter under crop rotations and conservation tillage in comparison to the typical practices in semiarid regions of continuous cotton and conventional tillage.

  1. Effects of organic carbon sequestration strategies on soil enzymatic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, E.; Suciu, N.; Botteri, L.; Ferrari, T.; Coppolecchia, D.; Trevisan, M.; Piccolo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Greenhouse gases emissions can be counterbalanced with proper agronomical strategies aimed at sequestering carbon in soils. These strategies must be tested not only for their ability in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, but also for their impact on soil quality: enzymatic activities are related to main soil ecological quality, and can be used as early and sensitive indicators of alteration events. Three different strategies for soil carbon sequestration were studied: minimum tillage, protection of biodegradable organic fraction by compost amendment and oxidative polimerization of soil organic matter catalyzed by biometic porfirins. All strategies were compared with a traditional agricultural management based on tillage and mineral fertilization. Experiments were carried out in three Italian soils from different pedo-climatic regions located respectively in Piacenza, Turin and Naples and cultivated with maize or wheat. Soil samples were taken for three consecutive years after harvest and analyzed for their content in phosphates, ß-glucosidase, urease and invertase. An alteration index based on these enzymatic activities levels was applied as well. The biomimetic porfirin application didn't cause changes in enzymatic activities compared to the control at any treatment or location. Enzymatic activities were generally higher in the minimum tillage and compost treatment, while differences between location and date of samplings were limited. Application of the soil alteration index based on enzymatic activities showed that soils treated with compost or subjected to minimum tillage generally have a higher biological quality. The work confirms the environmental sustainability of the carbon sequestering agronomical practices studied.

  2. Effects of salinity on treatment of municipal wastewater by constructed mangrove wetland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Tam, N F Y; Wong, M H

    2008-01-01

    The effects of salinity on the removal of dissolved organic carbon and nutrients from municipal wastewater by constructed mangrove microcosms planted with Aegiceras corniculatum were investigated. During the four-month wastewater treatment, the treatment efficiency was reduced by high salinity, and the removal percentages of dissolved organic carbon, ammonia-N and inorganic N dropped from 91% to 71%, from 98% to 83% and from 78% to 56%, respectively, with salinity increasing from 0 to 30 parts per thousands (ppt). In spite of such inhibition at high salinity, 100% of the effluents discharge from the constructed mangrove microcosms still complied with the discharge standards set by the Hong Kong Government for Coastal Water Control Zones. These results suggested that constructed mangrove wetland treatment systems were promising to effectively treat municipal wastewater, even those with high salinity. In addition, the denitrification potential in soil was found to be retarded by the high salinity while mangrove plants grew best at 15 ppt salinity condition.

  3. Assimilation of Passive and Active Microwave Soil Moisture Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, C. S.; Reichle, R. H.; DeLannoy, G. J. M.; Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Root-zone soil moisture is an important control over the partition of land surface energy and moisture, and the assimilation of remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture has been shown to improve model profile soil moisture [1]. To date, efforts to assimilate remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture at large scales have focused on soil moisture derived from the passive microwave Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the active Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT; together with its predecessor on the European Remote Sensing satellites (ERS. The assimilation of passive and active microwave soil moisture observations has not yet been directly compared, and so this study compares the impact of assimilating ASCAT and AMSR-E soil moisture data, both separately and together. Since the soil moisture retrieval skill from active and passive microwave data is thought to differ according to surface characteristics [2], the impact of each assimilation on the model soil moisture skill is assessed according to land cover type, by comparison to in situ soil moisture observations.

  4. Activity concentration of caesium-137 in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Mahmoud A A; Aytas, Sule; Akyil, Sema; Yaprak, Gunseli; Yener, Gungor; Eral, Meral

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we measured 137Cs activity concentrations in the soil samples taken from agricultural lands in the Buyuk Menderes Basin in Turkey in 1997 and 1998. The soil samples were collected from 42 sites in this Basin. The activity concentration of 137Cs was found to range between 2.81+/-0.17 Bq.kg(-1) and 20.75+/-0.29 Bq.kg(-1). The effect of organic matter, clay, silt and sand contents and pH of the soil on the relative adsorption of the 137Cs on the soil surface were also studied.

  5. Soil surface disturbances in cold deserts: Effects on nitrogenase activity in cyanobacterial-lichen soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne

    1996-01-01

    CyanobacteriaMichen soil crusts can be a dominant source of nitrogen for cold-desert ecosystems. Effects of surface disturbance from footprints, bike and vehicle tracks on the nitrogenase activity in these crusts was investigated. Surface disturbances reduced nitrogenase activity by 30-100%. Crusts dominated by the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus on sandy soils were the most susceptible to disruption; crusts on gypsiferous soils were the least susceptible. Crusts where the soil lichen Collema tenax was present showed less immediate effects; however, nitrogenase activity still declined over time. Levels of nitrogenase activity reduction were affected by the degree of soil disruption and whether sites were dominated by cyanobacteria with or without heterocysts. Consequently, anthropogenic surface disturbances may have serious implications for nitrogen budgets in these ecosystems.

  6. Microbial Enzyme Activity and Carbon Cycling in Grassland Soil Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. D.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes are necessary to degrade complex organic compounds present in soils. Using physical fractionation procedures, we tested whether old soil carbon is spatially isolated from degradative enzymes across a prairie restoration chronosequence in Illinois, USA. We found that carbon-degrading enzymes were abundant in all soil fractions, including macroaggregates, microaggregates, and the clay fraction, which contains carbon with a mean residence time of ~200 years. The activities of two cellulose-degrading enzymes and a chitin-degrading enzyme were 2-10 times greater in organic matter fractions than in bulk soil, consistent with the rapid turnover of these fractions. Polyphenol oxidase activity was 3 times greater in the clay fraction than in the bulk soil, despite very slow carbon turnover in this fraction. Changes in enzyme activity across the restoration chronosequence were small once adjusted for increases in soil carbon concentration, although polyphenol oxidase activity per unit carbon declined by 50% in native prairie versus cultivated soil. These results are consistent with a `two-pool' model of enzyme and carbon turnover in grassland soils. In light organic matter fractions, enzyme production and carbon turnover both occur rapidly. However, in mineral-dominated fractions, both enzymes and their carbon substrates are immobilized on mineral surfaces, leading to slow turnover. Soil carbon accumulation in the clay fraction and across the prairie restoration chronosequence probably reflects increasing physical isolation of enzymes and substrates on the molecular scale, rather than the micron to millimeter scale.

  7. Soil organic components distribution in a podzol and the possible relations with the biological soil activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Verstraeten, Arne; Curcio, Elena; Cools, Nathalie; Lozano-Garcia, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Coppola, Elio

    2016-04-01

    This research reports the preliminary results of a study based on the SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) fractionation in a pine forest soil (Pinus nigra). Hyperskeletic Albic Podzol soil (P113005, World Reference Base, 2014), described by the following sequence O-Ah-E-Bh-Bs-Cg, was investigated at Zoniën, Belgium. Total (TOC) and extractable (TEC) soil contents were determined by Italian official method of soil analysis. Different soil C fractions were also determined: Humic Acid Carbon (HAC) and Fulvic Acid Carbon (FAC). Not Humic Carbon (NHC) and Humin Carbon (Huc) fractions were obtained by difference. Along the mineral soil profile, therefore, were also tested some enzymatic activities, such as cellulase, xylanase, laccase and peroxidase, involved in the degradation of the main organic substance components, and dehydrogenase activity, like soil microbial biomass index. The results shows a differential TEC fractions distribution in the soil profile along three fronts of progress: (i) An E leaching horizon of TEC; Bh horizon (humic) of humic acids preferential accumulation, morphologically and analytically recognizable, in which humic are more insoluble that fulvic acids, and predominate over the latter; (ii) horizon Bs (spodic) in which fulvic acids are more soluble that humic acid, and predominate in their turn. All enzyme activities appear to be highest in the most superficial part of the mineral profile and decrease towards the deeper layers with different patterns. It is known that the enzymes production in a soil profile reflects the organic substrates availability, which in turn influences the density and the composition of the microbial population. The deeper soil horizons contain microbial communities adapted and specialized to their environment and, therefore, different from those present on the surface The results suggest that the fractionation technique of TEC is appropriate to interpret the podsolisation phenomenon that is the preferential distribution of

  8. Persistence of biologically active compounds in soil: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.E.

    1987-02-01

    This document describes the long-term effects of soil-applied oil shale process water on the VA fungi and Rhizobium bacteria in a native soil. Techniques include assessing the VA fungal activity at field treatment plots and using treated field soils in a bioassay to determine VA infection and Rhizobium-nodulation potentials four years after process water application. 52 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Effect of fire residues (ash and char) on microbial activity, respiration and methanogenesis in three subtropical wetland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeff, C.; Hogue, B.; Inglett, P.

    2011-12-01

    Prescribed fire is a common restoration and maintenance technique in the southern United States. Prescribed burns coupled with frequent natural fires in South Florida can have devastating effects on ecosystem function. To determine the effect fire residues have on carbon biogeochemical cycling litter material was obtained from two restored and one native marl wetland in Everglades National Park and manipulated in a laboratory setting to produce ash and vegetation derived char. Based on vegetation biomass removal pre and post fire (insitu) appropriate aliquots of each fire residue was added to experimental microcosms as a soil amendment. Soil enzymes (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phosphatase, bis-phosphate and leucine amino peptidase), aerobic and anaerobic respiration (CO2) potentials, extractable C and methanogenesis were measured over a 25 day period. Regardless of site C enzymes responded to both amendments within 5 days of addition. Similarly amended soil contained more extractable carbon in the reference and one of the restored sites. In the restored sites ash and char inhibited methanogenesis, had no effect on anaerobic CO2 potentials, but stimulated aerobic respiration after ten days. In contrast, within the first ten days phosphatase enzyme activity was lower in the ash treatment when compared to the control treatment and stimulation of aerobic respiration was observed in both treatment soils. After ten days ash stimulated methanogenic processing while suppressing anaerobic CO2 production suggesting methanogens in this ecosystem may be dependant on usable carbon substrates derived from aerobic microbial processing. This study illustrates the variable response of C parameters to complete and incomplete combusted materials produced from both prescribed and natural fires with particular importance to fire adapted ecosystems.

  10. Plant species richness enhanced the methane emission in experimental microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chong-Bang; Sun, Hong-Ying; Ge, Ying; Gu, Bao-Jing; Wang, Hai; Chang, Jie

    2012-12-01

    Effect of plant species richness on the methane (CH4) flux was investigated in vertical flow microcosms fed with the modified Hoagland solution. The CH4 flux increased significantly with the plant species richness (Linear regression analysis, r2 = 0.203, P = 0.010), with an average range from 1.59 to 4.30 mg m-2 d-1. Above-ground plant biomass followed the CH4 flux trend with the plant species richness (r2 = 0.108, P = 0.023), but both methanogenic number and activity decreased to different extents with the plant species richness (r2 = 0.103, P = 0.023; r2 = 0.020, P = 0.337), respectively. Accordingly, the present study highlights the significance of plant species diversity and its biomass production in manipulating the CH4 flux in the constructed wetlands.

  11. Phylogenetic Characterization of a Polychlorinated-Dioxin- Dechlorinating Microbial Community by Use of Microcosm Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Naoko; Takahashi, Nobutaka; Hiraishi, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Microcosms capable of reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were constructed in glass bottles by seeding them with a polluted river sediment and incubating them anaerobically with an organic medium. All of the PCDD/F congeners detected were equally reduced without the accumulation of significant amounts of less-chlorinated congeners as the intermediate or end products. Alternatively, large amounts of catechol and salicylic acid were produced in the upper aqueous phase. Thus, the dechlorination of PCDD/Fs and the oxidative degradation of the dechlorinated products seemed to take place simultaneously in the microcosm. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and clone library analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from the microcosm showed that members of the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes predominated. A significant number of Chloroflexi clones were also detected. Quantitative real-time PCR with specific primer sets showed that the 16S rRNA genes of a putative dechlorinator, “Dehalococcoides,” and its relatives accounted for 0.1% of the total rRNA gene copies of the microcosm. Most of the clones thus obtained formed a cluster distinct from the typical “Dehalococcoides” group. Quinone profiling indicated that ubiquinones accounted for 18 to 25% of the total quinone content, suggesting the coexistence and activity of ubiquinone-containing aerobic bacteria. These results suggest that the apparent complete dechlorination of PCDD/Fs found in the microcosm was due to a combination of the dechlorinating activity of the “Dehalococcoides”-like organisms and the oxidative degradation of the dechlorinated products by aerobic bacteria with aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenases. PMID:16085820

  12. Effects of cadium, zinc and lead on soil enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-xin; Liu, Shu-qing; Zheng, Da-wei; Feng, Sheng-dong

    2006-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) is a major hazard to the soil-plant system. This study investigated the combined effects of cadium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) on activities of four enzymes in soil, including calatase, urease, invertase and alkalin phosphatase. HM content in tops of canola and four enzymes activities in soil were analyzed at two months after the metal additions to the soil. Pb was not significantly inhibitory than the other heavy metals for the four enzyme activities and was shown to have a protective role on calatase activity in the combined presence of Cd, Zn and Pb; whereas Cd significantly inhibited the four enzyme activities, and Zn only inhibited urease and calatase activities. The inhibiting effect of Cd and Zn on urease and calatase activities can be intensified significantly by the additions of Zn and Cd. There was a negative synergistic inhibitory effect of Cd and Zn on the two enzymes in the presence of Cd, Zn and Pb. The urease activity was inhibited more by the HM combinations than by the metals alone and reduced approximately 20%-40% of urease activity. The intertase and alkaline phosphatase activities significantly decreased only with the increase of Cd concentration in the soil. It was shown that urease was much more sensitive to HM than the other enzymes. There was a obvious negative correlation between the ionic impulsion of HM in soil, the ionic impulsion of HM in canola plants tops and urease activity. It is concluded that the soil urease activity may be a sensitive tool for assessing additive toxic combination effect on soil biochemical parameters.

  13. Fate of pathogenic bacteria in microcosms mimicking human body sites.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Francesco; Ghidini, Valentina; Tafi, Maria Carla; Boaretti, Marzia; Lleo, Maria M

    2013-07-01

    During the infectious process, pathogens may reach anatomical sites where they are exposed to substances interfering with their growth. These substances can include molecules produced by the host, and his resident microbial population, as well as exogenous antibacterial drugs. Suboptimal concentrations of inhibitory molecules and stress conditions found in vivo (high or low temperatures, lack of oxygen, extreme pH) might induce in bacteria the activation of survival mechanisms blocking their division capability but allowing them to stay alive. These "dormant" bacteria can be reactivated in particular circumstances and would be able to express their virulence traits. In this study, it was evaluated the effect of some environmental conditions, such as optimal and suboptimal temperatures, direct light and antibiotic sub-inhibitory concentrations doses of antibiotic, on the human pathogens Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis when incubated in fluids accumulated in the body of patients with different pathologies. It is shown that inoculation in a number of accumulated body fluids and the presence of gentamicin, reliable conditions encountered during pathological states, induce stress-responding strategies enabling bacteria to persist in microcosms mimicking the human body. Significant differences were detected in Gram-negative and Gram-positive species with E. faecalis surviving, as starved or viable but non-culturable forms, in any microcosm and condition tested and E. coli activating a viable but non-culturable state only in some clinical samples. The persistence of bacteria under these conditions, being non-culturable, might explain some recurrent infections without isolation of the causative agent after application of the standard microbiological methods.

  14. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, Kent; Thurman, Sam; Edelstein, Wendy; Spencer, Michael; Chen, Gun-Shing; Underwood, Mark; Njoku, Eni; Goodman, Shawn; Jai, Benhan

    2013-01-01

    The SMAP mission will produce high-resolution and accurate global maps of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state using data from a non-imaging synthetic aperture radar and a radiometer, both operating at L-band.

  15. Utilization of active microwave roughness measurements to improve passive microwave soil moisture estimates over bare soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theis, S. W.; Blanchard, B. J.; Blanchard, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Multisensor aircraft data were used to establish the potential of the active microwave sensor response to be used to compensate for roughness in the passive microwave sensor's response to soil moisture. Only bare fields were used. It is found that the L-band radiometer's capability to estimate soil moisture significantly improves when surface roughness is accounted for with the scatterometers.

  16. Utilization of active microwave roughness measurements to improve passive microwave soil moisture estimates over bare soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theis, S. W.; Blanchard, A. J.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    Multisensor aircraft data were used to establish the potential of the active microwave sensor response to be used to compensate for roughness in the passive microwave sensor's response to soil moisture. Only bare fields were used. It is found that the L-band radiometer's capability to estimate soil moisture significantly improves when surface roughness is accounted for with the scatterometers.

  17. The Soil Moisture Active/Passive Mission (SMAP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission will deliver global views of soil moisture content and its freeze/thaw state that are critical terrestrial water cycle state variables. Polarized measurements obtained with a shared antenna L-band radar and radiometer system will allow accurate estima...

  18. Measurements of microbial community activities in individual soil macroaggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for ß-glucosidase, N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine...

  19. Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2008 (SMAPVEX08)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) is currently addressing issues related to the development and selection of soil moisture retrieval algorithms. Several forums have identified a number of specific questions that require supporting field experiments. Addressing these issues as soon as p...

  20. Studying the Activities of Microorganisms in Soil Using Slides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullimore, D. Roy; Pipe, Annette E.

    1980-01-01

    Two implanted slide techniques are described by which activity of proteolylic bacteria and the growth of algae in the soil can be readily studied by school students using simple apparatus and methods. Variations are suggested for studying the effects of agricultural practices and environmental conditions on the soil bacteria and algae. (Author/DS)

  1. Plasmid DNA in a groundwater aquifer microcosm--adsorption, DNAase resistance and natural genetic transformation of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, G; Lorenz, M G; Wackernagel, W

    1993-06-01

    Prokaryotes can exchange chromosomal and plasmid genes via extracellular DNA in a process termed genetic transformation. This process has been observed in the test tube for several bacterial species living in the environment but it is not clear whether transformation occurs in natural bacterial habitats. A major constituent of terrestrial environments are solid particles such as quartz, silt and clay, which have considerable surface areas and which make up the solid-liquid interfaces of the habitat. In previous experiments the adsorption of DNA to chemically purified quartz and clay minerals was shown and the partial protection of adsorbed DNA against DNAase I. In a microcosm consisting of natural groundwater aquifer material (GWA) sampled directly from the environment and groundwater (GW) both linear duplex and supercoiled plasmid DNA molecules bound rapidly and quantitatively to the minerals. The divalent cations required to form the association were those present in the GWA/GW microcosm. The association was stable to extended elution over one week at 23 degrees C. Upon adsorption, the DNA became highly resistant against enzymatic degradation. About 1000 times higher DNAase I concentrations were needed to degrade bound DNA to the same extent as DNA dissolved in GW. Furthermore, chromosomal and plasmid DNA bound on GWA transformed competent cells of Bacillus subtilis. However, in contrast to DNA in solution, on GWA the chromosomal DNA was more active in transformation than the plasmid DNA. The studies also revealed that in the transformation of B. subtilis Mg2+ can be replaced by Na+, K+ or NH4+. The observations suggest that in soil and sediment environments, mineral material with inorganic precipitates and organic matter can harbour extracellular DNA leaving it available for genetic transformation.

  2. Remediation of hexachlorobenzene contaminated soils by rhamnolipid enhanced soil washing coupled with activated carbon selective adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jinzhong; Chai, Lina; Lu, Xiaohua; Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian

    2011-05-15

    The present study investigates the selective adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from rhamnolipid solution by a powdered activated carbon (PAC). A combined soil washing-PAC adsorption technique is further evaluated on the removal of HCB from two soils, a spiked kaolin and a contaminated real soil. PAC at a dosage of 10 g L(-1) could achieve a HCB removal of 80-99% with initial HCB and rhamnolipid concentrations of 1 mg L(-1) and 3.3-25 g L(-1), respectively. The corresponding adsorptive loss of rhamnolipid was 8-19%. Successive soil washing-PAC adsorption tests (new soil sample was subjected to washing for each cycle) showed encouraging leaching and adsorption performances for HCB. When 25 g L(-1) rhamnolipid solution was applied, HCB leaching from soils was 55-71% for three cycles of washing, and HCB removal by PAC was nearly 90%. An overall 86% and 88% removal of HCB were obtained for kaolin and real soil, respectively, by using the combined process to wash one soil sample for twice. Our investigation suggests that coupling AC adsorption with biosurfactant-enhanced soil washing is a promising alternative to remove hydrophobic organic compounds from soils. PMID:21397398

  3. Soil biological activity at European scale - two calculation concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. To assess the turnover conditions two model concepts are applied: (I) Biological active time (BAT) regression approach derived from CANDY model (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of air temperature, precipitation and soil texture as a timescale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. (II) Re_clim parameter within the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states the soil temperature and soil water to estimate soil biological activity. The modelling includes two strategies to cover the European scale and conditions. BAT was calculated on a 20x20 km grid basis. The European data sets of precipitation and air temperature (time period 1901-2000, monthly resolution), (Mitchell et al. 2004) were used to derive long-term averages. As we focus on agricultural areas we included CORINE data (2006) to extract arable land. The resulting BATs under co-consideration of the main soil textures (clay, silt, sand and loam) were investigated per environmental zone (ENZs, Metzger et al. 2005) that represents similar conditions for precipitation, temperature and relief to identify BAT ranges and hence turnover conditions for each ENZ. Re_clim was quantified by climatic time series of more than 250 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). Daily temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (maximal thermal extent) were used to calculate

  4. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, A. M.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  5. SMOS Soil moisture Cal val activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y.; Mialon, A.; Bitar, A. Al; Leroux, D.; Richaume, P.; Gruhier, C.; Berthon, L.; Novello, N.; Rudiger, C.; Bircher, S.; Wigneron, J. P.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Rahmoune, R.

    2012-04-01

    SMOS, successfully launched on November 2, 2009, uses an L Band radiometer with aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution.. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and with the atmosphere being almost transparent, it enables us to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS is now acquiring data and has undergone the commissioning phase. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and China. Many different international teams are now performing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. These campaigns take place in various parts of the world and in different environments, from the Antarctic plateau to the deserts, from rain forests to deep oceans. SMOS is a new sensor, making new measurements and paving the way for new applications. It requires a detailed analysis of the data so as to validate both the approach and the quality of the retrievals, and allow for monitoring and the evolution of the sensor. To achieve such goals it is very important to link efficiently ground

  6. Soil Properties, Nutrient Dynamics, and Soil Enzyme Activities Associated with Garlic Stalk Decomposition under Various Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2012-01-01

    The garlic stalk is a byproduct of garlic production and normally abandoned or burned, both of which cause environmental pollution. It is therefore appropriate to determine the conditions of efficient decomposition, and equally appropriate to determine the impact of this decomposition on soil properties. In this study, the soil properties, enzyme activities and nutrient dynamics associated with the decomposition of garlic stalk at different temperatures, concentrations and durations were investigated. Stalk decomposition significantly increased the values of soil pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration were significantly increased by decomposing stalks at 40°C, with a 5∶100 ratio and for 10 or 60 days. The highest activities of sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil were detected when stalk decomposition was performed at the lowest temperature (10°C), highest concentration (5∶100), and shortest duration (10 or 20 days). The evidence presented here suggests that garlic stalk decomposition improves the quality of soil by altering the value of soil pH and electrical conductivity and by changing nutrient dynamics and soil enzyme activity, compared to the soil decomposition without garlic stalks. PMID:23226411

  7. Microbial response to increasing temperatures during winter in arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, Stefan; Potthoff, Martin; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2014-05-01

    Climate scenarios predict increasing temperatures and higher precipitation rates in late fall to early spring, both holding the potential to modify carbon and nutrient dynamics in soils by altering snow pack thickness and soil frost events. When soils are frozen, a small amount of unfrozen water allows microorganisms to remain active at temperatures down to -10 °C. We carried out a field experiment on the microbial use of maize straw. We compared soils of two different clay contents and used latitude as a proxy for climate. Microcosms with sieved soil were mixed with chopped maize leaf straw (C/N 17) at a rate of 1 mg C g-1 dry soil, un-amended microcosms served as control. Results indicated that C-mineralization rates were independent from clay content. However, the microbial use of maize derived nitrogen was only increased in the soil with 13% clay compared to 33% clay in the other soil. Microbial responses to climate changes can be expected to be very specific due to characteristics of the soil and/or the location.

  8. ACTIVE SOIL DEPRESSURIZATION (ASD) DEMONSTRATION IN A LARGE BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of implementing radon resistant construction techniques -- especially active soil depressurization (ASD) -- in new large buildings in Florida. Indoor radon concentrations and radon entry were monitored in a finished bui...

  9. Effect of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation and soil microbial activities in tropical rice soil.

    PubMed

    Adak, Totan; Munda, Sushmita; Kumar, Upendra; Berliner, J; Pokhare, Somnath S; Jambhulkar, N N; Jena, M

    2016-02-01

    Impact of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation, microbial biomass carbon, and enzymatic activities in rice soil was investigated. Rice (variety Naveen, Indica type) was grown under four conditions, namely, chambered control, elevated CO2 (550 ppm), elevated CO2 (700 ppm) in open-top chambers and open field. Chlorpyriphos was sprayed at 500 g a.i. ha(-1) at maximum tillering stage. Chlorpyriphos degraded rapidly from rice soils, and 88.4% of initially applied chlorpyriphos was lost from the rice soil maintained under elevated CO2 (700 ppm) by day 5 of spray, whereas the loss was 80.7% from open field rice soil. Half-life values of chlorpyriphos under different conditions ranged from 2.4 to 1.7 days with minimum half-life recorded with two elevated CO2 treatments. Increased CO2 concentration led to increase in temperature (1.2 to 1.8 °C) that played a critical role in chlorpyriphos persistence. Microbial biomass carbon and soil enzymatic activities specifically, dehydrogenase, fluorescien diacetate hydrolase, urease, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase responded positively to elevated CO2 concentrations. Generally, the enzyme activities were highly correlated with each other. Irrespective of the level of CO2, short-term negative influence of chlorpyriphos was observed on soil enzymes till day 7 of spray. Knowledge obtained from this study highlights that the elevated CO2 may negatively influence persistence of pesticide but will have positive effects on soil enzyme activities. PMID:26790432

  10. Effect of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation and soil microbial activities in tropical rice soil.

    PubMed

    Adak, Totan; Munda, Sushmita; Kumar, Upendra; Berliner, J; Pokhare, Somnath S; Jambhulkar, N N; Jena, M

    2016-02-01

    Impact of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation, microbial biomass carbon, and enzymatic activities in rice soil was investigated. Rice (variety Naveen, Indica type) was grown under four conditions, namely, chambered control, elevated CO2 (550 ppm), elevated CO2 (700 ppm) in open-top chambers and open field. Chlorpyriphos was sprayed at 500 g a.i. ha(-1) at maximum tillering stage. Chlorpyriphos degraded rapidly from rice soils, and 88.4% of initially applied chlorpyriphos was lost from the rice soil maintained under elevated CO2 (700 ppm) by day 5 of spray, whereas the loss was 80.7% from open field rice soil. Half-life values of chlorpyriphos under different conditions ranged from 2.4 to 1.7 days with minimum half-life recorded with two elevated CO2 treatments. Increased CO2 concentration led to increase in temperature (1.2 to 1.8 °C) that played a critical role in chlorpyriphos persistence. Microbial biomass carbon and soil enzymatic activities specifically, dehydrogenase, fluorescien diacetate hydrolase, urease, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase responded positively to elevated CO2 concentrations. Generally, the enzyme activities were highly correlated with each other. Irrespective of the level of CO2, short-term negative influence of chlorpyriphos was observed on soil enzymes till day 7 of spray. Knowledge obtained from this study highlights that the elevated CO2 may negatively influence persistence of pesticide but will have positive effects on soil enzyme activities.

  11. Soil microbial activities beneath Stipa tenacissima L. and in surrounding bare soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosadová, I.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Záhora, J.; Fišerová, H.

    2010-05-01

    Open steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima L. constitute one of the most representative ecosystems of the semi-arid zones of Eastern Mediterranean Basin (Iberian Peninsula, North of Africa). These steppes show a higher degree of variability in composition and structure. Ecosystem functioning is strongly related to the spatial pattern of grass tussocks. Soils beneath S. tenacissima grass show higher fertility and improved microclimatic conditions, favouring the formation of "resource islands" (Maestre et al., 2007). On the other hand in "resource islands" and in surrounding bare soil exists the belowground zone of influence. The competition for water and resources between plants and microorganisms is strong and mediated trough an enormous variety of exudates and resource depletion intended to regulate soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere, control herbivory, encourage beneficial symbioses, and change chemical and physical properties in soil (Pugnaire et Armas, 2008). Secondary compounds and allelopathy restrict other species growth and contribute to patchy plant distribution. Active root segregation affects not only neighbourś growth but also soil microbial activities. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Stipa tenacissima on the key soil microbial activities under controlled incubation conditions (basal and potential respiration; net nitrogen mineralization). The experimental plots were located in the province Almería in Sierra de los Filabres Mountains near the village Gérgal (southeast Spain) in the small catchment which is situated between 1090 - 1165 m a.s.l. The area with extent of 82 000 m2 is affected by soil degradation. The climate is semiarid Mediterranean. The mean annual rainfall is of about 240 mm mostly concentrated in autumn and spring. The mean annual temperature is 13.9° C. The studied soil has a loam to sandy clay texture and is classified as Lithosol (FAO-ISRIC and ISSS, 1998). The vegetation of these areas is an

  12. Fate and activity of microorganisms introduced into soil.

    PubMed Central

    van Veen, J A; van Overbeek, L S; van Elsas, J D

    1997-01-01

    Introduced microorganisms are potentially powerful agents for manipulation of processes and/or components in soil. Fields of application include enhancement of crop growth, protection of crops against plant-pathogenic organisms, stimulation of biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds (bioaugmentation), and improvement of soil structure. Inoculation of soils has already been applied for decades, but it has often yielded inconsistent or disappointing results. This is caused mainly by a commonly observed rapid decline in inoculant population activity following introduction into soil, i.e., a decline of the numbers of inoculant cells and/or a decline of the (average) activity per cell. In this review, we discuss the available information on the effects of key factors that determine the fate and activity of microorganisms introduced into soil, with emphasis on bacteria. The factors addressed include the physiological status of the inoculant cells, the biotic and abiotic interactions in soil, soil properties, and substrate availability. Finally, we address the possibilities available to effectively manipulate the fate and activity of introduced microorganisms in relation to the main areas of their application. PMID:9184007

  13. Spatial Variations of Soil Microbial Activities in Saline Groundwater-Irrigated Soil Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Juan; Feng, Qi; Li, Chang-Sheng; Song, You-Xi; Liu, Wei; Si, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Bao-Gui

    2016-05-01

    Spatial variations of soil microbial activities and its relationship with environmental factors are very important for estimating regional soil ecosystem function. Based on field samplings in a typical saline groundwater-irrigated region, spatial variations of soil microbial metabolic activities were investigated. Combined with groundwater quality analysis, the relationship between microbial activities and water salinity was also studied. The results demonstrated that moderate spatial heterogeneity of soil microbial activities presented under the total dissolved solids (TDS) of groundwater ranging from 0.23 to 12.24 g L-1. Groundwater salinity and microbial activities had almost opposite distribution characteristics: slight saline water was mainly distributed in west Baqu and south Quanshan, while severe saline and briny water were dominant in east Baqu and west Huqu; however, total AWCD was higher in the east-center and southwest of Baqu and east Huqu, while it was lower in east Baqu and northwest Huqu. The results of correlation analyses demonstrated that high-salinity groundwater irrigation had significantly adverse effects on soil microbial activities. Major ions Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl_, and SO4 2- in groundwater decisively influenced the results. Three carbon sources, carbohydrates, amines, and phenols, which had minor utilization rates in all irrigation districts, were extremely significantly affected by high-salinity groundwater irrigation. The results presented here offer an approach for diagnosing regional soil ecosystem function changes under saline water irrigation.

  14. Nitrate Reduction in a Groundwater Microcosm Determined by 15N Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Göran; Annadotter, Heléne

    1989-01-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic groundwater continuous-flow microcosms were designed to study nitrate reduction by the indigenous bacteria in intact saturated soil cores from a sandy aquifer with a concentration of 3.8 mg of NO3−-N liter−1. Traces of 15NO3− were added to filter-sterilized groundwater by using a Darcy flux of 4 cm day−1. Both assimilatory and dissimilatory reduction rates were estimated from analyses of 15N2, 15N2O, 15NH4+, and 15N-labeled protein amino acids by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. N2 and N2O were separated on a megabore fused-silica column and quantified by electron impact-selected ion monitoring. NO3− and NH4+ were analyzed as pentafluorobenzoyl amides by multiple-ion monitoring and protein amino acids as their N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl ester derivatives by negative ion-chemical ionization. The numbers of bacteria and their [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation rates were simultaneously measured. Nitrate was completely reduced in the microcosms at a rate of about 250 ng g−1 day−1. Of this nitrate, 80 to 90% was converted by aerobic denitrification to N2, whereas only 35% was denitrified in the anaerobic microcosm, where more than 50% of NO3− was reduced to NH4+. Assimilatory reduction was recorded only in the aerobic microcosm, where N appeared in alanine in the cells. The nitrate reduction rates estimated for the aquifer material were low in comparison with rates in eutrophic lakes and coastal sediments but sufficiently high to remove nitrate from an uncontaminated aquifer of the kind examined in less than 1 month. PMID:16348048

  15. Impact of imidacloprid on life-cycle development of Coccinella septempunctata in laboratory microcosms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Caihong; Lin, Ronghua; Fu, Maoran; Zhou, Yanming; Zong, Fulin; Jiang, Hui; Lv, Ning; Piao, Xiuying; Zhang, Jia; Liu, Yongquan; Brock, Theo C M

    2014-12-01

    Long-term effects of a single application of imidacloprid on ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L., were studied in indoor laboratory microcosms, starting with the 2nd instar larvae of C. septempunctata but covering the full life cycle. The microcosms comprised enclosures containing a pot with soil planted with broad bean plants and black bean aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, as food. Exposure doses (0.85-13.66g a.i. ha(-1)) in the long-term microcosm experiment were based on a preliminary short-term (72h) toxicity test with 2nd instar larvae. The measurement endpoints used to calculate NOERs (No Observed Effect application Rates) included development time, hatching, pupation, adult emergence, survival and number of eggs produced. Furthermore, for these endpoints ER50 (application rate causing 50 percent effect) and LR50 (application rate causing 50 percent mortality) values were calculated when possible. The single imidacloprid application affected survival (lowest LR50 4.07g a.i. ha(-1); NOER 3.42g a.i. ha(-1)), egg production (ER50 26.63g a.i. ha(-1)) and egg hatching (NOER 6.83g a.i. ha(-1)). Statistically significant treatment-related effects on the whole development duration, pupation and adult emergence could not be demonstrated (NOER≥13.66g a.i. ha(-1)). The lowest L(E)R50 values and NOERs derived from the laboratory microcosm test with C. septempunctata are lower than the reported field application rates of imidacloprid (15-60g a.i. ha(-1)) in cotton cultivation in China, suggesting potential risks to beneficial arthropods. PMID:25240465

  16. Impact of imidacloprid on life-cycle development of Coccinella septempunctata in laboratory microcosms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Caihong; Lin, Ronghua; Fu, Maoran; Zhou, Yanming; Zong, Fulin; Jiang, Hui; Lv, Ning; Piao, Xiuying; Zhang, Jia; Liu, Yongquan; Brock, Theo C M

    2014-12-01

    Long-term effects of a single application of imidacloprid on ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L., were studied in indoor laboratory microcosms, starting with the 2nd instar larvae of C. septempunctata but covering the full life cycle. The microcosms comprised enclosures containing a pot with soil planted with broad bean plants and black bean aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, as food. Exposure doses (0.85-13.66g a.i. ha(-1)) in the long-term microcosm experiment were based on a preliminary short-term (72h) toxicity test with 2nd instar larvae. The measurement endpoints used to calculate NOERs (No Observed Effect application Rates) included development time, hatching, pupation, adult emergence, survival and number of eggs produced. Furthermore, for these endpoints ER50 (application rate causing 50 percent effect) and LR50 (application rate causing 50 percent mortality) values were calculated when possible. The single imidacloprid application affected survival (lowest LR50 4.07g a.i. ha(-1); NOER 3.42g a.i. ha(-1)), egg production (ER50 26.63g a.i. ha(-1)) and egg hatching (NOER 6.83g a.i. ha(-1)). Statistically significant treatment-related effects on the whole development duration, pupation and adult emergence could not be demonstrated (NOER≥13.66g a.i. ha(-1)). The lowest L(E)R50 values and NOERs derived from the laboratory microcosm test with C. septempunctata are lower than the reported field application rates of imidacloprid (15-60g a.i. ha(-1)) in cotton cultivation in China, suggesting potential risks to beneficial arthropods.

  17. Active and total prokaryotic communities in dryland soils.

    PubMed

    Angel, Roey; Pasternak, Zohar; Soares, M Ines M; Conrad, Ralf; Gillor, Osnat

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between total and metabolically active soil microbial communities can change drastically with environment. In dry lands, water availability is a key factor limiting cells' activity. We surveyed the diversity of total and active Archaea and Bacteria in soils ranging from arid desert to Mediterranean forests. Thirty composited soil samples were retrieved from five sites along a precipitation gradient, collected from patches located between and under the dominant perennial plant at each site. Molecular fingerprinting was used to site-sort the communities according of their 16S rRNA genes (total community) and their rRNA (active community) amplified by PCR or RT-PCR from directly extracted soil nucleic acids. The differences between soil samples were much higher in total rather than active microbial communities: differences in DNA fingerprints between sites were 1.2 and 2.5 times higher than RNA differences (for Archaea and Bacteria, respectively). Patch-type discrepancies between DNA fingerprints were on average 2.7-19.7 times greater than RNA differences. Moreover, RNA-based community patterns were highly correlated with soil moisture but did not necessarily follow spatial distribution pattern. Our results suggest that in water-limited environments, the spatial patterns obtained by the analysis of active communities are not as robust as those drawn from total communities. PMID:23730745

  18. Active and total prokaryotic communities in dryland soils.

    PubMed

    Angel, Roey; Pasternak, Zohar; Soares, M Ines M; Conrad, Ralf; Gillor, Osnat

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between total and metabolically active soil microbial communities can change drastically with environment. In dry lands, water availability is a key factor limiting cells' activity. We surveyed the diversity of total and active Archaea and Bacteria in soils ranging from arid desert to Mediterranean forests. Thirty composited soil samples were retrieved from five sites along a precipitation gradient, collected from patches located between and under the dominant perennial plant at each site. Molecular fingerprinting was used to site-sort the communities according of their 16S rRNA genes (total community) and their rRNA (active community) amplified by PCR or RT-PCR from directly extracted soil nucleic acids. The differences between soil samples were much higher in total rather than active microbial communities: differences in DNA fingerprints between sites were 1.2 and 2.5 times higher than RNA differences (for Archaea and Bacteria, respectively). Patch-type discrepancies between DNA fingerprints were on average 2.7-19.7 times greater than RNA differences. Moreover, RNA-based community patterns were highly correlated with soil moisture but did not necessarily follow spatial distribution pattern. Our results suggest that in water-limited environments, the spatial patterns obtained by the analysis of active communities are not as robust as those drawn from total communities.

  19. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  20. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  1. Assessment of genotoxic activity of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil.

    PubMed

    Płaza, Grazyna; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Brigmon, Robin L

    2005-11-01

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays, SOS chromotest and the umu test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture), were used to evaluate the genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czechowice-Dziedzice Polish oil refinery (CZOR). The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, the umu test was more sensitive than the SOS chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81% of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-BIOREMEDIATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBIN

    2004-10-20

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays: SOS chromotest and umu-test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture) were used to evaluate genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czor Polish oil refinery. The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2 mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, umu-test was more sensitive than SOS-chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81 percent of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  3. Improvement of activated sludge dewaterability by humus soil induced bioflocculation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Gyun; Kim, Seong-Hong; Kim, Hee-Jun; Kim, Gyu Dong; Chung, Tai-Hak

    2004-01-01

    Effects of humus soil particles on the dewaterability of activated sludge were investigated. Cations leaching increased proportionally with the dosage of humus soil, and the leaching was not significant after 2 h. Divalent cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, leaching from the humus soil played an important role in improving dewaterability of the biological sludge. On the contrary, dewaterability was not affected or slightly deteriorated by the monovalent cations, K+ and Na+ leached from the humus soil. Improvement in dewaterability of the sludge by addition of humus soil was higher than that of equivalent cations mixture. It seemed that the decrease of supracolloidal bio-particles (1 to 100 microm in diameter) resulted in diminishing of the blinding effect on cake and filter medium. SRF (specific resistance to filtration) of the humus soil added sludge varied in parallel with the M/D (monovalent to divalent cation) ratio, and the M/D ratio could be utilized as a useful tool for evaluation of the sludge dewatering characteristics. Long-term effects of humus soil on the improvement of activated sludge dewaterability were clearly identified by continuous operation results of a bench-scale MLE (Modified Ludzack Ettinger) system combined with a humus soil contactor. On the other hand, dewaterability of the control sludge was only slightly improved by a decrease in M/D ratio of the wastewater influent.

  4. Dehydrogenase activity of forest soils depends on the assay used

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januszek, Kazimierz; Długa, Joanna; Socha, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrogenases are exclusively intracellular enzymes, which play an important role in the initial stages of oxidation of soil organic matter. One of the most frequently used methods to estimate dehydrogenase activity in soil is based on the use of triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an artificial electron acceptor. The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of dehydrogenases of forest soils with varied physicochemical properties using different triphenyltetrazolium chloride assays. The determination was carried out using the original procedure by Casida et al., a modification of the procedure which involves the use of Ca(OH)2 instead of CaCO3, the Thalmann method, and the assay by Casida et al. without addition of buffer or any salt. Soil dehydrogenase activity depended on the assay used. Dehydrogenase determined by the Casida et al. method without addition of buffer or any salt correlated with the pH values of soils. The autoclaved strongly acidic samples of control soils showed high concentrations of triphenylformazan, probably due to chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride. There is, therefore, a need for a sterilization method other than autoclaving, ie a process that results in significant changes in soil properties, thus helping to increase the chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

  5. Contribution of microbial activity to virus reduction in saturated soil.

    PubMed

    Nasser, A M; Glozman, R; Nitzan, Y

    2002-05-01

    Application of wastewater to soil may result in the contamination of groundwater and soil with pathogenic microorganisms and other biological and chemical agents. This study was performed to determine the antiviral microbial activity of soil saturated with secondary effluent. Low concentrations (0.05mg/ml) of protease pronase resulted in the inactivation of more than 90% of seeded Cox-A9 virus, whereas Poliovirus type 1, Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and MS2 bacteriophages were found to be insensitive to the enzyme activity. Exposure of Cox A9 virus to P. aeruginosa extracellular enzymes resulted in 99% inactivation of the seeded virus. Hepatitis A virus was found to be as sensitive as the Cox A9 virus, whereas Poliovirus 1 and MS2 were found to be insensitive to P. aeruginosa extracellular enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the time required for 99% reduction (T99) of Cox A9 and MS-2 Bacteriophage, at 15 degrees C, in soil saturated with secondary effluent was found to be 7 and 21 days, respectively. Faster inactivation was observed for MS2 and Cox A9 in soil saturated with secondary effluent incubated at 30 degrees C, T99 of 2 and 0.3 days, respectively. Although the concentration of the total bacterial count in the soil samples increased from 10(3) cfu/g to 10(5) cfu/g after 20 days of incubation at 30 degrees C, the proteolytic activity was below the detection level. The results of this study indicate that the virucidal effect of microbial activity is virus type dependent. Furthermore microbial activity in the soil material can be enhanced by the application of secondary effluent at higher temperature. The results also showed that MS2 bacteriophage can be used to predict viral contamination of soil and groundwater.

  6. Autotrophic Growth of Bacterial and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers in Freshwater Sediment Microcosms Incubated at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yucheng; Ke, Xiubin; Hernández, Marcela; Wang, Baozhan; Dumont, Marc G.; Jia, Zhongjun

    2013-01-01

    Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to ammonia oxidation, but their roles in freshwater sediments are still poorly understood. Seasonal differences in the relative activities of these groups might exist, since cultivated archaeal ammonia oxidizers have higher temperature optima than their bacterial counterparts. In this study, sediment collected from eutrophic freshwater Lake Taihu (China) was incubated at different temperatures (4°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 37°C) for up to 8 weeks. We examined the active bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers in these sediment microcosms by using combined stable isotope probing (SIP) and molecular community analysis. The results showed that accumulation of nitrate in microcosms correlated negatively with temperature, although ammonium depletion was the same, which might have been related to enhanced activity of other nitrogen transformation processes. Incubation at different temperatures significantly changed the microbial community composition, as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. After 8 weeks of incubation, [13C]bicarbonate labeling of bacterial amoA genes, which encode the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A, and an observed increase in copy numbers indicated the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in all microcosms. Nitrosomonas sp. strain Is79A3 and Nitrosomonas communis lineages dominated the heavy fraction of CsCl gradients at low and high temperatures, respectively, indicating a niche differentiation of active bacterial ammonia oxidizers along the temperature gradient. The 13C labeling of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in microcosms incubated at 4 to 25°C was minor. In contrast, significant 13C labeling of Nitrososphaera-like archaea and changes in the abundance and composition of archaeal amoA genes were observed at 37°C, implicating autotrophic growth of ammonia-oxidizing archaea under warmer conditions. PMID:23455342

  7. Diversity and Activity of Methanotrophic Bacteria in Different Upland Soils

    PubMed Central

    Knief, Claudia; Lipski, André; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Samples from diverse upland soils that oxidize atmospheric methane were characterized with regard to methane oxidation activity and the community composition of methanotrophic bacteria (MB). MB were identified on the basis of the detection and comparative sequence analysis of the pmoA gene, which encodes a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase. MB commonly detected in soils were closely related to Methylocaldum spp., Methylosinus spp., Methylocystis spp., or the “forest sequence cluster” (USC α), which has previously been detected in upland soils and is related to pmoA sequences of type II MB (Alphaproteobacteria). As well, a novel group of sequences distantly related (<75% derived amino acid identity) to those of known type I MB (Gammaproteobacteria) was often detected. This novel “upland soil cluster γ” (USC γ) was significantly more likely to be detected in soils with pH values of greater than 6.0 than in more acidic soils. To identify active MB, four selected soils were incubated with 13CH4 at low mixing ratios (<50 ppm of volume), and extracted methylated phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-online combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Incorporation of 13C into PLFAs characteristic for methanotrophic Gammaproteobacteria was observed in all soils in which USC γ sequences were detected, suggesting that the bacteria possessing these sequences were active methanotrophs. A pattern of labeled PLFAs typical for methanotrophic Alphaproteobacteria was obtained for a sample in which only USC α sequences were detected. The data indicate that different MB are present and active in different soils that oxidize atmospheric methane. PMID:14602631

  8. Active microwave measurement of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Cihlar, J.; Moore, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of radar backscatter from bare soil at 4.7, 5.9, and 7.1 GHz for incident angles of 0-70 deg have been analyzed to determine sensitivity to soil moisture. Because the effective depth of penetration of the radar signal is only about one skin depth, the observed signals were correlated with the moisture in a skin depth as characterized by the attenuation coefficient (reciprocal of skin depth). Since the attenuation coefficient is a monotonically increasing function of moisture density, it may also be used as a measure of moisture content over the distance involved, which varies with frequency and moisture content. The measurements show an approximately linear increase in scattering with attenuation coefficient of the soil at angles within 10 deg of vertical and all frequencies. At 4.7 GHz this increase continues relatively large out to 70 deg incidence, but by 7.1 GHz the sensitivity is much less even at 20 deg and practically gone at 50 deg.

  9. Activation Energy of Extracellular Enzymes in Soils from Different Biomes

    PubMed Central

    Steinweg, J. Megan; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Frerichs, Joshua; Mayes, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme dynamics are being incorporated into soil carbon cycling models and accurate representation of enzyme kinetics is an important step in predicting belowground nutrient dynamics. A scarce number of studies have measured activation energy (Ea) in soils and fewer studies have measured Ea in arctic and tropical soils, or in subsurface soils. We determined the Ea for four typical lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the A and B horizons of seven soils covering six different soil orders. We also elucidated which soil properties predicted any measurable differences in Ea. β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were measured at five temperatures, 4, 21, 30, 40, and 60°C. Ea was calculated using the Arrhenius equation. β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase Ea values for both A and B horizons in this study were similar to previously reported values, however we could not make a direct comparison for B horizon soils because of the lack of data. There was no consistent relationship between hydrolase enzyme Ea and the environmental variables we measured. Phenol oxidase was the only enzyme that had a consistent positive relationship between Ea and pH in both horizons. The Ea in the arctic and subarctic zones for peroxidase was lower than the hydrolases and phenol oxidase values, indicating peroxidase may be a rate limited enzyme in environments under warming conditions. By including these six soil types we have increased the number of soil oxidative enzyme Ea values reported in the literature by 50%. This study is a step towards better quantifying enzyme kinetics in different climate zones. PMID:23536898

  10. Molecular Analysis of Microbial Community Structures in Pristine and Contaminated Aquifers: Field and Laboratory Microcosm Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y.; Zwolinski, M. D.; Schreiber, M. E.; Bahr, J. M.; Sewell, G. W.; Hickey, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    This study used phylogenetic probes in hybridization analysis to (i) determine in situ microbial community structures in regions of a shallow sand aquifer that were oxygen depleted and fuel contaminated (FC) or aerobic and noncontaminated (NC) and (ii) examine alterations in microbial community structures resulting from exposure to toluene and/or electron acceptor supplementation (nitrate). The latter objective was addressed by using the NC and FC aquifer materials for anaerobic microcosm studies in which phylogenetic probe analysis was complemented by microbial activity assays. Domain probe analysis of the aquifer samples showed that the communities were predominantly Bacteria; Eucarya and Archaea were not detectable. At the phylum and subclass levels, the FC and NC aquifer material had similar relative abundance distributions of 43 to 65% β- and γ-Proteobacteria (B+G), 31 to 35% α-Proteobacteria (ALF), 15 to 18% sulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 to 10% high G+C gram positive bacteria. Compared to that of the NC region, the community structure of the FC material differed mainly in an increased abundance of B+G relative to that of ALF. The microcosm communities were like those of the field samples in that they were predominantly Bacteria (83 to 101%) and lacked detectable Archaea but differed in that a small fraction (2 to 8%) of Eucarya was detected regardless of the treatment applied. The latter result was hypothesized to reflect enrichment of anaerobic protozoa. Addition of nitrate and/or toluene stimulated microbial activity in the microcosms, but only supplementation of toluene alone significantly altered community structures. For the NC material, the dominant subclass shifted from B+G to ALF, while in the FC microcosms 55 to 65% of the Bacteria community was no longer identifiable by the phylum or subclass probes used. The latter result suggested that toluene exposure fostered the proliferation of phylotype(s) that were otherwise minor constituents of the

  11. Methyl t-Butyl Ether Mineralization in Surface-Water Sediment Microcosms under Denitrifying Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Mineralization of [U-14C] methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) to 14CO2 without accumulation of t-butyl alcohol (TBA) was observed in surface-water sediment microcosms under denitrifying conditions. Methanogenic activity and limited transformation of MTBE to TBA were observed in the absence of denitrification. Results indicate that bed sediment microorganisms can effectively degrade MTBE to nontoxic products under denitrifying conditions.

  12. Active Layer Soil Carbon and Nutrient Mineralization, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stan D. Wullschleger; Holly M. Vander Stel; Colleen Iversen; Victoria L. Sloan; Richard J. Norby; Mallory P. Ladd; Jason K. Keller; Ariane Jong; Joanne Childs; Deanne J. Brice

    2015-10-29

    This data set consists of bulk soil characteristics as well as carbon and nutrient mineralization rates of active layer soils manually collected from the field in August, 2012, frozen, and then thawed and incubated across a range of temperatures in the laboratory for 28 day periods in 2013-2015. The soils were collected from four replicate polygons in each of the four Areas (A, B, C, and D) of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Soil samples were coincident with the established Vegetation Plots that are located in center, edge, and trough microtopography in each polygon. Data included are 1) bulk soil characteristics including carbon, nitrogen, gravimetric water content, bulk density, and pH in 5-cm depth increments and also by soil horizon, 2) carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization rates for soil horizons incubated aerobically (and in one case both aerobically and anaerobically) for 28 days at temperatures that included 2, 4, 8, and 12 degrees C. Additional soil and incubation data are forthcoming. They will be available when published as part of another paper that includes additional replicate analyses.

  13. Soil Pseudomonas community structure and its antagonism towards Rhizoctonia solani under the stress of acetochlor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minna; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huiwen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xinyu; Zhou, Qixing; Zhang, Chenggang

    2009-09-01

    In a microcosm experiment, the amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis was adopted to investigate the Pseudomonas community structure in soils applied with different concentrations (0, 50, 150, and 250 mg/kg) of acetochlor, and an in vitro assay was made to examine the antagonistic activity of isolated Pseudomonas strains acting on soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The results showed that acetochlor application changed the community structure of Pseudomonas in aquic brown soil. The diversity of Pseudomonas and the amount of isolated Pseudomonas strains with antagonistic activity decreased with an increasing acetochlor concentration, and the toxic effect of acetochlor reached to a steady level at 150-250 mg/kg.

  14. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Peggy; Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni; Kellogg, Kent

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council?s Decadal Survey [1]. Its mission design consists of L-band radiometer and radar instruments sharing a rotating 6-m mesh reflector antenna to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days. The combined active/passive microwave soil moisture product will have a spatial resolution of 10 km and a mean latency of 24 hours. In addition, the SMAP surface observations will be combined with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide deeper root zone soil moisture and net ecosystem exchange of carbon. SMAP is expected to launch in the late 2014 - early 2015 time frame.

  15. Nutrient amendments in soil DNA stable isotope probing experiments reduce the observed methanotroph diversity.

    PubMed

    Cébron, Aurélie; Bodrossy, Levente; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Singer, Andrew C; Thompson, Ian P; Prosser, James I; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-02-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) can be used to analyze the active bacterial populations involved in a process by incorporating 13C-labeled substrate into cellular components such as DNA. Relatively long incubation times are often used with laboratory microcosms in order to incorporate sufficient 13C into the DNA of the target organisms. Addition of nutrients can be used to accelerate the processes. However, unnatural concentrations of nutrients may artificially change bacterial diversity and activity. In this study, methanotroph activity and diversity in soil was examined during the consumption of 13CH4 with three DNA-SIP experiments, using microcosms with natural field soil water conditions, the addition of water, and the addition of mineral salts solution. Methanotroph population diversity was studied by targeting 16S rRNA and pmoA genes. Clone library analyses, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting, and pmoA microarray hybridization analyses were carried out. Most methanotroph diversity (type I and type II methanotrophs) was observed in non-amended SIP microcosms. Although this treatment probably best reflected the in situ environmental conditions, one major disadvantage of this incubation was that the incorporation of 13CH4 was slow and some cross-feeding of 13C occurred, thereby leading to labeling of nonmethanotroph microorganisms. Conversely, microcosms supplemented with mineral salts medium exhibited rapid consumption of 13CH4, resulting in the labeling of a less diverse population of only type I methanotrophs. DNA-SIP incubations using water-amended microcosms yielded faster incorporation of 13C into active methanotrophs while avoiding the cross-feeding of 13C.

  16. Biofuel intercropping effects on soil carbon and microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Michael S; Leggett, Zakiya H; Sucre, Eric B; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels will help meet rising demands for energy and, ideally, limit climate change associated with carbon losses from the biosphere to atmosphere. Biofuel management must therefore maximize energy production and maintain ecosystem carbon stocks. Increasingly, there is interest in intercropping biofuels with other crops, partly because biofuel production on arable land might reduce availability and increase the price of food. One intercropping approach involves growing biofuel grasses in forest plantations. Grasses differ from trees in both their organic inputs to soils and microbial associations. These differences are associated with losses of soil carbon when grasses become abundant in forests. We investigated how intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgalum), a major candidate for cellulosic biomass production, in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations affects soil carbon, nitrogen, and microbial dynamics. Our design involved four treatments: two pine management regimes where harvest residues (i.e., biomass) were left in place or removed, and two switchgrass regimes where the grass was grown with pine under the same two biomass scenarios (left or removed). Soil variables were measured in four 1-ha replicate plots in the first and second year following switchgrass planting. Under switchgrass intercropping, pools of mineralizable and particulate organic matter carbon were 42% and 33% lower, respectively. These declines translated into a 21% decrease in total soil carbon in the upper 15 cm of the soil profile, during early stand development. The switchgrass effect, however, was isolated to the interbed region where switchgrass is planted. In these regions, switchgrass-induced reductions in soil carbon pools with 29%, 43%, and 24% declines in mineralizable, particulate, and total soil carbon, respectively. Our results support the idea that grass inputs to forests can prime the activity of soil organic carbon degrading microbes, leading to net reductions in stocks

  17. Multidisciplinary assessment of pesticide mitigation in soil amended with vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Beguet, Jérèmie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    Soil organic amendment affects biotic and abiotic processes that control the fate of pesticides, but the treatment history of the soil is also relevant. These processes were assessed in a multidisciplinary study with the aim of optimizing pesticide mitigation in soils. Soil microcosms pre-treated (E2) or not with diuron (E1) were amended with either winery (W) or olive waste (O) vermicomposts. Herbicide dissipation followed a double first-order model in E1 microcosms, but a single first-order model in E2. Also, diuron persistence was longer in E1 than in E2 (E1-DT50>200 day(-1), E2-DT50<16 day(-1)). The genetic structure of the bacterial community was modified by both diuron exposure and amendment. O-vermicompost increased enzymatic activities in both experiments, but diuron-degrading genetic potential (puhB) was quantified only in E2 microcosms in accordance with reduced diuron persistence. Therefore, O-vermicompost addition favoured the proliferation of diuron degraders, increasing the soil diuron-depuration capability. PMID:26590874

  18. Multidisciplinary assessment of pesticide mitigation in soil amended with vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Beguet, Jérèmie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    Soil organic amendment affects biotic and abiotic processes that control the fate of pesticides, but the treatment history of the soil is also relevant. These processes were assessed in a multidisciplinary study with the aim of optimizing pesticide mitigation in soils. Soil microcosms pre-treated (E2) or not with diuron (E1) were amended with either winery (W) or olive waste (O) vermicomposts. Herbicide dissipation followed a double first-order model in E1 microcosms, but a single first-order model in E2. Also, diuron persistence was longer in E1 than in E2 (E1-DT50>200 day(-1), E2-DT50<16 day(-1)). The genetic structure of the bacterial community was modified by both diuron exposure and amendment. O-vermicompost increased enzymatic activities in both experiments, but diuron-degrading genetic potential (puhB) was quantified only in E2 microcosms in accordance with reduced diuron persistence. Therefore, O-vermicompost addition favoured the proliferation of diuron degraders, increasing the soil diuron-depuration capability.

  19. Microbiological activity of soils populated by Lasius niger ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golichenkov, M. V.; Neimatov, A. L.; Kiryushin, A. V.

    2009-07-01

    Ants are the most widespread colonial insects assigned to the Hymenoptera order. They actively use soil as a habitat; being numerous, they create a specific microrelief. It is shown that ants affect microbiological processes of the carbon and nitrogen cycles. The carbon content in anthills remains stable throughout the growing season, and the respiration intensity is about three times higher as compared with that in the control soil. The highest methane production (0.08 nmol of CH4/g per day) in the anthill is observed at the beginning of the growing season and exceeds that in the control soil by four times. The most active nitrogen fixation (about 4 nmol of C2H4/g per h) in the anthill takes place in the early growing season, whereas, in the control soil, it is observed in the middle of the growing season. At the same time, the diazotrophic activity is higher in the control soil. The lowest denitrification in the anthill is observed at the beginning and end of the growing season. The dynamics of the denitrification in the anthill are opposite to the dynamics of the diazotrophic activity. We suppose that these regularities of the biological activity in the anthill are related to the ecology of the ants and the changes in their food preferences during the growing season.

  20. Acid-activated biochar increased sulfamethazine retention in soils.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Zhang, Ming; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-02-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is an ionizable and highly mobile antibiotic which is frequently found in soil and water environments. We investigated the sorption of SMZ onto soils amended with biochars (BCs) at varying pH and contact time. Invasive plants were pyrolyzed at 700 °C and were further activated with 30 % sulfuric (SBBC) and oxalic (OBBC) acids. The sorption rate of SMZ onto SBBC and OBBC was pronouncedly pH dependent and was decreased significantly when the values of soil pH increased from 3 to 5. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (K D,eff) values indicated excellent sorption on SBBC-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils for 229 and 183 L/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the low sorption values were determined for OBBC- and BBC700-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that the pseudo second order model was the best followed by intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich model, indicating that multiple processes govern SMZ sorption. These findings were also supported by sorption edge experiments based on BC characteristics. Chemisorption onto protonated and ligand containing functional groups of the BC surface, and diffusion in macro-, meso-, and micro-pores of the acid-activated BCs are the proposed mechanisms of SMZ retention in soils. Calculated and experimental q e (amount adsorbed per kg of the adsorbent at equilibrium) values were well fitted to the pseudo second order model, and the predicted maximum equilibrium concentration of SBBC for loamy sand soils was 182 mg/kg. Overall, SBBC represents a suitable soil amendment because of its high sorption rate of SMZ in soils.

  1. Climate effect on soil enzyme activities and dissolved organic carbon in mountain calcareous soils: a soil-transplant experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puissant, Jérémy; Cécillon, Lauric; Mills, Robert T. E.; Gavazov, Konstantin; Robroek, Bjorn J. M.; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Brun, Jean-Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Mountain soils store huge amounts of carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) which may be highly vulnerable to the strong climate changes that mountain areas currently experience worldwide. Climate modifications are expected to impact microbial activity which could change the rate of SOM decomposition/accumulation, thereby questioning the net C source/sink character of mountain soils. To simulate future climate change expected in the 21st century in the calcareous pre-Alps, 15 blocks (30 cm deep) of undisturbed soil were taken from a mountain pasture located at 1400 m a.s.l. (Marchairuz, Jura, Switzerland) and transplanted into lysimeters at the same site (control) and at two other sites located at 1000 m a.s.l. and 600 m a.s.l. (5 replicates per site). This transplantation experiment which started in 2009 simulates a climate warming with a temperature increase of 4° C and a decreased humidity of 40 % at the lowest site. In this study, we used soil extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) as functional indicators of SOM decomposition to evaluate the effect of climate change on microbial activity and SOM dynamics along the seasons. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also measured to quantify the assimilable carbon for microorganism. In autumn 2012, a first sampling step out of four (winter, spring and summer 2013) has been realized. We extracted 15 cm deep soil cores from each transplant (x15) and measured (i) DOC and (ii) the activities of nine different enzymes. Enzymes were chosen to represent the degradation of the most common classes of biogeochemical compounds in SOM. β-glucosidase, β-D-cellubiosidase, β-Xylosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, leucine aminopeptidase, lipase, phenoloxidase respectively represented the degradation of sugar, cellulose, hemicellulose, chitin, protein, lipid and lignin. Moreover, the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis was used to provide an estimate of global microbial activity and phosphatase was used to estimate phosphorus

  2. Spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity in forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błońska, Ewa; Lasota, Jarosław

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity (DH) in forest soils using geostatistics. We have studied variability soil dehydrogenase and their relationship with variability of some physic-chemical properties. Two study areas (A and B) were set up in southern Poland in the Zlotoryja Forest District. Study areas were covered by different types of vegetation (A- broadleaf forest with beech, ash and sycamore), B- coniferous forest with Norway spruce). The soils were classified as Dystric Cambisols (WRB 2006). The samples for laboratory testing were collected from 49 places on each areas. 15 cm of surface horizon of soil were taken (with previously removed litter). Dehydrogenase activity was marked with Lenhard's method according to the Casida procedure. Soil pH, nitrogen (N) and soil organic carbon (C) content (by LECO CNS 2000 carbon analyzer) was marked. C/N ratio was calculated. Particle size composition was determined using laser diffraction. Statistical analysis were performed using STATISTICA 10 software. Geostatistical analysis and mapping were done by application of GS 9+ (Gamma Design) and Surfer 11 (Golden Software). The activity of DH ranged between 5,02 and 71,20 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1 on the A area and between 0,94 and 16,47 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1. Differences in spatial variability of the analised features were noted. The variability of dehydrogenase activity on the A study area was described by an exponential model, whereas on the B study area the spatial correlation has not been noted. The relationship of dehydrogenase activity with the remaining parameters of soil was noted only in the case of A study area. The variability of organic carbon content on the A and B study areas were described by an exponential model. The variability of nitrogen content on both areas were described by an spherical model.

  3. Modeling in situ soil enzyme activity using continuous field soil moisture and temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinweg, J. M.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Moisture and temperature are key drivers of soil organic matter decomposition, but there is little consensus on how climate change will affect the degradation of specific soil compounds under field conditions. Soil enzyme activities are a useful metric of soil community microbial function because they are they are the direct agents of decomposition for specific substrates in soil. However, current standard enzyme assays are conducted under optimized conditions in the laboratory and do not accurately reflect in situ enzyme activity, where diffusion and substrate availability may limit reaction rates. The Arrhenius equation, k= A*e(-Ea/RT), can be used to predict enzyme activity (k), collision frequency (A) or activation energy (Ea), but is difficult to parameterize when activities are measured under artificial conditions without diffusion or substrate limitation. We developed a modifed equation to estimate collision frequency and activation energy based on soil moisture to model in-situ enzyme activites. Our model was parameterized using data we collected from the Boston Area Climate Experiment (BACE) in Massachusetts; a multi-factor climate change experiment that provides an opportunity to assess how changes in moisture availability and temperature may impact enzyme activity. Soils were collected from three precipitation treatments and four temperature treatments arranged in a full-factorial design at the BACE site in June 2008, August 2008, January 2009 and June 2009. Enzyme assays were performed at four temperatures (4, 15, 25 and 35°C) to calculate temperature sensitivity and activation energy over the different treatments and seasons. Enzymes activities were measured for six common enzymes involved in carbon (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, xylosidase), phosphorus (phosphatase) and nitrogen cycling (N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine amino peptidase). Potential enzyme activity was not significantly affected by precipitation, warming or the interaction of

  4. Effect of elevated CO2 on degradation of azoxystrobin and soil microbial activity in rice soil.

    PubMed

    Manna, Suman; Singh, Neera; Singh, V P

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted in open-top chambers (OTC) to study the effect of elevated CO2 (580 ± 20 μmol mol(-1)) on azoxystrobin degradation and soil microbial activities. Results indicated that elevated CO2 did not have any significant effect on the persistence of azoxystrobin in rice-planted soil. The half-life values for the azoxystrobin in rice soils were 20.3 days in control (rice grown at ambient CO2 outdoors), 19.3 days in rice grown under ambient CO2 atmosphere in OTC, and 17.5 days in rice grown under elevated CO2 atmosphere in OTC. Azoxystrobin acid was recovered as the only metabolite of azoxystrobin, but it did not accumulate in the soil/water and was further metabolized. Elevated CO2 enhanced soil microbial biomass (MBC) and alkaline phosphatase activity of soil. Compared with rice grown at ambient CO2 (both outdoors and in OTC), the soil MBC at elevated CO2 increased by twofold. Elevated CO2 did not affect dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, and acid phosphatase activity. Azoxystrobin application to soils, both ambient and elevated CO2, inhibited alkaline phosphates activity, while no effect was observed on other enzymes. Slight increase (1.8-2 °C) in temperature inside OTC did not affect microbial parameters, as similar activities were recorded in rice grown outdoors and in OTC at ambient CO2. Higher MBC in soil at elevated CO2 could be attributed to increased carbon availability in the rhizosphere via plant metabolism and root secretion; however, it did not significantly increase azoxystrobin degradation, suggesting that pesticide degradation was not the result of soil MBC alone. Study suggested that increased CO2 levels following global warming might not adversely affect azoxystrobin degradation. However, global warming is a continuous and cumulative process, therefore, long-term studies are necessary to get more realistic assessment of global warming on fate of pesticide. PMID:22773147

  5. Biological and abiotic dechlorination of highly chlorinated dioxins in biphasic microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Barkovskii, A.; Adriaens, P.

    1995-12-31

    A novel experimental approach to help increase the rates and extent of reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) is presented. Biphasic microcosms emulsions containing eluted microorganisms derived from historically contaminated Passaic River (New Jersey) sediments, and 4% (v/v) of decane, were spiked with mg/L of octaCDD. The microcosms were amended separately with three polyphenolic compounds--catechol, resorcinol, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate--to help improve electron transfer during reductive dechlorination. Abiotic controls containing phenolic compounds only, and pasteurized cells were monitored along with the active microcosms. Lesser-chlorinated congeners were observed in all treatments, including killed cells, indicating the potential not only for biological and abiotic, but also biogenic dechlorination mechanisms. After 3 months of incubation, tetraCDD isomers were produced in biological incubations only, and up to 30% of the spiked octaCDD was removed. Polyphenolic compounds first appear to transiently complex with the dioxins prior to further dechlorination, and did not increase the dechlorination rates over unamended cells. Whereas the 2,3,7,8-/1,4,6,9-substitution ratio of heptachlorinated congeners increased in all treatments, 2,3,7,8-substituted hexaCDDs congeners were identified mainly in active cell incubations. Further isomer-specific analysis may thus enable distinction between abiotic and biotic dechlorination processes in anaerobic sediments.

  6. Ice Nucleation Activity in the Widespread Soil Fungus Mortierella alpina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Pummer, B. G.; Franc, G. D.; Pöschl, U.

    2014-08-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nuclei (IN). So far, however, the abundance, diversity, sources, seasonality, and role of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. Across all investigated soils, 8% of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5 to -6 °C, and belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. M. alpina is known to be saprobic, widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic-elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be proteinaceous, <300 kDa in size, and can be easily washed off the mycelium. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, their contribution might accumulate over time, perhaps to be transported with soil dust and influencing its ice nucleating properties.

  7. Diversity and Activity of Lysobacter Species from Disease Suppressive Soils

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Expósito, Ruth; Postma, Joeke; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; De Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The genus Lysobacter includes several species that produce a range of extracellular enzymes and other metabolites with activity against bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Lysobacter species were found to be more abundant in soil suppressive against the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, but their actual role in disease suppression is still unclear. Here, the antifungal and plant growth-promoting activities of 18 Lysobacter strains, including 11 strains from Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the Lysobacter strains from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil belonged to the four species Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, Lysobacter enzymogenes, and Lysobacter gummosus. Most strains showed strong in vitro activity against R. solani and several other pathogens, including Pythium ultimum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Xanthomonas campestris. When the Lysobacter strains were introduced into soil, however, no significant and consistent suppression of R. solani damping-off disease of sugar beet and cauliflower was observed. Subsequent bioassays further revealed that none of the Lysobacter strains was able to promote growth of sugar beet, cauliflower, onion, and Arabidopsis thaliana, either directly or via volatile compounds. The lack of in vivo activity is most likely attributed to poor colonization of the rhizosphere by the introduced Lysobacter strains. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that Lysobacter species have strong antagonistic activities against a range of pathogens, making them an important source for putative new enzymes and antimicrobial compounds. However, their potential role in R. solani disease suppressive soil could not be confirmed. In-depth omics'–based analyses will be needed to shed more light on the potential contribution of Lysobacter species to the collective activities of microbial consortia in disease suppressive soils. PMID:26635735

  8. Diversity and Activity of Lysobacter Species from Disease Suppressive Soils.

    PubMed

    Gómez Expósito, Ruth; Postma, Joeke; Raaijmakers, Jos M; De Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The genus Lysobacter includes several species that produce a range of extracellular enzymes and other metabolites with activity against bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Lysobacter species were found to be more abundant in soil suppressive against the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, but their actual role in disease suppression is still unclear. Here, the antifungal and plant growth-promoting activities of 18 Lysobacter strains, including 11 strains from Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the Lysobacter strains from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil belonged to the four species Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, Lysobacter enzymogenes, and Lysobacter gummosus. Most strains showed strong in vitro activity against R. solani and several other pathogens, including Pythium ultimum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Xanthomonas campestris. When the Lysobacter strains were introduced into soil, however, no significant and consistent suppression of R. solani damping-off disease of sugar beet and cauliflower was observed. Subsequent bioassays further revealed that none of the Lysobacter strains was able to promote growth of sugar beet, cauliflower, onion, and Arabidopsis thaliana, either directly or via volatile compounds. The lack of in vivo activity is most likely attributed to poor colonization of the rhizosphere by the introduced Lysobacter strains. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that Lysobacter species have strong antagonistic activities against a range of pathogens, making them an important source for putative new enzymes and antimicrobial compounds. However, their potential role in R. solani disease suppressive soil could not be confirmed. In-depth omics'-based analyses will be needed to shed more light on the potential contribution of Lysobacter species to the collective activities of microbial consortia in disease suppressive soils. PMID:26635735

  9. Diversity and Activity of Lysobacter Species from Disease Suppressive Soils.

    PubMed

    Gómez Expósito, Ruth; Postma, Joeke; Raaijmakers, Jos M; De Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The genus Lysobacter includes several species that produce a range of extracellular enzymes and other metabolites with activity against bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Lysobacter species were found to be more abundant in soil suppressive against the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, but their actual role in disease suppression is still unclear. Here, the antifungal and plant growth-promoting activities of 18 Lysobacter strains, including 11 strains from Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the Lysobacter strains from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil belonged to the four species Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, Lysobacter enzymogenes, and Lysobacter gummosus. Most strains showed strong in vitro activity against R. solani and several other pathogens, including Pythium ultimum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Xanthomonas campestris. When the Lysobacter strains were introduced into soil, however, no significant and consistent suppression of R. solani damping-off disease of sugar beet and cauliflower was observed. Subsequent bioassays further revealed that none of the Lysobacter strains was able to promote growth of sugar beet, cauliflower, onion, and Arabidopsis thaliana, either directly or via volatile compounds. The lack of in vivo activity is most likely attributed to poor colonization of the rhizosphere by the introduced Lysobacter strains. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that Lysobacter species have strong antagonistic activities against a range of pathogens, making them an important source for putative new enzymes and antimicrobial compounds. However, their potential role in R. solani disease suppressive soil could not be confirmed. In-depth omics'-based analyses will be needed to shed more light on the potential contribution of Lysobacter species to the collective activities of microbial consortia in disease suppressive soils.

  10. Inhibition of methane oxidation by nitrogenous fertilizers in a paddy soil

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. Saiful; Jia, Zhongjun

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogenous fertilizers are generally thought to have an important role in regulating methane oxidation. In this study, the effect of ammonium on methane oxidation activity was investigated in a paddy soil using urea at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg N per gram dry weight soil (N/g.d.w.s) and ammonium sulfate at concentrations of 0, 50, and 200 μg N/g.d.w.s. The results of this study demonstrate that urea concentrations of 200 μg N/g.d.w.s. and above significantly inhibit methane oxidation activity, whereas no statistically significant difference was observed in methane oxidation activity among soil microcosms with urea concentrations of less than 200 μg N/g.d.w.s after incubation for 27 days. Similar results were obtained in a sense that methane oxidation activity was inhibited only when the ammonium sulfate concentration was 200 μg N/g.d.w.s in soil microcosms in this study. Phylogenetic analysis of pmoA genes showed that nitrogen fertilization resulted in apparent changes in the community composition of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Type I MOB displayed an increased abundance in soil microcosms amended with nitrogenous fertilizers, whereas type II MOB dominated the native soil. Furthermore, although no statistically significant relationship was observed between pmoA gene and amoA gene abundances, methane oxidation activity was significantly negatively correlated with nitrification activity in the presence of urea or ammonium sulfate. Our results indicate that the methane oxidation activity in paddy soils might be inhibited when the concentration of ammonium fertilizers is high and that the interactions between ammonia and methane oxidizers need to be further investigated. PMID:22783249

  11. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  12. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  13. Agar-Block Microcosms for Controlled Plant Tissue Decomposition by Aerobic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    The two principal methods for studying fungal biodegradation of lignocellulosic plant tissues were developed for wood preservative testing (soil-block; agar-block). It is well-accepted that soil-block microcosms yield higher decay rates, fewer moisture issues, lower variability among studies, and higher thresholds of preservative toxicity. Soil-block testing is thus the more utilized technique and has been standardized by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (method D 1413-07). The soil-block design has drawbacks, however, using locally-variable soil sources and in limiting the control of nutrients external (exogenous) to the decaying tissues. These drawbacks have emerged as a problem in applying this method to other, increasingly popular research aims. These modern aims include degrading lignocellulosics for bioenergy research, testing bioremediation of co-metabolized toxics, evaluating oxidative mechanisms, and tracking translocated elements along hyphal networks. Soil-blocks do not lend enough control in these applications. A refined agar-block approach is necessary. Here, we use the brown rot wood-degrading fungus Serpula lacrymans to degrade wood in agar-block microcosms, using deep Petri dishes with low-calcium agar. We test the role of exogenous gypsum on decay in a time-series, to demonstrate the utility and expected variability. Blocks from a single board rip (longitudinal cut) are conditioned, weighed, autoclaved, and introduced aseptically atop plastic mesh. Fungal inoculations are at each block face, with exogenous gypsum added at interfaces. Harvests are aseptic until the final destructive harvest. These microcosms are designed to avoid block contact with agar or Petri dish walls. Condensation is minimized during plate pours and during incubation. Finally, inoculum/gypsum/wood spacing is minimized but without allowing contact. These less technical aspects of agar-block design are also the most common causes of failure and the key source of

  14. Application of mesotrione at different doses in an amended soil: Dissipation and effect on the soil microbial biomass and activity.

    PubMed

    Pose-Juan, Eva; Sánchez-Martín, María Jesús; Herrero-Hernández, Eliseo; Rodríguez-Cruz, María Sonia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the dissipation of mesotrione applied at three doses (2, 10 and 50 mg kg(-1) dw) in an unamended agricultural soil, and this same soil amended with two organic residues (green compost (C) and sewage sludge (SS)). The effects of herbicide and organic residue on the abundance and activity of soil microbial communities were also assessed by determining soil microbial parameters such as biomass, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and respiration. Lower dissipation rates were observed for a higher herbicide dose. The highest half-life (DT50) values were observed in the SS-amended soil for the three herbicide doses applied. Biomass values increased in the amended soils compared to the unamended one in all the cases studied, and increased over the incubation period in the SS-amended soil. DHA mean values significantly decreased in the SS-amended soil, and increased in the C-amended soil compared to the unamended ones, under all conditions. At time 0 days, respiration values were significantly higher in SS-amended soils (untreated and treated with mesotrione) than in the unamended and C-amended soils. The effect of mesotrione on soil biomass, DHA and respiration was different depending on incubation time and soil amendment and herbicide dose applied. The results support the need to consider the possible non-target effects of pesticides and organic amendments simultaneously applied on soil microbial communities to prevent negative impacts on soil quality. PMID:26188530

  15. Biological activity of soil contaminated with cobalt, tin, and molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-07-01

    In this age of intensive industrialization and urbanization, mankind's highest concern should be to analyze the effect of all metals accumulating in the environment, both those considered toxic and trace elements. With this aim in mind, a unique study was conducted to determine the potentially negative impact of Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) in optimal and increased doses on soil biological properties. These metals were applied in the form of aqueous solutions of Sn(2+) (SnCl2 (.)2H2O), Co(2+) (CoCl2 · 6H2O), and Mo(5+) (MoCl5), each in the doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1) soil DM. The activity of dehydrogenases, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and catalase and the counts of twelve microorganism groups were determined on the 25th and 50th day of experiment duration. Moreover, to present the studied problem comprehensively, changes in the biochemical activity and yield of spring barley were shown using soil and plant resistance indices-RS. The study shows that Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) disturb the state of soil homeostasis. Co(2+) and Mo(5+) proved the greatest soil biological activity inhibitors. The residence of these metals in soil, particularly Co(2+), also generated a drastic decrease in the value of spring barley resistance. Only Sn(2+) did not disrupt its yielding. The studied enzymes can be arranged as follows for their sensitivity to Sn(2+), Co(2+), Mo(5+): Deh > Ure > Aryl > Pal > Pac > Cat. Dehydrogenases and urease may be reliable soil health indicators. PMID:27277093

  16. Soil hydrological and soil property changes resulting from termite activity on agricultural fields in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettrop, I.; Cammeraat, L. H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are important ecosystem-engineers in subtropical and tropical regions. The effect of termite activity affecting soil infiltration is well documented in the Sahelian region. Most studies find increased infiltration rates on surfaces that are affected by termite activity in comparison to crusted areas showing non-termite presence. Crusted agricultural fields in the Sanmatenga region in Burkina Faso with clear termite activity were compared to control fields without visual ground dwelling termite activity. Fine scale rainfall simulations were carried out on crusted termite affected and control sites. Furthermore soil moisture change, bulk density, soil organic matter as well as general soil characteristics were studied. The top soils in the study area were strongly crusted (structural crust) after the summer rainfall and harvest of millet. They have a loamy sand texture underlain by a shallow sandy loam Bt horizon. The initial soil moisture conditions were significantly higher on the termite plots when compared to control sites. It was found that the amount of runoff produced on the termite plots was significantly higher, and also the volumetric soil moisture content after the experiments was significantly lower if compared to the control plots. Bulk density showed no difference whereas soil organic matter was significantly higher under termite affected areas, in comparison to the control plots. Lab tests showed no significant difference in hydrophobic behavior of the topsoil and crust material. Micro and macro-structural properties of the topsoil did not differ significantly between the termite sites and the control sites. The texture of the top 5 cm of the soil was also found to be not significantly different. The infiltration results are contradictory to the general literature, which reports increased infiltration rates after prolonged termite activity although mostly under different initial conditions. The number of nest entrances was clearly higher in

  17. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at λmax=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci

  18. Mercury Distribution, Methylation and Volatilization in Microcosms with and without the Sea Anemone Bunodosoma caissarum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, N. R.; Correia, R. R. S.; Fernandez, M. A. S.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Guimarães, J. R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) can be a dangerous contaminant and has a complex biogeochemical cycling in aquatic environments. The sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum is an endemic species in Brazil capable of bioaccumulating Hg from the ambient seawater. The radiotracer 203Hg was used in order to investigate mechanisms of Hg uptake and depuration of B. caissarum and the distribution of Hg in laboratory model systems, with and without B. caissarum. A single initial spike of 203Hg was added to each microcosm. Microcosms had continuous air renovation and trapping of Hg volatile forms. Total Hg in different compartments was measured by gamma spectrometry. In the uptake experiment 203Hg activity was determined periodically in seawater and specimens for 6 days. At the end, specimens had an average bioconcentration factor of 70. After the uptake experiment, methylmercury (MeHg) in seawater was extracted and measured by liquid scintillation. In microcosms with and without B. caissarum, respectively 0.05% and 0.32% of the initial spike was found as MeHg. Hg was probably less available for methylation in the first because of bioaccumulation and higher concentrations of suspended particulate matter that could form complexes with Hg. After that, specimens were transferred to unspiked microcosms. After a 48 day depuration specimens still retained 35 - 70% of the previously bioaccumulated Hg and 0.2 - 2.4% of the total Hg was MeHg. The presence of B. caissarum resulted in an unexpected higher volatilization of Hg (58%) compared to controls (17%). This increased volatilization is possibly a result of Hg2+ reduction mediated by microorganisms associated with its tissues and mucus secretions and/or an unknown defense mechanism of this species.

  19. Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M.

    1994-09-01

    Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms was decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Enhancing tetrabromobisphenol A biodegradation in river sediment microcosms and understanding the corresponding microbial community.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiying; Xiong, Jukun; Wong, Po Keung; An, Taicheng

    2016-01-01

    In situ remediation of contaminated sediment using microbes is a promising environmental treatment method. This study used bioaugmentation to investigate the biodegradation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in sediment microcosms collected from an electronic-waste recycling site. Treatments included adding possible biodegradation intermediates of TBBPA, including 2,4-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP), and bisphenol A (BPA) as co-substrates. Bioaugmentation was done with Ochrobactrum sp. T (TBBPA-degrader) and a mixed culture of Ochrobactrum sp. T, Bacillus sp. GZT (TBP-degrader) and Bacillus sp. GZB (BPA-degrader). Results showed that bioaugmentation with Ochrobactrum sp. T significantly improved TBBPA degradation efficiencies in sediment microcosms (P < 0.01); aerobic conditions increased the microbes' degradation activities. Co-substrates 2,4-DBP, TBP and BPA inhibited biodegradation of TBBPA. A metagenomic analysis of total 16S rRNA genes from the treated sediment microcosms showed that the following dominant genera: Ochrobactrum, Parasegetibacter, Thermithiobacillus, Phenylobacterium and Sphingomonas. The genus level of Ochrobactrum increased with increased degradation time, within 10-week of incubation. Microbes from genus Ochrobactrum are mainly linked to enhance the TBBPA biodegradation. PMID:26602791

  1. Abundance and dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in lake sediment microcosms.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Björn; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Lindberg, Richard; Fick, Jerker; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing disease is an ever growing threat to the world. Recently, environmental bacteria have become established as important both as sources of antibiotic resistance genes and in disseminating resistance genes. Low levels of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are regularly released into water environments via wastewater, and the concern is that such environmental contamination may serve to create hotspots for antibiotic resistance gene selection and dissemination. In this study, microcosms were created from water and sediments gathered from a lake in Sweden only lightly affected by human activities. The microcosms were exposed to a mixture of antibiotics of varying environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., concentrations commonly encountered in wastewaters) in order to investigate the effect of low levels of antibiotics on antibiotic resistance gene abundances and dynamics in a previously uncontaminated environment. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Abundances of seven antibiotic resistance genes and the class 1 integron integrase gene, intI1, were quantified using real-time PCR. Resistance genes sulI and ermB were quantified in the microcosm sediments with mean abundances 5 and 15 gene copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies, respectively. Class 1 integrons were determined in the sediments with a mean concentration of 3.8 × 10(4) copies/106 16S rRNA gene copies. The antibiotic treatment had no observable effect on antibiotic resistance gene or integron abundances. PMID:25247418

  2. Bioremediation of 1,2-dichloroethane contaminated groundwater: Microcosm and microbial diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Kuo, Y C; Huang, Y Z; Huang, C W; Kao, C M

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of bioremediating 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA)-contaminated groundwater under different oxidation-reduction processes was evaluated. Microcosms were constructed using indigenous bacteria and activated sludge as the inocula and cane molasses and a slow polycolloid-releasing substrate (SPRS) as the primary substrates. Complete DCA removal was obtained within 30 days under aerobic and reductive dechlorinating conditions. In anaerobic microcosms with sludge and substrate addition, chloroethane, vinyl chloride, and ethene were produced. The microbial communities and DCA-degrading bacteria in microcosms were characterized by 16S rRNA-based denatured-gradient-gel electrophoresis profiling and nucleotide sequence analyses. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to evaluate the variations in Dehalococcoides spp. and Desulfitobacterium spp. Increase in Desulfitobacterium spp. indicates that the growth of Desulfitobacterium might be induced by DCA. Results indicate that DCA could be used as the primary substrate under aerobic conditions. The increased ethene concentrations imply that dihaloelimination was the dominate mechanism for DCA biodegradation.

  3. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Nijoku, Eni G.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Kellogg, Kent H.; Crow, Wade T.; Edelstein, Wendy N.; Entin, Jared K.; Goodman, Shawn D.; Jackson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Joel; Kimball, John; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Koster, Randal D.; McDonald, Kyle C.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Moran, Susan; Reichle, Rolf; Shi, J. C.; Spencer, Michael W.; Thurman, Samuel W.; Tsang, Leung; VanZyl, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council s Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of the moisture present at Earth's land surface and will distinguish frozen from thawed land surfaces. Direct observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space will allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between land and atmosphere. Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing flooding and monitoring drought. SMAP observations can help mitigate these natural hazards, resulting in potentially great economic and social benefits. SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing observations will also reduce a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon balance by helping to resolve an apparent missing carbon sink on land over the boreal latitudes. The SMAP mission concept would utilize an L-band radar and radiometer. These instruments will share a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every two to three days. The SMAP instruments provide direct measurements of surface conditions. In addition, the SMAP project will use these observations with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide deeper root-zone soil moisture and estimates of land surface-atmosphere exchanges of water, energy and carbon. SMAP is scheduled for a 2014 launch date

  4. Effects of Soil Property Uncertainty on Projected Active Layer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, D. R.; Atchley, A. L.; Coon, E.; Painter, S. L.; Wilson, C. J.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Liljedahl, A.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty in future climate is often assumed to contribute the largest uncertainty to active layer thickness (ALT) projections. However, the impact of soil property uncertainty on these projections may be significant. In this research, we evaluate the contribution of soil property uncertainty on ALT projections at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska. The effect of variations in porosity, thermal conductivity, saturation, and water retention properties of peat and mineral soil are evaluated. The micro-topography of ice wedge polygons present at the site is included in the analysis using three 1D column models to represent polygon center, rim and trough features. The Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) is used to model multiphase thermal and hydrological processes in the subsurface. We apply the Null-Space Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm to identify an ensemble of soil property combinations that produce simulated temperature profiles that are consistent with temperature measurements available from the site. ALT is simulated for the ensemble of soil property combinations for four climate scenarios. The uncertainty in ALT due to soil properties within and across climate scenarios is evaluated. This work was supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project LDRD201200068DR and by the The Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project. NGEE-Arctic is supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the DOE Office of Science.

  5. Ice Nucleation Activity of Various Agricultural Soil Dust Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Thea; Höhler, Kristina; Funk, Roger; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Levin, Ezra J. T.; Nadolny, Jens; Steinke, Isabelle; Suski, Kaitlyn J.; Ullrich, Romy; Wagner, Robert; Weber, Ines; DeMott, Paul J.; Möhler, Ottmar

    2016-04-01

    Recent investigations at the cloud simulation chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) suggest that agricultural soil dust has an ice nucleation ability that is enhanced up to a factor of 10 compared to desert dust, especially at temperatures above -26 °C (Steinke et al., in preparation for submission). This enhancement might be caused by the contribution of very ice-active biological particles. In addition, soil dust aerosol particles often contain a considerably higher amount of organic matter compared to desert dust particles. To test agricultural soil dust as a source of ice nucleating particles, especially for ice formation in warm clouds, we conducted a series of laboratory measurements with different soil dust samples to extend the existing AIDA dataset. The AIDA has a volume of 84 m3 and operates under atmospherically relevant conditions over wide ranges of temperature, pressure and humidity. By controlled adiabatic expansions, the ascent of an air parcel in the troposphere can be simulated. As a supplement to the AIDA facility, we use the INKA (Ice Nucleation Instrument of the KArlsruhe Institute of Technology) continuous flow diffusion chamber based on the design by Rogers (1988) to expose the sampled aerosol particles to a continuously increasing saturation ratio by keeping the aerosol temperature constant. For our experiments, soil dust was dry dispersed into the AIDA vessel. First, fast saturation ratio scans at different temperatures were performed with INKA, sampling soil dust aerosol particles directly from the AIDA vessel. Then, we conducted the AIDA expansion experiment starting at a preset temperature. The combination of these two different methods provides a robust data set on the temperature-dependent ice activity of various agriculture soil dust aerosol particles with a special focus on relatively high temperatures. In addition, to extend the data set, we investigated the role of biological and organic matter in more

  6. [Vertical distribution of soil active carbon and soil organic carbon storage under different forest types in the Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Geng, Zeng-Chao; She, Diao; He, Wen-Xiang; Hou, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Adopting field investigation and indoor analysis methods, the distribution patterns of soil active carbon and soil carbon storage in the soil profiles of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Matoutan Forest, I), Pinus tabuliformis (II), Pinus armandii (III), pine-oak mixed forest (IV), Picea asperata (V), and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Xinjiashan Forest, VI) of Qinling Mountains were studied in August 2013. The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and easily oxidizable carbon (EOC) decreased with the increase of soil depth along the different forest soil profiles. The SOC and DOC contents of different depths along the soil profiles of P. asperata and pine-oak mixed forest were higher than in the other studied forest soils, and the order of the mean SOC and DOC along the different soil profiles was V > IV > I > II > III > VI. The contents of soil MBC of the different forest soil profiles were 71.25-710.05 mg x kg(-1), with a content sequence of I > V > N > III > II > VI. The content of EOC along the whole soil profile of pine-oak mixed forest had a largest decline, and the order of the mean EOC was IV > V> I > II > III > VI. The sequence of soil organic carbon storage of the 0-60 cm soil layer was V > I >IV > III > VI > II. The MBC, DOC and EOC contents of the different forest soils were significanty correlated to each other. There was significant positive correlation among soil active carbon and TOC, TN. Meanwhile, there was no significant correlation between soil active carbon and other soil basic physicochemical properties.

  7. Phylogenetically Distinct Phylotypes Modulate Nitrification in a Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Wang, Baozhan

    2015-01-01

    Paddy fields represent a unique ecosystem in which regular flooding occurs, allowing for rice cultivation. However, the taxonomic identity of the microbial functional guilds that catalyze soil nitrification remains poorly understood. In this study, we provide molecular evidence for distinctly different phylotypes of nitrifying communities in a neutral paddy soil using high-throughput pyrosequencing and DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP). Following urea addition, the levels of soil nitrate increased significantly, accompanied by an increase in the abundance of the bacterial and archaeal amoA gene in microcosms subjected to SIP (SIP microcosms) during a 56-day incubation period. High-throughput fingerprints of the total 16S rRNA genes in SIP microcosms indicated that nitrification activity positively correlated with the abundance of Nitrosospira-like ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), soil group 1.1b-like ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Pyrosequencing of 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that 13CO2 was assimilated by these functional groups to a much greater extent than by marine group 1.1a-associated AOA and Nitrobacter-like NOB. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that active AOB communities were closely affiliated with Nitrosospira sp. strain L115 and the Nitrosospira multiformis lineage and that the 13C-labeled AOA were related to phylogenetically distinct groups, including the moderately thermophilic “Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis,” uncultured fosmid 29i4, and acidophilic “Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra” lineages. These results suggest that a wide variety of microorganisms were involved in soil nitrification, implying physiological diversification of soil nitrifying communities that are constantly exposed to environmental fluctuations in paddy fields. PMID:25724959

  8. Stereoselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosms.

    PubMed

    Bagnall, John; Malia, Louis; Lubben, Anneke; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Here presented for the first time is the enantioselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosm bioreactors. The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that mechanisms governing the fate of amphetamine and methamphetamine in the environment are mostly stereoselective and biological in nature. Several bioreactors were studied over the duration of 15 days (i) in both biotic and abiotic conditions, (ii) in the dark or exposed to light and (iii) in the presence or absence of suspended particulate matter. Bioreactor samples were analysed using SPE-chiral-LC-(QTOF)MS methodology. This investigation has elucidated the fundamental mechanism for degradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine as being predominantly biological in origin. Furthermore, stereoselectivity and changes in enantiomeric fraction (EF) were only observed under biotic conditions. Neither amphetamine nor methamphetamine appeared to demonstrate adsorption to suspended particulate matter. Our experiments also demonstrated that amphetamine and methamphetamine were photo-stable. Illicit drugs are present in the environment at low concentrations but due to their pseudo-persistence and non-racemic behaviour, with two enantiomers revealing significantly different potency (and potentially different toxicity towards aquatic organisms) the risk posed by illicit drugs in the environment should not be under- or over-estimated. The above results demonstrate the need for re-evaluation of the procedures utilised in environmental risk assessment, which currently do not recognise the importance of the phenomenon of chirality in pharmacologically active compounds. PMID:23886544

  9. Stereoselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosms.

    PubMed

    Bagnall, John; Malia, Louis; Lubben, Anneke; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Here presented for the first time is the enantioselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosm bioreactors. The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that mechanisms governing the fate of amphetamine and methamphetamine in the environment are mostly stereoselective and biological in nature. Several bioreactors were studied over the duration of 15 days (i) in both biotic and abiotic conditions, (ii) in the dark or exposed to light and (iii) in the presence or absence of suspended particulate matter. Bioreactor samples were analysed using SPE-chiral-LC-(QTOF)MS methodology. This investigation has elucidated the fundamental mechanism for degradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine as being predominantly biological in origin. Furthermore, stereoselectivity and changes in enantiomeric fraction (EF) were only observed under biotic conditions. Neither amphetamine nor methamphetamine appeared to demonstrate adsorption to suspended particulate matter. Our experiments also demonstrated that amphetamine and methamphetamine were photo-stable. Illicit drugs are present in the environment at low concentrations but due to their pseudo-persistence and non-racemic behaviour, with two enantiomers revealing significantly different potency (and potentially different toxicity towards aquatic organisms) the risk posed by illicit drugs in the environment should not be under- or over-estimated. The above results demonstrate the need for re-evaluation of the procedures utilised in environmental risk assessment, which currently do not recognise the importance of the phenomenon of chirality in pharmacologically active compounds.

  10. Blending foundry sands with soil: Effect on dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Robert S; Kukier, Urzsula; Lee, Brad

    2006-03-15

    Each year U.S. foundries landfill several million tons of sand that can no longer be used to make metalcasting molds and cores. A possible use for these materials is as an ingredient in manufactured soils; however, potentially harmful metals and resin binders (used to make cores) may adversely impact the soil microbial community. In this study, the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of soil amended with molding sand (clay-coated sand known as "green sand") or core sands at 10%, 30%, and 50% (dry wt.) was determined. The green sands were obtained from iron, aluminum, and brass foundries; the core sands were made with phenol-formaldehyde or furfuryl alcohol based resins. Overall, incremental additions of these sands resulted in a decrease in the DHA which lasted throughout the 12-week experimental period. A brass green sand, which contained high concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn, severely impacted the DHA. By week 12 no DHA was detected in the 30% and 50% treatments. In contrast, the DHA in soil amended with an aluminum green sand was 2.1 times higher (all blending ratios), on average, at week 4 and 1.4 times greater (30% and 50% treatments only) than the controls by week 12. In core sand-amended soil, the DHA results were similar to soils amended with aluminum and iron green sands. Increased activity in some treatments may be a result of the soil microorganisms utilizing the core resins as a carbon source. The DHA assay is a sensitive indicator of environmental stress caused by foundry sand constituents and may be useful to assess which foundry sands are suitable for beneficial use in the environment. PMID:15975632

  11. Microbial and enzymatic activity of soil contaminated with azoxystrobin.

    PubMed

    Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2015-10-01

    The use of fungicides in crop protection still effectively eliminates fungal pathogens of plants. However, fungicides may dissipate to various elements of the environment and cause irreversible changes. Considering this problem, the aim of the presented study was to evaluate changes in soil biological activity in response to contamination with azoxystrobin. The study was carried out in the laboratory on samples of sandy loam with a pH of 7.0 in 1 Mol KCl dm(-3). Soil samples were treated with azoxystrobin in one of four doses: 0.075 (dose recommended by the manufacturer), 2.250, 11.25 and 22.50 mg kg(-1) soil DM (dry matter of soil). The control soil sample did not contain fungicide. Bacteria were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and fungi were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing. The study revealed that increased doses of azoxystrobin inhibited the growth of organotrophic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. The fungicide also caused changes in microbial biodiversity. The lowest values of the colony development (CD) index were recorded for fungi and the ecophysiological (EP) index for organotrophic bacteria. Azoxystrobin had an inhibitory effect on the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. Dehydrogenases were found to be most resistant to the effects of the fungicide, while alkaline phosphatase in the soil recovered the balance in the shortest time. Four species of bacteria from the genus Bacillus and two species of fungi from the genus Aphanoascus were isolated from the soil contaminated with the highest dose of azoxystrobin (22.50 mg kg(-1)). PMID:26343782

  12. Effects of plant species coexistence on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community structure under Cd and Pb combined pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Zhou, Pei; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yueer; Zhang, Chunhua; Shi, Wanjun

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between plant species coexistence and soil microbial communities under heavy metal pollution has attracted much attention in ecology. However, whether plant species coexistence could offset the impacts of heavy metal combined pollution on soil microbial community structure and soil enzymes activities is not well studied. The modified ecological dose model and PCR-RAPD method were used to assess the effects of two plant species coexistence on soil microbial community and enzymes activities subjected to Cd and Pb combined stress. The results indicated that monoculture and mixed culture would increased microbe populations under Cd and Pb combined stress, and the order of sensitivity of microbial community responding to heavy metal stress was: actinomycetes > bacteria > fungi. The respirations were significantly higher in planted soil than that in unplanted soil. The plant species coexistence could enhance soil enzyme activities under Cd and Pb combined. Furthermore, planted soil would be helpful to enhance soil genetic polymorphisms, but Cd and Pb pollution would cause a decrease on soil genetic polymorphisms. Mixed culture would increase the ecological dose 50% (EDs50) values, and the ED50 values for soil enzyme activities decreased with increasing culture time. The dehydrogenase was most sensitive to metal addition and easily loses activity under low dose of heavy metal. However, it was difficult to fully inhibit the phoshpatase activity, and urease responded similarly with phosphatase.

  13. Aminocyclopyrachlor sorption in biochar and activated charcoal amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminocyclopyrachlor is a new herbicide active ingredient, classified as a member of the new chemical class “pyrimidine carboxylic acids”. It is used for control of broadleaf weeds and brush on non-cropland. Due to its potential mobility in some soils, there is interest in whether aminocyclopyrachlor...

  14. The soil moisture active passive (SMAP) mission and validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will be launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in October 2014. This satellite is the culmination of basic research and applications development over the past thirty years. During most of this period, research and development o...

  15. Soil Moisture Active Passive Satellite Status and Recent Validation Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched in January, 2015 and began its calibration and validation (cal/val) phase in May, 2015. Cal/Val will begin with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and evolve to the geophysical products that include...

  16. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council’s Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of the moisture present at Earth's land surface and will distinguish frozen f...

  17. SMAPVEX08: Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) is currently addressing issues related to the development and selection of retrieval algorithms as well as refining the mission design and instruments. Some of these issues require resolution as soon as possible. Several forums had identified specific ...

  18. Amazing Soil Stories: Adventure and Activity Book [and] Teacher's Guide to the Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Association of Resource Conservation Districts, Sacramento.

    The student activity book offers a variety of written exercises and "hands on" experiments and demonstrations for students at the fourth grade level. The book begins with a cartoon story that follows the adventures of a student investigating a soil erosion crisis and what her community can do to prevent soil erosion. Interspersed within the story…

  19. Survival of native Pseudomonas in soil and wheat rhizosphere and antagonist activity against plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sonia E; Jofré, Edgardo C; Cordero, Paula V; Gutiérrez Mañero, Francisco J; Mori, Gladys B

    2010-03-01

    Survival of Pseudomonas sp. SF4c and Pseudomonas sp. SF10b (two plant-growth-promoting bacteria isolated from wheat rhizosphere) was investigated in microcosms. Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant mutants derived from these strains (showing both growth rate and viability comparable to the wild-strains) were used to monitor the strains in bulk soil and wheat rhizosphere. Studies were carried out for 60 days in pots containing non-sterile fertilized or non-fertilized soil. The number of viable cells of both mutant strains declined during the first days but then became established in the wheat rhizosphere at an appropriate cell density in both kinds of soil. Survival of the strains was better in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Finally, the antagonism of Pseudomonas spp. against phytopatogenic fungi was evaluated in vitro. Both strains inhibited the mycelial growth (or the resistance structures) of some of the phytopathogenic fungi tested, though variation in this antagonism was observed in different media. This inhibition could be due to the production of extracellular enzymes, hydrogen cyanide or siderophores, signifying that these microorganisms might be applied in agriculture to minimize the utilization of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. PMID:20020326

  20. Hydrocarbon biodegradation by Arctic sea-ice and sub-ice microbial communities during microcosm experiments, Northwest Passage (Nunavut, Canada).

    PubMed

    Garneau, Marie-Ève; Michel, Christine; Meisterhans, Guillaume; Fortin, Nathalie; King, Thomas L; Greer, Charles W; Lee, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The increasing accessibility to navigation and offshore oil exploration brings risks of hydrocarbon releases in Arctic waters. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons is a promising mitigation strategy but challenges remain, particularly due to low microbial metabolic rates in cold, ice-covered seas. Hydrocarbon degradation potential of ice-associated microbes collected from the Northwest Passage was investigated. Microcosm incubations were run for 15 days at -1.7°C with and without oil to determine the effects of hydrocarbon exposure on microbial abundance, diversity and activity, and to estimate component-specific hydrocarbon loss. Diversity was assessed with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial activity was measured by (3)H-leucine uptake rates. After incubation, sub-ice and sea-ice communities degraded 94% and 48% of the initial hydrocarbons, respectively. Hydrocarbon exposure changed the composition of sea-ice and sub-ice communities; in sea-ice microcosms, Bacteroidetes (mainly Polaribacter) dominated whereas in sub-ice microcosms, the contribution of Epsilonproteobacteria increased, and that of Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. Sequencing data revealed a decline in diversity and increases in Colwellia and Moritella in oil-treated microcosms. Low concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in sub-ice seawater may explain higher hydrocarbon degradation when compared to sea ice, where DOM was abundant and composed of labile exopolysaccharides.

  1. Hydrocarbon biodegradation by Arctic sea-ice and sub-ice microbial communities during microcosm experiments, Northwest Passage (Nunavut, Canada).

    PubMed

    Garneau, Marie-Ève; Michel, Christine; Meisterhans, Guillaume; Fortin, Nathalie; King, Thomas L; Greer, Charles W; Lee, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The increasing accessibility to navigation and offshore oil exploration brings risks of hydrocarbon releases in Arctic waters. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons is a promising mitigation strategy but challenges remain, particularly due to low microbial metabolic rates in cold, ice-covered seas. Hydrocarbon degradation potential of ice-associated microbes collected from the Northwest Passage was investigated. Microcosm incubations were run for 15 days at -1.7°C with and without oil to determine the effects of hydrocarbon exposure on microbial abundance, diversity and activity, and to estimate component-specific hydrocarbon loss. Diversity was assessed with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial activity was measured by (3)H-leucine uptake rates. After incubation, sub-ice and sea-ice communities degraded 94% and 48% of the initial hydrocarbons, respectively. Hydrocarbon exposure changed the composition of sea-ice and sub-ice communities; in sea-ice microcosms, Bacteroidetes (mainly Polaribacter) dominated whereas in sub-ice microcosms, the contribution of Epsilonproteobacteria increased, and that of Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. Sequencing data revealed a decline in diversity and increases in Colwellia and Moritella in oil-treated microcosms. Low concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in sub-ice seawater may explain higher hydrocarbon degradation when compared to sea ice, where DOM was abundant and composed of labile exopolysaccharides. PMID:27387912

  2. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    positively correlated with the carbohydrate fraction and negatively correlated with the aliphatic fraction of the soil C, while carbohydrate-C and alkyl-C increased and decreased with distance from the road, respectively. It is proposed that petroleum hydrocarbons supress soil biological activity at concentrations above 1500 mg kg-1, and that soil organic matter priming primarily affects the carbohydrate fraction of soil organic matter. It can be concluded that the abundance of solid carbohydrates (O-alkyl C) is of paramount importance for the hydrocarbon mineralization under natural conditions, compared to more recalcitrant SOM fractions (mainly aromatic and alkyl C). References Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2013) Distribution and fractional composition of petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, vol. 2013, Article ID 938703, 6 pages, DOI 10.1155/2013/938703 Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2014) Deposition of petroleum hydrocarbons with sediment trapped in snow in roadside areas. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 22(3):237-244, DOI 10.3846/16486897.2014.889698 Nelson P.N. and Baldock J.A. (2005) Estimating the molecular composition of a diverse range of natural organic materials from solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses, 2005, Biogeochemistry (2005) 72: 1-34, DOI 10.1007/s10533-004-0076-3 Zyakun, A., Nii-Annang, S., Franke, G., Fischer, T., Buegger, F., Dilly, O. (2011) Microbial Actvity and 13C/12C Ratio as Evidence of N-Hexadecane and N-Hexadecanoic Acid Biodegradation in Agricultural and Forest Soils. Geomicrobiology Journal 28:632-647, DOI 10.1080/01490451.2010.489922

  3. Influence of Environmental Factors on Feammox Activity in Soil Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) under iron reducing conditions, referred to as Feammox, has been described in recent years by several investigators. The environmental characteristics in which the Feammox process occurs need to be understood in order to determine its contribution to the nitrogen cycle. In this study, a total of 66 locations were selected covering 4 different types of soils/sediments: wetland soils (W), river sediments (R), forest soils (F), and paddy soils (P) from several locations in central New Jersey, at Tims Branch at Savannah River in South Carolina, both in the Unities States, and at several locations in the Guangdong province in China. Though soil chemical analyses, serial culturing experiments, analysis of microbial communities, and using a canonical correspondence analysis, the occurrence of the Feammox reaction and the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, which plays a key role in the Feammox process(1), were found in 17 samples. Analyses showed that the soil pH, as well as its Fe(III) and NH4+ content were the most important factors controlling the distribution of these Feammox microorganisms. Based on the results, soils in the subtropical forests and soils that are near agricultural areas could be Feammox hotspot. Under the conditions that favor the presence and activity of Feammox microorganisms and their oxidation of NH4+, denitrification bacteria were also active. However, the presence of nitrous oxide (N2O) reducers was limited under these conditions, implying that at locations where the Feammox process is active, conditions are favoring a higher ratio of N2O: N2 as the nitrogen (N) end products. Incubations of soils where the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected, were conducted for 120 days under two different DO levels (DO < 0.02 mg/L and DO = 0.8~1.0 mg/L) showing comparable amounts of NH4+ oxidation. In the incubations with DO < 0.02 mg/L, the proportion of Acidimicrobiaceae bacteria increased and

  4. Soils Activity Mobility Study: Methodology and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, Alissa; Yucel, Vefa

    2014-09-29

    This report presents a three-level approach for estimation of sediment transport to provide an assessment of potential erosion risk for sites at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that are posted for radiological purposes and where migration is suspected or known to occur due to storm runoff. Based on the assessed risk, the appropriate level of effort can be determined for analysis of radiological surveys, field experiments to quantify erosion and transport rates, and long-term monitoring. The method is demonstrated at contaminated sites, including Plutonium Valley, Shasta, Smoky, and T-1. The Pacific Southwest Interagency Committee (PSIAC) procedure is selected as the Level 1 analysis tool. The PSIAC method provides an estimation of the total annual sediment yield based on factors derived from the climatic and physical characteristics of a watershed. If the results indicate low risk, then further analysis is not warranted. If the Level 1 analysis indicates high risk or is deemed uncertain, a Level 2 analysis using the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) is proposed. In addition, if a sediment yield for a storm event rather than an annual sediment yield is needed, then the proposed Level 2 analysis should be performed. MUSLE only provides sheet and rill erosion estimates. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) provides storm peak runoff rate and storm volumes, the inputs necessary for MUSLE. Channel Sediment Transport (CHAN-SED) I and II models are proposed for estimating sediment deposition or erosion in a channel reach from a storm event. These models require storm hydrograph associated sediment concentration and bed load particle size distribution data. When the Level 2 analysis indicates high risk for sediment yield and associated contaminant migration or when there is high uncertainty in the Level 2 results, the sites can be further evaluated with a Level 3 analysis using more complex

  5. County-Scale Spatial Distribution of Soil Enzyme Activities and Enzyme Activity Indices in Agricultural Land: Implications for Soil Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Baoni; Wang, Junxing; He, Wenxiang; Wang, Xudong; Wei, Gehong

    2014-01-01

    Here the spatial distribution of soil enzymatic properties in agricultural land was evaluated on a county-wide (567 km2) scale in Changwu, Shaanxi Province, China. The spatial variations in activities of five hydrolytic enzymes were examined using geostatistical methods. The relationships between soil enzyme activities and other soil properties were evaluated using both an integrated total enzyme activity index (TEI) and the geometric mean of enzyme activities (GME). At the county scale, soil invertase, phosphatase, and catalase activities were moderately spatially correlated, whereas urease and dehydrogenase activities were weakly spatially correlated. Correlation analysis showed that both TEI and GME were better correlated with selected soil physicochemical properties than single enzyme activities. Multivariate regression analysis showed that soil OM content had the strongest positive effect while soil pH had a negative effect on the two enzyme activity indices. In addition, total phosphorous content had a positive effect on TEI and GME in orchard soils, whereas alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium contents, respectively, had negative and positive effects on these two enzyme indices in cropland soils. The results indicate that land use changes strongly affect soil enzyme activities in agricultural land, where TEI provides a sensitive biological indicator for soil quality. PMID:25610908

  6. County-scale spatial distribution of soil enzyme activities and enzyme activity indices in agricultural land: implications for soil quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiangping; Xie, Baoni; Wang, Junxing; He, Wenxiang; Wang, Xudong; Wei, Gehong

    2014-01-01

    Here the spatial distribution of soil enzymatic properties in agricultural land was evaluated on a county-wide (567 km(2)) scale in Changwu, Shaanxi Province, China. The spatial variations in activities of five hydrolytic enzymes were examined using geostatistical methods. The relationships between soil enzyme activities and other soil properties were evaluated using both an integrated total enzyme activity index (TEI) and the geometric mean of enzyme activities (GME). At the county scale, soil invertase, phosphatase, and catalase activities were moderately spatially correlated, whereas urease and dehydrogenase activities were weakly spatially correlated. Correlation analysis showed that both TEI and GME were better correlated with selected soil physicochemical properties than single enzyme activities. Multivariate regression analysis showed that soil OM content had the strongest positive effect while soil pH had a negative effect on the two enzyme activity indices. In addition, total phosphorous content had a positive effect on TEI and GME in orchard soils, whereas alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium contents, respectively, had negative and positive effects on these two enzyme indices in cropland soils. The results indicate that land use changes strongly affect soil enzyme activities in agricultural land, where TEI provides a sensitive biological indicator for soil quality. PMID:25610908

  7. Factors Influencing TCE Anaerobic Dechlorination Investigated via Simulations of Microcosm Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, X.; Harkness, M.; Lee, M. D.; Mack, E. E.; Dworatzek, S.; Acheson, C.; McCarty, P.; Barry, D. A.; Gerhard, J. I.

    2006-12-01

    SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) is a public-private consortium whose charter is to determine if enhanced anaerobic bioremediation can result in effective and quantifiable treatment of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. The focus of this 4-year, $5.7 million research project is a field site in the United Kingdom containing a TCE DNAPL source area. In preparation, a microcosm study was performed to determine the optimal combination of factors to support reductive dechlorination of TCE in site soil and groundwater. The study consisted of 168 bottles distributed between four laboratories (Dupont, GE, SiREM, and Terra Systems) and tested the impact of six carbon substrates (lactate, acetate, methanol, SRS (soybean oil), hexanol, butyl acetate), bioaugmentation with KB-1 bacterial culture, three TCE levels (100 mg/L, 400 mg/L, and 800 mg/L) and two sulphate levels (200 mg/L, >500 mg/L) on TCE dechlorination. This research presents a numerical model designed to simulate the main processes occurring in the microcosms, including substrate fermentation, sequential dechlorination, toxic inhibition, and the influence of sulphate concentration. In calibrating the model to over 60 of the microcosm experiments, lumped parameters were employed to quantify the effect of key factors on the conversion rate of each chlorinated ethene in the TCE degradation sequence. Results quantify the benefit (i.e., increased stepwise dechlorination rate) due to both bioaugmentation and the presence of higher sulphate concentrations. Competitive inhibition is found to increase in significance as TCE concentrations increase; however, inclusion of Haldane inhibition is not supported. Over a wide range of experimental conditions and dechlorination steps, SRS appears to induce relatively little hydrogen limitation, thereby facilitating relatively quick conversion of TCE to ethene. In general, hydrogen limitation is found to increase with increasing TCE concentration and with bioaugmentation, and

  8. Influence of altered precipitation pattern on greenhouse gas emissions and soil enzyme activities in Pannonian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Stefan Johannes; Michel, Kerstin; Berthold, Helene; Baumgarten, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kitzler, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation patterns are likely to be altered due to climate change. Recent models predict a reduction of mean precipitation during summer accompanied by a change in short-term precipitation variability for central Europe. Correspondingly, the risk for summer drought is likely to increase. This may especially be valid for regions which already have the potential for rare, but strong precipitation events like eastern Austria. Given that these projections hold true, soils in this area will receive water irregularly in few, heavy rainfall events and be subjected to long-lasting dry periods in between. This pattern of drying/rewetting can alter soil greenhouse gas fluxes, creating a potential feedback mechanism for climate change. Microorganisms are the key players in most soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformation processes including greenhouse gas exchange. A conceptual model proposed by Schimel and colleagues (2007) links microbial stress-response physiology to ecosystem-scale biogeochemical processes: In order to cope with decreasing soil water potential, microbes modify resource allocation patterns from growth to survival. However, it remains unclear how microbial resource acquisition via extracellular enzymes and microbial-controlled greenhouse gas fluxes respond to water stress induced by soil drying/rewetting. We designed a laboratory experiment to test for effects of multiple drying/rewetting cycles on soil greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O, NO), microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity. Three soils representing the main soil types of eastern Austria were collected in June 2012 at the Lysimeter Research Station of the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) in Vienna. Soils were sieved to 2mm, filled in steel cylinders and equilibrated for one week at 50% water holding capacity (WHC) for each soil. Then soils were separated into two groups: One group received water several times per week (C=control), the other group received

  9. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni; ONeill, Peggy; Kellogg, Kent; Entin, Jared

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being formulated by NASA in response to the 2007 National Research Council s Earth Science Decadal Survey [1]. SMAP s measurement objectives are high-resolution global measurements of near-surface soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state. These measurements would allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. The soil moisture control of these fluxes is a key factor in the performance of atmospheric models used for weather forecasts and climate projections. Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing flooding and monitoring drought. Knowledge gained from SMAP s planned observations can help mitigate these natural hazards, resulting in potentially great economic and societal benefits. SMAP measurements would also yield high resolution spatial and temporal mapping of the frozen or thawed condition of the surface soil and vegetation. Observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing over the boreal latitudes will contribute to reducing a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon balance and help resolve an apparent missing carbon sink over land. The SMAP mission would utilize an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna (see Figure 1) [2]. The radar and radiometer instruments would be carried onboard a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft in a 680 km polar orbit with an 8-day repeating ground track. The instruments are planned to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture at 10 km resolution and freeze/thaw at 3 km resolution, every two to three days (see Table 1 for a list of science data products). The mission is adopting a number of approaches to identify and mitigate potential terrestrial radio frequency interference (RFI). These approaches are being incorporated into the radiometer and radar flight hardware and

  10. Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Yordanova, Petya; Franc, Gary D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nucleators (IN). However, the sources and characteristics of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA, i.e., inducing ice formation in the probed range of temperature and concentration) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. For example, in harvested and ploughed sugar beet and potato fields, and in the organic horizon beneath Lodgepole pine forest, their relative abundances and concentrations among the cultivable fungi were 25% (8 x 103 CFU g-1), 17% (4.8 x 103 CFU g-1) and 17% (4 x 103 CFU g-1), respectively. Across all investigated soils, 8% (2.9 x 103 CFU g-1) of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5° C to -6° C and all belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. Mortierella alpina is known to be saprobic (utilizing non-living organic matter), widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be extracellular proteins of 100-300 kDa in size which are not anchored in the fungal cell wall. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, these small cell-free IN might contribute to the as yet uncharacterized pool of atmospheric IN released by soils as dusts.

  11. Sample storage for soil enzyme activity and bacterial community profiles.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, K; Rita, H; Simpanen, S; Mikkonen, A; Niemi, R M

    2010-04-01

    Storage of samples is often an unavoidable step in environmental data collection, since available analytical capacity seldom permits immediate processing of large sample sets needed for representative data. In microbiological soil studies, sample pretreatments may have a strong influence on measurement results, and thus careful consideration is required in the selection of storage conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of prolonged (up to 16 weeks) frozen or air-dried storage for divergent soil materials. The samples selected to this study were mineral soil (clay loam) from an agricultural field, humus from a pine forest and compost from a municipal sewage sludge composting field. The measured microbiological parameters included functional profiling with ten different hydrolysing enzyme activities determined by artificial fluorogenic substrates, and structural profiling with bacterial 16S rDNA community fingerprints by amplicon length heterogeneity analysis (LH-PCR). Storage of samples affected the observed fluorescence intensity of the enzyme assay's fluorophor standards dissolved in soil suspension. The impact was highly dependent on the soil matrix and storage method, making it important to use separate standardisation for each combination of matrix type, storage method and time. Freezing proved to be a better storage method than air-drying for all the matrices and enzyme activities studied. The effect of freezing on the enzyme activities was small (<20%) in clay loam and forest humus and moderate (generally 20-30%) in compost. The most dramatic decreases (>50%) in activity were observed in compost after air-drying. The bacterial LH-PCR community fingerprints were unaffected by frozen storage in all matrices. The effect of storage treatments was tested using a new statistical method based on showing similarity rather than difference of results.

  12. Gene transfer between streptomycetes in soil.

    PubMed

    Wellington, E M; Cresswell, N; Herron, P R

    1992-06-15

    The growth and activity of Streptomyces violaceolatus and Streptomyces lividans was studied in soil under controlled conditions. The life cycle was followed under differing nutrient regimes and the fate of plasmid- and phage-borne genes determined by direct and indirect techniques. Methods were developed for the direct monitoring of plasmid DNA extracted from soil which allowed differentiation of the cellular location of plasmid DNA between mycelium and spores. In a dynamic, nutrient-fed soil microcosm, inoculants survived poorly, but a specific stage was defined by direct and indirect methods when the inoculants were most active and this correlated with the detection of gene transfer events. Plasmid transfer, phage infection and lysogeny only occurred to a significant extent within this stage at days 15-17 during a 60-day incubation. Estimates based on plasmid DNA recovery indicated that viable counts underestimated spore and mycelial propagules by a factor of greater than 100.

  13. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  14. Measurements of Microbial Community Activities in Individual Soil Macroaggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-05-01

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for {beta}-glucosidase, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase to measure of the enzyme potential of individual aggregates (250-1000 {mu}m diameter). Across all enzymes, the smallest aggregates had the greatest activity and the range of enzyme activities observed in all aggregates supports the hypothesis that functional potential in soil may be distributed in a patchy fashion. Paired analyses of ATP as a surrogate for active microbial biomass and {beta}-glucosidase on the same aggregates suggest the presence of both extracellular {beta}-glucosidase functioning in aggregates with no detectable ATP and also of relatively active microbial communities (high ATP) that have low {beta}-glucosidase potentials. Studying function at a scale more consistent with microbial habitat presents greater opportunity to link microbial community structure to microbial community function.

  15. [Effects of nitrogen addition on soil physico-chemical properties and enzyme activities in desertified steppe].

    PubMed

    Su, Jie-Qiong; Li, Xin-Rong; Bao, Jing-Ting

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N) enrichment on soil physico-chemical property and soil enzyme activities in desert ecosystems, a field experiment by adding N at 0, 1.75, 3.5, 7, or 14 g N x m(-2) a(-1) was conducted in a temperate desert steppe in the southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert. The results showed that N addition led to accumulations of total N, NO(3-)-N, NH(4+)-N, and available N in the upper soil (0-10 cm) and subsoil (10-20 cm), however, reductions in soil pH were observed, causing soil acidification to some extent. N addition pronouncedly inhibited soil enzyme activities, which were different among N addition levels, soil depths, and years, respectively. Soil enzyme activities were significantly correlated with the soil N level, soil pH, and soil moisture content, respectively.

  16. Assessing microbial activities in metal contaminated agricultural volcanic soils--An integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Parelho, C; Rodrigues, A S; Barreto, M C; Ferreira, N G C; Garcia, P

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic soils are unique naturally fertile resources, extensively used for agricultural purposes and with particular physicochemical properties that may result in accumulation of toxic substances, such as trace metals. Trace metal contaminated soils have significant effects on soil microbial activities and hence on soil quality. The aim of this study is to determine the soil microbial responses to metal contamination in volcanic soils under different agricultural land use practices (conventional, traditional and organic), based on a three-tier approach: Tier 1 - assess soil microbial activities, Tier 2 - link the microbial activity to soil trace metal contamination and, Tier 3 - integrate the microbial activity in an effect-based soil index (Integrative Biological Response) to score soil health status in metal contaminated agricultural soils. Our results showed that microbial biomass C levels and soil enzymes activities were decreased in all agricultural soils. Dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase activities, soil basal respiration and microbial biomass C were the most sensitive responses to trace metal soil contamination. The Integrative Biological Response value indicated that soil health was ranked as: organic>traditional>conventional, highlighting the importance of integrative biomarker-based strategies for the development of the trace metal "footprint" in Andosols. PMID:27057992

  17. Soil organic matter dynamics under Beech and Hornbeam as affected by soil biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooijman, A. M.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter dynamics are highly affected both the soil fauna as well as the source of organic matter, having important consequences for the spatial heterogeneity of organic matter storage and conversion. We studied oldgrowth mixed deciduous forests in Central-Luxemburg on decalcified dolomitic marl, dominated by high-degradable hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) or low-degradable beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Decomposition was measured both in the laboratory and in the field. Litter decomposition was higher for hornbeam than for beech under laboratory conditions, but especially in the field, which is mainly to be attributed to macro-fauna activity, specifically to earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Allolobophora species). We also investigated differences between beech and hornbeam with regard to litter input and habitat conditions. Total litter input was the same, but contribution of beech and hornbeam litter clearly differed between the two species. Also, mass of the ectorganic horizon and soil C:N ratio were significantly higher for beech, which was reflected in clear differences in the development of ectorganic profiles on top of the soil. Under beech a mull-moder was clearly present with a well developed fermentation and litter horizon, whereas under hornbeam all litter is incorporated into the soil, leaving the mineral soil surface bear in late summer (mull-type of horizon). In addition to litter quality, litter decomposition was affected by pH and soil moisture. Both pH and soil moisture were higher under hornbeam than under beech, which may reflect differences in soil development and litter quality effects over longer time scales. Under beech, dense layers of low-degradable litter may prevent erosion, and increase clay eluviation and leaching of base cations, leading to acid and dry conditions, which further decrease litter decay. Under hornbeam, the soil is not protected by a litter layer, and clay eluviation and acidification may be counteracted by erosion

  18. Modification of soil microbial activity and several hydrolases in a forest soil artificially contaminated with copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellas, Rosa; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Soils have long been exposed to the adverse effects of human activities, which negatively affect soil biological activity. As a result of their functions and ubiquitous presence microorganisms can serve as environmental indicators of soil pollution. Some features of soil microorganisms, such as the microbial biomass size, respiration rate, and enzyme activity are often used as bioindicators of the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Although copper is essential for microorganisms, excessive concentrations have a negative influence on processes mediated by microorganisms. In this study we measured the response of some microbial indicators to Cu pollution in a forest soil, with the aim of evaluating their potential for predicting Cu contamination. Samples of an Ah horizon from a forest soil under oakwood vegetation (Quercus robur L.) were contaminated in the laboratory with copper added at different doses (0, 120, 360, 1080 and 3240 mg kg-1) as CuCl2×2H2O. The soil samples were kept for 7 days at 25 °C and at a moisture content corresponding to the water holding capacity, and thereafter were analysed for carbon and nitrogen mineralization capacity, microbial biomass C, seed germination and root elongation tests, and for urease, phosphomonoesterase, catalase and ß-glucosidase activities. In addition, carbon mineralization kinetics were studied, by plotting the log of residual C against incubation time, and the metabolic coefficient, qCO2, was estimated. Both organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization were lower in polluted samples, with the greatest decrease observed in the sample contaminated with 1080 mg kg-1. In all samples carbon mineralization followed first order kinetics; the C mineralization constant was lower in contaminated than in uncontaminated samples and, in general, decreased with increasing doses of copper. Moreover, it appears that copper contamination not only reduced the N mineralization capacity, but also modified the N mineralization process, since in

  19. [Effects of forest type on soil organic matter, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shun-bao; Zhou, Xiao-qi; Rui, Yi-chao; Chen, Cheng-rong; Xu, Zhi-hong; Guo, Xiao-min

    2011-10-01

    Taking the typical forest types Pinus elliottii var. elliotttii, Araucaria cunninghamii, and Agathis australis in southern Queensland of Australia as test objects, an investigation was made on the soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), and enzyme activities, aimed to understand the effects of forest type on soil quality. In the three forests, soil SOC content was 552-1154 mg kg(-1), soil SON content was 20.11-57.32 mg kg(-1), soil MBC was 42-149 mg kg(-1), soil MBN was 7-35 mg kg(-1), soil chitinase (CAS) activity was 2.96-7.63 microg g(-1) h(-1), soil leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity was 0.18-0.46 microg g(-1) d(-1), soil acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was 16.5-29.6 microg g(-1) h(-1), soil alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity was 0.79-3.42 microg g(-1) h(-1), and soil beta-glucosidase (BG) activity was 3.71-9.93 microg g(-1) h(-1). There was a significant correlation between soil MBC and MBN. Soil SOC content and soil CAS and LAP activities decreased in the order of P. elliottii > A. cunninghamii > A. australis, soil SON content decreased in the order of A. cunninghamii > A. australis > P. elliottii and was significantly higher in A. cunninghamii than in P. elliottii forest (P < 0.05), soil MBC and MBN and AKP activity decreased in the order of A. australis > P. elliottii > A. cunninghamii, and soil ACP and BG activities decreased in the order of P. elliottii > A. australis > A. cunninghamii. Among the test soil biochemical factors, soil MBC, MBN, SON, and LAP had greater effects on the soil quality under the test forest types. PMID:22263459

  20. Effect of Rice Plants on Nitrogenase Activity of Flooded Soils

    PubMed Central

    Habte, Mitiku; Alexander, Martin

    1980-01-01

    In samples of flooded soil containing blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), the presence of rice plants did not influence the nitrogenase activity of the algae. Nitrogenase activity of heterotrophic bacteria was enhanced by the presence of rice plants, but this activity was not affected by changes in plant density. The rate of nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere, however, varied significantly among the 16 rice varieties tested. A simple method was devised to test the nitrogen-fixing activity in the root zone of rice varieties, and data were obtained showing marked differences in the activities of the 16 varieties. In tests of two varieties with dissimilar rates of nitrogen fixation in their rhizospheres, the variety which had the greater root weight and lesser shoot weight and which supported greater methane formation had the greater nitrogenase activity. PMID:16345630

  1. Effect of rice plants on nitrogenase activity of flooded soils.

    PubMed

    Habte, M; Alexander, M

    1980-09-01

    In samples of flooded soil containing blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), the presence of rice plants did not influence the nitrogenase activity of the algae. Nitrogenase activity of heterotrophic bacteria was enhanced by the presence of rice plants, but this activity was not affected by changes in plant density. The rate of nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere, however, varied significantly among the 16 rice varieties tested. A simple method was devised to test the nitrogen-fixing activity in the root zone of rice varieties, and data were obtained showing marked differences in the activities of the 16 varieties. In tests of two varieties with dissimilar rates of nitrogen fixation in their rhizospheres, the variety which had the greater root weight and lesser shoot weight and which supported greater methane formation had the greater nitrogenase activity. PMID:16345630

  2. Behaviour of mesotrione in maize and soil system and its influence on soil dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Kaczynski, Piotr; Lozowicka, Bozena; Hrynko, Izabela; Wolejko, Elzbieta

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dissipation of mesotrione and effect on dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in maize and soil system. The paper for the first time describes behaviour of this herbicide applied at various doses (separately or in mixture with other herbicide) in acidic and alkaline environment. The experiments were conducted using the method randomized blocks in four repetition cycles. Chemical application in seven variants at recommended doses of herbicide were performed. The sample preparation was performed by a modified QuEChERS method and the concentrations of mesotrione in maize and soil were determined by the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The limit of detection was 0.0005mgkg(-1) and quantification 0.001mgkg(-1). The dissipation of mesotrione were described according to first-order (FO) kinetics equation with R(2) were between 0.8794 and 0.9934. The initial deposit of herbicide in soil and maize was higher in an acidic environment (0.06-0.18mgkg(-1)). A positive correlation between an alkaline pH and the rate of dissipation in soil was observed. The results showed that the time after which 50% (DT50) of substance has been degraded was different for both plant and soil. DT50 for soil was within the range 3.2-6.0days and 2.9-4.4days, for the maize 3.9-4.8days and 3.4-4.5days in an alkaline and an acidic environment, respectively. Concentration of mesotrione at applicable MRL level of 0.05mgkg(-1) in maize was achieved at 0.5-5.9days and at proposed MRL of 0.01mgkg(-1) at 8.8-15.8days. The results indicate that the application of mesotrione affected on DHA in the soil. One day after application this herbicide, concentration of DHA in soil was lower than in control plots, but after 21days was observed trend of increasing DHA. PMID:27492351

  3. Effects of the Veterinary Pharmaceutical Ivermectin in Indoor Aquatic Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Harry; Reichman, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the parasiticide ivermectin were assessed in plankton-dominated indoor microcosms. Ivermectin was applied once at concentrations of 30, 100, 300, 1000, 3000, and 10,000 ng/l. The half-life (dissipation time 50%; DT50) of ivermectin in the water phase ranged from 1.1 to 8.3 days. The lowest NOECcommunity that could be derived on an isolated sampling from the microcosm study by means of multivariate techniques was 100 ng/l. The most sensitive species in the microcosm study were the cladocerans Ceriodaphnia sp. (no observed effect concentration, NOEC = 30 ng/l) and Chydorus sphaericus (NOEC = 100 ng/l). The amphipod Gammarus pulex was less sensitive to ivermectin, showing consistent statistically significant reductions at the 1000-ng/l treatment level. Copepoda taxa decreased directly after application of ivermectin in the highest treatment but had already recovered at day 20 posttreatment. Indirect effects (e.g., increase of rotifers, increased primary production) were observed at the highest treatment level starting only on day 13 of the exposure phase. Cladocera showed the highest sensitivity to ivermectin in both standard laboratory toxicity tests as well as in the microcosm study. This study demonstrates that simple plankton-dominated test systems for assessing the effects of ivermectin can produce results similar to those obtained with large complex outdoor systems. PMID:20422169

  4. Biotransformations of Aroclor 1242 in Hudson River test tube microcosms.

    PubMed Central

    Fish, K M; Principe, J M

    1994-01-01

    A microcosm system to physically model the fate of Aroclor 1242 in Hudson River sediment was developed. In the dark at 22 to 25 degrees C with no amendments (nutrients, organisms, or mixing) and with overlying water being the only source of oxygen, the microcosms developed visibly distinct aerobic and anaerobic compartments in 2 to 4 weeks. Extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) biodegradation was observed in 140 days. Autoclaved controls were unchanged throughout the experiments. In the surface sediments of these microcosms, the PCBs were biologically altered by both aerobic biodegrading and reductive dechlorinating microorganisms, decreasing the total concentration from 64.8 to 18.0 micromol/kg of sediment in 1140 days. This is the first laboratory demonstration of meta dechlorination plus aerobic biodegradation in stationary sediments. In contrast, the primary mechanism of microbiological attack on PCBs in aerobic subsurface sediments was reductive dechlorination. The concentration of PCBs remained constant at 64.8 micromol/kg of sediment, but the average number of chlorines per biphenyl decreased from 3.11 to 1.84 in 140 days. The selectivities of microorganisms in these sediments were characterized by meta and para dechlorination. Our results provide persuasive evidence that naturally occurring microorganisms in the Hudson River have the potential to attack the PCBs from Aroclor 1242 releases both aerobically and anaerobically at rapid rates. These unamended microcosms represent a unique method for determining the fate of released PCBs in river sediments. PMID:7811068

  5. CHARACTERIZING THE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY IN SABRE MICROCOSM STUDIES (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) project will evaluate accelerated anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in areas of high concentration, such as DNAPL source areas. In preparation for a field scale pilot test, laboratory microcosm and column studies were conducte...

  6. METRICS OF PERFORMANCE FOR THE SABRE MICROCOSM STUDY (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) project will evaluate accelerated anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in areas of high concentration, such as DNAPL source areas. In preparation for a field scale pilot test, a laboratory microcosm study was conducted to provide...

  7. Comparison of laboratory batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays.

    PubMed

    Clément, Bernard J P; Delhaye, Hélène L; Triffault-Bouchet, Gaëlle G

    2014-10-01

    Since 1997, we have been developing a protocol for ecotoxicological bioassays in 2-L laboratory microcosms and have applied it to the study of various pollutants and ecotoxicological risk assessment scenarios in the area of urban facilities and transport infrastructures. The effects on five different organisms (micro-algae, duckweeds, daphnids, amphipods, chironomids) are assessed using biological responses such as growth, emergence (chironomids), reproduction (daphnids) and survival, with a duration of exposure of 3 weeks. This bioassay has mainly been used as a batch bioassay, i.e., the water was not renewed during the test. A flow-through microcosm bioassay has been developed recently, with the assumption that conditions for the biota should be improved, variability reduced, and the range of exposure patterns enlarged (e.g., the possibility of maintaining constant exposure in the water column). This paper compares the results obtained in batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays, using cadmium as a model toxicant. As expected, the stabilization of physico-chemical parameters, increased organism fitness and reduced variability were observed in the flow-through microcosm bioassay. PMID:25086825

  8. Mineral exploration and soil analysis using in situ neutron activation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Hoyte, A.F.

    1966-01-01

    A feasibility study has been made to operate by remote control an unshielded portable positive-ion accelerator type neutron source to induce activities in the ground or rock by "in situ" neutron irradiation. Selective activation techniques make it possible to detect some thirty or more elements by irradiating the ground for periods of a few minutes with either 3-MeV or 14-MeV neutrons. The depth of penetration of neutrons, the effect of water content of the soil on neutron moderation, gamma ray attenuation in the soil and other problems are considered. The analysis shows that, when exploring for most elements of economic interest, the reaction 2H(d,n)3He yielding ??? 3-MeV neutrons is most practical to produce a relatively uniform flux of neutrons of less than 1 keV to a depth of 19???-20???. Irradiation with high energy neutrons (??? 14 MeV) can also be used and may be better suited for certain problems. However, due to higher background and lower sensitivity for the heavy minerals, it is not a recommended neutron source for general exploration use. Preliminary experiments have been made which indicate that neutron activation in situ is feasible for a mineral exploration or qualititative soil analysis. ?? 1976.

  9. A scalable model for methane consumption in arctic mineral soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Youmi; Stackhouse, Brandon; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Xu, Xiangtao; Trugman, Anna T.; Moch, Jonathan; Onstott, Tullis C.; Jørgensen, Christian J.; D'Imperio, Ludovica; Elberling, Bo; Emmerton, Craig A.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Medvigy, David

    2016-05-01

    Recent field studies have documented a surprisingly strong and consistent methane sink in arctic mineral soils, thought to be due to high-affinity methanotrophy. However, the distinctive physiology of these methanotrophs is poorly represented in mechanistic methane models. We developed a new model, constrained by microcosm experiments, to simulate the activity of high-affinity methanotrophs. The model was tested against soil core-thawing experiments and field-based measurements of methane fluxes and was compared to conventional mechanistic methane models. Our simulations show that high-affinity methanotrophy can be an important component of the net methane flux from arctic mineral soils. Simulations without this process overestimate methane emissions. Furthermore, simulations of methane flux seasonality are improved by dynamic simulation of active microbial biomass. Because a large fraction of the Arctic is characterized by mineral soils, high-affinity methanotrophy will likely have a strong effect on its net methane flux.

  10. Soil Enzyme Activities as Affected by Manure Types, Application Rates and Management Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of manure can restore soil ecosystem services related to nutrient cycling and soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics through biochemical transformations mediated by soil enzymes. Enzyme activities are very crucial in soil metabolic functioning as they drive the decomposition of organic r...

  11. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni; ONeill, Peggy; Kellogg, Kent; Entin, Jared

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier projects recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission is in formulation phase and it is scheduled for launch in 2014. The SMAP mission is designed to produce high-resolution and accurate global mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state using an instrument architecture that incorporates an L-band (1.26 GHz) radar and an L-band (1.41 GHz) radiometer. The simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements will be combined to derive global soil moisture mapping at 9 [km] resolution with a 2 to 3 days revisit and 0.04 [cm3 cm-3] (1 sigma) soil water content accuracy. The radar measurements also allow the binary detection of surface freeze/thaw state. The project science goals address in water, energy and carbon cycle science as well as provide improved capabilities in natural hazards applications.

  12. Effect of steam activated biochar application to industrially contaminated soils on bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ecotoxicity of soils.

    PubMed

    Kołtowski, Michał; Hilber, Isabel; Bucheli, Thomas D; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of steam activation of biochars on the immobilization of freely dissolved (Cfree) and bioaccessible fraction (Cbioacc) of PAHs in soils. Additionally, the toxicity to various organisms like Vibrio fischeri, Lepidium sativum and Folsomia candida was measured before and after the amendment of biochars to soils. Three biochars produced from willow, coconut and wheat straw were steam activated and added to three different soils with varying content and origin of PAHs (coke vs. bitumen). The soils with the addition of the biochars (activated and non-activated) were incubated for a period of 60days. Steam activation of the biochars resulted in more pronounced reduction of both Cfree and Cbioacc. The range of the increase in effectiveness was from 10 to 84% for Cfree and from 50 to 99% for Cbioacc. In contrast, the effect of activation on the toxicity of the soils studied varied greatly and was specific to a particular test and soil type. Essentially, biochar activation did not result in a change of phytotoxicity, but it increased or decreased (depending on the parameter, type of biochar, contaminant source, and soil and soil type) the toxic effect to F. candida, and decreased the toxicity of leachates to V. fischeri.

  13. Effect of steam activated biochar application to industrially contaminated soils on bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ecotoxicity of soils.

    PubMed

    Kołtowski, Michał; Hilber, Isabel; Bucheli, Thomas D; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of steam activation of biochars on the immobilization of freely dissolved (Cfree) and bioaccessible fraction (Cbioacc) of PAHs in soils. Additionally, the toxicity to various organisms like Vibrio fischeri, Lepidium sativum and Folsomia candida was measured before and after the amendment of biochars to soils. Three biochars produced from willow, coconut and wheat straw were steam activated and added to three different soils with varying content and origin of PAHs (coke vs. bitumen). The soils with the addition of the biochars (activated and non-activated) were incubated for a period of 60days. Steam activation of the biochars resulted in more pronounced reduction of both Cfree and Cbioacc. The range of the increase in effectiveness was from 10 to 84% for Cfree and from 50 to 99% for Cbioacc. In contrast, the effect of activation on the toxicity of the soils studied varied greatly and was specific to a particular test and soil type. Essentially, biochar activation did not result in a change of phytotoxicity, but it increased or decreased (depending on the parameter, type of biochar, contaminant source, and soil and soil type) the toxic effect to F. candida, and decreased the toxicity of leachates to V. fischeri. PMID:27267727

  14. The affect of industrial activities on zinc in alluvial Egyptian soil determined using neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sabour, M F; Abdel-Basset, N

    2002-07-01

    Thirty-two surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted, moderately and highly polluted soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Zn content in alluvial soils of Nile Delta in Egypt by using the delayed neutron activation analysis technique (DNAA), in the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1). The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The well resolved gamma-ray peak at 1116.0 keV was efficiently used for 65Zn content determination. Zn content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 74.1 and 103.8 ppm with an average of 98.5 +/- 5.1 ppm. Zn content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 136.0 and 232.5 ppm with an average of 180.1 +/- 32.6 ppm. The highest Zn levels ranging from 240.0 and 733.0 ppm with an average of 410.3 +/- 54.4 ppm, were observed in soil samples collected from, either highly polluted agricultural soils exposed to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites. PMID:12211982

  15. Novel aerobic benzene degrading microorganisms identified in three soils by stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuguang; Sun, Weimin; Luo, Chunling; Cupples, Alison M

    2011-02-01

    The remediation of benzene contaminated groundwater often involves biodegradation and although the mechanisms of aerobic benzene biodegradation in laboratory cultures have been well studied, less is known about the microorganisms responsible for benzene degradation in mixed culture samples or at contaminated sites. To address this knowledge gap, DNA based stable isotope probing (SIP) was utilized to identify active benzene degraders in microcosms constructed with soil from three sources (a contaminated site and two agricultural sites). For this, replicate microcosms were amended with either labeled (¹³C) or unlabeled benzene and the extracted DNA samples were ultracentrifuged, fractioned and subject to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP). The dominant benzene degraders (responsible for ¹³C uptake) were determined by comparing relative abundance of TRFLP phylotypes in heavy fractions of labeled benzene (¹³C) amended samples to the controls (from unlabeled benzene amended samples). Two phylotypes (a Polaromonas sp. and an Acidobacterium) were the major benzene degraders in the microcosms constructed from the contaminated site soil, whereas one phylotype incorporated the majority of the benzene-derived ¹³C in each of the agricultural soils ("candidate" phylum TM7 and an unclassified Sphingomonadaceae).

  16. Multilevel samplers as microcosms to assess microbial response to biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, B R; Peacock, A D; Park, M; Ogles, D M; Istok, J D; McKinley, J P; Resch, C T; White, D C

    2008-01-01

    Passive multilevel samplers (MLS) containing a solid matrix for microbial colonization were used as in situ microcosms in conjunction with a push-pull biostimulation experiment designed to promote biological U(VI) and Tc(VII) reduction. MLS were deployed at 24 elevations in the injection well and two downgradient wells to investigate the spatial variability in microbial community composition and growth prior to and following biostimulation. The microbial community was characterized by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) quantification of bacteria, NO(3)(-)-reducing bacteria (nirS and nirK), delta-proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens (mcrA). Pretest cell densities were low overall but varied substantially with significantly greater bacterial populations detected at circumneutral pH (t-test, alpha= 0.05), suggesting carbon substrate and low pH limitations of microbial activity. Although pretest cell densities were low, denitrifying bacteria were dominant members of the microbial community. Biostimulation with an ethanol-amended ground water resulted in concurrent NO(3)(-) and Tc(VII) reduction, followed by U(VI) reduction. Q-PCR analysis of MLS revealed significant (1 to 2 orders of magnitude, Mann-Whitney U-test, alpha= 0.05) increases in cell densities of bacteria, denitrifiers, delta-proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens in response to biostimulation. Traditionally, characterization of sediment samples has been used to investigate the microbial community response to biostimulation; however, collection of sediment samples is expensive and not conducive to deep aquifers or temporal studies. The results presented demonstrate that push-pull tests with passive MLS provide an inexpensive approach to determine the effect of biostimulation on contaminant concentrations, geochemical conditions, and the microbial community composition and function. PMID:18194316

  17. Diverse effects of arsenic on selected enzyme activities in soil-plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Lyubun, Yelena V; Pleshakova, Ekaterina V; Mkandawire, Martin; Turkovskaya, Olga V

    2013-11-15

    Under the influence of pollutants, enzyme activities in plant-microbe-soil systems undergo changes of great importance in predicting soil-plant-microbe interactions, regulation of metal and nutrient uptake, and, ultimately, improvement of soil health and fertility. We evaluated the influence of As on soil enzyme activities and the effectiveness of five field crops for As phytoextraction. The initial As concentration in soil was 50mg As kg(-1) soil; planted clean soil, unplanted polluted soil, and unplanted clean soil served as controls. After 10 weeks, the growth of the plants elevated soil dehydrogenase activity relative to polluted but unplanted control soils by 2.4- and 2.5-fold for sorghum and sunflower (respectively), by 3-fold for ryegrass and sudangrass, and by 5.2-fold for spring rape. Soil peroxidase activity increased by 33% with ryegrass and rape, while soil phosphatase activity was directly correlated with residual As (correlation coefficient R(2)=0.7045). We conclude that soil enzyme activities should be taken into account when selecting plants for phytoremediation.

  18. Diverse effects of arsenic on selected enzyme activities in soil-plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Lyubun, Yelena V; Pleshakova, Ekaterina V; Mkandawire, Martin; Turkovskaya, Olga V

    2013-11-15

    Under the influence of pollutants, enzyme activities in plant-microbe-soil systems undergo changes of great importance in predicting soil-plant-microbe interactions, regulation of metal and nutrient uptake, and, ultimately, improvement of soil health and fertility. We evaluated the influence of As on soil enzyme activities and the effectiveness of five field crops for As phytoextraction. The initial As concentration in soil was 50mg As kg(-1) soil; planted clean soil, unplanted polluted soil, and unplanted clean soil served as controls. After 10 weeks, the growth of the plants elevated soil dehydrogenase activity relative to polluted but unplanted control soils by 2.4- and 2.5-fold for sorghum and sunflower (respectively), by 3-fold for ryegrass and sudangrass, and by 5.2-fold for spring rape. Soil peroxidase activity increased by 33% with ryegrass and rape, while soil phosphatase activity was directly correlated with residual As (correlation coefficient R(2)=0.7045). We conclude that soil enzyme activities should be taken into account when selecting plants for phytoremediation. PMID:24121674

  19. Soil extracellular enzyme activities, soil carbon and nitrogen storage under nitrogen fertilization: A meta-analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Jian, Siyang; Li, Jianwei; Chen, Ji; Wang, Gangsheng; Mayes, Melanie A.; Dzantor, Kudjo E.; Hui, Dafeng; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-07-08

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition by regulating extracellular enzyme activities (EEA). Extracellular enzymes have not been represented in global biogeochemical models. Understanding the relationships among EEA and SOC, soil N (TN), and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) under N fertilization would enable modeling of the influence of EEA on SOC decomposition. Based on 65 published studies, we synthesized the activities of α-1,4-glucosidase (AG), β-1,4-glucosidase (BG), β-d-cellobiosidase (CBH), β-1,4-xylosidase (BX), β-1,4-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), leucine amino peptidase (LAP), urease (UREA), acid phosphatase (AP), phenol oxidase (PHO), and peroxidase (PEO) in response to N fertilization. Here, themore » proxy variables for hydrolytic C acquisition enzymes (C-acq), N acquisition (N-acq), and oxidative decomposition (OX) were calculated as the sum of AG, BG, CBH and BX; AG and LAP; PHO and PEO, respectively.« less

  20. Comparative resistance and resilience of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities in adjacent native forest and agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Chaer, Guilherme; Fernandes, Marcelo; Myrold, David; Bottomley, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Degradation of soil properties following deforestation and long-term soil cultivation may lead to decreases in soil microbial diversity and functional stability. In this study, we investigated the differences in the stability (resistance and resilience) of microbial community composition and enzyme activities in adjacent soils under either native tropical forest (FST) or in agricultural cropping use for 14 years (AGR). Mineral soil samples (0 to 5 cm) from both areas were incubated at 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C, or 70 degrees C for 15 min in order to successively reduce the microbial biomass. Three and 30 days after the heat shocks, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, cellulase and laccase activities, and phospholipid-derived fatty acids-based microbial community composition were measured. Microbial biomass was reduced up to 25% in both soils 3 days after the heat shocks. The higher initial values of microbial biomass, enzyme activity, total and particulate soil organic carbon, and aggregate stability in the FST soil coincided with higher enzymatic stability after heat shocks. FDA hydrolysis activity was less affected (more resistance) and cellulase and laccase activities recovered more rapidly (more resilience) in the FST soil relative to the AGR counterpart. In the AGR soil, laccase activity did not show resilience to any heat shock level up to 30 days after the disturbance. Within each soil type, the microbial community composition did not differ between heat shock and control samples at day 3. However, at day 30, FST soil samples treated at 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C contained a microbial community significantly different from the control and with lower biomass regardless of high enzyme resilience. Results of this study show that deforestation followed by long-term cultivation changed microbial community composition and had differential effects on microbial functional stability. Both soils displayed similar resilience to FDA hydrolysis, a

  1. Comparative resistance and resilience of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities in adjacent native forest and agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Chaer, Guilherme; Fernandes, Marcelo; Myrold, David; Bottomley, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Degradation of soil properties following deforestation and long-term soil cultivation may lead to decreases in soil microbial diversity and functional stability. In this study, we investigated the differences in the stability (resistance and resilience) of microbial community composition and enzyme activities in adjacent soils under either native tropical forest (FST) or in agricultural cropping use for 14 years (AGR). Mineral soil samples (0 to 5 cm) from both areas were incubated at 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C, or 70 degrees C for 15 min in order to successively reduce the microbial biomass. Three and 30 days after the heat shocks, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, cellulase and laccase activities, and phospholipid-derived fatty acids-based microbial community composition were measured. Microbial biomass was reduced up to 25% in both soils 3 days after the heat shocks. The higher initial values of microbial biomass, enzyme activity, total and particulate soil organic carbon, and aggregate stability in the FST soil coincided with higher enzymatic stability after heat shocks. FDA hydrolysis activity was less affected (more resistance) and cellulase and laccase activities recovered more rapidly (more resilience) in the FST soil relative to the AGR counterpart. In the AGR soil, laccase activity did not show resilience to any heat shock level up to 30 days after the disturbance. Within each soil type, the microbial community composition did not differ between heat shock and control samples at day 3. However, at day 30, FST soil samples treated at 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C contained a microbial community significantly different from the control and with lower biomass regardless of high enzyme resilience. Results of this study show that deforestation followed by long-term cultivation changed microbial community composition and had differential effects on microbial functional stability. Both soils displayed similar resilience to FDA hydrolysis, a

  2. [Effects of growing time on Panax ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chun-ping; Yang, Li-min; Ma, Feng-min

    2014-12-01

    Using the field sampling and indoor soil cultivation methods, the dynamic of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass with three cultivated ages was studied to provide a theory basis for illustrating mechanism of continuous cropping obstacles of ginseng. The results showed that ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass accumulation were inhibited observably by growing time. The soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition and soil nitrification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microorganism were inhibited significantly (P <0.05), in contrast to the control soil uncultivated ginseng (R0). And the inhibition was gradual augmentation with the number of growing years. The soil microbial activity of 3a ginseng soil (R3) was the lowest, and its activity of soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition, soil ammonification and soil nitrification was lower than that in R0 with 56.31%, 86.71% and 90. 53% , respectively. The soil ammonification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial was significantly promoted compared with R0. The promotion was improved during the early growing time, while the promotion was decreased with the number of growing years. The soil ammonification of R1, R2 and R3 were lower than that in R0 with 32.43%, 80.54% and 66.64% separately. The SMB-C and SMB-N in ginseng rhizosphere soil had a decreased tendency with the number of growing years. The SMB-C difference among 3 cultivated ages was significant, while the SMB-N was not. The SMB of R3 was the lowest. Compared with R0, the SMB-C and the SMB-N were significantly reduced 77.30% and 69.36%. It was considered by integrated analysis that the leading factor of continuous cropping obstacle in ginseng was the changes of the rhizosphere soil microbial species, number and activity as well as the micro-ecological imbalance of rhizosphere soil caused by the accumulation of ginseng rhizosphere secretions.

  3. Utility of microcosm studies for predicting phylloplane bacterium population sizes in the field.

    PubMed

    Kinkel, L L; Wilson, M; Lindow, S E

    1996-09-01

    Population sizes of two ice nucleation-active strains of Pseudomonas syringae were compared on leaves in controlled environments and in the field to determine the ability of microcosm studies to predict plant habitat preferences in the field. The P. syringae strains investigated were the parental strains of recombinant deletion mutant strains deficient in ice nucleation activity that had been field tested for their ability to control plant frost injury. The population size of the P. syringae strains was measured after inoculation at three field locations on up to 40 of the same plant species that were studied in the growth chamber. There was seldom a significant relationship between the mean population size of a given P. syringae strain incubated under either wet or dry conditions in microcosms and the mean population size which could be recovered from the same species when inoculated in the field. Specifically, on some plant species, the population size recovered from leaves in the field was substantially greater than from that species in a controlled environment, while for other plant species field populations were significantly smaller than those observed under controlled conditions. Population sizes of inoculated P. syringae strains, however, were frequently highly positively correlated with the indigenous bacterial population size on the same plant species in the field, suggesting that the ability of a particular plant species to support introduced bacterial strains is correlated with its ability to support large bacterial populations or that indigenous bacteria enhance the survival of introduced strains. Microcosm studies therefore seem most effective at assessing possible differences between parental and recombinant strains under a given environmental regime but are limited in their ability to predict the specific population sizes or plant habitat preferences of bacteria on leaves under field conditions. PMID:16535405

  4. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist. PMID:26503629

  5. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-10-27

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist.

  6. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist. PMID:26503629

  7. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-10-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist.

  8. Active microbial soil communities in different agricultural managements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, S.; Pastorelli, R.

    2009-04-01

    We studied the composition of active eubacterial microflora by RNA extraction from soil (bulk and rhizosphere) under different environmental impact managements, in a hilly basin in Gallura (Sardinia). We contrasted grassy vineyard, in which the soil had been in continuous contact with plant roots for a long period of time, with traditional tilled vineyard. Moreover, we examined permanent grassland, in which plants had been present for some years, with temporary grassland, in which varying plants had been present only during the respective growing seasons. Molecular analysis of total population was carried out by electrophoretic separation by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified cDNA fragments obtained from 16S rRNA. In vineyards UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Mathematical Average) analysis made up separate clusters depending on soil management. In spring both clusters showed similarity over 70%, while in autumn the similarity increased, 84% and 90% for grassy and conventional tilled vineyard respectively. Permanent and temporary grassland joined in a single cluster in spring, while in autumn a partial separation was evidenced. The grassy vineyard, permanent and temporary grassland showed higher richness and diversity Shannon-Weiner index values than vineyard with conventional tillage although no significant. In conclusion the expected effect of the rhizosphere was visible: the grass cover influenced positively the diversity of active microbial population.

  9. [Heidaigou Opencast Coal Mine: Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Physical and Chemical Properties Under Different Vegetation Restoration].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Ma, Ren-tian; An, Shao-shan; Zhao, Jun-feng; Xiao, Li

    2016-03-15

    Choosing the soils under different vegetation recovery of Heidaigou dump as the research objects, we mainly analyzed their basic physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities with the method of Analysis of Variance as well as their relations using Pearson correlation analysis and path analysis hoping to uncover the driving factors of the differences between soil enzyme activities under different vegetation restoration, and provide scientific suggestions for the plant selection as well as make a better evaluation to the reclamation effect. The results showed that: (1) Although the artificial vegetation restoration improved the basic physical and chemical properties of the soils while increasing their enzyme activities to a certain extent, the soil conditions still did not reach the level of the natural grassland; (2) Contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (TN) of the seabuckthorns were the nearest to those of the grassland, which reached 54. 22% and 70. 00% of those of the grassland. In addition, the soil bulk density of the seabuckthorns stand was 17. 09% lower than the maximum value of the amorpha fruitcosa land. The SOC and TN contents as well as the bulk density showed that seabuckthorns had advantages as the species for land reclamation of this dump; Compared with the seabuckthorn, the pure poplar forest had lower contents of SOC and TN respectively by 35.64% and 32.14% and displayed a 16.79% higher value of soil bulk density; (3) The activities of alkaline phosphotase under different types of vegetation rehabilitation had little variation. But soil urease activities was more sensitive to reflect the effects of vegetation restoration on soil properties; (4) Elevation of the SOC and TN turned out to be the main cause for soil fertility restoration and increased biological activities of the dump.

  10. [Heidaigou Opencast Coal Mine: Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Physical and Chemical Properties Under Different Vegetation Restoration].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Ma, Ren-tian; An, Shao-shan; Zhao, Jun-feng; Xiao, Li

    2016-03-15

    Choosing the soils under different vegetation recovery of Heidaigou dump as the research objects, we mainly analyzed their basic physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities with the method of Analysis of Variance as well as their relations using Pearson correlation analysis and path analysis hoping to uncover the driving factors of the differences between soil enzyme activities under different vegetation restoration, and provide scientific suggestions for the plant selection as well as make a better evaluation to the reclamation effect. The results showed that: (1) Although the artificial vegetation restoration improved the basic physical and chemical properties of the soils while increasing their enzyme activities to a certain extent, the soil conditions still did not reach the level of the natural grassland; (2) Contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (TN) of the seabuckthorns were the nearest to those of the grassland, which reached 54. 22% and 70. 00% of those of the grassland. In addition, the soil bulk density of the seabuckthorns stand was 17. 09% lower than the maximum value of the amorpha fruitcosa land. The SOC and TN contents as well as the bulk density showed that seabuckthorns had advantages as the species for land reclamation of this dump; Compared with the seabuckthorn, the pure poplar forest had lower contents of SOC and TN respectively by 35.64% and 32.14% and displayed a 16.79% higher value of soil bulk density; (3) The activities of alkaline phosphotase under different types of vegetation rehabilitation had little variation. But soil urease activities was more sensitive to reflect the effects of vegetation restoration on soil properties; (4) Elevation of the SOC and TN turned out to be the main cause for soil fertility restoration and increased biological activities of the dump. PMID:27337909

  11. The influence of soil heavy metals pollution on soil microbial biomass, enzyme activity, and community composition near a copper smelter.

    PubMed

    Wang, YuanPeng; Shi, JiYan; Wang, Hui; Lin, Qi; Chen, XinCai; Chen, YingXu

    2007-05-01

    The environmental risk of heavy metal pollution is pronounced in soils adjacent to large industrial complexes. It is important to investigate the functioning of soil microorganisms in ecosystems exposed to long-term contamination by heavy metals. We studied the potential effects of heavy metals on microbial biomass, activity, and community composition in soil near a copper smelter in China. The results showed that microbial biomass C was negatively affected by the elevated metal levels and was closely correlated with heavy metal stress. Enzyme activity was greatly depressed by conditions in the heavy metal-contaminated sites. Good correlation was observed between enzyme activity and the distance from the smelter. Elevated metal loadings resulted in changes in the activity of the soil microbe, as indicated by changes in their metabolic profiles from correlation analysis. Significant decrease of soil phosphatase activities was found in the soils 200 m away from the smelter. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis demonstrated that heavy metals pollution had a significant impact on bacterial and actinomycetic community structure. There were negative correlations between soil microbial biomass, phosphatase activity, and NH(4)NO(3) extractable heavy metals. The soil microorganism activity and community composition could be predicted significantly using the availability of Cu and Zn. By combining different monitoring approaches from different viewpoints, the set of methods applied in this study were sensitive to site differences and contributed to a better understanding of heavy metals effects on the structure, size and activity of microbial communities in soils. The data presented demonstrate the role of heavy metals pollution in understanding the heavy metal toxicity to soil microorganism near a copper smelter in China. PMID:16828162

  12. [Characteristics of soil organic carbon and enzyme activities in soil aggregates under different vegetation zones on the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Ma, Rui-ping; An, Shao-shan; Zeng, Quan-chao; Li, Ya-yun

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the distribution characteristics of organic carbon of different forms and the active enzymes in soil aggregates with different particle sizes, soil samples were chosen from forest zone, forest-grass zone and grass zone in the Yanhe watershed of Loess Plateau to study the content of organic carbon, easily oxidized carbon, and humus carbon, and the activities of cellulase, β-D-glucosidase, sucrose, urease and peroxidase, as well as the relations between the soil aggregates carbon and its components with the active soil enzymes were also analyzed. It was showed that the content of organic carbon and its components were in order of forest zone > grass zone > forest-grass zone, and the contents of three forms of organic carbon were the highest in the diameter group of 0.25-2 mm. The content of organic carbon and its components, as well as the activities of soil enzymes were higher in the soil layer of 0-10 cm than those in the 10-20 cm soil layer of different vegetation zones. The activities of cellulase, β-D-glucosidase, sucrose and urease were in order of forest zone > grass zone > forest-grass zone. The peroxidase activity was in order of forest zone > forest-grass zone > grass zone. The activities of various soil enzymes increased with the decreasing soil particle diameter in the three vegetation zones. The activities of cellulose, peroxidase, sucrose and urease had significant positive correlations with the contents of various forms of organic carbon in the soil aggregates.

  13. Spacecraft Environmental Testing SMAP (Soil, Moisture, Active, Passive)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Testing a complete full up spacecraft to verify it will survive the environment, in which it will be exposed to during its mission, is a formidable task in itself. However, the ''test like you fly'' philosophy sometimes gets compromised because of cost, design and or time. This paper describes the thermal-vacuum and mass properties testing of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) earth orbiting satellite. SMAP will provide global observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state (the hydrosphere state). SMAP hydrosphere state measurements will be used to enhance understanding of processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles, and to extend the capabilities of weather and climate prediction models. It will explain the problems encountered, and the solutions developed, which minimized the risk typically associated with such an arduous process. Also discussed, the future of testing on expensive long lead-time spacecraft. Will we ever reach the ''build and shoot" scenario with minimal or no verification testing?

  14. Effect of Exogenous Phytase Addition on Soil Phosphatase Activities: a Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-zhu; Chen, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Yu-lan; Chen, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    The utilization of organic phosphorus (P) has directly or indirectly improved after exogenous phytase was added to soil. However, the mechanism by which exogenous phytase affected the soil phosphatases (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase) activities was not clear. The present work was aimed to study red soil, brown soil and cinnamon soil phosphomonoesterase (acid and alkaline) (AcP and AlP) and phosphodiesterase (PD) activities responding to the addition of exogenous phytase (1 g phytase/50 g air dry soil sample) based on the measurements performed via a fluorescence detection method combined with 96 microplates using a TECAN Infinite 200 Multi-Mode Microplate Reader. The results indicated that the acid phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in red soil (p≤0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in cinnamon soil; alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in cinnamon soil (p≤ 0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in red soil; phosphodiesterase activity was increased in three soils but it was significantly increased in brown soil (p≤0. 01) after the addition of exogenous phytase. The activities still remained strong after eight days in different soils, which indicated that exogenous phytase addition could be enhance soil phosphatases activities effectively. This effect was not only related to soil properties, such as pH and phosphorus forms, but might also be related to the excreted enzyme amount of the stimulating microorganism. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to study exogenous phytase addition influence on soil phosphatase activities was the first time at home and abroad. Compared with the conventional spectrophotometric method, the fluorescence microplate method is an accurate, fast and simple to use method to determine the relationships among the soil phosphatases activities.

  15. Impact of organic carbon and iron bioavailability on the magnetic susceptibility of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porsch, Katharina; Rijal, Moti L.; Borch, Thomas; Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Behrens, Sebastian; Wehland, Florian; Appel, Erwin; Kappler, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Microorganisms are known to couple the degradation of hydrocarbons to Fe(III) reduction leading to the dissolution and (trans)formation of Fe minerals including ferro(i)magnetic Fe minerals such as magnetite. The screening of soil magnetic properties, in particular magnetic susceptibility (MS), has the potential to assist in locating and assessing hydrocarbon (e.g. gasoline) contamination in the environment. In order to evaluate this, it must be understood how changes in soil geochemistry and hydrocarbon input impact MS. To this end, we incubated microcosms with soils from six different field sites anoxically and followed the changes in soil MS. In parallel we simulated hydrocarbon (i.e., gasoline) contamination in the same soils under anoxic conditions. We found that in microbially active microcosms both with or without added gasoline, average changes in MS of 6.9 ± 2.6% occurred, whereas in sterile controls the changes were less than 2.5% demonstrating that microbial metabolism played a major role in the (trans)formation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals. The microcosms reached stable MS values after a few weeks to months in four out of the six soils showing an increase in MS while in two soils the MS decreased over time. After stable MS values were reached, further addition of labile organic carbon (i.e., lactate/acetate) did not lead to further changes in MS, but the addition of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite) led to increases in MS suggesting that the changes in MS were limited by bioavailable Fe and not by bioavailable organic carbon. In the control experiments without carbon amendment, we observed that natural organic matter was mobilized from the soil matrix by water or microbial growth medium (0.33-0.47 mL/g field moist soil) added to the microcosms, and that this mobilized organic matter also stimulated microbial Fe metabolism and thus also led to a microbially driven change in MS. This study shows that changes in MS after an increase of the amount of

  16. Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities

    SciTech Connect

    Topac, F.O.; Baskaya, H.S.; Alkan, U.; Katkat, A.V.

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were used. The application of wastewater sludges supplemented with varying doses of fly ash increased potential enzyme activities for a short period of time (3 months) in comparison to unamended soils. However, the activity levels generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing ash ratios indicating the inhibitory effect of fly ash. The urease and dehydrogenase activities were particularly lower in soils irrigated from a polluted stream, indicating the negative effects of the previous soil management on soil microbial activity.

  17. Sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil: Ecotoxicological effects on representative soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, G; Pro, J; Gómez, N; Babín, M M; Fernández, C; Alonso, E; Tarazona, J V

    2009-05-01

    Application of sewage sludge to agricultural lands is a current practice in EU. European legislation permits its use when concentrations of metals in soil do not increase above the maximum permissible limits. In order to assess the fate and the effects on representative soil organisms of sewage sludge amendments on agricultural lands, a soil microcosm (multi-species soil system-MS3) experiment was performed. The MS3 columns were filled with spiked soil at three different doses: 30, 60 and 120tha(-1) fresh wt. Seed plants (Triticum aestivum, Vicia sativa and Brassica rapa) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were introduced into the systems. After a 21-d exposure period, a statistically significant increase for Cd, Cu, Zn and Hg concentrations was found for the soils treated with the highest application rate. Dose-related increase was observed for nickel concentrations in leachates. Plants and earthworm metal body burden offer much more information than metal concentrations and help to understand the potential for metal accumulation. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF(plant-soil)) presented a different behavior among species and large differences for BAF(earthworm-soil), from control or sewage-amended soil, for Cd and Hg were found. B. rapa seed germination was reduced. Statistically significant decrease in fresh biomass was observed for T. aestivum and V. sativa at the highest application rate, whereas B. rapa biomass decreased at any application rate. Enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase and phosphatase) as well as respiration rate on soil microorganisms were enlarged.

  18. Potential enzyme activities in cryoturbated organic matter of arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, J.; Wild, B.; Rusalimova, O.; Mikutta, R.; Guggenberger, G.; Richter, A.

    2012-12-01

    An estimated 581 Gt organic carbon is stored in arctic soils that are affected by cryoturbtion, more than in today's atmosphere (450 Gt). The high amount of organic carbon is, amongst other factors, due to topsoil organic matter (OM) that has been subducted by freeze-thaw processes. This cryoturbated OM is usually hundreds to thousands of years old, while the chemical composition remains largely unaltered. It has therefore been suggested, that the retarded decomposition rates cannot be explained by unfavourable abiotic conditions in deeper soil layers alone. Since decomposition of soil organic material is dependent on extracellular enzymes, we measured potential and actual extracellular enzyme activities in organic topsoil, mineral subsoil and cryoturbated material from three different tundra sites, in Zackenberg (Greenland) and Cherskii (North-East Siberia). In addition we analysed the microbial community structure by PLFAs. Hydrolytic enzyme activities, calculated on a per gram dry mass basis, were higher in organic topsoil horizons than in cryoturbated horizons, which in turn were higher than in mineral horizons. When calculated on per gram carbon basis, the activity of the carbon acquiring enzyme exoglucanase was not significantly different between cryoturbated and topsoil organic horizons in any of the three sites. Oxidative enzymes, i.e. phenoloxidase and peroxidase, responsible for degradation of complex organic substances, showed higher activities in topsoil organic and cryoturbated horizons than in mineral horizons, when calculated per gram dry mass. Specific activities (per g C) however were highest in mineral horizons. We also measured actual cellulase activities (by inhibiting microbial uptake of products and without substrate addition): calculated per g C, the activities were up to ten times as high in organic topsoil compared to cryoturbated and mineral horizons, the latter not being significantly different. The total amount of PLFAs, as a proxy for

  19. Long-term effects of fertilizer on soil enzymatic activity of wheat field soil in Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weigang; Jiao, Zhifang; Wu, Fasi; Liu, Yongjun; Dong, Maoxing; Ma, Xiaojun; Fan, Tinglu; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-12-01

    The effects of long-term (29 years) fertilization on local agro-ecosystems in the Loess Plateau of northwest China, containing a single or combinations of inorganic (Nitrogen, N; Phosphate, P) and organic (Mature, M Straw, S) fertilizer, including N, NP, SNP, M, MNP, and a control. The soil enzymes, including dehydrogenase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase and glomalin, were investigated in three physiological stages (Jointing, Dough, and Maturity) of wheat growth at three depths of the soil profile (0-15, 16-30, 31-45 cm). We found that the application of farmyard manure and straw produced the highest values of soil enzymatic activity, especially a balanced applied treatment of MNP. Enzymatic activity was lowest in the control. Values were generally highest at dough, followed by the jointing and maturity stages, and declined with soil profile depth. The activities of the enzymes investigated here are significantly correlated with each other and are correlated with soil nutrients, in particular with soil organic carbon. Our results suggest that a balanced application of fertilizer nutrients and organic manure (especially those containing P) has positive effects on multiple soil chemical parameters, which in turn enhances enzyme activity. We emphasize the role of organic manure in maintaining soil organic matter and promoting biological activity, as its application can result in a substantial increase in agricultural production and can be sustainable for many years.

  20. Long-term effects of fertilizer on soil enzymatic activity of wheat field soil in Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weigang; Jiao, Zhifang; Wu, Fasi; Liu, Yongjun; Dong, Maoxing; Ma, Xiaojun; Fan, Tinglu; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-12-01

    The effects of long-term (29 years) fertilization on local agro-ecosystems in the Loess Plateau of northwest China, containing a single or combinations of inorganic (Nitrogen, N; Phosphate, P) and organic (Mature, M Straw, S) fertilizer, including N, NP, SNP, M, MNP, and a control. The soil enzymes, including dehydrogenase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase and glomalin, were investigated in three physiological stages (Jointing, Dough, and Maturity) of wheat growth at three depths of the soil profile (0-15, 16-30, 31-45 cm). We found that the application of farmyard manure and straw produced the highest values of soil enzymatic activity, especially a balanced applied treatment of MNP. Enzymatic activity was lowest in the control. Values were generally highest at dough, followed by the jointing and maturity stages, and declined with soil profile depth. The activities of the enzymes investigated here are significantly correlated with each other and are correlated with soil nutrients, in particular with soil organic carbon. Our results suggest that a balanced application of fertilizer nutrients and organic manure (especially those containing P) has positive effects on multiple soil chemical parameters, which in turn enhances enzyme activity. We emphasize the role of organic manure in maintaining soil organic matter and promoting biological activity, as its application can result in a substantial increase in agricultural production and can be sustainable for many years. PMID:25134679

  1. [Effects of different cropping patterns on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community diversity in oasis farmland].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Liu, Yu; Chu, Gui-xin

    2015-02-01

    Effects of long-term cropping patterns on the activities of peroxidase, invertase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and protease were investigated in this paper. Four long-term cropping patterns included (1) 10 years continuous cropping of corn, (2) 8 years continuous cropping of wheat followed by 10 years continuous cropping of cotton, (3) 15 years continuous cropping of cotton, and (4) 6 years continuous cropping of cotton followed by 6 years of wheat/sunflower rotation. The responses of soil bacteria, fungi, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) , and the ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) to different copping patterns were analyzed. The results showed that cropping patterns significantly affected the activities of soil peroxidase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and protease, while had no significant effect on soil invertase activity. The cropping patterns significantly influenced the diversity index of AOA, but had no significant influence on that of soil bacteria, fungi and AOB. The community structures of soil fungi and AOB were more sensitive to cropping patterns than soil bacteria and AOA. In conclusion, long-term continuous cropping of cotton decreased the activities of soil enzymes activities and soil microbial diversity in oasis farmland, while crop rotation could alleviate the negative influence. PMID:26094465

  2. [Effects of the Vital Activity of Soil Insect Larvae on Microbial Processes in the Soil].

    PubMed

    Samoilova, E S; Kostina, N V; Striganova, B R

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Elateridae larvae (wireworms) on the structure, functional diversity, and tolerance of the soil microbial population in steppe ecosystems have been investigated. The trophic and locomotor activity of wireworms leads to an appreciable increase in bacterial abundance and suppression of fungal activity. The fungal hyphae in the presence of wireworms are significantly damaged, which can be related to the feeding activity of Elateridae. The increase of bacterial abundance on the background of exclusion of the fungal component shifts the microbial succession to the acceleration of organic matter mineralization. The microbial consumption of mono- and oligosaccharides, alcohols, and water-soluble compounds increases in the presence of wireworms (multisubstrate test). The effect of Elateridae larvae on the microorganisms transforming nitrogen compounds is species-specific. Agriotes obscurus activity decreases their consumption of urea and creatinine by 2.1-2.5 times, and Selatosomus aeneus increases it by 1.3 and 2.5 times, respectively. The intensity of actual nitrogen fixation in the soil increases in the presence of wireworms by almost 4 times, but the losses of gaseous nitrogen do not increase because of the decrease in both the denitrification and methanogenesis rates PMID:26852485

  3. Early results of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, M. H.; Jackson, T. J.; Colliander, A.; Goodrich, D. C.; Holifield Collins, C.; McKee, L.; Kim, S.; Yueh, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    In August of 2015, the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15) was conducted to provide a high resolution soil moisture dataset for the calibration/validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP). The Upper San Pedro River Basin and the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch LTAR Watershed provides the infrastructure for the experiment with its extensive soil moisture and soil temperature network. A total of seven aircraft flights are planned for the Passive Active L-Band Scanning instrument (PALS) to provide a high resolution soil moisture map for a variety of soil moisture conditions across the domain. Extensive surface roughness, vegetation and soil rock fraction mapping was conducted to provide a ground truth estimate of the many ancillary datasets used in the SMAP soil moisture algorithms. A review of the methodologies employed in the experiment, as well as initial findings will be discussed.

  4. Effect of copper on soil functional stability measured by relative soil stability index (RSSI) based on two enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marylène; Bécaert, Valérie; François, Matthieu; Sauvé, Sébastien; Deschênes, Louise

    2008-06-01

    Copper can affect essential processes in soils, often for long periods. Enzyme activity is considered a sensitive indicator to evaluate soil health and the potential toxic impact of a soil contaminant. Nevertheless, there is heterogeneity in the responses from enzyme activity assays because of the influence of pH and other physicochemical parameters on both enzyme activity and metal speciation. This leads to complications when comparing soils and limits the validity of the results. To overcome these problems, this paper evaluates resistance and recovery, quantified by using a relative soil stability index (RSSI), of the beta-glucosidase and protease activities towards an additional heat disturbance (17 h at 60 degrees C) in soils where soil organic matter, pH and Cu content were modified in a factorial setup. Chemical analyses (dissolved Cu, pCu(2+), dissolved organic carbon, pH) were performed both before the heat-perturbation and after the enzyme activity monitoring period. Results show that soil pH did not interfere with the RSSI scores of both enzymes. beta-glucosidase RSSI scores were scarcely affected by copper, making it inappropriate for evaluating copper-induced stress to soils. Protease activity shows stimulations of up to 2.5 times the activity of the unperturbed control in uncontaminated samples only. Thus, the protease RSSI score seems a good indicator for soil health relative to copper contamination given that all samples were affected by the presence of copper and high correlations were observed between RSSI scores and the different copper forms.

  5. Mobility and microbially mediated mobilization of gold and arsenic in soils from two gold mines in semi-arid and tropical Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, F.; McPhail, D. C.

    2007-03-01

    The mobility and microbially mediated solubilization of Au and As in regolith materials from two Au mines in Australia, i.e., the Peak Hill Gold Mine in semi-arid New South Wales and the Hit or Miss Gold Mine in tropical northern Queensland, was studied using a combination of geochemical and microbiological techniques. Gold is highly mobile in both environments, the mobility of Au increases with increasing degree of weathering of host materials, and the resident microbiota are capable of mediating its solubilization. The results of the microcosm experiments demonstrate that the activity of microorganisms needs to be taken into account when studying the mobility and solubilization of Au in the Australian regolith. In primary, unweathered mineralization material from the Hit or Miss mine 99 wt% of Au was extracted only in the strongest final step of the sequential extractions, in concentrated aqua regia. In alteration zone material from the Peak Hill Gold Mine 80 wt% of Au was associated with the operationally defined Mn and Fe oxides. In contrast, in auriferous soils overlying mineralization at both sites 90-95 wt% of Au was associated with the operationally defined exchangeable, clay-bound and organic fractions. Microcosm experiments were incubated biologically active and inactive (sterilized) in 1:4 (w/v) aqueous slurries at 25 °C in the dark for up to 95 days. In biologically active microcosms with soils from the Peak Hill- and the Hit or Miss Gold Mines approximately 55 wt% (907 ng g -1 d.w. soil) and 20 wt% (233 ng g -1 d.w. soil) of the total Au, respectively, was solubilized during the incubation. In contrast, no or significantly lower Au concentrations were observed in biologically inactive microcosms. The mobility and microbially mediated release of As was limited at both sites and appears to be mostly controlled by abiotic adsorption and desorption on Mn- and Fe-oxides. Arsenic has a low solubility in the more mobile fractions and is mostly associated

  6. Early results of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August of 2015, the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15) was conducted to provide a high resolution soil moisture dataset for the calibration/validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP). The Upper San Pedro River Basin and the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch LTAR...

  7. Enhanced biodegradation of pentachlorophenol in unsaturated soil using reversed field electrokinetics.

    PubMed

    Harbottle, Michael J; Lear, Gavin; Sills, Gilliane C; Thompson, Ian P

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the use of electrokinetics in unsaturated soil to promote biodegradation of pentachlorophenol through increased contact between bacteria and contaminant. Soil microcosms, contaminated with approximately 100 mg kg(-1) pentachlorophenol (containing [(14)C]-PCP as a tracer), and inoculated with a specific pentachlorophenol-degrading bacterium (Sphingobium sp. UG30-1 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)) were subjected to constant and regularly reversed electric currents (10 mA). The former caused large pH and moisture content changes due to water electrolysis and electroosmotic effects, with subsequent negative impacts on biodegradation parameters including enzyme activity and contaminant mineralisation (as measured by (14)CO(2) evolution rate). The reversed field caused little change in pH and moisture content and led to more rapid contaminant mineralisation, lower soil contaminant concentration in the majority of the microcosms and increased soil enzyme activity (with the exception of soil immediately adjacent to the anode). The presence of an electric field, if suitably applied, may therefore enhance contaminant biodegradation in unsaturated soil.

  8. The Potential of Soft Soil Improvement Through a Coupled Technique Between Electro Kinetic and Alkaline Activation of Soft Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, G. E.; Ismail, H. B.; Huat, B. K.; Afshin, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2016-07-01

    Soil stabilization techniques have been in development for decades with different rates of success. Alkaline activation of soft soil is one of those techniques that has proved to deliver some of the best shear strength values with minor drawbacks in comparison with conventional soil stabilization methods. However, environmental considerations have not been taken into account, as major mineral glassy phase activators are poisoning alkaline solutions, such as sodium-, potassium-hydroxide, and sodium-, potassium-silicate, which poses serious hazards to man and environment. This paper addresses the ways of discarding the involvement of the aforementioned alkaline solutions in soft soil stabilization by investigating the potential of a coupled electro kinetic alkaline activation technique for soft soil strengthening, through which the provision of alkaline pH is governed by electro kinetic potential. Uncertainties in regard to the dissolution of aluminosilicate as well as the dominance of acidic front are challenges that need to be overcome.

  9. Ammonia manipulates the ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in the coastal sediment-water microcosms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Dai, Tianjiao; Sun, Renhua; Wen, Donghui

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia was observed as a potential significant factor to manipulate the abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs) in water environments. For the first time, this study confirmed this phenomenon by laboratory cultivation. In a series of estuarine sediment-coastal water microcosms, we investigated the AOM's phylogenetic composition and activity change in response to ammonia concentration. Increase of ammonia concentration promoted bacterial amoA gene abundance in a linear pattern. The ratio of transcribed ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA gene/ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) amoA gene increased from 0.1 to 43 as NH4 (+)-N increased from less than 0.1 to 12 mg L(-1), and AOA amoA transcription was undetected under 20 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1). The incubation of stable isotope probing (SIP) microcosms revealed a faster (13)C-NaHCO3 incorporation rate of AOA amoA gene under 0.1 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1) and a sole (13)C-NaHCO3 utilization of the AOB amoA gene under 20 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1). Our results indicate that ammonia concentration manipulates the structure of AOM. AOA prefers to live and perform higher amoA transcription activity than AOB in ammonia-limited water environments, and AOB tends to take the first contributor place in ammonia-rich ones.

  10. Aerobic Biotransformation of Fluorotelomer Thioether Amido Sulfonate (Lodyne) in AFFF-Amended Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Harding-Marjanovic, Katie C; Houtz, Erika F; Yi, Shan; Field, Jennifer A; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    The aerobic biotransformation pathways of 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer thioether amido sulfonate (FtTAoS) were characterized by determining the fate of the compounds in soil and medium microcosms amended with an aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) solution. The biotransformation of FtTAoS occurred in live microcosms over approximately 40 days and produced 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FtS), 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (FtUCA), 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FtCA), and C4 to C8 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Two biotransformation products corresponding to singly and doubly oxygenated forms of 6:2 FtTAoS were also identified through high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) analysis and liquid chromatography tandem-MS. An oxidative assay was used to indirectly quantify the total concentration of polyfluorinated compounds and check the mass balance. The assay produced near complete mass recovery of FtTAoS after biotransformation, with 10% (mol/mol) of the amended FtTAoS accounted for in FtS, FtCA, and PFCA products. The transformation rates of identified products appear to be slow relative to FtTAoS, indicating that some intermediates may persist in the environment. This study confirms some of the sources of FtS and PFCAs in groundwater and soil at AFFF-impacted sites and suggests that fluorinated intermediates that are not routinely measured during the biotransformation of PFASs may accumulate. PMID:26042823

  11. Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Activity within a Wetland Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, M.; Zhang, C.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.

    2007-05-01

    We performed Induced Polarization (IP) and Self Potential (SP) measurements to record the geoelectrical signatures of microbial activity within a wetland soil. The experiment was conducted in laboratory, utilizing an open flow column set up. Soil samples from Kearny Marsh (KM), a shallow water wetland, were collected and stored at 4o Celsius prior to the start of the experiment. Two columns were dry packed with a mix of KM soil and sterile Ottawa sand (50% by weight). One column was sterilized and used as a control while the other column retained the biologically active soil sample. Both columns were saturated with a minimal salts medium capable of supporting microbial life; after saturation, a steady flow rate of one pore volume per day was maintained throughout the experiment. Ambient temperature and pressure changes (at the inflow and outflow of each column) were continuously monitored throughout the experiment. Common geochemical parameters, such as Eh, pH, and fluid conductivity were measured at the inflow and outflow of each column at regular intervals. IP and SP responses were continuously recorded on both columns utilizing a series of electrodes along the column length; additionally for the SP measurements we used a reference electrode at the inflow tube. Strong SP anomalies were observed for all the locations along the active column. Black visible mineral precipitant also formed in the active column. The observed precipitation coincided with the times that SP anomalies developed at each electrode position. These responses are associated with microbial induced sulfide mineralization. We interpret the SP signal as the result of redox processes associated with this mineralization driven by gradients in ionic concentration and mobility within the column, similar to a galvanic cell mechanism. IP measurements show no correlation with these visual and SP responses. Destructive analysis of the samples followed the termination of the experiment. Scanning electron

  12. Amendment application in a multi-contaminated mine soil: effects on soil enzymatic activities and ecotoxicological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Rebeca; Esteban, Elvira; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Alvarenga, Paula

    2014-03-01

    Several amendments were tested on soils obtained from an arsenopyrite mine, further planted with Arrhenatherum elatius and Festuca curvifolia, in order to assess their ability to improve soil's ecotoxicological characteristics. The properties used to assess the effects were: soil enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase, urease, protease and cellulase), terrestrial bioassays (Eisenia fetida mortality and avoidance behaviour), and aquatic bioassays using a soil leachate (Daphnia magna immobilisation and Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition). The treatment with FeSO4 1 % w/w was able to reduce extractable As in soil, but increased the extractable Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations, as a consequence of the decrease in soil pH, in relation to the unamended soil, from 5.0 to 3.4, respectively. As a consequence, this treatment had a detrimental effect in some of the soil enzymatic activities (e.g. dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, urease and cellulase), did not allow plant growth, induced E. fetida mortality in the highest concentration tested (100 % w/w), and its soil leachate was very toxic towards D. magna and V. fischeri. The combined application of FeSO4 1 % w/w with other treatments (e.g. CaCO3 1 % w/w and paper mill 1 % w/w) allowed a decrease in extractable As and metals, and a soil pH value closer to neutrality. As a consequence, dehydrogenase activity, plant growth and some of the bioassays identified those as better soil treatments to this type of multi-contaminated soil.

  13. Dissimilatory Iron Reduction and Odor Indicator Abatement by Biofilm Communities in Swine Manure Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gonzalez, Hugo A.; Bruns, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Animal waste odors arising from products of anaerobic microbial metabolism create community relations problems for livestock producers. We investigated a novel approach to swine waste odor reduction: the addition of FeCl3, a commonly used coagulant in municipal wastewater treatment, to stimulate degradation of odorous compounds by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB). Two hypotheses were tested: (i) FeCl3 is an effective source of redox-active ferric iron (Fe3+) for dissimilatory reduction by bacteria indigenous to swine manure, and (ii) dissimilatory iron reduction results in significant degradation of odorous compounds within 7 days. Our results demonstrated that Fe3+ from FeCl3 was reduced biologically as well as chemically in laboratory microcosms prepared with prefiltered swine manure slurry and limestone gravel, which provided pH buffering and a substrate for microbial biofilm development. Addition of a 1-g liter−1 equivalent concentration of Fe3+ from FeCl3, but not from presynthesized ferrihydrite, caused initial, rapid solids flocculation, chemical Fe3+ reduction, and Eh increase, followed by a 2-day lag period. Between 2 and 6 days of incubation, increases in Fe2+ concentrations were accompanied by significant reductions in concentrations of volatile fatty acids used as odor indicators. Increases in Fe2+ concentrations between 2 and 6 days did not occur in FeCl3-treated microcosms that were sterilized by gamma irradiation or amended with NaN3, a respiratory inhibitor. DNA sequences obtained from rRNA gene amplicons of bacterial communities in FeCl3-treated microcosms were closely related to Desulfitobacterium spp., which are known representatives of DIRB. Use of iron respiration to abate wastewater odors warrants further investigation. PMID:16151075

  14. Active and passive microwave measurements of soil moisture in FIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.R. ); Gogineni, S.P.; Ampe, J. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper reports on the application of active and passive microwave measurement systems to the simultaneous determination of soil moisture. These systems have been tested on common targets very few times. Here C and X band scatterometer data from a helicopter base is compared with L band push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR) data taken from the NASA C-130 aircraft. The regions sampled over FIFE encompass areas with different surface treatments. The scatterometers proved to be sensitive to soil moisture over most of the areas studied, while the radiometer lost sensitivity in regions which had been unburned for years, and which thus had substantial dead organic accumulation. The correlation of soil moisture and backscattered signal was observed to increase with off normal angles.

  15. Effect of cassava mill effluent on biological activity of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the effect of cassava effluent on soil microbiological characteristics and enzymatic activities were investigated in soil samples. Soil properties and heavy metal concentrations were evaluated using standard soil analytical and spectroscopic methods, respectively. The microbiological parameters measured include microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase, urease, dehydrogenase activities and number of culturable aerobic bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The pH and temperature regime vary significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study period. All other physicochemical parameters studied were significantly different (p < 0.05) higher than the control site. Soil organic carbon content gave significant positive correlations with microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase activity and dehydrogenase activity (r = 0.450, 0.461, 0.574 and 0.591 at p < 0.01), respectively. The quantitative analysis of soil microbial density demonstrates a marked decrease in total culturable numbers of the different microbial groups of the polluted soil samples. Soil contamination decreased catalase, urease and dehydrogenase activities. The findings revealed that soil enzymes can be used as indices of soil contamination and bio-indicator of soil quality.

  16. Effect of cassava mill effluent on biological activity of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the effect of cassava effluent on soil microbiological characteristics and enzymatic activities were investigated in soil samples. Soil properties and heavy metal concentrations were evaluated using standard soil analytical and spectroscopic methods, respectively. The microbiological parameters measured include microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase, urease, dehydrogenase activities and number of culturable aerobic bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The pH and temperature regime vary significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study period. All other physicochemical parameters studied were significantly different (p < 0.05) higher than the control site. Soil organic carbon content gave significant positive correlations with microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase activity and dehydrogenase activity (r = 0.450, 0.461, 0.574 and 0.591 at p < 0.01), respectively. The quantitative analysis of soil microbial density demonstrates a marked decrease in total culturable numbers of the different microbial groups of the polluted soil samples. Soil contamination decreased catalase, urease and dehydrogenase activities. The findings revealed that soil enzymes can be used as indices of soil contamination and bio-indicator of soil quality. PMID:26055654

  17. Soil Microbial Biomass, Basal Respiration and Enzyme Activity of Main Forest Types in the Qinling Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fei; Peng, Xiaobang; Zhao, Peng; Yuan, Jie; Zhong, Chonggao; Cheng, Yalong; Cui, Cui; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2013-01-01

    Different forest types exert essential impacts on soil physical-chemical characteristics by dominant tree species producing diverse litters and root exudates, thereby further regulating size and activity of soil microbial communities. However, the study accuracy is usually restricted by differences in climate, soil type and forest age. Our objective is to precisely quantify soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activity of five natural secondary forest (NSF) types with the same stand age and soil type in a small climate region and to evaluate relationship between soil microbial and physical-chemical characters. We determined soil physical-chemical indices and used the chloroform fumigation-extraction method, alkali absorption method and titration or colorimetry to obtain the microbial data. Our results showed that soil physical-chemical characters remarkably differed among the NSFs. Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was the highest in wilson spruce soils, while microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) was the highest in sharptooth oak soils. Moreover, the highest basal respiration was found in the spruce soils, but mixed, Chinese pine and spruce stands exhibited a higher soil qCO2. The spruce soils had the highest Cmic/Nmic ratio, the greatest Nmic/TN and Cmic/Corg ratios were found in the oak soils. Additionally, the spruce soils had the maximum invertase activity and the minimum urease and catalase activities, but the maximum urease and catalase activities were found in the mixed stand. The Pearson correlation and principle component analyses revealed that the soils of spruce and oak stands obviously discriminated from other NSFs, whereas the others were similar. This suggested that the forest types affected soil microbial properties significantly due to differences in soil physical-chemical features. PMID:23840671

  18. Soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activity of main forest types in the Qinling Mountains.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Peng, Xiaobang; Zhao, Peng; Yuan, Jie; Zhong, Chonggao; Cheng, Yalong; Cui, Cui; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2013-01-01

    Different forest types exert essential impacts on soil physical-chemical characteristics by dominant tree species producing diverse litters and root exudates, thereby further regulating size and activity of soil microbial communities. However, the study accuracy is usually restricted by differences in climate, soil type and forest age. Our objective is to precisely quantify soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activity of five natural secondary forest (NSF) types with the same stand age and soil type in a small climate region and to evaluate relationship between soil microbial and physical-chemical characters. We determined soil physical-chemical indices and used the chloroform fumigation-extraction method, alkali absorption method and titration or colorimetry to obtain the microbial data. Our results showed that soil physical-chemical characters remarkably differed among the NSFs. Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was the highest in wilson spruce soils, while microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) was the highest in sharptooth oak soils. Moreover, the highest basal respiration was found in the spruce soils, but mixed, Chinese pine and spruce stands exhibited a higher soil qCO2. The spruce soils had the highest Cmic/Nmic ratio, the greatest Nmic/TN and Cmic/Corg ratios were found in the oak soils. Additionally, the spruce soils had the maximum invertase activity and the minimum urease and catalase activities, but the maximum urease and catalase activities were found in the mixed stand. The Pearson correlation and principle component analyses revealed that the soils of spruce and oak stands obviously discriminated from other NSFs, whereas the others were similar. This suggested that the forest types affected soil microbial properties significantly due to differences in soil physical-chemical features. PMID:23840671

  19. Effects of Fertilization on Tomato Growth and Soil Enzyme Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Zhen; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-qing

    2015-04-01

    To study the effects of different fertilizer applications on soil enzyme activity, tomato plant growth and tomato yield and quality, a field experiment on tomato cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai. Three fertilizer treatments, chemical fertilizer (CF) (N, 260 g/kg; P, 25.71g/kg; K, 83.00g/kg), rapeseed cake manure (CM) (N, 37.4 g/kg; P, 9.0 g/kg; K, 8.46 g/kg), crop-leaf fermenting manure (FM) (N, 23.67 g/kg; P, 6.39 g/kg; K 44.32 g/kg), and a control without using any fertilizers (CK), were designed. The total amounts of fertilizer application to each plot for the CF, CM, FM and CK were 0.6 kg, 1.35 kg, 3.75 kg and 0 kg, respectively, 50% of which were applied as base fertilizer, and another 50% were applied after the first fruit picking as top dressing. Each experimental plot was 9 m2 (1 m × 9 m) in area. Each treatment was replicated for three times. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire period of tomato growth to prevent their disturbance to soil microbial activities. Soil enzyme activities at each plot were constantly tested during the growing period; the tomato fruit quality was also constantly analyzed and the tomato yield was calculated after the final harvesting. The results were as follows: (1) Urease activity in the soils treated with the CF, CM and FM increased quickly after applying base fertilizer. That with the CF reached the highest level. Sucrase activity was inhibited by the CF and CM to some extent, which was 32.4% and 11.2% lower than that with the CK, respectively; while that with the FM was 15.7% higher than that with the CK. Likewise, catalase activity with the CF increased by 12.3% - 28.6%; that with the CM increased by 87.8% - 95.1%; that with the FM increased by 86.4% - 93.0%. Phosphatase activity with the CF increased rapidly and reached a maximum 44 days after base fertilizer application, and then declined quickly. In comparison, that with the CM and FM increased slowly and reached a maximum

  20. Effects of Environmental Parameters on the Formation and Turnover of Acetate by Forest Soils

    PubMed Central

    Kusel, K.; Drake, H. L.

    1995-01-01

    The capacity to form acetate from endogenous matter was a common property of diverse forest soils when incubated under anaerobic conditions. At 15 to 20(deg)C, acetate synthesis occurred without appreciable delay when forest soils were incubated as buffered suspensions or in microcosms at various percentages of their maximum water holding capacity. Rates for acetate formation with soil suspensions ranged from 35 to 220 (mu)g of acetate per g (dry weight) of soil per 24 h, and maximal acetate concentrations obtained in soil suspensions were two- to threefold greater than those obtained with soil microcosms at the average water holding capacity of the soil. Cellobiose degradation in soil suspensions yielded H(inf2) as a transient product. Under anaerobic conditions, supplemental H(inf2) and CO(inf2) were directed towards the acetogenic synthesis of acetate, and enrichments yielded a syringate-H(inf2)-consuming acetogenic consortium. At in situ temperatures, acetate was a relatively stable anaerobic end product; however, extended incubation periods induced acetoclastic methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. Higher mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures greatly enhanced the capacity of soils to form methane. Although methanogenic and sulfate-reducing activities under in situ-relevant conditions were negligible, these findings nonetheless demonstrated the occurrence of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in these aerated terrestrial soils. In contrast to the protracted stability of acetate under anaerobic conditions at 15 to 20(deg)C with unsupplemented soils, acetate formed by forest soils was rapidly consumed in the presence of oxygen and nitrate, and substrate-product stoichiometries indicated that acetate turnover was coupled to oxygen-dependent respiration and denitrification. The collective results suggest that acetate formed under anaerobic conditions might constitute a trophic link between anaerobic and aerobic processes in forest soils. PMID:16535147

  1. The exposition of a calcareous Mediterranean soil to toxic concentrations of Cr, Cd and Pb produces changes in the microbiota mainly related to differential metal bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Caliz, Joan; Montserrat, Genoveva; Martí, Esther; Sierra, Jordi; Cruañas, Robert; Garau, M Antonia; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Vila, Xavier

    2012-10-01

    The involvement of the bacterial community of an agricultural Mediterranean calcareous soil in relation to several heavy metals has been studied in microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. Soil samples were artificially polluted with Cr(VI), Cd(II) and Pb(II) at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5000 mg kg(-1) and incubated along 28 d. The lowest concentrations with significant effects in soil respirometry were 10 mg kg(-1) Cr and 1000 mg kg(-1) Cd and Pb. However, only treatments showing more than 40% inhibition of respirometric activity led to significant changes in bacterial composition, as indicated by PCR-DGGE analyses. Presumable Cr- and Cd-resistant bacteria were detected in polluted microcosms, but development of the microbiota was severely impaired at the highest amendments of both metals. Results also showed that bioavailability is an important factor determining the impact of the heavy metals assayed, and even an inverted potential toxicity ranking could be achieved if their soluble fraction is considered instead of the total concentration. Moreover, multiresistant bacteria were isolated from Cr-polluted soil microcosms, some of them showing the capacity to reduce Cr(VI) concentrations between 26% and 84% of the initial value. Potentially useful strains for bioremediation were related to Arthrobacter crystallopoietes, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and several species of Bacillus.

  2. Combined effects of cadmium and butachlor on soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Yitong; Shen, Guoqing

    2007-02-01

    The combined effects of cadmium (Cd, 10 mg/kg of soil) and butachlor (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg of soil) on enzyme activities and microbial community structure were assessed in phaeozem soil. The result showed that phosphatase activities were decreased in soils with Cd (10 mg/kg of soil) alone whereas urease acitivities were unaffected by Cd. Urease and phosphatase activities were significantly reduced by high butachlor concentration (50 mg/kg of soil). When Cd and butachlor concentrations in soils were added at milligram ratio of 2:1 or 1:2, urease and phosphatase activities were decreased, while enzyme activities were greatly improved at the ratio of 1:5. This study indicates that the combined effects of Cd and butachlor on soil urease and phosphatase activities depend largely on the addition concentration ratios to soils. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed that the changes occurring in RAPD profiles of different treated samples included variation in loss of normal bands and appearance of new bands compared with the control soil. The RAPD fingerprints showed substantial differences between the control and treated soil samples, with apparent changes in the number and size of amplified DNA fragments. The results showed that the addition of high concentration butachlor and the combined applied Cd and butachlor significantly affected the diversity of microbial community. The present results suggest that RAPD analysis in conjunction with other biomarkers such as soil enzyme parameter etc. would prove a powerful ecotoxicological tool.

  3. [Study on soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass carbon in greenland irrigated with reclaimed water].

    PubMed

    Pan, Neng; Hou, Zhen-An; Chen, Wei-Ping; Jiao, Wen-Tao; Peng, Chi; Liu, Wen

    2012-12-01

    The physicochemical properties of soils might be changed under the long-term reclaimed water irrigation. Its effects on soil biological activities have received great attentions. We collected surface soil samples from urban green spaces and suburban farmlands of Beijing. Soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), five types of soil enzyme activities (urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, dehydrogenase and catalase) and physicochemical indicators in soils were measured subsequently. SMBC and enzyme activities from green land soils irrigated with reclaimed water were higher than that of control treatments using drinking water, but the difference is not significant in farmland. The SMBC increased by 60.1% and 14.2% than those control treatments in 0-20 cm soil layer of green land and farmland, respectively. Compared with their respective controls, the activities of enzymes in 0-20 cm soil layer of green land and farmland were enhanced by an average of 36.7% and 7.4%, respectively. Investigation of SMBC and enzyme activities decreased with increasing of soil depth. Significantly difference was found between 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer in green land. Soil biological activities were improved with long-term reclaimed water irrigation in Beijing.

  4. Soil CO2 constrain and distinction of root respiration and microbial activity by soil CO2 and CH4 profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, S.; Breecker, D.; Nie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Profiles of soil pore space CO2 and CH4 concentrations are rarely reported, especially from the same soils, yet are important for a number of applications. First, quantifying the component of respired CO2 in the soil pore spaces improves paleosol-based paleo-atmospheric CO2 estimates. Second, profiles can be used to estimate the average depth of biological activity (e.g. respiration and CH4 oxidation). Third, CH4 profiles, by identifying microbial activity, may help distinguish root/rhizosphere respiration from microbial decomposition. Here, we report soil CO2 and CH4 profiles measured at the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL) on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) at Lanzhou University, Gansu, China. Soil parent material on the site is mainly Quaternary aeolian loess and classifies as an Entisol. Soil respired CO2 (S(z) = soil CO2 - atmospheric CO2) is the most uncertain variable required to reconstruct ancient atmospheric CO2 concentrations from paleosol carbonates. Our direct soil pore space CO2 measurements show that S(z) values varied from ~100ppmV during the spring to ~2200ppmV during the summer. S(z) average 390 ± 30ppmV during May before the summer monsoon begins when soil temperature is increasing, soil water content is at a minimum and pedogenic carbonate may be forming. This value lies in the range of S(z) values previously estimated for surface Inceptisols (300 ± 100ppmV, Breecker 2013) and is lower than Pleistocene CLP paleosols (Da et al.,2015) in similar parent material. Our direct measurements of soil pore space CO2 thus support these previous independent S(z) estimates. We also investigate the average depth of CH4 oxidation and soil respiration, which range from 3-10cm and at least 20cm, respectively, using the shapes of soil gas profiles. Fitting observed soil CO2 and CH4 profiles with a production-diffusion model show that the average depth of CH4 oxidation was always at least 10 cm shallower than the average depth of respiration

  5. Radionuclide Activities in Contaminated Soils: Effects of Sampling Bias on Remediation of Coarse-Grained Soils in Hanford Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-08-28

    Only a limited set of particle size-contaminant concentration data is available for soils from the Hanford Site. These data are based on bench-scale tests on single soil samples from one waste site each in operable units 100-BC-1, 100-DR-1, and 100-FR-1, and three samples from the North Pond 300-FF-1 operable unit. The objective of this study was to 1) examine available particle size-contaminant of concern activity and concentration data for 100 and 300 Area soils, 2) assess the effects of sampling bias, 3) suggest sampling protocols, and 4) formulate a method to determine the contaminant of concern activities and concentrations of the whole soil based on the measurements conducted on a finer size fraction of the whole soil.

  6. Bioremediation of multi-polluted soil by spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and Pb availability.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Yunta, Felipe; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates the effect of three spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS) application methods on bioremediation of soil multi-polluted with Pb and PAH from close to a shooting range with respect natural attenuation (SM). The remediation treatments involve (i) use of sterilized SAS to biostimulate the inherent soil microbiota (SSAS) and two bioaugmentation possibilities (ii) its use without previous treatment to inoculate A. bisporus and inherent microbiota (SAS) or (iii) SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp). The efficiency of each bioremediation microcosm was evaluated by: fungal activity, heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacterial population, PAH removal, Pb mobility and soil eco-toxicity. Biostimulation of the native soil microbiology (SSAS) achieved similar levels of PAH biodegradation as SM and poor soil detoxification. Bioaugmented microcosms produced higher PAH removal and eco-toxicity reduction via different routes. SAS increased the PAH-degrading bacterial population, but lowered fungal activity. Abisp was a good inoculum carrier for A. bisporus exhibiting high levels of ligninolytic activity, the total and PAH-degrading bacteria population increased with incubation time. The three SAS applications produced slight Pb mobilization (<0.3%). SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp) proved the best application method to remove PAH, mainly BaP, and detoxify the multi-polluted soil.

  7. Soil microbial diversity and activity linked to crop yield and quality in a dryland organic wheat production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the primary goals of organic agriculture is increasing soil quality through the enhancement of soil biological diversity and activity. Greater soil microbial activity and diversity increase soil organic matter turnover and contribute to soil fertility, one of the main challenges associated wi...

  8. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism in soils: Relationship to soil characteristics and preexposure

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, L.M.; Pfaender, F.K.

    1997-04-01

    The fate of radiolabeled ([{sup 14}C]) phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene was examined in five soils, four of which had previous exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The soils and [{sup 14}]PAHs studied represent a range of characteristics (fraction of soil organic carbon [f{sub oc}] and PAH solubility) that can potentially impact contaminant fate. Fates of [{sup 14}C]PAHs examined in slurry microcosms included mineralization, production of water-soluble metabolites and their polarity, cellular incorporation, and the association of [{sup 14}C]PAHs with soils, all compared to an abiotic control. The soils all contained active heterotrophic communities and the contaminated soils had sizable populations of PAH-degrading microorganisms, measured by the [{sup 14}C]-most probable number assay. All [{sup 14}C]PAHs, except [{sup 14}C]benzo[a]pyrene, were readily mineralized in most of the preexposed soils, whereas in the uncontaminated soil, less than 5% of each [{sup 14}C]PAH was mineralized. In the adapted soils, mineralization, after 8 weeks of incubation, accounted for 30 to 60% of [{sup 14}C]phenanthrene, 10 to 55% of [{sup 14}C]pyrene, 5 to 40% of [{sup 14}C]benz[a]anthracene, 10 to 50% of [{sup 14}C]chrysene, and 2 to 9% of [{sup 14}C]benzo[a]pyrene added to the microcosms. Metabolite production and cellular incorporation usually accounted for less than 10% of the added [{sup 14}C]PAH. The fate of PAHs was usually not related to measurements of microbial community size, characteristics of the PAH (water solubility and K{sub ow}), and many characteristics of soils (soil f{sub oc} and PAH concentration). The fraction of silt and clay in the soils for each soil-PAH combination, however, was negatively related to the extent of added [{sup 14}C]PAH mineralized and the amount solvent extractable from the soil, and positively related to the amount of [{sup 14}C]PAH remaining in soils after extraction.

  9. Plant bioindicators for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity in aquatic microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Gensemer, R.W.; Solomon, K.R.; Day, K.E.; Hodson, P.V.; Servos, M.R.; Greenberg, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Plant bioindicators are being developed to assess the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in experimental aquatic ecosystems. The approach is to develop and test biomarker assays that are specifically predictive of ecological events at the population and/or community levels of organization in artificial aquatic microcosms. PAH mixtures were introduced into a series of aquatic microcosms using the wood preservative creosote as a PAH source. The authors applied creosote at five dosage levels designed to simulate conductions observed at highly contaminated sites. The growth and biomass of phytoplankton, periphyton, and macrophytes were then measured throughout the growing season, and compared to one or more biomarker assays used to detect PAH contamination. Preliminary results using fluorescence induction on aquatic macrophytes suggest that PAHs can significantly inhibit photosynthesis at even modest concentrations 1--4 hours after exposure. This assay thus is not only a sensitive indicator of PAH exposure, but may also describe mechanisms of PAH toxicity that ultimately reduce biomass or population growth for aquatic plants in these microcosms.

  10. Microbial life in frozen boreal soils-environmental constraints on catabolic and anabolic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquist, M. G.; Sparrman, T.; Haei, M.; Segura, J.; Schleucher, J.; Nilsson, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial activity in frozen soils has recently gained increasing attention and the fact that soil microorganisms can perform significant metabolic activity at temperatures below freezing is apparent. However, to what extent microbial activity is constrained by the environmental conditions prevailing in a frozen soil matrix is still very uncertain. This presentation will address how the fundamental environmental factors of temperature, liquid water availability and substrate availability combine to regulate rates of catabolic and anabolic microbial processes in frozen soils. The presented results are gained from investigations of the surface layers of boreal forest soils with seasonal freezing. We show that the amount and availability of liquid water is an integral factor regulating rates of microbial activity in the frozen soil matrix and can also explain frequently observed deviations in the temperature responses of biogenic CO2 production in frozen soils, as compared to unfrozen soils. In turn, the capacity for a specific soil to retain liquid water at sub-zero temperatures is controlled by the structural composition of the soil, and especially the soil organic matter is of integral importance. We also show that the partitioning of substrate carbon, in the form of monomeric sugar (glucose), for catabolic and anabolic metabolism remain constant in the temperature range of -4C to 9C. This confirms that microbial growth may proceed even when soils are frozen. In addition we present corresponding data for organisms metabolizing polymeric substrates (cellulose) requiring exoenzymatic activity. We conclude that the metabolic response of soil microorganism to controlling factors may change substantially across the freezing point of soil water, and also the patterns of interaction among controlling factors are affected. Thus, it is evident that metabolic response functions derived from investigations of unfrozen soils cannot be superimposed on frozen soils. Nonetheless

  11. Biofumigation for control of pale potato cyst nematodes: activity of brassica leaf extracts and green manures on Globodera pallida in vitro and in soil.

    PubMed

    Lord, James S; Lazzeri, Luca; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-07-27

    The effects of brassica green manures on Globodera pallida were assessed in vitro and in soil microcosms. Twelve of 22 brassica accessions significantly inhibited the motility of G. pallida infective juveniles in vitro. Green manures of selected brassicas were then incorporated into soil containing encysted eggs of G. pallida. Their effect on egg viability was estimated by quantifying nematode actin 1 mRNA by RT-qPCR. The leaf glucosinolate profiles of the plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three Brassica juncea lines (Nemfix, Fumus, and ISCI99) containing high concentrations of 2-propenyl glucosinolate were the most effective, causing over 95% mortality of encysted eggs of G. pallida in polyethylene-covered soil. The toxic effects of green manures were greater in polyethylene-covered than in open soil. Toxicity in soil correlated with the concentration of isothiocyanate-producing glucosinolate but not total glucosinolate in green manures.

  12. Assimilation of passive and active microwave soil moisture retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, C. S.; Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Liu, Q.

    2012-02-01

    Near-surface soil moisture observations from the active microwave ASCAT and the passive microwave AMSR-E satellite instruments are assimilated, both separately and together, into the NASA Catchment land surface model over 3.5 years using an ensemble Kalman filter. The impact of each assimilation is evaluated using in situ soil moisture observations from 85 sites in the US and Australia, in terms of the anomaly time series correlation-coefficient, R. The skill gained by assimilating either ASCAT or AMSR-E was very similar, even when separated by land cover type. Over all sites, the mean root-zone R was significantly increased from 0.45 for an open-loop, to 0.55, 0.54, and 0.56 by the assimilation of ASCAT, AMSR-E, and both, respectively. Each assimilation also had a positive impact over each land cover type sampled. For maximum accuracy and coverage it is recommended that active and passive microwave observations be assimilated together.

  13. Potential of activated carbon to decrease 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene toxicity and accelerate soil decontamination.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, G K; Kreslavski, V D; Oh, B T; Shea, P J

    2001-05-01

    Activated carbon can be used to decrease 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) toxicity and promote bioremediation of highly contaminated soil. Adding activated carbon at 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0% (w/w) to Sharpsburg soil contaminated with 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg TNT/kg decreased concentrations of TNT and its transformation products in soil solution to 5 mg/L or less, resulting in low toxicity to corn plants (Zea mays L.) and soil microorganisms. As much as 50% of the added TNT was rapidly bound to the soil-activated carbon matrix. Simultaneous accumulation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzaldehyde (TNBAld) indicated that the activated carbon promoted oxidation of TNT. Some of the TNBAld was further oxidized to 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, followed by reduction to 3,5-dinitroaniline. Reversibly bound TNT was gradually transformed to 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, and both were bound to the soil-activated carbon matrix. The transformation and binding of TNT to soil were further promoted by incorporating shredded corn plants after growing for 52 d in the activated carbon-amended soil. After 120 d, these amendments reduced extractable TNT and transformation products by 91% in soil containing 2,000 mg TNT/kg, compared to 55% in unamended soil. These results demonstrate the potential use of activated carbon in combination with plants to promote in situ bioremediation of soils highly contaminated with explosives.

  14. Approach to study of heavy metal contamination effect on biological activity in Mediterranean Spanish soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Gil, C.; Mormeneo, S.; Abad, M.; Cervera, M.; González, A.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Heavy metal contaminated soils results in various negative environmental effects such as a decrease in biological diversity, decline crop productivity or human exposure to toxic elements in the others. The influence of heavy metal contamination in Spanish Mediterranean soils on its biological activity was studied. Non-polluted soils and heavy metal contaminated soils were sampled from different sites affected by several industrial activities. Soil characteristics, heavy metals (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Zn and V), soil organic matter, microorganism numbers, biomass microbial carbon, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were determined. Except to a rice farming soil, the results indicate that soils with high concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn showed low soil respiration, biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity with respect non-polluted soils with similar characteristics. Our results provide evidence that these parameters are good approach to study of heavy metal contamination effect on biological activity in Mediterranean soils. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  15. Effects of graphene oxides on soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Min Ji; Ko, Kwanyoung; Kim, Jae Hyeuk; Kwon, Hyun-Ah; Hong, Inpyo; Park, Nari; Lee, Seung-Wook; Kim, Woong

    2015-05-01

    Due to recent developments in nanotechnology, nanomaterials (NMs) such as graphene oxide (GO) may enter the soil environment with mostly unknown consequences. We investigated the effects of GO on soil microbial activity in a 59-day soil incubation study. For this, high-purity GO was prepared and characterized. Soils were treated with up to 1 mg GO g(-1) soil, and the changes in the activities of 1,4-β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, xylosidase, 1,4-β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and phosphatase and microbial biomass were determined. 0.5-1 mg GO g(-1) soil lowered the activity of xylosidase, 1,4-β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and phosphatase by up to 50% when compared to that in the control soils up to 21 days of incubation. Microbial biomass in soils treated with GO was not significantly different from that in control soils throughout the incubation period, and the soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass were not significantly correlated in this study. Our results indicate that soil enzyme activity can be lowered by the entry of GO into soils in short term but it can be recovered afterwards. PMID:25668283

  16. Adsorption, immobilization, and activity of beta-glucosidase on different soil colloids.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinlong; Pan, Genxing; Li, Lianqing; Quan, Guixiang; Ding, Cheng; Luo, Ailan

    2010-08-15

    For a better understanding of enzyme stabilization and the subsequent catalytic process in a soil environment, the adsorption, immobilization, and activity of beta-glucosidase on various soil colloids from a paddy soil were studied. The calculated parameters maximum adsorption capacity (q(0)) for fine soil colloids ranged from 169.6 to 203.7 microg mg(-1), which was higher than coarse soil colloids in the range of 81.0-94.6 microg mg(-1), but the lower adsorption affinity (K(L)) was found on fine soil colloids. The percentages of beta-glucosidase desorbed from external surfaces of the coarse soil colloids (27.6-28.5%) were higher than those from the fine soil colloids (17.5-20.2%). Beta-glucosidase immobilized on the coarse inorganic and organic soil colloids retained 72.4% and 69.8% of activity, respectively, which indicated the facilitated effect of soil organic matter in the inhibition of enzyme activity. The residual activity for the fine soil clay is 79-81%. After 30 days of storage at 40 degrees C the free beta-glucosidase retained 66.2% of its initial activity, whereas the soil colloidal particle-immobilized enzyme retained 77.1-82.4% of its activity. The half-lives of free beta-glucosidase appeared to be 95.9 and 50.4 days at 25 and 40 degrees C. Immobilization of beta-glucosidase on various soil colloids enhanced the thermal stability at all temperatures, and the thermal stability was greatly affected by the affinity between the beta-glucosidase molecules and the surface of soil colloidal particles. Due to the protective effect of supports, soil colloidal particle-immobilized enzymes were less sensitive to pH and temperature changes than free enzymes. Data obtained in this study are helpful for further research on the enzymatic mechanisms in carbon cycling and soil carbon storage.

  17. Soil moisture active passive (SMAP) satellite status and cal/val activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will be launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in November 2014. This satellite is the culmination of basic research and applications development over the past thirty years. During most of this period, research and development ...

  18. Impact of different tillage treatments on soil respiration and microbial activity for different agricultural used soils in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klik, Andreas; Scholl, Gerlinde; Baatar, Undrakh-Od

    2015-04-01

    Soils can act as a net sink for sequestering carbon and thus attenuating the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide if appropriate soil and crop management is applied. Adapted soil management strategies like less intensive or even no tillage treatments may result in slower mineralization of soil organic carbon and enhanced carbon sequestration. In order to assess the impact of different soil tillage systems on carbon dioxide emissions due to soil respiration and on soil biological activity parameters, a field study of three years duration (2007-2010)has been performed at different sites in Austria. Following tillage treatments were compared: 1) conventional tillage (CT) with plough with and without cover crop during winter period, 2) reduced tillage (RT) with cultivator with cover crop, and 3) no-till (NT) with cover crop. Each treatment was replicated three times. At two sites with similar climatic conditions but different soil textures soil CO2 efflux was measured during the growing seasons in intervals of one to two weeks using a portable soil respiration system consisting of a soil respiration chamber attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Additionally, concurrent soil temperature and soil water contents of the top layer (0-5 cm)were measured. For these and additional three other sites with different soil and climatic conditions soil samples were taken to assess the impact of tillage treatment on soil biological activity parameters. In spring, summer and autumn samples were taken from each plot at the soil depth of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm to analyze soil microbial respiration (MR), substrate induced respiration (SIR), beta-glucasidase activity (GLU) and dehydrogenase (BHY). Samples were sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4 °C in a refrigerator. Analyses of were performed within one month after sampling. The measurements show a high spatial variability of soil respiration data even within one plot. Nevertheless, the level of soil carbon dioxide efflux was similar for

  19. Identification of transformation products from β-blocking agents formed in wetland microcosms using LC-Q-ToF.

    PubMed

    Svan, Alfred; Hedeland, Mikael; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L; Pettersson, Curt E

    2016-03-01

    Identification of degradation products from trace organic compounds, which may retain the biological activity of the parent compound, is an important step in understanding the long-term effects of these compounds on the environment. Constructed wetlands have been successfully utilized to remove contaminants from wastewater effluent, including pharmacologically active compounds. However, relatively little is known about the transformation products formed during wetland treatment. In this study, three different wetland microcosm treatments were used to determine the biotransformation products of the β-adrenoreceptor antagonists atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol. LC/ESI-Q-ToF run in the MS(E) and MS/MS modes was used to identify and characterize the degradation products through the accurate masses of precursor and product ions. The results were compared with those of a reference standard when available. Several compounds not previously described as biotransformation products produced in wetlands were identified, including propranolol-O-sulfate, 1-naphthol and the human metabolite N-deaminated metoprolol. Transformation pathways were significantly affected by microcosm conditions and differed between compounds, despite the compounds' structural similarities. Altogether, a diverse range of transformation products in wetland microcosms were identified and elucidated using high resolving MS. This work shows that transformation products are not always easily predicted, nor formed via the same pathways even for structurally similar compounds. PMID:26956388

  20. Effect of cadmium on microbial activity and a ryegrass crop in two semiarid soils.

    PubMed

    Moreno, José L; Sanchez-Marín, Antonio; Hernández, Teresa; García, Carlos

    2006-05-01

    Soil pollution with Cd is an environmental problem common in the world, and it is necessary to establish what Cd concentrations in soil could be dangerous to its fertility from toxicity effects and the risk of transference of this element to plants and other organisms of the food chain. In this study, we assessed Cd toxicity on soil microorganisms and plants in two semiarid soils (uncultivated and cultivated). Soil ATP content, dehydrogenase activity, and plant growth were measured in the two soils spiked with concentrations ranging from 3 to 8000 mg Cd/kg soil and incubated for 3 h, 20 days, and 60 days. The Cd concentrations that produced 5% 10%, and 50% inhibition of each of the two soil microbiological parameter studied (ecological dose, ED, values) were calculated using two different mathematical models. Also, the effect of Cd concentration on plant growth of ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) was studied in the two soils. The Cd ED values calculated for soil dehydrogenase activity and ATP content were higher in the agricultural soils than in the bare soil. For ATP inhibition, higher ED values were calculated than for dehydrogenase activity inhibition. The average yields of ryegrass were reduced from 5.03 to 3.56 g in abandoned soil and from 4.21 to 1.15 g in agricultural soil with increasing concentrations of Cd in the soil. Plant growth was totally inhibited in abandoned and agricultural soils at Cd concentrations above 2000 and 5000 mg/kg soil, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of Cd in the plants and the total or DTPA-extractable concentrations of Cd in the soil. PMID:16485164

  1. Dental plaque microcosm biofilm behavior on calcium phosphate nanocomposite with quaternary ammonium

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Eric; Xu, Sarah M.; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Half of dental restorations fail in 10 years, with secondary caries as the main reason. Calcium phosphate composites could remineralize tooth lesions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Impart antibacterial activity to a composite with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP); and (2) investigate the effect of quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) on mechanical and dental plaque microcosm biofilm properties for the first time. Methods The NACP and glass particles were filled into a dental resin that contained bis(2-methacryloyloxy-ethyl) dimethyl-ammonium bromide, the QADM. NACP nanocomposites containing 0%, 7%, 14%, and 17.5% of QADM by mass, respectively, were photo-cured. A commercial composite with no antibacterial activity was used as control. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure. A human saliva microcosm model was used to grow biofilms on composites. Live/dead assay, metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production of biofilms on the composites were measured. Results Increasing QADM mass fraction monotonically reduced the biofilm viability, CFU and lactic acid. Biofilms on NACP nanocomposite with 17.5% QADM had metabolic activity that was 30% that on a commercial composite control (p<0.05). Total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci CFU counts (mean±sd; n=6) on composite control was 6-fold those on NACP+17.5% QADM nanocomposite. Composite control had long strings of cells with normal short-rod shapes, while some cells on NACP-QADM nanocomposites disintegrated into pieces. Adding QADM to NACP did not decrease the strength and elastic modulus, which matched (p>0.1) those of a commercial composite without Ca-PO4 or antibacterial activity. Significance A dental plaque microcosm model was used to evaluate the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite. The nanocomposite greatly reduced the biofilm viability, metabolic activity and lactic acid, while its mechanical

  2. Antibacterial activity of the soil-bound antimicrobials oxytetracycline and ofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Peng, Feng-Jiao; Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2014-04-01

    Soil contamination of antimicrobials has become an increasing concern because of the potential risks to the soil microbial ecosystem and human health. The present study investigated sorption and desorption behaviors of oxytetracycline (OTC) and ofloxacin (OFL) in 3 typical soils (A, B, and C), and evaluated the antibacterial activity of soil-adsorbed compounds to a pure sensitive strain Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The results showed different sorption and desorption behaviors of OTC and OFL in the 3 soils, behaviors that were mainly influenced by soil organic matter content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) as well as pH value. In addition, complexation and cation-exchange reactions were shown to be the main sorption mechanisms. Strong adsorption was found in soil B (with a high organic matter content) and in soil C (with high CEC), whereas enhanced desorption was observed in soil A (with low organic matter content). The results also demonstrated that soil-bound antimicrobials retained antibacterial activity toward E. coli. Opposite patterns of antibacterial activity were found for the 2 antimicrobials in the 3 soils: A>B>C for OFL; and C>B>A for OTC. This finding suggests that soil-bound antimicrobials could still exert selective pressure on soil bacteria although less effectively in comparison with the dissolved forms.

  3. Ammonium removal in constructed wetland microcosms as influenced by season and organic carbon load.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kate A; Stein, Otto R; Hook, Paul B

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated ammonium nitrogen removal and nitrogen transformations in three-year-old, batch-operated, subsurface wetland microcosms. Treatments included replicates of Typha latifolia, Carex rostrata, and unplanted controls when influent carbon was excluded, and C. rostrata with an influent containing organic carbon. A series of 10-day batch incubations were conducted over a simulated yearlong cycle of seasons. The presence of plants significantly enhanced ammonium removal during both summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) conditions, but significant differences between plant species were evident only in summer when C. rostrata outperformed T. latifolia. The effect of organic carbon load was distinctly seasonal, enhancing C. rostrata ammonium removal in winter but having an inhibitory effect in summer. Season did not influence ammonium removal in T. latifolia or unplanted columns. Net production of organic carbon was evident year-round in units without an influent organic carbon source, but was enhanced in summer, especially for C. rostrata, which produced significantly more than T. latifolia and unplanted controls. No differences in production were evident between species in winter. COD values for C. rostrata microcosms with and without influent organic carbon converged within 24 hours in winter and 7 days in summer. Gravel sorption, microbial immobilization and sequential nitrification/denitrification appear to be the major nitrogen removal mechanisms. All evidence suggests differences between season and species are due to differences in seasonal variation of root-zone oxidation.

  4. A microcosm system to evaluate the toxicity of the triazine herbicide simazine on aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco; Straus, Alain; Tremp, Horst; Hamer, Mick; Maund, Stephen J; Wagner, Edgar; Schulz, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluates the effects of the triazine herbicide simazine in an outdoor pond microcosm test system that contained two submerged rooted species (Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis) and two emergent rooted species (Persicaria amphibia and Glyceria maxima) over a period of 84 days. Simazine was applied to the microcosms at nominal concentrations of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L. General biological endpoints and physiological endpoints were used to evaluate herbicide toxicity on macrophytes and the algae developing naturally in the system. Concentration-related responses of macrophytes and algae were obtained for the endpoints selected, resulting in a no observed ecologically adverse effect concentration (NOEAEC) at simazine concentrations of 0.05 mg active ingredient/L after 84 days. E. canadensis was the most negatively affected species based on length increase, which was consistently a very sensitive parameter for all macrophytes. The experimental design presented might constitute a suitable alternative to conventional laboratory single-species testing. PMID:19800719

  5. Proteomic analysis of ethene-enriched groundwater microcosms from a vinyl chloride-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Adina S; Jin, Yang Oh; Schmidt, Laura S; Li, Yalan; Fogel, Samuel; Smoler, Donna; Mattes, Timothy E

    2010-03-01

    Contamination of groundwater with vinyl chloride (VC), a known human carcinogen, is a common environmental problem at plastics manufacturing, dry cleaning, and military sites. At many sites, there is the potential to cleanup VC groundwater plumes with aerobic VC-oxidizing microorganisms (e.g., methanotrophs, etheneotrophs, and VC-assimilating bacteria). Environmental biotechnologies that reveal the presence and activity of VC-oxidizing bacteria in contaminated groundwater samples would provide valuable lines of evidence that bioremediation of VC is occurring at a site. We applied targeted shotgun mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods to ethene-enriched groundwater microcosms from a VC-contaminated site. Polypeptides from the enzymes alkene monooxygenase (EtnC) and epoxyalkane:CoM transferase (EtnE), both of which are expressed by aerobic etheneotrophs and VC-assimilating bacteria, were identified in 7 of the 14 samples analyzed. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that 2 EtnC and 5 EtnE peptides were unique to deduced EtnC and EtnE sequences from two different cultivated strains. In addition, several partial EtnE genes sequenced from microcosms matched with observed EtnE peptides. Our results have revealed broader etheneotroph functional gene diversity and demonstrate the feasibility, speed, and accuracy of applying a targeted metaproteomics approach to identifying protein biomarkers from etheneotrophs in complex environmental samples.

  6. Ecotoxicological effects of copper and selenium combined pollution on soil enzyme activities in planted and unplanted soils.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Liang, Dongli; Liu, Juanjuan; Xie, Junyu

    2013-04-01

    The present study explored the joint effects of Cu and Se pollution mechanisms on soil enzymes to provide references for the phytoremediation of contaminated areas and agricultural environmental protection. Pot experiments and laboratory analyses were carried out to study the individual and combined influences of Cu and Se on soil enzyme activities. The activities of four soil enzymes (urease, catalase, alkaline phosphatase, and nitrate reductase) were chosen. All soil enzyme activities tested were inhibited by Cu and Se pollution, either individually or combined, in varying degrees, following the order nitrate reductase>urease>catalase>alkaline phosphatase. Growing plants stimulated soil enzyme activity in a similar trend compared with treatments without plants. The joint effects of Cu and Se on catalase activity showed synergism at low concentrations and antagonism at high concentrations, whereas the opposite was observed for urease activity. However, nitrate reductase activity showed synergism both with and without plant treatments. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of exchangeable fractions had a similar trend with the EC50 of total content and was lower than that of total content. The EC50 values of nitrate reductase and urease activities were significantly lower for both Se and Cu (p<0.05), which indicated that they were more sensitive than the other two enzymes.

  7. Reconciling apparent variability in effects of biochar amendment on soil enzyme activities by assay optimization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of a biochar made from switchgrass on four soil enzymes (ß- glucosidase, ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase) to determine if biochar would consistently modify soil biological activities. Inconsistent results from enzyme assays of char-amended soils s...

  8. [Effects of land use change on soil active organic carbon in deep soils in Hilly Loess Plateau region of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Wang, Chao-Hua; Chen, Gai

    2015-02-01

    Response of soil active organic carbon to land-use change has become a hot topic in current soil carbon and nutrient cycling study. Soil active organic carbon distribution characteristics in soil profile under four land-use types were investigated in Ziwuling forest zone of the Hilly Loess Plateau region. The four types of land-use changes included natural woodland converted into artificial woodland, natural woodland converted into cropland, natural shrubland converted into cropland and natural shrubland converted into revegetated grassland. Effects of land-use changes on soil active organic carbon in deep soil layers (60-200 cm) were explored by comparison with the shallow soil layers (0-60 cm). The results showed that: (1) The labile organic carbon ( LOC) and microbial carbon (MBC) content were mainly concentrated in the shallow 0-60 cm soil, which accounted for 49%-66% and 71%-84% of soil active organic carbon in the profile (0-200 cm) under different land-use types. Soil active organic carbon content in shallow soil was significantly varied for the land-use changes types, while no obvious difference was observed in soil active organic carbon in deep soil layer. (2) Land-use changes exerted significant influence on soil active organic carbon, the active organic carbon in shallow soil was more sensitive than that in deep soil. The four types of land-use changes, including natural woodland to planted woodland, natural woodland to cropland, natural shrubland to revegetated grassland and natural shrubland to cropland, LOC in shallow soil was reduced by 10%, 60%, 29%, 40% and LOC in the deep layer was decreased by 9%, 21%, 12%, 1%, respectively. MBC in the shallow soil was reduced by 24% 73%, 23%, 56%, and that in the deep layer was decreased by 25%, 18%, 8% and 11%, respectively. (Land-use changes altered the distribution ratio of active organic carbon in soil profile. The ratio between LOC and SOC in shallow soil increased when natural woodland and shrubland were

  9. [Factors affecting activation and transference of soil colloidal phosphorus and related analysis technologies].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Liang, Xin-qiang; Fu, Chao-dong; Zhu, Si-rui; Zhang, Yi-xiang; Ji, Yuan-jing

    2015-04-01

    Colloids play a key role in the transference process of phosphorus (P) in soil. Activation and transference of soil colloidal phosphorus have great effect on soil P pool and the surrounding water quality. This paper summarized the current studies on soil colloidal P, discussing the effects of the various factors (e. g., soil physical and chemical properties, fertilization, rainfall and soil amendments) on the transference of soil colloidal P. Some advanced analysis technologies (e.g., flow field-flow fractionation, transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and nuclear magnetic resonance) and methods of reducing soil colloidal P were also involved. This review would provide important information on the mechanism of soil colloidal P transference. PMID:26259473

  10. Assessing the biological activity of oil-contaminated soddy-podzolic soils with different textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershinin, A. A.; Petrov, A. M.; Akaikin, D. V.; Ignat'ev, Yu. A.

    2014-02-01

    The respiratory activity features in oil-contaminated soddy-podzolic soils of different textures have been studied. Unidirectional processes occur in contaminated loamy and loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils; their intensities depend on the soil parameters. The mineralization rates of the oil products and the activity of the microflora in loamy soils exceed the corresponding parameters for loamy sandy soils. The long-term impact of oil and its transformation products results in more important disturbances of the microbial community in light soils. It has been shown that light soils containing 9% oil require longer time periods or more intensive remediation measures for the restoration of soil microbial cenoses disturbed by the pollutant.

  11. High temperature microbial activity in upper soil layers.

    PubMed

    Santana, M M; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-11-01

    Biomineralization at high temperatures in upper soil layers has been largely ignored, although desertification and global warming have led to increasing areas of soils exposed to high temperatures. Recent publications evidenced thermophilic bacteria ubiquity in soils as viable cells, and their role in nutrient cycling and seedling development. High temperature events, frequently observed at medium and low latitudes, locate temporal niches for thermophiles to grow in soils. There, at temperatures inhibitory for common mesophiles, thermophilic bacteria could perform biogeochemical reactions important to the soil food web. Nutrient cycling analyses in soils at medium and low latitudes would benefit from considering the potential role of thermophiles.

  12. Microbial community characterization and functional gene quantification in RDX-degrading microcosms derived from sediment and groundwater at two naval sites.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Fernanda Paes; Cupples, Alison M

    2016-08-01

    The explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has long been recognized as a problematic environmental pollutant, and efforts to remediate contaminated soils, sediments, and groundwater have been going on for decades. In recent years, much interest has focused on using bioremediation to clean up these sites. The current study investigated the microorganisms (16S rRNA genes, Illumina) and functional genes (xenA, xenB, and xplA) linked to RDX biodegradation in microcosms composed of sediment or groundwater from two Navy sites. For this, experiments included sediment samples from three depths (5 to 30 ft) from two wells located in one Navy site. In addition, the groundwater upstream and downstream of an emulsified oil biobarrier was examined from another Navy site. Further, for the groundwater experiments, the effect of glucose addition was explored. For the sediment experiments, the most enriched phylotypes during RDX degradation varied over time, by depth and well locations. However, several trends were noted, including the enrichment of Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, and Sporolactobacillus in the sediment microcosms. For the groundwater-based experiments, Pseudomonas, unclassified Rhodocyclaceae, Sphingomonas, and Rhodococcus were also highly abundant during RDX degradation. The abundance of both xplA and xenA significantly increased during RDX degradation compared to the control microcosms for many treatments (both groundwater and sediment microcosms). In a limited number of microcosms, the copy number of the xenB gene increased. Phylotype data were correlated with functional gene data to highlight potentially important biomarkers for RDX biodegradation at these two Navy sites.

  13. Effect of nitrate, acetate, and hydrogen on native perchlorate-reducing microbial communities and their activity in vadose soil.

    PubMed

    Nozawa-Inoue, Mamie; Jien, Mercy; Yang, Kun; Rolston, Dennis E; Hristova, Krassimira R; Scow, Kate M

    2011-05-01

    The effect of nitrate, acetate, and hydrogen on native perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) was examined by conducting microcosm tests using vadose soil collected from a perchlorate-contaminated site. The rate of perchlorate reduction was enhanced by hydrogen amendment and inhibited by acetate amendment, compared with unamendment. Nitrate was reduced before perchlorate in all amendments. In hydrogen-amended and unamended soils, nitrate delayed perchlorate reduction, suggesting that the PRB preferentially use nitrate as an electron acceptor. In contrast, nitrate eliminated the inhibitory effect of acetate amendment on perchlorate reduction and increased the rate and the extent, possibly because the preceding nitrate reduction/denitrification decreased the acetate concentration that was inhibitory to the native PRB. In hydrogen-amended and unamended soils, perchlorate reductase gene (pcrA) copies, representing PRB densities, increased with either perchlorate or nitrate reduction, suggesting that either perchlorate or nitrate stimulates the growth of the PRB. In contrast, in acetate-amended soil pcrA increased only when perchlorate was depleted: a large portion of the PRB may have not utilized nitrate in this amendment. Nitrate addition did not alter the distribution of the dominant pcrA clones in hydrogen-amended soil, likely because of the functional redundancy of PRB as nitrate-reducers/denitrifiers, whereas acetate selected different pcrA clones from those with hydrogen amendment.

  14. Effect of nitrate, acetate and hydrogen on native perchlorate-reducing microbial communities and their activity in vadose soil

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa-Inoue, Mamie; Jien, Mercy; Yang, Kun; Rolston, Dennis E.; Hristova, Krassimira R.; Scow, Kate M.

    2011-01-01

    Effect of nitrate, acetate and hydrogen on native perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) was examined by conducting microcosm tests using vadose soil collected from a perchlorate-contaminated site. The rate of perchlorate reduction was enhanced by hydrogen amendment and inhibited by acetate amendment, compared to unamendment. Nitrate was reduced before perchlorate in all amendments. In hydrogen-amended and unamended soils, nitrate delayed perchlorate reduction, suggesting the PRB preferentially use nitrate as an electron acceptor. In contrast, nitrate eliminated the inhibitory effect of acetate amendment on perchlorate reduction and increased the rate and the extent, possibly because the preceding nitrate reduction/denitrification decreased the acetate concentration which was inhibitory to the native PRB. In hydrogen-amended and unamended soils, perchlorate reductase gene (pcrA) copies, representing PRB densities, increased with either perchlorate or nitrate reduction, suggesting either perchlorate or nitrate stimulates growth of the PRB. In contrast, in acetate-amended soil pcrA increased only when perchlorate was depleted: a large portion of the PRB may have not utilized nitrate in this amendment. Nitrate addition did not alter the distribution of the dominant pcrA clones in hydrogen-amended soil, likely because of the functional redundancy of PRB as nitrate-reducers/denitrifiers, whereas acetate selected different pcrA clones from those with hydrogen amendment. PMID:21284679

  15. Soil microbial biomass nitrogen and Beta-Glucosaminidase activity response to compaction, poultry litter application and cropping in a claypan soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compaction-induced changes in soil physical properties may significantly affect soil microbial activity, especially nitrogen-cycling processes, in many agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of soil compaction on soil microbiological properties related to N in a clay...

  16. Fibroblast activation in cancer: when seed fertilizes soil.

    PubMed

    Kuzet, Sanya-Eduarda; Gaggioli, Cedric

    2016-09-01

    In solid cancers, activated fibroblasts acquire the capacity to provide fertile soil for tumor progression. Specifically, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) establish a strong relationship with cancer cells. This provides advantages to both cell types: whereas cancer cells initiate and sustain CAF activation, CAFs support cancer cell growth, motility and invasion. This results in tumor progression, metastasis and chemoresistance. Numerous studies have detailed the mechanisms involved in fibroblast activation and cancer progression, some of which are reviewed in this article. Cancer cells and CAFs are "partners in crime", and their interaction is supported by inflammation. An understanding of the enemy, the cancer cell population and its "allies" should provide novel opportunities for targeted-drug development. Graphical Abstract Molecular mechanism of fibroblast activation. a Normal fibroblasts are the most common cell type in the extracellular matrix and are responsible for the synthesis of collagens and fibrilar proteins. Under normal conditions, fibroblasts maintain tissue homeostasis and contribute to proper cell communication and function. Fibroblasts can be activated by a diverse set of factors secreted from cancer or immune cells. Not only growth factors such as TGF-β, PDGF, HGF and FGF but also interleukins, metalloproteinases and reactive oxygen species can promote activation. Likewise, transcriptional factors such as NF-κB and HSF-1 play an important role, as do the gene family of metalloproteinase inhibitors, Timp and the NF-κB subunit, p62. Interestingly, fibroblasts themselves can stimulate cancer cells to support activation further. b Once activated, fibroblasts undergo a phenotype switch and become cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) expressing various markers such as α-SMA, FSP1, vimentin and periostatin. c Recently, the LIF/GP130/IL6-R pathway has been identified as a signaling cascade involved in fibroblast activation. Upon LIF stimulation

  17. Effects of biochar and elevated soil temperature on soil microbial activity and abundance in an agricultural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamminger, Chris; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of Global Warming, rising surface temperatures will likely cause increased soil temperatures. Soil warming has already been shown to, at least temporarily, increase microbial activity and, therefore, the emissions of greenhouse gases like CO2 and N2O. This underlines the need for methods to stabilize soil organic matter and to prevent further boost of the greenhouse gas effect. Plant-derived biochar as a soil amendment could be a valuable tool to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and sequestrate it in soil on the long-term. During the process of pyrolysis, plant biomass is heated in an oxygen-low atmosphere producing the highly stable solid matter biochar. Biochar is generally stable against microbial degradation due to its chemical structure and it, therefore, persists in soil for long periods. Previous experiments indicated that biochar improves or changes several physical or chemical soil traits such as water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity or soil structure, but also biotic properties like microbial activity/abundance, greenhouse gas emissions and plant growth. Changes in the soil microbial abundance and community composition alter their metabolism, but likely also affect plant productivity. The interaction of biochar addition and soil temperature increase on soil microbial properties and plant growth was yet not investigated on the field scale. To investigate whether warming could change biochar effects in soil, we conducted a field experiment attached to a soil warming experiment on an agricultural experimental site near the University of Hohenheim, already running since July 2008. The biochar field experiment was set up as two-factorial randomized block design (n=4) with the factors biochar amendment (0, 30 t ha-1) and soil temperature (ambient, elevated=ambient +2.5° C) starting from August 2013. Each plot has a dimension of 1x1m and is equipped with combined soil temperature and moisture sensors. Slow pyrolysis biochar from the C

  18. Survival and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of surface and subsurface bacteria in natural sediment microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T.L.; Wilch, E.; O`Connor, K.

    1997-04-01

    Although starvation survival has been characterized for many bacteria, few subsurface bacteria have been tested, and few if any have been tested in natural subsurface porous media. We hypothesized that subsurface bacteria may be uniquely adapted for long-term survival in situ. We further hypothesized that subsurface conditions (sediment type and moisture content) would influence microbial survival. We compared starvation survival capabilities of surface and subsurface strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and a novel Arthrobacter sp. in microcosms composed of natural sediments. Bacteria were incubated for up to 64 weeks under saturated and unsaturated conditions in sterilized microcosms containing either a silty sand paleosol (buried soil) or a sandy silt nonpaleosol sediment. Direct counts, plate counts, and cell sizes were measured. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles were quantified to determine temporal patterns of PLFA stress signatures and differences in PLFAs among strains and treatments. The Arthrobacter strains survived better than the P. fluorescens strains; however, differences in survival between surface and subsurface strains of each genus were not significant. Bacteria survived better in the paleosol than in the nonpaleosol and survived better under saturated conditions than under unsaturated conditions. Cell volumes of all strains decreased; however, sediment type and moisture did not influence rates of miniaturization. Both P.fluorescens strains showed PLFA stress signatures typical for gram-negative bacteria: increased ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, increased ratios of trans- to cis-monoenoic fatty acids, and increased ratios of cyclopropyl to monoenoic precursor fatty acids. The Arthrobacter strains showed few changes in PLFAs. Environmental conditions strongly influenced PLFA profiles. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Effect of resident microbiota on the solubilization of gold in soil from the Tomakin Park Gold Mine, New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, F.; McPhail, D. C.

    2006-03-01

    The processes influencing the solubilization and observed mobility of Au in soil were studied using a combination of geochemical and microbiological techniques. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that biotic processes mediated by the resident microbiota are likely to control the mobilization of Au in auriferous soils and other regolith materials. Microcosms with auriferous soils from the Tomakin Park Gold Mine in temperate south eastern New South Wales, Australia, were incubated under biologically active versus inactive (sterilized) conditions. The soils were incubated oxic and anoxic, unamended and Au pellet- or cycloheximide amended for 70 days in a 1:4 (w:v) aqueous slurry at 25 °C in the dark. In biologically active unamended Ah- and B-horizon microcosms up to 80 wt.% of total Au was detected in solution after 45 days of incubation. In biologically active Au pellet amended microcosms Au was liberated from the soil and also from added Au pellets. Scanning electron microscopy and nucleic acid staining combined with confocal stereo laser microscopy revealed the presence of bacterial biofilms on Au pellets incubated in the biologically active microcosms. The biologically inactive microcosms displayed no or significantly reduced Au solubilization. After 40-50 days of incubation Au was generally re-adsorbed to the solid soil fractions. The results of sequential extractions conducted with dried slurry samples collected from the biologically active Ah-horizon microcosms after 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 68 days of incubation indicated a continuous microscale solubilization and re-adsorption of Au. In samples taken after 40 days of incubation more than 80 wt.% of the Au was extracted from the operationally defined organic fraction, which appears to act as a final re-adsorption site for Au in the soil. In samples taken after 10 days of incubation from microcosms amended with 100 μg g -1 (d.w. soil) of Au as AuCl 4- 95 wt.% of the Au was associated with the

  20. Degradation of Biochemical Activity in Soil Sterilized by Dry Heat and Gamma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K. L.; Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of soil sterilization by dry heat (0.08% relative humidity), gamma radiation, or both on soil phosphatase, urease, and decarboxylase activity was studied. Soil sterilized by a long exposure to dry heat at relatively low temperatures (eight weeks at 100.5 C) retained higher activities than did soil exposed to a higher temperature (two weeks at 124.5 C), while all activity was destroyed by four days at 148.5 C. Sterilization with 7.5 Mrads destroyed less activity than did heat sterilization. The effect of several individually nonsterizing doses of heat radiation is described.

  1. NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, Kent; Njoku, Eni; Thurman, Sam; Edelstein, Wendy; Jai, Ben; Spencer, Mike; Chen, Gun-Shing; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Brown, Molly; Savinell, Chris; Entin, Jared; Ianson, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being formulated by NASA in response to the 2007 National Research Council s Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of soil moisture at the Earth's land surface and its freeze-thaw state. These measurements will allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing flooding and monitoring drought. Knowledge gained from SMAP observations can help mitigate these natural hazards, resulting in potentially great economic and social benefits. SMAP observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing over the boreal latitudes will also reduce a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon balance and help to resolve an apparent missing carbon sink over land. The SMAP mission concept will utilize an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna flying in a 680 km polar orbit with an 8-day exact ground track repeat aboard a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every two to three days. In addition, the SMAP project will use these surface observations with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide estimates of deeper root-zone soil moisture and net ecosystem exchange of carbon. SMAP recently completed its Phase A Mission Concept Study Phase for NASA and transitioned into Phase B (Formulation and Detailed Design). A number of significant accomplishments occurred during this initial phase of mission development. The SMAP project held several open meetings to solicit community feedback on possible science algorithms, prepared preliminary draft Algorithm Theoretical Basis Documents (ATBDs) for each mission science product, and established a prototype algorithm testbed to enable testing and evaluation of the

  2. Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2008-08-01

    The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d).

  3. [Effects of metolachlor on biological activities in celery rhizophere and non-rhizosphere soil].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Xu, Dongmei; Liu, Guangshen; Liu, Weiping

    2006-05-01

    The study with rhizobag showed that in celery rhizophere and non-rhizosphere soil, metolachlor had a certain inhibitory effect on catalase activity, but stimulated dehydrogenase activity. Generally, the enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil were higher than those in non-rhizosphere soil. After 45 days of metolachlor treatment, the numbers of bacteria and fungi in rhizosphere soil were higher than those in non-rhizosphere soil, and the R/S was 1.76 to approximately 2. 51. The numbers of actinomycetes were relatively stable, and the rhizosphere effect was not significant. The degradation rate of metolachlor in rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soil was 0. 0217 and 0.0176, and the corresponding half-live was 31.9 and 39.4 days, respectively. The degradation of metolachlor was enhanced greatly in rhizosphere soil.

  4. Enzyme activity in terrestrial soil in relation to exploration of the Martian surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardakani, M. S.; Mclaren, A. D.; Pukite, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    An exploration was made of enzyme activities in soil, including abundance, persistence and localization of these activities. An attempt was made to develop procedures for the detection and assaying of enzymes in soils suitable for presumptive tests for life in planetary soils. A suitable extraction procedure for soil enzymes was developed and measurements were made of activities in extracts in order to study how urease is complexed in soil organic matter. Mathematical models were developed, based on enzyme action and microbial growth in soil, for rates of oxidation of nitrogen as nitrogen compounds are moved downward in soil by water flow. These biogeochemical models should be applicable to any percolating system, with suitable modification for special features, such as oxygen concetrations, and types of hydrodynamic flow.

  5. Influence of the activity of Allobophora molleri in microbial activity and metal availability of arsenic-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Manuel; Gómez, Isidoro; Hernández, Teresa; García, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the use of Allolobophora molleri as a biomarker of arsenic (As)-polluted soils and study the influence of A. molleri on the metabolic activity and microbial biodiversity of soil polluted with As. Because there are no experimental data available regarding the effect of the pollutant rate of As on A. molleri, we determined the LC₅₀ that was 143.5 mg As kg(-1). Sodium arsenite was added at two rates, equivalent to 143.5 and 71.8 mg As kg(-1) soil, to a soil that was then maintained with and without worms for 120 days. In addition, a nonpolluted soil without and with earthworms was used as the control. The As concentration in the soil was measured after 7 and 120 and the worm weight and As concentration after 120 days of exposure. Soil enzymatic activities and the structure of the soil microbial community, by analysis of phospholipid fatty acids, were determined. At the end of the experiment, the highest earthworm As contents were found in soils polluted with the highest rate of As. Earthworm weights significantly decreased in soil polluted with 143.5 or 71.8 mg As kg(-1), by 49.9 and 29.8% of initial weight, because the worm consumption rate decreased. These results suggest that A. molleri can be used as a good biomarker of the As toxicity. The As available fraction decreased in polluted soil with worms because the metal was accumulated in worm tissues. However, this assimilation was lower than other worms such as L. rubbellus or L. terrestris. Soil enzymatic activities were decreased in As-polluted soils but were increased significantly by the presence of earthworms. The earthworms modified the soil microbial diversity. In this respect, A. molleri significantly increased (p < 0.05) the bacterial and fungal populations. Soil As pollution decreased microbial biodiversity but to a lesser extent in the presence of A. molleri. PMID:23703122

  6. Activity of antibiotics in contaminated wounds containing clay soil.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A H; Rye, D G; Edgerton, M T; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    1979-03-01

    Most traumatic wounds are contaminated to some degree by soil and run a high risk of infection. The presence of soil in wounds interferes with natural tissue defenses, which include phagocytosis and serum bactericidal capacity. The experimental studies reported herein clearly demonstrate that soil also limits the antibacterial effects of specific antibiotics. This inactivation appears to be the result of a chemical reaction between the charged antibiotics and the soil particles. PMID:434335

  7. Combining agricultural practices key to elevating soil microbial activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of soil health is an emerging topic in applied ecology, specifically as it pertains to the agriculture, which utilizes approximately 40% of earth’s land. However, rigorous quantification of soil health and the services provided by soil organisms to support agriculture production (e.g., n...

  8. On quantifying active soil carbon using mid-infrared spectroscopy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is derived from plant or animal residues deposited to soil and is in various stages of decomposition and mineralization. Total SOM is a common measure of soil quality, although due to its heterogeneous composition SOM can vary dramatically in terms of i...

  9. On quantifying active soil carbon using mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is derived from plant or animal residues deposited on or in soil and is in various stages of decomposition and mineralization. Total SOM is a common measure of soil quality, although due to its heterogeneous composition SOM can vary dramatically in terms of its biochemical...

  10. [Mineralization of soil organic carbon and its relationship with soil enzyme activities in apple orchard in Weibei].

    PubMed

    Jia, Man-Li; Guo, Hong; Li, Hui-Ke

    2014-07-01

    A total of 36 kinds of soil samples were collected from apple orchards under three kinds of management model, including clear tillage model, intercropping white clover model and intercropping small crown flower model, the mineralization of soil organic carbon and four kinds of soil enzymes activities were determined, and the relationship between the two parameters was also analyzed. The results showed that the soil organic carbon mineralization of all the three treatments was almost the same. The daily SOC mineralization rate first increased and then decreased, and finally tended to be stable. After 31 days incubation experiment, the maximum accumulative amount of SOC mineralization occurred in white clover treatment with 590 mg x kg(-1), followed by small crown flower treatment with 541 mg x kg(-1), and the minimum value was 367 mg x kg(-1) in the control treatment, and the accumulative amount of SOC mineralization decreased with increasing soil depth. Discovered by the first-order kinetics, the fitting parameter Cp value ranged from 0.252 to 2.74 g x kg(-1) and k value ranged from 0.019 to 0.051 d(-1), and the two grass treatments both showed significant difference in Cp value from the control treatment, and the soil invertase and cellulose activities showed obvious relationship with soil organic carbon mineralization.

  11. [Mineralization of soil organic carbon and its relationship with soil enzyme activities in apple orchard in Weibei].

    PubMed

    Jia, Man-Li; Guo, Hong; Li, Hui-Ke

    2014-07-01

    A total of 36 kinds of soil samples were collected from apple orchards under three kinds of management model, including clear tillage model, intercropping white clover model and intercropping small crown flower model, the mineralization of soil organic carbon and four kinds of soil enzymes activities were determined, and the relationship between the two parameters was also analyzed. The results showed that the soil organic carbon mineralization of all the three treatments was almost the same. The daily SOC mineralization rate first increased and then decreased, and finally tended to be stable. After 31 days incubation experiment, the maximum accumulative amount of SOC mineralization occurred in white clover treatment with 590 mg x kg(-1), followed by small crown flower treatment with 541 mg x kg(-1), and the minimum value was 367 mg x kg(-1) in the control treatment, and the accumulative amount of SOC mineralization decreased with increasing soil depth. Discovered by the first-order kinetics, the fitting parameter Cp value ranged from 0.252 to 2.74 g x kg(-1) and k value ranged from 0.019 to 0.051 d(-1), and the two grass treatments both showed significant difference in Cp value from the control treatment, and the soil invertase and cellulose activities showed obvious relationship with soil organic carbon mineralization. PMID:25244868

  12. Effect of metals and other inorganic ions on soil microbial activity: soil dehydrogenase assay as a simple toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.E.; Li, S.W.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate the utility of the soil dehydrogenase assay as an effective primary test for assessing the potential toxicity of chemicals to soil microbial activity. In this manuscript the authors describe their use of the soil dehydrogenase assay in determining the effects of a number of potential toxic inorganic ions on soil microbial activity. The ions include Cu/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, NH/sub 4//sup +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 32/, F/sup -/, AsO/sub 4//sup 3 -/, BO/sub 3//sup 3 -/, and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/.

  13. Temporal and spatial variability of soil biological activity at European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallast, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. Soil biological activity was investigated using two model concepts: a) Re_clim parameter within the ICBM (Introductory Carbon Balance Model) (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states a climatic factor summarizing soil water storage and soil temperature and its influence on soil biological activity. b) BAT (biological active time) approach derived from model CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamic) (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of soil moisture, soil temperature and soil aeration as a time scale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. During an earlier stage both model concepts, Re_clim and BAT, were applied based on a monthly data to assess spatial variability of turnover conditions across Europe. This hampers the investigation of temporal variability (e.g. intra-annual). The improved stage integrates daily data of more than 350 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). All time series data (temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and soil texture derived from the European Soil Database (JRC 2006)), are used to calculate