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Sample records for active solid waste

  1. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  2. Low-activity solid waste measurements at Tokai Works

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Parker; D. H. Beddingfield; H. O. Menlove

    1999-11-01

    There is significant interest in performing assay measurements of containerized low-activity solid waste. The authors have examined the cases of typical waste drum matrices containing small quantities of plutonium and fission products. They have discussed various measurement techniques and considered the advantages and disadvantages of each method. They present a new state-of-the-art passive neutron waste drum counter with minimum detectable mass limits far below those systems which they have previously fabricated.

  3. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  4. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity.

  5. The solid waste dilemma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Russell, J.A.; Hurdelbrink, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1976, the U.S. Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to further address the problem of increasing industrial and municipal waste. The main objectives of RCRA were to responsibly manage hazardous and solid waste and to procure materials made from recovered wastes. To fulfill these objectives, four main programs of waste management were developed. These programs were defined under Subtitle C, the Hazardous Waste Program; Subtitle D, the Solid Waste Program; Subtitle I, the Underground Storage Tank Program; and Subtitle J, the Medical Waste Program. Subtitle D illustrates the solid waste dilemma occurring in the United States. Under this program, states are encouraged to develop and implement their own waste management plans. These plans include the promotion of recycling solid wastes and the closing and upgrading of all environmentally unsound dumps. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  6. Kinetic study of solid waste pyrolysis using distributed activation energy model.

    PubMed

    Bhavanam, Anjireddy; Sastry, R C

    2015-02-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of municipal solid waste, agricultural residues such as ground nut shell, cotton husk and their blends are investigated using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with in a temperature range of 30-900 °C at different heating rates of 10 °C, 30 °C and 50 °C/min in inert atmosphere. From the thermograms obtained from TGA, it is observed that the maximum rate of degradation occurred in the second stage of the pyrolysis process for all the solid wastes. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) is used to study the pyrolysis kinetics of the solid wastes. The kinetic parameters E (activation energy), k0 (frequency factor) are calculated from this model. It is found that the range of activation energies for agricultural residues are lower than the municipal solid waste. The activation energies for the municipal solid waste pyrolysis process drastically decreased with addition of agricultural residues. The proposed DAEM is successfully validated with TGA experimental data.

  7. Methanogenic diversity and activity in municipal solid waste landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Laloui-Carpentier, Wassila; Li, Tianlun; Vigneron, Vassilia; Mazéas, Laurent; Bouchez, Théodore

    2006-01-01

    Archaeal microbial communities present in municipal solid waste landfill leachates were characterized using a 16S rDNA approach. Phylogenetic affiliations of 239 partial length 16S rDNA sequences were determined. Sequences belonging to the order Methanosarcinales were dominant in the clone library and 65% of the clones belonged to the strictly acetoclastic methanogenic family Methanosaetaceae. Sequences affiliated to the metabolically versatile family Methanosarcinaceae represented 18% of the retrieved sequences. Members of the hydrogenotrophic order Methanomicrobiales were also recovered in limited numbers, especially sequences affiliated to the genera Methanoculleus and Methanofollis. Eleven euryarchaeal and thirteen crenarchaeal sequences (i.e. 10%) were distantly related to any hitherto cultivated microorganisms, showing that archaeal diversity within the investigated samples was limited. Lab-scale incubations were performed with leachates mixed with several methanogenic precursors (acetate, hydrogen, formate, methanol, methylamine). Microbial populations were followed using group specific 16S rRNA targeted fluorescent oligonucleotidic probes. During the incubations with acetate, acetoclastic methanogenesis was rapidly induced and led to the dominance of archaea hybridizing with probe MS1414 which indicates their affiliation to the family Methanosarcinaceae. Hydrogen and formate addition induced an important acetate synthesis resulting from the onset of homoacetogenic metabolism. In these incubations, species belonging to the family Methanosarcinaceae (hybridizing with probe MS1414) and the order Methanomicrobiales (hybridizing with probe EURY496) were dominant. Homoacetogenesis was also recorded for incubations with methanol and methylamines. In the methanol experiment, acetoclastic methanogenesis took place and archaea hybridizing with probe MS821 (specific for Methanosarcina spp.) were observed to be the dominant population. These results confirm that

  8. Management of solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  9. Management of solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-04-16

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  10. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Archaeological Activity Report: Post-Review Discoveries Within 45BN431 at Solid Waste Site 128-F-2

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Marceau; J. J. Sharpe

    2006-12-21

    During monitoring of remedial activities at Solid Waste Site 128-F-2 on August 19, 2005, a concentration of mussel shell was discovered in the west wall of a trench in the northen section of the waste site.

  12. All "Trashed" Out: An Activity Guide to Solid Waste Management for Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Springfield. Center for Solid Waste Management and Research, Springfield.

    This activity guide, specifically designed for Illinois classrooms but adaptable for other states, seeks to encourage primary students to make their own personal statement and responses to the environment through increased awareness of reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting of solid waste materials. The activities incorporate environmental…

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  14. Solid Waste: Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Ward

    1975-01-01

    In this article the means of disposing solid wastes are discussed with reference to their health hazards and environmental desirability. Included in the discussion are solid waste dumps, landfills, incinerators, and grinders. Some attention is given to the reclamation of mineral resources from trash. (MA)

  15. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  16. Cellulase activity of trichoderma reesei (RUT-C30) on municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, S.; Elmore, B.B.; Huckaby, H.K.

    1995-12-31

    This work presents a preliminary investigation of Trichoderma reesei (RUT-C30) grown on municipal solid waste (MSW). Such a process offers the potential for inexpensive production of cellulase enzymes while reducing the waste stream to landfills. Cellulase enzyme activity for batch-culture growth on MSW compared favorably with growth on refined cellulosic substrates. Cellulase productivity in an initial fed-batch culture reached a maximum of 22 IFPU/L-h with a maximum activity of 1.5 IFPU/mL.

  17. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  18. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP /COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  19. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  20. Activated carbon treatment of municipal solid waste incineration flue gas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengyong; Ji, Ya; Buekens, Alfons; Ma, Zengyi; Jin, Yuqi; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-02-01

    Activated carbon injection is widely used to control dioxins and mercury emissions. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its modelling. This paper proposes an expansion of the classical Everaerts-Baeyens model, introducing the expression of fraction of free adsorption sites, f (s), and asserting the significant contribution of fly ash to dioxins removal. Moreover, the model monitors dioxins partitioning between vapour and particulate phase, as well as removal efficiency for each congener separately. The effects of the principal parameters affecting adsorption are analysed according to a semi-analytical, semi-empirical model. These parameters include temperature, contact time during entrained-flow, characteristics (grain-size, pore structure, specific surface area) and dosage of activated carbon, lignite cokes or mineral adsorbent, fly ash characteristics and concentration, and type of incinerator plant.

  1. Solid-Waste Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  2. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  3. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  4. Illinois solid waste management legislation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Contents include: Degradable Plastic Act; Energy Assistance Act of 1989; Hazardous and Solid Waste Recycling and Treatment Act; Household Hazardous Waste Collection Program Act; Illinois Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act; Illinois Environmental Facilities Financing Act; Illinois Procurement Code; Illinois Solid Waste Management Act; Intergovernmental Cooperation Act; Junkyard Act; Litter Control Act; Local Solid Waste Disposal Act; Metro East Solid Waste Disposal and Energy Producing Service Act; Recycled Newsprint Use Act; Responsible Property Transfer Act of 1988; Solid Waste Disposal District Act; Solid Waste Planning and Recycling Act; Solid Waste Site Operator Certification Law; Township Refuse Collection and Disposal Act; Toxic Pollution Prevention Act; Used Motor Oil Recycling Act; Waste Oil Recovery Act; and Water Supply, Drainage and Flood Control Act.

  5. How to Reduce Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, George; Clapp, Leallyn B.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the problem of solid waste disposal in the United States, suggests ways in which solid wastes might be reduced, and proposes a number of related topics for student debate in classes or in science clubs. (JR)

  6. Solid Waste/Energy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivan, V. Eugene; And Others

    Provided are solid waste/energy curriculum materials for grades K-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-9, and 10-12. Separate folders containing units of study (focusing on trash, litter, and recycling) are provided for kindergarten (four units), grade 1 (two units), and grade 2 (two units). Folders contain teachers' directions and activity cards which include picture…

  7. Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-19

    SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SIGIR PA... Solid Waste Landfill 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Municipal Solid Waste Landfill , Baghdad, Iraq (Report Number SIGIR-PA-06-067) We are providing this project assessment report for your information

  8. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  9. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs.

  10. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  11. Electrochemical processing of solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bockris, John OM.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of electrochemical waste treatment methods suitable for closed, or partially closed, life support systems for manned space exploration is discussed. The technique being investigated involves the electrolysis of solid waste where the aim is to upgrade waste material (mainly fecal waste) to generate gases that can be recycled in a space station or planetary space environment.

  12. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases

  13. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  14. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production.

  15. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Loya, E Ivan; Allouche, Erez N; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5

  16. From Solid Waste to Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisely, F. E.; And Others

    A project designed to convert solid waste to energy is explained in this paper. In April, 1972, an investor-owned utility began to burn municipal solid waste as fuel for the direct production of electric power. This unique venture was a cooperative effort between the City of St. Louis, Missouri, and the Union Electric Company, with financial…

  17. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-02-15

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L{sup -1} and a concentration of CO{sub 2} of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} MPN mL{sup -1}). The acetogenic population was (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH{sub 4} (70%) were higher than CO{sub 2} (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L{sup -1}. Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and methanogenic bacteria (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified.

  19. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates.

  20. Solid waste comminution machine

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, R.L.

    1986-08-26

    A solid waste comminution machine is described of the type having two sets of interleaving wheels, including a lower set and an upper set of wheel members. Each set includes a pair of shafts on which the wheel members are mounted, the pairs of shafts mounted on upright, mutually facing, movable arms. The improvement consists of: the upper set of wheel members having ripping and shearing tools attached to the circumferential periphery of the wheel members, the pair of shafts associated with the upper set of wheel members mounted on the movable arms, the lower set of wheel members mounted on a pair of fixed, parallel shafts, the shafts supported at one end of the arms with the lower set of wheel members interleaving in a material shearing relation. The shafts form a fixed pivot axis for the arms, the arms having fixed lengths with inward and outward ends, the outward ends extending beyond the shafts associated with the upper set of wheels thereby forming leverage regions, and hydraulic piston means having fixed ends and free ends, the free ends connected to the leverage regions for bringing the arms toward each other to a point at which the upper set of wheels mesh with sufficient force to enable ripping of material between the upper set of wheels.

  1. Solid Waste Educational Resources and Activities: Let's Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This contains games, activities, publications, and resources for students and teachers on how to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly manage waste. It also contains a screen saver featuring runners-up from the Earth Day 2000 art contest. Activities and games include titles such as "Planet Protectors,""Recycle City,""Trash…

  2. Stock flow diagram analysis on solid waste management in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkipli, Faridah; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Kie, Cheng Jack

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness on solid waste management is a major importance to societies. Numerous generation of solid waste from our daily activities has risked for our communities. These due to rapid population grow and advance in economic development. Moreover, the complexity of solid waste management is inherently involved large scale, diverse and element of uncertainties that must assist stakeholders with deviating objectives. In this paper, we proposed a system dynamics simulation by developing a stock flow diagram to illustrate the solid waste generation process and waste recycle process. The analysis highlights the impact on increasing the number of population toward the amount of solid waste generated and the amount of recycled waste. The results show an increment in the number of population as well as the amount of recycled waste will decrease the amount of waste generated. It is positively represent the achievement of government aim to minimize the amount of waste to be disposed by year 2020.

  3. Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, R C

    1978-01-01

    Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

  4. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  5. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  6. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled ``Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois` and the Midwest`s solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  7. Urban Environmental Education Project, Curriculum Module VI: Solid Waste - Trash or Treasure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglan, Barbara

    Included in this module are four activities dealing with issues of solid waste disposal relative to urban concerns. Included activities are: (1) sources and composition of solid waste; (2) a "garbage game"; (3) disposal options for solid waste; and (4) an example county plan for solid waste disposal. Also included are an overview, teacher…

  8. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C.; Dibari, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  9. Controls for Burning Solid Wastes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Richard F.; Weinstein, Norman J.

    1975-01-01

    Modern thermal solid waste processing systems are becoming more complex, incorporating features that require instrumentation and control systems to a degree greater than that previously required just for proper combustion control. With the advent of complex, sophisticated, thermal processing systems, TV monitoring and computer control should…

  10. Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

  11. The Museum of Solid Waste and Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    This activity geared for grades 5-9 involves students in creating museum stations on eight solid waste and energy topics. While working in groups, students present their station topic to other students who are conducting a "museum tour." In doing so participants are encouraged to enhance their reading, writing, public speaking, and artistic skills…

  12. 76 FR 53376 - Definition of Solid Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260, 261, and 270 RIN 2050-AG62 Definition of Solid Waste AGENCY: Environmental... definition of solid waste published in the Federal Register on July 22, 2011. EPA is proposing to revise certain exclusions from the definition of solid waste for hazardous secondary materials intended...

  13. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  14. Composting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the composting process, which is one of the technological options for the processing of municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The process assumes a great significance, particularly from the point of its economic viability, capability for recycling of nutrients and waste minimization with minimum environmental problems. A number of studies on various aspects of the composting process, including process control and monitoring parameters such as temperature, pH, moisture content, aeration, and porosity are reviewed. Salient observations on microbial properties of composting are described and details of vermicomposting, as well as a detailed analysis of patents on composting of MSW, are presented.

  15. Monitoring the performances of a real scale municipal solid waste composting and a biodrying facility using respiration activity indices.

    PubMed

    Evangelou, Alexandros; Gerassimidou, Spyridoula; Mavrakis, Nikitas; Komilis, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    Objective of the work was to monitor two full-scale commingled municipal solid waste (MSW) mechanical and biological pretreatment (MBT) facilities in Greece, namely a biodrying and a composting facility. Monitoring data from a 1.5-year sampling period is presented, whilst microbial respiration indices were used to monitor the decomposition process and the stability status of the wastes in both facilities during the process. Results showed that in the composting facility, the organic matter reduced by 35 % after 8 weeks of combined composting/curing. Material exiting the biocells had a moisture content of less than 30 % (wb) indicating a moisture limitation during the active composting process. The static respiration indexes indicated that some stabilization occurred during the process, but the final material could not be characterized as stable compost. In the biodrying facility, the initial and final moisture contents were 50 % and less than 20 % wb, respectively, and the biodrying index was equal to 4.1 indicating effective biodrying. Lower heating values at the inlet and outlet were approximately 5.5 and 10 MJ/wet kg, respectively. The organic matter was reduced by 20 % during the process and specifically from a range of 63-77 % dw (inlet) to a range of 61-70 % dw. A significant respiration activity reduction was observed for some of the biodrying samples. A statistically significant correlation among all three respiration activity indices was recorded, with the two oxygen related activity indices (CRI7 and SRI24) observing the highest correlation.

  16. Peroxidase-active cell free extract from onion solid wastes: biocatalytic properties and putative pathway of ferulic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    El Agha, Ayman; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2008-09-01

    The exploitation of food residuals can be a major contribution in reducing the polluting load of food industry waste and in developing novel added-value products. Plant food residues including trimmings and peels might contain a range of enzymes capable of transforming bioorganic molecules, and thus they may have potential uses in several biocatalytic processes, including green organic synthesis, modification of food physicochemical properties, bioremediation, etc. Although the use of bacterial and fungal enzymes has gained attention in studies pertaining to biocatalytic applications, plant enzymes have been given less consideration or even disregarded. Therefore, we investigated the use of a crude peroxidase preparation from solid onion by-products for oxidizing ferulic acid, a widespread phenolic acid, various derivatives of which may occur in food wastes. The highest enzyme activity was observed at a pH value of 4, but considerable activity was retained up to a pH value of 6. Favorable temperatures for increased activity varied between 20-40 degrees C, 30 degrees C being the optimal. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of a homogenate/H(2)O(2)-treated ferulic acid solution showed the formation of a dimer as a major oxidation product.

  17. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  18. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  19. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato . E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  20. Summary of environmental characterization activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Solid Waste Storage Area Six, FY 1986 through 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Solomon, D.K.; Dreier, R.B.; Lee, S.Y.; Kelmers, A.D.; Lietzke, D.A. ); Craig, P.M. )

    1987-09-30

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Remedial Action Program (RAP), has supported characterization activities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA 6) to acquire information necessary for identification and planning of remedial actions that may be warranted, and to facilitate eventual closure of the site. In FY 1986 investigations began in the areas of site hydrology, geochemistry, soils, geology, and geohydrologic model application. This report summarizes work carried out in each of these areas during FY's 1986 and 1987 and serves as a status report pulling together the large volume of data that has resulted. Characterization efforts are by no means completed; however, a sufficient data base has been generated to begin data interpretation and analysis of site contaminants.

  1. Solid Waste Management: A List of Available Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

    Information, demonstration projects, and other activities, pertaining to solid-waste-related research, available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are contained in this document. These EPA publications are reports of the research, development, and demonstrations in progress as authorized by the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965.…

  2. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  3. Municipal solid waste gasification: Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, R.; Overend, R.P.; Chornet, E.; Craig, K.R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of the transparencies that were used during the presentation. Flowcharts are presented for processing options for municipal solid wastes and refuse derived fuels, and for the gasification of refuse derived fuels. Summaries are presented on gasification and gas conditioning goals, the history of MSW gasification, clean gas requirements for engines, and recent history of several gasification processes (Lurgi CFB, TPS CFB, Thermoselect pilot plant, and Proler pilot plant). Challenges are listed and a flowchart for a typical gasification/gas conditioning process is given.

  4. Effects from past solid waste disposal practices.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L J; Daniel, D E; Abeele, W V; Ledbetter, J O; Hansen, W R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews documented environmental effects experience from the disposal of solid waste materials in the U.S. Selected case histories are discussed that illustrate waste migration and its actual or potential effects on human or environmental health. Principal conclusions resulting from this review were: solid waste materials do migrate beyond the geometric confines of the initial placement location; environmental effects have been experienced from disposal of municipal, agricultural, and toxic chemical wastes; and utilization of presently known science and engineering principles in sitting and operating solid waste disposal facilities would make a significant improvement in the containment capability of shallow land disposal facilities. PMID:367769

  5. Municipal solid wastes and their disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, R

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the sources, characteristics, and toxic constituents of municipal solid wastes. Several methods are presented for handling, treating, and disposal of solid wastes. Monitoring the landfill site is necessary; there has been a trend to recognize that municipal solid wastes may be hazardous and to provide separate secure handling, treatment, and disposal for their dangerous constituents. Under current state and Federal regulations, permits are being required to assure that proper handling of conventional solid wastes and more hazardous constituents are carefully managed. PMID:738240

  6. Detection of Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golueke, Clarence G.

    1971-01-01

    To develop a means of detecting pollution, it s necessary to know something about the source and nature of the pollution. The type of pollution rising from solid wastes differs considerably from hat from liquid wastes or that from gaseous wastes ni its effect on the immediate environment. It may be "defined" by a series of negatives. When solid wastes are discarded on land, the resulting pollution is not land pollution in the sense of air and water pollution. For one thing, the solid wastes do not become a "part" of the land in that the wastes are neither intimately mixed nor homogenized into the land as are liquid and gaseous wastes into their respective media. The waste particles retain not only their chemical identity but also their visible (i.e., physical) characteristics. When buried, for example, the soil is under, above, and around the solids, because the wastes are there as discrete units. Secondly, solid wastes neither diffuse nor are they carried from the place at which they were deposited. In other words they remain stationary, providing of course the disposal site is land and not moving water. In a given area, solid wastes be not distributed uniformly over that area. Even the solid wastes falling into the specification of letter meets these specifications. In contrast liquid and gaseous wastes become intimately mixed, homogenized, and even dissolved in their media. Because solid wastes remain stationary, pollution constituted by their presence is highly localized and heavily concentrated, even to the extent that the pollution could be termed "micro" when compared to the macro-pollution arising from liquid and gasequs wastes.

  7. Public concerns and behaviours towards solid waste management in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Alessandra; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

    2010-12-01

    A self-administered questionnaire investigated knowledge, perceptions of the risks to health associated with solid waste management, and practices about waste management in a random sample of 1181 adults in Italy. Perceived risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning was significantly higher in females, younger, with an educational level lower than university and who believed that improper waste management is linked to cancer. Respondents who had visited a physician at least once in the last year for fear of contracting a disease due to the non-correct waste management had an educational level lower than university, have modified dietary habits for fear of contracting disease due to improper waste management, believe that improper waste management is linked to allergies, perceive a higher risk of contracting infectious disease due to improper waste management and have participated in education/information activities on waste management. Those who more frequently perform with regularity differentiate household waste collection had a university educational level, perceived a higher risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning, had received information about waste collection and did not need information about waste management. Educational programmes are needed to modify public concern about adverse health effects of domestic waste.

  8. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  18. Bases for solid waste volume estimates for tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Reddick, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This document presents the background and basis for the Tank Waste Remediation System forecast for solid waste submitted in June 1996. The forecast was generated for single-shell tank and double-shell tank activities including operations through retrieval and disposal of chemical tank waste.

  19. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  20. Effect of anaerobic digestion on sequential pyrolysis kinetics of organic solid wastes using thermogravimetric analysis and distributed activation energy model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Mei, Qingqing; Dai, Xiaohu; Ding, Guoji

    2017-03-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis, Gaussian-fit-peak model (GFPM), and distributed activation energy model (DAEM) were firstly used to explore the effect of anaerobic digestion on sequential pyrolysis kinetic of four organic solid wastes (OSW). Results showed that the OSW weight loss mainly occurred in the second pyrolysis stage relating to organic matter decomposition. Compared with raw substrate, the weight loss of corresponding digestate was lower in the range of 180-550°C, but was higher in 550-900°C. GFPM analysis revealed that organic components volatized at peak temperatures of 188-263, 373-401 and 420-462°C had a faster degradation rate than those at 274-327°C during anaerobic digestion. DAEM analysis showed that anaerobic digestion had discrepant effects on activation energy for four OSW pyrolysis, possibly because of their different organic composition. It requires further investigation for the special organic matter, i.e., protein-like and carbohydrate-like groups, to confirm the assumption.

  1. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  2. Consideration of privatization of solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.K.

    1995-09-01

    Martin County is responsible by law for the solid waste disposal needs of all County residents. In the State of Florida, counties have the responsibility of providing solid waste disposal services. Florida Statutes 403.706 divides the responsibility among local governments as follows: {open_quotes}The governing body of a County has the responsibility and power to provide for the operation of solid waste disposal facilities to meet the needs of all incorporated and unincorporated areas of the County. In accordance with this section, municipalities are responsible for collecting and transporting solid waste from their jurisdictions to a solid waste disposal facility operated by a county or operated under a contract with a county.{close_quotes} Solid waste disposal is a mandatory obligation primarily because of public health and safety concerns. In addition to contributing to environmental damage, dumping (as opposed to landfilling) contributes to infestations of insects and rodents that carry disease to the human population. Although the County may choose to provide solid waste disposal service indirectly, the ultimate responsibility for the service will remain with the County. If a contractor fails to provide the service, the County will be legally responsible to the State and to County residents for correcting the failure. This report discussess issues associated with the privatization of solid waste disposal.

  3. Managing America`s solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  4. Solid Waste: Resource Recovery and Reuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, James V.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses some of the processes involved in resource recovery (recycling) from municipal solid wastes. Provides specific examples of recovery of valuable resources, and suggests that the environmental consequences and technology related to solid waste treatment should be included in high school science courses. (JR)

  5. Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

  6. Solid waste treatment processes for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state-of-the-art of solid waste(s) treatment processes applicable to a Space Station. From the review of available information a source term model for solid wastes was determined. An overall system is proposed to treat solid wastes under constraints of zero-gravity and zero-leakage. This study contains discussion of more promising potential treatment processes, including supercritical water oxidation, wet air (oxygen) oxidation, and chemical oxidation. A low pressure, batch-type treament process is recommended. Processes needed for pretreatment and post-treatment are hardware already developed for space operations. The overall solid waste management system should minimize transfer of wastes from their collection point to treatment vessel.

  7. Solid Waste Management Practices in EBRP Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Nadine L.

    1994-01-01

    A Louisiana school district has made tremendous progress toward developing and implementing an environmentally friendly solid waste management program. Packaging changes in school food service, newspaper and aluminum can recycling, and composting of leaf and yard waste have contributed to reduced waste sent to the local landfill. (MLF)

  8. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete

    SciTech Connect

    Gidarakos, E. . E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr; Havas, G.; Ntzamilis, P.

    2006-07-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  9. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  10. 1994 Solid waste forecast container volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; Clary, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container type. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container types will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The forecast data for the 30-year period indicates that approximately 307,150 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed by the SWOC. The main container type for this waste is 55-gallon drums, which will be used to ship 36% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of 55-gallon drums is Past Practice Remediation. This waste will be generated by the Environmental Restoration Program during remediation of Hanford`s past practice sites. Although Past Practice Remediation is the primary generator of 55-gallon drums, most waste generators are planning to ship some percentage of their waste in 55-gallon drums. Long-length equipment containers (LECs) are forecasted to contain 32% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of LECs is the Long-Length Equipment waste generator, which is responsible for retrieving contaminated long-length equipment from the tank farms. Boxes are forecasted to contain 21% of the waste. These containers are primarily forecasted for use by the Environmental Restoration Operations--D&D of Surplus Facilities waste generator. This waste generator is responsible for the solid waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the facilities currently on the Surplus Facilities Program Plan. The remaining LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste volume is planned to be shipped in casks and other miscellaneous containers.

  11. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities.

  12. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials.

  13. HANFORD SITE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT TECHNICAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT [SEC 1 THRU 4

    SciTech Connect

    FRITZ, L.L.

    2004-03-25

    This Technical Information Document (TID) provides engineering data to support DOE/EIS-0286, ''Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement''. Assumptions and waste volumes used to calculate engineering data are also provided in this document. This chapter provides a brief description of: the Solid Waste Management Program (including a description of waste types and known characteristics of waste covered under the program), the Hanford Site (including a general discussion of the operating areas), and the alternatives analyzed. The Hanford Site Solid Waste Management Program and DOE/EIS-0286 address solid radioactive waste types generated by various activities from both onsite and offsite generators. The Environmental Restoration (ER) waste management activities are not within the scope of DOE/EIS-0286 or this TID. Activities for processing and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) are not within the scope of the Solid Waste Management Program and this TID.

  14. Solid Waste Assurance Program Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, L.G.

    1995-06-19

    On June 6, 1995, a waiver to Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, was approved by the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) to replace the low-level, mixed, and transuranic (TRU) generator assessment programs with the Solid Waste Assurance Program (SWAP). This is associated with a waiver that was approved on March 16, 1995 to replace the Storage/Disposal Approval Record (SDAR) requirements with the Waste Specification System (WSS). This implementation plan and the SWAP applies to Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) functions, facilities, and personnel who perform waste acceptance, verification, receipt, and management functions of dangerous, radioactive, and mixed waste from on- and off-site generators who ship to or within the Hanford Site for treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) at SWD TSD facilities.

  15. Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as

  16. Iowa's Clean Solid Waste Environmental Education Project (SWEEP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eells, Jean Crim; And Others

    The Iowa Clean SWEEP program is designed to provide educators, K-12, with a series of activities focusing upon critical concepts related to Iowa's solid waste problem. This activity packet contains 19 activities for grades K-6, and 25 activities for grades 7-12. Key concepts addressed throughout the activity packet include: (1) an overview, the…

  17. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  18. Low-impact sampling under an active solid low-level radioactive waste disposal unit using horizontal drilling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Puglisi, C.V.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the performance of the solid low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal units located on a mesa top at TA-54, Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, and to provide in-situ (vadose zone) site characterization information to Area G`s Performance Assessment. The vadose zone beneath an active disposal unit (DU 37), was accessed by utilizing low-impact, air-rotary horizontal drilling technology. Core samples were pulled, via wire-line core method, in 3 horizontal holes fanning out below DU 37 at approximately 5 foot intervals depending on recovery percentage. Samples were surveyed and prepared in-field following Environmental Restoration (ER) guidelines. Samples were transferred from the field to the CST-9 Radvan for initial radiological screening. Following screening, samples were delivered to CST-3 analytical lab for analyses including moisture content, 23 inorganics, 60 volatile organic compounds (VOC`s), 68 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC`s), tritium, lead 210, radium 226 & 228, cesium 137, isotopic plutonium, americium 241, strontium 90, isotopic uranium, and isotopic thorium. Other analyses included matric potential, alpha spectroscopy, gamma spectroscopy, and gross alpha/beta. The overall results of the analysis identified only tritium as having migrated from the DU. Am-241, Eu-152, and Pu-238 were possibly identified above background but the results are not definitive. Of all organics analysed for, only ethyl acetate was tentatively identified slightly above background. All inorganics were found to be well below regulatory limits. Based on the results of the above mentioned analyses, it was determined that Area G`s disposal units are performing well and no significant liquid phase migration of contaminants has occurred.

  19. Tribal Decisions-Makers Guide to Solid Waste Management: Chapter 2 - Developing Solid Waste Management Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Solid waste management plans offer a host of benefits for tribes and Alaskan Native villages. Through the preparation of these plans, you can assess your cur-rent and future waste management needs, set priorities, and allocate resources accordingly.

  20. Program Planning Concepts in Solid Waste Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Presents a brief review of the program planning process, and uses the example of a solid waste program to illustrate what has or has not been accomplished through the use of the planning process. (LK)

  1. Survey of Geothermal Solid Toxic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, A.J.; Gay, R.L.; Klenck, M.M.; Nealy, C.L.

    1982-09-30

    This is an early survey and analysis of the types and quantities of solid toxic wastes to be expected from geothermal power systems, particularly at the Salton Sea, California. It includes a literature search (48 references/citations), descriptions of methods for handling wastes, and useful quantitative values. It also includes consideration of reclaiming metals and mineral byproducts from geothermal power systems. (DJE 2005)

  2. Tapping Resources in Municipal Solid Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal is becoming complex as costs, wastes, and environmental restrictions increase. Recovery and recycling of materials presents problems of financing, ownership, and operation, technology, and marketing. Energy and materials recovery offers long-term economic and environmental incentives in terms of growing shortages and…

  3. Analysis of U.S. Army Solid Waste Management Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    27 3.2.1 Army Solid Waste Generation ............................... 27 3.2.2 Non- Municipal Solid Waste .................................. 28...130 Glossary ...................................................................................... 131 List of Figures 2-1 U. S. Municipal Solid Waste Handling...and Alternatives ................................... 94 9 List of Tables 3-1 Examples of Army Municipal Solid Waste Composition .... 29 3-2 DoD and

  4. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi Moghadam, M.R. Mokhtarani, N. Mokhtarani, B.

    2009-01-15

    Pollution and health risks generated by improper solid waste management are important issues concerning environmental management in developing countries. In most cities, the use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate in addition to odors and fires. Solid waste management infrastructure and services in developing countries are far from achieving basic standards in terms of hygiene and efficient collection and disposal. This paper presents an overview of current municipal solid waste management in Rasht city, Gilan Province, Iran, and provides recommendations for system improvement. The collected data of different MSW functional elements were based on data from questionnaires, visual observations of the authors, available reports and several interviews and meetings with responsible persons. Due to an increase in population and changes in lifestyle, the quantity and quality of MSW in Rasht city has changed. Lack of resources, infrastructure, suitable planning, leadership, and public awareness are the main challenges of MSW management of Rasht city. However, the present situation of solid waste management in this city, which generates more than 400 tons/d, has been improved since the establishment of an organization responsible only for solid waste management. Source separation of wastes and construction of a composting plant are the two main activities of the Rasht Municipality in recent years.

  5. Anaerobic stabilization of waste activated sludge at different temperatures and solid retention times: Evaluation by sludge reduction, soluble chemical oxygen demand release and dehydration capability.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiyao; Peng, Yongzhen; He, Yuelan; Wang, Shuying; Guo, Siyu; Li, Lukai

    2017-03-01

    Anaerobic treatment is the most widely used method of waste activated sludge (WAS) stabilization. Using a semi-continuous stirring tank with condensed WAS, we investigated effects of decreasing the solid retention time (SRT) from 32days to 6.4days on sludge reduction, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release and dehydration capability, along with anaerobic digestion operated at medium temperature (MT-AD) or anaerobic digestion operated at room temperature (RT-AD). Results showed that effects of temperature on SCOD release were greater at SRT of 32d and 6.4d. When SRT was less than 8d, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS) and capillary suction time (CST) did not change significantly. CST was lowest at SRT of 10.7days, indicating best condition for sludge dehydration. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the most optimum SRT was higher than 10.7d both in MT-AD or RT-AD.

  6. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  7. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps.

  8. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns.

  9. Improved FGD dewatering process cuts solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moer, C.; Fernandez, J.; Carraro, B.

    2009-08-15

    In 2007, Duke Energy's W.H. Zimmer Station set out to advance the overall performance of its flue gas desulfurization (FGD) dewatering process. The plant implemented a variety of measures, including upgrading water-solids separation, improving polymer program effectiveness and reliability, optimizing treatment costs, reducing solid waste sent to the landfill, decreasing labor requirements, and maintaining septic-free conditions in clarifiers. The changes succeeded in greatly reducing solid waste generation and achieving total annual savings of over half a million dollars per year. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Factors influencing spontaneous combustion of solid waste.

    PubMed

    Moqbel, Shadi; Reinhart, Debra; Chen, Ruey-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Landfill fires create a critical problem for landfill operators and require investigation of its occurrence and the conditions that favor its initiation. Subsurface fires are considered the most significant due to the difficulty in determining their location and extent. These fires are mainly caused by spontaneous combustion, combustion due to high temperature in absence of flame. This study investigates the effect of moisture content, oxygen concentration and leachate components on spontaneous ignition, combustion initiation, and self-heating of solid waste. A new procedure for testing spontaneous ignition is described; however, variations in solid waste components and landfill conditions can create some limitations to its use. The presence of water and dissolved solids in leachate was found to accelerate chemical self-heating of the solid waste. Oxygen concentration at 10% by volume can sustain chemical oxidation but did not promote accelerated burning.

  11. Assessing total and volatile solids in municipal solid waste samples.

    PubMed

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is broadly generated in everyday activities and its treatment is a global challenge. Total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) are typical control parameters measured in biological treatments. In this study, the TS and VS were determined using the standard methods, as well as introducing some variants: (i) the drying temperature for the TS assays was 105°C, 70°C and 50°C and (ii) the VS were determined using different heating ramps from room tempature to 550°C. TS could be determined at either 105°C or 70°C, but oven residence time was tripled at 70°C, increasing from 48 to 144 h. The VS could be determined by smouldering the sample (where the sample is burnt without a flame), which avoids the release of fumes and odours in the laboratory. However, smouldering can generate undesired pyrolysis products as a consequence of carbonization, which leads to VS being underestimated. Carbonization can be avoided using slow heating ramps to prevent the oxygen limitation. Furthermore, crushing the sample cores decreased the time to reach constant weight and decreased the potential to underestimate VS.

  12. Electrochemical processing of solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bockris, J. OM.; Hitchens, G. D.; Kaba, L.

    1988-01-01

    The investigation into electrolysis as a means of waste treatment and recycling on manned space missions is described. The electrochemical reactions of an artificial fecal waste mixture was examined. Waste electrolysis experiments were performed in a single compartment reactor, on platinum electrodes, to determine conditions likely to maximize the efficiency of oxidation of fecal waste material to CO2. The maximum current efficiencies for artificial fecal waste electrolysis to CO2 was found to be around 50 percent in the test apparatus. Experiments involving fecal waste oxidation on platinum indicates that electrodes with a higher overvoltage for oxygen evolution such as lead dioxide will give a larger effective potential range for organic oxidation reactions. An electrochemical packed column reactor was constructed with lead dioxide as electrode material. Preliminary experiments were performed using a packed-bed reactor and continuous flow techniques showing this system may be effective in complete oxidation of fecal material. The addition of redox mediator Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) enhances the oxidation process of biomass components. Scientific literature relevant to biomass and fecal waste electrolysis were reviewed.

  13. 1995 solid waste 30-year characteristics volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Rice, G.I.; Valero, O.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site has been designated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to store, treat, and dispose of solid waste received from both onsite and offsite generators. This waste is currently or planned to be generated from ongoing operations, maintenance and deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the waste to be shipped to Hanford`s SWOC. The physical waste forms and hazardous constituents are described for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic - transuranic mixed waste (TW{underscore}TRUM).

  14. The influences of inoculants from municipal sludge and solid waste on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Jijin; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Zang, Bing; Li, Yangyang

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inoculants on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during composting of chicken manure and cornstalk. Two microbial inoculants (originated from aerobic municipal sludge and municipal solid waste, respectively) were used in composting at the rate of 0.3% of initial raw materials (wet weight). No microbial inoculums were added to the control. The experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions for 53 days. The results show that enzyme activity is an important index to comprehensively evaluate the composting stability and maturity. Microbes originated from sludge works best in terms of composting stability and maturity (C:N ratio decreased from 15.5 to 10, and germination index increased to 109%). Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and municipal solid waste extended the time of thermophilic phase for 11 and 7 days, respectively. Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and MSW significantly increased the average of catalase activity (by 15.0% and 12.1%, respectively), urease activity (by 21.5% and 12.2%, respectively) and cellulase activity (by 32.1% and 26.1%, respectively) during composting.

  15. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-12-31

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I{sub 2} leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste.

  16. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Oke, I.A.

    2008-12-15

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

  17. 40 CFR 261.2 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 261.2 Section 261.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.2 Definition of solid waste. (a)(1)...

  18. 40 CFR 261.2 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 261.2 Section 261.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.2 Definition of solid waste. (a)(1)...

  19. 40 CFR 261.2 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 261.2 Section 261.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.2 Definition of solid waste. (a)(1)...

  20. High Solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) Wastes Stabilization with Ceramicrete and Super Cement

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-09-14

    High Solids ash and scrubber solution waste streams were generated at the incinerator facility at SRS by burning radioactive diatomaceous filter rolls which contained small amounts of uranium, and listed solvents (F and U). This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) technologies with the High Solids waste streams.

  1. 76 FR 16538 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... hazardous waste regulated under subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6921 et seq.), mining... institutional waste do not include yard waste and refuse-derived fuel; used oil; wood pallets; clean wood... solid waste disposal plans developed pursuant to Federal or State law; (5) Any Federal and...

  2. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Nemerow, N.L.; Farooq, S.; Daly, E.L. Jr.; Sengupta, S.; Gerrish, H.P.; Wong, K.F.

    1981-03-01

    A demonstration anaerobic digestion plant has been installed at Pompano Beach, Florida, capable of treating 100 tons per day of municipal solid waste. The suitability of this process and its environmental effects at a full scale operation level is being examined. The study presented and discussed in this paper had as its main objective the characterization of various waste streams and an assessment of their environmental effects if discharged into the environment.

  3. Evaluation of dry solid waste recycling from municipal solid waste: case of Mashhad city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jorfi, Sahand; Akbari, Hamideh; Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The recycling for recovery and reuse of material and energy resources undoubtedly provides a substantial alternative supply of raw materials and reduces the dependence on virgin feedstock. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of dry municipal solid waste recycling in Mashhad city, Iran. Several questionnaires were prepared and distributed among various branches of the municipality, related organizations and people. The total amount of solid waste generated in Mashhad in 2008 was 594, 800  tons with per capita solid waste generation rate of 0.609  kg  person(-1) day(-1). Environmental educational programmes via mass media and direct education of civilians were implemented to publicize the advantages and necessity of recycling. The amount of recycled dry solid waste was increased from 2.42% of total dry solid waste (2588.36  ton  year(-1)) in 1999 to 7.22% (10, 165  ton  year(-1)) in 2008. The most important fractions of recycled dry solid waste in Mashhad included paper and board (51.33%), stale bread (14.59%), glass (9.73%), ferrous metals (9.73%), plastic (9.73%), polyethylene terephthalate (2.62%) and non-ferrous metals (0.97%). It can be concluded that unfortunately the potential of dry solid waste recycling in Mashhad has not been considered properly and there is a great effort to be made in order to achieve the desired conditions of recycling.

  4. Towards sustainable solid waste management: Investigating household participation in solid waste management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akil, A. M.; Ho, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the readiness of Iskandar Malaysia community to accept solid waste recycling. The research is based on quantitative research design and descriptive survey of the households at Iskandar Malaysia using the stratified sampling method for a sample of 670. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire that covered two basic principles; a) recycling knowledge; b) willingness to recycle. Data was analysed using the SPSS to carry out statistical analysis. The finding shows households' knowledge towards the solid waste recycling is good and positive. However, finding also shows that respondents have incomprehensive knowledge on the method of disposal as more than 50% of householders only recycle papers and textiles. Most of the households agreed to participate in the activities of the separation of waste if the facility will be made available at their kerbside. Therefore, it is recommended that government should provide more in-depth knowledge by intensifying the awareness of the households in the recycling programs. In term of urban planning and management, the location of recycling facility can be analysing by using GIS. This is important to understand the catchment area of each neighbourhood or precinct to ensure effective household participation.

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-01-21

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance criteria for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-B Reactor and P-10 Tritium Separation Project and also received waste from the 105-N Reactor. The burial ground received reactor hardware, process piping and tubing, fuel spacers, glassware, electrical components, tritium process wastes, soft wastes and other miscellaneous debris.

  6. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul

    SciTech Connect

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-08-15

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

  7. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John

    2016-01-01

    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (< 250 C). These temperatures are compatible with the PTFE bag materials historically used by NASA for fecal waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  8. H.R. 4984: A Bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to regulate the use of hazardous waste as fuel for energy recovery, the operation of cement kilns that burn hazardous waste as fuel, the disposal of cement kiln dust waste, and related activities. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, August 18, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The report H.R. 4984 is a bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to regulate the use of hazardous waste as fuel for energy recovery, the operation of cement kilns that burn hazardous waste as fuel, the disposal of cement kiln dust waste. The proposed legislative text is provided.

  9. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  10. Cost/Benefits of Solid Waste Reuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Helmut W.

    1975-01-01

    Municipalities and industry are being forced to seek alternatives to sanitary landfills and incineration as means of eliminating solid wastes. Based on the Columbia study, the two most cost-effective, environmentally acceptable alternatives are the high temperature, oxygen-fed pyrolysis process and the co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel in…

  11. General survey of solid-waste management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, T. G.; Wadle, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing solid-waste management for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) were explored. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.

  12. 76 FR 44093 - Definition of Solid Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is proposing to revise certain exclusions from the definition of solid waste for hazardous secondary materials intended for reclamation that would otherwise be regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The purpose of these proposed revisions is to ensure that the recycling regulations, as......

  13. Solid waste electrical generating feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The feasibility of recommissioning the existing 3 megawatt steam turbine driven electrical generator of the Municipal Utilities of Valley City, North Dakota, using steam generated in a new facility from the incineration of municipal solid waste generated in the area is examined. It is concluded that (1) there is sufficient municipal solid waste that can be obtained from Valley City, Moorhead and Jamestown (and/or West Fargo) to fuel the plant; (2) the seasonal fluctuation in the amounts of municipal solid waste indicates that a supplementary source of fuel for use during winter would increase plant efficiency; (3) the probable capital cost of the project will be $3,590,000.00; (4) the cost of production of electricity could range from 3.72 cents/kWh to 4.90 cents/kWh, depending on the construction costs, interest rate, lifetime of the project, availability for the plant and steam produced per ton of municipal solid waste; (5) there is no compelling reason why the tertiary cell of the sewage lagoon, cannot be used for cooling water; (6) the State Health Department is ambivalent toward the project; and (7) the public perception of the project is positive. 92 references.

  14. Solid Waste Management Planning--A Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisen, Hilary M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article presents a twofold solid waste management plan consisting of a basic design methodology and a decision-making methodology. The former provides a framework for the developing plan while the latter builds flexibility into the design so that there is a model for use during the planning process. (MA)

  15. Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

  16. An Accounting System for Solid Waste Management in Small Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zausner, Eric R.

    This pamphlet provides a guide to the type and quantity of information to be collected for effective solid waste management in small communities. It is directed at municipal or private personnel involved in the operation and ownership of management facilities. Sample activity reports are included for reference. (CS)

  17. Academia's Garbage: Campus/Community Solid Waste Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Marcia

    The nation's overall efforts in solid waste management are noted, and suggestions and examples are presented concerning activities that can be undertaken by institutions of higher education to assist their communities to achieve safer and cleaner environments. The federal regulatory agency, The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is concerned…

  18. Community Solutions to Solid Waste Pollution. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Grade 6. [Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    This publication, the last in a series of seven for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It contains a unit of exercises selected for sixth grade students focusing on community solutions to solid waste pollution. Waste management activities included in this unit seek to…

  19. Biogasification of municipal solid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, L. F.; Savage, G. M.; Trezek, G. J.; Golueke, C. G.

    1981-06-01

    A series of experiments on the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal refuse was performed. The refuse fraction used in the study was one of the portions segregated in a resource recovery system developed at the University of California, Berkeley. The scale of experiments includes 4, 9, and 1600-L digesters. The refuse used as feed was enriched by the addition of raw sewage sludge in various ratios, i.e., from 0-100 percent of the total volatile solids. No other sources of nutrients or chemicals for pH control were introduced into the reactors. Organic loading rates ranging from 1.1-6.4 g of volatile solids/Ld were obtained. Typical hydraulic detention times were 15 to 30 days. Temperatures were kept within the range of 72-104 F (22-40 C). Digestion efficiency was based on energy conversion and gas production.

  20. Solid waste electrical generating feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The feasibility of recommissioning the existing 3 megawatt steam turbine driven electrical generator of the Municipal Utilities of Valley City, North Dakota, using steam generated in a new facility from the incineration of municipal solid waste generated in the area is examined. It is concluded that (1) there is sufficient municipal solid waste that can be obtained from Valley City, Moorhead and Jamestown (and/or West Fargo) to fuel the plant; (2) the seasonal fluctuation in the amounts of municipal solid waste indicates that a supplementary source of fuel for use during winter would increase plant efficiency; (3) the probable capital cost of the project will be $3,590,000.00; (4) the cost of production of electricity could range from 3.72 cents/kWh to 4.90 cents/kWh, depending on the construction costs, interest rate, lifetime of the project, availability for the plant and steam produced per ton of municipal solid waste; (5) there is no compelling reason why the tertiary cell of the sewage lagoon, cannot be used for cooling water; (6) the State Health Department is ambivalent toward the project; and (7) the public perception of the project is positive. The recommendations include (1) obtain the blessing of the appropriate authorities to proceed to the next steps; (2) obtain letters of intent to commit their municipal solid waste stream to this project from other municipalities; (3) develop a complete and detailed ''Request for Proposals'' based on demonstrated performance; and (4) explore vigorously the possibilities of grant monies to offset part of the cost. 92 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Different indices to express biodegradability in organic solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Ponsá, Sergio; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Respiration indices are suggested in literature as the most suitable stability determination and are proposed as a biodegradability measure in this work. An improved dynamic respiration index methodology is described in this work. This methodology was applied to 58 samples of different types of waste including municipal solid wastes and wastewater sludge, both raw materials and samples collected in a mechanical-biological treatment plant at different stages of biodegradation. The information obtained allowed to establish a qualitative classification of wastes in three categories: highly biodegradable, moderately biodegradable, and wastes of low biodegradability. Results were analyzed in terms of long and short-term indices and index expression: dynamic respiration indices expressed as average oxygen uptake rate (mg O(2) g(-1) dry matter [DM] h(-1)) at 1 and 24 h of maximum activity (DRI(1h), DRI(24h)); and cumulative oxygen consumption in 24 h of maximum activity and 4 d (AT(24h), AT(4)). The statistical comparison of indices and wastes is also presented. Raw sludge presented the highest biodegradability followed by the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and anaerobically digested sludge. All indices correlated well but different correlations were found for the different wastes analyzed. The information in the dynamic respiration profile allows for the calculation of different indices that provide complementary information. The combined analysis of DRI(24h) and AT(4) is presented here as the best tool for biodegradable organic matter content characterization and process requirements estimation.

  2. Co-combustion of coal and solid waste (municipal and industrial solid wastes)

    SciTech Connect

    Ketlogetswe, C.

    1996-12-31

    This work determines the thermal characteristics of various mixtures of carpet waste as an illustrative solid waste. Generally the results revealed that combustion of a mixture of coal with carpet waste yields high fuel bed temperature, in comparison with the combustion of pure solid waste. High fuel bed temperatures of 1,340 C to 1,520 C obtained during the combustion of a mixture of coal with PVC carpet waste would be ideal for energy recovery. The fuel bed temperature of 1,290 C obtained during the combustion of 100% PVC carpet waste suggests that the combustion of general industrial solid waste may be expected to yield a fuel bed temperature of about 1,400 C which would be suitable for energy recovery in the form of power generation or steam generation for general use. The results also revealed that combustion of a mixture of coal and municipal solid waste may require 30% to 35% coal to achieve a fuel bed temperature of about 1,300 C. From economical viewpoint, the % of coal must be kept to a minimum, at least 20% coal or less.

  3. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  4. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  5. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  6. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  7. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  8. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  9. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  10. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  11. Thirty-year solid waste generation forecast for facilities at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The information supplied by this 30-year solid waste forecast has been compiled as a source document to the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (WMEIS). The WMEIS will help to select a sitewide strategic approach to managing present and future Savannah River Site (SRS) waste generated from ongoing operations, environmental restoration (ER) activities, transition from nuclear production to other missions, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) programs. The EIS will support project-level decisions on the operation of specific treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within the near term (10 years or less). In addition, the EIS will provide a baseline for analysis of future waste management activities and a basis for the evaluation of the specific waste management alternatives. This 30-year solid waste forecast will be used as the initial basis for the EIS decision-making process. The Site generates and manages many types and categories of waste. With a few exceptions, waste types are divided into two broad groups-high-level waste and solid waste. High-level waste consists primarily of liquid radioactive waste, which is addressed in a separate forecast and is not discussed further in this document. The waste types discussed in this solid waste forecast are sanitary waste, hazardous waste, low-level mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste, and transuranic waste. As activities at SRS change from primarily production to primarily decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration, the volume of each waste s being managed will change significantly. This report acknowledges the changes in Site Missions when developing the 30-year solid waste forecast.

  12. Potential for energy recovery from solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Velzy, C.O.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the technologies, opportunities, and problems of energy-from-refuse systems. Topics considered include the direct combustion of as-received refuse, the mass-burn systems, the combustion of refuse-derived fuel, and the production of methane gas from the organic and cellulosic fraction of solid waste. A DOE-sponsored methane plant operated by Waste Management is now being evaluated at Pompano Beach, Florida. The Europeans have moved ahead so rapidly in the beneficial use of heat from the combustion of their solid waste because of the availability of a ready market for the heat in municipal facilities and/or town district heating systems. It is suggested that the use of the heat from the combustion of solid waste should be broadened to include district heating and cooling, complementary municipal functions (e.g. the disposal of sludges from wastewater treatment), integration in power generation facilities in uses other than direct production of power (e.g. boiler feedwater heating), and in industrial processing.

  13. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  14. Solid Waste/Disease Relationships, A Literature Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Thrift G.

    Presented is a comprehensive survey of the literature on the relationships between disease and solid wastes. Diseases are grouped on the basis of waste type or disease vector, such as chemical waste, human fecal waste, animal fecal waste, rodent-borne disease, mosquito-borne disease and miscellaneous communicable disease. The following format is…

  15. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Richard G.; Blasewitz, Albert G.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  16. Energy content of municipal solid waste bales.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Ismail; Durmusoglu, Ertan

    2013-07-01

    Baling technology is a preferred method for temporary storage of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to final disposal. If incineration is intended for final disposal of the bales, the energy content of the baled MSW gains importance. In this study, nine cylindrical bales containing a mix of different waste materials were constructed and several parameters, including total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, moisture content, loss on ignition, gross calorific value and net calorific value (NCV) were determined before the baling and at the end of 10 months of storage. In addition, the relationships between the waste materials and the energy contents of the bales were investigated by the bivariate correlation analyses. At the end, linear regression models were developed in order to forecast the decrease of energy content during storage. While the NCVs of the waste materials before the baling ranged between 6.2 and 23.7 MJ kg(-1) dry basis, they ranged from 1.0 to 16.4 MJ kg(-1) dry basis at the end of the storage period. Moreover, food wastes exhibited the highest negative correlation with NCVs, whereas plastics have significant positive correlation with both NCVs and TCs. Similarly, TOCs and carbon/nitrogen ratios decreased with the increase in food amounts inside the bales. In addition, textile, wood and yard wastes increase the energy content of the bales slightly over the storage period.

  17. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Uyen Nguyen; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-06-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  18. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-06-15

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  19. Contingency Base Camp Solid Waste Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    ket for plastic recycling ; as a result, the site had accumulated a large quan- tity of plastic bottles that could not be properly disposed of. Finally...compound ...................................................................... 11 6 Recycling bins at New Kabul Compound...4. Table 3-2, p. 3-14: This table presents planning factors for components of solid waste assuming none is being reused or recycled . Table 2 lists

  20. Public health response to striking solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Murti, Michelle; Ayre, Reg; Shapiro, Howard; de Burger, Ron

    2011-10-01

    In 2009, the City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, experienced a six-week labor disruption involving 24,000 city workers that included solid waste and public health employees. In an attempt to control illegal dumping and to manage garbage storage across the city during this period, 24 temporary garbage storage sites were established by the city (mostly in local parks) for residents to dispose of their household waste. No other municipality in North America has attempted to operate this many temporary sites for this long a period. Management and nonunion staff from Healthy Environments in Toronto Public Health performed daily inspections, responded to community questions, issued public health orders, and worked closely with Solid Waste Management and the Ministry of the Environment to actively manage the public health concerns associated with these sites. This intensive oversight mitigated public health risks to the community and facilitated an effective, safe solution to the temporary garbage storage problem.

  1. Production of hydrogen from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) includes gasification and the process for producing a gasificable slurry from raw MSW by using high pressures of steam. A potential energy source, MSW is a composite of organic materials such as: paper, wood, food waste, etc. There are different paper grades producing different results with low-quality paper forming better slurries than high-quality papers; making MSW a difficult feedstock for gasification. The objective of the bench-scale laboratory work has been to establish operating conditions for a hydrothermal pre-processing scheme for municipal solid waste (MSW) that produces a good slurry product that can be pumped and atomized to the gasifier for the production of hydrogen. Batch reactors are used to determine product yields as a function of hydrothermal treatment conditions. Various ratios of water-to-paper were used to find out solid product, gas product, and soluble product yields of MSW. Experimental conditions covered were temperature, time, and water to feed ratio. Temperature had the strongest effect on product yields.

  2. Solid waste operations complex engineering verification program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-28

    This plan supersedes, but does not replace, the previous Waste Receiving and Processing/Solid Waste Engineering Development Program Plan. In doing this, it does not repeat the basic definitions of the various types or classes of development activities nor provide the rigorous written description of each facility and assign the equipment to development classes. The methodology described in the previous document is still valid and was used to determine the types of verification efforts required. This Engineering Verification Program Plan will be updated on a yearly basis. This EVPP provides programmatic definition of all engineering verification activities for the following SWOC projects: (1) Project W-026 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1; (2) Project W-100 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A; (3) Project W-112 - Phase V Storage Facility; and (4) Project W-113 - Solid Waste Retrieval. No engineering verification activities are defined for Project W-112 as no verification work was identified. The Acceptance Test Procedures/Operational Test Procedures will be part of each project`s Title III operation test efforts. The ATPs/OTPs are not covered by this EVPP.

  3. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-12-15

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  4. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-shan; Yang, Lei; Qu, Xiao-Yan; Sui, Yu-mei

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km(2) with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

  5. Unsaturated flow parameters of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Zheng, Qi-Teng; Chen, H X

    2017-01-24

    Leachate pollution/recirculation and landfill gas emission are the major environmental concerns in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. A good understanding and prediction of MSW unsaturated properties are critical for the design of piping systems and the control of these problems within landfills. This paper reviews the recent studies of unsaturated properties of MSW, including experimental methods, theoretical models and corresponding model parameters. For experimental methods, the sample size is a common and significant limitation and large test apparatuses (e.g., >80cm in diameter) are generally required and valuable. The theoretical models for MSW also have some limitations due to the changes in waste composition and particle size distribution caused by biodegradation. Thus, the available data of intrinsic permeabilities, water retention curves, relative permeabilities and anisotropy of MSW were summarized to investigate the influences of porosity, waste composition and particle size distribution. A series of estimation methods were subsequently proposed to determine the parameters of water retention curve like θLm, θLr, nv and α. The other parameters such as the pore connectivity term (l) and the degree of anisotropy (k) were significantly lacking data, thus only their relationships with porosity were proposed. The results show that it is possible to define the second order effects caused by variations in porosity, waste composition and particle size distribution. However, the estimation methods still need more experimental data for improvement, especially their dependence on waste composition and particle size distribution.

  6. Comparative analysis of solid waste management in 20 cities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David C; Rodic, Ljiljana; Scheinberg, Anne; Velis, Costas A; Alabaster, Graham

    2012-03-01

    This paper uses the 'lens' of integrated and sustainable waste management (ISWM) to analyse the new data set compiled on 20 cities in six continents for the UN-Habitat flagship publication Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities. The comparative analysis looks first at waste generation rates and waste composition data. A process flow diagram is prepared for each city, as a powerful tool for representing the solid waste system as a whole in a comprehensive but concise way. Benchmark indicators are presented and compared for the three key physical components/drivers: public health and collection; environment and disposal; and resource recovery--and for three governance strategies required to deliver a well-functioning ISWM system: inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and pro-active policies. Key insights include the variety and diversity of successful models - there is no 'one size fits all'; the necessity of good, reliable data; the importance of focusing on governance as well as technology; and the need to build on the existing strengths of the city. An example of the latter is the critical role of the informal sector in the cities in many developing countries: it not only delivers recycling rates that are comparable with modern Western systems, but also saves the city authorities millions of dollars in avoided waste collection and disposal costs. This provides the opportunity for win-win solutions, so long as the related wider challenges can be addressed.

  7. Documents About the Approval to Dispose of Less than 50 Parts Per Million Polychlorinated Biphenyl Remediation Waste Issued to Utility Solid Waste Activities Group (USWAG) Members

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the Final Approval Document, Response to Public Comments and Draft Approval Issued for Public Comment for the Approval to Dispose of Less than 50 Parts Per Million Polychlorinated Biphenyl Remediation Waste Issued to USWAG

  8. SOLID WASTE LEACHING CHEMISTRY AND TESTING: A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO ASSESS FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worldwide, various anthropogenic activities generate hazardous solid wastes that are abundant in heavy metals, which can cause significant damage to the environment and human health. One of the major problems with solid wastes is the generation of large quantities of heavily con...

  9. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  10. Integrated solid waste management of Springfield, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1993 cost of the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for Municipal Solid Waste management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of managing MSW in Springfield; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  11. Municipal solid waste management in Nepal: practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D.; Viraraghavan, T. . E-mail: t.viraraghavan@uregina.ca

    2005-07-01

    Solid waste management in Kathmandu valley of Nepal, especially concerning the siting of landfills, has been a challenge for over a decade. The current practice of the illegal dumping of solid waste on the river banks has created a serious environmental and public health problem. The focus of this study was to carry out an evaluation of solid waste management in Nepal based on published information. The data showed that 70% of the solid wastes generated in Nepal are of organic origin. As such, composting of the solid waste and using it on the land is the best way of solid waste disposal. This will reduce the waste volume transported to the landfill and will increase its life.

  12. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents.

  13. 75 FR 41121 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 257, 261, 264, 265, 268, 271 and 302 RIN 2050-AE81 Hazardous and Solid Waste...), 3001, 3004, 3005, and 4004 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1970, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of...

  14. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-05-23

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides.

  15. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202 Section 266.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

  16. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202 Section 266.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

  17. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202 Section 266.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

  18. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202 Section 266.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

  19. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202 Section 266.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

  20. Solid Waste Reduction--A Hands-on Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiessinger, Diane

    1991-01-01

    This lesson plan uses grocery shopping to demonstrate the importance of source reduction in the handling of solid waste problems. Students consider different priorities in shopping (convenience, packaging, and waste reduction) and draw conclusions about the relationship between packaging techniques and solid waste problems. (MCO)

  1. Nitty-Gritty Federalism: Managing Solid Waste. Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocco, Joseph C.; Gregori, Harry E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the lesson plan that uses the issue of solid waste disposal to examine the relationship between local, state, and federal governments. Handouts include a quiz on solid waste management, an information sheet, and a simulation of a local problem. The simulation involves the location of a hazardous waste site. (MJP)

  2. Synthesis of methyl esters from waste cooking oil using construction waste material as solid base catalyst.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, K; Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-01-01

    The current research investigates synthesis of methyl esters by transesterification of waste cooking oil in a heterogeneous system, using barium meliorated construction site waste marble as solid base catalyst. The pretreated catalyst was calcined at 830 °C for 4h prior to its activity test to obtained solid oxide characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, BET surface area and pore size measurement. It was found that the as prepared catalyst has large pores which contributed to its high activity in transesterification reaction. The methyl ester yield of 88% was obtained when the methanol/oil molar ratio was 9:1, reaction temperature at 65 °C, reaction time 3h and catalyst/oil mass ratio of 3.0 wt.%. The catalyst can be reused over three cycles, offer low operating conditions, reduce energy consumption and waste generation in the production of biodiesel.

  3. Estimation of municipal solid waste landfill settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, H.I.; Leshchinsky, D.; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Kawabata, Toshinori

    1998-01-01

    The municipal solid waste landfill suffers from large postclosure settlement that occurs over an extended period of time. A large differential settlement may impair foundations, utilities, and other associated facilities constructed on top of a landfill. It may also lead to breakage of the geomembrane and damage of the cover system in a modern municipal solid waste landfill. The waste material exhibits heterogeneous engineering properties that vary over locations and time within a landfill. These factors, combined with the fact that a landfill is not fully saturated, render a traditional soil mechanics approach less attractive for settlement prediction. An empirical approach of expressing settlement rate using logarithmic and power relationships is commonly used in conjunction with an observational procedure. In this paper, validity of these functions is reexamined based on published settlement results from three landfill sites. A hyperbolic function is proposed as an improved tool to simulate the settlement-time relationships, as well as to detect final settlement. The relationships between the parameters of these empirical functions and water content are examined.

  4. Bioconversion of mixed solids waste to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Q A; Keller, F A; Tucker, M P; Lombard, C K; Jenkins, B M; Yomogida, D E; Tiangco, V M

    1999-01-01

    A mixed solids waste (MSW) feedstock, comprising construction lumber waste (35% oven-dry basis), almond tree prunings (20%), wheat straw (20%), office waste paper (12.5%), and newsprint (12.5%), was converted to ethanol via dilute-acid pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The MSW was pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.4% w/w) at 210 degrees C for 3 min in a 4-L steam explosion reactor, then washed with water to recover the solubilized hemicellulose. The digestibility of water-washed, pretreated MSW was 90% in batch enzymatic hydrolysis at 66 FPU/g cellulose. Using an enzyme-recycle bioreactor system, greater than 90% cellulose hydrolysis was achieved at a net enzyme loading of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. Enzyme recycling using membrane filtration and a fed-batch fermentation technique is a promising option for significantly reducing the cost of enzyme in cellulose hydrolysis. The hexose sugars were readily fermentable using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain that was adapted to the hydrolysate. Solid residue after enzyme digestion was subjected to various furnace experiments designed to assess the fouling and slagging characteristics. Results of these analyses suggest the residue to be of a low to moderate slagging and fouling type if burned by itself.

  5. Earth Day 1990: Lesson Plan and Home Survey--K-6. Energy, Solid Waste/Recycling, Toxics, and Water, with Follow-up Activities and Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, Carolie; Ruskey, Abby

    The purpose of this K-6 curriculum is to provide teachers and other educators with classroom lessons and home surveys that are a starting point for understanding four significant environmental issues--water, toxics, energy, and solid waste/recycling. While each of these environmental issues is complex and has far-reaching implications, the lessons…

  6. Integrated solid waste management of Sevierville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Sevierville, Tennessee integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  7. Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  8. Developing an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan: A Guide for Army Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices. H. Title 40 CFR, 1991 rev, Part 258, Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landirdls. I. Decision...consist of yard wastes only (leaves and grass clippings) or may be a compostable municipal solid waste program, using yard wastes, food wastes, and other...Section X, EXISTING SOLID WASTE MANAGENMET FACILITIES. 14 2. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The MSW composting is a developing waste management technology

  9. Impact of poor solid waste management on ground water.

    PubMed

    Vasanthi, P; Kaliappan, S; Srinivasaraghavan, R

    2008-08-01

    The leachate produced by waste disposal sites contains a large amount of substances which are likely to contaminate ground water. The impact of such sites upon ground water can be judged by monitoring the concentration of potential contaminants at a number of specific monitoring points. In this study, the quality of ground water around a municipal solid waste disposal site in Chennai was investigated. Chemical analyses were carried out on water samples collected at various radial distances from the boundary of the dumping yard, at intervals of 3 months and for a period of 3 years. The study has revealed that the ground water quality does not conform to the drinking water quality standards as per Bureau of Indian Standards. The effects of dumping activity on ground water appeared most clearly as high concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, chlorides, chemical oxygen demand, nitrates and sulphates. Leachate collected from the site showed presence of heavy metals. The contaminant concentrations tend to decrease, during the post monsoon season and increase, during the pre monsoon season in most of the samples. The study clearly indicates that landfills in densely populated cities should have the ground water monitored on regular basis. Furthermore, ground water in and around the landfill sites shall not be used for drinking purposes unless it meets specific standards. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes in developed areas without proper solid waste management practices should be stopped.

  10. Energy conservation in solid waste management in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, M.H.

    1994-12-31

    Recycling of solid wastes has a characteristic pattern in Bangladesh in the context of the general habits and socio-economic status of the population. Extensive resource recovery from solid wastes is being carried out at various stages of disposal. The characteristics of solid wastes at the final disposal site indicate that they contain more than 90% of organic wastes. Hence, anaerobic digestion of these wastes serves a dual purpose in the conservation of energy and of valuable crop nutrients for efficient recycling especially in an agriculture-based economy. This also improves overall environmental sanitation and reduces environmental degradation. In this paper, different recycling and reuse options for solid wastes are critically discussed from the energy recovery and energy conservation point of view. It has been shown that the resource recovery from solid wastes would minimize the energy problem and would lead to a net reduction of greenhouse gases, particularly in the developing world.

  11. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE FACILITY BEHIND. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER PHOTO 72-4571. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Solid waste disposal facility criteria. Technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The technical manual has been developed to assist municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owners and operators in achieving compliance with the revised MSWLF Criteria, promulgated on October 9, 1991 in Title 40, Part 258, of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The manual is not a regulatory document, and does not provide mandatory technical guidance, but does provide assistance for coming into compliance with the technical aspects of the revised landfill Criteria. The document is intended for use by landfill owners/operators and their consultants and contractors who provide advice on demonstrating compliance with the Part 258 standards.

  13. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  14. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  15. Application of solid waste from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in Agrocybe aegerita cultivation: mushroom production, lignocellulolytic enzymes activity and substrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Kelkar, Vinaya

    2009-06-01

    The degradation and utilization of solid waste (SW) from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter by Agrocybe aegerita was evaluated through mushroom production, loss of organic matter (LOM), lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, lignocellulose degradation and mushroom nutrients content. Among the substrate combinations (SCs) tested, substrates composed of 10-20% SW, 70-80% wheat straw and 10% millet was found to produce the highest mushroom yield (770.5 and 642.9 g per 1.5 kg of substrate). LOM in all SCs tested varied between 8.8 and 48.2%. A. aegerita appears to degrade macromolecule components (0.6-21.8% lignin, 33.1-55.2% cellulose and 14-53.9% hemicellulose) during cultivation on the different SCs. Among the seven extracellular enzymes monitored, laccase, peroxidase and CMCase activities were higher before fruiting; while xylanase showed higher activities after fruiting. A source of carbohydrates (e.g., millet) in the substrate is needed in order to obtain yield and biological efficiency comparable to other commercially cultivated exotic mushrooms.

  16. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-12-15

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

  17. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-12-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

  18. Solid waste digestors: process performance and practice for municipal solid waste digestion.

    PubMed

    Lissens, G; Vandevivere, P; De Baere, L; Biey, E M; Verstrae, W

    2001-01-01

    The most common types of anaerobic digesters for solid wastes have been compared based on biological and technical performance and reliability. Batch systems have the most simple designs and are the least expensive solid waste digesters. They have high potential for application in developing countries. Two-stage systems are the most complex and most expensive systems. Their greatest advantage lies in the equalisation of the organic loading rate in the first stage, allowing a more constant feeding rate of the methanogenic second stage. Two-stage systems with biomass accumulation devices in the second stage display a larger resistance toward toxicants and inhibiting substances such as ammonia. However, the large majority of industrial applications use one-stage systems and these are evenly split between "dry" systems (wastes are digested as received) and "wet" systems (wastes are slurried to about 12% total solids). Regarding biological performance, this study compares the different digester systems in terms of organic loading rates and biogas yields considering differences in input waste composition. As a whole, "dry" designs have proven reliable due to their higher biomass concentration, controlled feeding and spatial niches. Moreover, from a technical viewpoint the "dry" systems are more robust and flexible than "wet' systems.

  19. Solid olive waste in environmental cleanup: oil recovery and carbon production for water purification.

    PubMed

    El-Hamouz, Amer; Hilal, Hikmat S; Nassar, Nashaat; Mardawi, Zahi

    2007-07-01

    A potentially-economic three-fold strategy, to use solid olive wastes in water purification, is presented. Firstly, oil remaining in solid waste (higher than 5% of waste) was recovered by the Soxhlet extraction technique, which can be useful for the soap industry. Secondly, the remaining solid was processed to yield relatively high-surface area active carbon (AC). Thirdly, the resulting carbon was employed to reversibly adsorb chromate ions from water, aiming to establish a water purification process with reusable AC. The technique used here enabled oil recovery together with the production of a clean solid, suitable for making AC. This process also has the advantage of low production cost.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  1. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: Development of the WASTED model

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, R.; Warith, M. . E-mail: mwarith@ryerson.ca

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models.

  2. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone

    SciTech Connect

    Bolaane, Benjamin Isaac, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We compared efficiency and effectiveness of waste collection by the public and private sector. • Public sector performs better than private sector in some areas and vice versa. • Outsourcing waste collection in developing countries is hindered by limited capacity on contractual issues. • Outsourcing collection in developing countries is hampered by inadequate waste information. • There is need to build capacity in the public sector of developing countries to support outsourcing. - Abstract: Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process.

  3. Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Claudel

    2010-06-15

    The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

  4. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    PubMed

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  5. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Building 922 solid office waste

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    Building 922 houses all of SNL/California`s ES and H Departments: Health Protection, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Environmental Operations. It covers approximately 10,000 square feet and houses about 80 people. The office personnel generate nonhazardous solid office wastes in their daily activities. To determine the types and amounts of waste generated, a special PPOA sorting team sorted all of the trash collected from the building for a period of one-week (including paper and aluminum cans in the recycling bins). The team sorted the trash into major categories: paper, plastic, metals, glass, wet garbage, rest room waste, and miscellaneous materials. They then sorted it into subcategories within each major category. Rest room waste was collected but not sorted. The waste in each category was weighed separately. The total amount of trash collected during the week was approximately 168.8 kg (371.4 lbs). The results of this PPOA indicate that SNL/California is minimizing most nonhazardous office waste and reductions planned for the near future will add significantly to the minimization efforts.

  6. Landfilling of solid and hazardous waste: Facing long-term liability

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones-Lee, A.

    1994-12-31

    In the past, the cheapest method available was used for the management of solid non-hazardous and hazardous waste. Now with cradle-to-grave liability, many companies are more critically evaluating the near-term and long-term liabilities and costs associated with various options for solid and liquid waste management. Recycle and reuse of wastes with residue management that eliminates long-term liability are the most desirable. However, most waste management programs involve some landfilling of wastes and/or treated residues. The disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes in such landfills carries a significant, perpetual liability for clean-up of contaminated groundwaters and eventual Superfund-like activities for waste removal and proper management. The inability of US EPA-prescribed Subtitle C and D landfills to prevent groundwater pollution by landfill leachate for as long as the wastes are a threat should be of significant concern to all waste generators. Solid and hazardous waste generators should critically evaluate the potential near-term and long-term liabilities associated with any particular approach for waste management, resource recovery (including fuel blending, solvent recovery, and reuse), and management of waste residues. This paper reviews why landfills of the type being developed today do no eliminate long-term liability associated with wastes and issues of long-term liability associated with alternative methods of waste management.

  7. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  8. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Manaf, Latifah Abd Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-15

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  9. Municipal solid waste recycling and the significance of informal sector in urban China.

    PubMed

    Linzner, Roland; Salhofer, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    The informal sector is active in the collection, processing and trading of recyclable materials in urban China. Formal waste management organisations have established pilot schemes for source separation of recyclables, but this strategy is still in its infancy. The amounts of recyclables informally picked out of the municipal solid waste stream are unknown as informal waste workers do not record their activities. This article estimates the size and significance of the current informal recycling system with a focus on the collection of recyclables. A majority of the reviewed literature detects that official data is displaying mainly 'municipal solid waste collected and transported', whereas less information is available on 'real' waste generation rates at the source. Based on a literature review the variables, the 'number of informal waste workers involved in collection activities', the 'amounts collected daily per informal collector' and the 'number of working days' are used to estimate yearly recyclable amounts that are informally diverted from municipal solid waste. The results show an interval of approximately 0.56%-0.93% of the urban population or 3.3-5.6 million people involved in informal waste collection and recycling activities in urban China. This is the equivalent to estimated informal recycling rates of approximately 17-38 w/w% of the municipal solid waste generated. Despite some uncertainties in these assessments, it can be concluded that a significant share of recyclables is collected and processed by informal waste workers.

  10. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  11. 40 CFR 257.3 - Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3 Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices. Solid waste disposal facilities or...

  12. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  13. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone.

    PubMed

    Bolaane, Benjamin; Isaac, Emmanuel

    2015-06-01

    Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process.

  14. Influence of substrate concentration and moisture content on the specific methanogenic activity of dry mesophilic municipal solid waste digestate spiked with propionate.

    PubMed

    Le Hyaric, Ronan; Chardin, Caroline; Benbelkacem, Hassen; Bollon, Julien; Bayard, Rémy; Escudié, Renaud; Buffière, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of substrate concentration and moisture content on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of a fresh dry mesophilic digestate from a municipal solid waste digester plant. For this purpose, SMA tests were performed under mesophilic conditions into glass bottles of 500 mL volume used as batch reactors, during a period of 20-25 days. Propionate was used as substrate at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 gCOD/kg. Four moisture contents were studied: 65%, 75%, 80% and 82%. Experimental results showed that propionate concentration and moisture content strongly influenced the SMA. The highest SMA was observed at a substrate concentration of 10 gCOD/kg (11.3 mgCOD gVS(-1) d(-1) for the second dose of propionate) and at a moisture content of 82% (7.8 mgCOD gVS(-1) d(-1) for the second dose of propionate, at a concentration of 5 gCOD/kg). SMA was found to decrease linearly when decreasing the moisture content.

  15. Effect of solids retention time and temperature on waste activated sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation under alkaline conditions in continuous-flow reactors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Leiyu; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yinguang; Wang, Qin

    2009-01-01

    The effects of solids retention time (SRT) and temperature on waste activated sludge (WAS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation were investigated in a series of continuous-flow reactors at pH 10. The experimental results showed that the increase of either SRT or temperature benefited the hydrolysis of WAS and the production of SCFAs. The changes in SRT gave also impact on the percentage of acetic and propionic acids in the fermentative SCFAs, but little influence on that of the slightly long-chain SCFAs, such as n-butyric, iso-butyric, n-valeric and iso-valeric acids. Compared with the control (pH unadjusted) experiment, at SRT of 12d and temperature of 20 degrees C the concentration of SCFAs produced at pH 10 increased from 261.2 to 933.5mg COD/L, and the propionic acid percentage improved from 11.7 to 16.0%. It can be concluded from this investigation that the efficient continuous production of SCFAs at pH 10 is feasible.

  16. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs.

  17. SOLID WASTE LEACHING CHEMISTRY AND TESTING: A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO ASSESS FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worldwide, various anthropogenic activities generate hazardous solid wastes that are affluent in heavy metals, which can cause signficant damage to the environment and human health. The toxicity and the bioavailability of these metal contaminants depend on their reactivity and so...

  18. Virus occupational exposure in solid waste processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Annalaura; Federigi, Ileana; Verani, Marco

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that workers involved in the management of solid waste are at risk of exposure to bioaerosol, which is generally studied in relation to bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. However, to date, there have been no reports on the incidence of work-related infectious diseases. To determine if occupational exposure to viruses occurs upon exposure to waste-related activities, monitoring was carried out in a landfill, a waste recycling plant, an incineration plant, and a waste collection vehicles. Air and surfaces were sampled and analyzed for torque teno virus (TTV), human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus, rotavirus, and enterovirus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Positivity was confirmed by sequencing and quantification with real-time PCR; infectivity was also tested for culturable viruses. Samples were analyzed in parallel for mean total bacterial and fungi counts in both the summer and winter. In total, 30% (12/40) of air and 13.5% (5/37) of surface samples collected in plants were positive for HAdV and TTV. Among the eight HAdV-positive samples, six (75%), revealed in landfill and recycling plant air and in incinerator and waste vehicles surfaces, were able to replicate in cell culture and were subsequently confirmed as infective. The frequency of detection of virus-positive samples was similar in both seasons, but with evident differences in the type of virus detected: TTV and HAdV were more frequently detected in the summer and winter, respectively. The area of highest viral contamination was the paper selection landfill. Fungi and bacterial contamination did not correlate with viral presence or concentration. In conclusion, we evidence that working with solid and liquid waste can lead to infectious viruses, included in Group 2 of the European Directive 90/679/CEE pathogens list; thus, further investigation on the sources and routes of contamination is needed in order to assess the occupational risk.

  19. Preparation of nonwoven and green composites from tannery solid wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disposal of solid wastes, such as trimmings and splits generated in various manufacturing processes in a tannery, is a serious challenge to the hides and leather industries. Our effort to address this challenge is to develop new uses and novel biobased products from solid wastes to improve prosp...

  20. Solid Waste Management: Abstracts From the Literature - 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John A.; Stainback, Sandra E.

    The Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-272, Title II) and its amending legislation, the Resource Recovery Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-512, Title I), authorize collection, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to all aspects of solid-waste management. As part of this effort, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's…

  1. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  2. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 13.1118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park...

  5. 40 CFR 261.2 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are solid wastes if they are recycled—or accumulated, stored, or treated before recycling—as specified... are not used or reused during the recycling process; and (ii) The material may pose a substantial... this paragraph. (2) The following materials are solid wastes, even if the recycling involves use,...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park...

  9. Youth Solid Waste Educational Materials List, November 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide provides a brief description and ordering information for approximately 300 educational materials for grades K-12 on the subject of solid waste. The materials cover a variety of environmental issues and actions related to solid waste management. Entries are divided into five sections including audiovisual programs, books, magazines,…

  10. Solid Waste Management: A List of Available Literature, October 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

    Listed are 269 solid waste management publications available from the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). There are EPA publications reporting on results of the research, development, and demonstrations in progress as authorized by the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965. Certain conference proceedings, findings of various commissions and…

  11. Survey of Environmental Technician Employment Needs in Solid Waste Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Satyakam

    A study was done to determine the extent of current employment, expected job growth, necessary job skills, and the educational background preferred by employers in the solid waste field. Eight different questionnaires were developed and representatives of the solid waste management industry from 1,004 state agencies, municipalities, and private…

  12. Solid waste management in Macao: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jianjun . E-mail: ya27402@umac.mo; Wang Zhishi . E-mail: zswang@umac.mo; Ran Shenghong . E-mail: ransh@igsnrr.ac.cn

    2006-07-01

    The rapid economic development and population growth in Macao have resulted in a large increase in refuse generated over the past decade. In 2003, the quantity of solid waste generated reached 249,255 tons, corresponding to 1.52 kg/day per capita. This figure has been gradually increasing. Domestic solid waste is the primary source of solid waste generation. The data showed that a considerable amount of the solid waste generated can be recycled and reutilized. Due to Macao's small geographic area and high cost of land, landfilling has the lowest priority for waste disposal. Solid waste incineration has been given a top priority over other waste disposal methods although it is much more expensive. In the last decade, more than 80% of the total waste in Macao was incinerated. However, the incineration capacity of the Macao Incineration Plant is going to reach its saturation earlier than expected. Waste minimization, the establishment of an effective waste collection and disposal fee system, and alternate ways dealing with the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities are regarded to be major challenges in the future.

  13. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  14. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, O. O.

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  15. 1995 solid waste 30-year container volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Patridge, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container category. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU-TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container categories will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1995 through FY 2024. The data presented in this report establish a baseline for solid waste management both in the present and future. With knowledge of the volumes by container type, decisions on the facility handling and storage requirements can be adequately made. It is recognized that the forecast estimates will vary as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined; however, the data presented in this report still provide useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  16. Integral urban solid waste management program in a Mexican university

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, R.M. Turpin, S.; Polanco, G.; Torre, A. de la; Delfin, I.; Raygoza, I.

    2008-07-01

    The Azcapotzalco campus of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM-A) has implemented an Integral Urban Solid Waste Management Program, 'Segregation for a Better UAM Environment' (Separaccion por un mejor UAMbiente). This program is directed to create awareness and involve the academic community of the UAM-A concerning the problem of solid wastes, at the same time fulfilling the local environmental legislation. The program consists in separating solid wastes into two classes: (1) recoverable wastes (glass and PET bottles, aluminum cans, Tetrapak packages) and (2) other wastes (non-recoverable). During the past three years, thanks to this program, the amount of solid wastes delivered monthly to municipal collecting services has been considerably reduced. In this period, UAM-A has sent to recycling: 2.2 tons of glass bottles; 2.3 tons of PET bottles; 1.2 tons of Tetrapak packages and 27.5 kg of aluminum cans.

  17. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  18. Using Financial Incentives to Manage the Solid Waste Stream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spindler, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews two approaches to solid waste stream management that encourage recycling in the beverage industry, a model categorizing public policies directed at diverting postconsumer waste from the waste system, and industry initiatives in the context of these policies. Preemptive and compelled partnerships represent innovations in…

  19. Energy recovery from solid waste. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A systems analysis of energy recovery from solid waste which demonstrates the feasibility of several processes for converting solid waste to an energy form is presented. The social, legal, environmental, and political factors are considered and recommendations made in regard to legislation and policy. A technical and economic evaluation of available and developing energy-recovery processes is given with emphasis on thermal decomposition and biodegradation. A pyrolysis process is suggested. The use of prepared solid waste as a fuel supplemental to coal is considered to be the most economic process for recovery of energy from solid waste. Markets are discussed with suggestions for improving market conditions and for developing market stability. A decision procedure is given to aid a community in deciding on its options in dealing with solid waste.

  20. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management.

    PubMed

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling.

  1. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Squire, Dwight V.; Robinson, Jeffrey A.; House, Palmer A.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  2. Utilization of activated carbon produced from fruit juice industry solid waste for the adsorption of Yellow 18 from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Angin, Dilek

    2014-09-01

    The use of activated carbon obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) stones for the removal of a basic textile dye, which is Yellow 18, from aqueous solutions at different contact times, pH values and solution temperatures was investigated. The surface area and micropore volume of chemically modified activated carbon were 1704 m(2) g(-1) and 0.984 cm(3) g(-1), respectively. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm equation and the calculated adsorption capacity was 75.76 mg g(-1) at 318 K. The adsorption kinetic of Yellow 18 obeys the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated to estimate the nature of adsorption. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 0.71-2.36 kJ/mol. According to these results, prepared activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent to compare with the commercial activated carbon for the removal of Yellow 18 from wastewater.

  3. Macro material flow modeling for analyzing solid waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Pennock, K.A.; Shaver, S.R.

    1993-06-01

    A Macro Material Flow Modeling (MMFM) concept and approach are being adopted to develop a predictive modeling capability. This capability is intended to provide part of the basis for evaluating potential impacts from various solid waste management system configurations and operating scenarios, as well as evaluating the impacts of various policies on solid waste quantities and compositions. The MMFM capability, as part of a broader Solid Waste Initiative at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is intended to provide an increased understanding of solid waste as a disposal, energy, and resource problem on a national and global scale, particularly over the long term. This model is a macro-level simulation of the flows of the various materials through the solid waste management system, and also through the associated materials production and use system. Inclusion of materials production and use within the modeling context allows a systems approach to be used, providing a much more complete understanding of the origins of the solid waste materials and also of possible options for materials recovery and reuse than if a more traditional ``end-of-pipe`` view of solid waste is adopted. The MMFM is expected to be useful in evaluating longer-term, broader-ranging solid waste impacts than are traditionally evaluated by decision-makers involved in implementing solutions to local or regional solid waste management problems. This paper discusses the types of questions of interest in evaluating long-term, broad-range impacts from solid waste. It then identifies the basic needs for predictive modeling capabilities like the MMFM, and provides a basic description of the conceptual framework for the model and the associated data. Status of the MMFM implementation is also discussed.

  4. Macro material flow modeling for analyzing solid waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Pennock, K.A.; Shaver, S.R.

    1993-06-01

    A Macro Material Flow Modeling (MMFM) concept and approach are being adopted to develop a predictive modeling capability. This capability is intended to provide part of the basis for evaluating potential impacts from various solid waste management system configurations and operating scenarios, as well as evaluating the impacts of various policies on solid waste quantities and compositions. The MMFM capability, as part of a broader Solid Waste Initiative at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is intended to provide an increased understanding of solid waste as a disposal, energy, and resource problem on a national and global scale, particularly over the long term. This model is a macro-level simulation of the flows of the various materials through the solid waste management system, and also through the associated materials production and use system. Inclusion of materials production and use within the modeling context allows a systems approach to be used, providing a much more complete understanding of the origins of the solid waste materials and also of possible options for materials recovery and reuse than if a more traditional end-of-pipe'' view of solid waste is adopted. The MMFM is expected to be useful in evaluating longer-term, broader-ranging solid waste impacts than are traditionally evaluated by decision-makers involved in implementing solutions to local or regional solid waste management problems. This paper discusses the types of questions of interest in evaluating long-term, broad-range impacts from solid waste. It then identifies the basic needs for predictive modeling capabilities like the MMFM, and provides a basic description of the conceptual framework for the model and the associated data. Status of the MMFM implementation is also discussed.

  5. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Swapan Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr.

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.

  6. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    PubMed

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  7. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

  8. Solid waste integrated forecast technical (SWIFT) report: FY1997 to FY 2070, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Morgan, J.

    1997-01-07

    This web site provides an up-to-date report on the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons with previous forecasts and with other national data sources. This web site does not include: liquid waste (current or future generation); waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); or waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste). The focus of this web site is on low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). Some details on low-level waste and hazardous waste are also provided. Currently, this web site is reporting data th at was requested on 10/14/96 and submitted on 10/25/96. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY97 through the end of each program's life cycle. Therefore, these data represent revisions from the previous FY97.0 Data Version, due primarily to revised estimates from PNNL. There is some useful information about the structure of this report in the SWIFT Report Web Site Overview.

  9. Thermal treatment of historical radioactive solid and liquid waste into the CILVA incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Deckers, Jan; Mols, Ludo

    2007-07-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the old incinerator, a new industrial incineration plant started nuclear operation in May 1995, as a part of the Belgian Centralized Treatment/Conditioning Facility named CILVA. Up to the end of 2006, the CILVA incinerator has burnt 1660 tonne of solid waste and 419 tonne of liquid waste. This paper describes the type and allowable radioactivity of the waste, the incineration process, heat recovery and the air pollution control devices. Special attention is given to the treatment of several hundreds of tonne historical waste from former reprocessing activities such as alpha suspected solid waste, aqueous and organic liquid waste and spent ion exchange resins. The capacity, volume reduction, chemical and radiological emissions are also evaluated. BELGOPROCESS, a company set up in 1984 at Dessel (Belgium) where a number of nuclear facilities were already installed is specialized in the processing of radioactive waste. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Nuclear Waste Management Agency. According to its mission statement, the activities of BELGOPROCESS focus on three areas: treatment, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste; decommissioning of shut-down nuclear facilities and cleaning of contaminated buildings and land; operating of storage sites for conditioned radioactive waste. (authors)

  10. Inhibitory effect of high calcium concentration on municipal solid waste leachate treatment by the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yi; He, Pin Jing; Pu, Hong Xia; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li Ming; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    This research focused on the inhibitory effects of Ca on the aerobic biological treatment of landfill leachate containing extremely high Ca concentrations. When the Ca concentration in leachate to be treated was more than 4500 mg l(-1), the total organic carbon removal rate was significantly reduced and the processing time to achieve the same removal efficiency was 1.4 times that in the control treatment without added Ca. In contrast, the total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) removal efficiencies were positively related to the Ca concentration, increasing from 65.2% to 81.2% and from 69.2% to 83.7%, respectively, when the dosage of added Ca increased from zero to 8000 mg l(-1). During aerobic treatment, the reductions of solution Ca concentration were in the range of 1003-2274 mg l(-1) and were matched with increases in the Ca content in the residual sludge. The inhibition threshold of Ca in the leachate treated by the activated sludge process appeared to be 4500 mg l(-1), which could be realized by controlling the influent Ca concentration and using an appropriate sludge return ratio in the activated sludge process.

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  12. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes.

  13. Developing a common framework for integrated solid waste management advances in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Olley, Jane E; IJgosse, Jeroen; Rudin, Victoria; Alabaster, Graham

    2014-09-01

    This article describes the municipal solid waste management system in Managua, Nicaragua. It updates an initial profile developed by the authors for the 2010 UN-HABITAT publication Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities and applies the methodology developed in that publication. In recent years, the municipality of Managua has been the beneficiary of a range of international cooperation projects aimed at improving municipal solid waste management in the city. The article describes how these technical assistance and infrastructure investments have changed the municipal solid waste management panorama in the city and analyses the sustainability of these changes. The article concludes that by working closely with the municipal government, the UN-HABITAT project Strengthening Capacities for Solid Waste Management in Managua was able to unite these separate efforts and situate them within a strategic framework to guide the evolution of the municipal solid waste management system in the forthcoming years. The creation of this multi-stakeholder platform allowed for the implementation of joint activities and ensured coherence in the products generated by the different projects. This approach could be replicated in other cities and in other sectors with similar effect. Developing a long term vision was essential for the advancement of municipal solid waste management in the city. Nevertheless, plan implementation may still be undermined by the pressures of the short term municipal administrative government, which emphasize operational over strategic investment.

  14. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-05-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on

  15. Kinetic studies of adsorption of thiocyanate onto ZnCl2 activated carbon from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2005-09-01

    The adsorption of thiocyanate onto ZnCl2 activated carbon developed from coir pith was investigated to assess the possible use of this adsorbent. The influence of various parameters such as agitation time, thiocyanate concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature has been studied. Adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics. Two theoretical adsorption isotherms, namely, Langmuir and Freundlich were used to describe the experimental results. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q0) was found to be 16.2 mg g(-1) of the adsorbent. The per cent adsorption was maximum in the pH range 3.0-7.0. pH effect and desorption studies showed that ion exchange and chemisorption mechanism are involved in the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG0, DeltaH0 and DeltaS0 for the adsorption were evaluated. The negative values of DeltaH0 confirm the exothermic nature of adsorption. Effects of foreign ions on the adsorption of thiocyanate have been investigated. Removal of thiocyanate from ground water was also tested.

  16. High Strength Lightweight Nanocomposite from Domestic Solid Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masturi, Swardhani, Anggi Puspita; Sustini, Euis; Bukit, Minsyahril; Mora, Khairurrijal, Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2010-10-01

    The issue of waste problems needs innovative efforts to solve. One of them is solid waste utilization as nanocomposite using polyurethane (PU) polymer as matrix. Beside using solid waste as filler, nanosilica is also added to improve the material strength of composite-produced. These materials were mixed by simple mixing with variative compositions, and then hot-pressed at 30 MPa and 100° C for 30 minutes. From compressive strength test, it was found that composite with composition 2:8 of PU and solid waste has optimum compressive strength, i.e. 160 MPa. Into this optimum composition, nanosilica then is added to improve the compressive strength and found that at composition 1:40:160 of nanosilica, PU and solid waste, the composite has optimum compressive strength 200 MPa, or increases 25% of that without nanosilica. The composite-produced is also lightweight material with the density is 0.69 g/cm.

  17. SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

  18. Problems associated with solid wastes from energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.Y.; Fradkin, L.; Barisas, S.; Surles, T.; Morris, S.; Crowther, A.; DeCarlo, V.

    1980-09-01

    Waste streams from many energy-related technologies including coal, oil shale, tar sands, geothermal, oil and gas extraction, and nuclear power generation are reviewed with an emphasis on waste streams from coal and oil shale technologies. This study has two objectives. The first objective is to outline the available information on energy-related solid wastes. Data on chemical composition and hazardous biological characteristics are included, supplemented by regulatory reviews and data on legally designated hazardous waste streams. The second objective is to provide disposal and utilization options. Solid waste disposal and recovery requirements specified under the RCRA are emphasized. Information presented herein should be useful for policy, environmental control, and research and development decision making regarding solid and hazardous wastes from energy production.

  19. Solid Waste Management with Emphasis on Environmental Aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Navin Kr.; Choudhary, Binod Kumar; Shree, Shalini

    2011-12-01

    In this paper focus on Solid waste management. Its comprises of purposeful and systematic control of generation, storage, collection, transport, separations, processing, recycling, recovery and disposal of solid waste. Awareness of Four R's management & EMS support also for management Solid waste. Basel convention on the Control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their Disposal usually known simply as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). it came into force 5 May 1992. According to this "Substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law"(UNEP).

  20. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Kadapa Town: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Sumithra, S; Sunitha, V; Nagaraju, G

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a worldwide phenomenon. It is a big challenge all over the world for human beings. The problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is also prevailing in the environment of Kadapa town in India. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find out the problems and prospects of municipal solid waste in Kadapa town. A detailed investigation was made regarding the methods of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste in the study area. The data related to SWM in the study area was obtained through questionnaire, individual field visits, interaction with people and authentic record of municipal corporation. Status of the MSW in Kadapa town was studied. The results indicated that the major constituents of municipal solid waste were organic in nature and approximately one fourth of municipal solid waste was recyclable. Detailed data on solid waste management practices, including collection, recovery and disposal method, has been presented in this paper.

  1. Possibilities of composting disposable diapers with municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Colón, Joan; Ruggieri, Luz; Sánchez, Antoni; González, Aina; Puig, Ignasi

    2011-03-01

    The possibilities for the management of disposable diapers in municipal solid waste have been studied. An in-depth revision of literature about generation, composition and current treatment options for disposable diapers showed that the situation for these wastes is not clearly defined in developed recycling societies. As a promising technology, composting of diapers with source-separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied at full scale to understand the process performance and the characteristics of the compost obtained when compared with that of composting OFMSW without diapers. The experiments demonstrated that the composting process presented similar trends in terms of evolution of routine parameters (temperature, oxygen content, moisture and organic matter content) and biological activity (measured as respiration index). In relation to the quality of both composts, it can be concluded that both materials were identical in terms of stability, maturity and phytotoxicity and showed no presence of pathogenic micro-organisms. However, compost coming from OFMSW with a 3% of disposable diapers presented a slightly higher level of zinc, which can prevent the use of large amounts of diapers mixed with OFMSW.

  2. Hazardous solid waste from domestic wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, W M

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes in municipal sewage treatment plants creates significant quantities of solid residue for disposal. The potential hazard from these wastes requires that their characteristics be determined accurately to develop environmentally sound management criteria. It is readily recognized that the sludge characteristics vary with the type and degree of industrial activity within a wastewater collection system and that these characteristics play a significant role in determining whether the material has potential for beneficial reuse or if it must be directed to final disposal. This paper offers an overview of past and present practices of sewage sludge disposal, an indication of quantities produced, and experience with beneficial reuse. An estimated range of costs involved, expected environmental effects and potential for continued use is offered for each disposal or reuse system discussed. PMID:738239

  3. Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-11

    This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS.

  4. Race, Wealth, and Solid Waste Facilities in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Jennifer M.; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Cravey, Altha J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Objective Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. Methods We used census block groups to obtain racial and economic characteristics, and information on solid waste facilities was abstracted from solid waste facility permit records. We used logistic regression to compute prevalence odds ratios for 2003, and Cox regression to compute hazard ratios of facilities issued permits between 1990 and 2003. Results The adjusted prevalence odds of a solid waste facility was 2.8 times greater in block groups with ≥50% people of color compared with block groups with < 10% people of color, and 1.5 times greater in block groups with median house values < $60,000 compared with block groups with median house values ≥$100,000. Among block groups that did not have a previously permitted solid waste facility, the adjusted hazard of a new permitted facility was 2.7 times higher in block groups with ≥50% people of color compared with block groups with < 10% people of color. Conclusion Solid waste facilities present numerous public health concerns. In North Carolina solid waste facilities are disproportionately located in communities of color and low wealth. In the absence of action to promote environmental justice, the continued need for new facilities could exacerbate this environmental injustice. PMID:17805426

  5. Stabilization of high and low solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) waste with super cement

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.W.

    2000-01-11

    This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies with the High and Low Solid waste streams. Ceramicrete and Super Cement technologies were chosen as the best possible replacement solidification candidates for the waste streams generated by the SRS incinerator from a list of several suggested Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies. These technologies were tested, evaluated, and compared to the current Portland cement technology being employed. Recommendation of a technology for replacement depends on waste form performance, process flexibility, process complexity, and cost of equipment and/or raw materials.

  6. Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers.

  7. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-09-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  8. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  9. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. H.; Rogers, R. S.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1995-04-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL's focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  10. Investigation of energy recovery from poultry litter and municipal solid waste by thermochemical conversion method in India.

    PubMed

    Kirubakaran, V; Sivaramakrishnan, V; Premalatha, M; Subramanian, P

    2005-10-01

    The waste disposal is becoming a major threat to environmental issues and to sustainable development of mankind. The rapid growth in population and enormous developmental activities are the main causes for the generation of waste in many forms. Hence there is need to redress the concern on environment and efforts to be made for effective collection and disposal of wastes. Most of the solid waste is a mix of household wastes, street wastes, commercial and institutional wastes containing organic as well as inorganic matter. This offers better opportunity to recover energy from organic fraction of wastes by adapting suitable processing and treatment technologies. This paper describes the various technologies need to be adopted for the disposal of poultry waste and municipal solid waste. More emphasis has been given on waste disposal technologies for better environment and economics. The advantages and disadvantages of each disposal technology have been briefed.

  11. WasteWise Resource Management: Innovative Solid Waste Contracting Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resource management is an innovative contractual partnership between a waste-generating organization and a qualified contractor that changes the nature of current disposal services to support waste minimization and recycling.

  12. Solid waste initiative Macro Material Flow Modeling conceptual description and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a Macro Material Flow Modeling (MMFM) concept and approach that are being adopted to develop a predictive modeling capability that can be used as the basis for evaluating potential impacts from various solid waste management system configurations and operating scenarios, as well as the impacts of various policies on solid waste quantities and compositions. This capability, as part of a broader Solid Waste Initiative at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is intended to provide an increased understanding of solid waste as a disposal, energy, and resource problem on a national and global scale, particularly over the long term. The results of this increased understanding will eventually have an impact on a variety of US federal government activities, as well as on the activities of other entities. This increased understanding will also help provide the basis for subsequent activities under the Solid Waste Initiative. The report describes current solid waste management practices and their context, defines questions of interest relating to these practices, and proposes an approach that could be employed to analyze these practices and possible alternatives to them. A preliminary review, analysis, and summary of available data to support this approach are also provided.

  13. A kinetic analysis of solid waste composting at optimal conditions.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitris P

    2006-01-01

    Six municipal solid waste (MSW) and yard waste components (food waste, mixed paper, yard waste, leaves, branches, grass clippings) were aerobically decomposed to measure the extent of decomposition under near optimal conditions. Decomposition was characterized by at least two principal stages, for most components, as was indicated by the carbon dioxide production rates. An aerobic biodegradation conceptual model is presented here based on the principle that solids hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step during solid waste composting. The mineralizable solid carbon of each solid waste component was assumed to comprise the readily, the moderately and the slowly (or refractory) hydrolysable carbons, each hydrolyzing at different rates to aqueous (water soluble) carbon. Aqueous carbon mineralizes to CO2 at rapid rates that are not rate-limiting to the process. Solids hydrolysis rate constants were calculated after fitting the experimentally determined carbon dioxide production rate data to model results. Hydrolysis rates for the readily hydrolysable carbon in all components ranged from approximately 0.06 to 0.1 d(-1); hydrolysis rates for the moderately hydrolysable carbon ranged from 0.005 to 0.06 d(-1). Leaves, branches and grass clippings did not have a readily hydrolysable carbon fraction, whilst the leaves and branches had the largest slowly hydrolysable carbon fractions (70%, 82%, respectively, of the total solid organic carbon). Grass and yard waste did not contain slowly hydrolysable carbon fractions. Food waste had the largest readily hydrolysable carbon fraction and produced the highest amount of CO2 among all substrates. Moderately hydrolysable solid carbon fractions ranged from 16% to 90% of the total solid organic carbon for all substrates used.

  14. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development.

  15. A solid waste audit and directions for waste reduction at the University of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Felder, M A; Petrell, R J; Duff, S J

    2001-08-01

    A novel design for a solid waste audit was developed and applied to the University of British Columbia, Canada, in 1998. This audit was designed to determine the characteristics of the residual solid waste generated by the campus and provide directions for waste reduction. The methodology was constructed to address complications in solid waste sampling, including spatial and temporal variation in waste, extrapolation from the study area, and study validation. Accounting for spatial effects decreased the variation in calculating total waste loads. Additionally, collecting information on user flow provided a means to decrease daily variation in solid waste and allow extrapolation over time and space. The total annual waste estimated from the experimental design was compared to documented values and was found to differ by -18%. The majority of this discrepancy was likely attributable to the unauthorised disposal of construction and demolition waste. Several options were proposed to address waste minimisation goals. These included: enhancing the current recycling program, source reduction of plastic materials, and/or diverting organic material to composting (maximum diversion: approximately 320, approximately 270, and approximately 1510 t yr(-1), respectively). The greatest diversion by weight would be accomplished through the diversion of organic material, as it was estimated to comprise 70% of the projected waste stream. The audit methodology designed is most appropriate for facilities/regions that have a separate collection system for seasonal wastes and have a means for tracking user flow.

  16. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  17. Site characterization data for Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    SciTech Connect

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1984-12-01

    Currently, the only operating shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is Solid Waste Storage Area No. 6 (SWSA-6). In 1984, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued Order 5820.2, Radioactive Waste Management, which establishes policies and guidelines by which DOE manages its radioactive waste, waste by-products, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities. The ORNL Operations Division has given high priority to characterization of SWSA-6 because of the need for continued operation under DOE 5820.2. The purpose of this report is to compile existing information on the geologic and hydrologic cond

  18. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  19. The performance of Spanish solid waste collection.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, I M

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we examine street cleaning and waste collection services in Spanish municipalities with a population exceeding 50,000. The purpose is to identify factors that influence the efficiency of these services. Three input variables (staff, vehicles and containers) and four outputs variables (tonnage, collection points, collection point density and kilometres of surface area washing) are analyzed using an analytical model based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology. These variables, along with non-controllable input variable (Tourist Index), were chosen because they were shown, based on a Tobit regression analysis, to have a statistically significant impact on municipality behaviour. The results obtained show that scale inefficiency was lower than pure technical efficiency, the latter is linked to service management. It was observed that the street-cleaning activity was performed more inefficiently than that of waste collection. Furthermore, it was detected that municipalities can reduce the resources used in rendering this service by 8%. Finally, an estimation using the Mann-Whitney test allows us to conclude that there is no difference between the inefficiencies observed in municipalities managed directly by town councils and those which have been transferred to private companies.

  20. Application of waste eggshell as low-cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ziku; Xu, Chunli; Li, Baoxin

    2009-06-01

    Waste eggshell was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a solid catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis. Effect of calcination temperature on structure and activity of eggshell catalysts was investigated. Reusability of eggshell catalysts was also examined. It was found that high active, reusable solid catalyst was obtained by just calcining eggshell. Utilization of eggshell as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmental friendly way of recycling this solid eggshell waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects, but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel.

  1. Pre-processing technologies to prepare solid waste for composting

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, M.

    1996-09-01

    The organic constituents of municipal solid waste can be converted into compost for use as a safe, beneficial soil amendment, conserving landfill space. The solid waste must first be processed to remove contaminants and prepare the organics for composting. This paper describes five different preprocessing systems, covering a broad range of technical approaches. Three are described briefly; two, from projects managed by the author, are presented as more detailed case histories: (1) a pilot study at a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) plant in Hartford, Connecticut and (2) a solid waste composting facility in East Hampton, New York. Materials flow diagrams and mass balances are presented for each process, showing that 100 tons of solid waste will yield 32 to 44 tons of compost, requiring disposal of 3 to 10 tons of metal, grit, and glass and 16 to 40 tons of light residue that can be landfilled or used as RDF.

  2. GIS based solid waste management information system for Nagpur, India.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Jain, Preeti; Sharma, N; Bhattacharyya, J K; Vaidya, A N; Sohony, R A

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major problems of today's world and needs to be addressed by proper utilization of technologies and design of effective, flexible and structured information system. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to design and develop a GIS based solid waste management information system as a decision making and planning tool for regularities and municipal authorities. The system integrates geo-spatial features of the city and database of existing solid waste management. GIS based information system facilitates modules of visualization, query interface, statistical analysis, report generation and database modification. It also provides modules like solid waste estimation, collection, transportation and disposal details. The information system is user-friendly, standalone and platform independent.

  3. Energy recovery from solid waste. [production engineering model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, C.; Huang, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A recent group study on the problem of solid waste disposal provided a decision making model for a community to use in determining the future for its solid waste. The model is a combination of the following factors: technology, legal, social, political, economic and environmental. An assessment of local or community needs determines what form of energy recovery is desirable. A market for low pressure steam or hot water would direct a community to recover energy from solid waste by incineration to generate steam. A fuel gas could be produced by a process known as pyrolysis if there is a local market for a low heating value gaseous fuel. Solid waste can also be used directly as a fuel supplemental to coal in a steam generator. An evaluation of these various processes is made.

  4. Using liquid waste streams as the moisture source during the hydrothermal carbonization of municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Hale, McKenzie; Olsen, Petra; Berge, Nicole D

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process that can be an environmentally beneficial approach for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to value-added products. The influence of using activated sludge and landfill leachate as initial moisture sources during the carbonization of paper, food waste and yard waste over time at 250°C was evaluated. Results from batch experiments indicate that the use of activated sludge and landfill leachate are acceptable alternative supplemental liquid sources, ultimately imparting minimal impact on carbonization product characteristics and yields. Regression results indicate that the initial carbon content of the feedstock is more influential than any of the characteristics of the initial liquid source and is statistically significant when describing the relationship associated with all evaluated carbonization products. Initial liquid-phase characteristics are only statistically significant when describing the solids energy content and the mass of carbon in the gas-phase. The use of these alternative liquid sources has the potential to greatly increase the sustainability of the carbonization process. A life cycle assessment is required to quantify the benefits associated with using these alternative liquid sources.

  5. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

  6. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  7. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  8. Solid waste management problems in secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ana, G R E E; Oloruntoba, E O; Shendell, D; Elemile, O O; Benjamin, O R; Sridhar, M K C

    2011-09-01

    Inappropriate solid waste management practices in schools in less-developed countries, particularly in major urban communities, constitute one of the major factors leading to declining environmental health conditions. The objective of the authors' descriptive, cross-sectional study was to assess solid waste management problems in selected urban schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. Eight secondary schools with average pupil populations not less than 500 per school were selected randomly. Four hundred questionnaires (50 per school) were administered. In addition, an observational checklist was used to assess the physical environment. Paper and plastics were the most frequently generated wastes. Common methods of solid waste disposal reported were use of dustbins for collection and open burning. Major problems perceived with current refuse disposal methods by the study students were odors, pest infestation, and spillages. Littering and spillages of solid waste were also common features reported. Data suggested inadequate waste management facilities and practices in study schools. The lack of refuse bins may have contributed to waste spillages and the burning practices. Odors may have arisen from both the decay of overstored organic waste rich in moisture and emissions from refuse burning. This scenario poses a community environmental health nuisance and may compromise school environmental quality.

  9. Estimation of heavy metal transformations in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Flyhammar, P

    1997-05-30

    The behaviour of heavy metals bound to municipal solid waste (MSW) and exposed to 2 decades of anaerobic waste stabilization processes have been estimated. Heavy metal solid forms in a waste degradation residue have been compared with a reconstructed waste similar to that initially disposed of in 1973. The initial waste was composed of a mixture of shredded MSW (95% dry wt.) and anaerobic sewage sludge (5% dry wt.). A sequential chemical extraction method has been used to fractionate the heavy metals into five categories of available and reactive solid forms. The results imply that these forms can be ascribed to approximately 30% of the total content of the heavy metals in the degraded waste and the portion of heavy metals bound to oxidizable solid forms seems to be higher in the degraded than the fresh MSW. The bulk of the remaining heavy metals are assumed to be less available and bound into resistant lattice structures, such as metal and polymer items. A comparison between fractionation patterns of the waste in this study and of a few sediments collected from different environments imply similarities between the fresh MSW and an oxic sediment from one site and the sewage sludge and anoxic sediments from another site. Fractionation patterns of the degraded waste are found to be quite similar to those of the anoxic sediments, except for Pb, Ni and Cd which are more similar to fresh MSW.

  10. Apparatus for processing municipal solid waste and sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Harendza-harinxma, A. J.

    1980-08-12

    Sewage sludge and municipal solid waste are simultaneously processed by first dissolving a catalyst, such as sodium aluminate, in the sludge, then mixing the sludge-aluminate mixture with the municipal waste to form a carbonizing mixture. After dewatering and drying, the mixture is carbonized in a furnace heated by a mixture of city gas and pyrolysis gases given off by the furnace.

  11. Energy in Solid Waste: A Citizen Guide to Saving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

    This booklet contains information for citizens on solid wastes. It discusses the possible energy available in combustible and noncombustible trash. It suggests how citizens can reduce waste at home through discriminating buying practices and through recycling and reuse of resources. Recommendations are given for community action along with state…

  12. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Hauschild, Michael Z.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • Studies mainly concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. • Assessments of relevant waste types apart from household waste have been overlooked. • Local specificities of systems prevent a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results. • LCA should support recommendations representative of the local conditions. - Abstract: The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of

  13. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  14. Science/Society Case Study. Solid Wastes: Diamonds in the Rough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John W., Ed.; Moore, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Expounds on the current solid waste disposal problems of the United States and current methods of waste disposal. Includes a description of the use of solid waste in power generating plants. A bibliography of suggested readings is provided. (CP)

  15. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  16. Mapping out the solid waste generation and collection models: The case of Kampala City.

    PubMed

    Kinobe, Joel R; Niwagaba, Charles B; Gebresenbet, Girma; Komakech, Allan J; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a mapping of the waste collection systems in Kampala city, using geographical information system (GIS) ArcGIS mapping software. It discusses the existing models of waste collection to the final disposal destinations. It was found that food and yard wastes constitute 92.7% of the waste generated in Kampala. Recyclables and other special wastes constitute only 7.3% of the total waste, mainly because of the increased level of reuse and recycling activities. The generation rate of solid wastes was on average, 582, 169, 105, and 90 tons/day from poor areas, upscale wealthier areas, business centers, and market areas respectively. This tonnage of waste was collected, transported, and disposed of at the city landfill. The study found that in total, residential areas of poor people generate more waste than other categories stated earlier, mainly because of their large populations. In total, there were 133 unofficial temporary storage sites acknowledged by Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) but not formally designated, 59 illegal dump sites, and 35 officially recognized temporary waste storage locations. This paper presents large-scale data that can help with understanding the collection models and their influence on solid waste management in Kampala city, which could be used for similar cities in developing countries.

  17. Solid waste generation from oil and gas industries in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Walid; Alkamali, Abdulqader

    2005-04-11

    Solid wastes generated from oil and gas industrial activities are very diverse in their characteristics, large in their amounts and many of which are hazardous in nature. Thus, quantifying and characterizing the generated amounts in association with their types, classes, sources, industrial activities, and their chemical and biological characteristics is an obvious mandate when evaluating the possible management practices. This paper discusses the types, amounts, generation units, and the factors related to solid waste generation from a major oil and gas field in the United Arab Emirates (Asab Field). The generated amounts are calculated based on a 1-year data collection survey and using a database software specially developed and customized for the current study. The average annual amount of total solid waste generated in the studied field is estimated at 4061 t. Such amount is found equivalent to 650 kg/capita, 0.37 kg/barrel oil, and 1.6 kg/m3 of extracted gas. The average annual amount of hazardous solid waste is estimated at 55 t and most of which (73%) is found to be generated from gas extraction-related activities. The majority of other industrial non-hazardous solid waste is generated from oil production-related activities (41%), The present analysis does also provide the estimated generation amounts per waste type and class, amounts of combustible, recyclable, and compostable wastes, and the amounts dumped in uncontrolled way as well as disposed into special hazardous landfill facilities. The results should help the decision makers in evaluating the best alternatives available to manage the solid wastes generated from the oil and gas industries.

  18. Composting: Dirty riches. [Composting organic wastes from the municiple solid waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, A.

    1993-08-01

    Up to three-quarters of municiple solid waste (MSW) is organic, readily biodegradable material, such as food, leaves, and paper. If this waste were allowed to root properly, the solid waste crisis would be less serious. However, rotting isn't easy in a tightly packed mountain of garbage at a typical landfill. The last few years have at least established composing as a rising green industry, especially in the most populous regions of the developed world. However, the variety of composting programs is too inefficient to divert any more than a tiny fraction of the compostable waste stream away from landfills and incinerators. This article discusses the problems of mixed municiple solid wastes and composting organic wastes, and possible solutions.

  19. Experimental analysis to utilize the solid wastes in brick production.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Rajagopalan; Govindan, Venkatesan

    2013-07-01

    Utilization of industrial, municipal, agricultural and other waste products in the industry has been the focus of research for economical, environmental, and technical reasons. Two solid wastes, i.e. Sugar-cane bagasse--is a fibrous waste-product of the sugar refining industry and granite processing industry generates a large amount of wastes mainly in the form of powder during sawing and polishing processes, which pollute and damage the environment, have been taken to experimental study. The objective of this study is to utilize the bagasse ash and granite waste for the manufacturing of bricks. Mixtures were prepared with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% wastes of total weight of clay. The produced bricks are tested for mechanical properties, such as water absorption and compressive strength, according to Indian Standard Code. The result showed that 20% of bagasse ash and granite waste is optimum percentage to be used in the manufacturing of conventional bricks.

  20. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sujauddin, Mohammad; Huda, S M S; Hoque, A T M Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r xy=0.236, p<0.05), education level (r xy=0.244, p<0.05) and monthly income (r xy=0.671, p<0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US dollars 0.3 to US dollars 0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this

  1. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sujauddin, Mohammad Huda, S.M.S.; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul

    2008-07-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r{sub xy} = 0.236, p < 0.05), education level (r{sub xy} = 0.244, p < 0.05) and monthly income (r{sub xy} = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them

  2. Characteristics of elements in waste ashes from a solid waste incinerator in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Yuan; Wang, Chu-Fang; Mui, D T; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-06-15

    Incineration, one of the most effective methods used to treat solid wastes, reduces the volume of solid wastes significantly and enables recovery of thermal energy. However, during this waste treatment, a small amount of heavy metals can be present in the form of fly ash or vapor in the flue gas, becoming a threat to human health and other living organisms once emitted into the environment. This study focuses on the characteristics and behavior of elements contained in the combustion residues and their impact on various wastes at Taiwan's municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). Three kinds of waste, municipal solid waste (MSW), industrial waste (IW), and biomass waste (BM), were analyzed to obtain their physical properties and elemental composition before incineration. The combustion residues were collected with a sampler at various locations such as the furnace bottom, a heat economizer, a semi-dry scrubber, a bag-house filter and a gas stack. Twenty-one elements were determined to establish the actual mass fraction and to estimate the possible impact on the environment. Owing to its volatility, Cd was found in high concentrations in bag-house filter ash. In addition, the mass fraction of Zn, As, Pb, Sb and V in bag-house filter ash was found greater than 20% for the three kinds of wastes. Iron (Fe) content was found to be high in MSW, S, Cd, Ni, Pb and Sb content were high in IW and Se content was high in BW.

  3. Limitation of tritium outgassing from tritiated solid waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liger, K.; Trabuc, P.; Lefebvre, X.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C.

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the development of fusion thermonuclear reactors, tritiated solid waste is foreseen and will have to be managed. The management of tritiated waste implies limitations in terms of activity and tritium degassing. The degassing tritium can be under the form of tritiated hydrogen, tritiated water and, in some specific cases, negligible amount of tritiated volatile organic compound. Hence, considering the major forms of degassing tritium, CEA has developed a mixed-compound dedicated to tritium trapping in drums. Based on several experiments, the foreseen mixed compound is composed of MnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}O, Pt and molecular sieve, the three first species having the ability to convert tritiated hydrogen into tritiated water and the last one acting as a trap for tritiated water. To assess the performance of the trapping mixture, experimental tests were performed at room temperature on tritiated dust composed of beryllium and carbon. It was shown that the metallic oxides mixture used for tritiated hydrogen conversion is efficient and that tritiated water adsorption was limited due to an inefficient regeneration of the molecular sieve prior to its use. Apart from this point, the tritium release from waste was reduced by a factor of 5.5, which can be improved up to 87 if the adsorption step is efficient.

  4. Thermoelectric energy harvesting for a solid waste processing toilet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, C. David; Baldasaro, Nicholas G.; Bulman, Gary E.; Stoner, Brian R.

    2014-06-01

    Over 2.5 billion people do not have access to safe and effective sanitation. Without a sanitary sewer infrastructure, self-contained modular systems can provide solutions for these people in the developing world and remote areas. Our team is building a better toilet that processes human waste into burnable fuel and disinfects the liquid waste. The toilet employs energy harvesting to produce electricity and does not require external electrical power or consumable materials. RTI has partnered with Colorado State University, Duke University, and Roca Sanitario under a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC) grant to develop an advanced stand-alone, self-sufficient toilet to effectively process solid and liquid waste. The system operates through the following steps: 1) Solid-liquid separation, 2) Solid waste drying and sizing, 3) Solid waste combustion, and 4) Liquid waste disinfection. Thermoelectric energy harvesting is a key component to the system and provides the electric power for autonomous operation. A portion of the exhaust heat is captured through finned heat-sinks and converted to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices to provide power for the electrochemical treatment of the liquid waste, pumps, blowers, combustion ignition, and controls.

  5. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of yard waste and food waste for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dan; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Food and yard wastes are available year round at low cost and have the potential to complement each other for SS-AD. The goal of this study was to determine optimal feedstock/effluent (F/E) and food waste/yard waste mixing ratios for optimal biogas production. Co-digestion of yard and food waste was carried out at F/E ratios of 1, 2, and 3. For each F/E ratio, food waste percentages of 0%, 10%, and 20%, based on dry volatile solids, were evaluated. Results showed increased methane yields and volumetric productivities as the percentage of food waste was increased to 10% and 20% of the substrate at F/E ratios of 2 and 1, respectively. This study showed that co-digestion of food waste with yard waste at specific ratios can improve digester operating characteristics and end performance metrics over SS-AD of yard waste alone.

  6. Municipal Solid Waste - Sustainable Materials Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MSW DST was initially developed in the 1990s and has evolved over the years to better account for changes in waste management practices, waste composition, and improvements in decision support tool design and functionality. The most recent version of the tool is publicly ava...

  7. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes containing variable proportions of waste types.

    PubMed

    Akunna, J C; Abdullahi, Y A; Stewart, N A

    2007-01-01

    In many parts of the world there are significant seasonal variations in the production of the main organic wastes, food and green wastes. These waste types display significant differences in their biodegradation rates. This study investigated the options for ensuring process stability during the start up and operation of thermophilic high-solids anaerobic digestion of feedstock composed of varying proportions of food and green wastes. The results show that high seed sludge to feedstock ratio (or low waste loading rate) is necessary for ensuring process pH stability without chemical addition. It was also found that the proportion of green wastes in the feedstock can be used to regulate process pH, particularly when operating at high waste loading rates (or low seed sludge to feedstock ratios). The need for chemical pH correction during start-up and digestion operation decreased with increase in green wastes content of the feedstock. Food wastes were found to be more readily biodegradable leading to higher solids reduction while green wastes brought about pH stability and higher digestate solid content. Combining both waste types in various proportions brought about feedstock with varying buffering capacity and digestion performance. Thus, careful selection of feedstock composition can minimise the need for chemical pH regulation as well as reducing the cost for digestate dewatering for final disposal.

  8. From dumping to sanitary landfills - solid waste management in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Nissim, I. . E-mail: ilan@sviva.gov.il; Shohat, T.; Inbar, Y.

    2005-07-01

    To address the problem of solid waste in Israel, the Ministry of the Environment has formulated a policy based on integrated waste management. The policy calls for reduction of waste at source, reuse, recycling (including composting), waste-to-energy technologies, and landfilling. Due to the implementation of this policy, all the large dumps were closed, state-of-the art landfills were built, and recovery rates have increased from 3% in the beginning of the 1990s to almost 20% in 2003. More than 95% of the municipal solid waste is disposed and treated in an environmentally sound manner - in comparison to a mere 10% just a decade ago. The policy was implemented utilizing both enforcement and financial support ('stick and carrot' approach)

  9. Conversion of radioactive waste materials into solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, T.S.; Pohl, C.S.

    1980-10-28

    Radioactive waste materials are converted into solid form by mixing the radioactive waste with a novel polymeric formulation which, when solidified, forms a solid, substantially rigid matrix that contains and entraps the radioactive waste. The polymeric formulation comprises, in certain significant proportions by weight, urea-formaldehyde; methylated urea-formaldehyde; urea and a plasticizer. A defoaming agent may also be incorporated into the polymeric composition. In the practice of the invention, radioactive waste, in the form of a liquid or slurry, is mixed with the polymeric formulation, with this mixture then being treated with an acidic catalyzing agent, such as sulfuric acid. This mixture is then preferably passed to a disposable container so that, upon solidification, the radioactive waste, entrapped within the matrix formed by the polymeric formulation, may be safely and effectively stored or disposed of.

  10. Modeling of Solid Waste Processing Options in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Luis F.; Finn, Cory; Kang, Sukwon; Hogan, John; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    BIO-Plex is a ground-based test bed currently under development by NASA for testing technologies and practices that may be utilized in future long-term life support missions. All aspects of such an Advanced Life Support (ALS) System must be considered to confidently construct a reliable system, which will not only allow the crew to survive in harsh environments, but allow the crew time to perform meaningful research. Effective handling of solid wastes is a critical aspect of the system, especially when recovery of resources contained in the waste is required. This is particularly important for ALS Systems configurations that include a Biomass Production Chamber. In these cases, significant amounts of inedible biomass waste may be produced, which can ultimately serve as a repository of necessary resources for sustaining life, notably carbon, water, and plant nutrients. Numerous biological and physicochemical solid waste processing options have been considered. Biological options include composting, aerobic digestion, and anaerobic digestion. Physicochemical options include pyrolysis, SCWO (supercritical water oxidation), various incineration configurations, microwave incineration, magnetically assisted gasification, and low temperature plasma reaction. Modeling of these options is a necessary step to assist in the design process. A previously developed top-level model of BIO-Plex implemented in MATLAB Simulink (r) for the use of systems analysis and design has been adopted for this analysis. Presently, this model only considered incineration for solid waste processing. Present work, reported here, includes the expansion of this model to include a wider array of solid waste processing options selected from the above options, bearing in mind potential, near term solid waste treatment systems. Furthermore, a trade study has also been performed among these solid waste processing technologies in an effort to determine the ideal technology for long-term life support

  11. Space monitoring of municipal solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakova, Olga; Shagarova, Lyudmila

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are special facilities designed for waste isolation and disposal ensuring sanitary and epidemiological safety of population. A solid waste landfill is a complex object with its own specific features. Modern remote-sensing methods are an indispensable source of information for the analysis of space images of solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan. Space monitoring of solid waste landfills includes the following tasks: 1. Identification and mapping of landfill areas according to the data of remote earth sensing. 2. Studying of energy and structural characteristics of landfills based on remote sensing data. 3. Analysis of the state of landfills based on a comparison of current and archive remote sensing data. Space monitoring of territories of municipal solid waste landfills uses modern computer technologies. They include satellite imagery combined with sub-satellite research, as well as other sources of information used for identification and mapping of landfill territories. Investigation of municipal solid waste landfills requires targeted survey of landfill areas, remote sensing using operational and archival data including theoretical foundations of physical optics and statistical data. Processing of digital satellite information uses methods of pattern recognition, automated image processing and correlation analysis. Based on spectral energy and textural characteristics of municipal solid waste landfills obtained by remote sensing methods, the technology of space monitoring of landfill areas, including landfill recognition and characterization of solid waste landfills from remote observations was developed. Monitoring of MSW landfills uses satellite images of ultrahigh and medium spatial resolution. Medium-resolution images are used to determine temperature, vegetation cover and soil degradation. High-resolution images are used to detect landfills, to determine forms of soil degradation, to calculate geometrical parameters, and

  12. Changing Waste in Changing Times: Solid Waste and Natural Resource Issues in Rural Alaska--A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Shirley

    This guide was developed to present activities which inform the teacher and students of solid waste management problems that are becoming commonplace in villages. The lessons included present alternatives for taking care of the environment and contains methods to make not only school children more sensitive to environmental problems, but hopefully…

  13. Determination of specific gravity of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Yesiller, Nazli; Hanson, James L; Cox, Jason T; Noce, Danielle E

    2014-05-01

    This investigation was conducted to evaluate experimental determination of specific gravity (Gs) of municipal solid waste (MSW). Water pycnometry, typically used for testing soils was adapted for testing MSW using a large flask with 2000 mL capacity and specimens with 100-350 g masses. Tests were conducted on manufactured waste samples prepared using US waste constituent components; fresh wastes obtained prior and subsequent to compaction at an MSW landfill; and wastes obtained from various depths at the same landfill. Factors that influence specific gravity were investigated including waste particle size, compaction, and combined decomposition and stress history. The measured average specific gravities were 1.377 and 1.530 for as-prepared/uncompacted and compacted manufactured wastes, respectively; 1.072 and 1.258 for uncompacted and compacted fresh wastes, respectively; and 2.201 for old wastes. The average organic content and degree of decomposition were 77.2% and 0%, respectively for fresh wastes and 22.8% and 88.3%, respectively for old wastes. The Gs increased with decreasing particle size, compaction, and increasing waste age. For fresh wastes, reductions in particle size and compaction caused occluded intraparticle pores to be exposed and waste particles to be deformed resulting in increases in specific gravity. For old wastes, the high Gs resulted from loss of biodegradable components that have low Gs as well as potential access to previously occluded pores and deformation of particles due to both degradation processes and applied mechanical stresses. The Gs was correlated to the degree of decomposition with a linear relationship. Unlike soils, the Gs for MSW was not unique, but varied in a landfill environment due both to physical/mechanical processes and biochemical processes. Specific gravity testing is recommended to be conducted not only using representative waste composition, but also using representative compaction, stress, and degradation states.

  14. An industrial ecology approach to municipal solid waste ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be viewed as a feedstock for industrial ecology inspired conversions of wastes to valuable products and energy. The industrial ecology principle of symbiotic processes using waste streams for creating value-added products is applied to MSW, with examples suggested for various residual streams. A methodology is presented to consider individual waste-to-energy or waste-to-product system synergies, evaluating the economic and environmental issues associated with each system. Steps included in the methodology include identifying waste streams, specific waste components of interest, and conversion technologies, plus steps for determining the economic and environmental effects of using wastes and changes due to transport, administrative handling, and processing. In addition to presenting the methodology, technologies for various MSW input streams are categorized as commercialized or demonstrated to provide organizations that are considering processes for MSW with summarized information. The organization can also follow the methodology to analyze interesting processes. Presents information useful for analyzing the sustainability of alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste.

  15. 40 CFR 260.30 - Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste. 260.30 Section 260.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL...

  16. LEGACY NONCONFORMANCE ISSUE IN SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2002-12-16

    Beginning in 1968 waste from sectioning, sampling, and assaying of reactor fuels was sent to underground burial caissons in the 200-W Area of the Hanford Plant in Richland, Washington. In 2002 a review of inventory records revealed that criticality safety storage limits had been exceeded. This prompted declaration of a Criticality Prevention Specification nonconformance. The corrective action illustrates the difficulties in demonstrating compliance to fissile material limits decades after waste disposal.

  17. Gaseous emissions from management of solid waste: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Guillermo; Moral, Raúl; Aguilera, Eduardo; del Prado, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of sustainable soil waste management practices implies minimizing their environmental losses associated with climate change (greenhouse gases: GHGs) and ecosystems acidification (ammonia: NH3). Although a number of management strategies for solid waste management have been investigated to quantify nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) losses in relation to varied environmental and operational conditions, their overall effect is still uncertain. In this context, we have analyzed the current scientific information through a systematic review. We quantified the response of GHG emissions, NH3 emissions, and total N losses to different solid waste management strategies (conventional solid storage, turned composting, forced aerated composting, covering, compaction, addition/substitution of bulking agents and the use of additives). Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 50 research articles involving 304 observations. Our results indicated that improving the structure of the pile (waste or manure heap) via addition or substitution of certain bulking agents significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions by 53% and 71%, respectively. Turned composting systems, unlike forced aerated composted systems, showed potential for reducing GHGs (N2O: 50% and CH4: 71%). Bulking agents and both composting systems involved a certain degree of pollution swapping as they significantly promoted NH3 emissions by 35%, 54%, and 121% for bulking agents, turned and forced aerated composting, respectively. Strategies based on the restriction of O2 supply, such as covering or compaction, did not show significant effects on reducing GHGs but substantially decreased NH3 emissions by 61% and 54% for covering and compaction, respectively. The use of specific additives significantly reduced NH3 losses by 69%. Our meta-analysis suggested that there is enough evidence to refine future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies from solid waste

  18. Gaseous emissions from management of solid waste: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Guillermo; Moral, Raúl; Aguilera, Eduardo; Del Prado, Agustín

    2015-03-01

    The establishment of sustainable soil waste management practices implies minimizing their environmental losses associated with climate change (greenhouse gases: GHGs) and ecosystems acidification (ammonia: NH3 ). Although a number of management strategies for solid waste management have been investigated to quantify nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) losses in relation to varied environmental and operational conditions, their overall effect is still uncertain. In this context, we have analyzed the current scientific information through a systematic review. We quantified the response of GHG emissions, NH3 emissions, and total N losses to different solid waste management strategies (conventional solid storage, turned composting, forced aerated composting, covering, compaction, addition/substitution of bulking agents and the use of additives). Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 50 research articles involving 304 observations. Our results indicated that improving the structure of the pile (waste or manure heap) via addition or substitution of certain bulking agents significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) emissions by 53% and 71%, respectively. Turned composting systems, unlike forced aerated composted systems, showed potential for reducing GHGs (N2 O: 50% and CH4 : 71%). Bulking agents and both composting systems involved a certain degree of pollution swapping as they significantly promoted NH3 emissions by 35%, 54%, and 121% for bulking agents, turned and forced aerated composting, respectively. Strategies based on the restriction of O2 supply, such as covering or compaction, did not show significant effects on reducing GHGs but substantially decreased NH3 emissions by 61% and 54% for covering and compaction, respectively. The use of specific additives significantly reduced NH3 losses by 69%. Our meta-analysis suggested that there is enough evidence to refine future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies from solid waste

  19. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    PubMed Central

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-01-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. In this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the United States and Canada were examined for enteric viruses. The sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. Enteric viruses were found in only one of the 22 leachate samples examined. Two viruses, identified as poliovirus types 1 and 3, were found in an 11.8 liter sample obtained from a site where solid waste landfill practice was deficient. The low levels of enteric viruses detected in field samples of raw leachate and the opportunities for further reductions in the virus concentration of leachates by such processes as thermal inactivation, removal by soil and dilution in ground and surface waters, suggest that leachates from properly operated solid waste landfills do not constitute an environmental or public health hazard due to enteric viruses. PMID:28677

  20. Partnerships for development: municipal solid waste management in Kasese, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation.

  1. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Troschinetz, Alexis M; Mihelcic, James R

    2009-02-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  2. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  3. Municipal solid waste slope failure. 1: Waste and foundation soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Eid, H.T.; Stark, T.D.; Evans, W.D.; Sherry, P.E.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a slope failure in a municipal solid waste landfill, with lateral and vertical displacements of up to 275 and 61 m, respectively. The waste slide involved approximately 1.2 mill in m{sup 3} of waste, making it the largest landfill slope failure to occur in the US. Failure developed through the weak native soil underlying the waste. The analyses and related studies conducted to determine the cause of the failure are the subject of this and a companion paper by Stark et al. (2000). To facilitate the analyses, this paper investigates shear strength of municipal solid waste using field and laboratory test results and back-analysis of failed waste slopes. It also presents details of a geological study and laboratory testing program undertaken to quantify the mobilized shear strength of the weak native soil.

  4. Evaluation of Technologies to Remove Suspended Solids from Waste Water

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-03-15

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River Site utilizes pH adjustment, submicron filtration, Hg removal resin, activated carbon, reverse osmosis, cationic exchange, and evaporation to remove contaminants from radioactive waste water. After startup, the ETF had difficulty achieving design capacity. The primary problem was fouling of the ceramic microfilters. Typical filter flow rates were only 20 percent of design capacity.A research program was conducted to identify and evaluate technologies for improving suspended solids removal from radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site. Technolgies investigated were a ceramic microfilter, a tubular polymeric ultrafilter, two porous metal filters, a polymeric centrifugal ultrafilter, a deep bed filter, a backwashable cartridge filter, a fabric filter, and a centriguge.

  5. Impact of health education on community knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards solid waste management in Al Ghobeiry, Beirut.

    PubMed

    Karout, N; Altuwaijri, S

    2012-07-01

    The risks posed by accumulation of solid waste are most obvious in developing countries, where waste collection and treatment is often inadequate. This study aimed to determine the impact of a health education intervention (based on lectures and focus group discussions) on community knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning solid waste management in Al Ghobeiry, Beirut. A randomly selected sample of 320 inhabitants were divide into intervention and control groups who completed the same questionnaire in the pre- and post-intervention phases. Compared with the control group the intervention group, who attended the health education sessions, showed: significantly better knowledge about the problems of and diseases spread by accumulation of solid waste; better attitudes to management of solid waste collection; and improved practices in terms of handling and recycling of household waste. There was an observed increased participation by people in cleaning campaigns and voluntary work in all the municipality activities.

  6. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section 266.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste regulation...

  7. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  8. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  9. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  10. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  11. Successful recycling for sludge and solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacik, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    We have mixed digested primary sewage sludge with undigested, thickened waste activated sludge, dewatered in polymer conditioned belt presses, and add lime and cement kiln dust in post press operations. For at least seven days the combined mixture is aerated. The product is far more community acceptable than traditional sludge cake, and is clearly environmentally safe and meets the most stringent new regulatory controls. Even when the kiln dust treated sludge was stressed to a pH of 4, which is far more acidic than would be expected in agricultural soils, the sludge/kiln dust mixture easily met EPA criteria. The process results in a reduction in the weight and in the volume of material. In our Sylvania Pilot Project, 555 tons of sludge were treated with 178 tons of kiln dust, resulting in 504 tons of finished product - a 10% reduction in sludge weight and a far greater reduction in sludge volume. The product can be stored for long periods of time without deterioration. Thus, we see a process that requires about seven days for total treatment. We see a process with limited capital requirements. We see a process with operating costs at or below traditional PSRP processes and far less than alternative PFRP options. We see a community acceptable, storable, nearly odorless, granular, pasteurized product that provides built in protection against pathogen regrowth, odors, and the migration of toxic compounds. We see a product that has multiple market options. The N-Viro Soil product optimizes the nutrient values of sludge, provides potassium, sulphur, and even trace minerals from kiln dust and provides sufficient calcium carbonate to provide both liming and long-term soil calcium requirements. This combination is attractive to agricultural interests, is ideal for reclamation projects or landfill cover materials, and is an excellent landscape fertilizer and soil conditioner.

  12. Mathematical modeling to predict residential solid waste generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda Benitez, Sara; Vega, Carolina Armijo de

    2008-07-01

    One of the challenges faced by waste management authorities is determining the amount of waste generated by households in order to establish waste management systems, as well as trying to charge rates compatible with the principle applied worldwide, and design a fair payment system for households according to the amount of residential solid waste (RSW) they generate. The goal of this research work was to establish mathematical models that correlate the generation of RSW per capita to the following variables: education, income per household, and number of residents. This work was based on data from a study on generation, quantification and composition of residential waste in a Mexican city in three stages. In order to define prediction models, five variables were identified and included in the model. For each waste sampling stage a different mathematical model was developed, in order to find the model that showed the best linear relation to predict residential solid waste generation. Later on, models to explore the combination of included variables and select those which showed a higher R{sup 2} were established. The tests applied were normality, multicolinearity and heteroskedasticity. Another model, formulated with four variables, was generated and the Durban-Watson test was applied to it. Finally, a general mathematical model is proposed to predict residential waste generation, which accounts for 51% of the total.

  13. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Quazi H.; Mahbub Hassan, K.; Haque, R.

    2012-12-15

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d{sup -1} solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  14. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg.

  15. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bari, Quazi H; Mahbub Hassan, K; Haque, R

    2012-12-01

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d(-1) solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  16. Community Solutions for Solid Waste Pollution, Level 6. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  17. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for State and Local Government/Solid Waste Planners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by state and local government/solid waste planners. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  18. Solid waste characterization and recycling potential for a university campus

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo de Vega, Carolina Ojeda Benitez, Sara; Ramirez Barreto, Ma. Elizabeth

    2008-07-01

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development. For these systems to be successful, the first step is to carry out waste characterization studies. In this paper are reported the results of a waste characterization study performed in the Campus Mexicali I of the Autonomous University of Baja California (UABC). The aim of this study was to set the basis for implementation of a recovery, reduction and recycling waste management program at the campus. It was found that the campus Mexicali I produces 1 ton of solid wastes per day; more than 65% of these wastes are recyclable or potentially recyclable. These results showed that a program for segregation and recycling is feasible on a University Campus. The study also showed that the local market for recyclable waste, under present conditions - number of recycling companies and amounts of recyclables accepted - can absorb all of these wastes. Some alternatives for the potentially recyclables wastes are discussed. Finally some strategies that could be used to reduce waste at the source are discussed as well.

  19. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes.

    PubMed

    Das, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr

    2015-09-01

    Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.

  20. Regulation of solid waste management at Brazilian ports: analysis and proposals for Brazil in light of the European experience.

    PubMed

    Jaccoud, Cristiane; Magrini, Alessandra

    2014-02-15

    With a coastline of 8500 km, Brazil has 34 public ports and various private terminals, which together in 2012 handled 809 million tonnes of goods. The solid wastes produced (from port activities, ships and cargoes) pose a highly relevant problem, both due to the quantity and diversity, requiring a complex and integrated set of practices resulting from legal requirements and proactive initiatives. The main Brazilian law on solid waste management is recent (Law 12,305/2010) and the specific rules on solid waste in ports are badly in need of revision to meet the challenges caused by expansion of the sector and to harmonize them with the best global practices. This paper analyzes the current legal/regulatory framework for solid waste management at Brazilian ports and compares this structure with the practice in Europe. At the end, we suggest initiatives to improve the regulation of solid wastes at Brazilian ports.

  1. Site study plan for utilities and solid waste, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This site plan describes utilities and solid waste studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. After utilities and solid waste information needs derived from Federal, State, and local statutes and regulations and the project specifications are briefly described, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, and data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs to characterize electrical power, natural gas, communication, water, wastewater sludge, nonradiological solid waste, nonradiological hazardous waste, and low-level radiological waste. These programs include details for the collection of project needs, identification of utilities and solid waste disposal contractor capabilities, and verification of the obtained data. Utilities and solid waste field activities will begin approximately at the time of site access. Utilities and solid waste characterization will be completed within the first year of activity. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Planet Patrol. An Educational Unit on Solid Waste Solutions for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Patti J.; And Others

    This educational unit on solid waste solutions is intended to convey to students an understanding of the four methods of solid waste handling, in priority order, as recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency: (1) reduction in the volume of waste produced; (2) recycling and composting; (3) waste combustion, i.e., incineration of waste; and…

  3. Trends in the management of residual municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Rada, E C; Istrate, I A; Ragazzi, M

    2009-06-01

    In agreement with European Union directives, the integrated management of municipal solid waste must be developed ensuring a balanced relationship between the streams of selective collection and the one regarding the residual waste. A theoretical scenario is made where the residual municipal solid waste is composed only of non-recyclable fractions. An important aspect concerns the role of the organic fraction as selective collection can significantly decrease its content in the residual waste. This paper focuses on the planning, design and management consequences of this unsteady scenario. The treatments that are considered are: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, integrated thermal plants, aerobic mechanical-biological treatments, anaerobic mechanical-biological treatments and other types of treatment. The considerations are based on the experience of the authors not only in terms of development of research but also in terms of transfer of the research results to the real scale, and knowledge of the state-of-the-art of the sector.

  4. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  5. Solid waste landfills under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document provides guidance for meeting: (1) Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste (40 CFR 241); (2) Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices (40 CFR 257); and (3) Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWLFs) (40 CFR Part 258). Revisions to 40 CFR 257 and a new Part 258 were published in the Federal Register (56 FR 50978, 10/9/91). The Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste set requirements and recommended procedures to ensure that the design, construction, and operation of land disposal sites is done in a manner that will protect human health and the environment. These regulations are applicable to MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs (e.g., landfills used only for the disposal of demolition debris, commercial waste, and/or industrial waste). These guidelines are not applicable to the, land disposal of hazardous, agricultural, and/or mining wastes. These criteria are to be used under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in determining which solid waste disposal facilities pose a reasonable possibility of adversely affecting human health or the environment. Facilities failing to satisfy these criteria will be considered to be open dumps which are prohibited under Section 4005 of RCRA. The Criteria for MSWLFs are applicable only to MSWLFs, including those MSWLFs in which sewage sludge is co-disposed with household waste. Based on specific criteria, certain MSWLFs are exempt from some, or all, of the regulations of 40 CFR 258. MSWLFs that fail to satisfy the criteria specified in 40 CFR 258 are also considered open dumps for the purposes of Section 4005 of RCRA. Through the use of a series of interrelated flow diagrams, this guidance document directs the reader to each design, operation, maintenance, and closure activity that must be performed for MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs.

  6. Benchmarking in municipal solid waste recycling.

    PubMed

    Lavee, Doron; Khatib, Mahmood

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the recycling potential of municipalities in Israel, including population size and density, geographic location, current waste levels, and current waste management system. We employ a standard regression analysis in order to develop an econometric model to predict where potential for economically efficient recycling is highest. By applying this model to readily available data, it is possible to predict with close to 90% accuracy whether or not recycling will be economically efficient in any given municipality. Government agencies working to promote advanced waste management solutions have at their disposal only limited resources and budget, and so must concentrate their efforts where they will be most effective. The paper thus provides policy-makers with a powerful tool to help direct their efforts to promote recycling at those municipalities where it is indeed optimal.

  7. Solid-waste management practices of households in Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Eileen C

    2008-10-01

    The experiences and practices of household waste management of people in a barangay (village) in Manila, Philippines are documented. The data were gathered through an interview with household members using open-ended questions. Interviews were also conducted with garbage collectors as well as scavengers. Results showed that the households generated an average of 3.2 kg of solid waste per day, or 0.50 kg/capita/day. The types of wastes commonly generated are food/kitchen wastes, papers, PET bottles, metals, and cans, boxes/cartons, glass bottles, cellophane/plastics, and yard/garden wastes. The respondents segregate their wastes into PET bottles, glass bottles, and other waste (mixed wastes). No respondents perform composting. It is worth noting, however, that burning of waste is not done by the respondents. The households rely on garbage collection by the government. Collection is done twice daily, except Sundays, and household members bring their garbage when the garbage truck arrives. However, there are those who dump their garbage in nondesignated pick-up points, usually in a corner of the street. The dumped garbage becomes a breeding ground for disease-causing organisms. Some household respondents said that it is possible that the dumping in certain areas caused the dengue fever suffered by some of their family members. Mothers and household helpers are responsible for household waste management. Scavengers generally look for recyclable items in the dumped garbage. All of them said that it is their only source of income, which is generally not enough for their meals. They are also aware that their work affects their health. Most of the respondents said that garbage collection and disposal is the responsibility of the government. The results of the study showed that RA 9003, also known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, is not fully implemented in Metro Manila.

  8. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, Lee Roy; Bates, J. Lambert

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation.

  9. Characterization of Navy Solid Waste and Collection and Disposal Practices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Virginia Region II, Boone, Clay, Kanawa, Putnam Counties, Solid Waste Management Planning Porject, Executive Summary. The Environmental Services... Putnam , Final Report, Regional Intergovernmental Council (1970). The Treatment of Industrial Wastes, E. B. Besselievre, McGraw-Hill Book Company (no...Engineering Principals and Management Issuies, George’ Tcho Banioglouis, Hilary Tlsen, and Rol f Fl lassen, Mc~rAw Hill1 Book C’o. (no dlate). Energy

  10. 40 CFR 257.3 - Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria for classification of solid... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3 Criteria...

  11. Briquette comprising caking coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, H.W.

    1980-09-30

    Briquettes of specified geometry and composition are produced to serve as feed material or ''burden'' in a moving-burden gasifier for the production of a synthesis or fuel gas from organic solid waste materials and coal, including especially, the so-called ''caking'' coals, as in the process of copending application number 675,918. The briquettes are formed from a well-blended mixture of shredded organic solid wastes, including especially, municipal solid waste (Msw) or biomass, and crushed caking coal, including coal fines. A binder material may or may not be required, depending on the coal/msw ratio and the compaction pressure employed. The briquettes may be extruded, stamped, or pressed, employing compaction pressures in excess of 1000 psi, and preferably in the range of 2000 to 10,000 psi. The briquettes may be circular, polygonal, or irregular in cross-section; they may be solid, or concentrically perforated to form a hollow cylinder or polygon; they may be formed into saddles, pillows or doughnuts. The ratio of caking coal to shredded municipal solid waste is controlled so that each part of the predominantly cellulosic organic solid waste will be blended with 0.5 to 3.0 parts of crushed coal. Suitable binder materials include dewatered sewage slude (Dss), ''black liquor'' rich in lignin derivatives, black strap molasses, waste oil, and starch. The binder concentration is preferably in the range of 2 to 6 percent. If coals high in sulfur content are to be processed, at least a stoichiometric equivalent of dolomite may be included in the briquette formulation to eliminate a major fraction of the sulfur with the slag.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO ESTIMATE ACCUMULATED SOLIDS IN NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

    2012-12-10

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream; Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel; Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas; Laser rangefinders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds; Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds; Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These

  13. Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste.

    PubMed

    Byun, Youngchul; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Namkung, Won; Lee, Hyeon Don; Jang, Sung Duk; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

    2011-06-15

    Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H(2) (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a nontransferred thermal plasma torch were purified using a bag-filter and wet scrubber. Thereafter, the gases, which contained syngas (CO+H(2)), were introduced into a H(2) recovery system, consisting largely of a water gas shift (WGS) unit for the conversion of CO to H(2) and a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit for the separation and purification of H(2). It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification, combined with the WGS and PSA, produced high purity H(2) (20 N m(3)/h (400 H(2)-Nm(3)/PMW-ton), up to 99.99%) using a plasma torch with 1.6 MWh/PMW-ton of electricity. The results presented here suggest that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification for the production of high purity H(2) may provide a new approach as a future energy infrastructure based on H(2).

  14. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using nonlinear autoregressive network.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Maulud, K N A

    2015-12-01

    Most of the developing countries have solid waste management problems. Solid waste strategic planning requires accurate prediction of the quality and quantity of the generated waste. In developing countries, such as Malaysia, the solid waste generation rate is increasing rapidly, due to population growth and new consumption trends that characterize society. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict annual solid waste generation in relation to demographic and economic variables like population number, gross domestic product, electricity demand per capita and employment and unemployment numbers. In addition, variable selection procedures are also developed to select a significant explanatory variable. The model evaluation was performed using coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE). The optimum model that produced the lowest testing MSE (2.46) and the highest R(2) (0.97) had three inputs (gross domestic product, population and employment), eight neurons and one lag in the hidden layer, and used Fletcher-Powell's conjugate gradient as the training algorithm.

  15. The stabilization and utilization of coal solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering Ames Lab., IA )

    1988-01-01

    One of the most important technical issues of the 1980's is the effective and economical disposal or utilization of solid wastes. Solid waste utilization or resource recovery is the preferred option for coal solid waste management, but disposal remains the dominant practice. Work on waste management has achieved improved problem definition and the conceptualization of processes, some of which are ready for commercial evaluation. Processes developed at the Ames Laboratory are the granulation/sintering method for the codisposal of coal cleaning and coal combustion-related wastes and the lime-soda sinter process and HiChlor process for mineral and byproduct recovery from the wastes. The stabilization method yields an environmentally benign material and sulfur as a byproduct. The lime-soda sinter process consumes the entire fly ash yielding metallurgical-grade Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a partially burned portland cement. The HiChlor process permits the recovery of the major as well as the minor elements present in the ash. Cost will be the final determining factor as to the merit of these processes and will require at least pilot plant scale investigation. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1. 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.3 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement.

  17. The Consumer's Handbook for Reducing Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This profusely illustrated and informally written booklet describes how people can help solve a growing problem--garbage. The following 12 tips are presented: (1) Reduce the amount of unnecessary packaging; (2) Adopt practices that reduce waste toxicity; (3) Consider reusable products; (4) Maintain and repair durable products; (5) Reuse bags,…

  18. Bioreactor landfill technology in municipal solid waste treatment: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Mudhoo, Ackmez

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, due to an advance in knowledge of landfill behaviour and decomposition processes of municipal solid waste, there has been a strong thrust to upgrade existing landfill technologies for optimizing these degradation processes and thereafter harness a maximum of the useful bioavailable matter in the form of higher landfill gas generation rates. Operating landfills as bioreactors for enhancing the stabilization of wastes is one such technology option that has been recently investigated and has already been in use in many countries. A few full-scale implementations of this novel technology are gaining momentum in landfill research and development activities. The publication of bioreactor landfill research has resulted in a wide pool of knowledge and useful engineering data. This review covers leachate recirculation and stabilization, nitrogen transformation and corresponding extensive laboratory- and pilot-scale research, the bioreactor landfill concept, the benefits to be derived from this bioreactor landfill technology, and the design and operational issues and research trends that form the basis of applied landfill research.

  19. A history of solid waste packaging at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Weyns-Rollosson, D.I.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J.

    1995-02-01

    Since the initiation of the defense materials product mission, a total of more than 600,000 m{sup 3} of radioactive solid waste has been stored or disposed at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. As the DOE complex prepares for its increasing role in environmental restoration and waste remediation, the characterization of buried and retrievably stored waste will become increasingly important. Key to this characterization is an understanding of the standards and specifications to which waste was packaged; the regulations that mandated these standards and specifications; the practices used for handling and packaging different waste types; and the changes in these practices with time.

  20. Solid waste management in the hospitality industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Sanaa I; Arafat, Hassan A

    2014-12-15

    Solid waste management is a key aspect of the environmental management of establishments belonging to the hospitality sector. In this study, we reviewed literature in this area, examining the current status of waste management for the hospitality sector, in general, with a focus on food waste management in particular. We specifically examined the for-profit subdivision of the hospitality sector, comprising primarily of hotels and restaurants. An account is given of the causes of the different types of waste encountered in this sector and what strategies may be used to reduce them. These strategies are further highlighted in terms of initiatives and practices which are already being implemented around the world to facilitate sustainable waste management. We also recommended a general waste management procedure to be followed by properties of the hospitality sector and described how waste mapping, an innovative yet simple strategy, can significantly reduce the waste generation of a hotel. Generally, we found that not many scholarly publications are available in this area of research. More studies need to be carried out on the implementation of sustainable waste management for the hospitality industry in different parts of the world and the challenges and opportunities involved.

  1. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  2. Energy potential of municipal solid waste is limited

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Energy recovery from municipal solid waste has the potential for making only a limited contribution to the nation`s overall energy production. Although the current contribution of waste-derived energy production is less than one-half of 1 percent of the nation`s total energy Supply, DOE has set a goal for energy from waste at 2 percent of the total supply by 2010. The industry`s estimates show a smaller role for waste as an energy source in the future. The energy potential from waste is limited not only by the volume and energy content of the waste itself, but also by the factors affecting the use of waste disposal options, including public opposition and the availability of financing. Energy production from waste combustors and from landfill gases generates pollutants, although these are reduced through current regulations that require the use of emissions control technology and define operational criteria for the facilities. Although DOE estimates that one-third of the energy available from waste is available in the form of energy savings through the recycling of materials, the Department`s research in this area is ongoing.

  3. Report: management problems of solid waste landfills in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2002-08-01

    This paper evaluates current operational practices in municipal solid waste landfills in Kuwait to provide existing knowledge on uncontrolled landfilling and associated problems of solid waste disposal in developing countries. The current landfilling practices are safe neither for humans nor for the environment. The landfill sites receive all kinds of wastes such as food wastes, oil products, debris, dead animals, agricultural wastes, chemical wastes, wastewater and sewage sludge. The wastes are dumped, spread and compacted in an uncontrolled manner and cover material is not applied regularly. Dust created within the landfill site and gas emissions cause a public nuisance. The characteristics of leachate formed indicate high organic content and presence of heavy metals, salts and nutrients. There are no provisions for leachate or landfill gas collection at the landfill sites. Recommendations for adjustment in landfill operation have been made in recognition of the transition period that is experienced in proceeding from the past and present to the future management of landfills in Kuwait to safeguard the public health and protect the environment.

  4. A technologist's view on municipal solid waste landfill risks

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    There are risks associated with all human activity. The level of risk that is acceptable is a matter of choice, personal judgement, and public policy. We are not conscious of many of the risks that we take. We tend to be unbalanced in our assessments of risk. We attach more importance to accidents and catastrophic events where large numbers of people die (e.g., airplane crashes) than to the individual deaths from a large number of events (e.g., deaths from automobile accidents). Scientists do not communicate technical risks well. Public risk perceptions are based on broad considerations such as justice, equity, choice, concern for future generations, morality, etc. Thus, there are frequent differences between a technical assessment of risk versus the public's perception of the risk. As engineers and scientists, it is our duty to effectively communicate risk options facing society. Technologists must understand why the public feels the way it does about waste risks and address the root causes of those concerns. There is a disturbing trend to concentrate on small'' risks (e.g., chemicals in clothing) and to minimize truly important and large risks (e.g., the disparity between rich and poor). The risks posed by the modern municipal waste landfill are small compared to others we face daily. Regarding contamination of drinking water, the EPA reported in its 1988 report to Congress that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills pose between no and very low risks, some 12% pose moderate risks, and only a small fraction of a percent nationwide have a high risk. The risks from gas emissions are summarily low. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very

  6. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis–sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g−1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g−1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)–sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  7. Characterizing Solids in Residual Wastes from Single-Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.; Heald, Steve M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2010-03-03

    transition metals, such Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and/or U. Recent analyses of residual waste from 241-C-103 have revealed the presence of Tc-containing Fe oxide/hydroxide particles, which is believed to be the first direct evidence of Tc in solid phases in actual samples of Hanford pre-final retrieval tank waste or post-final retrieval residual waste. The presence of mineralized coatings, such as Fe oxides/hydroxides or reaction products precipitated from contact with cement pore fluids, on contaminant-containing particles could decrease their rate of dissolution, thereby delaying the release of contaminants until the coatings dissolve sufficiently to expose the underlying matrix to infiltrating pore fluids. Certain key cross-cutting geochemical processes and solid phase characteristics important to contaminant waste release are becoming evident, now that residual wastes have been studied from several single-shell tanks. As more residual tank wastes are characterized in terms of composition and contaminant release, it is anticipated that common characteristics with respect to the type of wastes stored in the tanks will become evident. This may allow the grouping of tanks into general categories with certain common chemical features and contaminant release characteristics - an important goal because complete characterization of residual wastes from all 149 single-shell storage tanks is not practical. Additionally, information garnered from residual waste characterization activities can be used to optimize future waste retrieval operations.

  8. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-04-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters.

  9. Capacity building in rural Guatemala by implementing a solid waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Zarate, M.A. Slotnick, J.; Ramos, M.

    2008-12-15

    The development and implementation of a solid waste management program served to build local capacity in San Mateo Ixtatan between 2002 and 2003 as part of a public health action plan. The program was developed and implemented in two phases: (1) the identification and education of a working team from the community; and (2) the completion of a solid waste classification and quantification study. Social capital and the water cycle were two public health approaches utilized to build a sustainable program. The activities accomplished gained support from the community and municipal authorities. A description of the tasks completed and findings of the solid waste classification and quantification performed by a local working group are presented in this paper.

  10. Capacity building in rural Guatemala by implementing a solid waste management program.

    PubMed

    Zarate, M A; Slotnick, J; Ramos, M

    2008-12-01

    The development and implementation of a solid waste management program served to build local capacity in San Mateo Ixtatán between 2002 and 2003 as part of a public health action plan. The program was developed and implemented in two phases: (1) the identification and education of a working team from the community; and (2) the completion of a solid waste classification and quantification study. Social capital and the water cycle were two public health approaches utilized to build a sustainable program. The activities accomplished gained support from the community and municipal authorities. A description of the tasks completed and findings of the solid waste classification and quantification performed by a local working group are presented in this paper.

  11. Constructed wetlands for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peverly, J.; Sanford, W.E.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, the US Geological Survey and Cornell University, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Tompkins County Solid Waste Department, began a three-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, New York, to test the effectiveness of leachate treatment with constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. A parallel study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Fenton, New York was conducted by researchers at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and Hawk Engineering (Trautmann and others, 1989). Results are described.

  12. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  13. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  14. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  15. Nevada solid waste: A big state with big differences

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    The state of Nevada, the seventh largest in land area, has two private solid waste companies that are also among the largest in the nation. And yet the bulk of their efforts focuses mainly on two urban areas--Las Vegas and Reno--which hold 80% of the state`s population. The state`s solid waste management bill of 1991 set a recycling/waste reduction goal of 25% by 1994 and 50% by 2002. Like many states, nevada did not reach its 1994 goal. A 1995 state recycling rate survey confirmed a 12% recycling rate for the state for municipal solid waste generation of 2.74 million tons. Nevada has a recycling tax incentive, with 5% to 10% procurement preferences for recycled content. The state`s recycling budget stayed at $250,000 from 1993 to 1995. There are no incinerators in the state, nor is there a bottle bill or a yard waste ban. As part of the 1991 legislation, a recycling hotline was established to provide state residents with the location of the nearest recycling center.

  16. Low temperature ozone oxidation of solid waste surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabity, James A.; Lee, Jeffrey M.

    2015-09-01

    Solid waste management presents a significant challenge to human spaceflight and especially, long-term missions beyond Earth orbit. A six-month mission will generate over 300 kg of solid wastes per crewmember that must be dealt with to eliminate the need for storage and prevent it from becoming a biological hazard to the crew. There are several methods for the treatment of wastes that include oxidation via ozone, incineration, microbial oxidation or pyrolysis and physical methods such as microwave drying and compaction. In recent years, a low temperature oxidation process using ozonated water has been developed for the chemical conversion of organic wastes to CO2 and H2O. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the rate and effectiveness with which ozone oxidized several different waste materials. Increasing the surface area by chopping or shredding the solids into small pieces more than doubled the rate of oxidation. A greater flow of ozone and agitation of the ozonated water system also increased processing rates. Of the materials investigated, plastics have proven the most difficult to oxidize. The processing of plastics above the glass transition temperatures caused the plastics to clump together which reduced the exposed surface area, while processing at lower temperatures reduced surface reaction kinetics.

  17. Evaluation Criteria for Solid Waste Processing Research and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, J. A.; Alazraki, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary list of criteria is proposed for evaluation of solid waste processing technologies for research and technology development (R&TD) in the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. Completion of the proposed list by current and prospective ALS technology developers, with regard to specific missions of interest, may enable identification of appropriate technologies (or lack thereof) and guide future development efforts for the ALS Program solid waste processing area. An attempt is made to include criteria that capture information about the technology of interest as well as its system-wide impacts. Some of the criteria in the list are mission-independent, while the majority are mission-specific. In order for technology developers to respond to mission-specific criteria, critical information must be available on the quantity, composition and state of the waste stream, the wast processing requirements, as well as top-level mission scenario information (e.g. safety, resource recovery, planetary protection issues, and ESM equivalencies). The technology readiness level (TRL) determines the degree to which a technology developer is able to accurately report on the list of criteria. Thus, a criteria-specific minimum TRL for mandatory reporting has been identified for each criterion in the list. Although this list has been developed to define criteria that are needed to direct funding of solid waste processing technologies, this list processes significant overlap in criteria required for technology selection for inclusion in specific tests or missions. Additionally, this approach to technology evaluation may be adapted to other ALS subsystems.

  18. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  3. HANDBOOK: MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to address the technical and economic aspects of material recovery facility (MRF) equipment and technology in such a manner that the document may be of assistance to solid waste planners and engineers at the local community level. This docum...

  4. Influence of vermicomposting on solid wastes decomposition kinetics in soils*

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Farshid

    2007-01-01

    The effect of vermicomposting on kinetic behavior of the products is not well recognized. An incubation study was conducted to investigate C mineralization kinetics of cow manure, sugarcane filter cake and their vermicomposts. Two different soils were treated with the four solid wastes at a rate of 0.5 g solid waste C per kg soil with three replications. Soils were incubated for 56 d. The CO2-C respired was monitored periodically and a first-order kinetic model was used to calculate the kinetic parameters of C mineralization. Results indicated that the percentage of C mineralized during the incubation period ranged from 31.9% to 41.8% and 55.9% to 73.4% in the calcareous and acidic soils, respectively. The potentially mineralizable C (C 0) of the treated soils was lower in the solid waste composts compared to their starting materials. Overall, it can be concluded that decomposable fraction of solid wastes has decreased due to vermicomposting. PMID:17910115

  5. Closure of municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs). RCRA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Petts, M.

    1993-07-01

    This RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) information brief answers some questions regarding the 40 CFR 258 and 40 CFR 257 regulations on solid waste disposal facilities and their closure/cover. Section 405 of the Clean Water Act is covered as well as the RCRA.

  6. HOLISTIC APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results from the application of a new municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning aid to EPA's new facility in the Research Triangle Park, NC. This planning aid, or decision support tool, is computer software that analyzes the cost and environmental impact ...

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  8. Community-Based Solid Waste Management: A Training Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Urban environmental management and environmental health issues are of increasing concern worldwide. The need for urban environmental management work at the local level where the Peace Corps works most effectively is significant, but training materials dedicated specifically to community-based solid waste management work in urban areas are lacking.…

  9. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMBUSTOR ASH DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM - "THE BOATHOUSE"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of a research program designed to examine the engineering and environmental acceptability of using municipal solid waste (MSW) combustor ash as an aggregate substitute in the manufacture of construction quality cement blocks. 50 tons of MSW combust...

  10. Guidelines for Local Governments on Solid Waste Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Counties, Washington, DC. Research Foundation.

    This document consists of ten guides on Solid Waste Management to assist local elected and appointed policy-making officials. They are entitled: Areawide Approaches; Legal Authority, Planning, Organization Design and Operation, Financing, Technical and Financial Assistance, Citizen Support, Personnel, and Action Plan and Bibliography. The guides…

  11. Teaching and Learning about Solid Waste: Aspects of Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinquetti, Heloisa Chalmers Sisla; de Carvalho, Luiz Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates aspects of content knowledge related to teaching and learning about solid waste, focusing on the processes of learning and teaching by Elementary School teachers in Brazil, in two modalities of continuing education: courses and school-based meetings. We analyse elements of teachers' reflections whilst referring to three…

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  13. Leaching of nano-ZnO in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sakallioglu, T; Bakirdoven, M; Temizel, I; Demirel, B; Copty, N K; Onay, T T; Uyguner Demirel, C S; Karanfil, T

    2016-11-05

    Despite widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial products and their potential disposal in landfills, the fate of ENMs in solid waste environments are still not well understood. In this study, the leaching behavior of nano ZnO -one of the most used ENMs- in fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated. Batch reactors containing municipal solid waste samples were spiked with three different types of nano ZnO having different surface stabilization. The leaching of ZnO was examined under acidic, basic and elevated ionic strength (IS) conditions. The results of the 3-day batch tests showed that the percent of the added nano-ZnO mass retained within the solid waste matrix ranged between 80% and 93% on average for the three types of nano-ZnO tested. The pH and IS conditions did not significantly influence the leaching behavior of ZnO. To further analyze the behavior of ZnO in the MSW matrix, a kinetic particle deposition/detachment model was developed. The model was able to reproduce the main trends of the batch experiments. Reaction rate constants for the batch tests ranged from 0.01 to 0.4 1/hr, reflecting the rapid deposition of nano-ZnO within the MSW matrix.

  14. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site`s centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million.

  15. Economic feasibility of drying municipal solid-waste combustion residue

    SciTech Connect

    Blaisdell, M.; Lee, D.; Baetz, B. . Dept. of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics)

    1990-08-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is increasing in many parts of the world. Waste incineration creates an ash residue that must be disposed of typically in a solid-waste landfill. The ash is often water-quenched after incineration and may contain up to 50% moisture by weight. This moisture increases the weight of the ash sent to the landfill and the leachate load placed on the landfill's leachate collection system. In this paper, current literature on MSW ash is reviewed, current ash handling practices are outlined, and the economic feasibility of ash-moisture reduction schemes are investigated. Electric heating of the quenched bottom ash is shown to be an economically feasible scheme for moisture reduction. For current cost levels, the net yearly benefit may be as high as $1,200,000 for a typical 500 tons per day (TPD) plant.

  16. Small enterprise opportunities in municipal solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Grierson, J P; Brown, A

    1999-02-01

    Most developing countries are rapidly urbanizing, with growing urban populations fueling demand for more and better urban services which many cities simply cannot provide given the current financial constraints. With the public sector unable to service the needs of expanding cities, small businesses are moving in to fill the vacuum. Such fledgling private sector initiatives have often prevented problems from becoming crises, while also demonstrating that private sector enterprises have an important role to play in meeting the demand for municipal services. Waste collection and processing is an area which could benefit from private sector involvement and greater public-private coordination. The authors examine the progress to date of an action-research initiative led by the Collaborative Group on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Low-income Countries which is developing best practice guidelines for expanding the involvement of micro- and small enterprises in municipal solid waste management.

  17. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-03-22

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced.

  18. Planning of municipal solid waste management under dual uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Guo H; Nie, Xianghui; Chen, Yumin; Lin, Qianguo

    2010-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a complex and multidisciplinary problem, involving a number of impact factors associated with various uncertainties. In this study, a hybrid interval-parameter possibilistic programming (IPP) approach was developed and applied for planning municipal solid waste management under dual uncertainties. The IPP improves upon the existing management approaches by allowing possibility distributions of the lower and upper bounds of some interval parameters in the objective function and interval information in the modelling coefficients to be effectively incorporated within its optimization. By introducing the concept of possibilistic interval numbers, the dual uncertainties can be communicated into the optimization process and the resulting solutions, such that the generated decision schemes can effectively reflect the highly complex system features under uncertainty. The results of the case study indicate that useful information can be obtained for providing feasible decision schemes for waste flow allocation. Different decision schemes can be generated by adjusting waste flow allocation patterns within the solution intervals. Lower decision variable values should be used to obtain lower system cost of waste treatment and disposal under advantageous conditions, and higher decision variable values should be used under demanding conditions (worst case conditions). A strong desire to acquire the lower system cost will lead to the decreased probability of meeting the treatment and disposal requirements (i.e. the increased risk of unforeseen conditions); willingness to accept the upper limit of the system cost will guarantee that waste treatment and disposal requirements are met.

  19. Municipal solid waste management in China: status, problems and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Tan, Soon Keat; Gersberg, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an examination of MSW generation and composition in China, providing an overview of the current state of MSW management, an analysis of existing problems in MSW collection, separation, recycling and disposal, and some suggestions for improving MSW systems in the future. In China, along with urbanization, population growth and industrialization, the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been increasing rapidly. The total MSW amount increased from 31.3 million tonnes in 1980 to 212 million tonnes in 2006, and the waste generation rate increased from 0.50 kg/capita/day in 1980 to 0.98 kg/capita/year in 2006. Currently, waste composition in China is dominated by a high organic and moisture content, since the concentration of kitchen waste in urban solid waste makes up the highest proportion (at approximately 60%) of the waste stream. The total amount of MSW collected and transported was 148 million tonnes in 2006, of which 91.4% was landfilled, 6.4% was incinerated and 2.2% was composted. The overall MSW treatment rate in China was approximately 62% in 2007. In 2007, there were 460 facilities, including 366 landfill sites, 17 composing plants, and 66 incineration plants. This paper also considers the challenges faced and opportunities for MSW management in China, and a number of recommendations are made aimed at improving the MSW management system.

  20. Environmental-system analysis of solid-waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Nibin.

    1991-01-01

    A general discussion of legislative, economic, risk, and policy analyses is presented. The mixed integer programming model serves as a core model to explore a wide variety of options for planning and design in a modern solid waste management system. The optimization criteria cover the interactions of waste generation, source reduction and curbside recycling, collection and transfer, processing and transformation, site selection, waste disposal, tipping fee evaluation, and environmental risks. Several submodels are used in conjunction with the system optimization model. These submodels are related to leachate impacts, air pollutant transport, residual value of new facilities, construction and operating costs, waste combustion practices, and optimal pricing for landfills. The major incineration cost determinants developed in the econometric cost analyses are facility size, as well as type and extent of resource recovery. The leachate impact assessments integrate relationships between hydrology, geology, and groundwater pollution modeling techniques. Consideration of the emissions from waste-to-energy facilities combines atmospheric science and the field of solid waste management. The management issues also involve resource economics and public utility theory by incorporating the concepts of non-renewable resource use over time and the inverse elasticity rule for recovering fixed costs in determining landfill tipping fees. The mutual influences between recycling and incineration are balanced by using optimization and simulation techniques in each unit operation. Numerical illustrations are provided for each individual submodel.

  1. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems--part I: lessons learned and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Hauschild, Michael Z; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-03-01

    The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of capturing the local specific conditions in the modelling of environmental impacts and benefits of a SWMS, allows identifying critical problems and proposing improvement options adapted to the local specificities.

  2. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  3. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  4. Method for storage of solid waste

    DOEpatents

    Mecham, William J.

    1976-01-01

    Metal canisters for long-term storage of calcined highlevel radioactive wastes can be made self-sealing against a breach in the canister wall by the addition of powdered cement to the canister with the calcine before it is sealed for storage. Any breach in the canister wall will permit entry of water which will mix with the cement and harden to form a concrete patch, thus sealing the opening in the wall of the canister and preventing the release of radioactive material to the cooling water or atmosphere.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Nemerow, N.L.; Farooq, S.; Daly, E.L.Jr.; Sengupta, S.; Gerrish, H.P.; Wong, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Filtrate from an anaerobic municipal waste digestion plant at Pompano Beach, Florida, has BOD, COD, and total organic C contents of 1075, 6855, and 1655 mg/L, respectively. The treatment does not inactivate total coliforms; that of the digester slurry and filtrate are 2.3 X 10 to the power of 6 and 1.7 X 10 to the power of 6/100 mL, respectively. The average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the filtrate are 0.48, 1.29, 7.29, 32, 0.35, and 11 mg/L, respectively. The filtrate requires treatment prior to discharge.

  6. Solid Waste Management in North Carolina: A Curriculum Resource Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watauga County Board of Education, Boone, NC.

    Renewal is the focus of this curriculum designed for students in kindergarten through Grade 8. The purpose of this guide is to educate students and teachers about the problems faced in managing the amount of solid waste generated by society. Each grade level curriculum is organized into activities that support exploration of the nature of solid…

  7. Middle School Students' Decision-Making on Solid Waste Management in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kuo-Hua

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a HyperCard simulation upon student's concepts, opinions, and option-rankings on solid waste management, and to investigate what cognitive activities of the students were involved in the decision-making processes. One hundred eighth-grade students in Taiwan participated in this…

  8. Electricity production from municipal solid waste using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, H Y; Pai, T Y; Liu, M H; Chang, C A; Lo, F C; Chang, T C; Lo, H M; Chiang, C F; Chao, K P; Lo, W Y; Lo, S W; Chu, Y L

    2016-07-01

    The organic content of municipal solid waste has long been an attractive source of renewable energy, mainly as a solid fuel in waste-to-energy plants. This study focuses on the potential to use microbial fuel cells to convert municipal solid waste organics into energy using various operational conditions. The results showed that two-chamber microbial fuel cells with carbon felt and carbon felt allocation had a higher maximal power density (20.12 and 30.47 mW m(-2) for 1.5 and 4 L, respectively) than those of other electrode plate allocations. Most two-chamber microbial fuel cells (1.5 and 4 L) had a higher maximal power density than single-chamber ones with corresponding electrode plate allocations. Municipal solid waste with alkali hydrolysis pre-treatment and K3Fe(CN)6 as an electron acceptor improved the maximal power density to 1817.88 mW m(-2) (~0.49% coulomb efficiency, from 0.05-0.49%). The maximal power density from experiments using individual 1.5 and 4 L two-chamber microbial fuel cells, and serial and parallel connections of 1.5 and 4 L two-chamber microbial fuel cells, was found to be in the order of individual 4 L (30.47 mW m(-2)) > serial connection of 1.5 and 4 L (27.75) > individual 1.5 L (20.12) > parallel connection of 1.5 and 4 L (17.04) two-chamber microbial fuel cells . The power density using municipal solid waste microbial fuel cells was compared with information in the literature and discussed.

  9. Hazards Analysis of Energy Recovery from Army Ammunition Plant Solid Waste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    wastes, two energy recovery processes currently being used with municipal solid waste and other types of biomass are being considered. One process con...military explosives are finding their way into municipal solid waste (table 1). In several cases investigators dis- covered the origins of...location is different. However, the waste from each site consists of the following types: 1. Non-contaminated - Similar to municipal solid waste except

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  11. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  12. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Lilliana Abarca; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities.

  13. Processing of solid low level alpha suspected radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maes, Michael; Huys, Thomas; Rommes, Jeroen; Tuerlinckx, Robin; Bloemen, Raf

    2013-07-01

    Incineration of low active waste is the most efficient way to obtain high volume reduction factors. Although the initial scenario for processing low active alpha suspected waste (α- activity ≤ 400 MBq/m{sup 3}) in Belgium was supercompaction, incineration was eventually chosen for various benefits concerning volume reduction as well as the elimination of organic compounds improving the long term performance. This specific type of waste is often contaminated with for example mercury, requiring special attention in the treatment of both off-gas en waste water. In this paper it is shown that the CILVA incinerator of Belgoprocess N.V. has a high efficiency to combine both incineration and supercompaction of such types of waste. (authors)

  14. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia.

  15. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), under the supervision of the...

  16. 40 CFR 22.37 - Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sections 3005(d) and (e), 3008, 9003 and 9006 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(d) and (e... administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. 22.37 Section 22.37 Protection of Environment... Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (a) Scope....

  17. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10667 Section 721.10667 Protection of Environment... iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN P-12-560; CAS No. 1391739-82-4;...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10667 Section 721.10667 Protection of Environment... iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN P-12-560; CAS No. 1391739-82-4;...

  19. Effects of biochars produced from solid organic municipal waste on soil quality parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New, value-added uses for solid organic waste are needed for environmental and economic sustainability. Fortunately, value-added biochars can be produced from mixed organic solid waste, thereby addressing solid waste management issues, and enabling long-term carbon sequestration. We hypothesize that...

  20. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(6)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: solid waste disposal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt facility bonds: solid waste disposal... and Local Bonds § 1.142(a)(6)-1 Exempt facility bonds: solid waste disposal facilities. (a) In general. This section defines the term solid waste disposal facility for purposes of section 142(a)(6)....

  1. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(6)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: solid waste disposal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exempt facility bonds: solid waste disposal... and Local Bonds § 1.142(a)(6)-1 Exempt facility bonds: solid waste disposal facilities. (a) In general. This section defines the term solid waste disposal facility for purposes of section 142(a)(6)....

  2. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unwanted material that is not solid or... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Alternative... Eligible Academic Entities § 262.215 Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste. (a) If...

  3. 40 CFR 22.37 - Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. 22.37 Section 22.37 Protection of Environment... Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (a) Scope. This... sections 3005(d) and (e), 3008, 9003 and 9006 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(d) and...

  4. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unwanted material that is not solid or... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Alternative... Eligible Academic Entities § 262.215 Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste. (a) If...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  6. 40 CFR 22.37 - Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. 22.37 Section 22.37 Protection of Environment... Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (a) Scope. This... sections 3005(d) and (e), 3008, 9003 and 9006 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(d) and...

  7. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal...

  8. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous...

  9. 76 FR 51879 - Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 17 RIN 1545-BD04 Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities... regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations on the definition of solid waste disposal... developed definition of solid waste which focused on used materials and residual materials, with...

  10. A Model of Solid Waste Management Based Multilateral Co-Operation in Semi-Urban Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchanabhandhu, Chanchai; Woraphong, Seree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to construct a model of solid waste management based on multilateral cooperation in semi-urban community. Its specific objectives were to 1) study the solid waste situation and involvement of community in the solid waste management in Wangtaku Sub-district, Muang District, Nakhon Pathom Province; 2) construct a…

  11. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  12. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  13. 76 FR 55256 - Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BD04 Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax... published in the Federal Register on Friday, August 19, 2011, on the definition of solid waste disposal... solid waste disposal facilities and to taxpayers that use those facilities. DATES: This correction...

  14. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve New Hampshire's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010...

  15. Attitudes of Preservice Social Studies Teachers towards Solid Wastes and Recycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Kadir; Merey, Zihni

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of preservice social studies-teachers towards solid wastes and recycle. This study used the screening model, In order to determine the attitudes of preservice teachers towards solid wastes and recycle, we used the "Scale for the Attitudes of Preservice Teachers towards Solid Wastes and…

  16. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... determination to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research,...

  17. Planet Patrol. An Environmental Unit on Solid Waste Solutions for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This classroom unit was developed for use in grades 4-6 to help teach the concept of solid waste management. The teacher's guide provides an overview of the issue of solid waste disposal, a description of government, industry, and consumer roles in resolving the solid waste issue, and four lessons involving sanitary landfills, the reduction of…

  18. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve Massachusetts's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7,...

  19. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... modification to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA... certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted...

  20. Solid-waste management in Jalandhar city and its impact on community health

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Avinash; Kumar, Manoj; Johal, Eonkar

    2008-01-01

    In this study, solid-waste management practices were evaluated in order to find out its link with occurrence of vector-borne disease. Strategies for solid-waste management were employed as practical model to solve the problems regarding pollution which is originated by solid-waste. PMID:20040983

  1. Chemical changes during vermicomposting of sago industry solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Selvi; Sivarajan, M; Saravanapriya, S

    2010-07-15

    A laboratory study was undertaken to examine the temporal changes in physico-chemical properties during vermicomposting of sago industry waste. The sago industry waste was blended with cow dung, poultry manure at various proportions, kept for pre-treatment for 21 days and subsequently vermicomposted for a period of 45 days under shade. Earthworm species (Eisenia foetida) was introduced at the rate of 50 g/kg of waste. The substrate moisture content and temperature were monitored regularly. The vermicomposts were sampled at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days for the assessment of temporal changes in physico-chemical properties. The data revealed vermicomposting of sago wastes, cow dung and poultry manure mixed at equal proportion (1:1:1) produced a superior quality manure with desirable C:N ratio and higher nutritional status than composting. E. foetida is an earthworm suitable for composting organic wastes such as poultry manure with extreme pH and high temperature and sago waste with high organic carbon in a shorter period of time. This study suggests that the sago industry solid waste could be effectively converted into highly valuable manure that can be exploited to promote crop production.

  2. The Active Solid Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  3. Municipal solid waste landfills harbor distinct microbiomes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity. PMID:27148222

  5. Mercury in municipal solid wastes and New Jersey mercury prevention and reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogan, H.; Stevenson, E.

    1994-12-31

    Mercury is a very toxic heavy metal which accumulates in the brain causing neurological damages involving psychasthenic and vegetative syndrome. At high exposure levels it causes behavioral and personality changes, loss of memory and insomnia. Long-term exposure or exposure during pregnancy to mercury or mercury compounds can permanently damage the kidney and fetus. In addition to potential effects on human health, mercury poisoning can also affect other living organisms. Mercury is different than other heavy metals. It consistently biomagnifies and bioaccumulates within the aquatic food chain. Global sources of mercury release are both natural and anthropogenic. Natural sources include volatilization of gaseous-mercury iron soils ana rocks, volcanic releases, evaporation from the ocean and other water bodies. Anthropogenic sources are fuel and coal combustion, mining, smelting, manufacturing activities, disposal of sludge, pesticides, animal and food waste, and incineration of municipal solid waste. Worldwide combustion of municipal solid waste is the second largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. In New Jersey, incineration of solid waste is the largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) has developed a comprehensive program to control and prevent emission of mercury resulting from combustion municipal solid waste.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Analysis of cellulose biodegradative power

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.; Nieves, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1993-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) represents a waste disposal option which results in the production of a gaseous fuel (methane) and an organic residue suitable for use as a soil amendment. The rate limiting step in this process is the hydrolysis of polymeric substrates such as cellulose. Analysis of digester sludge resident cellulase enzyme activity will be discussed. Cellulase enzyme activities are removed from sludge solids by a detergent extraction protocol. The analysis of discrete cellulase activities was accomplished using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis and Zymogram activity staining for CMC activity. Preliminary isolations of discrete cellulase activities from anaerobic digester sludge was performed by preparation isoelectric focussing using the Rainin RF-3 system.

  7. Assessment of municipal solid waste generation and recyclable materials potential in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohamed Osman; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Mujeebu, M Abdul

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a forecasting study of municipal solid waste generation (MSWG) rate and potential of its recyclable components in Kuala Lumpur (KL), the capital city of Malaysia. The generation rates and composition of solid wastes of various classes such as street cleansing, landscape and garden, industrial and constructional, institutional, residential and commercial are analyzed. The past and present trends are studied and extrapolated for the coming years using Microsoft office 2003 Excel spreadsheet assuming a linear behavior. The study shows that increased solid waste generation of KL is alarming. For instance, the amount of daily residential SWG is found to be about 1.62 kg/capita; with the national average at 0.8-0.9 kg/capita and is expected to be increasing linearly, reaching to 2.23 kg/capita by 2024. This figure seems reasonable for an urban developing area like KL city. It is also found that, food (organic) waste is the major recyclable component followed by mix paper and mix plastics. Along with estimated population growth and their business activities, it has been observed that the city is still lacking in terms of efficient waste treatment technology, sufficient fund, public awareness, maintaining the established norms of industrial waste treatment etc. Hence it is recommended that the concerned authority (DBKL) shall view this issue seriously.

  8. Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-31

    The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water.

  9. Evaluation of mixing systems for biogasification of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Swartzbaugh, J T; Smith, R B

    1981-01-01

    Two specially selected mixing systems were tested and evaluated to determine how effectively they could prevent the formation of fibrous mats and stringers during the anaerobic digestion of a slurried mixture of preprocessed municipal slide waste and sewage sludge to produce methane gas. The tests were conducted in a modified 10.7 m (35 ft) diameter, nominal 378,000 liter (100,000 gal) capacity concrete vessel in the Franklin, Ohio, environmental complex. This complex included two plants that collectively provided the solid waste/sewage sludge feedstock. One of the two mixing systems was a mechanical agitator--a vessel-centered rotary shaft with four blades at each of two levels to drive the slurry downward. The second system included three equidistantly placed gas gun assemblies that each produced bubbles at a constant rate to draw the slurry upward. The solids accumulations were generally the same for the two mixing systems when they had common test conditions. In all tests, the percent solids for the top level were higher than those for the middle and bottom levels. As the feed ratio and the percent solids in the feedstock were increased, this differential became progressively more pronounced. Moreover, the percent of volatile solids (in a given amount of total solids) for the top level became disproportionately higher than those for the other two levels.

  10. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: The case of Dhaka city

    SciTech Connect

    Sufian, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are projected to increase with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budget for collection capacity alone does not improve environmental quality; rather an increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a computer laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis.

  11. Thermo gravimetric and kinetic studies on dried solid waste of post-methanated distillery effluent under oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Naveen, C; Premalatha, M

    2014-12-01

    This work seeks for the possibility of using solid waste generated by drying the post-methanated distillery effluent, as fuel. TGA has been employed to analyse the kinetics of thermal degradation of the solid waste at different heating rates of 10, 20, 30, and 40°Cmin(-1) in pyrolysis and combustion modes. In combustion mode, the activation energy changes from 253.58 to 87.91kJmol(-1), corresponding to the changes in heating rates of 10°Cmin(-1) to 40°Cmin(-1), whereas, there is no significant change of activation energy in pyrolysis mode. The Arrhenius equation based kinetic model with regression analysis using LINEST function is able to predict the kinetic variables of dried solid waste in both the modes. Solid waste almost completely degrades at the end of isothermal condition in pyrolysis mode.

  12. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using prognostic tools and regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghinea, Cristina; Drăgoi, Elena Niculina; Comăniţă, Elena-Diana; Gavrilescu, Marius; Câmpean, Teofil; Curteanu, Silvia; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2016-11-01

    For an adequate planning of waste management systems the accurate forecast of waste generation is an essential step, since various factors can affect waste trends. The application of predictive and prognosis models are useful tools, as reliable support for decision making processes. In this paper some indicators such as: number of residents, population age, urban life expectancy, total municipal solid waste were used as input variables in prognostic models in order to predict the amount of solid waste fractions. We applied Waste Prognostic Tool, regression analysis and time series analysis to forecast municipal solid waste generation and composition by considering the Iasi Romania case study. Regression equations were determined for six solid waste fractions (paper, plastic, metal, glass, biodegradable and other waste). Accuracy Measures were calculated and the results showed that S-curve trend model is the most suitable for municipal solid waste (MSW) prediction.

  13. An Action Research in Young Children (3-5) with Activities on Solid Waste Management in Greece: An Attempt for Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apanomeritaki, Olga

    This action research project sought to increase the waste management and recycling knowledge among 20 children age 4 and 5 years enrolled in a preschool program in Thessaloniki, Greece. A structured interview was developed to assess the children's pre-intervention knowledge of waste management and recycling. It indicated that most children knew…

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Bimleshwar; Shepherd, Philip

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, recycling'' refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  15. Approximate cost functions for solid waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Tsilemou, Konstantinia; Panagiotakopoulos, Demetrios

    2006-08-01

    Cost estimation is a basic requirement for planning municipal solid waste management systems. The variety of organizational, financial and management schemes and the continuously developing technological advancements render the economic analysis a complex task, made more complex by the scarcity of real cost data. The objectives of this paper were: (1) to explore the problems arising in getting cost estimates from scattered and limited published data; (2) to suggest a procedure for generating cost functions relating initial set-up cost and operating cost with facility size; and (3) to present such cost functions, relevant to European states, for selected types of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities. Regarding the problems of available scarce data, one needs to deal with cost figures which correspond to facilities with variations in size, technology, year of construction, working conditions, level of technological automation, environmental impacts, social acceptance, capacity utilization rate, composition of inflowing waste, waste management policies, degree of compliance with quality standards, etc. The paper addresses this issue and discusses the proper use of statistical analyses in such cases of fragmented data; moreover, it points out some usual misuses of statistics by analysts and the danger of getting erroneous results. The suggested process for generating cost functions acceptable to the decision-makers is pivoted around the question of acceptable approximation level. Finally, approximate cost curves are suggested for waste-to-energy facilities, landfilling facilities, anaerobic digestion facilities and composting facilities.

  16. Determinants of sustainability in solid waste management--the Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Zurbrügg, Christian; Gfrerer, Margareth; Ashadi, Henki; Brenner, Werner; Küper, David

    2012-11-01

    According to most experts, integrated and sustainable solid waste management should not only be given top priority, but must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success of any solid waste project. Aside from project sustainable impacts, the overall enabling environment is the key feature determining performance and success of an integrated and affordable solid waste system. This paper describes a project-specific approach to assess typical success or failure factors. A questionnaire-based assessment method covers issues of: (i) social mobilisation and acceptance (social element), (ii) stakeholder, legal and institutional arrangements comprising roles, responsibilities and management functions (institutional element); (iii) financial and operational requirements, as well as cost recovery mechanisms (economic element). The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Bali, Indonesia was analysed using this integrated assessment method. The results clearly identified chief characteristics, key factors to consider when planning country wide replication but also major barriers and obstacles which must be overcome to ensure project sustainability. The Gianyar project consists of a composting unit processing 60 tons of municipal waste per day from 500,000 inhabitants, including manual waste segregation and subsequent composting of the biodegradable organic fraction.

  17. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies in a chlor-alkali production facility.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo

    2011-06-01

    The waste management of a chlor-alkali and calcium chloride industrial facility from southern Chile was the object of this study. The main solid waste materials generated in these processes are brine sediments and calcium chloride sediments, respectively. Both residues are mixed in the liquid phase and filtered in a press filter, obtaining a final low humidity solid waste, called 'mixed sediments', which is disposed of in an industrial landfill as non-hazardous waste. The aim of the present study was to compare by means of LCA, the current waste management option of the studied chlor-alkali facility, namely landfill disposal, with two new possible options: the reuse of the mixed sediments as mineral additive in compost and the use of brine sediments as an unconventional sorbent for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. The functional unit was defined as 1 tonne of waste being managed. To perform this evaluation, software SimaPro 7.0 was used, selecting the Ecoindicator 99 and CML 2000 methodologies for impact evaluation. The obtained results indicate that the use of brine sediments as a novel material for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater (scenario 3) presented environmental benefits when compared with the waste management option of sediments landfilling (scenario 1). The avoided environmental loads, generated by the substitution of activated granular carbon and the removal of Cu and Zn from wastewater in the treatment process generated positive environmental impacts, enhancing the environmental performance of scenario 3.

  18. Solid metabolic waste transport and stowage investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, R. A.; Koesterer, M. G.; Hunt, S. R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The basic Waste Collection System (WCS) design under consideration utilized air flow to separate the stool from the WCS user and to transport the fecal material to a slinger device for subsequent deposition on a storage bowel. The major parameters governing stool separation and transport were found to be the area of the air inlet orifices, the configuration of the air inlet orifice and the transport air flow. Separation force and transport velocity of the stool were studied. The developed inlet orifice configuration was found to be an effective design for providing fecal separation and transport. Simulated urine tests and female user tests in zero gravity established air flow rates between 0.08 and 0.25 cu sm/min (3 and 9 scfm) as satisfactory for entrapment, containment and transport of urine using an urinal. The investigation of air drying of fecal material as a substitute for vacuum drying in a WCS breadboard system showed that using baseline conditions anticipated for the shuttle cabin ambient atmosphere, flow rates of 0.14 cu sm/min (5 cfm) were adequate for drying and maintaining biological stability of the fecal material.

  19. Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines - What does it need?

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Johannes G.

    2012-11-15

    The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

  20. Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines--what does it need?

    PubMed

    Paul, Johannes G; Arce-Jaque, Joan; Ravena, Neil; Villamor, Salome P

    2012-11-01

    The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

  1. A review on current status of municipal solid waste management in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a major environmental issue in India. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and towns is also increased. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste can cause adverse environmental impacts, public health risk and other socio-economic problem. This paper presents an overview of current status of solid waste management in India which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans.

  2. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Rives, Jesus; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-06-15

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  3. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Rives, Jesús; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-06-01

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80l to containers of 2400l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60l or 80l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  4. Gamma monitor for assay of radioactive solid-waste shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J H

    1982-06-01

    A gamma waste monitor has been developed and evaluated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The purpose of the monitor is to improve estimates of the radionuclides in solid wastes arriving at the plant's burial ground. This monitor, a computer-based spectrometer, quantitatively measures many radionuclides in SRP waste, including waste in heavily shielded shipping casks. Radionuclides emitting gamma rays of sufficient energy to penetrate the shipping container walls can be measured directly. Other radionuclides that are beta emitters or which emit gamma photons too weak to penetrate the walls of the waste containers can often be estimated by their association with measurable gamma photons. Development of the monitor was initiated to find a more accurate method of estimating the quantities of radioactive materials accumulated in the burial ground and to ensure compliance with burial limits imposed by SRP technical standards. Another benefit from the monitor is that it provides specific radionuclide data which are essential to environmental impact evaluations and decommissioning planning. The gamma waste monitor is described. (WHK)

  5. Determinants of sustainability in solid waste management - The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Zurbruegg, Christian; Gfrerer, Margareth; Ashadi, Henki; Brenner, Werner; Kueper, David

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our assessment tool helps evaluate success factors in solid waste projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Success of the composting plant in Indonesia is linked to its community integration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appropriate technology is not a main determining success factor for sustainability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structured assessment of 'best practices' can enhance replication in other cities. - Abstract: According to most experts, integrated and sustainable solid waste management should not only be given top priority, but must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success of any solid waste project. Aside from project sustainable impacts, the overall enabling environment is the key feature determining performance and success of an integrated and affordable solid waste system. This paper describes a project-specific approach to assess typical success or failure factors. A questionnaire-based assessment method covers issues of: (i) social mobilisation and acceptance (social element), (ii) stakeholder, legal and institutional arrangements comprising roles, responsibilities and management functions (institutional element); (iii) financial and operational requirements, as well as cost recovery mechanisms (economic element). The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Bali, Indonesia was analysed using this integrated assessment method. The results clearly identified chief characteristics, key factors to consider when planning country wide replication but also major barriers and obstacles which must be overcome to ensure project sustainability. The Gianyar project consists of a composting unit processing 60 tons of municipal waste per day from 500,000 inhabitants, including manual waste segregation and subsequent composting of the biodegradable organic fraction.

  6. Enzymatic processing of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning; Rønsch, Georg Ørnskov; Nørholm, Nanna Dreyer

    2010-12-01

    The focus of this work was to investigate an enzymatic liquefaction of MSW organics, paper and cardboard. Liquefaction trials were conducted in different trial volumes: 50 g lab-scale trials and 5 0kg vessel-tests and evaluated based on particle size and viscosity. The viscosity results showed that Celluclast 1.5L had the singular significant effect on liquefaction of model MSW. No effect of α-amylase, protease and interaction in between and with cellulases on viscosity and particle size distribution was found in this study. Degradable material with a particle size above 1mm after treatment was evaluated using SEM microscopy. These results showed that paper particles were the main obstacles needing additional treatment in order to become fully liquefied. In a pilot scale test treating authentic MSW; more than 90% of initial organic and paper dry matter (DM) was recovered as liquid slurry after sieving through a 5-mm sieve. These tests were performed at up to 35% DM, showing that this process can easily manage high DM loadings. MSW enzymatic liquefaction promotes the separation of organics and paper from solids, which facilitate the use of these degradable fractions, with minimal loss, capable to enter a biogas plant through existing pipes.

  7. Air emissions at a municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Capenter, J.E.; Bidwell, J.N.

    1996-09-01

    The on-site and off-site ambient air concentrations of non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) and hydrogen sulfide were evaluated at a regional municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. A target list was developed to reflect those compounds typically found at MSW landfills that have potential health effects or odors. The on-site effects on ambient air were estimated conservatively by collecting air samples 10 to 13 cm above the landfill surface. The off-site impacts were predicted using air dispersion modeling that considered both fugitive and point source emissions and were based on landfill gas sampled from an active well collection system. The on-site and off-site ambient air concentrations were compared to levels set by regulatory requirements (Connecticut`s Hazard Limiting Values or HLVs) and odor threshold levels. No compound exceeded the HLVs either on- or off-site. No compounds detected on-site exceeded their odor thresholds. Several compounds evaluated at one-half their detection limit did exceed the odor threshold on-site. Only hydrogen sulfide exceeded its odor threshold off-site but remained below Connecticut`s Odor Limit Value.

  8. An environmentally sustainable decision model for urban solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Costi, P.; Minciardi, R.; Robba, M.; Rovatti, M.; Sacile, R

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present the structure and the application of a decision support system (DSS) designed to help decision makers of a municipality in the development of incineration, disposal, treatment and recycling integrated programs. Specifically, within a MSW management system, several treatment plants and facilities can generally be found: separators, plants for production of refuse derived fuel (RDF), incinerators with energy recovery, plants for treatment of organic material, and sanitary landfills. The main goal of the DSS is to plan the MSW management, defining the refuse flows that have to be sent to recycling or to different treatment or disposal plants, and suggesting the optimal number, the kinds, and the localization of the plants that have to be active. The DSS is based on a decision model that requires the solution of a constrained non-linear optimization problem, where some decision variables are binary and other ones are continuous. The objective function takes into account all possible economic costs, whereas constraints arise from technical, normative, and environmental issues. Specifically, pollution and impacts, induced by the overall solid waste management system, are considered through the formalization of constraints on incineration emissions and on negative effects produced by disposal or other particular treatments.

  9. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive material that has been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1994. This report does not include backlog waste: solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  10. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1993. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive waste in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, ``Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria,`` (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  11. Solid waste integrated forecast technical (SWEFT) report: FY1997 to FY 2070 - Document number changed to HNF-0918 at revision 1 - 1/7/97

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-10-03

    This web site provides an up-to-date report on the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed at Hanford`s Solid Waste (SW) Program from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the SW Program; program- level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and Li comparisons with previous forecasts and with other national data sources. The focus of this web site is on low- level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). Some details on low-level waste and hazardous waste are also provided. Currently, this site is reporting data current as of 9/96. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY97 through the end of each program`s life cycle.

  12. Solid waste sampling and distribution project. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) established a Waste Management Program within the Office of Fossil Energy. A key goal of this program is to ensure that waste management issues do not become obstacles to the commercialization of advanced coal utilization technologies. In achieving this goal, the Waste Management Program identifies various emerging coal utilization technologies and performs comprehensive characterizations of the waste streams and products. The characterizations include engineering assessments to define waste streams of interest/potential concern, field studies to collect samples of the waste, and complete chemical analysis of the collected samples. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) was selected to perform the site selection and the sampling aspects of five (5) of these facilities. The current EER contract consists of two interrelated efforts: site selection and waste sampling. Detailed sample analysis is being conducted under another DOE contract. The primary objectives of the site selection and sampling effort are listed: (1) Survey sites at which advanced fossil energy combustion technologies are being operated, and identify five sites for sampling. Priority should be given to DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program Sites. (2) Identify candidate solid waste streams in advanced coal utilization processes likely to present disposal problems and prioritized them for sampling at selected sites. (3) Contact site personnel for site access, sample the streams representatively and document them according to established methodology and known process conditions; and (4) Distribute the samples to DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center or their representatives for analysis and report on the site visit.

  13. Bio-extraction of precious metals from urban solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhabrata; Natarajan, Gayathri; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2017-01-01

    Reduced product lifecycle and increasing demand for electronic devices have resulted in the generation of huge volumes of electronic waste (e-waste). E-wastes contain high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, which have detrimental effects on health and the environment. However, e-wastes also contain significant concentrations of precious metals such as gold, silver and palladium, which can be a major driving force for recycling of urban waste. Cyanogenic bacteria such as Chromobacterium violaceum generate cyanide as a secondary metabolite which mobilizes gold into solution via a soluble gold-cyanide complex. However, compared to conventional technology for metal recovery, this approach is not effective, owing largely to the low concentration of lixiviants produced by the bacteria. To overcome the challenges of bioleaching of gold from e-waste, several strategies were adopted to enhance gold recovery rates. These included (i) pretreatment of e-waste to remove competing metal ions, (ii) mutation to adapt the bacteria to high pH environment, (iii) metabolic engineering to produce higher cyanide lixiviant, and (iv) spent medium leaching with adjusted initial pH. Compared to 7.1 % recovery by the wild type bacteria, these strategies achieved gold recoveries of 11.3%, 22.5%, 30% and 30% respectively at 0.5% w/v pulp density respectively. Bioleached gold was finally mineralized and precipitated as gold nanoparticles using the bacterium Delftia acidovorans. This study demonstrates the potential for enhancement of biocyanide production and gold recovery from electronic waste through different strategies, and extraction of solid gold from bioleached leachate.

  14. Heavy metal partitioning in a municipal solid waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sorum, L.; Fossum, M.; Hustad, J.E.; Evensen, E.

    1997-12-01

    Norway has the following priorities for management of municipal solid waste (MSW) (1) Reduce waste generation and toxic components in waste, (2) Encourage re-use, recycling and energy recovery, and (3) Secure an environmentally safe management of residues. MSW consists of household waste and waste from the service and trade industry delivered to municipal waste treatment plants or recycling schemes. In 1995, a total of 2.7 million tons of MSW (1.26 million tons of household waste and 1.44 million tons of waste from service and trade industry) was handled as follows: 68% was deposited on landfills, 18% was combusted, 13% recycled and 1% composted. Combustion of MSW is handled in five larger plants with energy recovery located in different cities in Norway. In addition, a new incinerator for MSW is planned. This incinerator will have to meet the new emission regulations given by the European Union which are more stringent than the present regulations. Hence, Norway is moving towards more stringent regulations, leading to an increased interest in the environmental aspects of MSW incinerators. During 1995 Trondheim Energy Company carried out an investigation program to examine the residues from the incinerator. Primary attention was on the heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and the landfill leacate. The program was conducted in order to establish more information about characteristics of the residues and thus be able to undertake a sounder evaluation of the environmental aspects of the final treatment of these products. This program was supplementary to the emission analysis done periodically for the flue gas and drain water. The objective of this work has been to establish knowledge about the partitioning of heavy metals through the incinerator and calculate the concentrations of heavy metal in the input MSW.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The overall objective of the study in this report was to gather data on waste management technologies to allow comparison of various alternatives for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objectives of the study were to: 1. Compile detailed data for existing waste management technologies on costs, environmental releases, energy requirements and production, and coproducts such as recycled materials and compost. Identify missing information necessary to make energy, economic, and environmental comparisons of various MSW management technologies, and define needed research that could enhance the usefulness of the technology. 3. Develop a data base that can be used to identify the technology that best meets specific criteria defined by a user of the data base. Volume I contains the report text. Volume II contains supporting exhibits. Volumes III through X are appendices, each addressing a specific MSW management technology. Volumes XI and XII contain project bibliographies.

  16. [Combustion characteristics of municipal solid wastes in China].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuqi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Li, Xiaodong; Ma, Zengyi; Jiang, Xuguang; Ni, Mingjiang; Kefa, Cen

    2002-05-01

    On the basis of about 40 groups of statistical data of municipal solid wastes(MSW) from 23 main cities in China, equations to calculate net heat value and theoretical air were regressed, furthermore, the mathematical relation between net heat value and adiabatic flame temperature, critical heat value for MSW incineration without support fuel and effect of such parameters as excess air and temperature of preheated air on critical heat value were analyzed.

  17. Supplemental design requirements document solid waste operations complex

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Broz, D.R.; Eaton, H.E.; Greager, T.M.; Huckfeldt, R.A.; Kooiker, S.L.; Lamberd, D.L.; Lang, L.L.; Myers, J.B.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to the WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, WHC-SD-W113-FDC-001, and WHC-SD-W100-FDC-001. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design common to the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) Facilities (Project W-112, Project W-113, and WRAP 2A).

  18. Involvement and innovation: Citizens making solid waste decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, S.L.; Mills, W.

    1995-09-01

    The city of Germantown, in Shelby County, Tennessee, is a suburb of Memphis. Citizens` input into what they expect from the city`s solid waste program has resulted in a successful household recycling program, an innovative {open_quotes}grasscycling{close_quotes} campaign, a promising back yard composting project and a reduction of twenty six percent in the amount paid for the services. At the same time these results were achieved, the citizens gave a ninety percent approval rating for services received.

  19. Micronutrient dynamics after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste.

    PubMed

    Almansa, Ana R; Rodriguez-Galan, Monica; Borja, Rafael; Fermoso, Fernando G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated metal dynamics, and their bioavailability, before and after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste (OMSW), using a sequential metal extraction scheme. The 11.5% increase of cobalt in the most available fraction after the pretreatment coupled to the increase of methane production rate have been a good indicator that the OMSW anaerobic digestion might be metal limited due to the lack of cobalt.

  20. Simulation of municipal solid waste degradation in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bhagwan Shamrao; C, Agnes Anto; Singh, Devendra Narain

    2017-03-01

    Municipal solid waste generation is huge in growing cities of developing nations such as India, owing to the rapid industrial and population growth. In addition to various methods for treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (landfills, composting, bio-methanation, incineration and pyrolysis), aerobic/anaerobic bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity for economical and effective disposal of municipal solid waste. However, efficiency of municipal solid waste bioreactor landfills primarily depends on the municipal solid waste decomposition rate, which can be accelerated through monitoring moisture content and temperature by using the frequency domain reflectometry probe and thermocouples, respectively. The present study demonstrates that these landfill physical properties of the heterogeneous municipal solid waste mass can be monitored using these instruments, which facilitates proper scheduling of the leachate recirculation for accelerating the decomposition rate of municipal solid waste.

  1. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  2. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  3. Management of solid wastes in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gohary, F.; El-khouly, M.S.

    1983-03-01

    Wastes from a local iron and steel factory operations are agglomeration of iron ore and sintering, pig iron manufacture, steel making, rolling mill operations, and pickling. Liquid slag, produced in the blast furnace, is granulated in water and used as a concrete additive. Other wastes are directed separately to sedimentation tanks. The settleable solids are reused, and the treated effluents are pumped to a cooling tower for recycling. As a result of the new manufacturing expansion, existing waste treatment facilities are not adequate, and it was found necessary to provide additional treatment techniques. Departmental, as well as composite wastes were treated using plain sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation, or chemical coagulation, or a combination of these methods. The results obtained showed that the use of the hydrocyclone for solid-liquid separation is much more efficient than plain sedimentation. When this process was followed by coagulation, very promising results were obtained. The use of pickling liquor as a coagulant gave comparable results with alum and ferric chloride.

  4. Optimization of municipal solid waste management in Port Said - Egypt.

    PubMed

    Badran, M F; El-Haggar, S M

    2006-01-01

    Optimization of solid waste management systems using operational research methodologies has not yet been applied in any Egyptian governorate. In this paper, a proposed model for a municipal solid waste management system in Port Said, Egypt is presented. It includes the use of the concept of collection stations, which have not yet been used in Egypt. Mixed integer programming is used to model the proposed system and its solution is performed using MPL software V4.2. The results show that the best model would include 27 collection stations of 15-ton daily capacity and 2 collection stations of 10 ton daily capacity. Any transfer of waste between the collection station and the landfill should not occur. Moreover, the flow of the district waste should not be confined to the district collection stations. The cost of the objective function for this solution is 10,122 LE/day (equivalent to 1716 US dollars). After further calculations, the profit generated by the proposed model is 49,655.8 LE/day (equivalent to 8418.23 US dollars).

  5. Characterization of thermal properties of municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Faitli, József; Magyar, Tamás; Erdélyi, Attila; Murányi, Attila

    2015-02-01

    Municipal waste landfills represent not only a source of landfill gases, but a source of thermal energy as well. The heat in landfills is generated by physical, chemical and microbiological processes. The goal of our study was to characterize the thermal properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples of the given landfill. A new apparatus was designed and constructed to measure heat flow. A systematic test series of 17 discrete measurements was carried out with municipal waste samples of 1.0-1.7 m(3). The thermal conductivity, heat diffusivity and specific heat capacity of the samples were determined. Analysing the results of the sampling and our experiments it was realized that the theoretical fundaments should be clarified. Two theories were developed for the serial and for the parallel heat flow in three phase disperse systems. The serial and parallel models resulted in different theoretical estimations. The measured thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity were better characterized by the parallel heat flow estimations. The results show that heat can flow parallel in solid, liquid and gas phases. Characterization of thermal properties serves to establish the fundament of heat extraction from municipal waste landfills.

  6. LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a large, complex project in which a number of different research activities are taking place concurrently to collect data, develop cost and LCI methodologies, construct a database and decision support tool, and conduct case studies with communities to support the life cyc...

  7. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J.; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  8. A LABORATORY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE GASEOUS EMISSIONS AND SOLIDS DECOMPOSITION DURING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a materials flow analysis performed for composting municipal solid waste (MSW) and specific biodegradable organic components of MSW. (NOTE: This work is part of an overall U.S. EPA project providing cost, energy, and materials flow information on diffe...

  9. Reliability of chemical microanalyses for solid waste materials.

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Johan, Zdenek; Vítková, Martina; Skála, Roman; Kotrlý, Marek; Habler, Gerlinde; Klementová, Mariana

    2012-06-30

    The investigation of solid speciation of metals and metalloids is required for accurate assessment of the hazardous properties of solid waste materials from high-temperature technologies (slag, bottom ash, fly ash, air-pollution-control residues). This paper deals with the problem of reliability of microanalyses using a combination of electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) only. These methods do not permit to detect nanophases in host-crystals and lead to erroneous interpretation of analytical results, considering the elements of nanophases as belonging to the crystal structure of the main phase. More detailed analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on foils prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) can be used to solve this analytical problem. In this study, lamellar aggregates of potassium-rich clinopyroxenes were detected in copper smelting slags by a combination of SEM and EPMA. However, FIB-TEM indicated the presence of leucite inclusions (tens to hundreds nm in size) within the clinopyroxene lamellae. Based on examples from smelting slags and other solid waste materials, recommendations for standard SEM and EPMA applications and the need for methods with higher resolution for mineralogical investigation of waste materials are discussed.

  10. In-line ultrasonic monitoring of waste slurry suspended solids

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, H.-T.; Sheen, S.-H.; Raptis, A. C.

    2000-05-25

    During the transport of tank waste, it is very important to quantitatively measure the percent solids concentration (PSC) of the waste, which indicates the flow conditions and the extent of solids settling. At Argonne National Laboratory, an in-line, real-time, a nonintrusive ultrasonic monitoring system has been developed to measure the PSC and flow density of tank waste by measuring sound velocity and attenuation in the flow. This system consists of a pair of longitudinal transducers bonded to waveguides on the opposite sides of the pipe and operating at IMHz simultaneously in pulse-and-echo and pitch-and-catch modes. The PSC measurement is provided by attenuation, while the density measurement is calculated by impedance and sound velocity. A thermocouple is attached to one of the waveguides for automatic temperature correction of the measurements. This system was one of four evaluated for in-line measurement of slurry at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1998. The results indicate that the measurements are in good agreement with a Coriolis meter and that the system can be used to monitor PSC up to 40 wt.%. However, the system is greatly affected by entrained air bubbles within the solid flow during Puisair mixing. A different mixing mechanism will solve this problem.

  11. Method for producing synthetic fuels from solid waste

    DOEpatents

    Antal, Jr., Michael J.

    1976-11-23

    Organic solid wastes represented by the general chemical formula C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z are reacted with steam at elevated temperatures to produce H.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The overall process is represented by the reaction C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z + 2(X-Z/2)H.sub.2 O.fwdarw..sup..delta.XCO.sub.2 + [(Y/2) + 2(X-Z/2)] H.sub.2 . (1) reaction (1) is endothermic and requires heat. This heat is supplied by a tower top solar furnace; alternatively, some of the solid wastes can be burned to supply heat for the reaction. The hydrogen produced by reaction (1) can be used as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. Alternatively, methanol can be produced by the commercial process CO.sub.2 + 3H.sub.2 .fwdarw. CH.sub.3 OH + H.sub.2 O . (2) since reaction (1) is endothermic, the system represents a method for storing heat energy from an external source in a chemical fuel produced from solid wastes.

  12. Considerations for Net Zero Waste Installations: Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    of reducing paper use from this is to encourage two-sided ERDC/CERL TR-15-21 8 printing by setting printer defaults to this format. Another means...interactive html ------------. 2006. Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gases: A Life-Cycle Assessment of Emissions and Sinks, 3d ed. Washington, DC

  13. Solid Waste Disposal Alternatives for the U.S. Military Academy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Background The generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the United States is increasing. At present, the United States generates 150 million tons of... municipal solid waste (MSW) per year and is expected to generate 180 million tons of MSW per year by the year 2000 (Thomas 1988). This increase is not...equal. There are no earlier municipal solid waste dioxide emission standards, but infectious wastes are limited to 150 ppm (hourly average). It should be

  14. Continuous high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of organic solid wastes under mesophilic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > High-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion is attracting a lot of attention these days. > One reactor was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste. > Maximum biogas production rate of 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d was achieved at HRT 40 d and 40% TS. > The other reactor was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW). > Until a 40% LW content increase, the reactor exhibited a stable performance. - Abstract: With increasing concerns over the limited capacity of landfills, conservation of resources, and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, high-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste (OSW) is attracting a great deal of attention these days. In the present work, two dry anaerobic co-digestion systems fed with different mixtures of OSW were continuously operated under mesophilic conditions. Dewatered sludge cake was used as a main seeding source. In reactor (I), which was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste (PW), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid content were controlled to find the maximum treatability. At a fixed solid content of 30% total solids (TS), stable performance was maintained up to an HRT decrease to 40 d. However, the stable performance was not sustained at 30 d HRT, and hence, HRT was increased to 40 d again. In further operation, instead of decreasing HRT, solid content was increased to 40% TS, which was found to be a better option to increase the treatability. The biogas production rate (BPR), CH{sub 4} production yield (MPY) and VS reduction achieved in this condition were 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, 0.25 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and 80%, respectively. Reactor (II) was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW), and LW content was increased during the operation. Until a 40% LW content increase, reactor (II) exhibited a stable performance. A BPR of 1.7 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, MPY of 0.26 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and VS reduction of 72% was achieved at 40% LW content. However, when the LW content was increased to 60

  15. Landfill area estimation based on integrated waste disposal options and solid waste forecasting using modified ANFIS model.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Younes, Mohammed Y

    2016-09-01

    Solid waste prediction is crucial for sustainable solid waste management. The collection of accurate waste data records is challenging in developing countries. Solid waste generation is usually correlated with economic, demographic and social factors. However, these factors are not constant due to population and economic growth. The objective of this research is to minimize the land requirements for solid waste disposal for implementation of the Malaysian vision of waste disposal options. This goal has been previously achieved by integrating the solid waste forecasting model, waste composition and the Malaysian vision. The modified adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (MANFIS) was employed to develop a solid waste prediction model and search for the optimum input factors. The performance of the model was evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)). The model validation results are as follows: RMSE for training=0.2678, RMSE for testing=3.9860 and R(2)=0.99. Implementation of the Malaysian vision for waste disposal options can minimize the land requirements for waste disposal by up to 43%.

  16. Composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in Hamadan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Koolivand, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Yunesian, Massoud; Omrani, Gasemali

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the components, composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in dental offices in Hamadan. A total of 28 offices, including ten general dentist offices, eight specialist dentist offices, five practical dentist offices and five denture maker offices were selected in a random way. Three samples from each selected type were taken and the waste was manually separated into 74 sub-fractions and each sub-fraction was weighed. The results showed that the total annual dental waste production in dental offices was 41947.43 kg. Domestic type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical and toxic waste constituted 71.15, 21.40, 7.26 and 0.18%, respectively of this amount. Only seven fractions including gypsum, latex gloves, nylon, dental impression material, used medicine ampoules, saliva-contaminated paper towels and saliva ejectors constituted about 80% of the waste. It was also indicated that there were no effective activity for waste minimization, separation, reuse and recycling in dental offices and the management of sharps, potentially infectious waste and other hazardous waste was poor.

  17. Volume Reduction of Solid Radioactive Waste From Research Reactor and Nuclear Laboratories - Industrial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.N.; Gandhi, K.G.; Chander, M.; Raj, K.

    2006-07-01

    Various research reactors and nuclear laboratories at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India generate approximately 600 m{sup 3} of radioactive solid waste annually. These wastes are categorized and segregated based on their radiation field, physical nature and radionuclides present. The low level waste is further segregated based on compactability criteria. The compactable wastes are packed in 200 litres carbon steel drums and pelletized to get a volume reduction factor of about five. The compaction system designed for Cat-I (Table-1) radioactive waste is having 200 Tons capacity hydraulic press, housed in a well-ventilated enclosure. Before pelletizing, the drum is assayed to estimate {beta},{gamma} activity. Further, the imaging of waste drum is also done so as to avoid any possibility of non-compactable material being taken for pelletizing. The pelletizing system comprises of conveying, pushing, indexing and compacting. All operations are controlled by programmable logic control (PLC) based control system. Apart from the drum palletising, the system is also equipped to compact the used Pre and HEPA filters, being generated from exhaust and supply air system of clean room, nuclear laboratories, research reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, high level waste management facility etc. The system is designed to handle about 5 drums or filters per hour. So far about 3000 number of each, HEPA filters and waste drums have been safely compacted and disposed. (authors)

  18. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes.

  19. Integrated models for solid waste management in tourism regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shamshiry, Elmira; Nadi, Behzad; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Komoo, Ibrahim; Hashim, Halimaton Saadiah; Yahaya, Nadzri

    2011-01-01

    The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island.

  20. Integrated Models for Solid Waste Management in Tourism Regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shamshiry, Elmira; Nadi, Behzad; Bin Mokhtar, Mazlin; Komoo, Ibrahim; Saadiah Hashim, Halimaton; Yahaya, Nadzri

    2011-01-01

    The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island. PMID:21904559