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Sample records for active source seismic

  1. Active seismic sources as a proxy for seismic surface processes: An example from the 2012 Tongariro volcanic eruptions, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, A. D.; Lokmer, I.; Kennedy, B.; Keys, H. J. R.; Proctor, J.; Lyons, J. J.; Jolly, G. E.

    2014-10-01

    The 6 August 2012 eruption from Tongariro volcano's Te Maari vent comprised a complex sequence of events including at least 4 eruption pulses, a large chasm collapse, and a debris avalanche (volume of ~ 7 × 105 m3) that propagated ~ 2 km beyond the eruptive vent. The eruption was poorly observed, being obscured by night time darkness, and the eruption timing must be unravelled instead from a complex seismic record that includes discrete volcanic earthquakes, a sequence of low to moderate level spasmodic tremor and an intense burst of seismic and infrasound activity that marked the eruption onset. We have discriminated the evolution of the complex surface activity by comparing active seismic source data to the seismic sequence in a new cross correlation source location approach. We dropped 11 high impact masses from helicopter to generate a range of active seismic sources in the vicinity of the eruption vent, chasm, and debris avalanche areas. We obtained 8 successful drops having an impact energy ranging from 3 to 9 × 106 Nm producing observable seismic signals to a distance of 5 to 10 km and having good signal to noise characteristics in the 3-12 Hz range. For the 8 drops, we picked first-P arrival times and calculated amplitude spectra for a uniform set of four stations. We then compared these proxy source excitations to the natural eruption and pre-eruption data using a moving window cross correlation approach. From the correlation processing, we obtain a best matched source position in the near vent region for the eruption period and significant down channel excitations during both the pre and post eruption periods. The total seismic energy release calculated from the new method is ~ 8 × 1011 Nm, similar to an independently estimated calculation based on the radiated seismic energy. The new energy estimate may be more robust than those calculated from standard seismic radiation equations, which may include uncertainties about the path and site effects. The

  2. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-04-20

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

  3. A comparison of active seismic source data to seismic excitations from the 2012 Tongariro volcanic eruptions, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Arthur; Kennedy, Ben; Keys, Harry; Lokmer, Ivan; Proctor, Jon; Lyons, John; Jolly, Gillian

    2014-05-01

    The 6 August 2012 eruption from Tongariro volcano's Te Maari vent comprised a complex sequence of events including at least 4 eruption jets, a large chasm collapse, and a debris avalanche (volume of ~7x105 m3) that propagated ~2 km beyond the eruptive vent. The eruption was poorly observed, being obscured by night time darkness, and the eruption chronology must be unravelled instead from a complex seismic record that includes discrete volcanic earthquakes, a sequence of low to moderate level spasmodic tremor and an intense burst of seismic and infrasound activity starting at 11:52:18 UTC that marked the eruption onset. We have discriminated the timing of the complex surface activity by comparing active seismic source data to the eruptive sequence. We dropped 11 high impact masses from helicopter to generate a range of active seismic sources in the vicinity of the eruption vent, chasm, and debris avalanche areas. We obtained 8 successful drops having an impact energy ranging from 3 to 9x106 joules producing seismic signals to a distance of 5 to 10 km and having good signal to noise characteristics in the 3-12 Hz range. For the 8 drops, we picked first-P arrival times and calculated amplitude spectra for a uniform set of four 3-component stations. From these, we obtained a distribution of amplitudes across the network for each drop position which varied systematically from the eruption vent and avalanche scar to the debris avalanche toe. We then compared these proxy source excitations to the natural eruption and pre-eruption data using a moving window cross-correlation approach. From the correlation processing, we found evidence for the debris avalanche a few minutes prior to the eruption in both the broad spectrum and narrow frequency (5-10 Hz) analysis. The total seismic energy release calculated from the new method is ~8x1011 joules, similar to an independently estimated calculation based on the radiated seismic energy. The inferred seismic energy release for the

  4. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, Michael A.; Cook, Neville G. W.; McEvilly, Thomas V.; Majer, Ernest L.; Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

  5. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

  6. Seismic exploration of Fuji volcano with active sources in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, J.; Kagiyama, T.; Tanaka, S.; Miyamachi, H.; Tsutsui, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Katayama, H.; Matsuo, N.; Oshima, H.; Nishimura, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Watanabe, T.; Yamazaki, F.

    2004-12-01

    Fuji volcano (altitude 3,776 m) is the largest basaltic stratovolcano in Japan. In late August and early September 2003, seismic exploration was conducted around Fuji volcano by the detonation of 500 kg charges of dynamite to investigate the seismic structure of that area. Seismographs with an eigenfrequency of 2 Hz were used for observation, positioned along a WSW-ENE line passing through the summit of the mountain. A total of 469 observation points were installed at intervals of 250-500 m. The data were stored in memory on-site using data loggers. The sampling interval was 4 ms. Charges were detonated at 5 points, one at each end of the observation line and 3 along its length. The first arrival times at each observation point for each detonation were recorded as data. The P-wave velocity structure directly below the observation line was determined by forward calculation using the ray tracing method [Zelt and Smith, 1992]. The P-wave velocity structure below the volcano, assuming a layered structure, was found to be as follows. (1) The first layer extends for about 40 km around the summit and to a depth of 1-2 km. The P-wave velocity is 2.5 km/s on the upper surface of the layer and 3.5 km/s on the lower interface. (2) The second layer has P-wave velocities of 4.0 km/s on the top interface and 5.5 km/s at the lower interface. The layer is 25 km thick to the west of the summit and 1-2 km thick to the east, and forms a dome shape with a peak altitude of 2000 m directly below the summit. (3) The third layer is 5-12 km thick and has P-wave velocities of 5.7 km/s at the top interface and 6.5 km/s at the lower interface. This layer reaches shallower levels to the east of the summit, corresponding to the area where the second layer is thinner. Mt. Fuji is located slightly back from where the Philippine Sea Plate subducts below the Eurasian plate in association with collision with the Izu Peninsula. Matsuda (1971) suggested that Mt. Fuji lies on the same uplifted body as

  7. Seismic source parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.

    1994-06-01

    The use of information contained on seismograms to infer the properties of an explosion source presents an interesting challenge because the seismic waves recorded on the seismograms represent only small indirect, effects of the explosion. The essential physics of the problem includes the process by which these elastic waves are generated by the explosion and also the process involved in propagating the seismic waves from the source region to the sites where the seismic data are collected. Interpretation of the seismic data in terms of source properties requires that the effects of these generation and propagation processes be taken into account. The propagation process involves linear mechanics and a variety of standard seismological methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem. The generation process presents a more difficult problem, as it involves non-linear mechanics, but semi-empirical methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem which appear to yield reasonable results. These basic properties of the seismic method are illustrated with some of the results from the NPE.

  8. Crosswell CASSM(Continuous Active-Source Seismic Monitoring): Recent Developments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, T. M.; Niu, F.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Solbau, R.; Silver, P. G.

    2009-12-01

    Continuous active-source monitoring using borehole sources and sensors in a crosswell configuration has proven to be a useful tool for monitoring subsurface processes (Silver, et al, 2007; Daley, et al, 2007; Niu, et al, 2008). This recent work has focused on two applications: monitoring stress changes related to seismicity and monitoring changes in fluid distribution related to geologic storage of CO2. Field tests have demonstrated precision in travel time measurement of up to 1.1 x 10-7 s, and in velocity perturbation measurement of up to 1.1 x 10-5 (Niu, et al 2008). In this talk I will summarize our preceding work and discuss current developments. Current efforts address both hardware and design challenges to improving the methodology. Hardware issues include deployment of multiple piezoelectric sources in shallow and deep boreholes, source and sensor deployment on tubing inside casing, and deployment with other monitoring instrumentation. Design issues are focused on use of multiple sources and/or sensors to obtain optimal spatial resolution for monitoring processes in the interwell region. This design issue can be investigated with optimal experiment design theory. New field experiments for monitoring seismicity (at SAFOD) and CO2 injection (at a US Dept of Energy pilot) are in the design/deployment stage. Current status of these projects will be discussed. References: Silver, P.G., Daley, T.M., Niu, F., Majer, E.L., 2007, Active source monitoring of crosswell seismic travel time for stress induced changes, Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, v97, n1B, p281-293. Daley, T.M., R.D. Solbau, J.B. Ajo-Franklin, S.M. Benson, 2007, Continuous active-source monitoring of CO2 injection in a brine aquifer, Geophysics, v72, n5, pA57-A61, DOI:10.1190/1.2754716. Niu, F., Silver, P.G., Daley, T.M., Cheng, X., Majer, E.L., 2008, Preseismic velocity changes observed from active source monitoring at the Parkfield SAFOD drill site, Nature, 454, 204-208, DOI:10

  9. Multi-level continuous active source seismic monitoring (ML-CASSM): Application to shallow hydrofracture monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.; Butler-Veytia, B.; Peterson, J.; Gasperikova, E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    Induced subsurface processes occur over a wide variety of time scales ranging from seconds (e.g. fracture initiation) to days (e.g. unsteady multiphase flow) and weeks (e.g. induced mineral precipitation). Active source seismic monitoring has the potential to dynamically characterize such alterations and allow estimation of spatially localized rates. However, even optimal timelapse seismic surveys have limited temporal resolution due to both the time required to acquire a survey and the cost of continuous field deployment of instruments and personnel. Traditional timelapse surveys are also limited by experimental repeatability due to a variety of factors including geometry replication and near-surface conditions. Recent research has demonstrated the value of semi-permanently deployed seismic systems with fixed sources and receivers for use in monitoring a variety of processes including near-surface stress changes (Silver et.al. 2007), subsurface movement of supercritical CO2 (Daley et.al. 2007), and preseismic velocity changes in fault regions (Niu et. al. 2008). This strategy, referred to as continuous active source seismic monitoring (CASSM), allows both precise quantification of traveltime changes on the order of 1.1 x 10-7 s and temporal sampling on the order of minutes. However, as previously deployed, CASSM often sacrifices spatial resolution for temporal resolution with previous experiments including only a single source level. We present results from the first deployment of CASSM with a large number of source levels under automated control. Our system is capable of autonomously acquiring full tomographic datasets (10 sources, 72 receivers) in 3 minutes without human intervention, thus allowing active source seismic imaging (rather than monitoring) of processes with short durations. Because no sources or receivers are moved in the acquisition process, signal repeatability is excellent and subtle waveform changes can be interpreted with increased confidence

  10. Comparison of seismic sources for shallow seismic: sledgehammer and pyrotechnics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Aleksander; Stan-Kłeczek, Iwona

    2015-10-01

    The pyrotechnic materials are one of the types of the explosives materials which produce thermal, luminous or sound effects, gas, smoke and their combination as a result of a self-sustaining chemical reaction. Therefore, pyrotechnics can be used as a seismic source that is designed to release accumulated energy in a form of seismic wave recorded by tremor sensors (geophones) after its passage through the rock mass. The aim of this paper was to determine the utility of pyrotechnics for shallow seismic engineering. The work presented comparing the conventional method of seismic wave excitation for seismic refraction method like plate and hammer and activating of firecrackers on the surface. The energy released by various sources and frequency spectra was compared for the two types of sources. The obtained results did not determine which sources gave the better results but showed very interesting aspects of using pyrotechnics in seismic measurements for example the use of pyrotechnic materials in MASW.

  11. Use of active source geophones for passive source imaging: Examples from Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE), USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, A.; O'rourke, C. T.; Haines, S. S.; Yang, Z.; Worthington, L. L.; Miller, K. C.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we explore the variety of active and passive source deep seismic imaging that can be performed using continous wavefield recordings from a dense array of industry-style geophones. The data in this study were acquired during the 2009-10 EarthScope FlexArray Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment(BASE) in central Wyoming, USA. In addition to traditional active and passive source seismic data acquisition, BASE included a deployment of 850 Reftek RT125 " Texan" dataloggers that produced continuous recording over 14 days. Ground motion was recorded via Geospace GS-11 4.5 Hz single channel vertical component geophones. The geophones were deployed in a grid of three E-W lines and two N-S lines across the Bighorn Mountains. We find that the high frequency geophones effectively record the P waves of teleseismic earthquakes. During the 15 days of continuous recording we observed 57 teleseismic events with pickable P-wave arrivals across the array, providing over 10,000 travel times (P, PKiKP, Pdiff, Pn) suitable for teleseismic tomography. The full waveforms can be used to extract additional information about the subsurface. We have successfully utilized teleseismic receiver-side crustal reverberation phases as virtual sources to mimic crustal reflection profiles (Yang et al., 2012). After depth conversion, we find a coherent phase that correlates well with the top of the Madison Formation under the Powder River and Bighorn Basins that flank the Bighorn Mountains. In addition, we combine the phases PpPdp from single-channel geophone recordings and Ps from three-component recordings to constrain the average Vp /Vs ratio for the sedimentary strata. Following Haines (2011), we are exploring the use of interferometric processing of active source blasts. In principle, virtual source and receiver gathers can be created through cross-correlation of full wavefields. The seismic interferometry provides a means of simulating alternative acquisition geometries, and has the

  12. Amplitude analysis of active source seismic data from the grounding zone of Whillans Ice Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, Huw; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Alley, Richard; Christianson, Knut

    2015-04-01

    Amplitude analysis of active source seismic data is often used to estimate acoustic properties and thereby infer the lithology of the substrate beneath glaciers and ice streams. The substrate beneath the ice streams of West Antarctica is of particular interest as here subglacial sediment deformation results in the rapid flow of the overriding ice. At the grounding zone, where the grounded ice sheet transitions to the floating ice shelf, this substrate is thought to stiffen due to tidal compaction resulting in a zone of higher basal shear stress which is manifest in the buckling of the internal layering in the overriding ice. Here we investigate these processes by estimating subglacial properties using active source seismic data acquired across the grounding zone of Whillans Ice Stream. Perhaps uniquely, we are able to test our methodology due to the survey crossing from an ice overlying sediment interface into a known ice overlying water interface. Our analysis indicates that lithological variations within the grounding zone are below the resolution of our methodology with the exception of a body of water trapped by a hydropotential reversal upstream of the grounding zone.

  13. Preliminary Results from the iMUSH Active Source Seismic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, Alan; Kiser, Eric; Palomeras, Imma; Zelt, Colin; Schmandt, Brandon; Hansen, Steve; Harder, Steven; Creagar, Kenneth; Vidale, John; Abers, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    iMUSH (imaging Magma Under Saint Helens) is a US NSF sponsored multi-disciplinary investigation of Mount Saint Helens (MSH), currently the most active volcano in the Cascades arc in the northwestern United States. The project consists of active and passive seismic experiments, extensive magnetotelluric sounding, and geological/geochemical studies involving scientists at 7 institutions in the U.S. and Europe. The long-term goal of the seismic project is to combine analysis of the active source data with that of data from the 70 element broadband seismograph operating from summer 2014 until 2016. Combining seismic and MT analyses with other data, we hope to image the MSH volcanic plumbing system from the surface to the subducting Juan de Fuca slab. Here we describe preliminary results of the iMUSH active source seismic experiment, conducted in July and August 2014. The active source experiment consisted of twenty-three 454 or 908 kg weight shots recorded by ~3500 seismographs deployed at ~6,000 locations. Of these instruments, ~900 Nodal Seismic instruments were deployed continuously for two weeks in an areal array within 10 km of the MSH summit. 2,500 PASSCAL Texan instruments were deployed twice for five days in 3 areal arrays and 2 dense orthogonal linear arrays that extended from MSH to distances > 80 km. Overall the data quality from the shots is excellent. The seismograph arrays also recorded dozens of micro-earthquakes beneath the MSH summit and along the MSH seismic zone, and numerous other local and regional earthquakes. In addition, at least one low frequency event beneath MSH was recorded during the experiment. At this point we have begun various types of analysis of the data set: We have determined an average 1D Vp structure from stacking short-term/long-term average ratios, we have determined the 2-D Vp structure from ray-trace inversions along the two orthogonal profiles (in the NW-SE and NE-SW directions), and we have made low-fold CMP stacks of the

  14. Field Report on the iMUSH Active Source Seismic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Schmandt, B.; Palomeras, I.; Harder, S. H.; Creager, K. C.; Vidale, J. E.; Malone, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    In the second half of July we completed the iMUSH active source seismic experiment, one component of the Imaging Magma Under Saint Helens project. A team of ~75 volunteers deployed 3500 seismographs to ~5920 locations on and around Mount St. Helens over the course of 3 weeks. This instrument deployment was accompanied by 23 shots distributed around the volcano. Instrumentation consisted of ~2550 Reftek 125A (Texan) seismographs with 4.5 Hz geophones, and 920 Nodal Seismic recorders with 10 Hz geophones. The shots were also recorded by the permanent stations of the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network and 70 iMUSH broadband seismographs. Fifteen of the shots, 424 kg each, formed two rings around Mount Saint Helens at 15 km and 30 km radius from the summit. Eight of the shots, 828 kg each, were fired at distances of 50 to 80 km from MSH on NW-SE and NE-SW azimuths. The deployment geometry consisted of two lines oriented NW/SE and NE/SW, and three arrays. The offset of the lines ranged from 150 km to 190 km with an average spacing of 200 m. The first array was centered on the volcano with a radius of 30 km, and required both driving and hiking to deploy. Arrays two and three were set out with, and centered on, the NW/SE line. These arrays had a distance range from MSH of 30-75 km and an azimuth range of about 100 degrees. In addition to this large-scale deployment, we set out 7 beamforming arrays approximately collocated with iMUSH broadband seismographs, and above clusters of seismicity in the region. The aperture of these arrays was about 1 km with an instrument spacing of 100 m. The final deployment ended only days before the AGU abstract deadline, so we have not yet examined all of the data. However, the preliminary indications are that signal to noise is excellent: The shots, several of which registered on PNSN as ML>2.1, carried across the entire array, and were recorded as far away as Seattle and Corvallis on permanent stations. The array also recorded a

  15. Assessing Acoustic Sound Levels Associated with Active Source Seismic Surveys in Shallow Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Tolstoy, M.; Thode, A.; Diebold, J. B.; Webb, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    The potential effect of active source seismic research on marine mammal populations is a topic of increasing concern, and controversy surrounding such operations has begun to impact the planning and permitting of academic surveys [e.g., Malakoff, 2002 Science]. Although no causal relationship between marine mammal strandings and seismic exploration has been proven, any circumstantial evidence must be thoroughly investigated. A 2002 stranding of two beaked whales in the Gulf of California within 50 km of a R/V Ewing seismic survey has been a subject of concern for both marine seismologists and environmentalists. In order to better understand possible received levels for whales in the vicinity of these operations, modeling is combined with ground-truth calibration measurements. A wide-angle parabolic equation model, which is capable of including shear within the sediment and basement layers, is used to generate predictive models of low-frequency transmission loss within the Gulf of California. This work incorporates range-dependent bathymetry, sediment thickness, sound velocity structure and sub-bottom properties. Oceanic sounds speed profiles are derived from the U.S. Navy's seasonal GDEM model and sediment thicknesses are taken from NOAA's worldwide database. The spectral content of the Ewing's 20-airgun seismic array is constrained by field calibration in the spring of 2003 [Tolstoy et al., 2004 GRL], indicating peak energies at frequencies below a few hundred Hz, with energy spectral density showing an approximate power-law decrease at higher frequencies (being ~40 dB below peak at 1 kHz). Transmission loss is estimated along a series of radials extending from multiple positions along the ship's track, with the directivity of the array accounted for by phase-shifting point sources that are scaled by the cube root of the individual airgun volumes. This allows the time-space history of low-frequency received levels to be reconstructed within the Gulf of California

  16. A university-developed seismic source for shallow seismic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordkayhun, Sawasdee; Na Suwan, Jumras

    2012-07-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (1) design and develop a low cost seismic source for shallow seismic surveys and (2) test the performance of the developed source at a test site. The surface seismic source, referred to here as a university-developed seismic source is based upon the principle of an accelerated weight drop. A 30 kg activated mass is lifted by a mechanical rack and pinion gear and is accelerated by a mounted spring. When the mass is released from 0.5 m above the surface, it hits a 30 kg base plate and energy is transferred to the ground, generating a seismic wave. The developed source is portable, environmentally friendly, easy to operate and maintain, and is a highly repeatable impact source. To compare the developed source with a sledgehammer source, a source test was performed at a test site, a study site for mapping a major fault zone in southern Thailand. The sledgehammer and the developed sources were shot along a 300 m long seismic reflection profile with the same parameters. Data were recorded using 12 channels off-end geometry with source and receiver spacing of 5 m, resulting in CDP stacked sections with 2.5 m between traces. Source performances were evaluated based on analyses of signal penetration, frequency content and repeatability, as well as the comparison of stacked sections. The results show that both surface sources are suitable for seismic studies down to a depth of about 200 m at the site. The hammer data are characterized by relatively higher frequency signals than the developed source data, whereas the developed source generates signals with overall higher signal energy transmission and greater signal penetration. In addition, the repeatability of the developed source is considerably higher than the hammer source.

  17. Active Source Tomography of Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Results From the 2006 Seismic Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, L.; Patanè, D.; Cocina, O.; Castellano, M.; Sgroi, T.; Favali, P.; de Gori, P.

    2008-12-01

    Stromboli island, located in the Southern Tyrrhenian sea, is the emerged part (about 900 m a.s.l.) of a 3km-high strato-volcano. Its persistent Strombolian activity, documented for over 2000 years, is sometimes interrupted by lava effusions or major explosions. Despite the amount of recent published geophysical studies aimed to clarifying eruption dynamics, the spatial extend and geometrical characteristics of the plumbing system remain poorly understood. In fact, the knowledge of the inner structure and the zones of magma storage is limited to the upper few hundreds meters of the volcanic edifice and P- and S-waves velocity models are available only in restricted areas. In order to obtain a more suitable internal structural and velocity models of the volcano, from 25 November to 2 December 2006, a seismic tomography experiment through active seismics using air-gun sources was carried out and the final Vp model is here presented. The data has been inverted for the Vp structure by using the code Simulps13q, considering a 3D grid of nodes spaced 0.5 km down to 2 km depth, beneath the central part of volcano. The results show a relatively high velocity zones located both in the inner part of the volcanic structure, at about 1km b.s.l. and in the last 200-300 m a.s.l. in correspondence with the volcanic conduit. Slower zones were located around the summit craters in agreement with volcanological and petrological informations for the area. The relatively high velocity zones could suggest the presence of intrusive bodies related to the plumbing system.

  18. Active-source seismic imaging below Lake Malawi (Nyasa) from the SEGMeNT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillington, D. J.; Scholz, C. A.; Gaherty, J. B.; Accardo, N. J.; McCartney, T.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Kamihanda, G.; Trinhammer, P.; Wood, D. A.; Khalfan, M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Nyblade, A.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Mruma, A. H.; Salima, J.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the controls on the initiation and development of magmatism and segmentation in young rift systems. The northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa) rift in the East African Rift System is an early stage rift exhibiting pronounced tectonic segmentation, which is defined in the upper crust by ~100-km-long border faults. Very little volcanism is associated with rifting; the only surface expression of magmatism occurs in an accommodation zone between segments to the north of the lake in the Rungwe Volcanic Province. The SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) project is a multidisciplinary, multinational study that is acquiring a suite of geophysical, geological and geochemical data to characterize deformation and magmatism in the crust and mantle lithosphere along 2-3 segments of this rift. As a part of the SEGMeNT project, we acquired seismic reflection and refraction data in Lake Malawi (Nyasa) in March-April 2015. Over 2000 km of seismic reflection data were acquired with a 500 to 2580 cu in air gun array from GEUS/Aarhus and a 500- to 1500-m-long seismic streamer from Syracuse University over a grid of lines across and along the northern and central basins. Air gun shots from MCS profiles and 1000 km of additional shooting with large shot intervals were also recorded on 27 short-period and 6 broadband lake bottom seismometers from Scripps Oceanographic Institute as a part of the Ocean Bottom Seismic Instrument Pool (OBSIP) as well as the 55-station onshore seismic array. The OBS were deployed along one long strike line and two dip lines. We will present preliminary data and results from seismic reflection and refraction data acquired in the lake and their implications for crustal deformation within and between rift segments. Seismic reflection data image structures up to ~5-6 km below the lake bottom, including syntectonic sediments, intrabasinal faults and other complex horsts. Some intrabasinal faults in both the northern and

  19. Controllable seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrell, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2015-09-29

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  20. Controllable seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrel, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2014-08-19

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  1. Crustal Structure in the Imperial Valley Region of California From Active-Source Seismic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuis, G. S.; Mooney, W. D.

    2008-12-01

    shallow as 12 km beneath the Imperial Valley. Modeling of gravity data requires that this layer deepen and/or pinch out beneath the bordering mesas and mountain ranges. This pinch-out is imaged in the 1992 data beneath the Chocolate Mountains. Based on its high velocity and the presence of intrusive basaltic rocks in the sedimentary section in the Imperial Valley, the subbasement is thought to be a mafic intrusive complex similar to oceanic middle crust. (4) Crustal thickness and upper-mantle velocity are 21-22 km and 7.6-7.7 km/s, respectively, beneath the Imperial Valley but increase to 27 km and 8.0 km/s, respectively, beneath the Chocolate Mountains. Our results from the Salton Trough may be contrasted with active-source seismic results from the northern Gulf of California (Guaymas basin; Lizarralde et al., 2007). These results show the crust to thin to 10-14 km within the Gulf. Below 3-4 km of sediment, the crust has a velocity of 6.8 km/s, interpreted to be new igneous (gabbroic) crust. Thus, the rifting process appears to have produced negligible metasedimentary basement and a crustal thickness as little as half that beneath the Salton Trough.

  2. Time-lapse imaging of fault properties at seismogenic depth using repeating earthquakes, active sources and seismic ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xin

    2009-12-01

    The time-varying stress field of fault systems at seismogenic depths plays the mort important role in controlling the sequencing and nucleation of seismic events. Using seismic observations from repeating earthquakes, controlled active sources and seismic ambient noise, five studies at four different fault systems across North America, Central Japan, North and mid-West China are presented to describe our efforts to measure such time dependent structural properties. Repeating and similar earthquakes are hunted and analyzed to study the post-seismic fault relaxation at the aftershock zone of the 1984 M 6.8 western Nagano and the 1976 M 7.8 Tangshan earthquakes. The lack of observed repeating earthquakes at western Nagano is attributed to the absence of a well developed weak fault zone, suggesting that the fault damage zone has been almost completely healed. In contrast, the high percentage of similar and repeating events found at Tangshan suggest the existence of mature fault zones characterized by stable creep under steady tectonic loading. At the Parkfield region of the San Andreas Fault, repeating earthquake clusters and chemical explosions are used to construct a scatterer migration image based on the observation of systematic temporal variations in the seismic waveforms across the occurrence time of the 2004 M 6 Parkfield earthquake. Coseismic fluid charge or discharge in fractures caused by the Parkfield earthquake is used to explain the observed seismic scattering properties change at depth. In the same region, a controlled source cross-well experiment conducted at SAFOD pilot and main holes documents two large excursions in the travel time required for a shear wave to travel through the rock along a fixed pathway shortly before two rupture events, suggesting that they may be related to pre-rupture stress induced changes in crack properties. At central China, a tomographic inversion based on the theory of seismic ambient noise and coda wave interferometry

  3. Active Seismic Monitoring Using High-Power Moveable 40-TONS Vibration Sources in Altay-Sayn Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, V. M.; Seleznev, V. S.; Emanov, A. F.; Kashun, V. N.; Elagin, S. A.; Romanenko, I.; Shenmayer, A. E.; Serezhnikov, N.

    2013-05-01

    determined variations in velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves. Both from 100-tons and 40-tons vibration sources there are distinctly determined annual and semiannual variations, and also variations of 120 and 90 days. There is determined correlations of revealed variations of P- and S-wave velocities with drowning of the upper part of the Earth`s crust because of season changes of water volumes in the biggest Novosibirsk water reservoir. There were carried out experiments on aperture widening of operating vibroseismic observations in seismic active zones of the South of Altay. All these results prove possibility of using moveable collapsible 40-tons vibration sources for active monitoring of seismic dangerous zones, nuclear power plants, nuclear waste storage etc.

  4. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  5. Structure of the deep oceanic lithosphere in the Northwestern Pacific ocean basin derived from active-source seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, A.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Fujie, G.; Arai, R.; Miura, S.

    2015-12-01

    Many seismological studies have detected the sharp seismic discontinuities in the upper mantle, some of which are interpreted the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). However there are few data at the old Pacific plate, in particular at ocean basin, which is critical information for understanding nature of the oceanic LAB. In 2014 we conducted an active-source refraction/reflection survey along a 1130-km-long line in southeast of the Shatsky Rise. Five ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) were deployed and recovered by R/V Kairei of JAMSTEC. We used an airgun array with a total volume of 7,800 cubic inches with firing at intervals of 200 m. Multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) data were also collected with a 444-channel, 6,000-m-long streamer cable. In OBS records the apparent velocity of the refraction waves from the uppermost mantle was high (< 8.6 km/sec), and considered to be caused by preferred orientation of olivine (e.g., Kodaira et al., 2014). Another remarkable feature is wide-angle reflection waves from the deep lithosphere at large (150-500 km) offsets. We applied the traveltime mapping method (Fujie et al., 2006), forward analysis (Zelt and Smith, 1992) and the amplitude modeling (Larsen and Grieger, 1998) to the OBS data. The results show that deep mantle reflectors exist at the depths from 35 to 60 km, and one possible explanation is that these reflectors correspond to patched low velocity zones around the base of the lithosphere. On MCS sections the clear and sharp Moho was imaged only at the southwestern end of the profile, but Moho was ambiguous or even not imaged in the most part of the profile. Since our seismic line covers the oceanic lithosphere with different ages that correspond to different stages of the Shatsky activity, the Moho appearance may reflect the variation of the Shatsky activity.

  6. Compound hydraulic seismic source vibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a compound seismic source vibrator. It comprises: a housing having an upper section and a low frequency radiating section; a low frequency means for vibrating the low frequency radiating section; a high frequency radiating section flexibly connected to the low frequency radiating section; and a high frequency means rigidly secured to the low frequency radiating section for separately vibrating the high frequency radiating section.

  7. The application of active-source seismic imaging techniques to transtensional problems the Walker Lane and Salton Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kell, Anna Marie

    The plate margin in the western United States is an active tectonic region that contains the integrated deformation between the North American and Pacific plates. Nearly focused plate motion between the North American and Pacific plates within the northern Gulf of California gives way north of the Salton Trough to more diffuse deformation. In particular a large fraction of the slip along the southernmost San Andreas fault ultimately bleeds eastward, including about 20% of the total plate motion budget that finds its way through the transtensional Walker Lane Deformation Belt just east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. Fault-bounded ranges combined with intervening low-lying basins characterize this region; the down-dropped features are often filled with water, which present opportunities for seismic imaging at unprecedented scales. Here I present active-source seismic imaging from the Salton Sea and Walker Lane Deformation Belt, including both marine applications in lakes and shallow seas, and more conventional land-based techniques along the Carson range front. The complex fault network beneath the Salton Trough in eastern California is the on-land continuation of the Gulf of California rift system, where North American-Pacific plate motion is accommodated by a series of long transform faults, separated by small pull-apart, transtensional basins; the right-lateral San Andreas fault bounds this system to the north where it carries, on average, about 50% of total plate motion. The Salton Sea resides within the most youthful and northerly "spreading center" in this several thousand-kilometer-long rift system. The Sea provides an ideal environment for the use of high-data-density marine seismic techniques. Two active-source seismic campaigns in 2010 and 2011 show progression of the development of the Salton pull-apart sub-basin and the northerly propagation of the Imperial-San Andreas system through time at varying resolutions. High fidelity seismic imagery

  8. Active Seismic Imaging Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, Patricia A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Evans, John R.

    In September 1985 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will conduct an active seismic experiment in the Medicine Lake area of northern California. The work is supported by the Geothermal Research Program of USGS and by the Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. We invite interested organizations or individuals to record our explosions from Medicine Lake volcano and surrounding areas not covered by the USGS-LLNL array.

  9. Active source seismic experiment investigating the formation of the Ontong Java Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, S.; Noguchi, N.; Coffin, M. F.; Kawagle, S. A.; Verave, R. T.; Kodaira, S.; Fukao, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) is one of the largest oceanic plateaus and possibly the most voluminous large igneous province (LIP) on Earth, and is thought to have formed by a non-plate tectonic mechanism such as 1) a plume head, 2) a bolide impact, or 3) atypical seafloor spreading. Due to massive magmatism over short durations of geological time, formations of the OJP and LIPs in general likely have had global scale environmental impacts (e.g., Oceanic Anoxic Events). Therefore, understanding how LIPs form is important not only for illuminating solid Earth processes, but also for advancing knowledge of associated environmental, including biospheric, changes. On the basis of the OJP’s shallow bathymetry, its crust has long been thought to be thicker than normal oceanic crust. However, previous seismic and gravimetric analyses of its crustal thickness produced inconsistent results. To understand how the OJP formed, we conducted a seismic survey using a multi-channel seismic (MCS) hydrophone streamer and 100 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in February-March 2010 (EOS, submitted). New MCS data confirm that sediment approximately 1 s (two-way travel time) thick covers the uppermost OJP. Sediment layers are generally flat-lying, except near seamounts, in a local depression, and around some faults. Because of the flat-lying seafloor and shallow water depths, several water-bottom multiples of large amplitude characterize the MCS data, making identification of sub-basement reflections challenging. On the northernmost part of the seismic line, a reflection event at about 12 s (two-way travel time) differs unambiguously from multiple reflections, and may represent the base of the OJP’s crust. OBS data show first refraction arrivals within 100-km offsets. First arrivals with an apparent velocity of 7 km/s can be identified at offsets greater than 100 km. This may indicate a thick high velocity (~7 km/s) layer in the OJP’s lower crust. This high velocity layer may be

  10. Forearc oceanic crust in the Izu-Bonin arc - new insights from active-source seismic survey -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, S.; Noguchi, N.; Takahashi, N.; Ishizuka, O.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Petrological studies have suggested that oceanic crust is formed in forearc areas during the initial stage of subduction. However, there is little geophysical evidence for the formation of oceanic crust in those regions. In order to examine crustal formation process associated with a subduction initiation process, we conducted an active-source seismic survey at a forearc region in the Izu-Bonin intra-oceanic arc. The resultant seismic image shows a remarkably thin crust (less than 10 km) at the northern half of the Bonin ridge (at the north of the Chichi-jima) and abrupt thickening the crust (~ 20 km thick) toward the south (at the Haha-jima). Comparison of velocity-depth profiles of the thin forearc crust of the Bonin ridge with those of typical oceanic crusts showed them to be seismologically identical. The observed structural variation also well corresponds to magmatic activities along the forearc. Boninitic magmatism is evident in the area of thin crust and tholeiitic-calcalkaline andesitic volcanism in the area of thick crust. Based on high precision dating studies of those volcanic rocks, we interpreted that the oceanic-type thin crust associated with boninitic volcanism has been created soon after the initiation of subduction (45-48 Ma) and and that the nonoceanic thick crust was created by tholeiitic-calcalkaline andesitic magmatism after the boninitic magmatism was ceased. The above seismological evidences strongly support the idea of forearc oceanic crust (or phiolite) created by forearc spreading in the initial stage of subduction along the intra-oceanic arc.

  11. Active source monitoring of crosswell seismic travel time forstress induced changes

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, P.G.; Daley, T.M.; Niu, F.; Majer, E.L.

    2006-11-11

    We have conducted a series of cross-well experiments tocontinuously measure in situ temporal variations in seismic velocity attwo test sites: building 64 (B64) and Richmond Field Station (RFS) of theLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. A piezoelectricsource was used to generate highly repeatable signals, and a string of 24hydrophones was used to record the signals. The B64 experiment wasconducted utilizing two boreholes 17 m deep and 3 m apart for 160 h. AtRFS, we collected a 36-day continuous record in a cross-borehole facilityusing two 70-m-deep holes separated by 30 m. With signal enhancementtechniques we were able to achieve a precision of 6.0 nsec and 10 nsec indelay-time estimation from stacking of 1-hr records during the ?7- and?35-day observation periods at the B64 and RFS sites, which correspond to3 and 0.5 ppm of their travel times, respectively. Delay time measured atB64 has a variation of ?2 lsec in the 160-hr period and shows a strongand positive correlation with the barometric pressure change at the site.At RFS, after removal of a linear trend, we find a delay-time variationof 2.5 lsec, which exhibits a significant negative correlation withbarometric pressure. We attribute the observed correlations to stresssensitivity of seismic velocity known from laboratory studies. Thepositive and negative sign observed in the correlation is likely relatedto the expected near- and far-field effects of this stress dependence ina poroelastic medium. The stress sensitivity is estimated to be 10 6/Paand 10 7/Pa at the B64 and RFS site, respectively.

  12. Active Faults and Seismic Sources of the Middle East Region: Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, L.; EMME WP2 Team*

    2011-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). The EMME project covers Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project consists of three main modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic modules. The EMME project uses PSHA approach for earthquake hazard and the existing source models have been revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. The most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones is its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that permits continuous update, refinement, and analysis. An up-to-date earthquake catalog of the Middle East region has been prepared and declustered by the WP1 team. EMME WP2 team has prepared a digital active fault map of the Middle East region in ArcGIS format. We have constructed a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. The EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a "Fault Section Database", which contains 36 entries for each fault section. The "Fault Section" concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far 6,991 Fault Sections have been defined and 83,402 km of faults are fully parameterized in the Middle East region. A separate "Paleo-Sites Database" includes information on the timing and amounts of fault

  13. Theoretical and practical considerations for the design of the iMUSH active-source seismic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Harder, S. H.; Abers, G. A.; Creager, K. C.; Vidale, J. E.; Moran, S. C.; Malone, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    The multi-disciplinary imaging of Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment seeks to understand the details of the magmatic system that feeds Mount St. Helens using active- and passive-source seismic, magnetotelluric, and petrologic data. The active-source seismic component of this experiment will take place in the summer of 2014 utilizing all of the 2600 PASSCAL 'Texan' Reftek instruments which will record twenty-four 1000-2000 lb shots distributed around the Mount St. Helens region. The instruments will be deployed as two consecutive refraction profiles centered on the volcano, and a series of areal arrays. The actual number of areal arrays, as well as their locations, will depend strongly on the length of the experiment (3-4 weeks), the number of instrument deployers (50-60), and the time it will take per deployment given the available road network. The current work shows how we are balancing these practical considerations against theoretical experiment designs in order to achieve the proposed scientific goals with the available resources. One of the main goals of the active-source seismic experiment is to image the magmatic system down to the Moho (35-40 km). Calculating sensitivity kernels for multiple shot/receiver offsets shows that direct P waves should be sensitive to Moho depths at offsets of 150 km, and therefore this will likely be the length of the refraction profiles. Another primary objective of the experiment is to estimate the locations and volumes of different magma accumulation zones beneath the volcano using the areal arrays. With this in mind, the optimal locations of these arrays, as well as their associated shots, are estimated using an eigenvalue analysis of the approximate Hessian for each possible experiment design. This analysis seeks to minimize the number of small eigenvalues of the approximate Hessian that would amplify the propagation of data noise into regions of interest in the model space, such as the likely locations of magma

  14. Buildings As Secondary Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semblat, J.-F.; Kham, M.; Guéguen, P.; Bard, P.-Y.

    At the scale of a city, surface structures like buildings can modify the seismic free- field and behave as secondary seismic sources. At a local scale, some experimental evidences of the site-structure interaction were previously given (Guéguen, 2000). Thanks to the boundary element method, the global problem of site-city interaction is herein investigated in two dimensions at the scale of an alluvial deposit and an entire city considering a whole building network. An alluvial deposit located in the center of Nice (France) was firstly considered for the analysis of free-field amplification (Semblat, 2000). The amplification factor was estimated by the boundary element method and compared with experimental results (SSR, HVSR). Starting from these free-field simulations, several site-city models were considered which describe both superficial soil layers and surface structures. We in- vestigate herein the influence of both building type and building density on the modi- fication of free-field amplification. To compare free-field amplification and amplification in urban configurations, sur- face amplification is compared in both cases for a specific uniform building type and various building densities at differents frequencies. Depending on these various pa- rameters, the free-field amplification level could be increased by 20 to 50%. Other urban configurations are considered with various building types in uniform and inho- mogeneous arrangements. For the specific site considered, the various site-city BEM models show that site-city interaction can lead to a strong increase of the free-field am- plification factor. Around the fundamental frequency of a specific building type, for a homogeneous urban configuration, particular resonance effects are observed. These results are in good agreement with previous experimental and local scale numerical results (Guéguen, 2000) and show that the coincidence of the respective eigenfre- quencies of both alluvial deposit and

  15. Crustal Structure Across the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana: Initial Results From the PRIDE-SEISORZ Active-Source Seismic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, J. P.; Moffat, L.; Lizarralde, D.; Laletsang, K.; Harder, S. H.; Kaip, G.; Modisi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The PRIDE project aims to understand the processes of continental rift initiation and evolution by analyzing along-axis trends in the southern portion of the East Africa Rift System, from Botswana through Zambia and Malawi. The SEISORZ active-source seismic component of PRIDE focused on the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in northwestern Botswana, with the main goal of imaging the crustal structure across the ORZ. This will allow us to estimate total crustal extension, determine the pattern and amount of thinning, assess the possible presence of melt within the rift zone, and assess the contrasts in crustal blocks across the rift, which closely follows the trend of a fold belt. In November 2014 we conducted a crustal-scale, 450-km-long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile consisting of 19 sources (shots in 30-m-deep boreholes) spaced ~25 km apart from each other, and 900 receivers (IRIS/PASSCAL "Texan" dataloggers and 4.5Hz geophones) with ~500 m spacing. From NW to SE, the profile crosses several tectonic domains: the Congo craton, the Damara metamorphic belt and the Ghanzi-Chobe fold belt where the axis of the ORZ is located, and continues into the Kalahari craton. The record sections display clear crustal refraction (Pg) and wide-angle Moho reflection (PmP) phases for all 17 of the good-quality shots, and a mantle refraction arrival (Pn), with the Pg-PmP-Pn triplication appearing at 175 km offset. There are distinct changes in the traveltime and amplitude of these phases along the transect, and on either side of the axis, that seem to correlate with sharp transitions across tectonic terrains. Initial modeling suggests: (1) the presence of a sedimentary half-graben structure at the rift axis beneath the Okavango delta, bounded to the SE by the Kunyere-Thamalakane fault system; (2) faster crustal Vp in the domains to the NW of the ORZ; and (3) thicker crust (45-50 km) at both ends of the profile within the Congo and Kalahari craton domains than at the ORZ and

  16. Fault Geometry and Kinematics of the Main Frontal Thrust in Central Nepal Constrained With Active Source Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, R. V.; Foster, A. E.; Hubbard, J.; Liberty, L. M.; Sapkota, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    The foreland thrust belt of the Himalayan orogen has been active since at least 2 Ma, deforming the Siwaliks Group, a 5-6 km thick section of continental Miocene-Pliocene strata. This terrane is bounded by the Main Boundary Thrust to the north and by the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) to the south. For a long time, the MFT was long considered a blind system; only recently have surface exposures been identified, tied to large historical earthquakes. In many maps, the MFT is drawn as a single, continuous fault. However, it is actually composed of many fault segments, with overlaps and steps, whose timing and structural linkage are poorly constrained. This complex fault system represents the frontal portion of the large, active megathrust that is accommodating the India-Eurasia collision. We present some of the first seismic reflection profiles ever acquired across these thrusts. These profiles were acquired with a 7 ton Vibroseis source and a 264 channel seismic recording system over three field seasons in 2014 and 2015. As part of our study, we acquired 12 serial 2D profiles totalling ~70 km across a right-step of the fault system, where both fault segments have been identified as having slipped in the1934 Mw8.4 Nepal-Bihar earthquake. Our data image to a depth of 2-2.5 km and constrain the geometries and kinematics of these overlapping faults, with associated folding. Our data show that the faults are listric, that they overlap for over 10 (?) km along strike and produce short wavelength (~1 km) fault-propagation folds and longer wavelength fault-bend folds. Fault slip in this area has led to the progressive uplift and abandonment of strath terraces. Our new data will allow us to constrain the dips and kinematics of the different fault segments in order to convert uplift rates into slip rates on the fault segments, to more accurately assess the rate of shortening on the MFT in central Nepal.

  17. Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.

    1991-01-01

    A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provided. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder off an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping.

  18. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  19. iMUSH: The design of the Mount St. Helens high-resolution active source seismic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, Eric; Levander, Alan; Harder, Steve; Abers, Geoff; Creager, Ken; Vidale, John; Moran, Seth; Malone, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Mount St. Helens is one of the most societally relevant and geologically interesting volcanoes in the United States. Although much has been learned about the shallow structure of this volcano since its eruption in 1980, important questions still remain regarding its magmatic system and connectivity to the rest of the Cascadia arc. For example, the structure of the magma plumbing system below the shallowest magma chamber under the volcano is still only poorly known. This information will be useful for hazard assessment for the southwest Washington area, and also for gaining insight into fundamental scientific questions such as the assimilation and differentiation processes that lead to the formation of continental crust. As part of the multi-disciplinary imaging of Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment, funded by NSF GeoPRISMS and EarthScope, an active source seismic experiment will be conducted in late summer 2014. The experiment will utilize all of the 2600 IRIS/PASSCAL/USArray Texan instruments. The instruments will be deployed as two 1000-instrument consecutive refraction profiles (one N/S and one WNW/ESE). Each of these profiles will be accompanied by two 1600-instrument areal arrays at varying distances from Mount St. Helens. Finally, one 2600-instrument areal array will be centered on Mount St. Helens. These instruments will record a total of twenty-four 500-1000 kg shots. Each refraction profile will have an average station spacing of 150 m, and a total length of 150 km. The stations in the areal arrays will be separated by ~1 km. A critical step in the success of this project is to develop an experimental setup that can resolve the most interesting aspects of the magmatic system. In particular, we want to determine the distribution of shot locations that will provide good coverage throughout the entire model space, while still allowing us to focus on regions likely to contain the magmatic plumbing system. In this study, we approach this problem by

  20. Seismic Sources Identification and Characterization for Myanmar: Towards Updating the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thant, M.; Kawase, H.

    2015-12-01

    Myanmar, lying in the Alpide earthquake belt, is quite earthquake-prone. There have been at least 16 major earthquakes (M 7.0 - 7.9) and a great earthquake (M 8.0, 1912) in the past 175 years, some of which were quite destructive, for example, 1839 Ava (Innwa) earthquake. With an objective of reducing earthquake risk in Myanmar, seismic zone maps have been constructed since 1959. The first-generation maps were mainly the intensity zoning maps using Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) Scales (Gorshkov, 1959; Maung Thein, 1985; Maung Thein, 2001). The second-generation maps were partly historical, and partly deterministic (Maung Thein et al., 2003; Maung Thein et al., 2005). In 2012, the third-generation maps, the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) maps were constructed for the whole country. Seismic hazards in these maps are represented by means of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and spectral acceleration (SA) in the periods of 0.2 s, 0.3 s and 1.0 s. The seismic hazards are calculated in 0.1° x 0.1° interval, assuming the firm rock site condition and all of the PSHA were carried out for 2% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Now, the seismic hazard maps of Myanmar,2012 are planned to update by remodeling the seismic sources. As the first step in updating the previous probabilistic seismic hazard maps developed in 2012 we re-identify the seismogenic sources for Indo-Burma Arc, Eastern Himalaya Arc and Andaman Rift Zone as the areal seismic sources. The major active faults which are seismically very hazardous for Myanmar: Sagaing fault, Kyaukkyan fault, Nan Pon fault, Kabaw fault, Myauk-U fault, Dawei fault, Gwegyo Thrust, major thrusts in north-west Myanmar, and the left-lateral strike-slip faults in the Eastern Highland are identified as the fault sources. The seismic source parameters for each source; the b-value, maximum earthquake potential, and annual rate of exceedance for the specific magnitude earthquake

  1. Seismic Holography of Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The basic goal of the project was to extend holographic seismic imaging techniques developed under a previous NASA contract, and to incorporate phase diagnostics. Phase-sensitive imaging gives us a powerful probe of local thermal and Doppler perturbations in active region subphotospheres, allowing us to map thermal structure and flows associated with "acoustic moats" and "acoustic glories". These remarkable features were discovered during our work, by applying simple acoustic power holography to active regions. Included in the original project statement was an effort to obtain the first seismic images of active regions on the Sun's far surface.

  2. Active Seismic Monitoring for Earthquake Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonova, M.; Korneev, V.

    2005-12-01

    Earthquake prediction remains high priority issue for disaster prevention. Study of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prieta strike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) reveal seismicity peaks in the surrounding crust several months prior to the main events. Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded from the analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather than stress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpreted as a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust, while the peak that occurs several months prior to the main event and the subsequent decrease in seismicity are attributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in both cases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surrounds the epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicity in the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development of a low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursory information that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. We modeled the seismicity precursor phenomena using finite-element 2D model capable to replicate non-linear breaking of elastic rock. The distinctive seismicity peak was observed for a model simulating SAF properties at Park field. Such peaks are likely to be a good mid-term precursors allowing to declare alerts several months before earthquakes and pointing on their epicenter regions. The short tern alerts require use of active sources and their proper placement in order to monitor the developments of rock softening processes.

  3. Back-Projecting Volcano and Geyser Seismic Signals to Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, C. L.; Lawrence, J. F.; Ebinger, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic and hydrothermal systems are generally characterized by persistent, low-amplitude seismic "noise" with no clear onset or end. Outside of active eruptions and earthquakes, which tend to occur only a small fraction of the time, seismic records and spectrograms from these systems are dominated by long-duration "noise" (typically around 1-5Hz) generated by ongoing processes in the systems' subsurface. Although it has been shown that these low-amplitude signals can represent a series of overlapping low-magnitude displacements related to fluid and volatile movement at depth, because of their "noisy" properties compared to typical active or earthquake sources they are difficult to image using traditional seismic techniques (i.e. phase-picking). In this study we present results from applying a new ambient noise back-projection technique to improve seismic source imaging of diffuse signals found in volcanic and hydrothermal systems. Using this new method we show how the distribution of all seismic sources - particularly sources associated with volcanic tremor - evolves during a proposed intrusion in early June 2010 at Sierra Negra Volcano on the Galápagos Archipelago off the coast of Ecuador. We use a known velocity model for the region (Tepp et al., 2014) to correlate and back-project seismic signals from all available receiver-pairs to potential subsurface source locations assuming bending raypaths and accounting for topography. We generate 4D time-lapsed images of the source field around Sierra Negra before, during and after the proposed intrusion and compare the consistency of our observations with previously identified seismic event locations and tomography results from the same time period. Preliminary results from applying the technique to a dense grid of geophones surrounding a periodically erupting geyser at El Tatio Geyser Field in northern Chile (>2000 eruptions recorded) will also be presented.

  4. Seismic-source representation for spall

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S.M.; McLaughlin, K.L.

    1990-11-21

    Spall may be a significant secondary source of seismic waves from underground explosions. The proper representation of spall as a seismic source is important for forward and inverse modeling of explosions for yield estimation and discrimination studies. We present a new derivation of a widely used point force representation for spall, which is based on a horizontal tension crack model. The derivation clarifies the relationship between point force and moment tensor representations of the tension crack. For wavelengths long compared with spall depth, the two representations are equivalent, and the moment tensor time history is proportional to the doubly integrated time history of the point force. Numerical experiments verify that, for regional seismic phases, this equivalence is valid for all frequencies for which the point-source (long wavelength) approximation is valid. Further analysis shows that the moment tensor and point force representations retain their validity for non-planar spall surfaces, provided that the average dip of the surface is small. The equivalency of the two representations implies that a singular inverse problem will result from attempts to infer simultaneously the spectra of both these source terms from seismic waveforms. If the spall moment tensor alone is estimated by inversion of waveform data, the inferred numerical values of its components will depend inversely upon the source depth which is assumed in the inversion formalism.

  5. New constraints on the magmatic system beneath Newberry Volcano from the analysis of active and passive source seismic data, and ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, B.; Toomey, D. R.; Hooft, E. E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic systems beneath arc-volcanoes are often poorly resolved by seismic imaging due to the small spatial scale and large magnitude of crustal heterogeneity in combination with field experiments that sparsely sample the wavefield. Here we report on our continued analysis of seismic data from a line of densely-spaced (~300 m), three-component seismometers installed on Newberry Volcano in central Oregon for ~3 weeks; the array recorded an explosive shot, ~20 teleseismic events, and ambient noise. By jointly inverting both active and passive-source travel time data, the resulting tomographic image reveals a more detailed view of the presumed rhyolitic magma chamber at ~3-5 km depth, previously imaged by Achauer et al. (1988) and Beachly et al. (2012). The magma chamber is elongated perpendicular to the trend of extensional faulting and encircled by hypocenters of small (M < 2) earthquakes located by PNSN. We also model teleseismic waveforms using a 2-D synthetic seismogram code to recreate anomalous amplitudes observed in the P-wave coda for sites within the caldera. Autocorrelation of ambient noise data also reveals large amplitude waveforms for a small but spatially grouped set of stations, also located within the caldera. On the basis of these noise observations and 2-D synthetic models, which both require slow seismic speeds at depth, we conclude that our tomographic model underestimates low-velocity anomalies associated with the inferred crustal magma chamber; this is due in large part to wavefront healing, which reduces observed travel time anomalies, and regularization constraints, which minimize model perturbations. Only by using various methods that interrogate different aspects of the seismic data are we able to more realistically constrain the complicated, heterogeneous volcanic system. In particular, modeling of waveform characteristics provides a better measure of the spatial scale and magnitude of crustal velocities near magmatic systems.

  6. Lunar seismic profiling experiment natural activity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duennebier, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Lunar Seismic Experiment Natural Activity Study has provided a unique opportunity to study the high frequency (4-20 Hz) portion to the seismic spectrum on the moon. The data obtained from the LSPE was studied to evaluate the origin and importance of the process that generates thermal moonquakes and the characteristics of the seismic scattering zone at the lunar surface. The detection of thermal moonquakes by the LSPE array made it possible to locate the sources of many events and determine that they are definitely not generated by astronaut activities but are the result of a natural process on the moon. The propagation of seismic waves in the near-surface layers was studied in a qualitative manner. In the absence of an adequate theoretical model for the propagation of seismic waves in the moon, it is not possible to assign a depth for the scattering layer. The LSPE data does define several parameters which must be satisfied by any model developed in the future.

  7. Source and Propagation Characteristics of Explosive and Other Seismic Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, X; Chan, W; Wagner, R; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M

    2005-07-14

    Understanding of the source and propagation characteristics of seismic events of different types including earthquakes, explosions and mining-induced events is essential for successful discrimination of nuclear explosions. We are compiling a data set of mining related seismic events in east Eurasia. Natural earthquake data in the same region are also collected for comparison study between mining related events and earthquakes. The ground-truth data set will provide a unique and valuable resource for monitoring research. We will utilize the data set to investigate the source and propagation characteristics of seismic sources of different types including mine blasts, tremors, collapses and earthquakes. We will use various seismological techniques including spectral analysis, and waveform modeling to conduct the investigation. The research will improve our understanding of the S-wave excitation and propagation characteristics of chemical explosions and other source types.

  8. Moving source localization using seismic signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Shadnaz; Stafsudd, Jing Z.; Hudson, Ralph E.; Yao, Kung; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Accurate localization of a seismic source in a near-field scenario where the distances between sensors and the source are less than a few wavelengths of the generated signal has shown to be a challenging task. Conventional localization algorithms often prove to be ineffective, as near-field seismic signals exhibit characteristics different from the well-studied far-field signals. The current work is aimed at the employment of a seismic sensor array for the localization and tracking of a near-field wideband moving source. In this paper, the mathematical derivation of a novel DOA estimation algorithm-dubbed the Modified Kirlin Method-has been presented in details. The estimated DOAs are then combined using a least-squares optimization method for source localization. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated in a field experiment to track a moving truck. We also compare the DOA estimation and source localization results of the proposed method with those of two other existing methods originally developed for localization of a stationary wideband source; Covariance Matrix Analysis and the Surface Wave Analysis. Our results indicate that both the Surface Wave Analysis and the Modified Kirlin Methods are effective in locating and tracking a moving truck.

  9. Seismic Pulses Derivation from the Study of Source Signature Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Syed Mustafizur; Nawawi, M. N. Mohd.; Saad, Rosli

    2010-07-07

    This paper deals with a deterministic technique for the derivation of seismic pulses by the study of source characteristics. The spectral characteristics of the directly or the nearest detected seismic signal is analyzed and considered as the principle source signature. Using this signature seismic pulses are derived with accurate time position in the seismic traces. The technique is applied on both synthetic and field refraction seismic traces. In both cases it has estimated that the accurate time shifts along with amplitude coefficients.

  10. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  11. Internal structure of Erebus volcano, Antarctica imaged by high-resolution active-source seismic tomography and coda interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandomeneghi, D.; Aster, R.; Kyle, P.; Barclay, A.; Chaput, J.; Knox, H.

    2013-03-01

    Erebus volcano, Antarctica has hosted a persistent convecting phonolite lava lake for over 40 years. The lake produces small (VEI 0-1) Strombolian eruptions resulting from gas slugs rising through the upper conduit system. High-resolution (to scale lengths of several hundreds of meters) three-dimensional P-wave tomographic velocity images were obtained to a depth of approximately 600 m below the volcano surface. Data were collected using 91 seismographs deployed over an approximately 4 by 4 km area of the summit region. Seismic illumination was provided by 12 chemical shots emplaced in shallow snow and ice boreholes. P-wave direct arrival travel-time measurements were used to invert for strong velocity anomalies (with spatial variations in Vp exceeding ±1 km/s) associated with the uppermost few km. Shallow anomalies correlate with fumarolic ice caves, a prominent radial chilled dike, and ring structures associated with the caldera rim. Conduit structures feeding the lava lake and other vents within the Inner Crater are evidently too small (e.g., less than many 10 s of meters) to be imaged under the resolution limits of this experiment. However, combined velocity and coda interferometry scattering intensity images identify near-summit regions with both low velocity and high scattering that are candidates for magma accommodation. Results indicate a nonaxisymmetric near-summit magmatic system that is likely constrained by heterogeneous structures in the uppermost volcano. The most extensive volume of near-summit magma likely resides approximately 500 m NW of the active Inner Crater vents at depths of 500 m and more below the surface.

  12. High-Resolution Active Source Seismic Investigation of the Alpine Fault at Gaunt Creek, central Westland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, J. D.; Sutherland, R.; Townend, J.; Toy, V. G.; Malin, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    Two shallow (101 m and 151 m) boreholes were drilled in early 2011 through the Alpine Fault at Gaunt Creek in the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP). Both holes are located close to a well-known fault outcrop where hanging wall mylonites and cataclasites, exhumed from c. 30 km depth, are thrust over Quaternary gravels. The boreholes DFDP-1A and 1B terminated in footwall gravel and Australian Plate continental footwall material respectively and were both cored and logged using wireline tools. Following drilling a borehole observatory was installed including two borehole seismometers within 20 m of the principal slip zone (PSZ). In April 2012, a multi-purpose explosive seismic survey was undertaken to bridge the gap between the detailed observations of fault zone properties made in the boreholes and the larger-scale seismic response. A string of eight borehole geophones were installed in the DFDP-1A borehole and 126 additional channels deployed on the surface. This experiment was the first field-trial of REF TEK 160 'GOES' systems for seismic; each of the eighteen 'GOES' consisted of a standalone unit with GPS timing, an internal three-component 2 Hz sensor and capacity to record six external channels (for twelve units this was cabled 15 Hz vertical geophones). These units enabled the profile to straddle physiographic obstacles such as Gaunt Creek and facilitated straightforward correlation of shot timing. Moreover, standalone units proved easy to transport upriver into rough terrain to extend the profile azimuth. Forty-one explosive shots, 0.15-1.2 kg in size, were detonated along a 2D profile perpendicular to the Alpine Fault's strike for seismic reflection imaging, vertical seismic profiling and tomography. The preliminary findings based on this data set are presented here.

  13. Applying the seismic interferometry method to vertical seismic profile data using tunnel excavation noise as source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Teixido, Teresa; Martin, Elena; Segarra, Miguel; Segura, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the research conducted to develop efficient strategies for investigation of rock properties and fluids ahead of tunnel excavations the seismic interferometry method was applied to analyze the data acquired in boreholes instrumented with geophone strings. The results obtained confirmed that seismic interferometry provided an improved resolution of petrophysical properties to identify heterogeneities and geological structures ahead of the excavation. These features are beyond the resolution of other conventional geophysical methods but can be the cause severe problems in the excavation of tunnels. Geophone strings were used to record different types of seismic noise generated at the tunnel head during excavation with a tunnelling machine and also during the placement of the rings covering the tunnel excavation. In this study we show how tunnel construction activities have been characterized as source of seismic signal and used in our research as the seismic source signal for generating a 3D reflection seismic survey. The data was recorded in vertical water filled borehole with a borehole seismic string at a distance of 60 m from the tunnel trace. A reference pilot signal was obtained from seismograms acquired close the tunnel face excavation in order to obtain best signal-to-noise ratio to be used in the interferometry processing (Poletto et al., 2010). The seismic interferometry method (Claerbout 1968) was successfully applied to image the subsurface geological structure using the seismic wave field generated by tunneling (tunnelling machine and construction activities) recorded with geophone strings. This technique was applied simulating virtual shot records related to the number of receivers in the borehole with the seismic transmitted events, and processing the data as a reflection seismic survey. The pseudo reflective wave field was obtained by cross-correlation of the transmitted wave data. We applied the relationship between the transmission

  14. OSSY (On Site Seismic Yield) source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1990-09-01

    The On Site Seismic Yield (OSSY) experiment was performed during September 1989. It was a collaborative effort between scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and the Seismographic Stations at UC Berkeley. It was performed in Yucca Valley at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The general objective of the OSSY experiment was to investigate techniques for using seismic measurements to estimate the yield of nuclear explosions. The basic idea is to use chemical explosions of known size to calibrate source coupling and wave propagation effects near the site of a nuclear explosion. Once calibrated in this way, seismic measurements, obtained at locations sufficiently far from the source to be in the region of linear elastic response but sufficiently close to provide accurate registration, can be used to estimate the yield of the nuclear explosion. If such a technique can be shown to be sufficiently accurate, it has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, flexible in experimental design, and applicable to either large or small yields. This investigation has proceeded in a two-stage process. The first stage is to develop and test the calibration procedure. The second stage is to apply the method to actual nuclear explosions. Partly because it was considered desirable to preform a complete analysis of the calibration procedure before applying it to a nuclear explosion and partly because no convenient nuclear explosion tests were available at the time, the OSSY experiment was concentrated on the calibration stage of the process. 9 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Controlled Source 4D Seismic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Morency, C.; Tromp, J.

    2009-12-01

    Earth's material properties may change after significant tectonic events, e.g., volcanic eruptions, earthquake ruptures, landslides, and hydrocarbon migration. While many studies focus on how to interpret observations in terms of changes in wavespeeds and attenuation, the oil industry is more interested in how we can identify and locate such temporal changes using seismic waves generated by controlled sources. 4D seismic analysis is indeed an important tool to monitor fluid movement in hydrocarbon reservoirs during production, improving fields management. Classic 4D seismic imaging involves comparing images obtained from two subsequent seismic surveys. Differences between the two images tell us where temporal changes occurred. However, when the temporal changes are small, it may be quite hard to reliably identify and characterize the differences between the two images. We propose to back-project residual seismograms between two subsequent surveys using adjoint methods, which results in images highlighting temporal changes. We use the SEG/EAGE salt dome model to illustrate our approach. In two subsequent surveys, the wavespeeds and density within a target region are changed, mimicking possible fluid migration. Due to changes in material properties induced by fluid migration, seismograms recorded in the two surveys differ. By back propagating these residuals, the adjoint images identify the location of the affected region. An important issue involves the nature of model. For instance, are we characterizing only changes in wavespeed, or do we also consider density and attenuation? How many model parameters characterize the model, e.g., is our model isotropic or anisotropic? Is acoustic wave propagation accurate enough or do we need to consider elastic or poroelastic effects? We will investigate how imaging strategies based upon acoustic, elastic and poroelastic simulations affect our imaging capabilities.

  16. Preceding seismic activity and slow slip events in the source area of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Yoshida, Keisuke

    2015-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake ruptured a large area of the megathrust east of NE Japan. The earthquake's magnitude was 9.0, substantially larger than predicted. It is important to know what occurred in the source area prior to this great megathrust earthquake to improve understanding of the nucleation processes of large earthquakes and risk assessments in subduction zones. Seafloor observation data revealed the existence of two extremely large slip patches: one just updip of the mainshock hypocenter and the other 80-100 km to the north near the trench axis. For 70-90 years before 2003, M > 6 events and slips of M > c. 7 events on the megathrust occurred in the areas surrounding these two large slip patches. Seismic activity had increased since at least 2003 in the downdip portion of the source area of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In addition, long-term accelerated slow slip occurred in this downdip portion of the source area in the decades before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. About 1 month before the earthquake, a slow slip event (SSE) took place at relatively shallow depths between the two large slip patches, accompanied by foreshock activity. Both the slow slip and foreshocks propagated from north to south toward the southern large slip patch. Two days before the earthquake, an M 7.3 foreshock and an associated postseismic slip began at relatively deep depths in the megathrust between the two large slip patches. In addition, a slow slip type event seems to have occurred approximately half a day after the M 7.3 foreshock near the mainshock hypocenter. This slow slip event and the foreshock activity again propagated from north to south toward the mainshock hypocenter. These long- and short-term preceding seismic and aseismic slip gradually reduced the interplate coupling, increased shear stresses at the two large slip patches (i.e., two strong asperity patches), and finally led to the rupture of the great Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

  17. Seismic source models for probabilistic hazard analysis of Georgia (Southern Caucasus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javakhishvili, Z.; Godoladze, T.; Gamkrelidze, E.; Sokhadze, G.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic Source model is one of the main components of probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis. Active faults and tectonics of Georgia (Sothern Caucasus) have been investigated in numerous scientific studies. The Caucasus consists of different geological structures with complex interactions. The major structures trend WNW-ESE, and focal mechanisms indicate primarily thrust faults striking parallel to the mountains. It is a part of the Alpine - Himalayan collision belt and it is well known for its high seismicity. Although the geodynamic activity of the region, caused by the convergence of the Arabian and the Eurasian plates at a rate of several cm/year, is well known, different tectonic models were proposed as an explanation for the seismic process in the region. The recent model on seismic sources for the Caucasus and derives from recent seismotectonic studies performed in Georgia in the framework of different international projects.We have analyzed previous studies and recent investigations on the bases of new seismic (spatial distribution, moment tensor solution etc), GPS and other data. As a result data base of seismic source models was compiled. Seismic sources are modeled as lines representing the surface projection of active faults or as wide areas (source zones), where the earthquakes can occur randomly. Each structure or zone was quantified on the basis of different parameters. Recent experience for harmonization of cross-border structures was used. As a result new seismic source model of Georgia (Southern Caucasus) for hazard analysis was created.

  18. Juan de Fuca Plate Ridge-to-Trench Experiment: initial results from active source seismic imaging of the Juan de Fuca plate and Cascadia fore-arc (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Canales, J.; Carton, H. D.; Han, S.; Gibson, J. C.; Janiszewski, H. A.; Horning, G.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Abers, G. A.; Trehu, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Active source seismic data were acquired during the Juan de Fuca Ridge-to-Trench experiment (June-July 2012) to characterize the evolution and structure of the Juan de Fuca plate from formation at the ridge, through evolution in the plate interior, to subduction at the Cascadia trench. The survey provides plate-scale images of the sediments, crust, and shallowest mantle along two ridge-perpendicular transects, one extending from Axial seamount to the Oregon margin near Hydrate Ridge and the other from near Endeavour segment to Grays Harbor offshore Washington. In addition, a 450 km long trench-parallel line ~10 km seaward of the Cascadia deformation front was acquired to characterize variations in plate structure along the margin. Coincident long-streamer (8 km) multi-channel seismic (MCS) and wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data were collected along each transect. Using these data, our current investigations focus on the properties of the thick sediment blanket covering the Juan de Fuca plate and evidence for fluid flow at the deformation front, crustal structure within the plate interior and near the deformation front, and tracking the downgoing plate beneath the margin. Highlights include the discovery of numerous pockmarks on the seafloor providing evidence of active fluid flow up to 60 km west of the deformation front. Along the Oregon transect, a bright decollement horizon is imaged at ~1sec twtt above basement whereas at the Washington margin, protothrusts of the deformation front reach to the top of the oceanic crust. Variations in sediment properties are documented within the margin-parallel transect with changes in the stratigraphic level of decollement. While crustal thickness is quite uniform along the margin (~ 6 km), variations in crustal reflectivity and in shallowest mantle velocities are observed over ~30-50 km length scales that could be related to structural variations in the Cascadia subduction zone. Further landward, the top of the

  19. TOMO3D: 3-D joint refraction and reflection traveltime tomography parallel code for active-source seismic data—synthetic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; Sallarès, V.; Miniussi, A.; Ranero, C. R.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new 3-D traveltime tomography code (TOMO3D) for the modelling of active-source seismic data that uses the arrival times of both refracted and reflected seismic phases to derive the velocity distribution and the geometry of reflecting boundaries in the subsurface. This code is based on its popular 2-D version TOMO2D from which it inherited the methods to solve the forward and inverse problems. The traveltime calculations are done using a hybrid ray-tracing technique combining the graph and bending methods. The LSQR algorithm is used to perform the iterative regularized inversion to improve the initial velocity and depth models. In order to cope with an increased computational demand due to the incorporation of the third dimension, the forward problem solver, which takes most of the run time (˜90 per cent in the test presented here), has been parallelized with a combination of multi-processing and message passing interface standards. This parallelization distributes the ray-tracing and traveltime calculations among available computational resources. The code's performance is illustrated with a realistic synthetic example, including a checkerboard anomaly and two reflectors, which simulates the geometry of a subduction zone. The code is designed to invert for a single reflector at a time. A data-driven layer-stripping strategy is proposed for cases involving multiple reflectors, and it is tested for the successive inversion of the two reflectors. Layers are bound by consecutive reflectors, and an initial velocity model for each inversion step incorporates the results from previous steps. This strategy poses simpler inversion problems at each step, allowing the recovery of strong velocity discontinuities that would otherwise be smoothened.

  20. Hydraulic transients: a seismic source in volcanoes and glaciers.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, W S; Qamar, A

    1979-02-16

    A source for certain low-frequency seismic waves is postulated in terms of the water hammer effect. The time-dependent displacement of a water-filled sub-glacial conduit is analyzed to demonstrate the nature of the source. Preliminary energy calculations and the observation of hydraulically generated seismic radiation from a dam indicate the plausibility of the proposed source. PMID:17813379

  1. Multiscale seismic attributes: source-corrected wavelet response and application to high-resolution seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ker, Stephan; Le Gonidec, Yves; Gibert, Dominique

    2012-09-01

    A wavelet-based method was presented in a previous work to introduce multiscale seismic attributes for high-resolution seismic data. Because of the limited frequency bandwidth of the seismic source, we observed distortions in the seismic attributes based on the wavelet response of the subsurface discontinuities (Le Gonidec et al.). In this paper, we go further in the seismic source-correction by considering Lévy alpha-stable distributions introduced in the formalism of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The wavelets are Gaussian derivative functions (GDF), characterized by a derivative order. We show that a high-resolution seismic source, after a classical signature processing, can be taken into account with a GDF. We demonstrate that in the framework of the Born approximation, the CWT of a seismic trace involving such a finite frequency bandwidth can be made equivalent to the CWT of the impulse response of the subsurface and is defined for a reduced range of dilations. We apply the method for the SYSIF seismic device (Marsset et al.; Ker et al.) and show that the source-corrections allow to define seismic attributes for layer thicknesses in the range [24; 115 cm]. We present the analysis for two seismic reflectors identified on a SYSIF profile, and we show that the source-corrected multiscale analysis quantifies their complex geometries.

  2. On the development of a seismic source zonation model for seismic hazard assessment in western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahran, Hani M.; Sokolov, Vladimir; Roobol, M. John; Stewart, Ian C. F.; El-Hadidy Youssef, Salah; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    A new seismic source model has been developed for the western part of the Arabian Peninsula, which has experienced considerable earthquake activity in the historical past and in recent times. The data used for the model include an up-to-date seismic catalog, results of recent studies of Cenozoic faulting in the area, aeromagnetic anomaly and gravity maps, geological maps, and miscellaneous information on volcanic activity. The model includes 18 zones ranging along the Red Sea and the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba and the Dead Sea in the north to the Gulf of Aden in the south. The seismic source model developed in this study may be considered as one of the basic branches in a logic tree approach for seismic hazard assessment in Saudi Arabia and adjacent territories.

  3. On the development of a seismic source zonation model for seismic hazard assessment in western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahran, Hani M.; Sokolov, Vladimir; Roobol, M. John; Stewart, Ian C. F.; El-Hadidy Youssef, Salah; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    A new seismic source model has been developed for the western part of the Arabian Peninsula, which has experienced considerable earthquake activity in the historical past and in recent times. The data used for the model include an up-to-date seismic catalog, results of recent studies of Cenozoic faulting in the area, aeromagnetic anomaly and gravity maps, geological maps, and miscellaneous information on volcanic activity. The model includes 18 zones ranging along the Red Sea and the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba and the Dead Sea in the north to the Gulf of Aden in the south. The seismic source model developed in this study may be considered as one of the basic branches in a logic tree approach for seismic hazard assessment in Saudi Arabia and adjacent territories.

  4. Seismic sonar sources for buried mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Steven R.; Muir, Thomas G.; Gaghan, Frederick E.; Fitzpatrick, Sean M.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Guy, Jeremie

    2003-10-01

    Prior research on seismo-acoustic sonar for detection of buried targets [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2333-2343 (1998)] has continued with examination of various means for exciting interface waves (Rayleigh or Scholte) used to reflect from targets. Several seismic sources were examined for sand beach applications, including vibrating shakers, shaker devices configured to preferentially excite interface waves, linear force actuators, and arrays of shaker sources to create directional interface wave beams. Burial of some plate-like or rod-like portion of the vibrating devices was found to ensure good coupling to the beach. The preferential interface excitation device employed two degrees of freedom to mimic the two components of elliptically polarized interface waves, and was successfully demonstrated. However, it was found that at long ranges, the medium itself created two component interface waves from vibrating source radiations operating with one degree of freedom in the vertical plane. Linear force actuators were functional in this mode. An array of seven vertical shakers was utilized to create interface waves at ranges of 5 m, in the form of directional beams, some 8 deg wide at the half-power points, at frequencies around 100 Hz. Application of these devices for target detection is discussed in the companion paper. [Work sponsored by ONR.

  5. Near-Surface Site Characterization Using a Combination of Active and Passive Seismic Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. W.; Liu, L.; Chen, Y.; White, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    Seismic surveys with an active source are commonly used to characterize the subsurface. Increasingly, passive seismic surveys utilizing ambient seismic frequencies (microtremors) are being used to support geotechnical and hazards engineering studies. In this study, we use a combination of active and passive seismic methods to characterize a watershed site at Haddam Meadows State Park, Haddam, Connecticut. At Haddam Meadows, we employed a number of seismic arrays using both active and passive approaches to estimate the depth to rock and the seismic velocity structure of the unconsolidated sediments. The active seismic surveys included seismic refraction and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) using an accelerated weight-drop seismic source. The passive seismic surveys consisted of MASW techniques using both linear and circular geophone arrays, and a survey using a 3-component seismometer. The active seismic data were processed using conventional algorithms; the passive seismic data were processed using both the spatial autocorrelation method (SPAC) and the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V) method. The interpretations of subsurface structure from the active and passive surveys are generally in good agreement and compare favorably with ground truth information provided by adjacent boreholes. Our results suggest that a combination of active and passive seismic methods can be used to rapidly characterize the subsurface at the watershed scale.

  6. Geyser's Eruptive Activity in Broadband Seismic Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugaenko, Yulia; Saltykov, Vadim

    2010-05-01

    -phase steam mixture and the conduit wall, due to an increased amount of steam in final stages of boiling. The most important result is detection of hidden underground geyser in the area of the Giant geyser. Its deep activity is recorded by seismometer (by seismic and mass position channels) as very stable quasi-periodic oscillations with period 16-18 min. Earlier the existents of the underground geyser was assumed due to observation of intense bursts with such periodicity during boiling-effusion mode berofe every eruption of the Giant geyser. So the supposed underground geyser was accounted as the main heat provider and the principal cause of the Giant geyser eruptions. We named this deep quasi-periodic source of seismic signal (underground geyser) "Heart of Giant". As a result of that, our reconnaissance seismic survey is informative and shows some new facts about geysers, which were not detected earlier by other most traditional methods of geyser study. The main task for future seismic research in the Valley of the Geysers is the location and more particular analysis of the underground "Heart of Giant" geyser.

  7. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  8. Deep crust and mantle structure linked to subduction of the Pacific plate at a continental margin from an active seismic source study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, T. A.; Okaya, D. A.; Henrys, S. A.; Savage, M. K.; Sato, H.; Iwasaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present new results that bear on mantle structure in a subduction zone of both the down going and over-riding plates. Wellington region, New Zealand, sits on the Australian plate a mere ~ 15-25 km above the subducted Pacific plate. This is rare: most active continental margins have at least 30-50 km of free board above subduction zones (cf, Pacific NW, Honshu). Such a shallow setting offers unusually good conditions for making terrestrial observations of the subduction process. In 2010-11 an active source seismic experiment (SAHKE) was carried out across the Wellington region. Both active and passive seismic methods were used to establish a model of the crustal structure and upper mantle structure beneath SAHKE (Henrys et al , 2013). We recorded 12 x 500 kg dynamite shots on ~ 1000 recorders place at 100 m spacing from coast to coast. These data contain excellent returns from the subduction zone at two-way travel times of 7-15 s, but we also recorded coherent reflection energy down to 30 s two-way-travel-time on vertical recorders and 47 s on horizontal recorders. We performed a low-fold stack of these deep reflections and see two zones. The deepest reflections define a westward 17 degree-dipping zone at ~ 100 km deep that is possibly the base of the subducted Pacific plate. The westward dip on this 100 km deep reflector matches that for the top of the plate. Moreover, the total plate thickness implied is ~ 80 km, which matches that predicted for 100 my old oceanic lithosphere. The other deep reflection zone dips eastward across the shot gathers and is typically seen at two-way travel times of 18-25 s on the vertical phones. We also see the same event as a Vs arrival on horizontal phones at two-way travel times of 34-47s. When migrated these reflections define an east dipping reflector that is within the mantle of the overriding Australian plate, and the surface projection of the reflector is ~ 80 km west of SAHKE line. This finding raises the question of what

  9. A versatile shotgun source for engineering and groundwater seismic surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.C. Jr.; Pelton, J.R.; Dougherty, M.E. . Center for Geophysical Investigation of the Shallow Subsurface)

    1993-10-01

    The authors describe an electrical seismic gun that is capable of firing 8-gauge blank black powder shells in a water-filled borehole under relatively high hydrostatic pressures. The new seismic gun is a modified version of the electrical shotgun source for engineering seismic surveys introduced by Pullan and MacAulay (1987). The modifications seal the firing circuit and 8-gauge shell against water entry so underwater detonation will occur reliably at depths to at least 80 m (0.9 MPa atmospheric pressure). Source energy is controlled by varying the size of the black powder load in the shell from 50 grains to 500 grains (10 kJ to 100 kJ). Although their seismic gun may be used in any seismic application suitable for modest explosive charges, it was initially developed as a versatile source for use in seismic investigations of the shallow subsurface (primarily engineering and groundwater studies). As of this writing, the gun has been used for optimum offset and CMP high-resolution seismic reflection profiling, engineering refraction surveys, fixed-source and variable-source noise tests, and vertical travel time measurements in water wells. Other potential uses include VSP and borehole-to-surface or borehole-to-borehole seismic tomography.

  10. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  11. Seismic source study of the Racha-Dzhava (Georgia) earthquake from aftershocks and broad-band teleseismic body-wave records: An example of active nappe tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuenzalida, H.; Rivera, L.; Haessler, H.; Legrand, D.; Philip, H.; Dorbath, L.; McCormack, D.; Arefiev, S.; Langer, C.; Cisternas, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Racha-Dzhava earthquake (Ms = 7.0) that occurred on 1991 April 29 at 09:12:48.1 GMT in the southern border of the Great Caucasus is the biggest event ever recorded in the region, stronger than the Spitak earthquake (Ms = 6.9) of 1988. A field expedition to the epicentral area was organised and a temporary seismic network of 37 stations was deployed to record the aftershock activity. A very precise image of the aftershock distribution is obtained, showing an elongated cloud oriented N105??, with one branch trending N310?? in the western part. The southernmost part extends over 80 km, with the depth ranging from 0 to 15 km, and dips north. The northern branch, which is about 30 km long, shows activity that ranges in depth from 5 to 15 km. The complex thrust dips northwards. A stress-tensor inversion from P-wave first-motion polarities shows a state of triaxial compression, with the major principal axis oriented roughly N-S, the minor principal axis being vertical. Body-waveform inversion of teleseismic seismograms was performed for the main shock, which can be divided into four subevents with a total rupture-time duration of 22 s. The most important part of the seismic moment was released by a gentle northerly dipping thrust. The model is consistent with the compressive tectonics of the region and is in agreement with the aftershock distribution and the stress tensor deduced from the aftershocks. The focal mechanisms of the three largest aftershocks were also inverted from body-wave records. The April 29th (Ms = 6.1) and May 5th (Ms = 5.4) aftershocks have thrust mechanisms on roughly E-W-oriented planes, similar to the main shock. Surprisingly, the June 15th (Ms = 6.2) aftershock shows a thrust fault striking N-S. This mechanism is explained by the structural control of the rupture along the east-dipping geometry of the Dzirula Massif close to the Borzhomi-Kazbeg strike-slip fault. In fact, the orientation and shape of the stress tensor produce a thrust on a N

  12. Evidence for Holocene paleoseismicity along the Basel-Reinach Active Normal Fault (Switzerland): A Seismic Source for the 1356 Earthquake in the Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Delouis, B.; Giardini, D.

    2003-04-01

    We conducted a paleoseismic study with geomorphologic mapping, geophysical prospecting and trenching along an 8-km-long NNE-SSW trending fault scarp south of Basel. The city as well as 40 castles within a 20-km radius were destroyed or heavily damaged by the earthquake of 18th October 1356 (Io = IX-X MKS), the largest historical seismic event in central Europe. Active river incisions as well as late Quaternary alluvial terraces are uplifted along the linear Basel-Reinach fault scarp. The active normal fault shows at least two main branches reaching the surface as attested by resistivity profiles, reflection seismic data, and direct observations in six trenches. In trenches, the normal fault rupture affects three colluvial wedge deposits up to the base of the present day soil. Radiocarbon as well as thermoluminescence age determinations from other trenches helped reconstruct the Holocene events chronology. We identified three seismic events with an average coseismic movement of 0.5 - 0.8 m and a total vertical displacement of 1.8 m in the last 7800 years and five events in the last 13200 years. The most recent event occurred in the interval 610 - 1475 A.D. (2sigma) and may likely correspond to the 1356 earthquake. Furthermore, the morphology suggests both a southern and northern fault extensions that may reach 20 km across the Jura Mountains and across the Rhine Valley. Taking this fault length and a 10 km-thick seismogenic layer suggests a M 6.5 or greater event as a possible scenario for the seismic hazard assessment of the Basel region.

  13. Evidence for Holocene palaeoseismicity along the Basel-Reinach active normal fault (Switzerland): a seismic source for the 1356 earthquake in the Upper Rhine graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, Matthieu; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Delouis, Bertrand; Giardini, Domenico

    2005-02-01

    We conducted a palaeoseismic study with geomorphologic mapping, geophysical prospecting and trenching along an 8-km-long NNE-SSW trending fault scarp south of Basel. The city as well as 40 castles within a 20-km radius were destroyed or heavily damaged by the earthquake of 1356 October 18 (Io = IX-X), the largest historical seismic event in central Europe. Active river incisions as well as late Quaternary alluvial terraces are uplifted along the linear Basel-Reinach (BR) fault scarp. The active normal fault is comprised of at least two main branches reaching the surface as evident by resistivity profiles, reflection seismic data and direct observations in six trenches. In trenches, the normal fault rupture affects three colluvial wedge deposits up to the base of the modern soil. Radiocarbon as well as thermoluminescence (TL) age determinations from other trenches helped to reconstruct the Holocene event chronology. We identified three seismic events with an average coseismic movement of 0.5-0.8 m and a total vertical displacement of 1.8 m in the last 7800 yr and five events in the last 13 200 yr. The most recent event occurred in the interval AD 500-1450 (2σ) and may correspond to the 1356 earthquake. Furthermore, the morphology suggests both a southern and northern fault extensions that may reach 20 km across the Jura mountains and across the Rhine valley. Taking this fault length and a 10-km-thick seismogenic layer suggests a Mw 6.5 or greater event as a possible scenario for the seismic hazard assessment of the Basel region.

  14. Toward seismic source imaging using seismo-ionospheric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, L.; Larmat, C. S.; Mikesell, D.; Sladen, A.; Khelfi, K.; Astafyeva, E.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    The worldwide coverage offered by global navigation space systems (GNSS) such as GPS, GLONASS or Galileo allows seismological measurements of a new kind. GNSS-derived total electron content (TEC) measurements can be especially useful to image seismically active zones that are not covered by conventional instruments. For instance, it has been shown that the Japanese dense GPS network GEONET was able to record images of the ionosphere response to the initial coseismic sea-surface motion induced by the great Mw 9.0 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake less than 10 minutes after the rupture initiation (Astafyeva et al., 2013). But earthquakes of lower magnitude, down to about 6.5 would also induce measurable ionospheric perturbations, when GNSS stations are located less than 250 km away from the epicenter. In order to make use of these new data, ionospheric seismology needs to develop accurate forward models so that we can invert for quantitative seismic sources parameters. We will present our current understanding of the coupling mechanisms between the solid Earth, the ocean, the atmosphere and the ionosphere. We will also present the state-of-the-art in the modeling of coseismic ionospheric disturbances using acoustic ray theory and a new 3D modeling method based on the Spectral Element Method (SEM). This latter numerical tool will allow us to incorporate lateral variations in the solid Earth properties, the bathymetry and the atmosphere as well as realistic seismic source parameters. Furthermore, seismo-acoustic waves propagate in the atmosphere at a much slower speed (from 0.3 to ~1 km/s) than seismic waves propagate in the solid Earth. We are exploring the application of back-projection and time-reversal methods to TEC observations in order to retrieve the time and space characteristics of the acoustic emission in the seismic source area. We will first show modeling and inversion results with synthetic data. Finally, we will illustrate the imaging capability of our approach

  15. Development of Towed Marine Seismic Vibrator as an Alternative Seismic Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozasa, H.; Mikada, H.; Murakami, F.; Jamali Hondori, E.; Takekawa, J.; Asakawa, E.; Sato, F.

    2015-12-01

    The principal issue with respect to marine impulsive sources to acquire seismic data is if the emission of acoustic energy inflicts harm on marine mammals or not, since the volume of the source signal being released into the marine environment could be so large compared to the sound range of the mammals. We propose a marine seismic vibrator as an alternative to the impulsive sources to mitigate a risk of the impact to the marine environment while satisfying the necessary conditions of seismic surveys. These conditions include the repeatability and the controllability of source signals both in amplitude and phase for high-quality measurements. We, therefore, designed a towed marine seismic vibrator (MSV) as a new type marine vibratory seismic source that employed the hydraulic servo system for the controllability condition in phase and in amplitude that assures the repeatability as well. After fabricating a downsized MSV that requires the power of 30 kVA at a depth of about 250 m in water, several sea trials were conducted to test the source characteristics of the downsized MSV in terms of amplitude, frequency, horizontal and vertical directivities of the generated field. The maximum sound level satisfied the designed specification in the frequencies ranging from 3 to 300 Hz almost omnidirectionally. After checking the source characteristics, we then conducted a trial seismic survey, using both the downsized MSV and an airgun of 480 cubic-inches for comparison, with a streamer cable of 2,000m long right above a cabled earthquake observatory in the Japan Sea. The result showed that the penetration of seismic signals generated by the downsized MSV was comparable to that by the airgun, although there was a slight difference in the signal-to-noise ratio. The MSV could become a versatile source that will not harm living marine mammals as an alternative to the existing impulsive seismic sources such as airgun.

  16. A seismic source zone model for the seismic hazard assessment of the Italian territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meletti, Carlo; Galadini, Fabrizio; Valensise, Gianluca; Stucchi, Massimiliano; Basili, Roberto; Barba, Salvatore; Vannucci, Gianfranco; Boschi, Enzo

    2008-04-01

    We designed a new seismic source model for Italy to be used as an input for country-wide probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) in the frame of the compilation of a new national reference map. We started off by reviewing existing models available for Italy and for other European countries, then discussed the main open issues in the current practice of seismogenic zoning. The new model, termed ZS9, is largely based on data collected in the past 10 years, including historical earthquakes and instrumental seismicity, active faults and their seismogenic potential, and seismotectonic evidence from recent earthquakes. This information allowed us to propose new interpretations for poorly understood areas where the new data are in conflict with assumptions made in designing the previous and widely used model ZS4. ZS9 is made out of 36 zones where earthquakes with Mw > = 5 are expected. It also assumes that earthquakes with Mw up to 5 may occur anywhere outside the seismogenic zones, although the associated probability is rather low. Special care was taken to ensure that each zone sampled a large enough number of earthquakes so that we could compute reliable earthquake production rates. Although it was drawn following criteria that are standard practice in PSHA, ZS9 is also innovative in that every zone is characterised also by its mean seismogenic depth (the depth of the crustal volume that will presumably release future earthquakes) and predominant focal mechanism (their most likely rupture mechanism). These properties were determined using instrumental data, and only in a limited number of cases we resorted to geologic constraints and expert judgment to cope with lack of data or conflicting indications. These attributes allow ZS9 to be used with more accurate regionalized depth-dependent attenuation relations, and are ultimately expected to increase significantly the reliability of seismic hazard estimates.

  17. Characterising Active Fault Earthquake Sources Beneath the Coastal Environments of Christchurch and Wellington Cities, New Zealand, Using Seismic Reflection Profiles and Fault Displacement Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, P.; Nodder, S.; Gorman, A. R.; Woelz, S.; Orpin, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal cities of Christchurch and Wellington, New Zealand, lie in different tectonic settings within the obliquely convergent Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone. Both cities have experienced damaging earthquakes in the last three years, which highlight the importance of locating and characterising hidden active faults close to urban areas. The devastating and geologically complex Canterbury earthquake sequence of 2010-2012 developed on the periphery of the plate boundary, and reactivated several previously unidentified strike-slip and reverse faults. Major aftershocks initially beneath land, generally migrated eastward over time, and finally advanced offshore into Pegasus Bay. A study of active submarine faulting beneath the bay highlights the role of inherited crustal structure and inversion tectonics. Marine seismic reflection data reveals that faults have very low slip rate and negligible post-glacial (<15 ka) deformation, which is consistent with inferred long recurrence intervals between large magnitude (Mw>6) earthquakes. Wellington City is surrounded by numerous high-slip rate strike-slip faults overlying the Hikurangi subduction zone. A dense network of secondary basement structures previously recognised throughout the region, mainly from tectonic geomorphology, have, until recently, been considered mostly inactive and excluded from seismic hazard models. We used high-resolution geophysical, bathymetric and sediment-core data to determine the structure, earthquake history and earthquake potential of a newly discovered active reverse fault beneath the inner reaches of Wellington Harbour. The fault has a slip rate of ~0.6 ± 0.3 mm/y, and a vertical displacement history indicating at least two large magnitude (Mw 6.3-7.1), surface-rupturing earthquakes in the last 10 ka. We infer that the fault extends southwards onshore beneath the city and potentially into Cook Strait, and represents a significant previously unrecognised seismic hazard.

  18. IRIS Controlled Source Seismic Experiments: Continental Structure, Instrumentation, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    The controlled-source seismology program of IRIS/PASSCAL has made major contributions to the study of continental structure and evolution. It has also undergone major developments in seismic instrumentation. The first PASSCAL experiments (1984/85) targeted the Basin and Range Province and the Ouachita orogenic belt. The Basin and Range study provided remarkably clear images of this thin, highly-extended crust, while the Ouachita experiment tested competing hypotheses for the deep structure of this Paleozoic orogen. However, both of these projects were limited by a lack of seismic instruments. The situation improved in the late 1980's with the benefit of a mixed array of 600 seismic recorders from the USGS, Stanford, and the Geological Survey of Canada. The resolution achieved with these instruments was revolutionary. Results include the imaging of such remarkable features as crustal-scale duplexes in the Brooks Range compressional orogen of northern Alaska, and of crustal "core complexes" in the extended crust of southwest Arizona. The 3-channel PASSCAL Jr. instrument was developed, leading to experiments in which ˜1000 instruments were deployed, including three-component recording. This complex mix of instruments served the community well for several years, but required large, complex instrument centers and lots of technical support. With input from PASSCAL and the international community, a newly designed, compact instrument (the Texan) was finalized in the spring of 1998, and the first 200 instruments was delivered to the Univ. of Texas-El Paso in late 1998. The present instrument pool of Texans exceeds 1,400 and these have been used on such projects as the high-resolution imaging of the Los Angeles and San Fernando basins (LARSE I and II experiments), where active thrust faults have been imaged. Controlled-source seismic experiments are now very numerous. During calendar year 2004 alone, portable Texan instruments have traveled from Venezuela to Denmark

  19. Seismic and Biological Sources of Ambient Ocean Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Simon Eric

    Sound is the most efficient radiation in the ocean. Sounds of seismic and biological origin contain information regarding the underlying processes that created them. A single hydrophone records summary time-frequency information from the volume within acoustic range. Beamforming using a hydrophone array additionally produces azimuthal estimates of sound sources. A two-dimensional array and acoustic focusing produce an unambiguous two-dimensional `image' of sources. This dissertation describes the application of these techniques in three cases. The first utilizes hydrophone arrays to investigate T-phases (water-borne seismic waves) in the Philippine Sea. Ninety T-phases were recorded over a 12-day period, implying a greater number of seismic events occur than are detected by terrestrial seismic monitoring in the region. Observation of an azimuthally migrating T-phase suggests that reverberation of such sounds from bathymetric features can occur over megameter scales. In the second case, single hydrophone recordings from coral reefs in the Line Islands archipelago reveal that local ambient reef sound is spectrally similar to sounds produced by small, hard-shelled benthic invertebrates in captivity. Time-lapse photography of the reef reveals an increase in benthic invertebrate activity at sundown, consistent with an increase in sound level. The dominant acoustic phenomenon on these reefs may thus originate from the interaction between a large number of small invertebrates and the substrate. Such sounds could be used to take census of hard-shelled benthic invertebrates that are otherwise extremely difficult to survey. A two-dimensional `map' of sound production over a coral reef in the Hawaiian Islands was obtained using two-dimensional hydrophone array in the third case. Heterogeneously distributed bio-acoustic sources were generally co-located with rocky reef areas. Acoustically dominant snapping shrimp were largely restricted to one location within the area surveyed

  20. Patterns of seismic activity preceding large earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Bruce E.; Carlson, J. M.; Langer, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    A mechanical model of seismic faults is employed to investigate the seismic activities that occur prior to major events. The block-and-spring model dynamically generates a statistical distribution of smaller slipping events that precede large events, and the results satisfy the Gutenberg-Richter law. The scaling behavior during a loading cycle suggests small but systematic variations in space and time with maximum activity acceleration near the future epicenter. Activity patterns inferred from data on seismicity in California demonstrate a regional aspect; increased activity in certain areas are found to precede major earthquake events. One example is given regarding the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 which is located near a fault section associated with increased activity levels.

  1. Seismic structure of the Costa Rican subduction system from active-source onshore-offshore seismic data and imaging plate boundary processes at the Cascadia subduction zone offshore Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everson, Erik D.

    of ~6.5 -7.2 km/s under the active arc. Our modeled lower crustal velocities and densities fit approximately at or within the error bounds for bulk continental crust. Using the crustal structure from our velocity model, we were able to determine a magmatic production rate of ~80 km3/km/Ma for the Costa Rican volcanic arc. The third chapter uses iterative pre-stack velocity analysis to create pre-stack depth migrated seismic images and velocity models. The PSDM reveal: (1) landward vergence of faults; (2) extensive BSR's; (3) a zone of low acoustic impedance underneath the Pleistocene accretionary prism; (4) a lack of a strong decollement reflection throughout the section; (5) discontinuous reflectivity from the subducting oceanic crust; (6) and a shallow dip of the top of the subducting oceanic crust ~1.5 - 4° beneath the Pleistocene accretionary prism. From the inferred porosity variations from our velocity model we are able to estimate the volume of expelled fluid from the Pleistocene accretionary prism. We estimate that over the ~32 km along the deformation front covered by our seismic lines that ~ 750 +150/-110 km3 of expelled fluid has been released at a rate of ~ 1.1 mm/yr.

  2. 3D Modelling of Seismically Active Parts of Underground Faults via Seismic Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzeskakis, Theofanis; Konstantaras, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    During the last few years rapid steps have been taken towards drilling for oil in the western Mediterranean sea. Since most of the countries in the region benefit mainly from tourism and considering that the Mediterranean is a closed sea only replenishing its water once every ninety years careful measures are being taken to ensure safe drilling. In that concept this research work attempts to derive a three dimensional model of the seismically active parts of the underlying underground faults in areas of petroleum interest. For that purpose seismic spatio-temporal clustering has been applied to seismic data to identify potential distinct seismic regions in the area of interest. Results have been coalesced with two dimensional maps of underground faults from past surveys and seismic epicentres, having followed careful reallocation processing, have been used to provide information regarding the vertical extent of multiple underground faults in the region of interest. The end product is a three dimensional map of the possible underground location and extent of the seismically active parts of underground faults. Indexing terms: underground faults modelling, seismic data mining, 3D visualisation, active seismic source mapping, seismic hazard evaluation, dangerous phenomena modelling Acknowledgment This research work is supported by the ESPA Operational Programme, Education and Life Long Learning, Students Practical Placement Initiative. References [1] Alves, T.M., Kokinou, E. and Zodiatis, G.: 'A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: The South Aegean (Crete) as an analogue for confined marine basins', Marine Pollution Bulletin, In Press, 2014 [2] Ciappa, A., Costabile, S.: 'Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea)', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 84 (1-2), pp. 44-55, 2014 [3] Ganas, A., Karastathis, V., Moshou, A., Valkaniotis, S., Mouzakiotis

  3. Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling in the Source Region of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Hirata, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Koketsu, K.; Ito, T.; Kasahara, K.; Ito, K.; Kawamura, T.; Ikawa, T.; Onishi, M.; Kawanaka, T.; Abe, S.

    2003-12-01

    The location and geometry of the source fault, and crustal velocity structure, provide the basic information for more precise estimation of strong ground motions with devastative earthquakes. The deep seismic profiling around Metropolitan Tokyo (Kanto area) began from 2002 under the project named `Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion' as five year's project. Deep seismic profiling was performed along the Sagami (Sagami 2003) and Tokyo Bay (Tokyo Bay 2003), to obtain an image of the source fault of the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M7.9), upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate, and deeper extension of inland active faults. In Sagami 2003, seismic reflection data were acquired along a 75-km-long seismic line from the flank of the Hakone volcano to Tokyo Bay through the coast of Sagami Bay. The seismic source was four vibroseis trucks and air guns (1500 cu. inch). The seismic signals were recorded by geophones (10 Hz) on land along the coast with 20 33-km-long spread. The seismic data was processed by standard CMP-reflection method. The obtained seismic section portrays the east dipping reflectors beneath Odawara at depth ca. 4 km to Kamakura at depth ca. 13 km for 40-km-distance forming a narrow (< 1 km) concentrated zone of reflectors. The location and geometry of reflectors are almost coincidence with the source fault model (model II) proposed by MatsuOura et al. (1980) for the Kanto earthquake using a inverse method from geodetic data. Thus, it is interpreted that the source fault of the earthquake is in the narrow zone of the concentrated reflectors. The deeper extension of the Kozu-Matsuda Fault, showing the one of the highest slip rates (3 mm/y: vertical component) among active faults in Japan and was assessed high seismic risk, merges to the east dipping reflectors at ca. 6.5 km in depth beneath the Oiso hills. In the Tokyo Bay 2003, seismic reflection data were acquired along a 71-km

  4. Assessing the role of fluids in episodic tremor and slip events using active seismic sources: results from a prototype experiment in Cascadia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F.; Silver, P. G.; Nigbor, R.

    2009-12-01

    Recently, the so-called episodic tremor and slip (ETS) that consist of seismically recorded tremor events with characteristic frequencies of 1-15 Hz and slow slip events observed by GPS and strainmeters with durations of order weeks were widely observed in a variety of environments worldwide. While the community continues to make interesting observations, the underlying physical process remains poorly understood. There have been many proposed mechanisms, most of which invoke fluids. Many observations suggest that ETS can be triggered by very small stresses despite the high confining pressures at the depth of ETS, which has led many to conclude that fluids at the slab interface are under lithostatic pressure, and that furthermore there is likely fluid flow at the time of ETS events. Thus far, there is little data with which to evaluate these ideas. We have been interested in determining whether or not there are spatiotemporal structural changes in the crust and upper-most mantle associated with this phenomenon. We conducted a control-source experiment in Cascadia to examine the feasibility of using the reflection/scattering waves from the slab interface to look for structural changes that may reflect the migration of fluids. We selected a highly repeatable source, an eccentric-mass “shaker” designed for engineering studies, as the seismic source. The shaker was provided by NEES@UCLA. A 15’x15’ cement pad for installing the shaker was built on basaltic bedrock that is part of the Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Crescent Formation. We deployed arrays of short period instruments at two distances from the source: 30km and 90km away. The 90km array was deployed at the site of a previous deployment of the A of A team at Big Skidder Hill. Including our stations and those of A of A, we had 32 seismometers in all. The array has a station spacing of 60-100 m and an aperture about 1 to 1.5 km. During our experiment period, we were able to record a quarry blast near our

  5. Stress-Release Seismic Source for Seismic Velocity Measurement in Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, P. L.; Clark, C.; Richardson, J.; Martin, L.; Zahl, E.; Etter, A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate seismic event locations are needed to delineate roles of mine geometry, stress and geologic structures in developing rockburst conditions. Accurate absolute locations are challenging in mine environments with rapid changes in seismic velocity due to sharp contrasts between individual layers and large time-dependent velocity gradients attending excavations. Periodic use of controlled seismic sources can help constrain the velocity in this continually evolving propagation medium comprising the miners' workplace. With a view to constructing realistic velocity models in environments in which use of explosives is problematic, a seismic source was developed subject to the following design constraints: (i) suitable for use in highly disturbed zones surrounding mine openings, (ii) able to produce usable signals over km-scale distances in the frequency range of typical coal mine seismic events (~10-100 Hz), (iii) repeatable, (iv) portable, (v) non-disruptive to mining operations, and (vi) safe for use in potentially explosive gaseous environments. Designs of the compressed load column seismic source (CLCSS), which generates a stress, or load, drop normal to the surface of mine openings, and the fiber-optic based source-initiation timer are presented. Tests were conducted in a coal mine at a depth of 500 m (1700 ft) and signals were recorded on the surface with a 72-ch (14 Hz) exploration seismograph for load drops of 150-470 kN (16-48 tons). Signal-to-noise ratios of unfiltered signals ranged from ~200 immediately above the source (500 m (1700 ft)) to ~8 at the farthest extent of the array (slant distance of ~800 m (2600 ft)), suggesting the potential for use over longer range. Results are compared with signals produced by weight drop and sledge hammer sources, indicating the superior waveform quality for first-arrival measurements with the CLCSS seismic source.

  6. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert; Knox, Hunter Anne; James, Stephanie; Lee, Rebekah; Cole, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  7. Multiharmonic model of seismic activity in Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, G. A.; Valeev, S. G.; Faskhutdinova, V. A.

    2010-12-01

    Based on the uniform catalogue of earthquakes of the minimum energy class 8.5 for 1962-2008, multiharmonic models of seismic activity in Kamchatka are developed. The main harmonic components with periods from a few days to 12 years are identified. Both the entire catalogue and its modified versions obtained by the elimination of aftershocks and clusters, as well as nonoverlapping time series were used to study the stability of the models. The forward-prediction testing showed that in the models with weekly averaged initial data, periods of increased and reduced seismic activity lasting for several weeks are predicted with high confidence on an interval of up to 1.8% of the education period. This testifies for the presence of deterministic components in the seismic activity.

  8. Apollo 14 active seismic experiment.

    PubMed

    Watkins, J S; Kovach, R L

    1972-03-17

    Explosion seismic refraction data indicate that the lunar near-surface rocks at the Apollo 14 site consist of a regolith 8.5 meters thick and characterized by a compressional wave velocity of 104 meters per second. The regolith is underlain by a layer with a compressional wave velocity of 299 meters per second. The thickness of this layer, which we interpret to be the Fra Mauro Formation, is between 16 and 76 meters. The layer immediately beneath this has a velocity greater than 370 meters per second. We found no evidence of permafrost. PMID:17794200

  9. Apollo 14 active seismic experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, J. S.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Explosion seismic refraction data indicate that the lunar near-surface rocks at the Apollo 14 site consist of a regolith 8.5 meters thick and characterized by a compressional wave velocity of 104 meters per second. The regolith is underlain by a layer with a compressional wave velocity of 299 meters per second. The thickness of this layer, which we interpret to be the Fra Mauro Formation, is between 16 and 76 meters. The layer immediately beneath this has a velocity greater than 370 meters per second. We found no evidence of permafrost.

  10. Regional Observation of Seismic Activity in Baekdu Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Che, Il-Young; Shin, Jin-Soo; Chi, Heon-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Seismic unrest in Baekdu Mountain area between North Korea and Northeast China region has called attention to geological research community in Northeast Asia due to her historical and cultural importance. Seismic bulletin shows level of seismic activity in the area is higher than that of Jilin Province of Northeast China. Local volcanic observation shows a symptom of magmatic unrest in period between 2002 and 2006. Regional seismic data have been used to analyze seismic activity of the area. The seismic activity could be differentiated from other seismic phenomena in the region by the analysis.

  11. Observations of seismic activity in Southern Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meirova, T.; Hofstetter, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent seismic activity in southern Lebanon is of particular interest since the tectonic framework of this region is poorly understood. In addition, seismicity in this region is very infrequent compared with the Roum fault to the east, which is seismically active. Between early 2008 and the end of 2010, intense seismic activity occurred in the area. This was manifested by several swarm-like sequences and continuous trickling seismicity over many days, amounting in total to more than 900 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 0.5 ≤ M d ≤ 5.2. The region of activity extended in a 40-km long zone mainly in a N-S direction and was located about 10 km west of the Roum fault. The largest earthquake, with a duration magnitude of M d = 5.2, occurred on February 15, 2008, and was located at 33.327° N, 35.406° E at a depth of 3 km. The mean-horizontal peak ground acceleration observed at two nearby accelerometers exceeded 0.05 g, where the strongest peak horizontal acceleration was 55 cm/s2 at about 20 km SE of the epicenter. Application of the HypoDD algorithm yielded a pronounced N-S zone, parallel to the Roum fault, which was not known to be seismically active. Focal mechanism, based on full waveform inversion and the directivity effect of the strongest earthquake, suggests left-lateral strike-slip NNW-SSE faulting that crosses the NE-SW traverse faults in southern Lebanon.

  12. Source-independent full waveform inversion of seismic data

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha

    2006-02-14

    A set of seismic trace data is collected in an input data set that is first Fourier transformed in its entirety into the frequency domain. A normalized wavefield is obtained for each trace of the input data set in the frequency domain. Normalization is done with respect to the frequency response of a reference trace selected from the set of seismic trace data. The normalized wavefield is source independent, complex, and dimensionless. The normalized wavefield is shown to be uniquely defined as the normalized impulse response, provided that a certain condition is met for the source. This property allows construction of the inversion algorithm disclosed herein, without any source or source coupling information. The algorithm minimizes the error between data normalized wavefield and the model normalized wavefield. The methodology is applicable to any 3-D seismic problem, and damping may be easily included in the process.

  13. Crustal Seismic Anisotropy Produced by Rock Fabric Terranes in the Taiwan Central Range Deformational Orogen: Integrative Study Combining Rock Physics, Structural Geology, and Passive/Active-Source Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, D. A.; Ross, Z.; Christensen, N. I.; Wu, F. T.; Byrne, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is currently under construction due to the collision of the northwestern corner of the Philippine Sea plate and the embedded Luzon island arc with the larger continental Eurasian plate. This collision is responsible for the current growth of the Central Range that dominates the eastern half of the island. An international collaboration involving several USA and Taiwan universities and academic institutions was formed to study how the orogen evolves through time and to understand the role of a colliding island arc in mountain building. The project, Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research (TAIGER), was funded by NSF-Continental Dynamics and Taiwan National Science Council. The Central Range grows at one of the most rapid rates of uplift in the world, exposing metamorphic rocks that were once at least 10 km deep. The range offers unique opportunities for studies of crustal seismic anisotropy for two major reasons: (1) its geological makeup is conducive for producing crustal seismic anisotropy; that is, the rocks are highly foliated; and (2) a seismological data volume of significant breadth offers extensive coverage of sources and recording stations throughout the region. We carried out a crustal shear wave splitting study by data mining 3300 local earthquakes collected in the TAIGER 2009 sea-land experiment. We used an automated P and S wave arrival time picking method (Ross and Ben-Zion, 2014) applied to over 100,000 event-station pairs. These data were analyzed for shear-wave splitting using the MFAST automated package (Savage et al., 2010), producing 3300 quality shear wave split measurements. The splitting results were then station-averaged. The results show NNE to NE orientation trends that are consistent with regional cleavage strikes. Average crustal shear wave split time is 0.244 sec. These measurements are consistent with rock physics measurements of Central Range slate and metamorphic acoustic velocities. The splits exhibit orientations

  14. Underwater seismic source. [for petroleum exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for generating a substantially oscillation-free seismic signal for use in underwater petroleum exploration, including a bag with walls that are flexible but substantially inelastic, and a pressured gas supply for rapidly expanding the bag to its fully expanded condition is described. The inelasticity of the bag permits the application of high pressure gas to rapidly expand it to full size, without requiring a venting mechanism to decrease the pressure as the bag approaches a predetermined size to avoid breaking of the bag.

  15. Seismic Source Characteristics of Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. R.; Kitov, I. O.; Barker, B. W.; Sultanov, D. D.

    - During the period 1965 to 1988, the former Soviet Union (FSU) conducted over 120 peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) at locations widely dispersed throughout the territories of the FSU. These explosions sample a much wider range of source conditions than do the historical explosions at the known nuclear test sites and, therefore, seismic data recorded from these PNE tests provide a unique resource for use in deriving improved quantitative bounds on the ranges of seismic signal characteristics which may require consideration in global monitoring of the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In this paper we summarize the results of a detailed statistical analysis of broadband seismic data recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory from 21 of these PNE tests at regional distances extending from about 7 to 19 degrees, as well as the results of theoretical waveform simulation analyses of near-regional (Δ<25km) seismic data observed from a selected sample of nine of these PNE tests. The results of these analyses have been found to be consistent with those of previous teleseismic investigations in that they indicate that the seismic source coupling efficiencies are very similar for explosions in a wide variety of hardrock and water-saturated media, while explosions in water-saturated clay are observed to have significantly higher coupling efficiencies. Moreover, the scaling of the seismic source function with explosion yield and depth of burial inferred from these analyses of the Soviet PNE data are shown to be generally consistent with the predictions of the Mueller/Murphy source model. These results suggest that the Mueller/Murphy source model can provide a reasonable basis for estimating the expected variation in regional phase spectral composition over a wide range of nuclear source conditions of potential interest in CTBT monitoring.

  16. Method for determining source and receiver statics in marine seismic exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1986-04-08

    A method for seismic exploration at a marine exploration site, is described which consists of the steps of: a. fixing a seismic energy source and a seismic energy detector on the water bottom at a point offset from a marine exploration line, b. traversing the marine vessel towing a seismic energy source and a seismic marine cable employing a plurality of spaced-apart hydrophones, c. generating seismic energy from the towed seismic energy source to produce a seismic reflection signal that is detected by the plurality of hydrophones on the seismic marine cable and a first seismic refraction signal that is detected by the fixed seismic energy detector, the first seismic refraction signal including a source statics attributable to time delay in the near surface earth formation directly below the towed seismic energy source, d. generating seismic energy from the fixed seismic energy source to produce a second seismic refraction signal that is detected by each of the plurality of hydrophones on the seismic marine cable, the second seismic refraction signal including a receiver statics attributable to time delay in the near surface earth formation directly below each of the pluarlity of hydrophones.

  17. Fast full-wave seismic inversion using source encoding.

    SciTech Connect

    Ho Cha, Young; Baumstein, Anatoly; Lee, Sunwoong; Hinkley, David; Anderson, John E.; Neelamani, Ramesh; Krebs, Jerome R.; Lacasse, Martin-Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Full Wavefield Seismic Inversion (FWI) estimates a subsurface elastic model by iteratively minimizing the difference between observed and simulated data. This process is extremely compute intensive, with a cost on the order of at least hundreds of prestack reverse time migrations. For time-domain and Krylov-based frequency-domain FWI, the cost of FWI is proportional to the number of seismic sources inverted. We have found that the cost of FWI can be significantly reduced by applying it to data processed by encoding and summing individual source gathers, and by changing the encoding functions between iterations. The encoding step forms a single gather from many input source gathers. This gather represents data that would have been acquired from a spatially distributed set of sources operating simultaneously with different source signatures. We demonstrate, using synthetic data, significant cost reduction by applying FWI to encoded simultaneous-source data.

  18. The effect of source's shape for seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Onishi, K.; Kasahara, J.; Kuroda, T.

    2009-12-01

    In conventional simulation of seismic wave propagation, the source which generates signals is usually given by a point force or by a particle velocity at a point. In practice, seismic wave is generated by signal generators with finite volume and width. Since seismic lines span a distance up to hundreds meter to several kilometers, many people conducted seismic survey and data processing with the assumption that the size of signal generator is negligible compared with survey scale. However, there are no studies that tells how the size of baseplate influences generated seismic waves. Such estimations, therefore, are meaningful to consider the scale of generator. In this sense, current seismic processing might require a theoretical background about the seismic source for further detailed analysis. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of seismic source’s shape to resultant wave properties, and then estimate how effective the consideration about the scale of signal generator is for analyzing the seismic data. To evaluate source’s scale effect, we performed finite element analysis with the 3D model including the baseplate of source and the heterogeneous ground medium. We adopted a finite element method (FEM) and chose the code named “MD Nastran” (MSC Software Ver.2008) to calculate seismic wave propagation. To verify the reliability of calculation, we compared the result of FEM and that of finite-difference method (FDM) with wave propagating simulation of isotropic and homogeneous model with a point source. The amplitude and phase of those two were nearly equal each other. We considered the calculation of FEM is accurate enough and can be performed in the following calculations. As the first step, we developed a simple point source model and a baseplate model. The point source model contains only the ground represented by an elastic medium. The force generating the signal is given at the nodal point of the surface in this case. On the other

  19. Scaling relationship for source parameters of the seismicity of the Corinth Rift (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrullo, Emanuela; Satriano, Claudio; Lyon-Caen, Helene; Bernard, Pascal; Deschamps, Anne; Papadimitriou, Panayotis; Sokos, Efthimios; Plicka, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    The improvements in high-density, high-dynamics and broadband seismic observation make it possible to investigate the proprieties of microearthquake source parameters at very small scales, in order to better understand the earthquake process similarity over a broad magnitude range. The issue of earthquake source scaling continues to draw considerable debate within the seismological community: both supporting and refuting that systematic differences between the source processes of small and large earthquakes may exist. It motivates the study of how source parameters, such as seismic moment, corner frequency, radiated seismic energy, and apparent stress, scale over a wide range of magnitudes. On the other hand the estimation of the heterogeneous distribution of seismic attenuation from the dispersion of amplitude with frequency is important for the characterization of rock and fluid properties, e.g., saturation, porosity, permeability, and viscosity, because attenuation is more sensitive than velocity to some of these properties. To address these questions, we analyze the seismicity recorded from 2000 to 2011 by the Corinth Rift Laboratory european project (http:/crlab.eu) covering the western part of the Corinth Rift (Greece). The network was composed in 2000 of 12 recording stations, with short period three component seismometers. Over the years 6 broadband stations have been added. The Corinth Rift (Western Greece) is one of the most seismic active area in Europe with several instrumental and historical earthquakes (at least 5 earthquakes with magnitude larger than 5.8 in the last 35 years), several seismic swarms and significant background seismicity. The database consists in about 100,000 events with prevalent normal faulting focal mechanism and covers five orders of magnitude of seismic moment M0 (10^10 - 10^15 Nm). We investigate scaling relationships of the source parameters from S-wave signals. We use a frequency domain parametric approach to estimate

  20. Using Distant Sources in Local Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, Bruce; Foulgr, Gillian

    2014-05-01

    Seismic tomography methods such as the 'ACH' method of Aki, Christoffersson & Husebye (1976, 1977) are subject to significant bias caused by the unknown wave-speed structure outside the study volume, whose effects are mathematically of the same order as the local-structure effects being studied. Computational experiments using whole-mantle wave-speed models show that the effects are also of comparable numerical magnitude (Masson & Trampert, 1997). Failure to correct for these effects will significantly corrupt computed local structures. This bias can be greatly reduced by solving for additional parameters defining the shapes, orientations, and arrival times of the incident wavefronts. The procedure is exactly analogous to solving for hypocentral locations in local-earthquake tomography. For planar incident wavefronts, each event adds three free parameters and the forward problem is surprisingly simple: The first-order change in the theoretical arrival time at observation point B resulting from perturbations in the incident-wave time t0 and slowness vector s is δtB ≡ δt0 + δs · rA = δtA, the change in the time of the plane wave at the point A where the un-perturbed ray enters the study volume (Julian and Foulger, submitted). This consequence of Fermat's principle apparently has not previously been recognized. In addition to eliminating the biasing effect of structure outside the study volume, this formalism enables us to combine data from local and distant events in studies of local structure, significantly improving resolution of deeper structure, particularly in places such as volcanic and geothermal areas where seismicity is confined to shallow depths. Many published models that were derived using ACH and similar methods probably contain significant artifacts and are in need of re-evaluation.

  1. Deep Seismic Researches Of Seismic-Active Zones With Use Of High-Power Vibrators - Technique, Outcomes, Outlooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Sal`Nikov, A.; Kashun, V.; Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Zhemchugova, I.; Danilov, I.; Liseikin, A.

    2004-12-01

    There are presented the materials of deep vibroseism researches, carried out in seismic active regions of Siberia with use of stationary (100-tos power) and moveable vibration sources (40-60tons power) and mobile digital recording equipment. There are given some examples of unique, have no world analogues, correlograms from high-power vibrators on distances to 400km and more. Using new vibroseismic technology of deep seismic researches, there were got detail deep sections of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, including time-sections of CDP-DSS up to depth of 80km. Materials of vibroseismic investigations on 2500km of seismic profiles in hard-to-reach regions of the Altay-Sayan region, the Baikal rift zone and Okhotsko-Chukotski regions are evidence of high cost efficiency, ecological safety, possibility to be realized in hard-to-reach region and finally of availability of deep seismic investigations with use of high-power vibration sources.

  2. Seismic activity of Erebus volcano, antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminuma, Katsutada

    1987-11-01

    Mount Erebus is presently the only Antarctic volcano with sustained eruptive activity in the past few years. It is located on Ross Island and a convecting anorthoclase phonolite lava lake has occupied the summit crater of Mount Erebus from January 1973 to September 1984. A program to monitor the seismic activity of Mount Erebus named IMESS was started in December 1980 as an international cooperative program among Japan, the United States and New Zealand. A new volcanic episode began on 13 September, 1984 and continued until December. Our main observations from the seismic activity from 1982 1985 are as follows: (1) The average numbers of earthquakes which occurred around Mount Erebus in 1982, 1983 and January August 1984 were 64, 134 and 146 events per day, respectively. Several earthquake swarms occurred each year. (2) The averag number of earthquakes in 1985 is 23 events per day, with only one earthquake swarm. (3) A remarkable decrease of the background seismicity is recognized before and after the September 1984 activity. (4) Only a few earthquakes were located in the area surrounding Erebus mountain after the September 1984 activity. A magma reservoir is estimated to be located in the southwest area beneath the Erebus summit, based on the hypocenter distributions of earthquakes.

  3. Assessing submarine gas hydrate at active seeps on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand, using controlled source electromagnetic data with constraints from seismic, geochemistry, and heatflow data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalenberg, K.; Haeckel, M.; Pecher, I. A.; Toulmin, S. J.; Hamdan, L. J.; Netzeband, G.; Wood, W.; Poort, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Coffin, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Electrical resistivity is one of the key properties useful for evaluating submarine gas hydrate deposits. Gas hydrates are electrically insulating in contrast to the conductive pore fluid. Where they form in sufficient quantities the bulk resistivity of the sub-seafloor is elevated. CSEM data were collected in 2007 as part of the German - International “New Vents” project on R/V Sonne, cruise SO191, at three target areas on the Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand. The margin is characterized by widespread bottom simulating reflectors (BSR), seep structures, and active methane and fluid venting indicating the potential for gas hydrate formation. Opouawe Bank is one of the ridge and basin systems on the accretionary wedge and is located off the Wairarapa coast at water depths of 1000-1100 m. The first observed seep sites (North Tower, South Tower, Pukeko, Takahe, and Tui) were identified from individual gas flares in hydro-acoustic data and video observations during voyages on R/V Tangaroa. Seismic reflection data collected during SO191 subsequently identified more than 25 new seep structures. Two intersecting CSEM profiles have been surveyed across North Tower, South Tower, and Takahe. 1-D inversion of the data reveals anomalously high resistivities at North Tower and South Tower, moderately elevated resistivities at Takahe, and normal background resistivities away from the seeps. The high resistivities are attributed to gas hydrate layers at intermediate depths beneath the seeps. At South Tower the hydrate concentration could be possibly as much as 25% of the total sediment volume within a 50m thick layer. This conforms with geochemical pore water analyses which show a trend of increased methane flux towards South Tower. At Takahe, gas pockets and patchy gas hydrate, as well as sediment heterogeneities and carbonates, or temperature driven upward fluid flow indicated by the observed higher heat flow at this site may explain the resistivity pattern

  4. Calibration of R/V Marcus G. Langseth Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J.; Tolstoy, M.; Webb, S.; Doermann, L.; Bohenstihl, D.; Nooner, S.; Crone, T.; Holmes, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    NSF-owned Research Vessel Marcus G. Langseth is operated by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, providing the tools for full-scale marine seismic surveys to the academic community. Since inauguration of science operations, Langseth has successfully supported 2D and 3D seismic operations, including offshore- onshore and OBS refraction profiling A significant component of Langseths equipage is the seismic source, comprising four identical linear subarrays which can be combined in a number of configurations according to the needs of each scientific mission. To ensure a full understanding of the acoustic levels of these sources and in order to mitigate their possible impact upon marine life through accurate determination of safety radii, an extensive program of acoustic calibration was carried out in 2007 and 2008, during Langseths shakedown exercises. A total of 14000+ airgun array discharges were recorded in three separate locations with water depths varying from 1750 to 45 meters and at source-receiver offsets between near-zero and 17 km. The quantity of data recorded allows significant quantitative analysis of the sound levels produced by the Langseth seismic sources. A variety of acoustic metrics will be presented and compared, including peak levels and energy-based measures such as RMS, Energy Flux Density and its equivalent, Sound Exposure Level. It is clearly seen that water depth exerts a fundamental control on received sound levels, but also that these effects can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.

  5. Detection of Seismic Sources Associated with Ice Movement in Antarctica using POLENET Seismic Array, AGAP Seismic Array, and GSN Seismic Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, A. C.; Barcheck, C. G.; Wiens, D. A.; Barklage, M. E.; Nyblade, A.; Aster, R. C.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    continent near the center of East Antarctica (depths between 20-40 km). We have also detected a new type of cryospheric source characterized by ~ 1 s Rayleigh waves traveling in the ice layer (1.5-1.7 km/s propagation velocity) over distances of up to 1000 km. These sources are located within the upper part of the ice sheet and are distributed around the interior of East Antarctica, and may correspond to large crevassing or snow collapse events. We continue to analyze both long and short period bands of data collected starting in IPY. When completed the catalog will give great insight into both the tectonic and glacial processes capable of producing seismic waves (such as calving or sudden ice stream motion) active in unobserved regions of the the Antarctic continent.

  6. Source-Type Identification Analysis Using Regional Seismic Moment Tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, A.; Dreger, D. S.; Ford, S. R.; Walter, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    Waveform inversion to determine the seismic moment tensor is a standard approach in determining the source mechanism of natural and manmade seismicity, and may be used to identify, or discriminate different types of seismic sources. The successful applications of the regional moment tensor method at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the 2006 and 2009 North Korean nuclear tests (Ford et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2010) show that the method is robust and capable for source-type discrimination at regional distances. The well-separated populations of explosions, earthquakes and collapses on a Hudson et al., (1989) source-type diagram enables source-type discrimination; however the question remains whether or not the separation of events is universal in other regions, where we have limited station coverage and knowledge of Earth structure. Ford et al., (2012) have shown that combining regional waveform data and P-wave first motions removes the CLVD-isotropic tradeoff and uniquely discriminating the 2009 North Korean test as an explosion. Therefore, including additional constraints from regional and teleseismic P-wave first motions enables source-type discrimination at regions with limited station coverage. We present moment tensor analysis of earthquakes and explosions (M6) from Lop Nor and Semipalatinsk test sites for station paths crossing Kazakhstan and Western China. We also present analyses of smaller events from industrial sites. In these sparse coverage situations we combine regional long-period waveforms, and high-frequency P-wave polarity from the same stations, as well as from teleseismic arrays to constrain the source type. Discrimination capability with respect to velocity model and station coverage is examined, and additionally we investigate the velocity model dependence of vanishing free-surface traction effects on seismic moment tensor inversion of shallow sources and recovery of explosive scalar moment. Our synthetic data tests indicate that biases in scalar

  7. The North Maladeta Fault (Spanish Central Pyrenees) as the Vielha 1923 earthquake seismic source: Recent activity revealed by geomorphological and geophysical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortuño, M.; Queralt, P.; Martí, A.; Ledo, J.; Masana, E.; Perea, H.; Santanach, P.

    2008-06-01

    The Spanish Central Pyrenees have been the scenario of at least two damaging earthquakes in the last 800 years. Analysis of macroseismic data of the most recent one, the Vielha earthquake (19 November 1923), has led to the identification of the North Maladeta Fault (NMF) as the seismic source of the event. This E-W trending fault defines the northern boundary of the Maladeta Batholith and corresponds to a segment of the Alpine Gavarnie thrust fault. Our study shows that the NMF offsets a reference Neogene peneplain. The maximum observed vertical displacement is ˜ 730 m, with the northern downthrown sector slightly tilting towards the South. This offset provides evidence of normal faulting and together with the presence of tectonic faceted spurs allowed us to geomorphically identify a fault trace of 17.5 km. This length suggests that a maximum earthquake of Mw = 6.5 ± 0.66 could occur in the area. The geomorphological study was improved with a resistivity model obtained at Prüedo, where a unique detritic Late Miocene sequence crops out adjacent to the NMF. The section is made up of 13 audiomagnetotelluric soundings along a 1.5 km transect perpendicular to the fault trace at Prüedo and reveals the structure in depth, allowing us to interpret the Late Miocene deposits as tectonically trapped basin deposits associated with normal faulting of the NMF. The indirect age of these deposits has been constrained between 11.1 and 8.7 Ma, which represents a minimum age for the elevated Pyrenean peneplain in this part of the Pyrenees. Therefore, we propose the maximum vertical dip-slip rate for the NMF to be between 0.06 and 0.08 mm/a. Normal faulting in this area is attributed to the vertical lithospheric stress associated with the thickened Pyrenean crust.

  8. Analysing seismic-source mechanisms by linear-programming methods.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Linear-programming methods are powerful and efficient tools for objectively analysing seismic focal mechanisms and are applicable to a wide range of problems, including tsunami warning and nuclear explosion identification. The source mechanism is represented as a point in the 6-D space of moment-tensor components. The present method can easily be extended to fit observed seismic-wave amplitudes (either signed or absolute) subject to polarity constraints, and to assess the range of mechanisms consistent with a set of measured amplitudes. -from Author

  9. Properties of the 15 February 2011 Flare Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, S.; Green, L. M.; Matthews, S. A.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2013-06-01

    The first near-side X-class flare of Solar Cycle 24 occurred in February 2011 (SOL2011-02-05T01:55) and produced a very strong seismic response in the photosphere. One sunquake was reported by Kosovichev ( Astrophys. J. Lett. 734, L15, 2011), followed by the discovery of a second sunquake by Zharkov, Green, Matthews et al. ( Astrophys. J. Lett. 741, L35, 2011). The flare had a two-ribbon structure and was associated with a flux-rope eruption and a halo coronal mass ejection (CME) as reported in the CACTus catalogue. Following the discovery of the second sunquake and the spatial association of both sources with the locations of the feet of the erupting flux rope (Zharkov, Green, Matthews et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 741, L35, 2011), we present here a more detailed analysis of the observed photospheric changes in and around the seismic sources. These sunquakes are quite unusual, taking place early in the impulsive stage of the flare, with the seismic sources showing little hard X-ray (HXR) emission, and strongest X-ray emission sources located in the flare ribbons. We present a directional time-distance diagram computed for the second source, which clearly shows a ridge corresponding to the travelling acoustic-wave packet and find that the sunquake at the second source happened about 45 seconds to one minute earlier than the first source. Using acoustic holography we report different frequency responses of the two sources. We find strong downflows at both seismic locations and a supersonic horizontal motion at the second site of acoustic-wave excitation.

  10. Uncertainty estimations for seismic source inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duputel, Zacharie; Rivera, Luis; Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2012-08-01

    Source inversion is a widely used practice in seismology. Magnitudes, moment tensors, slip distributions are now routinely calculated and disseminated whenever an earthquake occurs. The accuracy of such models depends on many aspects like the event magnitude, the data coverage and the data quality (instrument response, isolation, timing, etc.). Here, like in any observational problem, the error estimation should be part of the solution. It is however very rare to find a source inversion algorithm which includes realistic error analyses, and the solutions are often given without any estimates of uncertainties. Our goal here is to stress the importance of such estimation and to explore different techniques aimed at achieving such analyses. In this perspective, we use the W phase source inversion algorithm recently developed to provide fast CMT estimations for large earthquakes. We focus in particular on the linear-inverse problem of estimating the moment tensor components at a given source location. We assume that the initial probability densities can be modelled by Gaussian distributions. Formally, we can separate two sources of error which generally contribute to the model parameter uncertainties. The first source of uncertainty is the error introduced by the more or less imperfect data. This is carried by the covariance matrix for the data (Cd). The second source of uncertainty, often overlooked, is associated with modelling error or mismodelling. This is represented by the covariance matrix on the theory, CT. Among the different sources of mismodelling, we focus here on the modelling error associated with the mislocation of the centroid position. Both Cd and CT describe probability densities in the data space and it is well known that it is in fact CD=Cd+CT that should be included into the error propagation process. In source inversion problems, like in many other fields of geophysics, the data covariance (CD) is often considered as diagonal or even proportional

  11. Uncertainty estimations for seismic source inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duputel, Z.; Rivera, L. A.; Fukahata, Y.; Kanamori, H.

    2011-12-01

    Source inversion is a very widely used practice in seismology. Magnitudes, moment tensors, slip distributions are now routinely calculated and disseminated by several agencies and research groups whenever an earthquake occurs. The estimated source models can be used as inputs for various algorithms such as ShakeMap computation, tsunami modeling, stress transfer calculation or waveform modeling for tomography studies. Despite the importance of these applications, the source inversion algorithms often do not include proper error analyses, and the results are often given without any estimates of uncertainties. In centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion studies, we often estimate the uncertainty on the model parameters by using various resampling techniques such as bootstrap or jacknife. The strength of these computer-based methods lies in their simplicity. We can implement them considering the inversion procedure as a "black-box" without any knowledge about the model and data statistical properties. However, these methods can suffer from too simplistic assumptions (such as the independence of data samples) and provide the first order error estimates only without the possibility of improving the source model itself. We explore here an alternative approach by taking errors explicitly into account in source inversion problems. In this perspective we use the W-phase source inversion algorithm recently developed to provide fast and robust CMT estimations for moderate to large earthquakes. We assume that the initial probability densities can be modeled by Gaussian distributions. Formally, we can separate two sources of error which generally contribute to the model parameter uncertainties. On one side we consider the error induced by the more or less imperfect data. This information is carried by the covariance matrix for the data Cd. A key point which is practically always ignored is the possibility of having non-diagonal elements in Cd; such non-diagonal elements are due to

  12. Seismic explosion sources on an ice cap - Technical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Controlled source seismic investigation of crustal structure below ice covers is an emerging technique. We have recently conducted an explosive refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment on the ice cap in east-central Greenland. The data-quality is high for all shot points and a full crustal model can be modelled. A crucial challenge for applying the technique is to control the sources. Here, we present data that describe the efficiency of explosive sources in the ice cover. Analysis of the data shows, that the ice cap traps a significant amount of energy, which is observed as a strong ice wave. The ice cap leads to low transmission of energy into the crust such that charges need be larger than in conventional onshore experiments to obtain reliable seismic signals. The strong reflection coefficient at the base of the ice generates strong multiples which may mask for secondary phases. This effect may be crucial for acquisition of reflection seismic profiles on ice caps. Our experience shows that it is essential to use optimum depth for the charges and to seal the boreholes carefully.

  13. Multiband array detection and location of seismic sources recorded by dense seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiata, Natalia; Satriano, Claudio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Pascal; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-06-01

    We present a new methodology for detection and space-time location of seismic sources based on multiscale, frequency-selective coherence of the wave field recorded by dense large-scale seismic networks and local antennas. The method is designed to enhance coherence of the signal statistical features across the array of sensors and consists of three steps: signal processing, space-time imaging, and detection and location. The first step provides, for each station, a simplified representation of seismic signal by extracting multiscale non-stationary statistical characteristics, through multiband higher-order statistics or envelopes. This signal processing scheme is designed to account for a priori unknown transients, potentially associated with a variety of sources (e.g. earthquakes, tremors), and to prepare data for a better performance in posterior steps. Following space-time imaging is carried through 3-D spatial mapping and summation of station-pair time-delay estimate functions. This step produces time-series of 3-D spatial images representing the likelihood that each pixel makes part of a source. Detection and location is performed in the final step by extracting the local maxima from the 3-D spatial images. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method in detecting and locating seismic sources associated with low signal-to-noise ratio on an example of the aftershock earthquake records from local stations of International Maule Aftershock Deployment in Central Chile. The performance and potential of the method to detect, locate and characterize the energy release associated with possibly mixed seismic radiation from earthquakes and low-frequency tectonic tremors is further tested on continuous data from southwestern Japan.

  14. Multi-band array detection and location of seismic sources recorded by dense seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiata, Natalia; Satriano, Claudio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Pascal; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-02-01

    We present a new methodology for detection and space-time location of seismic sources based on multi-scale, frequency-selective coherence of the wave field recorded by dense large-scale seismic networks and local antennas. The method is designed to enhance coherence of the signal statistical features across the array of sensors and consists of three steps: signal processing, space-time imaging, and detection and location. The first step provides, for each station, a simplified representation of seismic signal by extracting multi-scale non-stationary statistical characteristics, through multi-band higher-order statistics or envelopes. This signal processing scheme is designed to account for a priori unknown transients, potentially associated with a variety of sources (e.g., earthquakes, tremors), and to prepare data for a better performance in posterior steps. Following space-time imaging is carried through 3D spatial mapping and summation of station-pair time-delay estimate functions. This step produces time series of 3D spatial images representing the likelihood that each pixel makes part of a source. Detection and location is performed in the final step by extracting the local maxima from the 3D spatial images. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method in detecting and locating seismic sources associated with low signal-to-noise ratio on an example of the aftershock earthquake records from local stations of International Maule Aftershock Deployment in Central Chile. The performance and potential of the method to detect, locate and characterize the energy release associated with possibly mixed seismic radiation from earthquakes and low-frequency tectonic tremors is further tested on continuous data from southwestern Japan.

  15. Array analysis methods for detection, classification and location of seismic sources: a first evaluation for aftershock analysis using dense temporary post-seismic array network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiata, N.; Satriano, C.; Vilotte, J.; Bernard, P.

    2012-12-01

    Detection, separation, classification and location of distributed non stationary seismic sources in broadband noisy environment is an important problem in seismology, in particular for monitoring the high-level post-seismic activity following large subduction earthquakes, like the off-shore Maule (Mw 8.8, 2010) earthquake in Central Chile. Multiple seismic arrays, and local antenna, distributed over a region allow exploiting frequency selective coherence of the signals that arrive at widely-separated array stations, leading to improved detection, convolution blind source separation, and location of distributed non stationary sources. We present here first results on the investigation of time-frequency adaptive array analysis techniques for detection and location of broadband distributed seismic events recorded by the dense temporary seismic network (International Maule Aftershock Deployment, IMAD) installed for monitoring the high-level seismic activity following the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake (Mw 8.8). This seismic network is characterized by a large aperture, with variable inter-station distances, corroborated with a high level of distributed near and far field seismic source activity and noise. For this study, we first extract from the post-seismic network a number of seismic arrays distributed over the region covered by this network. A first aspect is devoted to passive distributed seismic sources detection, classification and separation. We investigate a number of narrow and wide band signal analysis methods both in time and time-frequency domains for energy arrival detection and tracking, including time adaptive higher order statistics, e.g. like kurtosis, and multiband band-pass filtering, together with adaptive time-frequency transformation and extraction techniques. We demonstrate that these techniques provide superior resolution and robustness than classical STA/LTA techniques in particular in the case of distributed sources with potential signal

  16. An integrated analysis of controlled- and passive source seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpfhuber, Eva-Maria

    This dissertation consists of two parts, which include a study using passive source seismic data, and one using the dataset from a large-scale refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment as the basis for an integrated analysis. The goal of the dissertation is the integration of the two different datasets and a combined interpretation of the results of the "Continental Dynamics of the Rocky Mountains" (CD-ROM) 1999 seismic experiment. I have determined the crustal structure using four different receiver function methods using data collected from the northern transect of the CD-ROM passive seismic experiment. The resulting migrated image and crustal thickness determinations confirm and define prior crustal thickness measurements based on the CD-ROM and Deep Probe datasets. The new results show a very strong lower crustal layer (LCL) with variable thickness beneath the Wyoming Province. In addition, I was able to show that it terminates at 42° latitude and provide a seismic tie between the CD-ROM and Deep Probe seismic experiments so they represent a continuous N-S transect extending from New Mexico into Alberta, Canada. This new tie is particularly important because it occurs close to a major tectonic boundary, the Cheyenne belt, between an Archean craton and a Proterozoic terrane. The controlled-source seismic dataset was analyzed with the aid of forward modeling and inversion to establish a two-dimensional velocity and interface model of the area. I have developed a picking strategy, which helps identify the seismic phases, and improves quality and quantity of the picks. In addition, I was able to pick and identify S-wave phases, which furthermore allowed me to establish an independent S-wave model, and hence the Poisson's and Vp/Vs ratios. The final velocity and interface model was compared to prior results, and the results were jointly interpreted with the receiver function results. Thanks to the integration of the controlled-source and receiver function

  17. Ionospheric Response Due to Seismic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Signatures of the seismic activity in the ionospheric F2 region have been studied by analyzing the measurement of electron and ion temperatures during the occurrence of earthquake. The ionospheric electron and ion temperatures data recorded by the RPA payload aboard the Indian SROSS-C2 satellite during the period from January 1995 to December 2000 were used for the altitude range 430-630 km over Indian region. The normal day's electron and ion temperatures have been compared to the temperatures recorded during the seismic activity. The details of seismic events were obtained from USGS earthquake data information website. It has been found that the average electron temperature is enhanced during the occurrence of earthquakes by 1.2 to 1.5 times and this enhancement was for ion temperature ranging from 1.1to 1.3 times over the normal day's average temperatures. The above careful quantitative analysis of ionospheric electron and ion temperatures data shows the consistent enhancement in the ionospheric electron and ion temperatures. It is expected that the seismogenic vertical electrical field propagates up to the ionospheric heights and induces Joule heating that may cause the enhancement in ionospheric temperatures.

  18. Seismic reflection imaging of underground cavities using open-source software

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R J

    2011-12-20

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) includes provisions for an on-site inspection (OSI), which allows the use of specific techniques to detect underground anomalies including cavities and rubble zones. One permitted technique is active seismic surveys such as seismic refraction or reflection. The purpose of this report is to conduct some simple modeling to evaluate the potential use of seismic reflection in detecting cavities and to test the use of open-source software in modeling possible scenarios. It should be noted that OSI inspections are conducted under specific constraints regarding duration and logistics. These constraints are likely to significantly impact active seismic surveying, as a seismic survey typically requires considerable equipment, effort, and expertise. For the purposes of this study, which is a first-order feasibility study, these issues will not be considered. This report provides a brief description of the seismic reflection method along with some commonly used software packages. This is followed by an outline of a simple processing stream based on a synthetic model, along with results from a set of models representing underground cavities. A set of scripts used to generate the models are presented in an appendix. We do not consider detection of underground facilities in this work and the geologic setting used in these tests is an extremely simple one.

  19. Estimation of seismic source parameters for earthquakes in the southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, H.; Sheen, D.

    2013-12-01

    Recent seismicity in the Korean Peninsula is shown to be low but there is the potential for more severe seismic activity. Historical records show that there were many damaging earthquakes around the Peninsula. Absence of instrumental records of damaging earthquakes hinders our efforts to understand seismotectonic characteristics in the Peninsula and predict seismic hazards. Therefore it is important to analyze instrumental records precisely to help improve our knowledge of seismicity in this region. Several studies on seismic source parameters in the Korean Peninsula were performed to find source parameters for a single event (Kim, 2001; Jo and Baag, 2007; Choi, 2009; Choi and Shim, 2009; Choi, 2010; Choi and Noh, 2010; Kim et al., 2010), to find relationships between source parameters (Kim and Kim, 2008; Shin and Kang, 2008) or to determine the input parameters for the stochastic strong ground motion simulation (Jo and Baag, 2001; Junn et al., 2002). In all previous studies, however, the source parameters were estimated only from small numbers of large earthquakes in this region. To understand the seismotectonic environment in low seismicity region, it will be better that a study on the source parameters is performed by using as many data as we can. In this study, therefore, we estimated seismic source parameters, such as the corner frequency, Brune stress drop and moment magnitude, from 503 events with ML≥1.6 that occurred in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula from 2001 to 2012. The data set consist of 2,834 S-wave trains on three-component seismograms recorded at broadband seismograph stations which have been operating by the Korea Meteorological Administration and the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources. To calculate the seismic source parameters, we used the iterative method of Jo and Baag (2001) based on the methods of Snoke (1987) and Andrews (1986). In this method, the source parameters are estimated by using the integration of

  20. Integrated seismic source model of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Yuji; Okuwaki, Ryo

    2015-08-01

    We compared spatiotemporal slip-rate and high-frequency (around 1 Hz) radiation distributions from teleseismic P wave data to infer the seismic rupture process of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake. For these estimates, we applied a novel waveform inversion formulation that mitigates the effect of Green's functions uncertainty and a hybrid backprojection method that mitigates contamination by depth phases. Our model showed that the dynamic rupture front propagated eastward from the hypocenter at 3.0 km/s and triggered a large-slip event centered about 50 km to the east. It also showed that the large-slip event included a rapid rupture acceleration event and an irregular deceleration of rupture propagation before the rupture termination. Heterogeneity of the stress drop or fracture energy in the eastern part of the rupture area, where aftershock activity was high, inhibited rupture growth. High-frequency radiation sources tended to be in the deeper part of the large-slip area, which suggests that heterogeneity of the stress drop or fracture energy there may have contributed to the damage in and around Kathmandu.

  1. Seismic source inversion using Green's reciprocity and a 3-D structural model for the Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutė, S.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a feasibility study for seismic source inversions using a 3-D velocity model for the Japanese Islands. The approach involves numerically calculating 3-D Green's tensors, which is made efficient by exploiting Green's reciprocity. The rationale for 3-D seismic source inversion has several aspects. For structurally complex regions, such as the Japan area, it is necessary to account for 3-D Earth heterogeneities to prevent unknown structure polluting source solutions. In addition, earthquake source characterisation can serve as a means to delineate existing faults. Source parameters obtained for more realistic Earth models can then facilitate improvements in seismic tomography and early warning systems, which are particularly important for seismically active areas, such as Japan. We have created a database of numerically computed 3-D Green's reciprocals for a 40°× 40°× 600 km size area around the Japanese Archipelago for >150 broadband stations. For this we used a regional 3-D velocity model, recently obtained from full waveform inversion. The model includes attenuation and radial anisotropy and explains seismic waveform data for periods between 10 - 80 s generally well. The aim is to perform source inversions using the database of 3-D Green's tensors. As preliminary steps, we present initial concepts to address issues that are at the basis of our approach. We first investigate to which extent Green's reciprocity works in a discrete domain. Considering substantial amounts of computed Green's tensors we address storage requirements and file formatting. We discuss the importance of the initial source model, as an intelligent choice can substantially reduce the search volume. Possibilities to perform a Bayesian inversion and ways to move to finite source inversion are also explored.

  2. Effects of source-region phenomenology on seismic discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1992-06-01

    Seismic discrimination and yield-estimation studies have demonstrated the importance of explosion-source region phenomenology to the monitoring of nuclear test ban treaties. In this paper, we examine source-region factors that control spectral ratio discrimination of NTS nuclear explosions and western US earthquakes. We discuss how near-source geology controls the shape of the spectral-ratio curve for explosions. An explosion-source model derived by Denny and Johnson (1991) is used to fit the spectral-ratio data and illustrates the dependence of the pressure-time history acting at the elastic radius on the physical state of the materials on the near-source region. We then summarize two detailed studies of a missed violation (a nuclear explosion that looks like an earthquake) and a false alarm (a naturally occurring event that looks like a nuclear explosion). In both cases, source-region effects could be modeled that resulted in the radiation of anomalous seismic spectrum. These studies underscore the importance that an improved understanding of source-region phenomenology has on predicting monitoring capabilities in widely different geologic environments, assessing opportunities for evasion, and for the resolution of false alarms.

  3. Seismic source characterisation of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Brückl, Ewald; Radinger, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Tunnel Seismic While Drilling (TSWD) method aims at predicting continuously the geological situation ahead of the tunnel without disturbing the construction work. Thereby the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) itself is used as seismic source. The cutting process generates seismic waves radiating into the rock mass and vibrations propagating to the main bearing of the cutter head. These vibrations are monitored and used as pilot signal. For the processing and interpretation it was hypothesized so far that the TBM acts like a single force. To prove this assumption the radiation pattern of several TBM's under construction were investigated. Therefore 3-components geophones were installed at the surface, which were situated directly above the tunnel axes and also with lateral offset. Additional, borehole geophones were placed in the wall of one tube of a two-tube tunnel. The geophones collected the forward and backward radiated wave field, as the TBM, operating in the other tube, passed their positions. The obtained seismic data contains continuous records over a range of 600 m of the TBM position. The offsets vary from 25 m to 400 m and the frequency ranges from 20-250 Hertz. The polarisation of the p-wave and the s-wave and their amplitude ratio were determined and compared with modelled seismograms with different source mechanism. The results show that the description of the source mechanism by a single force can be used as a first order approximation. More complex radiation pattern including tensile forces and several source locations like the transmission of reaction forces over the gripper to the tunnel wall are further tested and addressed.

  4. Added-value joint source modelling of seismic and geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhaus, Henriette; Heimann, Sebastian; Walter, Thomas R.; Krueger, Frank

    2013-04-01

    In tectonically active regions earthquake source studies strongly support the analysis of the current faulting processes as they reveal the location and geometry of active faults, the average slip released or more. For source modelling of shallow, moderate to large earthquakes often a combination of geodetic (GPS, InSAR) and seismic data is used. A truly joint use of these data, however, usually takes place only on a higher modelling level, where some of the first-order characteristics (time, centroid location, fault orientation, moment) have been fixed already. These required basis model parameters have to be given, assumed or inferred in a previous, separate and highly non-linear modelling step using one of the these data sets alone. We present a new earthquake rupture model implementation that realizes a fully combined data integration of surface displacement measurements and seismic data in a non-linear optimization of simple but extended planar ruptures. The model implementation allows for fast forward calculations of full seismograms and surface deformation and therefore enables us to use Monte Carlo global search algorithms. Furthermore, we benefit from the complementary character of seismic and geodetic data, e. g. the high definition of the source location from geodetic data and the sensitivity of the resolution of the seismic data on moment releases at larger depth. These increased constraints from the combined dataset make optimizations efficient, even for larger model parameter spaces and with a very limited amount of a priori assumption on the source. A vital part of our approach is rigorous data weighting based on the empirically estimated data errors. We construct full data error variance-covariance matrices for geodetic data to account for correlated data noise and also weight the seismic data based on their signal-to-noise ratio. The estimation of the data errors and the fast forward modelling opens the door for Bayesian inferences of the source

  5. Seismic active control by neural networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A study on the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to activate structural control under seismic loads is carried out. The structure considered is a single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system with an active bracing device. The control force is computed by a trained neural network. The feed-forward neural network architecture and an adaptive back-propagation training algorithm is used in the study. The neural net is trained to reproduce the function that represents the response-excitation relationship of the SDF system under seismic loads. The input-output training patterns are generated randomly. In the back-propagation training algorithm, the learning rate is determined by ensuring the decrease of the error function at each epoch. The computer program implemented is validated by solving the classification of the XOR problem. Then, the trained ANN is used to compute the control force according to the control strategy. If the control force exceeds the actuator's capacity limit, it is set equal to that limit. The concept of the control strategy employed herein is to apply the control force at every time step to cancel the system velocity induced at the preceding time step so that the gradual rhythmic buildup of the response is destroyed. The ground motions considered in the numerical example are the 1940 El Centro earthquake and the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake in California. The system responses with and without the control are calculated and compared. The feasibility and potential of applying ANNs to seismic active control is asserted by the promising results obtained from the numerical examples studied.

  6. Seismic active control by neutral networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu

    1995-12-31

    A study on the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to active structural control under seismic loads is carried out. The structure considered is a single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system with an active bracing device. The control force is computed by a trained neural network. The feedforward neural network architecture and an adaptive backpropagation training algorithm is used in the study. The neural net is trained to reproduce the function that represents the response-excitation relationship of the SDF system under seismic loads. The input-output training patterns are generated randomly. In the backpropagation training algorithm, the learning rate is determined by ensuring the decrease of the error function at each epoch. The computer program implemented is validated by solving the classification of the XOR problem. Then, the trained ANN is used to compute the control force according to the control strategy. If the control force exceeds the actuator`s capacity limit, it is set equal to that limit. The concept of the control strategy employed herein is to apply the control force at every time step to cancel the system velocity induced at the preceding time step so that the gradual rhythmic buildup of the response is destroyed. The ground motions considered in the numerical example are the 1940 El Centro earthquake and the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake in California. The system responses with and without the control are calculated and compared. The feasibility and potential of applying ANNs to seismic active control is asserted by the promising results obtained from the numerical examples studied.

  7. Shear wave identification near by shallow seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimír.; Živor, Roman

    2010-05-01

    Interference of P- and S-waves occurs during the first period of P-wave when the shallow seismic measurement is realized near the seismic source (the distance is less or equal to one P-wave wavelength). Polarization analysis method (particle motion) is suitable for the determination of S-wave arrival time in these conditions. Three component geophones are usually used in this case for the registration of seismic waves generated by a hammer blow. With regard to P- and S-waves polarization it is advantageous to orientate the three component orthogonal system of geophones so that separate components make an angle of 35.26° to horizontal plane (Galperin geophone configuration). Azimuth angle between separate components is 120° in this case. This configuration insures the equivalent gravity force moments affect all the three components in the same way. It is in the contrast to the standard arrangement of the three component geophone with two horizontal and one vertical component. The inclined arrangement results in equal frequency responses for all the three components. Phase and amplitude characteristics between the components should therefore be the same. This facilitates the S-wave arrival detection. An example of application of this method to the determination of seismic wave propagation velocity anisotropy is presented.

  8. The seismicity of Ethiopia; active plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohr, P.

    1981-01-01

    Ethiopia, descended from the semimythical Kingdom of Punt, lies at the strategic intersection of Schmidt's jigsaw puzzle where the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the African Rift System meet. Because of geologically recent uplift combined with rapid downcutting erosion by rivers, notably the Blue Nile (Abbay), Ethiopia is the most mountainous country in Africa. It is also the most volcanically active, while its historical seismicity matches that of the midocean ridges. And, in a sense, Ethiopia is host to an evoloving ocean ridge system. 

  9. Source signature and acoustic field of seismic physical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Q.; Jackson, C.; Tang, G.; Burbach, G.

    2004-12-01

    As an important tool of seismic research and exploration, seismic physical modeling simulates the real world data acquisition by scaling the model, acquisition parameters, and some features of the source generated by a transducer. Unlike the numerical simulation where a point source is easily satisfied, the transducer can't be made small enough for approximating the point source in physical modeling, therefore yield different source signature than the sources applied in the field data acquisition. To better understand the physical modeling data, characterizing the wave field generated by ultrasonic transducers is desirable and helpful. In this study, we explode several aspects of source characterization; including their radiation pattern, directivity, sensitivity and frequency response. We also try to figure out how to improve the acquired data quality, such as minimize ambient noise, use encoded chirp to prevent ringing, apply deterministic deconvolution to enhance data resolution and t-P filtering to remove linear events. We found that the transducer and their wave field, the modeling system performance, as well as material properties of the model and their coupling conditions all play roles in the physical modeling data acquisition.

  10. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia P. Tuttle

    2012-01-31

    Seismic Hazard Analysis: Guidance on Uncertainty and Use of Experts. The model will be used to assess the present-day composite distribution for seismic sources along with their characterization in the CEUS and uncertainty. In addition, this model is in a form suitable for use in PSHA evaluations for regulatory activities, such as Early Site Permit (ESPs) and Combined Operating License Applications (COLAs). Applications, Values, and Use Development of a regional CEUS seismic source model will provide value to those who (1) have submitted an ESP or COLA for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review before 2011; (2) will submit an ESP or COLA for NRC review after 2011; (3) must respond to safety issues resulting from NRC Generic Issue 199 (GI-199) for existing plants and (4) will prepare PSHAs to meet design and periodic review requirements for current and future nuclear facilities. This work replaces a previous study performed approximately 25 years ago. Since that study was completed, substantial work has been done to improve the understanding of seismic sources and their characterization in the CEUS. Thus, a new regional SSC model provides a consistent, stable basis for computing PSHA for a future time span. Use of a new SSC model reduces the risk of delays in new plant licensing due to more conservative interpretations in the existing and future literature. Perspective The purpose of this study, jointly sponsored by EPRI, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the NRC was to develop a new CEUS SSC model. The team assembled to accomplish this purpose was composed of distinguished subject matter experts from industry, government, and academia. The resulting model is unique, and because this project has solicited input from the present-day larger technical community, it is not likely that there will be a need for significant revision for a number of years. See also Sponsors Perspective for more details. The goal of this project was to implement the CEUS SSC work plan

  11. Effects of Large and Small-Source Seismic Surveys on Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, M.; Richardson, W. J.; Koski, W. R.; Smultea, M. A.; Haley, B.; Fitzgerald, M. W.; Rawson, M.

    2006-05-01

    L-DEO implements a marine mammal and sea turtle monitoring and mitigation program during its seismic surveys. The program consists of visual observations, mitigation, and/or passive acoustic monitoring (PAM). Mitigation includes ramp ups, powerdowns, and shutdowns of the seismic source if marine mammals or turtles are detected in or about to enter designated safety radii. Visual observations for marine mammals and turtles have taken place during all 11 L-DEO surveys since 2003, and PAM was done during five of those. Large sources were used during six cruises (10 to 20 airguns; 3050 to 8760 in3; PAM during four cruises). For two interpretable large-source surveys, densities of marine mammals were lower during seismic than non- seismic periods. During a shallow-water survey off Yucatán, delphinid densities during non-seismic periods were 19x higher than during seismic; however, this number is based on only 3 sightings during seismic and 11 sightings during non-seismic. During a Caribbean survey, densities were 1.4x higher during non-seismic. The mean closest point of approach (CPA) for delphinids for both cruises was significantly farther during seismic (1043 m) than during non-seismic (151 m) periods (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.001). Large whales were only seen during the Caribbean survey; mean CPA during seismic was 1722 m compared to 1539 m during non-seismic, but sample sizes were small. Acoustic detection rates with and without seismic were variable for three large-source surveys with PAM, with rates during seismic ranging from 1/3 to 6x those without seismic (n = 0 for fourth survey). The mean CPA for turtles was closer during non-seismic (139 m) than seismic (228 m) periods (P < 0.01). Small-source surveys used up to 6 airguns or 3 GI guns (75 to 1350 in3). During a Northwest Atlantic survey, delphinid densities during seismic and non-seismic were similar. However, in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, delphinid densities during non-seismic were 2x those during

  12. Seismically Articulating Kilauea Volcano's Active Conduits, Rift Zones, and Faults through HVO's Second Fifty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, P.; Nakata, J.; Klein, F.; Koyanagi, R.; Thelen, W.

    2011-12-01

    While seismic monitoring of active Hawaiian volcanoes began 100 years ago, the build-up of the U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) seismographic network to its current configuration began in 1955, when Jerry Eaton established remote stations that telemetered data via landline to recorders at HVO. With network expansion through the 1960's, earthquake location and cataloging capabilities have evolved to afford a computer processed seismic catalog now spanning fifty years. Location accuracy and catalog completeness to smaller magnitudes have increased. Research and insights developed using HVO's seismic record have exploited the ability to seismically monitor volcanic activity at depth, to identify active regions within the volcanoes on the basis of computed hypocentral locations, to infer regions of magma storage by recognizing different families of volcanic earthquakes, and to forecast volcanic activity in both short and longer term from seismicity patterns. HVO's seismicity catalog was central to calculations of probabilistic seismic hazards. The ability to develop and implement additional analytical and interpretive capabilities has kept pace with improvements in both field and laboratory hardware and software. While the basic capabilities continue as part of HVO's core monitoring, additional interpretive capabilities now include adding details of volcanic and earthquake source regions, and viewing seismic data in juxtaposition with other observatory data streams. As HVO looks to its next century of volcano studies, research and development continue to shape the future. Broadband seismic recording at HVO has enabled extensive study by Chouet, Dawson, and co-workers of the relationship of very-long-period seismic sources beneath Kilauea's summit caldera to magma supply and transport. Recent upgrades have improved the ability to use these data in seismic cataloging and research. Data processing upgrades have bolstered the ability to

  13. Source localization analysis using seismic noise data acquired in exploration geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, P.; Corciulo, M.; Campillo, M.; Dubuq, D.

    2011-12-01

    Passive monitoring using seismic noise data shows a growing interest at exploration scale. Recent studies demonstrated source localization capability using seismic noise cross-correlation at observation scales ranging from hundreds of kilometers to meters. In the context of exploration geophysics, classical localization methods using travel-time picking fail when no evident first arrivals can be detected. Likewise, methods based on the intensity decrease as a function of distance to the source also fail when the noise intensity decay gets more complicated than the power-law expected from geometrical spreading. We propose here an automatic procedure developed in ocean acoustics that permits to iteratively locate the dominant and secondary noise sources. The Matched-Field Processing (MFP) technique is based on the spatial coherence of raw noise signals acquired on a dense array of receivers in order to produce high-resolution source localizations. Standard MFP algorithms permits to locate the dominant noise source by matching the seismic noise Cross-Spectral Density Matrix (CSDM) with the equivalent CSDM calculated from a model and a surrogate source position that scans each position of a 3D grid below the array of seismic sensors. However, at exploration scale, the background noise is mostly dominated by surface noise sources related to human activities (roads, industrial platforms,..), which localization is of no interest for the monitoring of the hydrocarbon reservoir. In other words, the dominant noise sources mask lower-amplitude noise sources associated to the extraction process (in the volume). Their location is therefore difficult through standard MFP technique. The Multi-Rate Adaptative Beamforming (MRABF) is a further improvement of the MFP technique that permits to locate low-amplitude secondary noise sources using a projector matrix calculated from the eigen-value decomposition of the CSDM matrix. The MRABF approach aims at cancelling the contributions of

  14. A plane source model for seismic hazard analysis using geometrical source parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    A plane source model for seismic risk analysis consistent with existing theories of earthquake mechanism and characteristics is developed. The model would consider earthquakes occurred because of a rupture plane developed and extended along geologic faults. Three types of idealized source models are used for modeling all conceivable seismic sources. The sensitivity of the seismic risk to several influencing factors is studied. The generalized renewal process is introduced for modeling the future occurrence of earthquakes, which incorporates the nonstationarity of the earthquake occurrence and provides information in terms of a conditional probability on the basis of the time of the previous earthquakes. A site in Downtown San Francisco is analyzed in detail to demonstrate the applicability of the model developed. The risk-based isoseismal contours corresponding to a specified annual exceedance probability is discussed, and a case study using Taiwan earthquake data is also demonstrated.

  15. Design and application of an electromagnetic vibrator seismic source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Vibrational seismic sources frequently provide a higher-frequency seismic wavelet (and therefore better resolution) than other sources, and can provide a superior signal-to-noise ratio in many settings. However, they are often prohibitively expensive for lower-budget shallow surveys. In order to address this problem, I designed and built a simple but effective vibrator source for about one thousand dollars. The "EMvibe" is an inexpensive electromagnetic vibrator that can be built with easy-to-machine parts and off-the-shelf electronics. It can repeatably produce pulse and frequency-sweep signals in the range of 5 to 650 Hz, and provides sufficient energy for recording at offsets up to 20 m. Analysis of frequency spectra show that the EMvibe provides a broader frequency range than the sledgehammer at offsets up to ??? 10 m in data collected at a site with soft sediments in the upper several meters. The EMvibe offers a high-resolution alternative to the sledgehammer for shallow surveys. It is well-suited to teaching applications, and to surveys requiring a precisely-repeatable source signature.

  16. Geyser's Eruptive Activity in Broadband Seismic Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugaenko, Yulia; Saltykov, Vadim

    2010-05-01

    A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by a vapor phase (steam). The formation of geysers is due to particular hydrogeological conditions, which exist in only a few places on Earth, so they are a fairly rare phenomenon. The reasons of geyser periodicity and specifics of the activity for every particular geyser are not completely clear yet. So almost for all known geysers it is necessary to develop the personal model. In given study we first use seismic method for detection of possible hidden feature of geyser's eruptive activity in Kamchatkan Valley of the Geysers. Broadband seismic records of geyser generated signals were obtained in hydrothermal field. The Valley of the Geysers belongs to Kronotskiy State Natural Biosphere Reserve and the UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site "Volcanoes of Kamchatka". Neither seismological nor geophysical investigations were carried out here earlier. In September, 2009 seismic observation was organized in geyser's field by 24-bit digital output broadband seismometers (GURALP CMG-6TD flat velocity response 0.033-50 Hz). Four geysers were surveyed: the fountain type Big and Giant geysers; the cone type Pearl geyser and the short-period Gap geyser. Seismometers were set as possible close to the geyser's surface vent (usually at the distance near 3-5 m). Main parameters of the eruptions for the investigated geysers: - The Giant geyser is the most powerful among the regular active geysers in Kamchatkan Valley of the Geysers. The height of the fountain reaches 30 meters, the mass of water erupted is about 40-60 tons. The main cycle of activity varies significantly: in 1945 the intervals between eruptions was near 3 hours, nowadays it is 5-6 hours. As a geyser of fountain type, the Giant geyser erupts from the 2*3 m2 pool of water. - The Big geyser was flooded by the lake after the natural catastrophe (giant mud-stone avalanche, formed by landslide, bed into Geiyzernaya

  17. The Beni-Ilmane (Algeria) seismic sequence of May 2010: Seismic sources and stress tensor calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldjoudi, H.; Delouis, B.; Djellit, H.; Yelles-Chaouche, A.; Gharbi, S.; Abacha, I.

    2016-02-01

    A moderate earthquake with a moment magnitude of Mw 5.5 struck the Sub-Bibanique region of eastern Algeria on 14 May 2010, killing three people, injuring hundreds of others, and causing moderate damages in the epicentral area, mainly in the villages of Beni-Ilmane and Samma. The focal mechanism of the seismic source for the first shock, obtained by near-field waveform modelling, exhibits left-lateral strike-slip faulting with the first nodal plane oriented at N345°, and right-lateral strike-slip faulting with the second nodal plane oriented at N254°. A second earthquake that struck the region on 16 May 2010, with a moment magnitude of Mw 5.1, was located 9 km SW of the first earthquake. The focal mechanism obtained by waveform modelling showed reverse faulting with nodal planes oriented NE-SW (N25° and N250°). A third earthquake that struck the region on 23 May 2010, with a moment magnitude of Mw 5.2, was located 7 km S of the first shock. The obtained focal mechanism showed a left-lateral strike-slip plane oriented at N12° and a right-lateral strike-slip plane oriented at N257°. Field investigations combined with geological and seismotectonic analyses indicate that the three earthquake shocks were generated by activity on three distinct faults. The second and third shocks were generated on faults oriented WSW-ENE and NNE-SSW, respectively. The regional stress tensor calculated in the region gives an orientation of N340° for the maximum compressive stress direction (σ1) which is close to the horizontal, with a stress shape factor indicating either a compressional or a strike-slip regime.

  18. New insights on the Messina 1908 seismic source from post-seismic sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannelli, V.; Melini, D.; Piersanti, A.

    2013-08-01

    The identification of a source model for the catastrophic 1908 December 28 Messina earthquake (Mw = 7.2) has been the subject of many papers in the last decades. Several authors proposed different models on the basis of seismological, macroseismic and geodetic data sets; among these models, remarkable differences exist with regard to almost all parameters. We selected a subset of six models among those most cited in literature and used them to model the post-seismic sea level variation recorded at the tide gauge station of Messina (until 1923), to attempt an independent discrimination among them. For each model, we assumed a simple rheological structure and carried out a direct-search inversion of upper crust thickness and lower crust viscosity to fit the post-seismic sea level signal. This approach enabled us to identify a class of fault geometries which is consistent with the post-seismic signal at the Messina tide gauge and with the known structural and rheological features of the Messina strait.

  19. Seismo-volcano source localization with triaxial broad-band seismic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inza, L. A.; Mars, J. I.; Métaxian, J. P.; O'Brien, G. S.; Macedo, O.

    2011-10-01

    Seismo-volcano source localization is essential to improve our understanding of eruptive dynamics and of magmatic systems. The lack of clear seismic wave phases prohibits the use of classical location methods. Seismic antennas composed of one-component (1C) seismometers provide a good estimate of the backazimuth of the wavefield. The depth estimation, on the other hand, is difficult or impossible to determine. As in classical seismology, the use of three-component (3C) seismometers is now common in volcano studies. To determine the source location parameters (backazimuth and depth), we extend the 1C seismic antenna approach to 3Cs. This paper discusses a high-resolution location method using a 3C array survey (3C-MUSIC algorithm) with data from two seismic antennas installed on an andesitic volcano in Peru (Ubinas volcano). One of the main scientific questions related to the eruptive process of Ubinas volcano is the relationship between the magmatic explosions and long-period (LP) swarms. After introducing the 3C array theory, we evaluate the robustness of the location method on a full wavefield 3-D synthetic data set generated using a digital elevation model of Ubinas volcano and an homogeneous velocity model. Results show that the backazimuth determined using the 3C array has a smaller error than a 1C array. Only the 3C method allows the recovery of the source depths. Finally, we applied the 3C approach to two seismic events recorded in 2009. Crossing the estimated backazimuth and incidence angles, we find sources located 1000 ± 660 m and 3000 ± 730 m below the bottom of the active crater for the explosion and the LP event, respectively. Therefore, extending 1C arrays to 3C arrays in volcano monitoring allows a more accurate determination of the source epicentre and now an estimate for the depth.

  20. Propagation of Exploration Seismic Sources in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J. B.; Tolstoy, M.; Barton, P. J.; Gulick, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    The choice of safety radii to mitigation the impact of exploration seismic sources upon marine mammals is typically based on measurement or modeling in deep water. In shallow water environments, rule-of-thumb spreading laws are often used to predict the falloff of amplitude with offset from the source, but actual measurements (or ideally, near-perfect modeling) are still needed to account for the effects of bathymetric changes and subseafloor characteristics. In addition, the question: "how shallow is 'shallow?'" needs an answer. In a cooperative effort by NSF, MMS, NRL, IAGC and L-DEO, a series of seismic source calibration studies was carried out in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during 2003. The sources used were the two-, six-, ten-, twelve-, and twenty-airgun arrays of R/V Ewing, and a 31-element, 3-string "G" gun array, deployed by M/V Kondor, an exploration industry source ship. The results of the Ewing calibrations have been published, documenting results in deep (3200m) and shallow (60m) water. Lengthy analysis of the Kondor results, presented here, suggests an approach to answering the "how shallow is shallow" question. After initially falling off steadily with source-receiver offset, the Kondor levels suddenly increased at a 4km offset. Ray-based modeling with a complex, realistic source, but with a simple homogeneous water column-over-elastic halfspace ocean shows that the observed pattern is chiefly due to geophysical effects, and not focusing within the water column. The same kind of modeling can be used to predict how the amplitudes will change with decreasing water depth, and when deep-water safety radii may need to be increased. Another set of data (see Barton, et al., this session) recorded in 20 meters of water during early 2005, however, shows that simple modeling may be insufficient when the geophysics becomes more complex. In this particular case, the fact that the seafloor was within the near field of the R/V Ewing source array seems to have

  1. Source parameters derived from seismic spectrum in the Jalisco block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Q. J.; Escudero, C. R.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The direct measure of the earthquake fault dimension represent a complicated task nevertheless a better approach is using the seismic waves spectrum. With this method we can estimate the dimensions of the fault, the stress drop and the seismic moment. The study area comprises the complex tectonic configuration of Jalisco block and the subduction of the Rivera plate beneath the North American plate; this causes that occur in Jalisco some of the most harmful earthquakes and other related natural disasters. Accordingly it is important to monitor and perform studies that helps to understand the physics of earthquake rupture mechanism in the area. The main proposue of this study is estimate earthquake seismic source parameters. The data was recorded by the MARS network (Mapping the Riviera Subduction Zone) and the RESAJ network. MARS had 51 stations and settled in the Jalisco block; that is delimited by the mesoamerican trench at the west, the Colima grabben to the south, and the Tepic-Zacoalco to the north; for a period of time, of January 1, 2006 until December 31, 2007 Of this network was taken 104 events, the magnitude range of these was between 3 to 6.5 MB. RESJAL has 10 stations and is within the state of Jalisco, began to record since October 2011 and continues to record. We firs remove the trend, the mean and the instrument response, then manually chosen the S wave, then the multitaper method was used to obtain the spectrum of this wave and so estimate the corner frequency and the spectra level. We substitude the obtained in the equations of the Brune model to calculate the source parameters. Doing this we obtained the following results; the source radius was between .1 to 2 km, the stress drop was between .1 to 2 MPa.

  2. Seismic activity noted at Medicine Lake Highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, D.

    1988-12-01

    The sudden rumble of earthquakes beneath Medicine Lake Highlands this fall gave geologists an early warning that one of Northern California's volcanoes may be stirring back to life. Researchers stressed that an eruption of the volcano is not expected soon. But the flurry of underground shocks in late September, combined with new evidence of a pool of molten rock beneath the big volcano, has led them to monitor Medicine Lake with new wariness. The volcano has been dormant since 1910, when it ejected a brief flurry of ash - worrying no one. A federal team plans to take measurements of Medicine Lake, testing for changes in its shape caused by underground pressures. The work is scheduled for spring because snows have made the volcano inaccessible. But the new seismic network is an effective lookout, sensitive to very small increases in activity.

  3. Erosion influences the seismicity of active thrust faults.

    PubMed

    Steer, Philippe; Simoes, Martine; Cattin, Rodolphe; Shyu, J Bruce H

    2014-01-01

    Assessing seismic hazards remains one of the most challenging scientific issues in Earth sciences. Deep tectonic processes are classically considered as the only persistent mechanism driving the stress loading of active faults over a seismic cycle. Here we show via a mechanical model that erosion also significantly influences the stress loading of thrust faults at the timescale of a seismic cycle. Indeed, erosion rates of about ~0.1-20 mm yr(-1), as documented in Taiwan and in other active compressional orogens, can raise the Coulomb stress by ~0.1-10 bar on the nearby thrust faults over the inter-seismic phase. Mass transfers induced by surface processes in general, during continuous or short-lived and intense events, represent a prominent mechanism for inter-seismic stress loading of faults near the surface. Such stresses are probably sufficient to trigger shallow seismicity or promote the rupture of deep continental earthquakes up to the surface. PMID:25412707

  4. Seismic gaps and source zones of recent large earthquakes in coastal Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.; Spence, W.

    1979-01-01

    The earthquakes of central coastal Peru occur principally in two distinct zones of shallow earthquake activity that are inland of and parallel to the axis of the Peru Trench. The interface-thrust (IT) zone includes the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 17 October 1966 and 3 October 1974. The coastal-plate interior (CPI) zone includes the great earthquake of 31 May 1970, and is located about 50 km inland of and 30 km deeper than the interface thrust zone. The occurrence of a large earthquake in one zone may not relieve elastic strain in the adjoining zone, thus complicating the application of the seismic gap concept to central coastal Peru. However, recognition of two seismic zones may facilitate detection of seismicity precursory to a large earthquake in a given zone; removal of probable CPI-zone earthquakes from plots of seismicity prior to the 1974 main shock dramatically emphasizes the high seismic activity near the rupture zone of that earthquake in the five years preceding the main shock. Other conclusions on the seismicity of coastal Peru that affect the application of the seismic gap concept to this region are: (1) Aftershocks of the great earthquakes of 1966, 1970, and 1974 occurred in spatially separated clusters. Some clusters may represent distinct small source regions triggered by the main shock rather than delimiting the total extent of main-shock rupture. The uncertainty in the interpretation of aftershock clusters results in corresponding uncertainties in estimates of stress drop and estimates of the dimensions of the seismic gap that has been filled by a major earthquake. (2) Aftershocks of the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 1966 and 1974 generally did not extend seaward as far as the Peru Trench. (3) None of the three great earthquakes produced significant teleseismic activity in the following month in the source regions of the other two earthquakes. The earthquake hypocenters that form the basis of this study were relocated using station

  5. Source Mechanism, Stress Triggering, and Hazard Analysis of Induced Seismicity in Oil/Gas Fields in Oman and Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Toksoz, M. N.; Ding, M.; Al-Enezi, A.; Al-Jeri, F.; Meng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Induced seismicity has drawn new attentions in both academia and industry in recent years as the increasing seismic activity in the regions of oil/gas fields due to fluid injection/extraction and hydraulic fracturing. Source mechanism and triggering stress of these induced earthquakes are of great importance for understanding their causes and the physics of the seismic processes in reservoirs. Previous research on the analysis of induced seismic events in conventional oil/gas fields assumed a double couple (DC) source mechanism. The induced seismic data in this study are from both Oman and Kuwait. For the Oman data, the induced seismicity is monitored by both surface network (0seismic data (0source mechanisms and triggering stress. We determine the full moment tensor of the induced seismicity data, based on a full-waveform inversion method (Song and Toksöz, 2011). With the full moment tensor inversion results, Coulomb stress is calculated to investigate the triggering features of the induced seismicity data. Our results show a detailed evolution of 3D triggering stress in oil/gas fields from year 1999 to 2007 for Oman, and from year 2006 to 2015 for Kuwait. In addition, the local hazard corresponding to the induced seismicity in these oil/gas fields is assessed and compared to ground motion prediction due to large (M>5.0) regional tectonic earthquakes.

  6. The Pollino Seismic Sequence: Activated Graben Structures in a Seismic Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rößler, Dirk; Passarelli, Luigi; Govoni, Aladino; Bindi, Dino; Cesca, Simone; Hainzl, Sebatian; Maccaferri, Francesco; Rivalta, Eleonora; Woith, Heiko; Dahm, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (Southern Apennines, Italy) represent one of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalogue, with no M>5.5 earthquakes during the last centuries. In historical times several swarm-like seismic sequences occurred in the area including two intense swarms within the past two decades. The most energetic one started in 2010 and has been still active in 2014. The seismicity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on 25 October. The range hosts a number of opposing normal faults forming a graben-like structure. Their rheology and their interactions are unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host large earthquakes and the style of deformation. Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faults is necessary to assess the tectonics and the seismic hazard. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, have jointly monitored the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. Based on this installation, we located more than 16,000 local earthquakes that occurred between November 2012 and September 2014. Here we investigate quantitatively all the phases of the seismic sequence starting from January 2010. Event locations along with moment tensor inversion constrain spatially the structures activated by the swarm and the migration pattern of the seismicity. The seismicity forms clusters concentrated within the southern part of the MB and along the Pollino Fault linking MB and CF. Most earthquakes are confined to the upper 10 km of the crust in an area of ~15x15 km2. However, sparse seismicity at depths between 15 and 20 km and moderate seismicity further north with deepening hypocenters also exist. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic; only the northern part has experienced micro-seismicity. The spatial distribution is however more complex than the major tectonic structures

  7. New Time-independent and Time-dependent Seismic Source Models for the Calabria Region (Italy) for the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, Aybige; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Falcone, Giuseppe; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Murru, Maura; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Vannoli, Paola

    2015-04-01

    The present study is carried out in the framework of the S2-2014 COBAS Project "Constraining Observations into Seismic Hazard" co-funded by the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers (DPC) within the general agreement DPC-INGV for the period 2012-2021. The two areas identified as priority areas in the first phase of the activities by the 2012- 2021 Agreement DPC-INGV, namely the Po Plain and the Southern Apennines from Molise-Lazio to Basilicata-Calabria borders, require different strategies for calculating "the best seismic hazard". In this study we develop new time-independent and time-dependent seismic source models for the Calabria region starting from the new version of the DISS (Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources). This version of the Database DISS contains remarkable and notable new data and information on the seismogenic sources and their parameterizations in the Calabria region. The probability of the earthquake occurrences is calculated by developing models of seismicity-derived hazard sources, and models of earthquakes on faults/seismogenic sources. Mainly the four different classes of earthquake source models are developed to be included into the PSHA maps: (1) shallow crustal background seismicity (2) special zone that account for deep background seismicity (many earthquakes deeper than 30 kilometers occur beneath the Calabrian Arc and may have caused considerable damage in the Calabria region; these earthquakes have different ground-motion properties than shallow earthquakes) (3) uniform background source zones (4) finite faults/seismogenic sources as defined in the previous activity. The first three models are based on the earthquake catalog and characterize the hazard from earthquakes Mw>4.7. In most cases, the faults contribute most to the hazard for earthquakes larger than Mw5.5. The earthquake occurrence for the faults are modeled both as a Poisson time-independent process and introducing the various renewal

  8. A//r//m//s AND SEISMIC SOURCE STUDIES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes some recent developments in studies of seismic source parameter estimation, emphasizing the essential similarities between mining-induced seismogenic-failure and naturally occurring, tectonically driven earthquakes. The root-mean-square acceleration, a//r//m//s, shows much promise as an observational measure of high-frequency ground motion; it is very stable observationally, is insensitive to radiation pattern, and can be related linearly to the dynamic stress differences arising in the faulting process. To interpret a//r//m//s correctly, however, requires knowledge of f//m//a//x, the high-frequency band-limitation of the radiated field of earthquakes. As a practical matter, f//m//a//x can be due to any number of causes, but an essential ambiguity is whether or not f//m//a//x can arise from source properties alone. The interaction of the aftershocks of the Oroville, California, earthquake illustrates how a//r//m//s stress drops may be connected to detailed seismicity patterns.

  9. Changes In CO2 Gas Flux And Soil Temperatures Induced By A Vibratory Seismic Source At Solfatara (Phlegrean Fields, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Gresse, M.; Chiodini, G.; Byrdina, S.; Woith, H.; Bruno, P. P.

    2014-12-01

    Solfatara, the most active crater of Phlegrean Fields (Italy) is characterized by a fumarolic activity and an intense diffuse degassing, with 1500 tons of CO2 and > 3000 tons of water vapor released per day. A major part of the emitted water vapor is condensed at the near surface producing a thermal power flux around 100 MW, and contributing substantially to the total water input into the hydrothermal system. On May 2014, during a seismic experiment (RICEN) in the frame of the MED-SUV European project, a Minivib vibratory seismic source was used to generate a frequency modulated seismic signal at different points of Solfatara. We performed CO2 flux measurements at a few meters from the seismic source during the vibrations. In certain points, the vibrations induced a remarkable increase in the CO2 diffuse degassing, with a flux that doubled during the low-frequency seismic vibrations and returned to previous values afterwards. The observed CO2 flux increase could be due to permeability enhancement in the sub-surface soil layers during the seismic vibrations. Close to Fangaia mud pool, we also monitored the soil temperature at different levels above the condensation depth and observed transient temperature changes during the vibrations but also outside the vibration periods. Seismic vibrations likely favor the triggering of thermal instabilities of gravitational or convective origin in the liquid-saturated condensate layer.

  10. Control system for inclined impact-type surface seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, G.M.

    1987-07-28

    A system is described for controlling the azimuths and inclinations of the respective shooting paths of separate vehicle-transported surface seismic sources. Each source has an impact mass, means for propelling the mass along the shooting path to strike an earth contacting base plate, and means for adjusting each shooting path by rotation thereof about two mutually perpendicular gimbal axes oriented in predetermined relation to the heading of the associated vehicle. The system consists of: (a) means for determining each such vehicle heading; (b) means dependent upon each vehicle heading for calculating the angular positions of each shooting path with respect to the gimbal axes which align the shooting path with desired values of azimuth and inclination; and (c) means responsive to the calculation means for actuating each shooting path adjustment means to effect such alignment.

  11. tomo3d: a new 3-D joint refraction and reflection travel-time tomography code for active-source seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; Sallares, V.; Ranero, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    We present the development state of tomo3d, a code for three-dimensional refraction and reflection travel-time tomography of wide-angle seismic data based on the previous two-dimensional version of the code, tomo2d. The core of both forward and inverse problems is inherited from the 2-D version. The ray tracing is performed by a hybrid method combining the graph and bending methods. The graph method finds an ordered array of discrete model nodes, which satisfies Fermat's principle, that is, whose corresponding travel time is a global minimum within the space of discrete nodal connections. The bending method is then applied to produce a more accurate ray path by using the nodes as support points for an interpolation with beta-splines. Travel time tomography is formulated as an iterative linearized inversion, and each step is solved using an LSQR algorithm. In order to avoid the singularity of the sensitivity kernel and to reduce the instability of inversion, regularization parameters are introduced in the inversion in the form of smoothing and damping constraints. Velocity models are built as 3-D meshes, and velocity values at intermediate locations are obtained by trilinear interpolation within the corresponding pseudo-cubic cell. Meshes are sheared to account for topographic relief. A floating reflector is represented by a 2-D grid, and depths at intermediate locations are calculated by bilinear interpolation within the corresponding square cell. The trade-off between the resolution of the final model and the associated computational cost is controlled by the relation between the selected forward star for the graph method (i.e. the number of nodes that each node considers as its neighbors) and the refinement of the velocity mesh. Including reflected phases is advantageous because it provides a better coverage and allows us to define the geometry of those geological interfaces with velocity contrasts sharp enough to be observed on record sections. The code also

  12. tomo3d: a new 3-D joint refraction and reflection travel-time tomography code for active-source seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; Sallarès, V.; Ranero, C. R.

    2012-04-01

    We present the development state of tomo3d, a code for three-dimensional refraction and reflection travel-time tomography of wide-angle seismic data based on the previous two-dimensional version of the code, tomo2d. The core of both forward and inverse problems is inherited from the 2-D version. The ray tracing is performed by a hybrid method combining the graph and bending methods. The graph method finds an ordered array of discrete model nodes, which satisfies Fermat's principle, that is, whose corresponding travel time is a global minimum within the space of discrete nodal connections. The bending method is then applied to produce a more accurate ray path by using the nodes as support points for an interpolation with beta-splines. Travel time tomography is formulated as an iterative linearized inversion, and each step is solved using an LSQR algorithm. In order to avoid the singularity of the sensitivity kernel and to reduce the instability of inversion, regularization parameters are introduced in the inversion in the form of smoothing and damping constraints. Velocity models are built as 3-D meshes, and velocity values at intermediate locations are obtained by trilinear interpolation within the corresponding pseudo-cubic cell. Meshes are sheared to account for topographic relief. A floating reflector is represented by a 2-D grid, and depths at intermediate locations are calculated by bilinear interpolation within the corresponding square cell. The trade-off between the resolution of the final model and the associated computational cost is controlled by the relation between the selected forward star for the graph method (i.e. the number of nodes that each node considers as its neighbors) and the refinement of the velocity mesh. Including reflected phases is advantageous because it provides a better coverage and allows us to define the geometry of those geological interfaces with velocity contrasts sharp enough to be observed on record sections. The code also

  13. Water-Related Seismic Sources in Glaciers and Ice Sheets (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, F. T.; Heeszel, D.; Kilb, D. L.; Roux, P.; Husen, S.; Kissling, E. H.; Luethi, M. P.; Funk, M.; Clinton, J. F.; Fricker, H.

    2013-12-01

    Liquid water can have a profound impact on the flow of glaciers and ice sheets. Acceleration of ice flow via enhanced basal motion, hydro-fracturing and cryo-hydrologic warming are just three possible mechanisms that can drastically alter ice dynamics. At the same time, subsurface water flow is difficult to measure as the englacial and subglacial drainage systems are highly inaccessible. Although tracer experiments, speleological methods, radar measurements and deep drilling provide some information about water flow and changes thereof, more data on hydraulic processes are needed for the development and testing of numerical ice flow models. Recent studies have suggested that passive seismic techniques can be used to monitor englacial and subglacial water flow. This inter-disciplinary approach is motivated by the analogy between fluid-induced seismic sources in glaciers and volcanoes, which was first proposed in the late 70's. As seismological analysis is a valuable tool to monitor hydro-thermal activity in volcanic regions, it may consequently also reveal transient or sudden changes in a glacier's water drainage system. Here, we present results from continuous and event-based seismic monitoring exercises on Swiss mountain glaciers and the ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet. We examine 'icequakes', sustained tremors and seismic background noise, whose sources are closely connected to the presence or movement of water. Analyzing icequake moment tensors and signal characteristics, spectrograms, noise source locations and simple models of resonating cracks, we can monitor the development and evolution of water passages below the glacier surface. Accordingly, our seismic measurements elucidate an area of the glacier, which has been difficult to investigate with traditional glaciological techniques.

  14. The Feasibility of Monitoring Continuous Wave Sources with Seismic Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Claassen, J.P.; Elbring, G.; Ladd, M.

    1999-03-15

    This paper identifies and explores the technical requirements and issues associated with remotely monitoring continuous wave (CW) sources with seismic arrays. Potential approaches to this monitoring problem will be suggested and partially evaluated to expose the monitoring challenges which arise when realistic local geologies and cultural noise sources are considered. The selective directionality and the adaptive noise cancellation properties of arrays are required to observe weak signals while suppressing a colored background punctuated with an unknown distribution of point and sometimes distributive sources. The array is also required to characterize the emitters and propagation environment so as to properly focus on the CW sources of interest while suppressing the remaining emitters. The proper application of arrays requires an appreciation of the complexity of propagation in a non-homogeneous earth. The heterogeneity often limits the available spatial coherence and therefore the size of the army. This adversely impacts the array gain and the array's ability to carefully resolve various emitters. Arrays must also contend with multipath induced by the source and the heterogeneous earth. If the array is to focus on an emitter and realize an enhancement in the signal to noise ratio, methods must be sought to coherently add the desired signal components while suppressing interference which may be correlated with the desired signal. The impact of these and other issues on army design and processing are described and discussed.

  15. Seismic activity monitoring in the Izvorul Muntelui dam region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borleanu, Felix; Otilia Placinta, Anca; Popa, Mihaela; Adelin Moldovan, Iren; Popescu, Emilia

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes occurrences near the artificial water reservoirs are caused by stress variation due to the weight of water, weakness of fractures or faults and increasing of pore pressure in crustal rocks. In the present study we aim to investigate how Izvorul Muntelui dam, located in the Eastern Carpathians influences local seismicity. For this purpose we selected from the seismic bulletins computed within National Data Center of National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania, crustal events occurred between 984 and 2015 in a range of 0.3 deg around the artificial lake. Subsequently to improve the seismic monitoring of the region we applied a cross-correlation detector on the continuous recordings of Bicaz (BIZ) seismic stations. Besides the tectonic events we detected sources within this region that periodically generate artificial evens. We couldn't emphasize the existence of a direct correlation between the water level variations and natural seismicity of the investigated area.

  16. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, Adriano; Scafetta, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius. The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during daytime. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice, with external geomagnetic field and with magnetostriction, which stress the rocks. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasing since 2008. Finally, we propose a seismic activity index to monitor the 24-hour oscillation that could be used to complement other methodologies currently adopted to determine the seismic status of the volcano to prevent the relative hazard.

  17. Volcanic activity observed from continuous seismic records in the region of the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, N.; Droznin, D.; Droznina, S.; Senyukov, S.; Chebrov, V.; Gordeev, E.; Frank, W.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze continuous seismic records from 18 permanent stations operated in vicinity of the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanos (Kamchatka, Russia) during the period between 2009 and 2014. We explore the stability of the inter-station cross-correlation to detect different periods of sustained emission from seismic energy. The main idea of this approach is that cross-correlation waveforms computed from a wavefield emitted by a seismic source from a fixed position remain stable during the period when this source is acting. The detected periods of seismic emission correspond to different episodes of activity of volcanoes: Klyuchevskoy, Tolbachik, Shiveluch, and Kizimen. For Klyuchevskoy and Tolbachik whose recent eruptions are mostly effusive, the detected seismic signals correspond to typical volcanic tremor, likely caused by degassing processes. For Shiveluch and Kizimen producing more silicic lavas, the observed seismic emission often consists of many repetitive long period (LP) seismic events that might be related to the extrusion of viscous magmas. We develop an approach for automatic detection of these individual LP events in order to characterize variations of their size and recurrence in time.

  18. Induced Seismicity from different sources in Italy: how to interpret it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastori, M.; De Gori, P.; Piccinini, D.; Bagh, S.; Improta, L.; Chiarabba, C.

    2015-12-01

    Typically the term "induced seismicity" is used to refer minor earthquakes and tremors caused by human activities that alter the stresses and strains on the Earth's crust. In the last years, the interest in the induced seismicity related to fluids (oil and gas, and geothermal resources) extraction or injection is increased, because it is believed to be responsible to enucleate earthquakes. Possible sources of induced seismicity are not only represented by the oil and gas production but also, i.e., by changes in the water level of artificial lakes. The aim of this work is to show results from two different sources, wastewater injection and changes in the water level of an artificial reservoir (Pertusillo lake), that can produce induced earthquakes observed in the Val d'Agri basin (Italy) and to compare them with variation in crustal elastic parameters. Val d'Agri basin in the Apennines extensional belt hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe and is bordered by NW-SE ­trending fault systems. Most of the recorded seismicity seems to be related to these structures. We correlated the seismicity rate, injection curves and changes in water levels with temporal variations of Vp/Vs and anisotropic parameters of the crustal reservoirs and in the nearby area. We analysed about 983 high-quality recordings occurred from 2002 to 2014 in Val d'Agri basin from temporary and permanent network held by INGV and ENI corporate. 3D high-precision locations and manual-revised P- and S-picking are used to estimate anisotropic parameters (delay time and fast direction polarization) and Vp/Vs ratio. Seismicity is mainly located in two areas: in the SW of the Pertusillo Lake, and near the Eni Oil field (SW and NE of the Val d'Agri basin respectively). Our correlations well recognize the seismicity diffusion process, caused by both water injection and water level changes; these findings could help to model the active and pre-existing faults failure behaviour.

  19. Assessing the Uncertainties on Seismic Source Parameters: Towards Realistic Estimates of Moment Tensor Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnoni, F.; Scognamiglio, L.; Tinti, E.; Casarotti, E.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic moment tensor is one of the most important source parameters defining the earthquake dimension and style of the activated fault. Moment tensor catalogues are ordinarily used by geoscientists, however, few attempts have been done to assess possible impacts of moment magnitude uncertainties upon their own analysis. The 2012 May 20 Emilia mainshock is a representative event since it is defined in literature with a moment magnitude value (Mw) spanning between 5.63 and 6.12. An uncertainty of ~0.5 units in magnitude leads to a controversial knowledge of the real size of the event. The possible uncertainty associated to this estimate could be critical for the inference of other seismological parameters, suggesting caution for seismic hazard assessment, coulomb stress transfer determination and other analyses where self-consistency is important. In this work, we focus on the variability of the moment tensor solution, highlighting the effect of four different velocity models, different types and ranges of filtering, and two different methodologies. Using a larger dataset, to better quantify the source parameter uncertainty, we also analyze the variability of the moment tensor solutions depending on the number, the epicentral distance and the azimuth of used stations. We endorse that the estimate of seismic moment from moment tensor solutions, as well as the estimate of the other kinematic source parameters, cannot be considered an absolute value and requires to come out with the related uncertainties and in a reproducible framework characterized by disclosed assumptions and explicit processing workflows.

  20. Wave-equation migration velocity inversion using passive seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witten, B.; Shragge, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic monitoring at injection sites (e.g., CO2 sequestration, waste water disposal, hydraulic fracturing) has become an increasingly important tool for hazard identification and avoidance. The information obtained from this data is often limited to seismic event properties (e.g., location, approximate time, moment tensor), the accuracy of which greatly depends on the estimated elastic velocity models. However, creating accurate velocity models from passive array data remains a challenging problem. Common techniques rely on picking arrivals or matching waveforms requiring high signal-to-noise data that is often not available for the magnitude earthquakes observed over injection sites. We present a new method for obtaining elastic velocity information from earthquakes though full-wavefield wave-equation imaging and adjoint-state tomography. The technique exploits the fact that the P- and S-wave arrivals originate at the same time and location in the subsurface. We generate image volumes by back-propagating P- and S-wave data through initial Earth models and then applying a correlation-based extended-imaging condition. Energy focusing away from zero lag in the extended image volume is used as a (penalized) residual in an adjoint-state tomography scheme to update the P- and S-wave velocity models. We use an acousto-elastic approximation to greatly reduce the computational cost. Because the method requires neither an initial source location or origin time estimate nor picking of arrivals, it is suitable for low signal-to-noise datasets, such as microseismic data. Synthetic results show that with a realistic distribution of microseismic sources, P- and S-velocity perturbations can be recovered. Although demonstrated at an oil and gas reservoir scale, the technique can be applied to problems of all scales from geologic core samples to global seismology.

  1. Seismic hazard assessment of Syria using seismicity, DEM, slope, active tectonic and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Raed; Adris, Ahmad; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, we discuss the use of an integrated remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques for evaluation of seismic hazard areas in Syria. The present study is the first time effort to create seismic hazard map with the help of GIS. In the proposed approach, we have used Aster satellite data, digital elevation data (30 m resolution), earthquake data, and active tectonic maps. Many important factors for evaluation of seismic hazard were identified and corresponding thematic data layers (past earthquake epicenters, active faults, digital elevation model, and slope) were generated. A numerical rating scheme has been developed for spatial data analysis using GIS to identify ranking of parameters to be included in the evaluation of seismic hazard. The resulting earthquake potential map delineates the area into different relative susceptibility classes: high, moderate, low and very low. The potential earthquake map was validated by correlating the obtained different classes with the local probability that produced using conventional analysis of observed earthquakes. Using earthquake data of Syria and the peak ground acceleration (PGA) data is introduced to the model to develop final seismic hazard map based on Gutenberg-Richter (a and b values) parameters and using the concepts of local probability and recurrence time. The application of the proposed technique in Syrian region indicates that this method provides good estimate of seismic hazard map compared to those developed from traditional techniques (Deterministic (DSHA) and probabilistic seismic hazard (PSHA). For the first time we have used numerous parameters using remote sensing and GIS in preparation of seismic hazard map which is found to be very realistic.

  2. Broadband calibration of R/V Ewing seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoy, M.; Diebold, J. B.; Webb, S. C.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Chapp, E.; Holmes, R. C.; Rawson, M.

    2004-07-01

    The effects of anthropogenic sound sources on marine mammals are of increasing interest and controversy [e.g., Malakoff, 2001]. To understand and mitigate better the possible impacts of specific sound sources, well-calibrated broadband measurements of acoustic received levels must be made in a variety of environments. In late spring 2003 an acoustic calibration study was conducted in the northern Gulf of Mexico to obtain broad frequency band measurements of seismic sources used by the R/V Maurice Ewing. Received levels in deep water were lower than anticipated based on modeling, and in shallow water they were higher. For the marine mammals of greatest concern (beaked whales) the 1-20 kHz frequency range is considered particularly significant [National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration and U. S. Navy, 2001; Frantzis et al., 2002]. 1/3-octave measurements show received levels at 1 kHz are ~20-33 dB (re: 1 μPa) lower than peak levels at 5-100 Hz, and decrease an additional ~20-33 dB in the 10-20 kHz range.

  3. Modeling of atmospheric and ionospheric disturbances from shallow seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, John Bruce; Archambeau, Charles B.

    Earthquake sources, as well as contained underground explosions and volcanic explosions, initiate atmospheric waves at the air-ground interface which propagate upward and outward. The propagating atmospheric waves produced are of two types: a high-frequency acoustic wave and a low-frequency gravity wave with horizontal wavelength much longer than its vertical wavelength. Because of the exponential decrease of atmospheric density with height, the acoustic and particularly the gravity waves can grow to significant amplitude in the upper atmosphere, where they can affect the ionosphere causing changes in the distribution of neutral and charged particles. The coherent fluctuations of electron densities and ionization layer boundaries produced by these waves can be detected by electromagnetic sounding methods and hence the occurrence and character of the disturbances can be inferred. A particular application of interest is the detection and discrimination of underground and near surface chemical explosions in a nuclear test monitoring context. Specifically, identification of the different source types is enhanced by combining seismic detection methods with detection of the ionospheric disturbances caused by explosion and earthquake sources. In this study, numerical models of non-linear gravity controlled atmospheric disturbances produced by seismic sources near the surface of the Earth are investigated in order to obtain quantitative predictions that might be used in evaluating detection methods based on gravity wave excitation. Explicit numerical integration of the non-linear finite difference equations is used to simulate the transient flows produced in a three-dimensional ARDC atmosphere. Results from the simulations agree with many results from linear theory approximations and also show non-linear characteristics similar to important gravity wave observations. Electron density changes in the ionosphere are predicted with their spatial and temporal behavior found to

  4. SEISMIC SOURCE SCALING AND DISCRIMINATION IN DIVERSE TECTONIC ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, R E; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R; Viegas, G M; Murphy, K

    2008-07-08

    The objectives of this study are to improve low-magnitude (concentrating on M2.5-5) regional seismic discrimination by performing a thorough investigation of earthquake source scaling using diverse, high-quality datasets from varied tectonic regions. Local-to-regional high-frequency discrimination requires an estimate of how earthquakes scale with size. Walter and Taylor (2002) developed the MDAC (Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Corrections) method to empirically account for these effects through regional calibration. The accuracy of these corrections has a direct impact on our ability to identify clandestine explosions in the broad regional areas characterized by low seismicity. Unfortunately our knowledge at small magnitudes (i.e., m{sub b} < {approx} 4.0) is poorly resolved, and source scaling remains a subject of on-going debate in the earthquake seismology community. Recently there have been a number of empirical studies suggesting scaling of micro-earthquakes is non-self-similar, yet there are an equal number of compelling studies that would suggest otherwise. It is not clear whether different studies obtain different results because they analyze different earthquakes, or because they use different methods. Even in regions that are well studied, such as test sites or areas of high seismicity, we still rely on empirical scaling relations derived from studies taken from half-way around the world at inter-plate regions. We investigate earthquake sources and scaling from different tectonic settings, comparing direct and coda wave analysis methods that both make use of empirical Green's function (EGF) earthquakes to remove path effects. Analysis of locally recorded, direct waves from events is intuitively the simplest way of obtaining accurate source parameters, as these waves have been least affected by travel through the earth. But finding well recorded earthquakes with 'perfect' EGF events for direct wave analysis is difficult, limits the number of earthquakes

  5. Erosion influence the seismicity of active thrust faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Philippe; Simoes, Martine; Cattin, Rodolphe; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2015-04-01

    Assessing seismic hazards remains one of the most challenging scientific issue in Earth sciences. Deep tectonic processes are classically considered as the only persistent mechanism driving the stress loading of active faults over a seismic cycle. Here we show with a mechanical model that erosion also significantly influences the stress loading of thrust faults at the timescale of a seismic cycle. Indeed, erosion rates of about ~0.1 to 20 mm/yr, as documented in Taiwan and in other active compressional orogens, can raise the Coulomb stress by ~0.1 to ~10 bar on the nearby thrust faults over the inter-seismic phase. Mass transfers induced by surface processes in general, during continuous or short-lived and intense events, represent a prominent mechanism for inter-seismic stress loading of faults near the surface. Such stresses are probably sufficient to promote the rupture of deep continental earthquakes up to the surface or to trigger shallow seismicity. We illustrate this last point by identifying seismic events in Taiwan, by the mean of a coupled statistical and mechanical approach, that were induced by intense erosional events.

  6. Erosion influence the seismicity of active thrust faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Philippe; Simoes, Martine; Cattin, Rodolphe; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2016-04-01

    Assessing seismic hazards remains one of the most challenging scientific issue in Earth sciences. Deep tectonic processes are classically considered as the only persistent mechanism driving the stress loading of active faults over a seismic cycle. Here we show with a mechanical model that erosion also significantly influences the stress loading of thrust faults at the timescale of a seismic cycle. Indeed, erosion rates of about ˜0.1 to 20 mm/yr, as documented in Taiwan and in other active compressional orogens, can raise the Coulomb stress by ˜0.1 to ˜10 bar on the nearby thrust faults over the inter-seismic phase. Mass transfers induced by surface processes in general, during continuous or short-lived and intense events, represent a prominent mechanism for inter-seismic stress loading of faults near the surface. Such stresses are probably sufficient to promote the rupture of deep continental earthquakes up to the surface or to trigger shallow seismicity. We illustrate this last point by identifying seismic events in Taiwan, by the mean of a coupled statistical and mechanical approach, that were induced by intense erosional events.

  7. R/V EWING seismic source array calibrations: 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J.; Webb, S.; Tolstoy, M.; Rawson, M.; Holmes, C.; Bohnenstiehl, D.; Chapp, E.

    2003-12-01

    In the Northern Gulf of Mexico, May, 2003, an NSF-funded effort was carried out to obtain calibrated measurements of the various airgun arrays deployed by R/V EWING during its seismic surveys. The motivations for this were several: to ground-truth the modeling upon which safety radii for marine mammal mitigation are established; to obtain broadband digitized signals which will accurately define the full spectral content of airgun signatures; to investigate the effects of seafloor interactions and their contribution to the acoustic noise levels from seismic sources. For this purpose, a digital, remotely telemetering spar buoy was designed and assembled; affording interactive control over the choice of two hydrophone channels, four fixed gain settings and four digitizing rates [6,250 - 50,000 Hz.] Three deployments were planned: a deep-water site, suitable for comparison of actual signals with modeled results; a shallow-water [25 - 50m] site where the effects of bottom interaction would be strongest; and a continental-slope site, which represents the favored habitat of many cetacean species. Methodology was developed which enabled the sequential discharge of four subarrays of 6, 10, 12 and 20 airguns. A separate run was made with two "GI" airguns, the favored high resolution survey source. An Incidental Harassment Authorization and a Biological Opinion, including an Incidental Take Statement were issued for the project by National Marine Fisheries, and a suite of marine mammal observation and mitigation procedures was followed. The deep and shallow water sites were occupied, and some 440 airgun signals were recorded. The slope site work was cancelled due to weather too poor for accurate marine mammal observation, but calibration was subsequently carried out with an exploration industry source vessel in a similar environment. Preliminary results indicate that the mitigation modeling is accurate, though somewhat conservative; that the radiated energy from airgun arrays

  8. Performance Analysis of Tandem-L Mission for Modeling Volcanic and Seismic Deformation Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Homa; Goel, Kanika; Parizzi, Alessandro; Sudhaus, Henriette; Adam, Nico; Eineder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Although a great number of publications have focused on the application of InSAR in deformation source modeling as well as the development of different algorithms in this regard, little investigation has been dedicated to the sensitivity analysis of the InSAR in deformation source modeling. Our purpose is to address this issue by analyzing the reliability of InSAR in modeling the deformation sources due to landslides, seismic and volcanic activities, with special focus on the L band SAR measurements. The sensitivity analysis is considered for three commonly used geophysical models in case of subsidence, seismic and volcanic activities; namely, the Gaussian subsidence bowl, Okada and Mogi point source, respectively. In each of the cases, the InSAR sensitivity is analytically formulated and its performance is investigated using simulated SAR data. The investigations are carried out using stochastic error propagation approaches to infer the precision of the models' parameters as well as their mutual covariance. The limiting factors in SAR interferometry are categorized in two groups and investigated separately in sensitivity analysis; with the first dealing with the geometrical limits imposed by the side looking geometry of the SAR measurements and the second focusing on the InSAR stochastic characteristics in the L band.

  9. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  10. Apollo 14 and 16 Active Seismic Experiments, and Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Seismic refraction experiments were conducted on the moon by Apollo astronauts during missions 14, 16, and 17. Seismic velocities of 104, 108, 92, 114 and 100 m/sec were inferred for the lunar regolith at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 landing sites, respectively. These data indicate that fragmentation and comminution caused by meteoroid impacts has produced a layer of remarkably uniform seismic properties moonwide. Brecciation and high porosity are the probable causes of the very low velocities observed in the lunar regolith. Apollo 17 seismic data revealed that the seismic velocity increases very rapidly with depth to 4.7 km/sec at a depth of 1.4 km. Such a large velocity change is suggestive of compositional and textural changes and is compatible with a model of fractured basaltic flows overlying anorthositic breccias. 'Thermal' moonquakes were also detected at the Apollo 17 site, becoming increasingly frequent after sunrise and reaching a maximum at sunset. The source of these quakes could possibly be landsliding.

  11. Precursory seismic activity before the 1944 Tonankai (Japan) earthquake: focusing on the downward migration of seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Kiyoo

    1987-08-01

    Based on the latest JMA earthquake catalog, the author investigated seismic activity around the time of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake ( M 7.9, M w 8.1 ) and the 1946 Nankaido earthquake ( M 8.1, M w 8.1 ), which were both great thrust-type earthquakes along the Nankai Trough. For about 20 years before these earthquakes their focal regions had been quiescent (appearance of a seismic gap of the second kind) and the surrounding areas had become increasingly active, forming a doughnut pattern). Several years before these earthquakes occurred seismic activity increased at shallow depths of the area to the north. This activity gradually migrated downwards, and the Tonankai earthquake occurred when it reached its limit (a depth of approximately 70 km). The author has previously reported on several cases of increased activity in the deep seismic plane at a depth of 300-500 km prior to large shallow earthquakes along the Japan Trench (Mogi, 1973). This paper will demonstrate that a similar phenomenon occurs when the depth of the deep seismic plane is only about 70 km. For several years before the Tonankai earthquake there had been a slight increase in seismicity in the area along the trough, which is where the plate subducts. Two or three days before tne earthquake marked ground tilt also proceeded at the northeastern tip of the focal region. It is evident that the Tonankai earthquake was preceded by various long-term and short-term precursory phenomena.

  12. Detecting Seismic Activity with a Covariance Matrix Analysis of Data Recorded on Seismic Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydoux, L.; Shapiro, N.; de Rosny, J.; Brenguier, F.

    2014-12-01

    Modern seismic networks are recording the ground motion continuously all around the word, with very broadband and high-sensitivity sensors. The aim of our study is to apply statistical array-based approaches to processing of these records. We use the methods mainly brought from the random matrix theory in order to give a statistical description of seismic wavefields recorded at the Earth's surface. We estimate the array covariance matrix and explore the distribution of its eigenvalues that contains information about the coherency of the sources that generated the studied wavefields. With this approach, we can make distinctions between the signals generated by isolated deterministic sources and the "random" ambient noise. We design an algorithm that uses the distribution of the array covariance matrix eigenvalues to detect signals corresponding to coherent seismic events. We investigate the detection capacity of our methods at different scales and in different frequency ranges by applying it to the records of two networks: (1) the seismic monitoring network operating on the Piton de la Fournaise volcano at La Réunion island composed of 21 receivers and with an aperture of ~15 km, and (2) the transportable component of the USArray composed of ~400 receivers with ~70 km inter-station spacing.

  13. SEISMIC SOURCE SCALING AND DISCRIMINATION IN DIVERSE TECTONIC ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, R E; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R; Viegas, G M; Murphy, K

    2007-07-10

    The objectives of this study are to improve low-magnitude regional seismic discrimination by performing a thorough investigation of earthquake source scaling using diverse, high-quality datasets from varied tectonic regions. Local-to-regional high-frequency discrimination requires an estimate of how earthquakes scale with size. Walter and Taylor (2002) developed the MDAC (Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Corrections) method to empirically account for these effects through regional calibration. The accuracy of these corrections has a direct impact on our ability to identify clandestine explosions in the broad regional areas characterized by low seismicity. Unfortunately our knowledge of source scaling at small magnitudes (i.e., m{sub b} < {approx}4.0) is poorly resolved. It is not clear whether different studies obtain contradictory results because they analyze different earthquakes, or because they use different methods. Even in regions that are well studied, such as test sites or areas of high seismicity, we still rely on empirical scaling relations derived from studies taken from half-way around the world at inter-plate regions. We investigate earthquake sources and scaling from different tectonic settings, comparing direct and coda wave analysis methods. We begin by developing and improving the two different methods, and then in future years we will apply them both to each set of earthquakes. Analysis of locally recorded, direct waves from events is intuitively the simplest way of obtaining accurate source parameters, as these waves have been least affected by travel through the earth. But there are only a limited number of earthquakes that are recorded locally, by sufficient stations to give good azimuthal coverage, and have very closely located smaller earthquakes that can be used as an empirical Green's function (EGF) to remove path effects. In contrast, coda waves average radiation from all directions so single-station records should be adequate, and

  14. Comparison Study of Reflection Seismic Surveys on Paved Site According to Sources and Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Keehm, Y.; Jin, J.

    2010-12-01

    To compare resolution of seismic section and to find cost effective method, high resolution near surface seismic reflection surveys were conducted on concrete paved site with several kinds combination of sources and receivers. Small 1.3kg handy hammer and 4.0kg sledge hammer were adopted to compare the results according to seismic sources. The seismic section from the small handy hammer source had clearly higher resolution than that of sledge hammer. We also used two different kind geophones with resonant frequencies 14Hz and 100Hz respectively. Specially designed weighted plates were prepared to increase the coupling between geophones and paved surface. The seismic section obtained with handy hammer and 100Hz resonant frequency geophones showed the best result in the aspects of resolution and cost in the study site.

  15. Detecting seismic activity with a covariance matrix analysis of data recorded on seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydoux, L.; Shapiro, N. M.; de Rosny, J.; Brenguier, F.; Landès, M.

    2016-03-01

    Modern seismic networks are recording the ground motion continuously at the Earth's surface, providing dense spatial samples of the seismic wavefield. The aim of our study is to analyse these records with statistical array-based approaches to identify coherent time-series as a function of time and frequency. Using ideas mainly brought from the random matrix theory, we analyse the spatial coherence of the seismic wavefield from the width of the covariance matrix eigenvalue distribution. We propose a robust detection method that could be used for the analysis of weak and emergent signals embedded in background noise, such as the volcanic or tectonic tremors and local microseismicity, without any prior knowledge about the studied wavefields. We apply our algorithm to the records of the seismic monitoring network of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano located at La Réunion Island and composed of 21 receivers with an aperture of ˜15 km. This array recorded many teleseismic earthquakes as well as seismovolcanic events during the year 2010. We show that the analysis of the wavefield at frequencies smaller than ˜0.1 Hz results in detection of the majority of teleseismic events from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor database. The seismic activity related to the Piton de la Fournaise volcano is well detected at frequencies above 1 Hz.

  16. The Chelyabinsk Meteorite as a multiple source of acoustic and seismic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitov, I. O.; Bobrov, D. I.; Ovchinnikov, V. M.; Rozhkov, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    Shock waves and impact of the Chelyabinsk Meteorite fragments on the ground initiated various waves in the atmosphere and the earth. Three different sources of seismic and infrasound waves were found by arrival time and azimuth of seismic and infrasound waves recorded by the International Monitoring System.

  17. Noise-based body-wave seismic tomography in an active underground mine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, G.; Brenguier, F.; Campillo, M.; Lynch, R.; Roux, P.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, ambient noise tomography has become increasingly popular to image the earth's upper crust. The seismic noise recorded in the earth's crust is dominated by surface waves emanating from the interaction of the ocean with the solid earth. These surface waves are low frequency in nature ( < 1 Hz) and not usable for imaging smaller structures associated with mining or oil and gas applications. The seismic noise recorded at higher frequencies are typically from anthropogenic sources, which are short lived, spatially unstable and not well suited for constructing seismic Green's functions between sensors with conventional cross-correlation methods. To examine the use of ambient noise tomography for smaller scale applications, continuous data were recorded for 5 months in an active underground mine in Sweden located more than 1km below surface with 18 high frequency seismic sensors. A wide variety of broadband (10 - 3000 Hz) seismic noise sources are present in an active underground mine ranging from drilling, scraping, trucks, ore crushers and ventilation fans. Some of these sources generate favorable seismic noise, while others are peaked in frequency and not usable. In this presentation, I will show that the noise generated by mining activity can be useful if periods of seismic noise are carefully selected. Although noise sources are not temporally stable and not evenly distributed around the sensor array, good estimates of the seismic Green's functions between sensors can be retrieved for a broad frequency range (20 - 400 Hz) when a selective stacking scheme is used. For frequencies below 100 Hz, the reconstructed Green's functions show clear body-wave arrivals for almost all of the 153 sensor pairs. The arrival times of these body-waves are picked and used to image the local velocity structure. The resulting 3-dimensional image shows a high velocity structure that overlaps with a known ore-body. The material properties of the ore-body differ from

  18. Missile impacts as sources of seismic energy on the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latham, G.V.; McDonald, W.G.; Moore, H.J.

    1970-01-01

    Seismic signals recorded from impacts of missiles at the White Sands Missile Range are radically different from the signal recorded from the Apollo 12 lunar module impact. This implies that lunar structure to depths of at least 10 to 20 kilometers is quite different from the typical structure of the earth's crust. Results obtained from this study can be used to predict seismic wave amplitudes from future man-made lunar impacts. Seismic energy and crater dimensions from impacts are compared with measurements from chemical explosions.

  19. Mapping the sources of the seismic wave field at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, using data recorded on multiple seismic Antennas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.; Huber, Caleb G.

    2002-01-01

    Seismic antennas constitute a powerful tool for the analysis of complex wave fields. Well-designed antennas can identify and separate components of a complex wave field based on their distinct propagation properties. The combination of several antennas provides the basis for a more complete understanding of volcanic wave fields, including an estimate of the location of each individual wave-field component identified simultaneously by at least two antennas. We used frequency-slowness analyses of data from three antennas to identify and locate the different components contributing to the wave fields recorded at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in February 1997. The wave-field components identified are (1) a sustained background volcanic tremor in the form of body waves generated in a shallow hydrothermal system located below the northeastern edge of the Halemaumau pit crater; (2) surface waves generated along the path between this hydrothermal source and the antennas; (3) back-scattered surface wave energy from a shallow reflector located near the southeastern rim of Kilauea caldera; (4) evidence for diffracted wave components originating at the southeastern edge of Halemaumau; and (5) body waves reflecting the activation of a deeper tremor source between 02 hr 00 min and 16 hr 00 min Hawaii Standard Time on 11 February.

  20. Method for enhancing low frequency output of impulsive type seismic energy sources and its application to a seismic energy source for use while drilling

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Robert P; Stokes, Robert H; Glowka, David A

    2014-12-02

    A method for operating an impulsive type seismic energy source in a firing sequence having at least two actuations for each seismic impulse to be generated by the source. The actuations have a time delay between them related to a selected energy frequency peak of the source output. One example of the method is used for generating seismic signals in a wellbore and includes discharging electric current through a spark gap disposed in the wellbore in at least one firing sequence. The sequence includes at least two actuations of the spark gap separated by an amount of time selected to cause acoustic energy resulting from the actuations to have peak amplitude at a selected frequency.

  1. Broadband Sound Pressure Field Characteristics of Marine Seismic Sources Used by R/V Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitzke, M.; Boebel, O.; El Naggar, S.; Jokat, W.; Kuhn, G.; Niessen, F.; Schenke, H.; Werner, B.; Diebold, J.

    2006-05-01

    Single airguns and airgun arrays of different size and volume are used as sound sources for scientific marine seismic reflection and refraction surveys conducted by R/V Polarstern in the Arctic and Antarctic Ocean. To ensure that these research activities do not affect marine wildlife and particularly marine mammals in the Antarctic Treaty Area south of 60°S knowledge of the sound pressure field of the seismic sources is essential. Therefore, a broadband marine seismic source characterization study was conducted at the Heggernes Acoustic Range in the Herdlefjord, Norway in October 2003. The objectives were (1) to determine the spatial distribution of the sound pressure levels emitted by Polarstern's seismic sources, (2) to compute the source levels assuming a spherical amplitude decay, (3) to determine mitigation radii, within which at least some species of marine mammals might possibly experience behavioral or physiological disturbance due to the received sound pressure levels. The thresholds currently in use to determine mitigation radii are 160 dBRMS re 1 μPa for potential behavioral disturbance and 180 dBRMS re 1 μPa for potential physiological and hearing effects like temporary threshold shifts. To determine the spatial distribution of the sound pressure levels each airgun (array) was shot along a line of 2- 3 km length running between 2 hydrophone chains with receivers in 35, 100, 198 and 267 m depth. A GI-Gun (2.4 l), a G-Gun (8.5 l) and a Bolt PAR CT800 (32.8 l) were deployed as single sources, and 3 GI-Guns (7.4 l), 3 G-Guns (25.6 l) and 8 VLF-Guns (24 l) as arrays. The measurements are complemented by a modeling approach for an 8 G-Gun (68.2 l) and 8 G-Gun+1 Bolt PAR CT800 array (100.1 l). The data analysis includes a determination of peak-peak, zero-peak and RMS-amplitudes, sound exposure levels and amplitude spectra as function of source-receiver distance. The amplitude vs distance graphs, analyzed for the 4 hydrophone depths, show the typical

  2. Seismic activity in the Sunnyside mining district, Utah, during 1967

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Barton K.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Hernandez, Jerome

    1969-01-01

    A seismic monitoring network near Sunnyside, Utah, consisting of a triangular array of seismometer stations that encompasses most of the mine workings in the district, recorded over 50,000 local earth tremors during 1967. About 540 of the tremors were of sufficient magnitude to be accurately located. Most of these were located within 2-3 miles of mine workings and were also near known or suspected faults. The district-wide seismic activity generally consisted of two different patterns--a periodic increase in the daily number of tremors at weekly intervals, and also a less regular and longer term increase and decrease of seismic activity that occurred over a period of weeks or even months. The shorter and more regular pattern can be correlated with the mine work week and seems to result from mining. The longer term activity, however, does not correlate with known mining causes sad therefore seems to be .caused by natural stresses.

  3. Equivalence of the virtual-source method and wave-field deconvolution in seismic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Snieder, Roel; Sheiman, Jon; Calvert, Rodney

    2006-06-01

    Seismic interferometry and the virtual-source method are related approaches for extracting the Green's function that accounts for wave propagation between receivers by making suitable combinations of the waves recorded at these two receivers. These waves can either be excited by active, controlled, sources, or by natural incoherent sources. We compare this technique with the deconvolution of the wave field recorded at different receivers. We show that the deconvolved wave field is a solution of the same wave equation as that for the physical system, but that the deconvolved wave forms may satisfy different boundary conditions than those of the original system. We apply this deconvolution approach to the wave motion recorded at various levels in a building after an earthquake, and show how to extract the building response for different boundary conditions. Extracting the response of the system with different boundary conditions can be used to enhance, or suppress, the normal-mode response. In seismic exploration this principle can be used for the suppression of surface-related multiples. PMID:16907010

  4. Automatic classification of endogenous seismic sources within a landslide body using random forest algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Floriane; Hibert, Clément; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Stumpf, André; Doubre, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Different studies have shown the presence of microseismic activity in soft-rock landslides. The seismic signals exhibit significantly different features in the time and frequency domains which allow their classification and interpretation. Most of the classes could be associated with different mechanisms of deformation occurring within and at the surface (e.g. rockfall, slide-quake, fissure opening, fluid circulation). However, some signals remain not fully understood and some classes contain few examples that prevent any interpretation. To move toward a more complete interpretation of the links between the dynamics of soft-rock landslides and the physical processes controlling their behaviour, a complete catalog of the endogeneous seismicity is needed. We propose a multi-class detection method based on the random forests algorithm to automatically classify the source of seismic signals. Random forests is a supervised machine learning technique that is based on the computation of a large number of decision trees. The multiple decision trees are constructed from training sets including each of the target classes. In the case of seismic signals, these attributes may encompass spectral features but also waveform characteristics, multi-stations observations and other relevant information. The Random Forest classifier is used because it provides state-of-the-art performance when compared with other machine learning techniques (e.g. SVM, Neural Networks) and requires no fine tuning. Furthermore it is relatively fast, robust, easy to parallelize, and inherently suitable for multi-class problems. In this work, we present the first results of the classification method applied to the seismicity recorded at the Super-Sauze landslide between 2013 and 2015. We selected a dozen of seismic signal features that characterize precisely its spectral content (e.g. central frequency, spectrum width, energy in several frequency bands, spectrogram shape, spectrum local and global maxima

  5. Microseismic monitoring of soft-rock landslide: contribution of a 3D velocity model for the location of seismic sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floriane, Provost; Jean-Philippe, Malet; Cécile, Doubre; Julien, Gance; Alessia, Maggi; Agnès, Helmstetter

    2015-04-01

    Characterizing the micro-seismic activity of landslides is an important parameter for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling landslide behaviour. However, the location of the seismic sources on landslides is a challenging task mostly because of (a) the recording system geometry, (b) the lack of clear P-wave arrivals and clear wave differentiation, (c) the heterogeneous velocities of the ground. The objective of this work is therefore to test whether the integration of a 3D velocity model in probabilistic seismic source location codes improves the quality of the determination especially in depth. We studied the clay-rich landslide of Super-Sauze (French Alps). Most of the seismic events (rockfalls, slidequakes, tremors...) are generated in the upper part of the landslide near the main scarp. The seismic recording system is composed of two antennas with four vertical seismometers each located on the east and west sides of the seismically active part of the landslide. A refraction seismic campaign was conducted in August 2014 and a 3D P-wave model has been estimated using the Quasi-Newton tomography inversion algorithm. The shots of the seismic campaign are used as calibration shots to test the performance of the different location methods and to further update the 3D velocity model. Natural seismic events are detected with a semi-automatic technique using a frequency threshold. The first arrivals are picked using a kurtosis-based method and compared to the manual picking. Several location methods were finally tested. We compared a non-linear probabilistic method coupled with the 3D P-wave model and a beam-forming method inverted for an apparent velocity. We found that the Quasi-Newton tomography inversion algorithm provides results coherent with the original underlaying topography. The velocity ranges from 500 m.s-1 at the surface to 3000 m.s-1 in the bedrock. For the majority of the calibration shots, the use of a 3D velocity model

  6. Active and passive seismic studies of geothermal resources in New Mexico and investigations of earthquake hazards to geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, P.; Daggett, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    Seismic data were collected in southwestern New Mexico to investigate the sources of the geothermal anomalies and to investigate the potential earthquake hazards of geothermal development. No major crustal structure anomalies have been located related to known geothermal resources, and no areas of continual seismicity have been identified, which is interpreted to indicate a lack of active, or recently active crustal intrusions in southwestern New Mexico. Without a magnetic heat source, the geothermal potential of the known anomalies is probably limited to intermediate and low temperature applications (<180/sup 0/C). The lack of continual seismicity indicates low seismic hazard in the area directly related to geothermal development, although the historic and geologically recent tectonic activity should be taken into consideration during any development in the area. A model of forced groundwater convection is presented to explain the geothermal anomalies in southwestern New Mexico, which is consistent with all available geological and geophysical data from the area.

  7. Monitoring Hurricanes with a Dense Seismic Array: Joint Inversion of Seismic and Barometric Data for Surface-Pressure Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, A. P.; Al-Attar, D.; Trampert, J.; Woodhouse, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (hurricanes and typhoons) are mostly atmospheric phenomena but they also generate significant ground motions in the solid earth when they become strong. If a dense seismological array exists along the path of a hurricane, we can learn about some processes near the hurricane eye through seismic data. In this study, we report our analysis of Hurricane Arthur which passed near Earthscope's Transportable Array (TA), a network of seismometers located at the time along the east coast of the US. Hurricane Arthur mostly traveled along the eastern coast of the US from July 1 to July 5, 2014; however, it made landfall for a short time on the coast of North Carolina at 0315 UTC on July 4. The next few hours provided us with a short span of seismic and barometric data associated with the center of Hurricane Arthur. Our basic approach to analyze this data is the same as in a previous study we conducted of Hurricane Isaac (2012), where we analyzed the seismic amplitude-distance data and the pressure amplitude-distance data for each 6-hour location of the hurricane. Here, we performed a joint inversion of the seismic and barometric data while Hurricane Arthur was nearest the coast. Barometer data provides the information on pressure source, which is the source of seismic-wave excitation and seismic data provides the resultant wavefields. We confine our analysis to frequencies below 0.02 Hz because in higher frequency bands ocean waves created the dominant seismic waves. In a similar manner to our previous study on Hurricane Isaac, we invert for the pressure correlation length. The results were consistent with what was seen for Hurricane Isaac in that we observed a signal generated by Hurricane Arthur's eyewall. After landfall, there is a peak at about 70-80km from the center of the hurricane in both the seismic and the barometric data. We also found that the correlation length changes with distance from the hurricane center and also has a peak around 70-80km.

  8. Broadband seismic monitoring of active volcanoes using deterministic and stochastic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, H.; Nakano, M.; Maeda, T.; Yepes, H.; Palacios, P.; Ruiz, M. C.; Arrais, S.; Vaca, M.; Molina, I.; Yamashina, T.

    2009-12-01

    We systematically used two approaches to analyze broadband seismic signals observed at active volcanoes: one is waveform inversion of very-long-period (VLP) signals in the frequency domain assuming possible source mechanisms; the other is a source location method of long-period (LP) and tremor using their amplitudes. The deterministic approach of the waveform inversion is useful to constrain the source mechanism and location, but is basically only applicable to VLP signals with periods longer than a few seconds. The source location method uses seismic amplitudes corrected for site amplifications and assumes isotropic radiation of S waves. This assumption of isotropic radiation is apparently inconsistent with the hypothesis of crack geometry at the LP source. Using the source location method, we estimated the best-fit source location of a VLP/LP event at Cotopaxi using a frequency band of 7-12 Hz and Q = 60. This location was close to the best-fit source location determined by waveform inversion of the VLP/LP event using a VLP band of 5-12.5 s. The waveform inversion indicated that a crack mechanism better explained the VLP signals than an isotropic mechanism. These results indicated that isotropic radiation is not inherent to the source and only appears at high frequencies. We also obtained a best-fit location of an explosion event at Tungurahua when using a frequency band of 5-10 Hz and Q = 60. This frequency band and Q value also yielded reasonable locations for the sources of tremor signals associated with lahars and pyroclastic flows at Tungurahua. The isotropic radiation assumption may be valid in a high frequency range in which the path effect caused by the scattering of seismic waves results in an isotropic radiation pattern of S waves. The source location method may be categorized as a stochastic approach based on the nature of scattering waves. We further applied the waveform inversion to VLP signals observed at only two stations during a volcanic crisis

  9. Active Monitoring With The Use Of Seismic Vibrators: Experimental Systems And The Results Of Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevsky, V.; Alekseev, A.; Glinsky, B.; Khairetdinov, M.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2004-12-01

    Active methods of geophysical monitoring with the use of powerful seismic vibrators play an important role in the investigation of changes in the medium's stressed-deformed state in seismic prone zones for problems of seismic hazard prediction. In the last three decades, this scientific direction has been actively developed at institutes of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. In this period, experimental systems for the active monitoring of the medium, which include powerful vibrational sources with computer control systems, mobile specialized complexes for the precision recording of vibrational seismic signals, and data processing systems have been created. A review of various constructions of resonant vibrational seismic sources with a vibrational force of 100 tons in the frequency range from 5 to 15 Hz and the principles of creation of precision computer control systems and low-frequency three-component recording systems VIRS-M, VIRS-K, and ROSA is presented. A method for the active monitoring of the medium with the use of wideband sweep signals and narrow-band harmonic signals radiated by seismic vibrators has been developed. To determine the sensitivity of the active monitoring system, some experiments to detect the influence of the Earth's crust tidal deformations (of the order of 10-7) on seismic wave velocities have been performed. A 100-ton seismic vibrator and recording systems were located at a distance of 356 km. The radiation sessions of harmonic and sweep signals were repeated every 3 hours during 8 days. This made it possible to construct the time series of variations in the amplitudes and phases of the signals and wave arrival times. Both 12-hour and 24-hour periodicities correlated with the earth's tides were distinguished in the spectrum of variations of the recorded signals. The experiment has shown that the active monitoring system makes it possible to detect relative variations of the seismic wave velocities of the order of 10

  10. A noninvasive shallow seismic source comparison on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, W.E.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.

    1998-07-01

    Nine seismic sources were compared in preparation for production seismic reflection profiling to about 500 m depth at a hazardous waste site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. Test data provided a 125-shotpoint common midpoint profile and a walkaway vertical seismic profile for each source. Sources tested included five swept sources and four impulsive sources. Eight of the sources were noninvasive, in that they would not penetrate the ground surface. When spectral whitening methods were applied to the data, the IVI Minivib provided the best image of the subsurface on the basis of continuity and clarity of reflections. Without prewhitening, the performance of the IVI Minivib and the Bison elastic wave generator were similar.

  11. Second and Third Quarters Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Rohay, Alan C.

    1999-10-08

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site.

  12. Study of Seismic Activity at Ceboruco Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero, C. R.; Rodríguez Ayala, N. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2013-12-01

    Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive volcanic eruptions. The Ceboruco stratovolcano (2,280 m.a.s.l.) is located in Nayarit, Mexico, at the west of the Mexican volcanic belt and towards the Sierra de San Pedro southeast, which is a key communication point for coast of Jalisco and Nayarit and the northwest of Mexico. It last eruptive activity was in 1875, and during the following five years it presents superficial activity such as vapor emissions, ash falls and riodacitic composition lava flows along the southeast side. Although surface activity has been restricted to fumaroles near the summit, Ceboruco exhibits regular seismic unrest characterized by both low frequency seismic events and volcano-tectonic earthquakes. From March 2003 until July 2008 a three-component short-period seismograph Marslite station with a Lennartz 3D (1Hz) was deployed in the south flank (CEBN) and within 2 km from the summit to monitoring the seismic activity at the volcano. The LF seismicity recorded was classified using waveform characteristics and digital analysis. We obtained four groups: impulsive arrivals, extended coda, bobbin form, and wave package amplitude modulation earthquakes. The extended coda is the group with more earthquakes and present durations of 50 seconds. Using the moving particle technique, we read the P and S wave arrival times and estimate azimuth arrivals. A P-wave velocity of 3.0 km/s was used to locate the earthquakes, most of the hypocenters are below the volcanic edifice within a circular perimeter of 5 km of radius and its depths are calculated relative to the CEBN elevation as follows. The impulsive arrivals earthquakes present hypocenters between 0 and 1 km while the other groups between 0 and 4 km. Results suggest fluid activity inside the volcanic building that could be related to fumes on the volcano. We conclude that the Ceboruco volcano is active. Therefore, it should be continuously monitored due to the

  13. A comparison of small, affordable seismic sources at the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher; Huang, Fei; Ivandic, Monika; Lueth, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Seismic methods have proven to be effective for monitoring the movement and location of injected CO2 within deep saline aquifers. However, a disadvantage of seismic monitoring is the high costs associated with many repeat seismic surveys as part of a long term monitoring strategy of a CO2 storage site. As the cost for the use of the seismic source is often a significant part of the overall survey cost, affordable, smaller sources would increase the potential feasibility of a long term seismic monitoring strategy. A comparison of three land seismic sources is performed at the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany. Two of these sources (Vibsist 500 and Bobcat drop hammer) can be considered to be smaller and more affordable sources than those conventionally used in the seismic monitor surveys at Ketzin. In this study these smaller sources are compared to a larger more conventional Vibsist 3000 source. The subsurface target for the three sources in this comparison is the CO2 storage reservoir for the Ketzin site, located within the Triassic Stuttgart formation, which lies at a depth of approximately 600m/500ms. Two of the sources are Swept Impact (SIST) type courses (Vibsist 500 and 3000) which use hydraulic concrete breaking hammers. The third source uses a concrete breaking drop hammer tool mounted on a Bobcat loader. Data were collected along a 984m long profile with 24m receiver spacing and 12m shot spacing in 2011, 2012 and 2013 using the three different sources. A quantitative and qualitative comparison of the raw data from the three sources was performed in order to assess their relative performance. Frequency content, signal to noise ratio and penetration depth curves were calculated for the raw data. Data from the three sources was also processed using a conventional workflow to produce stacked sections which were compared. Based on the results from this study the Bobcat drop hammer source appears to perform better than the Vibsist 500 source. However both of the

  14. Importance of covariance components of waveform data with high sampling rate in seismic source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Y.; Fukahata, Y.

    2007-12-01

    As computer technology advanced, it has become possible to observe seismic wave with a higher sampling rate and perform inversion for a larger data set. In general, to obtain a finer image of seismic source processes, waveform data with a higher sampling rate are needed. Then we encounter a problem whether there is no limitation of sampling rate in waveform inversion. In traditional seismic source inversion, covariance components of sampled waveform data have commonly been neglected. In fact, however, observed waveform data are not completely independent of each other at least in time domain, because they are always affected by un-elastic attenuation in the propagation of seismic waves through the Earth. In this study, we have developed a method of seismic source inversion to take the data covariance into account, and applied it to teleseismic P-wave data of the 2003 Boumerdes-Zemmouri, Algeria earthquake. From a comparison of final slip distributions inverted by the new formulation and the traditional formulation, we found that the effect of covariance components is crucial for a data set of higher sampling rates (≥ 5 Hz). For higher sampling rates, the slip distributions by the new formulation look stable, whereas the slip distributions by the traditional formulation tend to concentrate into small patches due to overestimation of the information from observed data. Our result indicates that the un-elastic effect of the Earth gives a limitation to the resolution of inverted seismic source models. It has been pointed out that seismic source models obtained from waveform data analyses are quite different from one another. One possible reason for the discrepancy is the neglect of covariance components. The new formulation must be useful to obtain a standard seismic source model.

  15. A Large-N Mixed Sensor Active + Passive Seismic Array near Sweetwater, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklage, M.; Hollis, D.; Gridley, J. M.; Woodward, R.; Spriggs, N.

    2014-12-01

    A collaborative high-density seismic survey using broadband and short period seismic sensors was conducted March 7 - April 30, 2014 near Sweetwater, TX. The objective of the survey was to use a combination of controlled source shot slices and passive seismic recordings recorded by multiple types of sensors with different bandwidths and sensitivities to image the subsurface. The broadband component of the survey consisted of 25 continuously recording seismic stations comprised of 20 Trillium Compact Posthole sensors from Nanometrics and 5 Polar Trillium 120PHQs from the IRIS/PASSCAL Instrument Center (PIC). The broadband stations also utilized 25 Centaur digitizers from Nanometrics as well as 25 polar quick deploy enclosures from the PIC. The broadband array was designed to maximize horizontal traveling seismic energy for surface wave analysis over the primary target area with sufficient offset for imaging objectives at depth. The short period component of the survey consisted of 2639 receiver locations using Zland nodes from NodalSeismic. The nodes are further divided into 3 sub-arrays: 1) outlier array 2) active source array 3) backbone array. The outlier array consisted of 25 continuously recording nodes distributed around the edge of the survey at a distance of ~5 km from the survey boundary, and provided valuable constraints to passive data analysis techniques at the edge of the survey boundary. The active source patch consisted of densely spaced nodes that were designed to record signals from a Vibroseis source truck for active source reflection processing and imaging. The backbone array consisted of 292 nodes that covered the entirety of the survey area to maximize the value of the passive data analysis. By utilizing continuous recording and smartly designed arrays for measuring local and regional earthquakes we can incorporate velocity information derived from passive data analysis into the active source processing workflow to produce a superior subsurface

  16. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.

    2011-12-01

    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  17. Underground structure characterization using motor vehicles as passive seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Rector, J.; Vaidya, S.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to detect and characterize underground voids will be critical to the success of On-Site Inspections (OSI) as mandated by the nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs may be conducted in order to successfully locate the Ground Zero of underground tests as well as infrastructure related to testing. Recently, our team has shown the potential of a new technique to detect underground objects using the amplitude of seismic surface waves generated by motor vehicles. In an experiment conducted in June, 2009 we were able to detect an abandoned railroad tunnel by recognizing a clear pattern in the surface waves scattered by the tunnel, using a signal generated by driving a car on a dirt road across the tunnel. Synthetic experiments conducted using physically realistic wave-equation models further suggest that the technique can be readily applied to detecting underground features: it may be possible to image structures of importance to OSI simply by laying out an array of geophones (or using an array already in place for passive listening for event aftershocks) and driving vehicles around the site. We present evidence from a set of field experiments and from synthetic modeling and inversion studies to illustrate adaptations of the technique for OSI. Signature of an abandoned underground railroad tunnel at Donner Summit, CA. To produce this image, a line of geophones was placed along a dirt road perpendicular to the tunnel (black box) and a single car was driven along the road. A normalized mean power-spectrum is displayed on a log scale as a function of meters from the center of the tunnel. The top of the tunnel was 18m below ground surface. The tunnel anomaly is made up of a shadow (light) directly above the tunnel and amplitude build-up (dark) on either side of the tunnel. The size of the anomaly (6 orders of magnitude) suggests that the method can be extended to find deep structures at greater distances from the source and receivers.

  18. Discriminating non-seismic long-period pulses and noise to improve earthquake source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Takahide; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Pulido, Nelson; Bonita, Jun; Nakano, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Broadband seismometers produce artifacts resembling long-period pulses (non-seismic pulses) that degrade centroid moment tensor (CMT) estimations based on waveform inversion of broadband seismic records in long-period bands (50-200 s). We propose a method to discriminate non-seismic pulses and long-period noise from seismic signals, which can be applied to automatic CMT inversion analysis. In this method, we calculate source amplitudes as peak-to-peak displacement amplitudes in individual long-period seismic records after each event has been corrected for medium attenuation and geometric spreading and then estimate the ratios of individual source amplitudes to the minimum source amplitude. Because source amplitude ratios for non-seismic pulses tend to be greater than those of the seismic signals, we use seismic records in CMT estimations only if their source amplitude ratios are lower than a threshold value ( R). We tested this method using broadband seismic data from the Philippines and found that reprocessed inversion solutions using this method showed a clear improvement when using R = 11, although focal mechanism estimations were not entirely stable. To investigate the general applicability of this method, we analyzed broadband seismic data from F-net in Japan. Our analysis indicated that source amplitude ratios in F-net data ranged up to about 20, indicating that the threshold value may be dependent on station density. Given that F-net is one of the highest density networks in the world, we may assume that a threshold value between 10 and 20 is appropriate for application of our method for most regional broadband networks. Our synthetic tests indicated that source amplitude ratios can be as high as 103, although observed ratios are only within the range 10-20. This suggests that we happened to observe only events having focal mechanisms with source amplitude ratios of 10-20. Alternatively, these high source amplitude ratios can be explained by distortion of

  19. Seismic sequence near Zakynthos Island, Greece, April 2006: Identification of the activated fault plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetsidaki, A.; Sokos, E.; Tselentis, G.-A.; Zahradnik, J.

    2010-01-01

    The April 2006 earthquake sequence near Zakynthos (Western Greece) is analysed to identify the fault plane(-s). The sequence (33 events) was relocated to assess physical insight into the hypocenter uncertainty. Moment tensor solution of three major events was performed, simultaneously with the determination of the centroid position. Joint analysis of the hypocenter position, centroid position and nodal planes indicated sub-horizontal fault planes. Moment tensor solutions of 15 smaller events were performed under assumption that the source positions are those of the hypocenters (without seeking centroids). Their focal mechanisms are highly similar and agree with the analysis of the three major events. The preferable seismotectonic interpretation is that the whole sequence activated a single sub-horizontal fault zone at a depth of about 13 km, corresponding to the interplate subduction boundary. Considering that the Ionian Sea is a high-seismicity area, the identification of the seismic fault is significant for the seismic hazard investigation of the region.

  20. The 2012 Ferrara seismic sequence: Regional crustal structure, earthquake sources, and seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malagnini, Luca; Herrmann, Robert B.; Munafò, Irene; Buttinelli, Mauro; Anselmi, Mario; Akinci, Aybige; Boschi, E.

    2012-10-01

    Inadequate seismic design codes can be dangerous, particularly when they underestimate the true hazard. In this study we use data from a sequence of moderate-sized earthquakes in northeast Italy to validate and test a regional wave propagation model which, in turn, is used to understand some weaknesses of the current design spectra. Our velocity model, while regionalized and somewhat ad hoc, is consistent with geophysical observations and the local geology. In the 0.02-0.1 Hz band, this model is validated by using it to calculate moment tensor solutions of 20 earthquakes (5.6 ≥ MW ≥ 3.2) in the 2012 Ferrara, Italy, seismic sequence. The seismic spectra observed for the relatively small main shock significantly exceeded the design spectra to be used in the area for critical structures. Observations and synthetics reveal that the ground motions are dominated by long-duration surface waves, which, apparently, the design codes do not adequately anticipate. In light of our results, the present seismic hazard assessment in the entire Pianura Padana, including the city of Milan, needs to be re-evaluated.

  1. Utilization of near-source video and ground motion in the assessment of seismic source functions from mining explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.P.; Stump, B.W.

    1994-09-01

    Identification of seismic events detected under a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty requires a clear physical understanding of the different types of seismic sources including mining explosions, rock bursts, mine collapse and small, shallow earthquakes. Constraint of the operative physical processes in the source region and linkage to the generation of seismic waveforms with particular emphasis on regional seismograms is needed. In order to properly address the multi-dimensional aspect of data sets designed to constrain these sources, we are investigating a number of modern visualization tools that have only recently become available with new, high-speed graphical computers that can utilize relatively large data sets. The results of this study will provide a basis for identifying important processes in the source region that contribute to regional seismograms.

  2. Seismic source and structure estimation in the western Mediterranean using a sparse broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thio, Hong Kie; Song, Xi; Saikia, Chandan K.; Helmberger, Donald V.; Woods, Bradley B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of regional earthquakes in the western Mediterranean geared toward the development of methodologies and path calibrations for source characterization using regional broadband stations. The results of this study are useful for the monitoring and discrimination of seismic events under a comprehensive test ban treaty, as well as the routine analysis of seismicity and seismic hazard using a sparse array of stations. The area consists of several contrasting geological provinces with distinct seismic properties, which complicates the modeling of seismic wave propagation. We started by analyzing surface wave group velocities throughout the region and developed a preliminary model for each of the major geological provinces. We found variations of crustal thickness ranging from 45 km under the Atlas and Betic mountains and 37 km under the Saharan shield, to 20 km for the oceanic crust of the western Mediterranean Sea, which is consistent with earlier works. Throughout most of the region, the upper mantle velocities are low which is typical for tectonically active regions. The most complex areas in terms of wave propagation are the Betic Cordillera in southern Spain and its north African counterparts, the Rif and Tell Atlas mountains, as well as the Alboran Sea, between Spain and Morocco. The complexity of the wave propagation in these regions is probably due to the sharp velocity contrasts between the oceanic and continental regions as well as the the existence of deep sedimentary basins that have a very strong influence on the surface wave dispersion. We used this preliminary regionalized velocity model to correct the surface wave source spectra for propagation effects which we then inverted for source mechanism. We found that this method, which is in use in many parts of the world, works very well, provided that data from several stations are available. In order to study the events in the region using very few broadband stations or even a single station

  3. An active seismic experiment proposal onboard the NASA 2009 MSL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonné, P.; Experiment Team

    NASA will launch in 2009 a 900 kg class rover to Mars. This rover will land with a new descent system, called the ``sky-crane''. After releasing the rover on the ground, the sky-crane will have a final flight until a hard landing about 2 km away from the rover. The science objectives of the 2009 MSL mission, among others, are to characterize the geology of the landing region at all appropriate spatial scales, to interpret the processes that have formed and modified rocks and regolith and to determine present state, distribution, and cycling of water. We propose to perform with the sky-crane an active seismic experiment for subsurface characterization. This experiment will be conducted after the rover deployment. The proposed idea is to deploy a seismic receiver line by ejecting about 10 seismic nodes from the sky-crane and then to record then the reflected signals from the impact of the sky-crane. Preliminary modeling and tests indicate that a penetration depth of several hundred meters will be reached. The experiment will be used to determine a 2D geological profile of the landing site subsurface, to determine the depth and shape of the dry regolith/icy regolith discontinuity and to identify possible layering structures in the subsurface. In addition, information on the structure of the regolith (mean size of building blocs) and on the presence of liquid water will be obtained by an analysis of the seismic coda and attenuation. The seismic high frequency noise will also be monitored, especially during windy periods, and will be used to get additional information on the subsurface. The proposed experiment is based on a consortium between academics laboratories and seismic industry and will be a first example of a resource oriented experiment on another planet than Earth. The complete mass of the experiment will be 2.5 kg. Seismic nodes will have their own acquisition/power and telemetry system and will be based on high sensitive geophones developed for seismic

  4. Comparison of lower-frequency (<1000 Hz) downhole seismic sources for use at environmental sites

    SciTech Connect

    Elbring, G.J.

    1995-03-01

    In conjunction with crosswell seismic surveying being done at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington, four different downhole seismic sources have been tested between the same set of boreholes. The four sources evaluated were the Bolt airgun, the OYO-Conoco orbital vibrator, and two Sandia-developed vertical vibrators, one pneumatically-driven, and the other based on a magnetostrictive actuator. The sources generate seismic energy in the lower frequency range of less than 1000 Hz and have different frequency characteristics, radiation patterns, energy levels, and operational considerations. Collection of identical data sets with all four sources allows the direct comparison of these characteristics and an evaluation of the suitability of each source for a given site and target.

  5. Beyond seismic interferometry: imaging the earth's interior with virtual sources and receivers inside the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wapenaar, C. P. A.; Van der Neut, J.; Thorbecke, J.; Broggini, F.; Slob, E. C.; Snieder, R.

    2015-12-01

    Imagine one could place seismic sources and receivers at any desired position inside the earth. Since the receivers would record the full wave field (direct waves, up- and downward reflections, multiples, etc.), this would give a wealth of information about the local structures, material properties and processes in the earth's interior. Although in reality one cannot place sources and receivers anywhere inside the earth, it appears to be possible to create virtual sources and receivers at any desired position, which accurately mimics the desired situation. The underlying method involves some major steps beyond standard seismic interferometry. With seismic interferometry, virtual sources can be created at the positions of physical receivers, assuming these receivers are illuminated isotropically. Our proposed method does not need physical receivers at the positions of the virtual sources; moreover, it does not require isotropic illumination. To create virtual sources and receivers anywhere inside the earth, it suffices to record the reflection response with physical sources and receivers at the earth's surface. We do not need detailed information about the medium parameters; it suffices to have an estimate of the direct waves between the virtual-source positions and the acquisition surface. With these prerequisites, our method can create virtual sources and receivers, anywhere inside the earth, which record the full wave field. The up- and downward reflections, multiples, etc. in the virtual responses are extracted directly from the reflection response at the surface. The retrieved virtual responses form an ideal starting point for accurate seismic imaging, characterization and monitoring.

  6. Source mechanism of Vulcanian eruption at Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador, derived from seismic moment tensor inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keehoon; Lees, Jonathan M.; Ruiz, Mario C.

    2014-02-01

    Source mechanisms of explosive volcanic eruptions are critical for understanding magmatic plumbing systems and magma transport. Tungurahua is a large andesitic stratovolcano where seismoacoustic data has been recorded over several years. In May 2010, an energetic eruption cycle began with a midsize Vulcanian explosion followed by swarms of explosive eruptions. The five-station seismoacoustic network recorded significant seismic and infrasonic signals from the explosions. Source mechanisms of 50 explosion earthquakes associated with Vulcanian explosions during this eruptive period are investigated here. The source centroid locations and geometries of explosive signals in the 10-2 s band were determined by full-waveform moment tensor inversion. The observed waveforms are well explained by a combination of volumetric moment tensor components and a single, vertical, downward force component. The source centroids are positioned about 1.5 km below and about 320 m north of the active crater. Eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis indicates that the source geometries can be described by a subhorizontal, thin ellipsoid representing a sill-like magma accumulation. Resultant source time histories show a repetitive sequence of inflation and deflation from event to event, indicating identical source processes frequently occurred over the period. The inflation/deflation in the deep source region may be the result of crack opening. Volatile bubble growth at depth opens a pathway for gases to escape and triggers shallow explosions at the summit crater. The associated downward single force is interpreted as an exchange of linear momentum between the source and the surrounding region during the escaping gas flow.

  7. Temporal variation of mass-wasting activity in Mount St. Helens crater, Washington, U. S. A. indicated by seismic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, H.H. )

    1991-11-01

    In the crater of Mount St. Helens, formed during the eruption of 18 May 1980, thousands of rockfalls may occur in a single day, and some rock and dirty-snow avalanches have traveled more than 1 km from their source. Because most seismic activity in the crater is produced by mass wasting, the former can be used to monitor the latter. The number and amplitude of seismic events per unit time provide a generalized measure of mass-wasting activity. In this study 1-min averages of seismic amplitudes were used as an index of rockfall activity during summer and early fall. Plots of this index show the diurnal cycle of rockfall activity and establish that the peak in activity occurs in mid to late afternoon. A correlation coefficient of 0.61 was found between daily maximum temperature and average seismic amplitude, although this value increases to 0.72 if a composite temperature variable that includes the maximum temperature of 1 to 3 preceding days as well as the present day is used. Correlation with precipitation is much weaker.

  8. Quantitative assessment of seismic source performance: Feasibility of small and affordable seismic sources for long term monitoring at the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher; Huang, Fei; Ivandic, Monika; Lueth, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    We apply a range of quantitative pre-stack analysis techniques to assess the feasibility of using smaller and cheaper seismic sources, than those currently used at the Ketzin CO2 storage site. Results from two smaller land sources are presented alongside those from a larger, more powerful source, typically utilized for seismic acquisition at the Ketzin. The geological target for the study is the Triassic Stuttgart Formation which contains a saline aquifer currently used for CO2 storage. The reservoir lies at a depth of approximately 630 m, equivalent to a travel time of 500 ms along the study profile. The three sources discussed in the study are the Vibsist 3000, Vibsist 500 (using industrial hydraulic driven concrete breaking hammers) and a drop hammer source. Data were collected for the comparison using the three sources in 2011, 2012 and 2013 along a 984 m long line with 24 m receiver spacing and 12 m shot spacing. Initially a quantitative analysis is performed of the noise levels between the 3 surveys. The raw shot gathers are then analyzed quantitatively to investigate the relative energy output, signal to noise ratio, penetration depth, repeatability and frequency content for the different sources. The performance of the sources is also assessed based on stacked seismic sections. Based on the results from this study it appears that both of the smaller sources are capable of producing good images of the target reservoir and can both be considered suitable as lower cost, less invasive sources for use at the Ketzin site or other shallow CO2 storage projects. Finally, the results from the various pre-stack analysis techniques are discussed in terms of how representative they are of the final stacked sections.

  9. Source processes at the Chilean subduction region: a comparative analysis of recent large earthquakes seismic sequences in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesca, Simone; Tolga Sen, Ali; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    Large intraplate megathrust events are common at the western margin of the Southamerican plate, and repeatedly affected the slab segment along Chile, driven by the subduction of the oceanic Nazca plate, with a convergence of almost 7 cm/y. The size and rate of seismicity, including the 1960 Mw 9.5 Chile earthquake, pose Chile among the most highly seismogenic regions worldwide. At the same time, thanks to the significant national and international effort in recent years, Chile is nowadays seismologically well equipped and monitored; the dense seismological network provides a valuable dataset to analyse details of the rupture processes not only for the main events, but also for weaker seismicity preceding, accompanying and following the largest earthquakes. The seismic sequences accompanying recent large earthquakes showed several differences. In some cases, as for the 2014 Iquique earthquake, an important precursor activity took place in the months preceding the main shock, with an accelerating pattern in the last days before the main shock. In other cases, as for the recent Illapel earthquake, the main shock occurred with few precursors. The 2010 Maule earthquake showed an even different patterns, with the activation of secondary faults after the main shock. Recent studies were able to resolve significant changes in specific source parameters, such as changes in the distribution of focal mechanisms, potentially revealing a rotation of the stress tensor, or a spatial variation of rupture velocity, supporting a depth dependence of the rupture speed. An advanced inversion of seismic source parameters and their combined interpretation for multiple sequences can help to understand the diversity of rupture processes along the Chilean slab, and in general for subduction environments. We combine here results of different recent studies to investigate similarity and anomalies of rupture parameters for different seismic sequences, and foreshocks-aftershocks activities

  10. Multiple Seismic Array Observations for Tracing Deep Tremor Activity in Western Shikoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Shiomi, K.; Obara, K.

    2011-12-01

    Deep non-volcanic tremors become very active during episodic slow-slip events in western Japan and Cascadia. The episodic tremor and slow-slip events in western Shikoku, Japan, occur at a typical interval of 6 months. Recently, it has been reported that tremor migration activity is complex and shows different migrating directions depending on time scales (Ghosh et al., 2010). Such characteristics of tremor are important to understand the mechanism of tremor and the relationship between tremor and SSEs. However it is difficult to determine the location of tremors with high accuracy because tremors show faint signals and make the identification of P/S-wave arrivals difficult. Seismic array analysis is useful to evaluate tremor activity, especially to estimate the arrival direction of seismic energy (e.g. Ueno et al., 2010, Ghosh et al., 2010), as it can distinguish multiple tremor sources occurring simultaneously. Here, we have conducted seismic array observation and analyzed seismic data during tremor activity by applying the MUSIC method to trace tremor location and its migration in western Shikoku. We have installed five seismic arrays in western Shikoku since January 2011. One of the arrays contains 30 stations with 3-component seismometers with a natural frequency of 2 Hz (Type-L array). The array aperture size is 2 km and the mean interval between stations is approximately 200 m. Each of the other arrays (Type-S array) contains 9 seismic stations with the same type of seismometers of the Type-L array, and is deployed surrounding the Type-L array. The small array aperture size is 800 m and its mean station interval is approximately 150 m. All array stations have recorded continuous waveform data at a sampling of 200Hz. In May 2011, an episodic tremor and a short-term slip event occurred for the first time during the observation period. We could retrieve the array seismic data during the whole tremor episode. The analysis of data from the type-L array confirms

  11. Source mechanisms of the 2009 seismic sequence in the northwest of New Guinea Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, M.; Kumagai, H.; Yamashina, T.; Inoue, H.; Sunarjo

    2009-12-01

    On January 3rd, 2009 (UTC), large earthquakes successively occurred around the Bird's Head peninsula, northwest of New Guinea Island, Indonesia. The first earthquake (Mw=7.6) occurred on 19:43 (UTC). The second event (Mw=7.4) occurred about three hours later (22:33 UTC) at about 100 km east of the first one. Tsunamis with heights of several tens cm caused by these events were observed in Japan. North of the Bird's Head peninsula, the Pacific plate is subducting below New Guinea Island along the Manokwari trough. The seismic activity along the Manokwari trough is not well known. To clarify the seismic activity along this trough is important for the disaster mitigation in New Guinea Island as well as tsunami hazards in the coastal regions along the Pacific Ocean. We investigated the source mechanisms of the earthquakes that occurred in the seismic sequence. We used data from the broadband seismograph network in Indonesia. Using the waveform inversion method of Nakano et al. (2008, GJI), we obtained the following results. The first earthquake was located 15 km below the northern shore of the Bird's Head peninsula. Its moment magnitude (Mw) and rupture duration (T) were estimated as 7.6 and 24 s, respectively. The focal mechanism showed a reverse-type fault with the compression axis oriented to NS. The second earthquake was located about 70 km east of the first one, with a depth of 10 km. Mw and T were estimated as 7.4 and 32 s, respectively. The focal mechanism was similar to that of the first event. Since the rupture durations of these events are comparable to typical durations for events of these magnitudes, these events were not tsunami earthquakes. We also applied the waveform inversion analysis to aftershocks. We obtained source parameters for about 30 earthquakes that occurred until the end of May, 2009. The aftershocks mostly aligned on a plane dipping to the south. This plane may represent the Pacific plate subducting along the Manokwari trough. The source

  12. The excitation of long period seismic waves by a source spanning a structural discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, J. H.

    Simple theoretical results are obtained for the excitation of seismic waves by an indigenous seismic source in the case that the source volume is intersected by a structural discontinuity. In the long wavelength approximation the seismic radiation is identical to that of a point source placed on one side of the discontinuity or of a different point source placed on the other side. The moment tensors of these two equivalent sources are related by a specific linear transformation and may differ appreciably both in magnitude and geometry. Either of these sources could be obtained by linear inversion of seismic data but the physical interpretation is more complicated than in the usual case. A source which involved no volume change would, for example, yield an isotropic component if, during inversion, it were assumed to lie on the wrong side of the discontinuity. The problem of determining the true moment tensor of the source is indeterminate unless further assumptions are made about the stress glut distribution; one way to resolve this indeterminancy is to assume proportionality between the integrated stress glut on each side of the discontinuity.

  13. Estimation of Source and Attenuation Parameters from Ground Motion Observations for Induced Seismicity in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakovic, M.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We use a generalized inversion to solve for site response, regional source and attenuation parameters, in order to define a region-specific ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) from ground motion observations in Alberta, following the method of Atkinson et al. (2015 BSSA). The database is compiled from over 200 small to moderate seismic events (M 1 to 4.2) recorded at ~50 regional stations (distances from 30 to 500 km), over the last few years; almost all of the events have been identified as being induced by oil and gas activity. We remove magnitude scaling and geometric spreading functions from observed ground motions and invert for stress parameter, regional attenuation and site amplification. Resolving these parameters allows for the derivation of a regionally-calibrated GMPE that can be used to accurately predict amplitudes across the region in real time, which is useful for ground-motion-based alerting systems and traffic light protocols. The derived GMPE has further applications for the evaluation of hazards from induced seismicity.

  14. Seismic Evidence for an Active Southern Rio Grande Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. E.; Velasco, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Competing models exist to explain what caused the Earth’s crust to spread apart 29 million years ago to create a region known today as the Rio Grande Rift (RGR). The RGR extends from central Colorado through New Mexico to northern Mexico, near El Paso. A growing body of evidence shows that geologic activity still occurs in the RGR, with a continuation of faulting, seismicity and a small widening rate. We map of the seismic velocity structure and crustal thickness using data from the Rio Grande Rift Seismic TRAnsect (RISTRA) experiment and the EarthScope Transportable Array (USArray) dataset. In addition to the data we collected from the RISTRA experiment and USArray dataset, we also acquired receiver functions from the EarthScope Automatic Receiver Survey (EARS) website (http://www.earthscope.org/data) and waveform data from the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). In particular, we requested seismograms from the IRIS DMC database where we acquired teleseismic events from Jan 2000 to Dec 2009. This includes 7,259 seismic events with a minimum magnitude of 5.5 and 106,389 continuous waveforms. This data was preprocessed (merged, rotated) using a program called Standing Order of Data (SOD). We computed receiver functions and receiver function stacks for all data in the Southern Rio Grande Rift (SRGR). We map the crustal thickness, seismic velocity, and mantle structure to better determine the nature of tectonic activity that is presently taking place and further investigate the regional extension of the Southern Rio Grande Rift (SRGR). Here we present results of the crustal and velocity structure using the kriging interpolation scheme and interpret our results in relation to southern RGR deformation and extension.

  15. Comparison of Active and Passive Seismic Methods for Calculating Shear-wave Velocity Profiles: An Example from Hartford County, Connecticut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, S.; Lane, J. W.; Liu, L.; Thomas, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic hazard classifications have been developed for Hartford County, Connecticut based primarily on mapping of surficial materials and depositional environment using criteria specified by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). A study using near-surface seismic techniques to measure shear-wave velocities in Connecticut was initiated in support of broader seismic hazard mapping efforts undertaken by New England State Geologists. Thirty field sites in Hartford County representative of the range of mapped seismic hazard classes were chosen based on the availability of boring logs and adequate open space for the geophysical surveys. Because it can be difficult to acquire multi-channel seismic data in urban areas due to unwanted noise and open space restrictions, we also investigated the use of passive single-station seismometer measurements as a compact supplement and potential alternative to long-offset multi-channel measurements. Here we compare the results of active-source multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and passive horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic methods to determine shear-wave velocity profiles and seismic hazard classification based on Vs30 in glacial sediments throughout Hartford County, Connecticut. HVSR-derived seismic resonances were used as a constraint during inversion of the MASW dispersion curve to reduce model misfit and improve model comparison to site lithology.

  16. Repetitive Long-Period Seismicity: Source Location and Mechanism Characteristics, Villarrica Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J.; Waite, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Villarrica Volcano, Chile has an exposed magma free-surface, characterized by vigorous degassing ranging from small bubble bursts to Strombolian style slug bursting. Slug bursting events are characterized by both repetitive seismic and acoustic signals within the long-period (LP) band. We use the very repetitive nature of the low amplitude seismic LP signals to identify them with a matched filter on several persistent seismic stations, functional over the three year experiment duration. We stack the seismic and acoustic signals accompanying degassing to increase the signal to noise ratio, and tie signals measured 2010-2012 to produce a synthetic seismic network that recorded LP signals at a wide range of azimuths and distances from the source. Particle motions for most of the 21 stations were dominantly tangential, indicating the presence of a complex source geometry that deviated greatly from the logical axisymmetric geometry visible at the lave lake surface. We use the synthetic network to solve for the moment-tensor and location of the LP source, searching for the best source-time function using combinations of moment components, single force components, and both, for six different homogeneous half-space velocity models. Using the best source configuration and velocity model as a guide, we present forward models of reasonable geometries with geologic significance, including dikes, sills, pipes, and combination mechanisms to validate and test the sensitivity of the results of the free-inversion. Our results indicate that the current repetitive LP seismicity dominated by tangential particle motions is probably associated with relic fissure geometry from the last eruptive phase, and is caused by a conduit constriction through which large gas slugs pass (seismic emission) and subsequently burst at the surface (acoustic emission).

  17. Structure and seismic activity of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evain, M.; Galve, A.; Charvis, P.; Laigle, M.; Ruiz Fernandez, M.; Kopp, H.; Hirn, A.; Flueh, E. R.; Thales Scientific Party

    2011-12-01

    Several active and passive seismic experiments conducted in 2007 in the framework of the European program "Thales Was Right" and of the French ANR program "Subsismanti" provided a unique set of geophysical data highlighting the deep structure of the central part of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, offshore Dominica and Martinique, and its seismic activity during a period of 8 months. The region is characterized by a relatively low rate of seismicity that is often attributed to the slow (2 cm/yr) subduction of the old, 90 My, Atlantic lithosphere beneath the Caribbean Plate. Based on tomographic inversion of wide-angle seismic data, the forearc can clearly be divided into an inner forearc, characterised by a high vertical velocity gradient in the igneous crust, and an outer forearc with lower crustal velocity gradient. The thick, high velocity, inner forearc is possibly the extension at depth of the Mesozoic Caribbean crust outcropping in La Désirade Island. The outer forearc, up to 70 km wide in the northern part of the study area, is getting narrower to the south and disappears offshore Martinique. Based on its seismic velocity structure with velocities higher than 6 km/s the backstop consists, at least partly, of magmatic rocks. The outer forearc is also highly deformed and faulted within the subducting trend of the Tiburon Ridge. With respect to the inner forearc velocity structure the outer forearc basement could either correspond to an accreted oceanic terrane or made of highly fractured rocks. The inner forearc is a dense, poorly deformable crustal block, tilted southward as a whole. It acts as a rigid buttress increasing the strain within both the overriding and subducting plates. This appears clearly in the current local seismicity affecting the subducting and the overriding plates that is located beneath the inner forearc. We detected earthquakes beneath the Caribbean forearc and in the Atlantic oceanic plate as well. The main seismic activity is

  18. Characterizing the ambient seismic wavefield for upper crustal imaging: energy sources and station deployment protocols in an ocean island setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reading, A. M.; Heckscher, N.; Graham, L.; Arroucau, P.; Rawlinson, N.

    2009-12-01

    Techniques using ambient seismic energy have become powerful tools in the imaging of the Earth's lithosphere. In this work we investigate the potential for using ambient energy to image the upper crust at the highest possible resolution. Such images are sought-after in deducing regional-scale 3D geological structure. They are critical to activities which use the Earth's crust (e.g. hot dry rock geothermal energy production, carbon sequestration) as well as placing fundamental constraints on the crustal architecture which defines tectonic structure and evolution. We have deployed a line of variously spaced seismic stations in a region of relatively well-constrained regional geology in Eastern Tasmania. Located south of mainland Australia, in the 'roaring 40's' southerly latitudes, the ambient seismic energy is of considerable amplitude. We are able to characterise the ambient seismic wavefield: investigating the influence of station deployment geometry, deployment and processing protocols, and ocean and atmospheric conditions on the amplitude and frequency content of the signals derived from correlated waveforms. We also investigate the potential of using diffuse seismic sources from a highway and railway using ambient energy techniques. We find that, in this ocean-dominated island setting, a correlated signal of sufficient strength to model for structure is obtained in a few days. The relationship between station separation and the dominant wavelengths in the correlated signals places a minimum limit on station separations which are usable with standard modelling techniques. Hence, in this environment, crustal imaging may be best carried out using deployments with overlapping, frequently moved (or numerous and short-deployed), sets of station pairs. The potential for using cultural noise sources is limited by the dominance of the natural noise sources in the ambient wavefield.

  19. Evidence for activity of the Calabrian arc system and implications for historical seismicity in Eastern Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallais, F.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Graindorge, D.; Polonia, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Wadati-Benioff zone under Calabria and the Tyrrhenian Sea is located in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, a region characterized by complex tectonics. The presence of deep earthquakes under the Tyrrhenian Sea to a depth of 500 km, depicting an Ionian slab dipping about 70° towards the NW (Selvaggi and Chiarabba, 95), related with an active volcanic arc (the Aeolian Islands). The Calabrian peninsula is among the most seismically active regions in the Mediterranean area. Several historical seismic events, such as 1169 and 1693 earthquakes, reached MCS intensities of XI and are associated with destructive tsunami (Piatanesi and Tinti, 1998). The source of these two strongest earthquakes has still not been identified with certainty. The 1693 earthquake struck Eastern Sicily (60000 people killed) and generated a 5-10 m high tsunami (Piatanesi and Tinti, 1998). The 1169 earthquake had similar intensities and a comparable isoseismal pattern, suggesting an equivalent source. Because of the tsunami generated in 1693 and because the isoseismals are open to the sea, the source region appears to be offshore. The subduction fault plane would then be a good candidate for the 1693 event. However, a lack of instrumentally recorded thrust earthquakes, characteristic of active subduction zone, suggests that if subduction is active, the fault plane may be locked since the instrumental period. Reported recent GPS motions suggest that the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere beneath the Tyrrhenian basin plays an minor role in controlling the active deformation of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary, but may be locally still active in particular in the Calabrian arc (D'Agostino et al., 08). Moreover the offshore accretionary wedge is known to include compressional anticlines and ongoing hydrological activity (mud volcanoes). We present preliminary results from reprocessed 96-channels seismic reflection profiles acquired during the French "Archimede" cruise (1997) crossing the

  20. Earthquakes in the Orozco transform zone: seismicity, source mechanisms, and tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trehu, Anne M.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Rivera Ocean Seismic Experiment, a network of ocean bottom seismometers and hydrophones was deployed in order to determine the seismic characteristics of the Orozco transform fault in the central eastern Pacific. We present hypocentral locations and source mechanisms for 70 earthquakes recorded by this network. All epicenters are within the transform region of the Orozco Fracture Zone and clearly delineate the active plate boundary. About half of the epicenters define a narrow line of activity parallel to the spreading direction and situated along a deep topographic trough that forms the northern boundary of the transform zone (region 1). Most focal depths for these events are very shallow, within 4 km of the seafloor; several well-determined focal depths, however, are as great as 7 km. No shallowing of seismic activity is observed as the rise-transform intersection is approached; to the contrary, the deepest events are within 10 km of the intersection. First motion polarities for most of the earthquakes in region 1 are compatible with right-lateral strike slip faulting along a nearly vertical plane, striking parallel to the spreading direction. Another zone of activity is observed in the central part of the transform (region 2). The apparent horizontal and vertical distribution of activity in this region is more scattered than in the first, and the first motion radiation patterns of these events do not appear to be compatible with any known fault mechanism. Pronounced lateral variations in crustal velocity structure are indicated for the transform region from refraction data and measurements of wave propagation directions. The effect of this lateral heterogeneity on hypocenters and fault plane solutions is evaluated by tracing rays through a three-dimensional velocity grid. While findings for events in region 1 are not significantly affected, in region 2, epicentral mislocations of up to 10 km and azimuthal deflections of up to 45° may result from

  1. Microscale modeling of fluid flow-geomechanics-seismicity: Relationship between permeability and seismic source response in deformed rock joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raziperchikolaee, S.; Alvarado, V.; Yin, S.

    2014-09-01

    Studying rock joint deformation including both slippage and opening mechanisms provides an opportunity to investigate the connection between the permeability and seismic source mechanisms. A microscale fluid flow-geomechanics-seismicity model was built to evaluate the transport response and failure mechanism of microcracks developed along a joint in Berea sandstone samples during deformation. The modeling method considers comprehensive grain-cement interactions. Fluid flow behavior is obtained through a realistic network model of the pore space in the compacted assembly. The geometric description of the complex pore structure is characterized to predict permeability of the rock sample as a function of rock deformation by using a dynamic pore network model. As a result of microcracks development, forces and displacements in grains involved in bond breakage are measured to determine seismic moment tensor. Shear and nonshear displacements are applied to the joint samples to investigate their effects on permeability evolution and failure mechanism of microcracks during joint deformation. In addition, the effect of joint roughness is analyzed by performing numerical compression tests. We also investigate how confining pressure affects volumetric deformation leading to opening or closure of developed microcracks and permeability changes of samples with joints.

  2. UTILIZING RESULTS FROM INSAR TO DEVELOP SEISMIC LOCATION BENCHMARKS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SEISMIC SOURCE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    M. BEGNAUD; ET AL

    2000-09-01

    Obtaining accurate seismic event locations is one of the most important goals for monitoring detonations of underground nuclear teats. This is a particular challenge at small magnitudes where the number of recording stations may be less than 20. Although many different procedures are being developed to improve seismic location, most procedures suffer from inadequate testing against accurate information about a seismic event. Events with well-defined attributes, such as latitude, longitude, depth and origin time, are commonly referred to as ground truth (GT). Ground truth comes in many forms and with many different levels of accuracy. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) can provide independent and accurate information (ground truth) regarding ground surface deformation and/or rupture. Relating surface deformation to seismic events is trivial when events are large and create a significant surface rupture, such as for the M{sub w} = 7.5 event that occurred in the remote northern region of the Tibetan plateau in 1997. The event, which was a vertical strike slip even appeared anomalous in nature due to the lack of large aftershocks and had an associated surface rupture of over 180 km that was identified and modeled using InSAR. The east-west orientation of the fault rupture provides excellent ground truth for latitude, but is of limited use for longitude. However, a secondary rupture occurred 50 km south of the main shock rupture trace that can provide ground truth with accuracy within 5 km. The smaller, 5-km-long secondary rupture presents a challenge for relating the deformation to a seismic event. The rupture is believed to have a thrust mechanism; the dip of the fimdt allows for some separation between the secondary rupture trace and its associated event epicenter, although not as much as is currently observed from catalog locations. Few events within the time period of the InSAR analysis are candidates for the secondary rupture. Of these, we have

  3. Active deformation and seismicity in the Southern Alps (Italy): The Montello hill as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danesi, Stefania; Pondrelli, Silvia; Salimbeni, Simone; Cavaliere, Adriano; Serpelloni, Enrico; Danecek, Peter; Lovati, Sara; Massa, Marco

    2015-06-01

    The Montello anticline is a morphotectonic feature of the east pede-mountain of the South Alpine Chain in northern Italy, which lies ca. 40 km northwest of Venice, Italy. The purpose of this study is to characterize the present-day crustal deformation and seismotectonics of the Montello area through multi-parametric geophysical observations. We used new data obtained from the installation of a temporary network of 12 seismic stations and 6 GPS sites. The GPS observations indicate that there is ~ 1 mm/yr shortening across the Montello thrust. Sites located north of the Montello thrust front deviate from the ~ NNW-ward Adria-Eurasia convergence direction, as they are constrained by a relative rotation pole in northwestern Italy that has a NNE-ward motion trend. Over 18 months, seismographic recordings allowed us to locate 142 local seismic events with Ml 0.5-3.5 with good reliability (rms < 0.5). After cross-correlation analysis, we classified 42 of these events into six clusters, with cross-correlation thresholds > 0.80. The source focal solutions indicate that: (i) there is thrusting seismic activity on the basal, sub-horizontal, portion of the Montello structure; and (ii) strike-slip source kinematics prevail on the western edge of the Montello hill. Our observations on the source mechanisms and the measured crustal deformation confirm that the Montello thrust is tectonically active.

  4. Multidimensional analysis and probabilistic model of volcanic and seismic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V.

    2009-04-01

    A search for space and time regularities in volcanic and seismic events for the purpose of forecast method development seems to be of current concern, both scientifically and practically. The seismic and volcanic processes take place in the Earth's field of gravity which in turn is closely related to gravitational fields of the Moon, the Sun, and the planets of the Solar System. It is mostly gravity and tidal forces that exercise control over the Earth's configuration and relief. Dynamic gravitational interaction between the Earth and other celestial bodies makes itself evident in tidal phenomena and other effects in the geospheres (including the Earth's crust). Dynamics of the tidal and attractive forces is responsible for periodical changes in gravity force, both in value and direction [Darwin, 1965], in the rate of rotation and orbital speed; that implies related changes in the endogenic activity of the Earth. The Earth's rotation in the alternating gravitational field accounts to a considerable extent for regular pattern of crustal deformations and dislocations; it is among principal factors that control the Earth's form and structure, distribution of oceans and continents and, probably, continental drift [Peive, 1969; Khain, 1973; Kosygin, 1983]. The energy of gravitational interaction is transmitted through the tidal energy to planetary spheres and feeds various processes there, including volcanic and seismic ones. To determine degree, character and special features of tidal force contribution to the volcanic and seismic processes is of primary importance for understanding of genetic and dynamic aspects of volcanism and seismicity. Both volcanic and seismic processes are involved in evolution of celestial bodies; they are operative on the planets of the Earth group and many satellites [Essays…, 1981; Lukashov, 1996]. From this standpoint, studies of those processes are essential with a view to development of scenarios of the Earth's evolution as a celestial

  5. Characterising Seismicity at Alutu, an Actively Deforming Volcano in the Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilks, M.; Nowacki, A.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J. M.; Biggs, J.; Bastow, I. D.; Ayele, A.; Bedada, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) provides a unique example of the tectonic and volcanic processes occuring during the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading. Situated 100 km south of Addis Ababa along the eastern rift margin, Alutu is a silicic stratovolcano that geodetic measurements (InSAR and GPS) have shown is actively deforming. Though the volcano has received relatively little scientific attention it is also a site of economic significance as a geothermal power plant resides within the caldera. As part of ARGOS (Alutu Research Geophysical ObservationS), a multi-disciplinary project aiming to investigate the magmatic and hydrothermal processes occuring at Alutu, a seismic network of 12 broadband seismometers was deployed in January 2012. Other components of ARGOS include InSAR, GPS, geologic mapping and magnetotellurics. From the seismic dataset, P- and S-wave arrivals across the array were manually picked and used to locate events using a non-linear earthquake location algorithm (NonLinLoc) and a predefined 1D velocity model. Perturbations were later applied to this velocity model to investigate the sensitivity of the locations and evaluate the true uncertainties of the solutions. Over 1000 events were successfully located during 2012, where picks were possible at 4 or more stations. Seismicity clusters at both shallow depths (z<2 km) beneath the caldera and at deeper depths of 5-15 km. There is a significant increase in seismicity during the rainy months, suggesting the shallow events may be related to the hydrothermal system. We interpret the deeper events as being magmatic in origin. Events are also located along the eastern border faults that bound the outer edges of the MER and highlights that seismicity arises concurrently via tectonic processes. An adapted version of Richter's original local magnitude scale (ML) to account for attenuation within the MER (Keir et al., 2006) was then used to compute magnitudes for the best located events

  6. Multidimensional analysis and probabilistic model of volcanic and seismic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V.

    2009-04-01

    A search for space and time regularities in volcanic and seismic events for the purpose of forecast method development seems to be of current concern, both scientifically and practically. The seismic and volcanic processes take place in the Earth's field of gravity which in turn is closely related to gravitational fields of the Moon, the Sun, and the planets of the Solar System. It is mostly gravity and tidal forces that exercise control over the Earth's configuration and relief. Dynamic gravitational interaction between the Earth and other celestial bodies makes itself evident in tidal phenomena and other effects in the geospheres (including the Earth's crust). Dynamics of the tidal and attractive forces is responsible for periodical changes in gravity force, both in value and direction [Darwin, 1965], in the rate of rotation and orbital speed; that implies related changes in the endogenic activity of the Earth. The Earth's rotation in the alternating gravitational field accounts to a considerable extent for regular pattern of crustal deformations and dislocations; it is among principal factors that control the Earth's form and structure, distribution of oceans and continents and, probably, continental drift [Peive, 1969; Khain, 1973; Kosygin, 1983]. The energy of gravitational interaction is transmitted through the tidal energy to planetary spheres and feeds various processes there, including volcanic and seismic ones. To determine degree, character and special features of tidal force contribution to the volcanic and seismic processes is of primary importance for understanding of genetic and dynamic aspects of volcanism and seismicity. Both volcanic and seismic processes are involved in evolution of celestial bodies; they are operative on the planets of the Earth group and many satellites [Essays…, 1981; Lukashov, 1996]. From this standpoint, studies of those processes are essential with a view to development of scenarios of the Earth's evolution as a celestial

  7. A new impulsive seismic shear wave source for near-surface (0-30 m) seismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, J. M.; Lorenzo, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Estimates of elastic moduli and fluid content in shallow (0-30 m) natural soils below artificial flood containment structures can be particularly useful in levee monitoring as well as seismic hazard studies. Shear wave moduli may be estimated from horizontally polarized, shear wave experiments. However, long profiles (>10 km) with dense receiver and shot spacings (<1m) cannot be collected efficiently using currently available shear wave sources. We develop a new, inexpensive, shear wave source for collecting fast, shot gathers over large acquisition sites. In particular, gas-charged, organic-rich sediments comprising most lower-delta sedimentary facies, greatly attenuate compressional body-waves. On the other hand, SH waves are relatively insensitive to pore-fluid moduli and can improve resolution. We develop a recoil device (Jolly, 1956) into a single-user, light-weight (<20 kg), impulsive, ground-surface-coupled SH wave generator, which is capable of working at rates of several hundred shotpoints per day. Older impulsive methods rely on hammer blows to ground-planted stationary targets. Our source is coupled to the ground with steel spikes and the powder charge can be detonated mechanically or electronically. Electrical fuses show repeatability in start times of < 50 microseconds. The barrel and shell-holder exceed required thicknesses to ensure complete safety during use. The breach confines a black-powder, 12-gauge shotgun shell, loaded with inert, environmentally safe ballast. In urban settings, produced heat and sound are confined by a detached, exterior cover. A moderate 2.5 g black-powder charge generates seismic amplitudes equivalent to three 4-kg sledge-hammer blows. We test this device to elucidate near subsurface sediment properties at former levee breach sites in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Our radio-telemetric seismic acquisition system uses an in-house landstreamer, consisting of 14-Hz horizontal component geophones, coupled to steel plates

  8. Seismic Activity in the Gulf of Mexico: a Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, S. I.; Canet, C.; Iglesias, A.; Valdes-Gonzales, C. M.

    2013-05-01

    The southwestern corner of Gulf of Mexico (around the northern Isthmus of Tehuantepec) is exposed to an intense deep (> 100 km) seismic activity caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate. Aside from this, the gulf has been considered as a zone of low or no-seismicity. However, a sparse shallow seismic activity is observed across the Gulf of Mexico; some of these earthquakes have been strongly felt (e.g. 23/05/2007 and 10/09/2006), and the Jaltipan, 1959 earthquake caused fatalities and severe destruction in central and southern Veracruz. In this work we analyze 5 relevant earthquakes that occurred since 2001. At the central Gulf of Mexico focal mechanisms show inverse faults oriented approximately NW-SE with dip near 45 degrees, suggesting a link to sediment loading and/or to salt tectonics. On the other hand, in the southwestern corner of the gulf we analyzed some clear examples of strike-slip faults and activity probably related to the Veracruz Fault. One anomalous earthquake, recorded in 2007 in the western margin of the gulf, shows a strike-slip mechanism indicating a transform regime probably related with the East Mexican Fault. The recent improvement of the Mexican Seismological broadband network have allowed to record small earthquakes distributed in and around the Gulf of Mexico. Although the intermediate and large earthquakes in the region are infrequent, the historic evidence indicates that the magnitudes could reach Mw~6.4. This fact could be taken in consideration to reassess the seismic hazard for oil and industrial infrastructure in the region.

  9. Large-N Seismic Deployment at the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Snelson, C. M.; Mellors, R. J.; Pitarka, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary project that consists of a series of chemical explosion experiments at the Nevada National Security Site. The goal of SPE is to understand the complicated effect of earth structures on source energy partitioning and seismic wave propagation, develop and validate physics-based monitoring, and ultimately better discriminate low-yield nuclear explosions from background seismicity. Deployment of a large number of seismic sensors is planned for SPE to image the full 3-D wavefield with about 500 three-component sensors and 500 vertical component sensors. This large-N seismic deployment will operate near the site of SPE-5 shot for about one month, recording the SPE-5 shot, ambient noise, and additional controlled-sources. This presentation focuses on the design of the large-N seismic deployment. We show how we optimized the sensor layout based on the geological structure and experiment goals with a limited number of sensors. In addition, we will also show some preliminary record sections from deployment. This work was conducted under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Open Source Seismic Software in NOAA's Next Generation Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, S. B.; Baker, B. I.; Hagerty, M. T.; Leifer, J. M.; Lisowski, S.; Thies, D. A.; Donnelly, B. K.; Griffith, F. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a project spearheaded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to update the United States' Tsunami Warning System software currently employed at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (Eva Beach, Hawaii) and the National Tsunami Warning Center (Palmer, Alaska). This entirely open source software project will integrate various seismic processing utilities with the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office's core software, AWIPS2. For the real-time and near real-time seismic processing aspect of this project, NOAA has elected to integrate the open source portions of GFZ's SeisComP 3 (SC3) processing system into AWIPS2. To provide for better tsunami threat assessments we are developing open source tools for magnitude estimations (e.g., moment magnitude, energy magnitude, surface wave magnitude), detection of slow earthquakes with the Theta discriminant, moment tensor inversions (e.g. W-phase and teleseismic body waves), finite fault inversions, and array processing. With our reliance on common data formats such as QuakeML and seismic community standard messaging systems, all new facilities introduced into AWIPS2 and SC3 will be available as stand-alone tools or could be easily integrated into other real time seismic monitoring systems such as Earthworm, Antelope, etc. Additionally, we have developed a template based design paradigm so that the developer or scientist can efficiently create upgrades, replacements, and/or new metrics to the seismic data processing with only a cursory knowledge of the underlying SC3.

  11. Passive monitoring for near surface void detection using traffic as a seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Kuzma, H. A.; Rector, J.; Nazari, S.

    2009-12-01

    In this poster we present preliminary results based on our several field experiments in which we study seismic detection of voids using a passive array of surface geophones. The source of seismic excitation is vehicle traffic on nearby roads, which we model as a continuous line source of seismic energy. Our passive seismic technique is based on cross-correlation of surface wave fields and studying the resulting power spectra, looking for "shadows" caused by the scattering effect of a void. High frequency noise masks this effect in the time domain, so it is difficult to see on conventional traces. Our technique does not rely on phase distortions caused by small voids because they are generally too tiny to measure. Unlike traditional impulsive seismic sources which generate highly coherent broadband signals, perfect for resolving phase but too weak for resolving amplitude, vehicle traffic affords a high power signal a frequency range which is optimal for finding shallow structures. Our technique results in clear detections of an abandoned railroad tunnel and a septic tank. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a technology for the simultaneous imaging of shallow underground structures and traffic monitoring near these structures.

  12. Shallow seismic source parameter determination using intermediate-period surface wave amplitude spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Benjamin D.; Selby, Neil D.; Heyburn, Ross; Woodhouse, John H.

    2012-09-01

    Estimating reliable depths for shallow seismic sources is important in both seismo-tectonic studies and in seismic discrimination studies. Surface wave excitation is sensitive to source depth, especially at intermediate and short-periods, owing to the approximate exponential decay of surface wave displacements with depth. A new method is presented here to retrieve earthquake source parameters from regional and teleseismic intermediate period (100-15 s) fundamental-mode surface wave recordings. This method makes use of advances in mapping global dispersion to allow higher frequency surface wave recordings at regional and teleseismic distances to be used with more confidence than in previous studies and hence improve the resolution of depth estimates. Synthetic amplitude spectra are generated using surface wave theory combined with a great circle path approximation, and a grid of double-couple sources are compared with the data. Source parameters producing the best-fitting amplitude spectra are identified by minimizing the least-squares misfit in logarithmic amplitude space. The F-test is used to search the solution space for statistically acceptable parameters and the ranges of these variables are used to place constraints on the best-fitting source. Estimates of focal mechanism, depth and scalar seismic moment are determined for 20 small to moderate sized (4.3 ≤Mw≤ 6.4) earthquakes. These earthquakes are situated across a wide range of geographic and tectonic locations and describe a range of faulting styles over the depth range 4-29 km. For the larger earthquakes, comparisons with other studies are favourable, however existing source determination procedures, such as the CMT technique, cannot be performed for the smaller events. By reducing the magnitude threshold at which robust source parameters can be determined, the accuracy, especially at shallow depths, of seismo-tectonic studies, seismic hazard assessments, and seismic discrimination investigations can

  13. Global database of InSAR earthquake source models: A tool for independently assessing seismic catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, A. M.; Weston, J. M.; Funning, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    Earthquake source models are routinely determined using seismic data and are reported in many seismic catalogues, such as the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) catalogue. Recent advances in space geodesy, such as InSAR, have enabled the estimation of earthquake source parameters from the measurement of deformation of the Earth's surface, independently of seismic information. The absence of an earthquake catalogue based on geodetic data prompted the compilation of a large InSAR database of CMT parameters from the literature (Weston et al., 2011, hereafter referred to as the ICMT database). Information provided in published InSAR studies of earthquakes is used to obtain earthquake source parameters, and equivalent CMT parameters. Multiple studies of the same earthquake are included in the database, as they are valuable to assess uncertainties in source models. Here, source parameters for 70 earthquakes in an updated version of the ICMT database are compared with those reported in global and regional seismic catalogues. There is overall good agreement between parameters, particularly in fault strike, dip and rake. However, InSAR centroid depths are systematically shallower (5-10 km) than those in the EHB catalogue, but this is reduced for depths from inversions of InSAR data that use a layered half-space. Estimates of the seismic moment generally agree well between the two datasets, but for thrust earthquakes there is a slight tendency for the InSAR-determined seismic moment to be larger. Centroid locations from the ICMT database are in good agreement with those from regional seismic catalogues with a median distance of ~6 km between them, which is smaller than for comparisons with global catalogues (17.0 km and 9.2 km for the GCMT and ISC catalogues, respectively). Systematic tests of GCMT-like inversions have shown that similar mislocations occur for several different degree 20 Earth models (Ferreira et al., 2011), suggesting that higher resolution Earth models

  14. Inverting seismic noise cross-correlations for noise source distribution: A step towards reducing source-induced bias in seismic noise interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermert, Laura; Afanasiev, Michael; Sager, Korbinian; Gokhberg, Alexey; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We report on the ongoing development of a new inversion method for the space- and time-dependent power spectral density distribution of ambient seismic noise sources. The method, once complete, will mainly serve two purposes: First, it will allow us to construct more realistic forward models for noise cross-correlation waveforms, thereby opening new possibilities for waveform imaging by ambient noise tomography. Second, it may provide new insights about the properties of ambient noise sources, complementing studies based on beamforming or numerical modeling of noise based on oceanographic observations. To invert for noise sources, we consider surface wave signal energy measurements on the 'causal' (station A to B) and on the 'acausal' (station B to A) correlation branch, and the ratio between them. These and similar measurements have proven useful for locating noise sources using cross-correlations in several past studies. The inversion procedure is the following: We construct correlation forward models based on Green's functions from a spectral element wave propagation code. To construct these models efficiently, we use source-receiver reciprocity and assume spatial uncorrelation of noise sources. In such a setting, correlations can be calculated from a pre-computed set of Green's functions between the seismic receivers and sources located at the Earth's surface. We then calculate spatial sensitivity kernels for the noise source distribution with respect to the correlation signal energy measurements. These in turn allow us to construct a misfit gradient and optimize the source distribution model to fit our observed cross-correlation signal energies or energy ratios. We will present the workflow for calculation of the forward model and sensitivity kernels, as well as results for both forward modeling and kernels for an example data set of long-period noise or 'hum' at a global scale. We will also provide an outlook on the noise source inversion considering the

  15. Seismic image of a CO2 reservoir beneath a seismically active volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Pitt, A.M.; Foulger, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a seismically active volcano 200 000 to 50 000 years old, situated on the southwestern rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Since 1989 it has shown evidence of unrest in the form of earthquake swarms (Hill et al. 1990), volcanic 'long-period' earthquakes (Pitt and Hill 1994), increased output of magmatic 3He (Sorey et al. 1993) and the emission of about 500 tonnes day-1 of CO2 (Farrar et al. 1995; Hill 1996; M. Sorey, personal communication, 1997) which has killed trees and poses a threat to human safety. Local-earthquake tomography shows that in mid-1989 areas of subsequent tree-kill were underlain by extensive regions where the ratio of the compressional and shear elastic-wave speeds Vp/VS was about 9% lower than in the surrounding rocks. Theory (Mavko and Mukerji 1995), experiment (Ito, DeVilbiss and Nur 1979) and experience at other geothermal/volcanic areas (Julian et al. 1996) and at petroleum reservoirs (Harris et al. 1996) indicate that Vp/VS is sensitive to pore-fluid compressibility, through its effect on Vp. The observed Vp/VS anomaly is probably caused directly by CO2, and seismic Vp/VS tomography is thus a promising tool for monitoring gas concentration and movement in volcanoes, which may in turn be related to volcanic activity.

  16. Seismic image of a CO2 reservoir beneath a seismically active volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, Bruce R; Pitt, A. M.; Foulger, G. R.

    1998-04-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a seismically active volcano 200000 to 50000 years old, situated on the southwestern rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Since 1989 it has shown evidence of unrest in the form of earthquake swarms (Hill et al. 1990), volcanic `long-period' earthquakes (Pitt & Hill 1994), increased output of magmatic 3He (Sorey et al. 1993) and the emission of about 500 tonnes day -1 of CO2 (Farrar et al. 1995; Hill 1996; M. Sorey, personal communication, 1997), which has killed trees and poses a threat to human safety. Local-earthquake tomography shows that in mid-1989 areas of subsequent tree-kill were underlain by extensive regions where the ratio of the compressional and shear elastic-wave speeds VP/VS was about 9 per cent lower than in the surrounding rocks. Theory (Mavko & Mukerji 1995), experiment (Ito, DeVilbiss & Nur 1979), and experience at other geothermal/volcanic areas (Julian et al. 1996) and at petroleum reservoirs (Harris et al. 1996) indicate that VP/VS is sensitive to pore-fluid compressibility, through its effect on VP . The observed VP/VS anomaly is probably caused directly by CO2, and seismic VP/VS tomography is thus a promising tool for monitoring gas concentration and movement in volcanoes, which may in turn be related to volcanic activity.

  17. Seismic and source characteristics of large chemical explosions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kostuchenko, V.N.; Pernik, L.M.; Sultanov, D.D.; Zcikanovsky, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    From the very beginning of its arrangement in 1947, the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres RAS (former Special Sector of the Institute for physics of the Earth, RAS) was providing scientific observations of effects of nuclear explosions, as well as large-scale detonations of HE, on environment. This report presents principal results of instrumental observations obtained from various large-scale chemical explosions conducted in the Former-Soviet Union in the period of time from 1957 to 1989. Considering principal aim of the work, tamped and equivalent chemical explosions have been selected with total weights from several hundreds to several thousands ton. In particular, the selected explosions were aimed to study scaling law from excavation explosions, seismic effect of tamped explosions, and for dam construction for hydropower stations and soil melioration. Instrumental data on surface explosions of total weight in the same range aimed to test military technics and special objects are not included.

  18. Identifying induced seismicity in active tectonic regions: A case study of the San Joaquin Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminzadeh, F.; Göbel, T.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the connection between petroleum-industry activities, and seismic event occurrences is essential to monitor, quantify, and mitigate seismic risk. While many studies identified anthropogenically-induced seismicity in intraplate regions where background seismicity rates are generally low, little is known about how to distinguish naturally occurring from induced seismicity in active tectonic regions. Further, it is not clear how different oil and gas operational parameters impact the frequency and magnitude of the induced seismic events. Here, we examine variations in frequency-size and spatial distributions of seismicity within the Southern Joaquin basin, an area of both active petroleum production and active fault systems. We analyze a newly available, high-quality, relocated earthquake catalog (Hauksson et al. 2012). This catalog includes many seismic events with magnitudes up to M = 4.5 within the study area. We start by analyzing the overall quality and consistence of the seismic catalog, focusing on temporal variations in seismicity rates and catalog completeness which could indicate variations in network sensitivity. This catalog provides relatively homogeneous earthquake recordings after 1981, enabling us to compare seismicity rates before and after the beginning of more pervasive petroleum-industry activities, for example, hydraulic-fracturing and waste-water disposals. We conduct a limited study of waste-water disposal wells to establish a correlation between seismicity statistics (i.e. rate changes, fractal dimension, b-value) within specific regions and anthropogenic influences. We then perform a regional study, to investigate spatial variations in seismicity statistics which are then correlated to oil field locations and well densities. In order to distinguish, predominantly natural seismicity from induced seismicity, we perform a spatial mapping of b-values and fractal dimensions of earthquake hypocenters. Seismic events in the proximity to

  19. Investigation into 3D earth structure and sources using full seismic waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covellone, Brian M.

    Seismograms are the result of the complex interactions between a seismic source, a propagation medium and the seismograph's response. Through the use of 3-dimensional modeling and full seismic waveform data, we quantify and minimize errors associated with the source and propagation medium within our data sets. We compile a new and unique earthquake catalog for the Middle East that is openly available to the public. We quantify the benefits of using a 3-dimensional model relative to a 1-dimensional model to minimizing error in earthquake moment tensors and identify where in the waveform 3-dimensional models outperform 1-dimensional models. Two new and unique 3-dimensional seismic wave speed models are computed for the Ontong Java plateau and eastern North American margin.Both models are significant improvements to the resolution of wave speed structures in the crust and upper mantle and provide new information for the evaluation of tectonic features.

  20. Localization of short-range acoustic and seismic wideband sources: Algorithms and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafsudd, J. Z.; Asgari, S.; Hudson, R.; Yao, K.; Taciroglu, E.

    2008-04-01

    We consider the determination of the location (source localization) of a disturbance source which emits acoustic and/or seismic signals. We devise an enhanced approximate maximum-likelihood (AML) algorithm to process data collected at acoustic sensors (microphones) belonging to an array of, non-collocated but otherwise identical, sensors. The approximate maximum-likelihood algorithm exploits the time-delay-of-arrival of acoustic signals at different sensors, and yields the source location. For processing the seismic signals, we investigate two distinct algorithms, both of which process data collected at a single measurement station comprising a triaxial accelerometer, to determine direction-of-arrival. The direction-of-arrivals determined at each sensor station are then combined using a weighted least-squares approach for source localization. The first of the direction-of-arrival estimation algorithms is based on the spectral decomposition of the covariance matrix, while the second is based on surface wave analysis. Both of the seismic source localization algorithms have their roots in seismology; and covariance matrix analysis had been successfully employed in applications where the source and the sensors (array) are typically separated by planetary distances (i.e., hundreds to thousands of kilometers). Here, we focus on very-short distances (e.g., less than one hundred meters) instead, with an outlook to applications in multi-modal surveillance, including target detection, tracking, and zone intrusion. We demonstrate the utility of the aforementioned algorithms through a series of open-field tests wherein we successfully localize wideband acoustic and/or seismic sources. We also investigate a basic strategy for fusion of results yielded by acoustic and seismic arrays.

  1. Size and shape of seismic noise sources and implications for ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrebski, M. J.; Ardhuin, F.; Schimmel, M.; Stutzmann, E.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic noise has been intensively used for tomographic purpose over the past 5 years and shows promising potential for 4D imaging of the earth interior. Cross-correlation of noise samples allows reconstructing surface- and compressional-waves that carry information of the earth velocity structure comparable to that obtained from earthquakes. Nevertheless, ambient noise tomography is limited by the lack of knowledge on the distribution and lateral extent of sources. Recent numerical modeling (Kedar et al., 2008; Ardhuin et al. J. Geophys. Res. 2011; Stutzmann et al., submitted) has shown that the dominant seismic noise, with periods 3 to 10s, is generated by non linear wave-wave interactions as described by the theory proposed by Longuet-Higgins (1950) and Hasselmann (1963) for double frequency microseisms (DFM). The magnitude of the noise source is conditioned by the angular spectra of the swells and wind seas and the bathymetry. Here we use seismic records and numerical modeling to characterize the distribution of the DFM sources in time and space. Our numerical approach combines a numerical wave model based on the WAVEWATCH III° framework, in which the second-order pressure spectrum is computed, and a ray-tracing algorithm for integrating the seismic source and damping along propagation rays for the different Rayleigh modes that are contained in the microseismic wave field. Noise recorded at broadband stations generally consists of a series of high seismic noise intensity peaks (a few micrometers for the standard deviation of the vertical ground displacement) with durations of about one day. Focusing on the peaks for which the model results fit particularly well to the data, we estimate the width of the source area and use our model to map the area responsible for the DFM signal recorded at a given time and set of stations. These source centroid position and width of sources are validated using an independent estimate from a polarization analysis of the three

  2. Complex source mechanisms of mining-induced seismic events - implications for surface effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlecka-Sikora, B.; Cesca, S.; Lasocki, S.; Rudzinski, L.; Lizurek, L.; Wiejacz, P.; Urban, P.; kozlowska, M.

    2012-04-01

    The seismicity of Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGCD) is induced by mining activities in three mines: Lubin, Rudna and Polkowice-Sieroszowice. Ground motion caused by strong tremors might affect local infrastructure. "Żelazny Most" tailings pond, the biggest structure of this type in Europe, is here under special concern. Due to surface objects protection, Rudna Mine has been running ground motion monitoring for several years. From June 2010 to June 2011 unusually strong and extensive surface impact has been observed for 6 mining tremors induced in one of Rudna mining sections. The observed peak ground acceleration (PGA) for both horizontal and vertical component were in or even beyond 99% confidence interval for prediction. The aim of this paper is analyze the reason of such unusual ground motion. On the basis of registrations from Rudna Mine mining seismological network and records from Polish Seismological Network held by the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (IGF PAN), the source mechanisms of these 6 tremors were calculated using a time domain moment tensor inversion. Furthermore, a kinematic analysis of the seismic source was performed, in order to determine the rupture planes orientations and rupture directions. These results showed that in case of the investigated tremors, point source models and shear fault mechanisms, which are most often assumed in mining seismology, are invalid. All analyzed events indicate extended sources with non-shear mechanism. The rapture planes have small dip angles and the rupture starts at the tremors hypocenter and propagates in the direction opposite to the plane dip. The tensional component plays here also big role. These source mechanisms well explain such observed strong ground motion, and calculated synthetic PGA values well correlates with observed ones. The relationship between mining tremors were also under investigation. All subsequent tremors occurred in the area of increased stress due to

  3. Seismic Evidence for Dilatational Source Deformation of the Yellowstone Accelerated Uplift Episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, T.; Smith, R. B.; Chang, W.

    2008-12-01

    Dominant dilatational deformations associated with earthquakes in the area of the 2004-2008 Yellowstone accelerated uplift episode were identified through detailed analysis of moment tensor inversions of two unusual M3+ earthquakes characterized by notable coseismic volumetric changes. Highly pressurized hydrothermal fluids are suggested to be associated with the source processes of these events, which is consistent with the mechanism of the GPS-InSAR derived deformation signal of the above uplift modeled as intrusion of a near horizontal magmatic sill at ~10 km depth beneath the Yellowstone caldera. One of the unusual earthquakes, the 5 November 2007 Mw 3.3 event, occurred near the West Thumb Geyser Basin and was located at the southeast side of the deforming area of the uplift. This unusual event occurred in a volume of expected crustal expansion above the inflating magmatic sill. A notable 60% explosive isotropic source component was determined for this West Thumb event with a 2.2 cm opening across an area of 0.06 km squared. We propose that the inflation of the magmatic sill activates a high-pressurized fluid migration upward that triggers a dilatational deformation inducing the unusual earthquake. The other earthquake with a dilatational deformation, the 9 January 2008 Mw 3.8 event, occurred on the northern rim of the caldera. The moment tensor solution for this event shows that the source mechanism had a 30% of tensile dislocation corresponding to a 1.2-cm opening crack over an area of 0.5 km squared. The source region of this event appears to be composed of dense micro fractures, inferred from tomographically imaged seismic velocity structure. We also suggest that stress changes produced by a collocated Mw 3.4 earthquake, occurring one week before the unusual event, may have increased the fracture permeability promoting fluid migration and thus encouraging the dilatational (tensile) dislocation. The dilatational deformations that we detected are very

  4. The Determination of Earthquake Hazard Parameters Deduced from Bayesian Approach for Different Seismic Source Regions of Western Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrak, Yusuf; Türker, Tuğba

    2016-01-01

    The Bayesian method is used to evaluate earthquake hazard parameters of maximum regional magnitude ( M max), β value, and seismic activity rate or intensity ( λ) and their uncertainties for the 15 different source regions in Western Anatolia. A compiled earthquake catalog that is homogenous for M s ≥ 4 was completed during the period from 1900 to 2013. The computed M max values are between 6.00 and 8.06. Low values are found in the northern part of Western Anatolia, whereas high values are observed in the southern part of Western Anatolia, related to the Aegean subduction zone. The largest value is computed in region 10, comprising the Aegean Islands. The quantiles of functions of distributions of true and apparent magnitude on a given time interval [0 ,T] are evaluated. The quantiles of functions of distributions of apparent and true magnitudes for future time intervals of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 years are calculated in all seismogenic source regions for confidence limits of probability levels of 50, 70, and 90 %. According to the computed earthquake hazard parameters, the requirement leads to the earthquake estimation of the parameters referred to as the most seismically active regions of Western Anatolia. The Aegean Islands, which have the highest earthquake magnitude (7.65) in the next 100 years with a 90 % probability level, is the most dangerous region compared to other regions. The results found in this study can be used in probabilistic seismic hazard studies of Western Anatolia.

  5. Crustal Structure across The Southwest Longmenshan Fault Zone from Seismic Controlled Source Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Wang, F.; Liu, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Lushan eathquake, which epicenter and focal depth were at 30.308° N, 102.888° E, and 14.0 km, is the latest intense earthquake occurring in the southwest section of the Longmenshan fault zone after the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. According to the emergency field observations, the slip distribution of the Lushan earthquake was concentrated at the hypocenter, and did not rupture to the surface(Chen et al, 2013). The rupture history constrained by inverting waveforms showed that the causative fault plane of the Lushan event is apparently not a simple extension of either the Pengguan fault or the Beichuan fault that ruptured during the 2008 Mw 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. The focal mechanism using the Cut and paste algorithm showed this event occurred on a high dip-angle fault, but its dip angle is not steep enough to rupture the surface. All these research is not independent on the heterogeneous crust structure of the Longmenshan fault zone. A 450 km-long wide-angle reflection/refraction profile executed during September and October 2013. This experiment have provided the best opportunities to obtain better knowledge of seismic structure and properties of crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Southwest Longmenshan fault zone. This seismic profile extends from the west Sichuan Plain, through the Longmenshan Fault zone, and into the west Sichuan Plateau. We observed clear Pg, refraction Phase from the upper crust, Pi1/Pi2/Pi3, reflection/refraction Phase from intra-crust, PmP, reflection from the Moho boundary, and the Pn phase, refraction Phase from uppermost mantle. We present a hybrid tomographic and layered velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle along the profile. The final velocity model reveals large variations both in structure and velocity, and is demonstrated that a particular model has minimum structure. The model shows the crustal thickness of the region is very variable. The Moho topography varies more than 10km in the southwest

  6. Seismic Source Parameters of Normal-Faulting Inslab Earthquakes in Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Quetzalcoatl; Singh, Shri Krishna

    2016-08-01

    We studied 62 normal-faulting inslab earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone with magnitudes in the range of 3.6 ≤ M w ≤ 7.3 and hypocentral depths of 30 ≤ Z ≤ 108 km. We used different methods to estimate source parameters to observe differences in stress drop, corner frequencies, source dimensions, source duration, energy-to-moment ratio, radiated efficiency, and radiated seismic energy. The behavior of these parameters is derived. We found that normal-faulting inslab events have higher radiated seismic energy, energy-to-moment ratio, and stress drop than interplate earthquakes as expected. This may be explained by the mechanism dependence of radiated seismic energy and apparent stress reported in previous source parameter studies. The energy-to-moment ratio data showed large scatter and no trend with seismic moment. The stress drop showed no trend with seismic moment, but an increment with depth. The radiated seismic efficiencies showed similar values to those obtained from interplate events, but higher than near-trench events. We found that the source duration is independent of the depth. We also derived source scaling relationships for the mentioned parameters. The low level of uncertainties for the seismic source parameters and scaling relationships showed that the obtained parameters are robust. Therefore, reliable source parameter estimation can be carried out using the obtained scaling relationships. We also studied regional stress field of normal-faulting inslab events. Heterogeneity exists in the regional stress field, as indicated by individual stress tensor inversions conducted for two different depth intervals ( Z < 40 km and Z > 40 km, respectively). While the maximum stress axis ( σ 1) appears to be consistent and stable, the orientations of the intermediate and minimum stresses ( σ 2 and σ 3) vary over the depth intervals. The stress inversion results showed that the tensional axes are parallel to the dip direction of the subducted

  7. Seismic Source Parameters of Normal-Faulting Inslab Earthquakes in Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Quetzalcoatl; Singh, Shri Krishna

    2016-06-01

    We studied 62 normal-faulting inslab earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone with magnitudes in the range of 3.6 ≤ M w ≤ 7.3 and hypocentral depths of 30 ≤ Z ≤ 108 km. We used different methods to estimate source parameters to observe differences in stress drop, corner frequencies, source dimensions, source duration, energy-to-moment ratio, radiated efficiency, and radiated seismic energy. The behavior of these parameters is derived. We found that normal-faulting inslab events have higher radiated seismic energy, energy-to-moment ratio, and stress drop than interplate earthquakes as expected. This may be explained by the mechanism dependence of radiated seismic energy and apparent stress reported in previous source parameter studies. The energy-to-moment ratio data showed large scatter and no trend with seismic moment. The stress drop showed no trend with seismic moment, but an increment with depth. The radiated seismic efficiencies showed similar values to those obtained from interplate events, but higher than near-trench events. We found that the source duration is independent of the depth. We also derived source scaling relationships for the mentioned parameters. The low level of uncertainties for the seismic source parameters and scaling relationships showed that the obtained parameters are robust. Therefore, reliable source parameter estimation can be carried out using the obtained scaling relationships. We also studied regional stress field of normal-faulting inslab events. Heterogeneity exists in the regional stress field, as indicated by individual stress tensor inversions conducted for two different depth intervals (Z < 40 km and Z > 40 km, respectively). While the maximum stress axis (σ 1) appears to be consistent and stable, the orientations of the intermediate and minimum stresses (σ 2 and σ 3) vary over the depth intervals. The stress inversion results showed that the tensional axes are parallel to the dip direction of the subducted plate

  8. Seismicity at Old Faithful Geyser: an isolated source of geothermal noise and possible analogue of volcanic seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, Susan Werner

    1984-09-01

    Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., is a relatively isolated source of seismic noise and exhibits seismic behavior similar to that observed at many volcanoes, including "bubblequakes" that resemble B-type "earthquakes", harmonic tremor before and during eruptions, and periods of seismic quiet prior to eruptions. Although Old Faithful differs from volcanoes in that the conduit is continuously open, that rock-fracturing is not a process responsible for seismicity, and that the erupting fluid is inviscid H 2O rather than viscous magma, there are also remarkable similarities in the problems of heat and mass recharge to the system, in the eruption dynamics, and in the seismicity. Water rises irregularly into the immediate reservoir of Old Faithful as recharge occurs, a fact that suggests that there are two enlarged storage regions: one between 18 and 22 m (the base of the immediate reservoir) and one between about 10 and 12 m depth. Transport of heat from hot water or steam entering at the base of the recharging water column into cooler overlying water occurs by migration of steam bubbles upward and their collapse in the cooler water, and by episodes of convective overturn. An eruption occurs when the temperature of the near-surface water exceeds the boiling point if the entire water column is sufficiently close to the boiling curve that the propagation of pressure-release waves (rarefactions) down the column can bring the liquid water onto the boiling curve. The process of conversion of the liquid water in the conduit at the onset of an eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture takes on the order of 30 s. The seismicity is directly related to the sequence of filling and heating during the recharge cycle, and to the fluid mechanics of the eruption. Short (0.2-0.3 s), monochromatic, high-frequency events (20-60 Hz) resembling unsustained harmonic tremor and, in some instances, B-type volcanic earthquakes, occur when exploding or imploding

  9. Searching for Seismically Active Faults in the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Antunes, V.; Arroucau, P.

    2015-12-01

    The repeated occurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in southwest Iberia in historical and instrumental times suggests the presence of active fault segments in the region. However, due to an apparently diffuse seismicity pattern defining a broad region of distributed deformation west of Gibraltar Strait, the question of the location, dimension and geometry of such structures is still open to debate. We recently developed a new algorithm for earthquake location in 3D complex media with laterally varying interface depths, which allowed us to relocate 2363 events having occurred from 2007 to 2013, using P- and S-wave catalog arrival times obtained from the Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IPMA, Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera), for a study area lying between 8.5˚W and 5˚W in longitude and 36˚ and 37.5˚ in latitude. The most remarkable change in the seismicity pattern after relocation is an apparent concentration of events, in the North of the Gulf of Cadiz, along a low angle northward-dipping plane rooted at the base of the crust, which could indicate the presence of a major fault. If confirmed, this would be the first structure clearly illuminated by seismicity in a region that has unleashed large magnitude earthquakes. Here, we present results from the joint analysis of focal mechanism solutions and waveform similarity between neighboring events from waveform cross-correlation in order to assess whether those earthquakes occur on the same fault plane.

  10. Seismic body wave separation in volcano-tectonic activity inferred by the Convolutive Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; De Lauro, Enza; De Martino, Salvatore; Falanga, Mariarosaria; Petrosino, Simona

    2015-04-01

    One of the main challenge in volcano-seismological literature is to locate and characterize the source of volcano/tectonic seismic activity. This passes through the identification at least of the onset of the main phases, i.e. the body waves. Many efforts have been made to solve the problem of a clear separation of P and S phases both from a theoretical point of view and developing numerical algorithms suitable for specific cases (see, e.g., Küperkoch et al., 2012). Recently, a robust automatic procedure has been implemented for extracting the prominent seismic waveforms from continuously recorded signals and thus allowing for picking the main phases. The intuitive notion of maximum non-gaussianity is achieved adopting techniques which involve higher-order statistics in frequency domain., i.e, the Convolutive Independent Component Analysis (CICA). This technique is successful in the case of the blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. In seismological framework, indeed, seismic signals are thought as the convolution of a source function with path, site and the instrument response. In addition, time-delayed versions of the same source exist, due to multipath propagation typically caused by reverberations from some obstacle. In this work, we focus on the Volcano Tectonic (VT) activity at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the 2006 ground uplift (Ciaramella et al., 2011). The activity was characterized approximately by 300 low-magnitude VT earthquakes (Md < 2; for the definition of duration magnitude, see Petrosino et al. 2008). Most of them were concentrated in distinct seismic sequences with hypocenters mainly clustered beneath the Solfatara-Accademia area, at depths ranging between 1 and 4 km b.s.l.. The obtained results show the clear separation of P and S phases: the technique not only allows the identification of the S-P time delay giving the timing of both phases but also provides the independent waveforms of the P and S phases. This is an enormous

  11. Variation of the Earth tide-seismicity compliance parameter during the recent seismic activity in Fthiotida, central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabelos, Dimitrios N.; Contadakis, Michael E.; Vergos, Georgios; Spatalas, Spyrous

    2016-01-01

    Based on the results of our previous studies concerning the tidal triggering effect on the seismicity in Greece, we consider the confidence level of earthquake occurrence - tidal period accordance as an index of tectonic stress criticality, associated with earthquake occurrence. Then, we investigate whether the recent increase in the seismic activity at Fthiotida in Greek mainland indicates faulting maturity and the possible production a stronger earthquake. In this paper we present the results of this investigation

  12. Characterization of Source and Wave Propagation Effects of Volcano-seismic Events and Tremor Using the Amplitude Source Location Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, H.; Londono, J. M.; López, C. M.; Ruiz, M. C.; Mothes, P. A.; Maeda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We propose application of the amplitude source location (ASL) method to characterize source and wave propagation effects of volcano-seismic events and tremor observed at different volcanoes. We used this method to estimate the source location and source amplitude from high-frequency (5-10 Hz) seismic amplitudes under the assumption of isotropic S-wave radiation. We estimated the cumulative source amplitude (Is) as the offset value of the time-integrated envelope of the vertical seismogram corrected for geometrical spreading and medium attenuation in the 5-10 Hz band. We studied these parameters of tremor signals associated with eruptions and explosion events at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador; long-period (LP) events at Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador; and LP events at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia. We identified two types of eruption tremor at Tungurahua; noise-like inharmonic waveforms and harmonic oscillatory signals. We found that Is increased linearly with increasing source amplitude for explosion events and LP events, and that Is increased exponentially with increasing source amplitude for inharmonic eruption tremor signals. The source characteristics of harmonic eruption tremor signals differed from those of inharmonic tremor signals. The Is values we estimated for inharmonic eruption tremor were consistent with previous estimates of volumes of tephra fallout. The linear relationship between the source amplitude and Is for LP events can be explained by the wave propagation effects in the diffusion model for multiple scattering assuming a diffusion coefficient of 105 m2/s and an intrinsic Q factor of around 50. The resultant mean free path is approximately 100 m. Our results suggest that Cotopaxi and Nevado del Ruiz volcanoes have similar highly scattering and attenuating structures. Our approach provides a systematic way to compare the size of volcano-seismic signals observed at different volcanoes. The scaling relations among source parameters that we identified

  13. Full-Wavefield Modeling and Pre-Stack Depth Migration of Common-Source Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, How-Wei

    1992-01-01

    The goal of solving geophysical problems can be thought of as a data mapping or transform procedure. Through various techniques, the observed seismic data can be transformed into the solution domain to estimate the Earth properties. Seismic wave field simulation is a forward process used to synthesize the seismic responses of an Earth model. Seismic wave field imaging is an inverse process used to estimate the Earth parameters from observed seismic data. In this dissertation, finite-difference and pseudo-spectral computations, in two- and three-dimensional space, are used for full wave field simulations and imaging of common-source data. Numerical simulation is developed for seismic sources and multi-attribute wave fields in two-dimensional acoustic and elastic media. P- and S-waves can be primarily separated in the resulting seismograms by vector operators in simulated surface survey, Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) and cross-hole recording geometries. Three-component displacement seismograms can be approximately simulated by treating the acoustic field as a scalar potential field. The algorithm is applied to a complex multi-component, multi-offset walkaway circular VSP data from offshore California. Numerical modeling of large-scale, wide-aperture 3-D seismic data volumes is performed using a 3-D pseudo-spectral approach. Asymmetrical source and 3-D wave propagation effects in physical model data are identified and interpreted through iterative numerical modeling. Prestack reverse-time migration algorithms based on finite-difference and pseudo-spectral wave field extrapolators are developed for acoustic media in two- and three-dimensions. The excitation time imaging condition is computed by ray tracing and by finite-difference solution of the Eikonal equation. I generalize the concept of reverse-time migration and apply it for the correction of near-surface static effects. The feasibility of using very large scale, very wide-aperture 3-D seismic data recorded on a

  14. Seismicity at Old Faithful Geyser: an isolated source of geothermal noise and possible analogue of volcanic seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., is a relatively isolated source of seismic noise and exhibits seismic behavior similar to that observed at many volcanoes, including "bubblequakes" that resemble B-type "earthquakes", harmonic tremor before and during eruptions, and periods of seismic quiet prior to eruptions. Although Old Faithful differs from volcanoes in that the conduit is continuously open, that rock-fracturing is not a process responsible for seismicity, and that the erupting fluid is inviscid H2O rather than viscous magma, there are also remarkable similarities in the problems of heat and mass recharge to the system, in the eruption dynamics, and in the seismicity. Water rises irregularly into the immediate reservoir of Old Faithful as recharge occurs, a fact that suggests that there are two enlarged storage regions: one between 18 and 22 m (the base of the immediate reservoir) and one between about 10 and 12 m depth. Transport of heat from hot water or steam entering at the base of the recharging water column into cooler overlying water occurs by migration of steam bubbles upward and their collapse in the cooler water, and by episodes of convective overturn. An eruption occurs when the temperature of the near-surface water exceeds the boiling point if the entire water column is sufficiently close to the boiling curve that the propagation of pressure-release waves (rarefactions) down the column can bring the liquid water onto the boiling curve. The process of conversion of the liquid water in the conduit at the onset of an eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture takes on the order of 30 s. The seismicity is directly related to the sequence of filling and heating during the recharge cycle, and to the fluid mechanics of the eruption. Short (0.2-0.3 s), monochromatic, high-frequency events (20-60 Hz) resembling unsustained harmonic tremor and, in some instances, B-type volcanic earthquakes, occur when exploding or imploding

  15. Source parameters scaling of the 2004 Kobarid (Western Slovenia) seismic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Gentili, Stefania; Bressan, Gianni

    2013-09-01

    Source parameters of the mainshock (ML = 5.3) and of 165 aftershocks (0.8 < ML < 3.5) of the 2004 Kobarid (Western Slovenia) seismic sequence are investigated in order to determine the corresponding source scaling relations. Data recorded from July to December 2004 by the Friuli and Veneto seismic network (FV), managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) and installed in Northeastern Italy, are employed to obtain the SH-wave amplitude Fourier spectra of the selected earthquakes. For source spectra computation, we consider only records with significant values of the signal-to-noise ratio and, to account for local amplifications, we compute standard H/V spectral ratios (HVSR) for all the stations of the network. After correction for attenuation effects, source spectra obtained at stations with negligible site effects show a good fit with a ω-square model. We adopt different approaches to compute the source parameters and final results are chosen based on the obtained misfits between observed and theoretical source spectra. For 21 earthquakes of the sequence the obtained results are confirmed by the Empirical Green Function (EGF) technique, applied by estimating the spectral ratios of couples of events with hypocentral distance differences smaller than 500 m and magnitude differences greater than 1. The mainshock of the sequence is characterized by a seismic moment of 3.5 × 1016 Nm and a corner frequency of 0.8 Hz, corresponding, in the Brune's model (1970), to a fault radius of 1465 m and a stress drop of 4.9 MPa. Aftershocks have seismic moments in the range [3.3 × 1011, 1.8 × 1014] Nm, corner frequencies between 1.9 and 12.4 Hz (Brune radii between 95 and 638 m) and stress drops in the range [0.03, 1.55] MPa. The observed scaling of seismic moment (M0) with the local magnitude (ML) is consistent with the trend: Log M0 = 1.06ML + 10.56. The Brune radius (rB) increases with the seismic moment according to: Log rB = 0.22 Log

  16. Stress-strain sensor for monitoring seismic precursors and fault activities in the sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qiujiao; Sun, Wei; Zeng, Zuoxun

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a sensor to monitor stress-strain signals in a granular medium is used to detect seismic precursory information. Compared with the widely used sensors of borehole stress in the rock, the sensor has more convenient operation, higher output sensitivity, compactness and farther propagation effect. The stress and strain changes before Pu'er Ms6.4 earthquake in China are recorded by Beijing and Xinmin stations, and its corresponding fault activities are analyzed. Study indicates anomalous amplitude of strain signal reaches 10 times higher than that of ordinary background, and compressive oscillation and extensional oscillation occurred constantly before the earthquake. The method and results presented in the paper provide a new way for investigating seismic precursors for shallow-source earthquakes.

  17. Comparison of seismic sources for imaging geologic structures on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, W.E.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.

    1997-02-01

    In this study, five non-invasive swept sources, three non-invasive impulsive sources and one invasive impulsive source were compared. Previous shallow seismic source tests (Miller and others, 1986, 1992, 1994) have established that site characteristics should be considered in determining the optimal source. These studies evaluated a number of invasive sources along with a few non-invasive impulsive sources. Several sources (particularly the high frequency vibrators) that were included in the ORR test were not available or not practical during previous tests, cited above. This study differs from previous source comparisons in that it (1) includes many swept sources, (2) is designed for a greater target depth, (3) was conducted in a very different geologic environment, and (4) generated a larger and more diverse data set (including high fold CMP sections and walkaway vertical seismic profiles) for each source. The test site is centered around test injection well HF-2, between the southern end of Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG 5) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  18. Temporary seismic networks on active volcanoes of Kamchatka (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Andrey; Koulakov, Ivan; Abkadyrov, Ilyas; Shapiro, Nikolay; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Deev, Evgeny; Gordeev, Evgeny; Chebrov, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    We present details of four field campaigns carried out on different volcanoes of Kamchatka in 2012-2015. Each campaign was performed in three main steps: (i) installation of the temporary network of seismic stations; (ii) autonomous continuous registration of three component seismic signal; (III) taking off the network and downloading the registered data. During the first campaign started in September 2012, 11 temporary stations were installed over the Avacha group of volcanoes located 30 km north to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in addition to the seven permanent stations operated by the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey (KBGS). Unfortunately, with this temporary network we faced with two obstacles. The first problem was the small amount of local earthquakes, which were detected during operation time. The second problem was an unexpected stop of several stations only 40 days after deployment. Nevertheless, after taking off the network in August 2013, the collected data appeared to be suitable for analysis using ambient noise. The second campaign was conducted in period from August 2013 to August 2014. In framework of the campaign, 21 temporary stations were installed over Gorely volcano, located 70 km south to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Just in time of the network deployment, Gorely Volcano became very seismically active - every day occurred more than 100 events. Therefore, we obtain very good dataset with information about thousands of local events, which could be used for any type of seismological analysis. The third campaign started in August 2014. Within this campaign, we have installed 19 temporary seismic stations over Tolbachik volcano, located on the south side of the Klyuchevskoy volcano group. In the same time on Tolbachik volcano were installed four temporary stations and several permanent stations operated by the KBGS. All stations were taking off in July 2015. As result, we have collected a large dataset, which is now under preliminary analysis

  19. Identifying seismic noise sources and their amplitude from P wave microseisms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, Jennifer; Harmon, Nicholas; Srokosz, Meric

    2016-04-01

    Understanding sources of seismic noise is important for a range of applications including seismic imagery, time-lapse, and climate studies. For locating sources from seismic data, body waves offer an advantage over surface waves because they can reveal the distance to the source as well as direction. Studies have found that body waves do originate from regions predicted by models (Obrebski et al., 2013), where wave interaction intensity and site effect combine to produce the source (Ardhuin & Herbers, 2013). Here, we undertake a quantitative comparison between observed body wave microseisms and modelled sources- in terms of location, amplitude, and spectral shape- with the aim of understanding how well sources are observed and potentially what they reveal about the underlying ocean wavefield. We used seismic stations from the Southern California Seismic Network, and computed beamformer output as a function of time, frequency, slowness and azimuth. During winter months (October - mid March) the dominant arrivals at frequencies 0.18-0.22 Hz were P waves that originated from the North Pacific, whilst arrivals from the North Atlantic dominated at slightly lower frequencies of 0.16-0.18 Hz. Based on this, we chose to focus on P waves during winter, and back-projected the beamformer energy onto a global grid using P wave travel timetables (following Gerstoft et al., 2008). We modelled the seismic sources using Wavewatch III and site effect coefficients calculated following Ardhuin and Herbers (2013). We output the beamformer and the modelled sources on a 2° global grid averaged over 6 hour periods from September 2012 to September 2014, at seismic frequencies of 0.06 to 0.3 Hz. We then integrated the spectra over the full frequency range. Here we focus on results from the first winter in the North Pacific. Preliminary results indicate that the logarithm of the modelled source and the logarithm of the beamformer output are well described by a two-term exponential model

  20. Seismic evidence for dilatational source deformations accompanying the 2004-2008 Yellowstone accelerated uplift episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, T.; Smith, R. B.; Chang, W.-L.

    2010-02-01

    Dilatational source deformations associated with two unusual M 3+ earthquakes in the area of the 2004-2008 Yellowstone, WY, accelerated uplift episode were identified through detailed analysis of moment tensor inversions. Pressurized hydrothermal fluids are suggested to be associated with the dilatational source processes of these unusual earthquakes, which is consistent with the mechanism of the GPS-InSAR derived deformation signal of the uplift modeled as intrusion of a near horizontal magmatic sill at ˜10 km depth beneath the Yellowstone caldera. One unusual earthquake, the 5 November 2007 Mw 3.3 earthquake, occurred in a volume of expected crustal expansion above the inflating magmatic sill. A notable 60% isotropic expansion component was determined for this earthquake with a 3.2 cm opening across an area of 0.12 km2. We propose that the inflation of the magmatic sill activates a high-pressurized fluid migration upward which in turn triggers dilatational deformation inducing this earthquake. Another dilatational deformation earthquake, the 9 January 2008 Mw 3.8 earthquake, occurred on the northern rim of the caldera. The moment tensor solution for this earthquake shows that the source mechanism had a 30% of the energy associated with tensile dislocation corresponding to a 3.3 cm opening crack over an area of 0.58 km2. We suggest that stress changes produced by a collocated Mw 3.4 earthquake may have increased the fracture permeability promoting fluid migration and thus encouraging the dilatational dislocation. These dilatational source earthquakes are the first non-double couple earthquakes to be documented unambiguously in the 35 year recording period of the Yellowstone seismic network.

  1. Seismic Evidence for Dilatational Source Deformations Accompanying the 2004-2008 Yellowstone Accelerated Uplift Episode (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, T.; Smith, R. B.; Chang, W.

    2009-12-01

    Dilatational source deformations associated with two unusual M 3+ earthquakes in the area of the 2004-2008 Yellowstone, WY, accelerated uplift episode were identified through detailed analysis of moment-tensor inversions. Pressurized hydrothermal fluids are suggested to be associated with the dilatational source processes of these unusual earthquakes, which is consistent with the mechanism of the GPS-InSAR derived deformation signal of the uplift modeled as intrusion of a near horizontal magmatic sill at ˜10 km depth beneath the Yellowstone caldera. One unusual earthquake, the 5 November 2007 Mw 3.3 earthquake, occurred in a volume of expected crustal expansion above the inflating magmatic sill. A notable 60% isotropic expansion component was determined for this earthquake with a 3.2 cm opening across an area of 0.12 km2. We propose that the inflation of the magmatic sill activates a high-pressurized fluid migration upward which in turn triggers dilatational deformation inducing this earthquake. Another dilatational deformation earthquake, the 9 January 2008 Mw 3.8 earthquake, occurred on the northern rim of the caldera. The moment-tensor solution for this earthquake shows that the source mechanism had a 30% of the energy associated with tensile dislocation corresponding to a 3.3-cm opening crack over an area of 0.58 km2. We suggest that stress changes produced by a collocated Mw 3.4 earthquake may have increased the fracture permeability promoting fluid migration and thus encouraging the dilatational dislocation. These dilatational-source earthquakes are the first non-double couple earthquakes to be documented unambiguously in the 35-year recording period of the Yellowstone seismic network.

  2. Calibration of Seismic Sources during a Test Cruise with the new RV SONNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, M.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2015-12-01

    During autumn 2014, several test cruises of the brand new German research vessel SONNE were carried out before the first official scientific cruise started in December. In September 2014, BGR conducted a seismic test cruise in the British North Sea. RV SONNE is a multipurpose research vessel and was also designed for the mobile BGR 3D seismic equipment, which was tested successfully during the cruise. We spend two days for calibration of the following seismic sources of BGR: G-gun array (50 l @ 150 bar) G-gun array (50 l @ 207 bar) single GI-gun (3.4 l @ 150 bar) For this experiment two hydrophones (TC4042 from Reson Teledyne) sampling up to 48 kHz were fixed below a drifting buoy at 20 m and 60 m water depth - the sea bottom was at 80 m depth. The vessel with the seismic sources sailed several up to 7 km long profiles around the buoy in order to cover many different azimuths and distances. We aimed to measure sound pressure level (SPL) and sound exposure level (SEL) under the conditions of the shallow North Sea. Total reflections and refracted waves dominate the recorded wave field, enhance the noise level and partly screen the direct wave in contrast to 'true' deep water calibration based solely on the direct wave. Presented are SPL and RMS power results in time domain, the decay with distance along profiles, and the somehow complicated 2D sound radiation pattern modulated by topography. The shading effect of the vessel's hull is significant. In frequency domain we consider 1/3 octave levels and estimate the amount of energy in frequency ranges not used for reflection seismic processing. Results are presented in comparison of the three different sources listed above. We compare the measured SPL decay with distance during this experiment with deep water modeling of seismic sources (Gundalf software) and with published results from calibrations with other marine seismic sources under different conditions: E.g. Breitzke et al. (2008, 2010) with RV Polarstern

  3. Modelling of electro-seismic source generation in fractured fluid filled rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, N.; Tuckwell, G.

    2003-04-01

    Networks of fluid-filled fractures occur in all rocks at all scales. They control geological and geomechanical processes such as deformation, diagenesis, mineralisation, hydrocarbon production and groundwater flow. With microseismic monitoring methods alone, only three-dimensional, dynamic stress imaging of fracture initiation and propagation can be achieved with the presence/extent of fluid(s) within the fracture network remaining undetermined. As a fluid saturated rock fractures, propagating electro-seismic signals are generated at the fracture faces that contain information on the geomechanical and electro-seismic properties of the fracture source. However, source complexity, and the modification of the signals as they propagate through heterogeneous geological media, can make the interpretation of these electro-seismic signals exceedingly difficult. By developing appropriate numerical forward modelling solutions these processes can be investigated in detail and the recorded data analysed with a higher degree of confidence. With the ongoing development of cost-effective computing resources, fully three-dimensional electro-seismic wave propagation problems can be attempted at practical scales. We present a coupled Discrete-element/Finite-difference modelling method that is able to model the full three-dimensional electro-seismic wave-field including source generation, converted waves, reflections, multiples and diffractions in a single computational scheme. The scheme has the advantage of being easily formulated, flexible and operates in the time-domain without the need for complex mathematical transformations. The comprehensive nature of the method permits the use of multiple electro-seismic sources to describe the natural fracturing behaviour of the source materials and their complicated geometries. Results show that the presence of an asymmetrical displacement field along the fracture faces will produce independently propagating electromagnetic waves of high

  4. SOME APPLICATIONS OF SEISMIC SOURCE MECHANISM STUDIES TO ASSESSING UNDERGROUND HAZARD.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.

    1984-01-01

    Various measures of the seismic source mechanism of mine tremors, such as magnitude, moment, stress drop, apparent stress, and seismic efficiency, can be related directly to several aspects of the problem of determining the underground hazard arising from strong ground motion of large seismic events. First, the relation between the sum of seismic moments of tremors and the volume of stope closure caused by mining during a given period can be used in conjunction with magnitude-frequency statistics and an empirical relation between moment and magnitude to estimate the maximum possible sized tremor for a given mining situation. Second, it is shown that the 'energy release rate,' a commonly-used parameter for predicting underground seismic hazard, may be misleading in that the importance of overburden stress, or depth, is overstated. Third, results involving the relation between peak velocity and magnitude, magnitude-frequency statistics, and the maximum possible magnitude are applied to the problem of estimating the frequency at which design limits of certain underground support equipment are likely to be exceeded.

  5. The use of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) as a seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Chwatal, Werner; Radinger, Alexander; Brückl, Ewald

    2014-05-01

    The Tunnel Seismic While Drilling (TSWD) method uses the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) as the seismic source. The method has been developed to predict the geological situation from reflections ahead of the tunnel face without disturbing the tunneling. The vibrations of the TBM are continuously monitored near the drilling head (pilot signal) as well as the direct and reflected seismic wave field at borehole geophones (geophone signal) situated in the tunnel wall behind the TBM. During the processing these signals are correlated and result in excellent seismic traces comparable to conventional seismic methods. The interpretation of the reflections leads to a nearly daily prognosis about 100 m ahead of the TBM. This system was successfully implemented at three different construction sites in Austria and is currently operating at one further. The cutters on front of the TBM head are pressed against the tunnel face and split the rock during rotating which is called the chipping process. This cutting process generates seismic waves radiated into the rock mass and results also in vibrations of the TBM itself. On the one hand it is important to know the source mechanism of the TBM and the radiation pattern of the seismic waves in all directions. Until now this is not well understood. To investigate this 3C-geophones were installed at the surface above the tunnel axis at different construction sites. The obtained seismograms show the forward and backward radiated seismic wave field of the TBM, for the present without consideration of the influence of the free surface. We compare this data with modelled seismograms in which we use different possible source mechanism, like single force or force due to tensile cracks. First results are shown in the scope of this work. On the other hand it is essential to know how good the recorded pilot signal represents the entire chipping process. Due to technically reasons the pilot signal has been registered so far on the non-rotating part

  6. Identification of crustal and upper mantle heterogeneity by modelling of controlled-source seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L.; Thybo, H.

    2006-04-01

    High-frequency controlled-source seismic sections with dense spatial sampling show the existence of heterogeneity at different depth levels of the continental crust and upper mantle. Our sources of information are the Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE) seismic data sets recorded to large offsets in the former Soviet Union supplemented by recordings from the North American Early Rise deep seismic experiment and normal-incidence reflection seismic sections collected in northwest Europe. Heterogeneity in the crust and upper mantle can be uniquely identified in reversed high-frequency (2-10 Hz) PNE seismic sections collected with dense spatial sampling (nominal receiver spacing of 10-15 km) out to 4000 km offset. We document pronounced seismic scattering from three heterogeneous zones: The lower crust from ˜20 km to ˜40 km depth, an ˜80 km thick low-velocity zone below ˜100 km depth, and the ˜320-460 km depth interval around the top of the mantle transition zone. We calculate the full seismic wavefield in heterogeneous crust-mantle models with a two-dimensional finite-difference algorithm. We represent the heterogeneous layers by random fluctuations of the elastic parameters and Q-values. The spatial (horizontal and vertical) correlation lengths and the standard deviation of the scattering media are constrained by comparison of observed and calculated seismic sections. The lower crustal heterogeneity causes a coda to the upper mantle arrivals at all recorded frequencies. This coda is a prominent feature for whispering-gallery phases (teleseismic Pn), which travel as multiply reflected refractions below the Moho to more than 3000 km offset from the PNE sources. The heterogeneous mantle low-velocity zone causes a scattered coda trailing the first arrivals in the ˜800-1400 km offset range. The best fit to the observations along profile Kraton in Siberia is obtained by an 80 km thick heterogeneous low-velocity zone below 100 km depth, represented by fluctuations

  7. Detailed Regional Resource Mapping in Nevada Using Natural and Mining Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibuleac, I. M.; Biasi, G.; Jha, S.; Preston, L.; Louie, J.

    2008-12-01

    Our objective is to contribute to geothermal resource assessment in Nevada and the Great Basin by providing uniform, high-resolution, regional maps of seismic velocity in the crust and shallow mantle. We analyze earthquakes and mining explosions of local magnitude greater than 2.5 recorded from 2005 to 2008 by the Earthscope Transportable Array (TA) seismic network, by the Nevada Seismic Network, and by the Southern Great Basin Digital Seismic Network. We use two complementary tomographic methods: 1) P- and S-body-wave arrival times image the mid- to- deep crust and shallow mantle with a block size of 10 km or smaller; 2) surface waves image the shallow to deep crust, with depth sensitivity depending on wave frequency. To identify surface waves, we use improved Rayleigh-wave detection algorithms based on wavelet transforms. Surface-wave detector improvements include solving for Love-Rayleigh interference and the capability to identify and analyze higher-mode Rayleigh waves. Once a Rayleigh phase is identified, group-velocity dispersion curves are determined using a multiple-filter analysis technique. With the advent of the TA station deployment, group-velocity dispersion for the path between two stations in line with the source may be estimated from the dispersion between the two stations. This technique eliminates the need to correct for earthquake source phase. The results of our study will be integrated with previous seismic data compilations and interpreted in terms of parameters of interest to the geothermal community, such as crustal thickness and seismic velocities.

  8. Seismic source-region elastic calculations on KDYNA

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.B.

    1994-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of source-region simulations on the KDYNA hydrodynamics code. The source was a pressure-step function in a 40-m-radius cavity 500 m below a free surface. The problem of a driven cavity in an elastic material was chosen as a test and calibration problem for two reasons. First, the driven cavity is a model for an underground explosion. Secondly, the availability of analytical methods for waves in elastic solids means that alternate calculational paths exist for calculating the distant signals from the cavity. Data from an array of sensor points roughly 1 km from the source were saved and passed to Howard Patton and Keith K. Nakanish for input to a NMTS (Normal Mode Time Series) code. The data consisted of the time histories (0 to 2 s) of the radial and axial velocities and the radial, axial, and shear components of the stress at each sensor point. The NMTS code will use the input to predict the signals in the far field (e.g., 300 km) from the explosion source. This elastic KDYNA calculation provides a complete and satisfactory simulation for input to the NMTS code and for comparison with other calculational methods.

  9. Fault Activity, Seismicity and GPS Deformation of the Seismic Gap along the Red River Fault Zone (RRFZ) in Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-Ze, Wen; Shengli, Ma; Fang, Du; Feng, Long

    2016-04-01

    Along the middle segment of the NW-trending and dextral-slip Red River fault zone (RRFZ), also the Honghe fault zone, Yunnan, China, there has been little of modern seismicity since the 1970's. Some Chinese researchers believed that this fault segment is inactive in the late Quaternary. However, more and more evidence shows that the middle segment of RRFZ is geologically-active in the late Quaternary, even is a Holocene-active one with evidence of paleo-earthquakes occurring. Our study suggests that along the fault segment there has been no any major earthquake occurring for over 500 years at least, and a large-scale seismic gap, the Honghe seismic gap, have formed there. On the modern seismicity, the middle segment of RRFZ has presented as a fault portion without or with very few small earthquakes occurring since the 1980's, but surrounded by several areas with low b-values, suggesting relatively high stress having built-up there. Also, GPS deformation analysis suggests that this fault segment has tightly locked already. Such tight locking would be associated with the fault geometry: A large-scale restraining bend of about 30°over a distance of ~100 km exists along the main fault trace along RRFZ between Yuanjiang and Yuanyang. However, how such a restraining bend makes the middle segment of RRFZ have tightly locked? How much strain has built up there? Moreover, how about the long-term seismic potential of major earthquake on the middle segment of RRFZ, and on some secondary active faults of the two sides of the segment, especially on the parallel faults Chuxiong, Qujiang and Shiping. All these are issues we want to study further. Keywords: Red River Fault Zone, Seismic Gap, Fault Activity, Seismicity, GPS Deformation

  10. Active damping performance of the KAGRA seismic attenuation system prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yoshinori; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Aso, Yoichi; Barton, Mark; Erasmo Peña Arellano, Fabián; Shoda, Ayaka; Akutsu, Tomotada; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kamiizumi, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Hirata, Naoatsu; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Okutomi, Koki; Miyamoto, Takahiro; Ishizuka, Hideki; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Flaminio, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    The Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (formerly LCGT now KAGRA) is presently under construction in Japan. This May we assembled a prototype of the seismic attenuation system (SAS) for the beam splitter and the signal recycling mirrors of KAGRA, which we call Type-B SAS, and evaluated its performance at NAOJ (Mitaka, Toyko). We investigated its frequency response, active damping performance, vibration isolation performance and long-term stability both in and out of vacuum. From the frequency response test and the active damping performance test, we confirmed that the SAS worked as we designed and that all mechanical resonances which could disturb lock acquisition and observation are damped within 1 minute, which is required for KAGRA, by the active controls.

  11. Quantification of source uncertainties in Seismic Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (SPTHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, J.; Tonini, R.; Molinari, I.; Tiberti, M. M.; Romano, F.; Grezio, A.; Melini, D.; Piatanesi, A.; Basili, R.; Lorito, S.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a procedure for uncertainty quantification in Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA), with a special emphasis on the uncertainty related to statistical modelling of the earthquake source in Seismic PTHA (SPTHA), and on the separate treatment of subduction and crustal earthquakes (treated as background seismicity). An event tree approach and ensemble modelling are used in spite of more classical approaches, such as the hazard integral and the logic tree. This procedure consists of four steps: (1) exploration of aleatory uncertainty through an event tree, with alternative implementations for exploring epistemic uncertainty; (2) numerical computation of tsunami generation and propagation up to a given offshore isobath; (3) (optional) site-specific quantification of inundation; (4) simultaneous quantification of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty through ensemble modelling. The proposed procedure is general and independent of the kind of tsunami source considered; however, we implement step 1, the event tree, specifically for SPTHA, focusing on seismic source uncertainty. To exemplify the procedure, we develop a case study considering seismic sources in the Ionian Sea (central-eastern Mediterranean Sea), using the coasts of Southern Italy as a target zone. The results show that an efficient and complete quantification of all the uncertainties is feasible even when treating a large number of potential sources and a large set of alternative model formulations. We also find that (i) treating separately subduction and background (crustal) earthquakes allows for optimal use of available information and for avoiding significant biases; (ii) both subduction interface and crustal faults contribute to the SPTHA, with different proportions that depend on source-target position and tsunami intensity; (iii) the proposed framework allows sensitivity and deaggregation analyses, demonstrating the applicability of the method for operational assessments.

  12. Quantification of source uncertainties in Seismic Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (SPTHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, J.; Tonini, R.; Molinari, I.; Tiberti, M. M.; Romano, F.; Grezio, A.; Melini, D.; Piatanesi, A.; Basili, R.; Lorito, S.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a procedure for uncertainty quantification in Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA), with a special emphasis on the uncertainty related to statistical modelling of the earthquake source in Seismic PTHA (SPTHA), and on the separate treatment of subduction and crustal earthquakes (treated as background seismicity). An event tree approach and ensemble modelling are used in spite of more classical approaches, such as the hazard integral and the logic tree. This procedure consists of four steps: 1) exploration of aleatory uncertainty through an event tree, with alternative implementations for exploring epistemic uncertainty; 2) numerical computation of tsunami generation and propagation up to a given offshore isobath; 3) (optional) site-specific quantification of inundation; 4) simultaneous quantification of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty through ensemble modelling. The proposed procedure is general and independent of the kind of tsunami source considered; however, we implement step 1), the event tree, specifically for SPTHA, focussing on seismic source uncertainty. To exemplify the procedure, we develop a case study considering seismic sources in the Ionian Sea (central-eastern Mediterranean Sea), using the coasts of Southern Italy as a target zone. The results show that an efficient and complete quantification of all the uncertainties is feasible even when treating a large number of potential sources and a large set of alternative model formulations. We also find that: i) treating separately subduction and background (crustal) earthquakes allows for optimal use of available information and for avoiding significant biases; ii) both subduction interface and crustal faults contribute to the SPTHA, with different proportions that depend on source-target position and tsunami intensity; iii) the proposed framework allows sensitivity and deaggregation analyses, demonstrating the applicability of the method for operational assessments.

  13. Application of neural networks to seismic active control

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu

    1995-07-01

    An exploratory study on seismic active control using an artificial neural network (ANN) is presented in which a singledegree-of-freedom (SDF) structural system is controlled by a trained neural network. A feed-forward neural network and the backpropagation training method are used in the study. In backpropagation training, the learning rate is determined by ensuring the decrease of the error function at each training cycle. The training patterns for the neural net are generated randomly. Then, the trained ANN is used to compute the control force according to the control algorithm. The control strategy proposed herein is to apply the control force at every time step to destroy the build-up of the system response. The ground motions considered in the simulations are the N21E and N69W components of the Lake Hughes No. 12 record that occurred in the San Fernando Valley in California on February 9, 1971. Significant reduction of the structural response by one order of magnitude is observed. Also, it is shown that the proposed control strategy has the ability to reduce the peak that occurs during the first few cycles of the time history. These promising results assert the potential of applying ANNs to active structural control under seismic loads.

  14. A Global Sensitivity Analysis Method on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights to Potential Seismic Source Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Luchuan

    2015-04-01

    A Global Sensitivity Analysis Method on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights to Potential Seismic Source Parameters Luchuan Ren, Jianwei Tian, Mingli Hong Institute of Disaster Prevention, Sanhe, Heibei Province, 065201, P.R. China It is obvious that the uncertainties of the maximum tsunami wave heights in offshore area are partly from uncertainties of the potential seismic tsunami source parameters. A global sensitivity analysis method on the maximum tsunami wave heights to the potential seismic source parameters is put forward in this paper. The tsunami wave heights are calculated by COMCOT ( the Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model), on the assumption that an earthquake with magnitude MW8.0 occurred at the northern fault segment along the Manila Trench and triggered a tsunami in the South China Sea. We select the simulated results of maximum tsunami wave heights at specific sites in offshore area to verify the validity of the method proposed in this paper. For ranking importance order of the uncertainties of potential seismic source parameters (the earthquake's magnitude, the focal depth, the strike angle, dip angle and slip angle etc..) in generating uncertainties of the maximum tsunami wave heights, we chose Morris method to analyze the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami wave heights to the aforementioned parameters, and give several qualitative descriptions of nonlinear or linear effects of them on the maximum tsunami wave heights. We quantitatively analyze the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami wave heights to these parameters and the interaction effects among these parameters on the maximum tsunami wave heights by means of the extended FAST method afterward. The results shows that the maximum tsunami wave heights are very sensitive to the earthquake magnitude, followed successively by the epicenter location, the strike angle and dip angle, the interactions effect between the sensitive parameters are very obvious at specific site in offshore area, and there

  15. Volcano deformation source parameters estimated from InSAR: Sensitivities to uncertainties in seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterlark, Timothy; Donovan, Theodore; Feigl, Kurt L.; Haney, Matthew; Thurber, Clifford H.; Tung, Sui

    2016-04-01

    The eruption cycle of a volcano is controlled in part by the upward migration of magma. The characteristics of the magma flux produce a deformation signature at the Earth's surface. Inverse analyses use geodetic data to estimate strategic controlling parameters that describe the position and pressurization of a magma chamber at depth. The specific distribution of material properties controls how observed surface deformation translates to source parameter estimates. Seismic tomography models describe the spatial distributions of material properties that are necessary for accurate models of volcano deformation. This study investigates how uncertainties in seismic tomography models propagate into variations in the estimates of volcano deformation source parameters inverted from geodetic data. We conduct finite element model-based nonlinear inverse analyses of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for Okmok volcano, Alaska, as an example. We then analyze the estimated parameters and their uncertainties to characterize the magma chamber. Analyses are performed separately for models simulating a pressurized chamber embedded in a homogeneous domain as well as for a domain having a heterogeneous distribution of material properties according to seismic tomography. The estimated depth of the source is sensitive to the distribution of material properties. The estimated depths for the homogeneous and heterogeneous domains are 2666 ± 42 and 3527 ± 56 m below mean sea level, respectively (99% confidence). A Monte Carlo analysis indicates that uncertainties of the seismic tomography cannot account for this discrepancy at the 99% confidence level. Accounting for the spatial distribution of elastic properties according to seismic tomography significantly improves the fit of the deformation model predictions and significantly influences estimates for parameters that describe the location of a pressurized magma chamber.

  16. Reconciling Earthquake Source Parameters from InSAR and Long-period Seismic Waveform Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakibay Senobari, N.; Funning, G.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Weston, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Comparisons between earthquake source parameters as determined by InSAR and the global centroid moment tensor (GCMT) catalogue show discrepancies between locations derived using these independent methods (Ferreira et al., 2011; Weston et al., 2011, 2012). Earthquake centroid location determination using InSAR data (named the 'InSAR Centroid Moment Tensor', or 'ICMT' location) is more robust, since it is independent of Earth velocity structure errors that impact on longperiod surface wave inversions used in the GCMT method. Ferreira et al (2011) showed that these discrepancies cannot be resolved at present by applying more detailed 3D Earth velocity structures from mantle tomography models. Earthquake location determination is dependent on the assumed velocity structure, not only in the GCMT method, but also in all of the seismic based earthquake source parameter inversions. Velocity structures are typically produced by seismic tomography, which itself depends on seismic phase travel times. These travel times are a function of source location and origin time, plus the path between the source and receivers. Errors in source location can therefore be compounded as errors in the velocity structure. In a preliminary study we analyze longperiod seismic data for four shallow continental earthquakes studied with InSAR - Zarand Mw 6.5 (Iran, 2005), Eureka Valley Mw 6.1 (California, 1993), Aiquile Mw 6.5 (Bolivia, 1998) and Wells Mw 6.0 (Nevada, 2008). We use the spectral element wave propagation package, SPECFEM3D GLOBE, and Earth model S40RTS (Ritsema et al., 2010) to calculate Green's functions and synthetic seismograms for these events using their ICMT source locations. Using a cross-correlation method we were able to estimate phase shifts for each source-receiver pair between synthetic and observed long period waveforms. We believe these phase shifts may correspond to unmodeled heterogeneity in the S40RTS model, and if systematically documented could provide additional

  17. Non-invasive shallow seismic source comparison for hazardous waste site investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, W.E.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.

    1994-12-31

    Many commonly used shallow seismic sources are unacceptable for hazardous waste site investigations because they risk exhumation of contaminants in the soil, they add contaminants (e.g. lead) which are not allowed by regulations, or they add new migration paths for contaminants. Furthermore, recently developed high frequency vibrators for shallow investigations could be more effective at some sites than non-invasive impulsive sources because of their ability to tailor the source spectrum and reduce interference. The authors show preliminary results of a comparison test of eight non-invasive impulsive and swept sources in preparation for seismic reflection profiling on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. Well log data are used to determine geologic contacts and to generate synthetic seismograms for the site. Common midpoint (CMP) seismic data for each source were collected at 95 geophone groups from 125 shot points along a 400m test line. Hydrophone data were obtained at 1.5m spacing between 61m and 133m depth in a hole near the center of the CMP line. As of March, 1994, brute stacks have been completed for three of the eight sources. Depth penetration is demonstrated in brute stacks and shot gathers, which show a 200ms reflector for all of the sources tested along portions of the line. Source effectiveness will also be evaluated by comparing images of several shallower reflectors (40--150ms) which are apparent in many of the records. Imaging of these reflectors appears to depend upon the ability of the source to generate sufficient high frequency energy (>100 Hz).

  18. Time-reversal in geophysics: the key for imaging a seismic source, generating a virtual source or imaging with no source (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourin, A.; Fink, M.

    2010-12-01

    The concept of time-reversal (TR) focusing was introduced in acoustics by Mathias Fink in the early nineties: a pulsed wave is sent from a source, propagates in an unknown media and is captured at a transducer array termed a “Time Reversal Mirror (TRM)”. Then the waveforms received at each transducer are flipped in time and sent back resulting in a wave converging at the original source regardless of the complexity of the propagation medium. TRMs have now been implemented in a variety of physical scenarios from GHz microwaves to MHz ultrasonics and to hundreds of Hz in ocean acoustics. Common to this broad range of scales is a remarkable robustness exemplified by observations that the more complex the medium (random or chaotic), the sharper the focus. A TRM acts as an antenna that uses complex environments to appear wider than it is, resulting for a broadband pulse, in a refocusing quality that does not depend on the TRM aperture. We show that the time-reversal concept is also at the heart of very active research fields in seismology and applied geophysics: imaging of seismic sources, passive imaging based on noise correlations, seismic interferometry, monitoring of CO2 storage using the virtual source method. All these methods can indeed be viewed in a unified framework as an application of the so-called time-reversal cavity approach. That approach uses the fact that a wave field can be predicted at any location inside a volume (without source) from the knowledge of both the field and its normal derivative on the surrounding surface S, which for acoustic scalar waves is mathematically expressed in the Helmholtz Kirchhoff (HK) integral. Thus in the first step of an ideal TR process, the field coming from a point-like source as well as its normal derivative should be measured on S. In a second step, the initial source is removed and monopole and dipole sources reemit the time reversal of the components measured in the first step. Instead of directly computing

  19. Seismic discrimination of the 2009 North Korean nuclear explosion based on regional source spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung

    2013-04-01

    Seismic discrimination of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) based on regional waveforms in continental margins is challenging due to large variations among waveforms. The 2009 North Korean UNE test was conducted in the far eastern Eurasian plate. The UNE was recorded by densely-located regional seismic stations, and regional waveforms exhibit highly path-dependent amplitude and arrival time features due to complex crustal structures. Regional source spectra are calculated by correcting for the path effects on the waveforms. A two-step approach is proposed for stable inversion of source-spectral parameters and path parameters. Characteristic overshoot features are observed in the source spectra, particularly strong in Pn. The path parameter, Q, is determined uniquely regardless of the source-spectral model implemented, which suggests stable separation of path effects from waveform records. The estimated source spectra fit well to a theoretical UNE source-spectral model. The fitness between the estimated and theoretical source-spectral models allows us to discriminate UNEs from natural earthquakes. Also, the P/S source-spectral ratio is observed to be an effective discriminant of UNE.

  20. Elastic parabolic equation solutions for underwater acoustic problems using seismic sources.

    PubMed

    Frank, Scott D; Odom, Robert I; Collis, Jon M

    2013-03-01

    Several problems of current interest involve elastic bottom range-dependent ocean environments with buried or earthquake-type sources, specifically oceanic T-wave propagation studies and interface wave related analyses. Additionally, observed deep shadow-zone arrivals are not predicted by ray theoretic methods, and attempts to model them with fluid-bottom parabolic equation solutions suggest that it may be necessary to account for elastic bottom interactions. In order to study energy conversion between elastic and acoustic waves, current elastic parabolic equation solutions must be modified to allow for seismic starting fields for underwater acoustic propagation environments. Two types of elastic self-starter are presented. An explosive-type source is implemented using a compressional self-starter and the resulting acoustic field is consistent with benchmark solutions. A shear wave self-starter is implemented and shown to generate transmission loss levels consistent with the explosive source. Source fields can be combined to generate starting fields for source types such as explosions, earthquakes, or pile driving. Examples demonstrate the use of source fields for shallow sources or deep ocean-bottom earthquake sources, where down slope conversion, a known T-wave generation mechanism, is modeled. Self-starters are interpreted in the context of the seismic moment tensor. PMID:23464007

  1. Time Reversal Imaging of Seismic Sources by the Spectral Element Method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmat, C.; Montagner, J.; Fink, M.; Capdeville, Y.; Clevede, E.; Tourin, A.

    2005-12-01

    The increasing power of computers and numerical methods (such as spectral elements methods) makes it possible to simulate more and more accurately the propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media and even to conceive new applications such as time reversal experiments within the three--dimensional Earth. These latter use the time reversal invariance and the spatial reciprocity of the wave equation. The idea is to construct a reverse movie of the propagation by sending the time--reversed recorded signals back from the receivers. The energy refocuses back at the location and the time of the original source. The concept of time-reversal has previously been successfully applied for acoustic waves in many fields such as medical imaging, oceanography and non destructive testing. For simulating the propagation of waves in the Earth as well as their time-reversed propagation, we used 2 different techniques, the normal mode summation technique (Gilbert and Dziewonski, 1975) and the spectral element method coupled with the modal solution (Capdeville et al., 2003). The first method is very accurate for 1D-earth models such as PREM whereas the second method is required for general heterogeneous 3D-models. For the first time, we have performed several synthetic and real data time-reversal experiments for seismic waves until the time of focalisation at the source. These tests show that sources are successfully localized in time and in space (though less accurately at depth), especially at very long period (> 200s) where the seismic properties of the Earth are well constrained. The corresponding movies are visible at the following address: http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~carene. We collect and send back the seismograms of the Global network of broadband seismic stations of the Federation of Digital Seismic Network (FDSN). We first consider a moderately large earthquake which can be considered as a point source in both time and space (Peru, June 23, 2001, Mw = 8.4). The

  2. Regional Seismic Identification Research:Processing, Transportability and Source Models

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W; Mayeda, K; Rodgers, A; Taylor, S; Dodge, D; Matzel, E; Ganzberger, M

    2004-07-09

    Our identification research for the past several years has focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. Small magnitudes lead to an emphasis on regional waveforms. It has been shown that at each test site where earthquake and explosions are in close proximity and recorded at the same station, clear differences in the regional body waves such as the relative high frequency amplitudes of P and S waves can be used to discriminate between event types. However path and source effects can also induce such differences, therefore these must be quantified and accounted for. We have been using a specific technique called Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC), with some success to account for some of these effects.

  3. Seismic signal of avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Ravanat, Xavier; Thibert, Emmanuel

    2010-05-01

    The characterization of avalanches with seismic signals is an important task. For risk mitigation, estimating remotely avalanche activity by means of seismic signals is a good alternative to direct observations that are often limited by visual conditions and observer's availability. In seismology, the main challenge is to discriminate avalanche signals within the natural earth seismic activity and background noise. Some anthropogenic low frequency (infra-sound) sources like helicopters also generate seismic signals. In order to characterize an avalanche seismic signal, a 3-axis broad band seismometer (Guralp 3T) has been set-up on a real scale avalanche test site in Lautaret (France). The sensor is located in proximity of 2 avalanche paths where avalanches can be artificially released. Preliminary results of seismic records are presented, correlated with avalanche physical parameters (volume released, velocity, energy).

  4. Source estimation with surface-related multiples—fast ambiguity-resolved seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Ning; Aravkin, Aleksandr; van Leeuwen, Tristan; Lin, Tim; Herrmann, Felix J.

    2016-03-01

    We address the problem of obtaining a reliable seismic image without prior knowledge of the source wavelet, especially from data that contain strong surface-related multiples. Conventional reverse-time migration requires prior knowledge of the source wavelet, which is either technically or computationally challenging to accurately determine; inaccurate estimates of the source wavelet can result in seriously degraded reverse-time migrated images, and therefore wrong geological interpretations. To solve this problem, we present a "wavelet-free" imaging procedure that simultaneously inverts for the source wavelet and the seismic image, by tightly integrating source estimation into a fast least-squares imaging framework, namely compressive imaging, given a reasonably accurate background velocity model. However, this joint inversion problem is difficult to solve as it is plagued with local minima and the ambiguity with respect to amplitude scalings, because of the multiplicative, and therefore nonlinear, appearance of the source wavelet in the otherwise linear formalism. We have found a way to solve this nonlinear joint-inversion problem using a technique called variable projection, and a way to overcome the scaling ambiguity by including surface-related multiples in our imaging procedure following recent developments in surface-related multiple prediction by sparse inversion. As a result, we obtain without prior knowledge of the source wavelet high-resolution seismic images, comparable in quality to images obtained assuming the true source wavelet is known. By leveraging the computationally efficient compressive-imaging methodology, these results are obtained at affordable computational costs compared with conventional processing work flows that include surface-related multiple removal and reverse-time migration.

  5. Source estimation with surface-related multiples—fast ambiguity-resolved seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Ning; Aravkin, Aleksandr; van Leeuwen, Tristan; Lin, Tim; Herrmann, Felix J.

    2016-06-01

    We address the problem of obtaining a reliable seismic image without prior knowledge of the source wavelet, especially from data that contain strong surface-related multiples. Conventional reverse-time migration requires prior knowledge of the source wavelet, which is either technically or computationally challenging to accurately determine; inaccurate estimates of the source wavelet can result in seriously degraded reverse-time migrated images, and therefore wrong geological interpretations. To solve this problem, we present a `wavelet-free' imaging procedure that simultaneously inverts for the source wavelet and the seismic image, by tightly integrating source estimation into a fast least-squares imaging framework, namely compressive imaging, given a reasonably accurate background velocity model. However, this joint inversion problem is difficult to solve as it is plagued with local minima and the ambiguity with respect to amplitude scalings because of the multiplicative, and therefore nonlinear, appearance of the source wavelet in the otherwise linear formalism. We have found a way to solve this nonlinear joint-inversion problem using a technique called variable projection, and a way to overcome the scaling ambiguity by including surface-related multiples in our imaging procedure following recent developments in surface-related multiple prediction by sparse inversion. As a result, we obtain without prior knowledge of the source wavelet high-resolution seismic images, comparable in quality to images obtained assuming the true source wavelet is known. By leveraging the computationally efficient compressive-imaging methodology, these results are obtained at affordable computational costs compared with conventional processing work flows that include surface-related multiple removal and reverse-time migration.

  6. Boundary separating the seismically active reelfoot rift from the sparsely seismic Rough Creek graben, Kentucky and Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Reelfoot rift is the most active of six Iapetan rifts and grabens in central and eastern North America. In contrast, the Rough Creek graben is one of the least active, being seismically indistinguishable from the central craton of North America. Yet the rift and graben adjoin. Hazard assessment in the rift and graben would be aided by identification of a boundary between them. Changes in the strikes of single large faults, the location of a Cambrian transfer zone, and the geographic extent of alkaline igneous rocks provide three independent estimates of the location of a structural boundary between the rift and the graben. The boundary trends north-northwest through the northeastern part of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex of Kentucky and Illinois, and has no obvious surface expression. The boundary involves the largest faults, which are the most likely to penetrate to hypocentral depths, and the boundary coincides with the geographic change from abundant seismicity in the rift to sparse seismicity in the graben. Because the structural boundary was defined by geologic variables that are expected to be causally associated with seismicity, it may continue to bound the Reelfoot rift seismicity in the future.

  7. A new approach to geographic partitioning of probabilistic seismic hazard using seismic source distance with earthquake extreme and perceptibility statistics: an application to the southern Balkan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    The southeastern European cities of Sofia and Thessaloniki are explored as example site-specific scenarios by geographically zoning their individual localized seismic sources based on the highest probabilities of magnitude exceedance. This is with the aim of determining the major components contributing to each city's seismic hazard. Discrete contributions from the selected input earthquake catalogue are investigated to determine those areas that dominate each city's prevailing seismic hazard with respect to magnitude and source-to-site distance. This work is based on an earthquake catalogue developed and described in a previously published paper by the author and components of a magnitude probability density function. Binned magnitude and distance classes are defined using a joint magnitude-distance distribution. The prevailing seismicity to each city-as defined by a child data set extracted from the parent earthquake catalogue for each city considered-is divided into distinct constrained data bins of small discrete magnitude and source-to-site distance intervals. These are then used to describe seismic hazard in terms of uni-variate modal values; that is, M* and D* which are the modal magnitude and modal source-to-site distance in each city's local historical seismicity. This work highlights that Sofia's dominating seismic hazard-that is, the modal magnitudes possessing the highest probabilities of occurrence-is located in zones confined to two regions at 60-80 km and 170-180 km from this city, for magnitude intervals of 5.75-6.00 Mw and 6.00-6.25 Mw respectively. Similarly, Thessaloniki appears prone to highest levels of hazard over a wider epicentral distance interval, from 80 to 200 km in the moment magnitude range 6.00-6.25 Mw.

  8. Seismic source parameters for microearthquakes of the Granada basin (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, J. M.; Vidal, F.; Romacho, M. D.; Martín-Marfil, J. M.; Posadas, A.; Luzón, F.

    1996-08-01

    Ninety-five microearthquakes of the Granada basin (southern Spain) with duration magnitudes ranging from 1.3 to 3.5 (moment magnitude from 0.9 to 2.5) have been spectrally analyzed with digital recordings from ten stations of the Andalusian Seismic Network. The coda- Q quality factor, Qc (assumed to be frequency dependent) was used instead of Qβ for the path correction and the Qα adopted was equal to ( {9}/{4}) Qc. The k parameter for site attenuation correction had values in the range of 0.02-0.05. Fourier displacement spectra were calculated for P- and S-waves and analyzed with respect to the source model of Brune (1970, 1971). Spectral parameters were automatically determined by the method of Snoke (1987). The seismic moment ranged from 10 17 to 10 20 dyne cm, with average M0(P) to M0(S) ratio of 1.02, and the source radii spanned from 0.14 to 0.40 km, with average r(P) to r(S) ratio of 1.3. The seismic energy values ranged from 1 × 10 3 to 9 × 10 7 J, with P- to S-energy ratio from 1 to 10 for about 85% of the events, whereas the static stress drop varied from 0.02 to 2.6 bar. The scaling relation between the seismic moment and the stress drop indicates a decrease in stress drop with decreasing seismic moment. Apparent stress is linearly correlated with stress drop and have on average similar values, and this points out to a partial stress drop.

  9. An active seismic experiment at Tenerife Island (Canary Island, Spain): Imaging an active volcano edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Yeguas, A.; Ibañez, J. M.; Rietbrock, A.; Tom-Teidevs, G.

    2008-12-01

    An active seismic experiment to study the internal structure of Teide Volcano was carried out on Tenerife, a volcanic island in Spain's Canary Islands. The main objective of the TOM-TEIDEVS experiment is to obtain a 3-dimensional structural image of Teide Volcano using seismic tomography and seismic reflection/refraction imaging techniques. At present, knowledge of the deeper structure of Teide and Tenerife is very limited, with proposed structural models mainly based on sparse geophysical and geological data. This multinational experiment which involves institutes from Spain, Italy, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Mexico will generate a unique high resolution structural image of the active volcano edifice and will further our understanding of volcanic processes.

  10. R and D -- Seismic report on the influence of the source region on regional seismic waveforms as inferred from modeling

    SciTech Connect

    App, F.N.; Jones, E.M.; Bos, R.J.

    1997-11-01

    The identification of an underground nuclear test from its seismic signal recorded by seismometers at regional distances is one of the fundamental scientific goals of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty R and D Program. The work being reported here addresses the issue of event discrimination through the use of computer models that use realistic simulations of nuclear explosions in various settings for the generation of near-regional and regional synthetic seismograms. The study exercises some unique, recently developed computer modeling capabilities that heretofore have not been available for discrimination studies. A variety of source conditions and regional paths are investigated. Under the assumptions of the study, conclusions are: (1) spall, non-linear deformation, and depth-of-burial do not substantially influence the near-regional signal and (2) effects due to basins along the regional path very much dominate over source region geology in influencing the signal at regional distances. These conclusions, however, are relevant only for the frequencies addressed, which span the range from 0.1 to 1 Hz for the regional calculations and 0.1 to 3 Hz for the near-regional calculations. They also are relevant only for the crudely ``China-like`` basin, crust, and mantle properties used in the study. If it is determined that further investigations are required, researchers may use this study as a template for such work.

  11. Broadband calibration of the R/V Marcus G. Langseth four-string seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoy, M.; Diebold, J.; Doermann, L.; Nooner, S.; Webb, S. C.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Crone, T. J.; Holmes, R. C.

    2009-08-01

    The R/V Marcus G. Langseth is the first 3-D seismic vessel operated by the U.S. academic community. With up to a four-string, 36-element source and four 6-km-long solid state hydrophone arrays, this vessel promises significant new insights into Earth science processes. The potential impact of anthropogenic sound sources on marine life is an important topic to the marine seismic community. To ensure that operations fully comply with existing and future marine mammal permitting requirements, a calibration experiment was conducted in the Gulf of Mexico in 2007-2008. Results are presented from deep (˜1.6 km) and shallow (˜50 m) water sites, obtained using the full 36-element (6600 cubic inches) seismic source. This array configuration will require the largest safety radii, and the deep and shallow sites provide two contrasting operational environments. Results show that safety radii and the offset between root-mean-square and sound exposure level measurements were highly dependent on water depth.

  12. Improved seismic risk assessment based on probabilistic multi-source information integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittore, M.; Wieland, M.; Duisheev, A.; Yasunov, P.

    2012-04-01

    Earthquakes threat millions of people all over the world. Assessing seismic risk, defined as the probability of occurrence of economical and social losses as consequence of an earthquake, both at regional and at local scale is a challenging, multi-disciplinary task. In order to provide reliable estimates, diverse information must be gathered by seismologists, geologists, engineers and civil authorities and carefully integrated, keeping into account the different uncertainties and the inherent spatio-temporal variability. An efficient and reliable assessment of the assets exposed to seismic hazard and the structural and social components of vulnerability are of particular importance, in order to undertake proper mitigation actions and to promptly and efficiently react to a possibly catastrophic natural event. An original approach is presented to assess seismic vulnerability and risk based on integration of information coming from several heterogeneous sources: remotely-sensed and ground-based panoramic images, manual digitization, already available information and expert knowledge. A Bayesian approach has been introduced to keep into account collected information while preserving priors and subjective judgment. In the broad perspective of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) and more specifically within EMCA (Earthquake Model Central Asia) project, an integrated, sound approach to seismic risk in countries with limited resources is an important but rewarding challenge. Improved vulnerability and risk models for the capital cities of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and their application in earthquake scenarios will be discussed.

  13. Large-explosive source, wide-recording aperture, seismic profiling on the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Jarchow, C.M. . Dept. of Geophysics); Catchings, R.D.; Lutter, W.J. )

    1994-02-01

    Clear subsurface seismic images have been obtained at low cost on the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The Columbia Plateau is perhaps the most notorious of all bad-data'' areas because large impedance contrasts in surface flood basalts severely degrade the seismic wavefield. This degradation was mitigated in this study via a large-explosive source, wide-recording aperture shooting method. The shooting method emphasizes the wide-angle portion of the wavefield, where Fermat's principle guarantees reverberation will not interfere with the seismic manifestations of crucial geologic interfaces. The basalt diving wave, normally discarded in standard common midpoint (CMP) seismic profiling, can be used to image basalt velocity structure via travel-time inversion. Maximum depth-penetration of the diving wave tightly constrains basalt-sediment interface depth. An arrival observed only at shot-receiver offsets greater than 15 km can be used to determine the velocity and geometry of basement via simultaneous inversion. The results from this study suggest that previous geologic hypotheses and hydrocarbon play concepts for the Columbia Plateau may have been in error.

  14. False alarms and mine seismicity: An example from the Gentry Mountain mining region, Utah. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.

    1992-09-23

    Mining regions are a cause of concern for monitoring of nuclear test ban treaties because they present the opportunity for clandestine nuclear tests (i.e. decoupled explosions). Mining operations are often characterized by high seismicity rates and can provide the cover for excavating voids for decoupling. Chemical explosions (seemingly as part of normal mining activities) can be used to complicate the signals from a simultaneous decoupled nuclear explosion. Thus, most concern about mines has dealt with the issue of missed violations to a test ban treaty. In this study, we raise the diplomatic concern of false alarms associated with mining activities. Numerous reports and papers have been published about anomalous seismicity associated with mining activities. As part of a large discrimination study in the western US (Taylor et al., 1989), we had one earthquake that was consistently classified as an explosion. The magnitude 3.5 disturbance occurred on May 14, 1981 and was conspicuous in its lack of Love waves, relative lack of high- frequency energy, low Lg/Pg ratio, and high m{sub b} {minus} M{sub s}. A moment-tensor solution by Patton and Zandt (1991) indicated the event had a large implosional component. The event occurred in the Gentry Mountain coal mining region in the eastern Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Using a simple source representation, we modeled the event as a tabular excavation collapse that occurred as a result of normal mining activities. This study raises the importance of having a good catalogue of seismic data and information about mining activities from potential proliferant nations.

  15. Advancing Explosion Source Theory through Experimentation: Results from Seismic Experiments Since the Moratorium on Nuclear Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, J. L.; Stump, B. W.

    2011-12-01

    On 23 September 1992, the United States conducted the nuclear explosion DIVIDER at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It would become the last US nuclear test when a moratorium ended testing the following month. Many of the theoretical explosion seismic models used today were developed from observations of hundreds of nuclear tests at NTS and around the world. Since the moratorium, researchers have turned to chemical explosions as a possible surrogate for continued nuclear explosion research. This talk reviews experiments since the moratorium that have used chemical explosions to advance explosion source models. The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment examined single-point, fully contained chemical-nuclear equivalence by detonating over a kiloton of chemical explosive at NTS in close proximity to previous nuclear explosion tests. When compared with data from these nearby nuclear explosions, the regional and near-source seismic data were found to be essentially identical after accounting for different yield scaling factors for chemical and nuclear explosions. The relationship between contained chemical explosions and large production mining shots was studied at the Black Thunder coal mine in Wyoming in 1995. The research led to an improved source model for delay-fired mining explosions and a better understanding of mining explosion detection by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The effect of depth was examined in a 1997 Kazakhstan Depth of Burial experiment. Researchers used local and regional seismic observations to conclude that the dominant mechanism for enhanced regional shear waves was local Rg scattering. Travel-time calibration for the IMS was the focus of the 1999 Dead Sea Experiment where a 10-ton shot was recorded as far away as 5000 km. The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments provided a comparison of fully- and partially-contained chemical shots with mining explosions, thus quantifying the reduction in seismic amplitudes associated with partial

  16. Source amplitudes of volcano-seismic signals determined by the amplitude source location method as a quantitative measure of event size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Lacson, Rudy; Maeda, Yuta; Figueroa, Melquiades S.; Yamashina, Tadashi; Ruiz, Mario; Palacios, Pablo; Ortiz, Hugo; Yepes, Hugo

    2013-05-01

    The amplitude source location (ASL) method, which uses high-frequency amplitudes under the assumption of isotropic S-wave radiation, has been shown to be useful for locating the sources of various types of volcano-seismic signals. We tested the ASL method by using synthetic seismograms and examined the source amplitudes determined by this method for various types of volcano-seismic signals observed at different volcanoes. Our synthetic tests indicated that, although ASL results are not strongly influenced by velocity structure and noise, they do depend on site amplification factors at individual stations. We first applied the ASL method to volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes at Taal volcano, Philippines. Our ASL results for the largest VT earthquake showed that a frequency range of 7-12 Hz and a Q value of 50 were appropriate for the source location determination. Using these values, we systematically estimated source locations and amplitudes of VT earthquakes at Taal. We next applied the ASL method to long-period events at Cotopaxi volcano and to explosions at Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador. We proposed a practical approach to minimize the effects of site amplifications among different volcano seismic networks, and compared the source amplitudes of these various volcano-seismic events with their seismic magnitudes. We found a proportional relation between seismic magnitude and the logarithm of the source amplitude. The ASL method can be used to determine source locations of small events for which onset measurements are difficult, and thus can estimate the sizes of events over a wider range of sizes compared with conventional hypocenter determination approaches. Previously, there has been no parameter widely used to quantify the sources of volcano-seismic signals. This study showed that the source amplitude determined by the ASL method may be a useful quantitative measure of volcano-seismic event size.

  17. Continuous, Large-Scale Processing of Seismic Archives for High-Resolution Monitoring of Seismic Activity and Seismogenic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldhauser, F.; Schaff, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Archives of digital seismic data recorded by seismometer networks around the world have grown tremendously over the last several decades helped by the deployment of seismic stations and their continued operation within the framework of monitoring earthquake activity and verification of the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. We show results from our continuing effort in developing efficient waveform cross-correlation and double-difference analysis methods for the large-scale processing of regional and global seismic archives to improve existing earthquake parameter estimates, detect seismic events with magnitudes below current detection thresholds, and improve real-time monitoring procedures. We demonstrate the performance of these algorithms as applied to the 28-year long seismic archive of the Northern California Seismic Network. The tools enable the computation of periodic updates of a high-resolution earthquake catalog of currently over 500,000 earthquakes using simultaneous double-difference inversions, achieving up to three orders of magnitude resolution improvement over existing hypocenter locations. This catalog, together with associated metadata, form the underlying relational database for a real-time double-difference scheme, DDRT, which rapidly computes high-precision correlation times and hypocenter locations of new events with respect to the background archive (http://ddrt.ldeo.columbia.edu). The DDRT system facilitates near-real-time seismicity analysis, including the ability to search at an unprecedented resolution for spatio-temporal changes in seismogenic properties. In areas with continuously recording stations, we show that a detector built around a scaled cross-correlation function can lower the detection threshold by one magnitude unit compared to the STA/LTA based detector employed at the network. This leads to increased event density, which in turn pushes the resolution capability of our location algorithms. On a global scale, we are currently building

  18. Probabilistic Hazard for Seismically-Induced Tsunamis in Complex Tectonic Contexts: Event Tree Approach to Seismic Source Variability and Practical Feasibility of Inundation Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorito, Stefano; Selva, Jacopo; Basili, Roberto; Romano, Fabrizio; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Piatanesi, Alessio

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) rests on computationally demanding numerical simulations of the tsunami generation and propagation up to the inundated coastline. We here focus on tsunamis generated by the co-seismic sea floor displacement, which constitute the vast majority of the observed tsunami events, i.e. on Seismic PTHA (SPTHA). For incorporating the full expected seismic source variability, aiming at a complete SPTHA, a very large number of numerical tsunami scenarios is typically needed, especially for complex tectonic contexts, where SPTHA is not dominated by large subduction earthquakes only. Here, we propose a viable approach for reducing the number of simulations for a given set of input earthquakes representing the modelled aleatory uncertainties of the seismic rupture parameters. Our approach is based on a preliminary analysis of the SPTHA of maximum offshore wave height (HMax) at a given target location, and assuming computationally cheap linear propagation. We start with defining an operational SPTHA framework in which we then introduce a simplified Event Tree approach, combined with a Green's functions approach, for obtaining a first controlled sampling and reduction of the effective source parameter space size. We then apply a two-stage filtering procedure to the 'linear' SPTHA results. The first filter identifies and discards all the sources producing a negligible contribution at the target location, for example the smallest earthquakes or those directing most of tsunami energy elsewhere. The second filter performs a cluster analysis aimed at selecting groups of source parameters producing comparable HMax profiles for each earthquake magnitude at the given test site. We thus select a limited set of sources that is subsequently used for calculating 'nonlinear' probabilistic inundation maps at the target location. We find that the optimal subset of simulations needed for inundation calculations can be obtained basing on just the

  19. The Lusi seismic experiment: An initial study to understand the effect of seismic activity to Lusi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyono, Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Masturyono, Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu; Muzli, Widodo, Handi Sulistyo; Sudrajat, Ajat; Sugiharto, Anton

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular Lumpur Sidoarjo (Lusi) eruption started in northeast Java on the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island [1,2]. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system [3] and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. The Lusi seismic experiment is a project aims to begin a detailed study of seismicity around the Lusi area. In this initial phase we deploy 30 seismometers strategically distributed in the area around Lusi and along the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. The purpose of the initial monitoring is to conduct a preliminary seismic campaign aiming to identify the occurrence and the location of local seismic events in east Java particularly beneath Lusi.This network will locate small event that may not be captured by the existing BMKG network. It will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-AW region and spatial and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. The goal of this study is to understand how the seismicity occurring along the Sunda subduction zone affects to the behavior of the Lusi eruption. Our study will also provide a large dataset for a qualitative analysis of earthquake triggering studies, earthquake-volcano and earthquake-earthquake interactions. In this study, we will extract Green's functions from ambient seismic noise data in order to image the shallow subsurface structure beneath LUSI area. The waveform cross-correlation technique will be apply to all of recordings of ambient seismic noise at 30 seismographic stations around the LUSI area. We use the dispersive behaviour of the retrieved Rayleigh waves to infer velocity structures in the shallow subsurface.

  20. The Lusi seismic experiment: An initial study to understand the effect of seismic activity to Lusi

    SciTech Connect

    Karyono; Mazzini, Adriano; Sugiharto, Anton; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Masturyono,; Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu; Muzli,; Widodo, Handi Sulistyo; Sudrajat, Ajat

    2015-04-24

    The spectacular Lumpur Sidoarjo (Lusi) eruption started in northeast Java on the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island [1,2]. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system [3] and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. The Lusi seismic experiment is a project aims to begin a detailed study of seismicity around the Lusi area. In this initial phase we deploy 30 seismometers strategically distributed in the area around Lusi and along the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. The purpose of the initial monitoring is to conduct a preliminary seismic campaign aiming to identify the occurrence and the location of local seismic events in east Java particularly beneath Lusi.This network will locate small event that may not be captured by the existing BMKG network. It will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-AW region and spatial and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. The goal of this study is to understand how the seismicity occurring along the Sunda subduction zone affects to the behavior of the Lusi eruption. Our study will also provide a large dataset for a qualitative analysis of earthquake triggering studies, earthquake-volcano and earthquake-earthquake interactions. In this study, we will extract Green’s functions from ambient seismic noise data in order to image the shallow subsurface structure beneath LUSI area. The waveform cross-correlation technique will be apply to all of recordings of ambient seismic noise at 30 seismographic stations around the LUSI area. We use the dispersive behaviour of the retrieved Rayleigh waves to infer velocity structures in the shallow subsurface.

  1. Utilization of near-source video and ground motion in the assessment of seismic source functions from mining explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, B.W.; Anderson, D.P.

    1995-04-01

    Constraint of the operative physical processes in the source region of mining explosions and the linkage to the generation of seismic waveforms provides the opportunity for controlling ground motion. Development of these physical models can also be used in conjunction with the ground motion data as diagnostics of blasting efficiency. In order to properly address the multi-dimensional aspect of data sets designed to constrain these sources, we are investigating a number of modem visualization tools that have only recently become available with new, high-speed graphical computers that can utilize relatively large data sets. The data sets that are combined in the study of mining explosion sources include near-source ground motion acceleration and velocity records, velocity of detonation measurements in each explosive hole, high speed film, video and shot design information.

  2. Zephyr: Open-source Parallel Seismic Waveform Inversion in an Integrated Python-based Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithyman, B. R.; Pratt, R. G.; Hadden, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic Full-Waveform Inversion (FWI) is an advanced method to reconstruct wave properties of materials in the Earth from a series of seismic measurements. These methods have been developed by researchers since the late 1980s, and now see significant interest from the seismic exploration industry. As researchers move towards implementing advanced numerical modelling (e.g., 3D, multi-component, anisotropic and visco-elastic physics), it is desirable to make use of a modular approach, minimizing the effort developing a new set of tools for each new numerical problem. SimPEG (http://simpeg.xyz) is an open source project aimed at constructing a general framework to enable geophysical inversion in various domains. In this abstract we describe Zephyr (https://github.com/bsmithyman/zephyr), which is a coupled research project focused on parallel FWI in the seismic context. The software is built on top of Python, Numpy and IPython, which enables very flexible testing and implementation of new features. Zephyr is an open source project, and is released freely to enable reproducible research. We currently implement a parallel, distributed seismic forward modelling approach that solves the 2.5D (two-and-one-half dimensional) viscoacoustic Helmholtz equation at a range modelling frequencies, generating forward solutions for a given source behaviour, and gradient solutions for a given set of observed data. Solutions are computed in a distributed manner on a set of heterogeneous workers. The researcher's frontend computer may be separated from the worker cluster by a network link to enable full support for computation on remote clusters from individual workstations or laptops. The present codebase introduces a numerical discretization equivalent to that used by FULLWV, a well-known seismic FWI research codebase. This makes it straightforward to compare results from Zephyr directly with FULLWV. The flexibility introduced by the use of a Python programming environment makes

  3. ActiveSeismoPick3D - automatic first arrival determination for large active seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paffrath, Marcel; Küperkoch, Ludger; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    We developed a tool for automatic determination of first arrivals in active seismic data based on an approach, that utilises higher order statistics (HOS) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC), commonly used in seismology, but not in active seismics. Automatic picking is highly desirable in active seismics as the number of data provided by large seismic arrays rapidly exceeds of what an analyst can evaluate in a reasonable amount of time. To bring the functionality of automatic phase picking into the context of active data, the software package ActiveSeismoPick3D was developed in Python. It uses a modified algorithm for the determination of first arrivals which searches for the HOS maximum in unfiltered data. Additionally, it offers tools for manual quality control and postprocessing, e.g. various visualisation and repicking functionalities. For flexibility, the tool also includes methods for the preparation of geometry information of large seismic arrays and improved interfaces to the Fast Marching Tomography Package (FMTOMO), which can be used for the prediction of travel times and inversion for subsurface properties. Output files are generated in the VTK format, allowing the 3D visualization of e.g. the inversion results. As a test case, a data set consisting of 9216 traces from 64 shots was gathered, recorded at 144 receivers deployed in a regular 2D array of a size of 100 x 100 m. ActiveSeismoPick3D automatically checks the determined first arrivals by a dynamic signal to noise ratio threshold. From the data a 3D model of the subsurface was generated using the export functionality of the package and FMTOMO.

  4. Application of normal mode theory to seismic source and structure problems: Seismic investigations of upper mantle lateral heterogeneity. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okal, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of the normal modes of the earth is investigated and used to build synthetic seismograms in order to solve source and structural problems. A study is made of the physical properties of spheroidal modes leading to a rational classification. Two problems addressed are the observability of deep isotropic seismic sources and the investigation of the physical properties of the earth in the neighborhood of the Core-Mantle boundary, using SH waves diffracted at the core's surface. Data sets of seismic body and surface waves are used in a search for possible deep lateral heterogeneities in the mantle. In both cases, it is found that seismic data do not require structural differences between oceans and continents to extend deeper than 250 km. In general, differences between oceans and continents are found to be on the same order of magnitude as the intrinsic lateral heterogeneity in the oceanic plate brought about by the aging of the oceanic lithosphere.

  5. Estimating primaries from passive seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hao; Wang, De-Li; Feng, Fei; Zhu, Heng

    2015-12-01

    Passive seismic sources can generally be divided into transient sources and noise sources. Noise sources are particularly the continuous, random small bursts, like background noise. The virtual-shot gathers obtained by the traditional cross-correlation algorithm from passive seismic data not only contain primaries, but also include surface-related multiples. Through estimating primaries by sparse inversion, we can directly obtain primaries from passive seismic data activated by transient sources, which are free of surface-related multiples. The problem of estimating primaries from passive seismic data activated by noise sources has not been discussed to date. First, by introducing the optimisation problem via the L1-norm constraint, this paper makes the traditional method of estimating primaries by sparse inversion from passive seismic data activated by transient sources improved, which overcomes the time-window problem. During the sparse inversion, the sparsifying transform, S = C2⊗W, is introduced. In the sparsifying-transform domain, the transformed data is more sparse, so the solution becomes more accurate. Second, this paper proposes estimating primaries from passive seismic data activated by noise sources. In the case of the sparse assumption not holding, we use the least-squares method based on the principle of minimum energy to estimate primaries from passive seismic data using the noise sources. Finally, we compare the primaries estimated from passive seismic data using transient sources and noise sources and analyse the characteristics of the estimated primaries obtained from two passive seismic data.

  6. A seismic study of potential tsunami sources in Kingston Harbor, Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbecq, K. L.; Hornbach, M.; Mann, P.; Brown, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Kingston, Jamaica has a long history of natural disasters, including large earthquakes, landslides, and tsunamis. The great Jamaican earthquakes of 1692 and 1907 both triggered ground liquefaction and massive landslides in and around Kingston. Tsunamis also formed near or within Kingston Harbor during these earthquakes. The tectonic setting of Kingston Harbor is poorly constrained; to date, no known active faults exist within the harbor. As a result, submarine slides triggered by nearby earthquakes are often cited as the most likely tsunami trigger. To constrain the regional geology of Kingston Harbor and assess the frequency and size of slope failures at the site, we collected 24 km of 2D high-resolution chirp lines during four days in April, 2009. From these data, we generated bathymetric and subsurface maps that we used to identify submarine mass movements, including a <1km2 deposit that is the likely source of the 1907 Kingston Harbor tsunami and a slump at Port Royal associated with 1692 earthquake and tsunami. Using the data to constrain slide parameters, we generated tsunami wave propagation models that generally match historical accounts. Besides clear evidence for multiple slide events, our analysis also suggests ongoing tectonic deformation within Kingston Harbor, and we propose that the harbor is part of an active pull-apart basin, with a strike-slip fault cutting east-west through the region. Future plans, which include coring and more detailed seismic imaging at the site, will place better constraints on regional geology and on the timing, frequency, and size of large earthquakes and tsunamis in Kingston, Jamaica, which we will use to assess geohazard risks.

  7. Lunar Surface Gravimeter as a lunar seismometer: Investigation of a new source of seismic information on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Taichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Lognonné, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Lunar seismology has always suffered from the limited number of seismic stations and limited coverage of the seismic network. Additional seismic data are necessary to probe the lunar interior in depth. Instead of a costly new deployment of seismometers, the aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Gravimeter (LSG) as a lunar seismometer. The LSG was designed to detect gravitational waves (associated to change in the curvature of spacetime) and tidal ground motion on the Moon, but the data were not investigated for seismic use partially because of a malfunction of the instrument. We first evaluated the influence of the malfunction through comparison with other Apollo seismic data and found that the effect of the malfunction is small, and the LSG detected seismic signals in a manner that was consistent with those of the other Apollo seismometers. Then we carried out source location with the additional station of the LSG. We relocated previously located deep moonquake nests to evaluate the influence of the LSG data, which are generally noisier than other Apollo seismic data. Then we located deep moonquake nests that were previously unlocatable. Forty deep moonquake nests were examined, and we located five new nests. One newly located nest, A284, was most likely to be located on the farside. This series of analyses indicates that the LSG functioned as a lunar seismometer, and that its data are useful for improving seismic analyses with the previous seismic data set of the Moon.

  8. Melt-Triggered Seismic Response in Hydraulically-Active Polar Ice: Observations and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.

    occurrence at night relative to that in the day. Contrary to our expectations, we find that the timing of GPS-derived surface speeds do not clearly indicate this seismic activity on any given day. Rather, these icequakes are best explained by peaks in localized strain gradients that develop at night when decreased subglacial water flux likely increases variability in basal traction. Additionally, our results appear comprise the first detailed seismic observations targeted at an actively draining lake. Our last study addresses the apparent deficiency in observed basal icequakes detected from Greenland lake site. To explain the lack of deep icequakes, we compute thresholds on the magnitude of detectable basal events within the network and thereby illustrate that surficial icequakes with similar magnitudes and spectral content are more likely to be observed. By restricting our attention to seismic events that produce lower frequency waveforms, we find a population of nearly monochromatic, sub-1Hz, large magnitude ( M w ≤ 3) seismic events borne from remote glaciogenic sources. In contrast to surficial icequakes, these events occur without significant bias between day and/or night periods and are best explained as glacial earthquakes generated by sliding episodes or iceberg calving events in the vicinity of Jakobshavn Glacier. These events occur daily and not correlate with the presence of local, surficial seismicity. We conclude with three general assertions regarding melt-triggered response characteristics of polar ice. First, hydraulic connections established by fracture events do not necessarily result in seismogenic basal stick slip, and therefore cannot necessarily be observed with conventional GPS monitoring. This was demonstrated at Taylor Glacier. Here, meltwater input to a hydraulic pathway led to fracture growth deep within a cold glacier without any change in surface speed. Second, the presence of melt-triggered basal sliding does not necessarily induce a clear

  9. Active Tectonics of off-Hokuriku, Central Japan, by two ships seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Naoko; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Abe, Susumu; Shiraishi, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    Along the southern to eastern margin of the Sea of Japan, active faults are densely distributed. These submarine active faults produced tsunami disasters, such as 1983 Nihonkai-chubu earthquake (M7.7) and 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake (M7.8). To estimate tsunami hazards, we performed deep seismic reflection profiling to obtain the information of tsunami source faults, off-Hokuriku area in the central part of Honshu, Japan. The survey is carried out as a part of research project named "the integrated research project on seismic and tsunami hazards around the Sea of Japan" funded by MEXT. To obtain long offset data in busy marine activity area, we used two vessels; a gun-ship with 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable with 156 channels and 480 cu. inch air-gun. Common-midpoint reflection data were acquired using two ships at 4 km offset. The survey area consists of stretched continental crust associated with rifting and opening of the Sea of Japan in early Miocene and is marked by densely distributed syn-rift normal faults. Fault reactivation of normal faults as reverse faults is common. Two phases of fault reactivation are identified from the seismic sections after termination of opening of the Sea of Japan. One is the late Miocene NS trending shortening deformation. This is produced by NS-trending convergence of the Shikoku basin (15 Ma), which belongs to the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) to SW Japan at Nankai trough (Kimura et al., 2005). After the initiation of the subduction of PHS at Nankai trough, the strong shortening deformation is terminated and the fold-and-thrust belt was unconformably covered by sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments. Some horizons of unconformities represent multiple events of shortening driven from the subduction interface. Some normal faults reactivated as active strike-slip and reverse faults in Quaternary. Well observed example is the 2007 Noto peninsula earthquake (M6.8). The 2007 Noto peninsula

  10. The 26 December 2004 tsunami source estimated from satellite radar altimetry and seismic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Tony Y.; Ji, Chen; Fu, L. -L.; Zlotnicki, Victor; Shum, C. K.; Yi, Yuchan; Hjorleifsdottir, Vala

    2005-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the first earthquake tsunami of its magnitude to occur since the advent of both digital seismometry and satellite radar altimetry. Both have independently recorded the event from different physical aspects. The seismic data has then been used to estimate the earthquake fault parameters, and a three-dimensional ocean-general-circulation-model (OGCM) coupled with the fault information has been used to simulate the satellite-observed tsunami waves. Here we show that these two datasets consistently provide the tsunami source using independent methodologies of seismic waveform inversion and ocean modeling. Cross-examining the two independent results confirms that the slip function is the most important condition controlling the tsunami strength, while the geometry and the rupture velocity of the tectonic plane determine the spatial patterns of the tsunami.

  11. Imaging spatial and temporal seismic source variations at Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands using back-projection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, C. L.; Lawrence, J. F.; Ebinger, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Imaging spatial and temporal seismic source variations at Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands using back-projection methods Cyndi Kelly1, Jesse F. Lawrence1, Cindy Ebinger2 1Stanford University, Department of Geophysics, 397 Panama Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 2University of Rochester, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627, USA Low-magnitude seismic signals generated by processes that characterize volcanic and hydrothermal systems and their plumbing networks are difficult to observe remotely. Seismic records from these systems tend to be extremely 'noisy', making it difficult to resolve 3D subsurface structures using traditional seismic methods. Easily identifiable high-amplitude bursts within the noise that might be suitable for use with traditional seismic methods (i.e. eruptions) tend to occur relatively infrequently compared to the length of an entire eruptive cycle. Furthermore, while these impulsive events might help constrain the dynamics of a particular eruption, they shed little insight into the mechanisms that occur throughout an entire eruption sequence. It has been shown, however, that the much more abundant low-amplitude seismic 'noise' in these records (i.e. volcanic or geyser 'tremor') actually represents a series of overlapping low-magnitude displacements that can be directly linked to magma, fluid, and volatile movement at depth. This 'noisy' data therefore likely contains valuable information about the processes occurring in the volcanic or hydrothermal system before, during and after eruption events. In this study, we present a new method to comprehensively study how the seismic source distribution of all events - including micro-events - evolves during different phases of the eruption sequence of Sierra Negra Volcano in the Galapagos Islands. We apply a back-projection search algorithm to image sources of seismic 'noise' at Sierra Negra Volcano during a proposed intrusion event. By analyzing

  12. Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, L. D. (Principal Investigator); Vanwormer, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery is proving to be exceptionally useful in delineating structural features in Alaska which have never been recognized on the ground. Previously unmapped features such as seismically active faults and major structural lineaments are especially evident. Among the more significant results of this investigation is the discovery of an active strand of the Denali fault. The new fault has a history of scattered activity and was the scene of a magnitude 4.8 earthquake on October 1, 1972. Of greater significance is the disclosure of a large scale conjugate fracture system north of the Alaska Range. This fracture system appears to result from compressive stress radiating outward from around Mt. McKinley. One member of the system was the scene of a magnitude 6.5 earthquake in 1968. The potential value of ERTS-1 imagery to land use planning is reflected in the fact that this earthquake occurred within 10 km of the site which was proposed for the Rampart Dam, and the fault on which it occurred passes very near the proposed site for the bridge and oil pipeline crossing of the Yukon River.

  13. Impacts of seismic activity on long-term repository performance at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, J.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Borns, D.J.; Arnold, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    Several effects of seismic activity on the release of radionuclides from a potential repository at Yucca Mountain are quantified. Future seismic events are predicted using data from the seismic hazard analysis conducted for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Phenomenological models are developed, including rockfall (thermal-mechanical and seismic) in unbackfilled emplacement drifts, container damage caused by fault displacement within the repository, and flow-path chance caused by changes in strain. Using the composite-porosity flow model (relatively large-scale, regular percolation), seismic events show little effect on total-system releases; using the weeps flow model (episodic pulses of flow in locally saturated fractures), container damage and flow-path changes cause over an order of magnitude increase in releases. In separate calculations using, more realistic representations of faulting, water-table rise caused by seismically induced changes in strain are seen to be higher than previously estimated by others, but not sufficient to reach a potential repository.

  14. Seismic Source Characteristics of Nuclear Explosions in Water-filled Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. R.; Sultanov, D. D.; Rimer, N.; Barker, B. W.

    - During the period from 1975 to 1979, the former Soviet Union conducted a series a six nuclear explosions in a water-filled cavity in salt which was created in 1968 by a tamped 27kt explosion at a depth of 597m at the Azgir test site at the north end of the Caspian Sea. Broadband, near-regional seismic data recorded from these tests have been processed and analyzed in an attempt to characterize the seismic source characteristics of these explosions and assess their relevance to the cavity decoupling evasion scenario. The results of these analyses indicate that the explosions in the water-filled cavity were not decoupled, but rather show evidence of enhanced seismic coupling with respect to that which would be expected from tamped explosions of the same yields in salt. Theoretical finite difference simulations of these tests have been conducted in which the complex, nonlinear interactions between the shock effects in both the water and surrounding salt medium have been explicitly modeled. The results of these simulations indicate that the most prominent yield dependent features of the observed seismic source functions can be largely explained by the dynamic interactions between the expanding and contracting steam bubbles generated by the explosions in water and the shock-wave reflections from the cavity wall. More specifically, it has been found that the shock-wave reflection from the cavity wall retards the expansion of the steam bubble in a yield dependent fashion relative to that expected in the open ocean, resulting in a smaller maximum bubble radius and a shorter bubble oscillation period.

  15. Model Space Exploration for Determining Landslide Source History from Long-Period Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Juan; Moretti, Laurent; Mangeney, Anne; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Kanamori, Hiroo; Capdeville, Yann; Calder, Eliza S.; Hibert, Clément; Smith, Patrick J.; Cole, Paul; LeFriant, Anne

    2015-02-01

    The seismic signals generated by two large volcanic debris avalanches (Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, 1997 and Mount St. Helens, USA, 1980) and a large rock-ice avalanche (Mount Steller, USA, 2005) have been analyzed. For the two debris avalanches, given the times and locations of such landslides, their signals were recorded by only a few seismic stations. Moreover, these signals cover only a very narrow frequency band and include considerable noise. The Mount Steller, on the contrary, was precisely recorded. For each event, the source mechanism (i.e., point force) has been determined by waveform inversion using at most two broadband seismic stations. The resulting force is very difficult to interpret in terms of landslide characteristics. A Monte-Carlo inversion was therefore performed by imposing a simple force model associated with the landslide, based on the schematic view of an accelerating/decelerating mass traveling down the slope. The best parameter set of the force model was then found by minimizing misfits and maximizing correlations between data and synthetic signals. This model appears to contain the minimum degree of complexity required to well reproduce the seismic data. We detail here the method for the Montserrat debris avalanche and then present it's validation on the well studied Mount St. Helens debris avalanche and the well recorded Mount Steller rock-ice avalanche. The horizontal and vertical components of the resulting force have different source time functions. The best force model compares well with the force obtained by waveform inversion. Finally, this simple force model was interpreted using analytical and empirical relations derived from the sliding block model, granular flow model and landslide studies. This made it possible to estimate the order of magnitude of the mass, flow duration and direction, initial topography slope, mean velocity and travel distance of the avalanches. For these three avalanches, the calculated characteristics

  16. Seismic Source Characteristics of Nuclear and Chemical Explosions in Granite from Hydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Heming; Rodgers, Arthur J.; Lomov, Ilya N.; Vorobiev, Oleg Y.

    2014-03-01

    Seismic source characteristics of low-yield (0.5-5 kt) underground explosions are inferred from hydrodynamic simulations using a granite material model on high-performance (parallel) computers. We use a non-linear rheological model for granite calibrated to historical near-field nuclear test data. Equivalent elastic P-wave source spectra are derived from the simulated hydrodynamic response using reduced velocity potentials. Source spectra and parameters are compared with the models of M ueller and M urphy (Bull Seism Soc Am 61:1675-1692, 1971, hereafter MM71) and D enny and J ohnson (Explosion source phenomenology, pp 1-24, 1991, hereafter DJ91). The source spectra inferred from the simulations of different yields at normal scaled depth-of-burial (SDOB) match the MM71 spectra reasonably well. For normally buried nuclear explosions, seismic moments are larger for the hydrodynamic simulations than MM71 (by 25 %) and for DJ91 (by over a factor of 2), however, the scaling of moment with yield across this low-yield range is consistent for our calculations and the two models. Spectra from our simulations show higher corner frequencies at the lower end of the 0.5-5.0 kt yield range and stronger variation with yield than the MM71 and DJ91 models predict. The spectra from our simulations have additional energy above the corner frequency, probably related to non-linear near-source effects, but at high frequencies the spectral slopes agree with the f -2 predictions of MM71. Simulations of nuclear explosions for a range of SDOB from 0.5 to 3.9 show stronger variations in the seismic moment than predicted by the MM71 and DJ91 models. Chemical explosions are found to generate higher moments by a factor of about two compared to nuclear explosions of the same yield in granite and at normal depth-of-burial, broadly consistent with comparisons of nuclear and chemical shots at the US Nevada Test Site (D enny, Proceeding of symposium on the non-proliferation experiment, Rockville

  17. 3D Finite-Difference Modeling of Acoustic Radiation from Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chael, E. P.; Aldridge, D. F.; Jensen, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Shallow seismic events, earthquakes as well as explosions, often generate acoustic waves in the atmosphere observable at local or even regional distances. Recording both the seismic and acoustic signals can provide additional constraints on source parameters such as epicenter coordinates, depth, origin time, moment, and mechanism. Recent advances in finite-difference (FD) modeling methods enable accurate numerical treatment of wave propagation across the ground surface between the (solid) elastic and (fluid) acoustic domains. Using a fourth-order, staggered-grid, velocity-stress FD algorithm, we are investigating the effects of various source parameters on the acoustic (or infrasound) signals transmitted from the solid earth into the atmosphere. Compressional (P), shear (S), and Rayleigh waves all radiate some acoustic energy into the air at the ground surface. These acoustic wavefronts are typically conical in shape, since their phase velocities along the surface exceed the sound speed in air. Another acoustic arrival with a spherical wavefront can be generated from the vicinity of the epicenter of a shallow event, due to the strong vertical ground motions directly above the buried source. Images of acoustic wavefields just above the surface reveal the radiation patterns and relative amplitudes of the various arrivals. In addition, we compare the relative effectiveness of different seismic source mechanisms for generating acoustic energy. For point sources at a fixed depth, double-couples with almost any orientation produce stronger acoustic signals than isotropic explosions, due to higher-amplitude S and Rayleigh waves. Of course, explosions tend to be shallower than most earthquakes, which can offset the differences due to mechanism. Low-velocity material in the shallow subsurface acts to increase vertical seismic motions there, enhancing the coupling to acoustic waves in air. If either type of source breaks the surface (e.g., an earthquake with surface rupture

  18. Global oceanic microseism sources as seen by seismic arrays and predicted by wave action models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, G.; Graham, N.; Landes, M.; Hubans, F.; Campillo, M.; Shapiro, N. M.; Paul, A.; Kedar, S.; Clayton, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    Estimated locations of P-wave microseism generation obtained from seismic arrays analyses are combined with ocean wave-wave interaction models to improve the understanding of microseism generation. Source regions of likely microseism generation are found by combining data from three different networks located in the northern hemisphere. For each array, teleseismic P-wave arrivals are extracted from station-station correlations of ambient noise associated with the secondary microseism peak. Estimates of the slowness and azimuth of the teleseismic body waves are obtained and source location probabilities are constructed by projecting these beamforming results to patches on the Earth's surface that represent likely source regions. The application of Longuet-Higgins' (LH) microseism excitation theory to hindcast ocean wave-wave interaction spectra combined with bathymetry has shown that microseism can be excited very locally in the deep oceans as a consequence of nonlinear atmosphere-ocean-seafloor interactions. We utilize this approach to identify the source mechanism and location associated with the body wave arrivals, and compare projection results from seismic array processing to predictions from globally distributed ocean wave-wave interaction intensities. Based on this technique we observe a number of previously undocumented potential source regions, such as the oceans south of Madagascar, or the southern tip of Australia. We find that spatial patterns of strong excitation generally agrees with the inferred source projections based on 12-day averaging noise correlations. Details of the distributions depend, however, on averaging choices applied to the 3-hourly sampled oceanic excitation functions. We therefore focus on the sensitivity and stability of the resulting spatio temporal correlations to choices of averaging, considering the mapping of temporally variable excitations into results of the array beamforming analysis. More specifically, we investigate to

  19. Point spread functions for earthquake source imaging: An interpretation based on seismic interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakahara, Hisashi; Haney, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various methods have been proposed and applied for earthquake source imaging, and theoretical relationships among the methods have been studied. In this study, we make a follow-up theoretical study to better understand the meanings of earthquake source imaging. For imaging problems, the point spread function (PSF) is used to describe the degree of blurring and degradation in an obtained image of a target object as a response of an imaging system. In this study, we formulate PSFs for earthquake source imaging. By calculating the PSFs, we find that waveform source inversion methods remove the effect of the PSF and are free from artifacts. However, the other source imaging methods are affected by the PSF and suffer from the effect of blurring and degradation due to the restricted distribution of receivers. Consequently, careful treatment of the effect is necessary when using the source imaging methods other than waveform inversions. Moreover, the PSF for source imaging is found to have a link with seismic interferometry with the help of the source-receiver reciprocity of Green’s functions. In particular, the PSF can be related to Green’s function for cases in which receivers are distributed so as to completely surround the sources. Furthermore, the PSF acts as a low-pass filter. Given these considerations, the PSF is quite useful for understanding the physical meaning of earthquake source imaging.

  20. Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) and Seismic Interpretation of Fluid Escape Features at the Vestnesa Ridge, West Svalbard Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitemeyer, K.; Goswami, B. K.; Minshull, T. A.; Westbrook, G. K.; Sinha, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous seafloor pockmarks with episodic methane venting have been reported at the Vestnesa Ridge (1200-1350 mbsl), a sediment drift in the West Svalbard continental margin gas hydrate province. What is driving the free gas through the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the seafloor pockmarks in the study area is not well understood, although over-pressured gas, water limitation and high salinity caused by the formation of hydrate are likely to be contributory factors. Knowledge of the fluid constituents within the acoustic chimney imaged by seismic reflection data could help in understanding how methane gas migrates through the HSZ. Electrical resistivity obtained from controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data offers improved information on fluid saturation, which helps predict the saturations of hydrate, gas, water and its salinity, within the fluid migration pathways. With the objective of a joint interpretation, we acquired coincident seismic reflection and CSEM data on the Vestnesa Ridge during 2011 and 2012. The CSEM survey was conducted over an active pockmark using a 100-m horizontal electric-dipole-source, 9 ocean-bottom electric-field (OBE) receivers and a towed tri-axis electric-field receiver. Preliminary interpretation of CSEM and seismic reflection data suggests high concentrations of free gas (40-65% pore saturation) within the main chimney, with a possible hydrate plug underneath the seafloor pockmark. High resistivity anomaly and high percentage of resistive fluids predicted within the chimney indicate water limitation to be an important factor enabling free gas migration to the seafloor. A deeper gas reservoir (>30% pore saturation) can also be observed, which appear to feed free gas into the HSZ. The rising gas from the deeper reservoir forms a heterogeneous distribution of hydrates (~10% pore saturation) and also feeds the fluid-escape features.

  1. Integrating seismological and geodetic datasets: New insights into the seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, T. B.; Valentine, A. P.; Gilligan, A.; Woodhouse, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismometers and continuous GPS receivers provide two different methods by which deformations arising from the same physical process, earthquake faulting, may be recorded. Despite this, studies of the seismic source have generally exploited only one or other of these techniques. Can new insights into earthquake sources and Earth structure be gained by combining multiple data types? Seismological studies of Earth processes and properties require observations of the seismic wavefield, and have typically been performed using only acceleration seismograms. If this dataset were to be augmented with continuous GPS time-series, which have different frequency and amplitude sensitivities, additional information on model parameters might be obtained. In any case, attempts must be made to construct models that simultaneously satisfy all the available data types. The first challenge in doing so is developing an understanding of how datasets might usefully be combined. Seismic source determination lends itself to this challenge because it is a relatively straightforward and and well understood problem. We have developed a new method to calculate complete synthetic displacement seismograms that include the static deformation, in a plane layered elastic earth model [1]. This method is appropriate for obtaining theoretical GPS time-series arising from moderately sized earthquakes for near-field stations. Our implementation allows CMT style source inversions to be carried out using continuous GPS data alone and in combination with long period teleseismic data. This application is demonstrated using time-series acquired for a recent Mw 6.9 earthquake. References: [1] O'Toole & Woodhouse, Numerically Stable Computation of Complete Synthetic Seismograms In Plane Layered Media, in prep.

  2. Commerce geophysical lineament - Its source, geometry, and relation to the Reelfoot rift and New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Hildenbrand, T.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Commerce geophysical lineament is a northeast-trending magnetic and gravity feature that extends from central Arkansas to southern Illinois over a distance of ???400 km. It is parallel to the trend of the Reelfoot graben, but offset ???40 km to the northwest of the western margin of the rift floor. Modeling indicates that the source of the aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies is probably a mafic dike swarm. The age of the source of the Commerce geophysical lineament is not known, but the linearity and trend of the anomalies suggest a relationship with the Reelfoot rift, which has undergone episodic igneous activity. The Commerce geophysical lineament coincides with several topographic lineaments, movement on associated faults at least as young as Quaternary, and intrusions of various ages. Several earthquakes (Mb > 3) coincide with the Commerce geophysical lineament, but the diversity of associated focal mechanisms and the variety of surface structural features along the length of the Commerce geophysical lineament obscure its relation to the release of present-day strain. With the available seismicity data, it is difficult to attribute individual earthquakes to a specific structural lineament such as the Commerce geophysical lineament. However, the close correspondence between Quaternary faulting and present-day seismicity along the Commerce geophysical lineament is intriguing and warrants further study.

  3. Seismic sources and stress transfer interaction among axial normal faults and external thrust fronts in the Northern Apennines (Italy): A working hypothesis based on the 1916-1920 time-space cluster of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco; Corti, Giacomo; Donne, Dario Delle; Sani, Federico; Piccardi, Luigi; Vannucci, Gianfranco; Genco, Riccardo; Martelli, Luca; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    In this study we analyse the main potential seismic sources in some axial and frontal sectors of the Northern Apennines, in Italy. This region was hit by a peculiar series of earthquakes that started in 1916 on the external thrust fronts near Rimini. Later, in 1917-1921, seismicity (up to Mw ≈ 6.5) shifted into the axial zone and clearly migrated north-westward, along the belt of active normal faults. The collection of fault-slip data focused on the active normal faults potentially involved in this earthquake series. The acquired data allowed us to better characterize the geometry and kinematics of the faults. In a few instances, the installation of local seismic networks during recent seismic sequences allowed the identification of the causative faults that are hinted to be also responsible for past earthquakes, particularly in the Romagna region and north-eastern Mugello. The Coulomb stress changes produced by the historical earthquakes generally brought closer to failure all the faults that supposedly caused the main seismic events of 1916-1921. However, the stress change magnitude is generally small and thus the static stress interaction among the main seismic sources is not supported by a significant seismic correlation. Significant stress change loading may be instead inferred for the triggering of a number of seismic events on neighbouring normal faults by the Garfagnana 1920 earthquake. In addition, the computation of the seismic stress changes suggests that seismic events with magnitude ≥ 6 may transmit stresses from the axial normal faults to specific external thrusts and vice versa. It is possible that a correlation may be made between loading applied by the major 1917-1920 extensional ruptures and the increased seismicity on the distal external thrusts.

  4. High-resolution seismic structure analysis of an active submarine mud volcano area off SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2015-04-01

    In order to better understand the subsurface structure related to an active mud volcano MV1 and to understand their relationship with gas hydrate/cold seep formation, we conducted deep-towed side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP), multibeam echo sounding (MBES), and multi-channel reflection seismic (MCS) surveys off SW Taiwan from 2009 to 2011. As shown in the high-resolution sub-bottom profiler and EK500 sonar data, the detailed structures reveal more gas seeps and gas flares in the study area. In addition, the survey profiles show several submarine landslides occurred near the thrust faults. Based on the MCS results, we can find that the MV1 is located on top of a mud diapiric structure. It indicates that the MV1 has the same source as the associated mud diapir. The blanking of the seismic signal may indicate the conduit for the upward migration of the gas (methane or CO2). Therefore, we suggest that the submarine mud volcano could be due to a deep source of mud compressed by the tectonic convergence. Fluids and argillaceous materials have thus migrated upward along structural faults and reach the seafloor. The gas-charged sediments or gas seeps in sediments thus make the seafloor instable and may trigger submarine landslides.

  5. Complex Seismic Source Inversion Method with the Data Covariance Matrix: Application to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, A.; Yagi, Y.

    2010-12-01

    In the finite fault source inversion, seismic source area has usually been approximated by simple fault plane model for simplicity. This approximation, however, may generate the correlated modeling errors originated from the focal mechanism variation in a rupture process, which contributed to biased results in the seismic waveform analysis. This effect becomes predominant for analysis of seismic data around the nodal planes. From CMT inversion analysis, the January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake may accompany both strike and dip slip on different fault planes (Nettles and Hjörleifsdóttir, 2010, GJI). In addition, one single fault plane model cannot explain teleseismic body wave well due to complex source process and existence of many mechanism-sensitive stations. For waveform analysis of this earthquake, we developed inversion method that estimates moment tensor component for each space knot in seismic source area and applied it to teleseismic P-wave data recorded at FDSN network stations and Global Seismograph Network stations. In general, such high flexibility source model had caused the unstable and unrealistic result. To avoid this problem, we applied new formulation that considers the data covariance components of observed errors and modeling errors originated from uncertainty of Green's function (Yagi and Fukahata, 2010, AGU). It has already been shown that the new formulation can derive plausible solution without non-negative constraint. For inversion, we arranged space knots on the plane of which strike and dip are same as that of the USGS finite fault model. We confirmed that result is robust against change of strike, dip and knot interval. The result shows that P-axes in main rupture area are north-south direction, which is consistent with stress field of the region. Main rupture area can be divided into 3 patches, near the hypocenter, east and west side of the hypocenter patch, which have different focal mechanisms. Reverse fault is dominant in the

  6. Seismic swarm associated with the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Alaska: earthquake locations and source parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Natalia G.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Hansen, Roger A.

    2011-01-01

    An energetic seismic swarm accompanied an eruption of Kasatochi Volcano in the central Aleutian volcanic arc in August of 2008. In retrospect, the first earthquakes in the swarm were detected about 1 month prior to the eruption onset. Activity in the swarm quickly intensified less than 48 h prior to the first large explosion and subsequently subsided with decline of eruptive activity. The largest earthquake measured as moment magnitude 5.8, and a dozen additional earthquakes were larger than magnitude 4. The swarm exhibited both tectonic and volcanic characteristics. Its shear failure earthquake features were b value = 0.9, most earthquakes with impulsive P and S arrivals and higher-frequency content, and earthquake faulting parameters consistent with regional tectonic stresses. Its volcanic or fluid-influenced seismicity features were volcanic tremor, large CLVD components in moment tensor solutions, and increasing magnitudes with time. Earthquake location tests suggest that the earthquakes occurred in a distributed volume elongated in the NS direction either directly under the volcano or within 5-10 km south of it. Following the MW 5.8 event, earthquakes occurred in a new crustal volume slightly east and north of the previous earthquakes. The central Aleutian Arc is a tectonically active region with seismicity occurring in the crusts of the Pacific and North American plates in addition to interplate events. We postulate that the Kasatochi seismic swarm was a manifestation of the complex interaction of tectonic and magmatic processes in the Earth's crust. Although magmatic intrusion triggered the earthquakes in the swarm, the earthquakes failed in context of the regional stress field.

  7. Seismic swarm associated with the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Alaska: Earthquake locations and source parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, N.A.; Prejean, S.; Hansen, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    An energetic seismic swarm accompanied an eruption of Kasatochi Volcano in the central Aleutian volcanic arc in August of 2008. In retrospect, the first earthquakes in the swarm were detected about 1 month prior to the eruption onset. Activity in the swarm quickly intensified less than 48 h prior to the first large explosion and subsequently subsided with decline of eruptive activity. The largest earthquake measured as moment magnitude 5.8, and a dozen additional earthquakes were larger than magnitude 4. The swarm exhibited both tectonic and volcanic characteristics. Its shear failure earthquake features were b value = 0.9, most earthquakes with impulsive P and S arrivals and higher-frequency content, and earthquake faulting parameters consistent with regional tectonic stresses. Its volcanic or fluid-influenced seismicity features were volcanic tremor, large CLVD components in moment tensor solutions, and increasing magnitudes with time. Earthquake location tests suggest that the earthquakes occurred in a distributed volume elongated in the NS direction either directly under the volcano or within 5-10 km south of it. Following the MW 5.8 event, earthquakes occurred in a new crustal volume slightly east and north of the previous earthquakes. The central Aleutian Arc is a tectonically active region with seismicity occurring in the crusts of the Pacific and North American plates in addition to interplate events. We postulate that the Kasatochi seismic swarm was a manifestation of the complex interaction of tectonic and magmatic processes in the Earth's crust. Although magmatic intrusion triggered the earthquakes in the swarm, the earthquakes failed in context of the regional stress field. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Seismic source functions from free-field ground motions recorded on SPE: Implications for source models of small, shallow explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougier, Esteban; Patton, Howard J.

    2015-05-01

    Reduced displacement potentials (RDPs) for chemical explosions of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) in granite at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site are estimated from free-field ground motion recordings. Far-field P wave source functions are proportional to the time derivative of RDPs. Frequency domain comparisons between measured source functions and model predictions show that high-frequency amplitudes roll off as ω- 2, but models fail to predict the observed seismic moment, corner frequency, and spectral overshoot. All three features are fit satisfactorily for the SPE-2 test after cavity radius Rc is reduced by 12%, elastic radius is reduced by 58%, and peak-to-static pressure ratio on the elastic radius is increased by 100%, all with respect to the Mueller-Murphy model modified with the Denny-Johnson Rc scaling law. A large discrepancy is found between the cavity volume inferred from RDPs and the volume estimated from laser scans of the emplacement hole. The measurements imply a scaled Rc of ~5 m/kt1/3, more than a factor of 2 smaller than nuclear explosions. Less than 25% of the seismic moment can be attributed to cavity formation. A breakdown of the incompressibility assumption due to shear dilatancy of the source medium around the cavity is the likely explanation. New formulas are developed for volume changes due to medium bulking (or compaction). A 0.04% decrease of average density inside the elastic radius accounts for the missing volumetric moment. Assuming incompressibility, established Rc scaling laws predicted the moment reasonable well, but it was only fortuitous because dilation of the source medium compensated for the small cavity volume.

  9. Size of seismic events during borehole injections: the effects of source mechanisms, stress and pore pressure distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Ondovcin, T.; Zhao, P.

    2012-12-01

    The fluid injection in boreholes is usually carried out during industrial operations targeted to permeability enhacement of hydrocarbon reservoirs and geothermal heat exchangers. Pressures in the order of 10 MPa are used in order to decrease the effective normal stress that results in shearing of preexisting fractures and/or creating new tensile fractures. A part of the deformation is brittle, which is expressed in the form of small seismic events. In most cases only microearthquakes with manitudes below 2 are generated, which is namely the case of treatments in hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, treatments of geothermal fields are often associated with small magnitude earthquakes (ML from 2 to 4), which represents a concern for the seismic risk of these operations. This happened in the Soultz (France), Basel (Switzerland) and also Berlin (Salvador) geothermal projects. Interestingly, the largest events occurred after shut-in of the well, or during the latest phase of injection. However, increased seismicity usually continues even long after bleeding-off the well. The largest events occur not only late during the injections, but also far from the injection well, at the edge of the seismically activated rock volume. Recent results of the frequency-magnitude analysis of the Basel seismicity show anticorrelation of b-value with the distance from the well, which proves the tendency of larger events to occurr far from the well. Other studies show the increase of stress drops with the distance to the injection, which might indicate a common intrinsic mechanism reposnsible for these two observations. The existing data point to two apparent discrepancies: (i) the largest events occur at larger distances where the stress field is less perturbed by the fluid injection and (ii) the largest events occur after injection when the fluid pressure in the rock volume is decreasing. We use the available results of fluid injection seismicity and apply our own analyses of frequency size

  10. Similarity in seismic source scaling relations for tectonic and volcanic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobin, Vyacheslav M.; Bretón, Mauricio; Navarro, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that many brittle failure processes follow self-similar scaling relationships. Both tectonic earthquakes and fractures created during laboratory experiments have source dimensions that follow power law distributions. Here, using seismic observations from the 1998 to 2011 eruption of Volcan de Colima, an andesite volcano in Mexico, we observe analogous scaling relationships for seismicity produced by pyroclastic flows, rockfalls and volcanic explosions. Using duration as a measure of event size, we find that the seismic signals generated by pyroclastic flows and rockfalls during periods of lava extrusion have frequency-size relationships that follow power-law distributions over the full range of observed event sizes. Such observations are typical of fractal sets and may suggest self-similarity in the dimensions of fractures produced by the gravitational collapse of lava structures. When using a counter force of eruption as the measure of event size, volcanic explosion earthquakes also follow power-law distributions. However, as demonstrated by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, differences in scaling relationships are observed for explosion earthquakes with the counter force of eruption smaller and larger than 4 × 109 N. This breakdown in self-similarity between small and large events is similar to that observed for tectonic earthquakes.

  11. Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kyle Richard

    2014-10-01

    The HH Seismic hammer is a large, "weight-drop" source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

  12. Imaging Seismic Source Variations Using Back-Projection Methods at El Tatio Geyser Field, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, C. L.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    During October 2012, 51 geophones and 6 broadband seismometers were deployed in an ~50x50m region surrounding a periodically erupting columnar geyser in the El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile. The dense array served as the seismic framework for a collaborative project to study the mechanics of complex hydrothermal systems. Contemporaneously, complementary geophysical measurements (including down-hole temperature and pressure, discharge rates, thermal imaging, water chemistry, and video) were also collected. Located on the western flanks of the Andes Mountains at an elevation of 4200m, El Tatio is the third largest geyser field in the world. Its non-pristine condition makes it an ideal location to perform minutely invasive geophysical studies. The El Jefe Geyser was chosen for its easily accessible conduit and extremely periodic eruption cycle (~120s). During approximately 2 weeks of continuous recording, we recorded ~2500 nighttime eruptions which lack cultural noise from tourism. With ample data, we aim to study how the source varies spatially and temporally during each phase of the geyser's eruption cycle. We are developing a new back-projection processing technique to improve source imaging for diffuse signals. Our method was previously applied to the Sierra Negra Volcano system, which also exhibits repeating harmonic and diffuse seismic sources. We back-project correlated seismic signals from the receivers back to their sources, assuming linear source to receiver paths and a known velocity model (obtained from ambient noise tomography). We apply polarization filters to isolate individual and concurrent geyser energy associated with P and S phases. We generate 4D, time-lapsed images of the geyser source field that illustrate how the source distribution changes through the eruption cycle. We compare images for pre-eruption, co-eruption, post-eruption and quiescent periods. We use our images to assess eruption mechanics in the system (i.e. top-down vs. bottom-up) and

  13. The performance of the stations of the Romanian seismic network in monitoring the local seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeleanu, Luminita Angela; Neagoe, Cristian

    2014-05-01

    The seismic survey of the territory of Romania is mainly performed by the national seismic network operated by the National Institute for Earth Physics of Bucharest. After successive developments and upgrades, the network consists at present of 123 permanent stations equipped with high quality digital instruments (Kinemetrics K2, Quantera Q330, Quantera Q330HR, PS6-24 and Basalt digitizers) - 102 real time and 20 off-line stations - which cover the whole territory of the country. All permanent stations are supplied with 3 component accelerometers (episenzor type), while the real time stations are in addition provided with broadband (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T, STS2) or short period (SH-1, S13, Mark l4c, Ranger, GS21, L22_VEL) velocity sensors. Several communication systems are currently used for the real time data transmission: an analog line in UHF band, a line through GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), a dedicated line through satellite, and a dedicated line provided by the Romanian Special Telecommunication Service. During the period January 1, 2006 - June 30, 2013, 5936 shallow depth seismic events - earthquakes and quarry blasts - with local magnitude ML ≥ 1.2 were localized on the Romanian territory, or in its immediate vicinity, using the records of the national seismic network; 1467 subcrustal earthquakes (depth ≥ 60 km) with magnitude ML ≥ 1.9 were also localized in the Vrancea region, at the bend of the Eastern Carpathians. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the individual contribution of the real time seismic stations to the monitoring of the local seismicity. The performance of each station is estimated by taking into consideration the fraction of events that are localised using the station records, compared to the total number of events of the catalogue, occurred during the time of station operation. Taking into account the nonuniform space distribution of earthquakes, the location of the site and the recovery

  14. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Activity of Deep Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Ohki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Suyehiro, K.

    2003-12-01

    In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) has been started since June 2003 for about one year. It is a part of the MARGINS program (US-JAPAN COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: MULTI-SCALE SEISMIC IMAGING OF THE MARIANA SUBDUCTION FACTORY), and the aim of this observation is the crustal and mantle structure modeling by using passive and active seismic sources. The 50 and 8 LTOBSs are owned by LDEO and ERI, respectively, and they were deployed during the cruise of R/V Kaiyo (Jamstec), KY03-06. Prior to this experiment, we made a pilot long-term seismic array observation in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs, deployed in Oct. 2001 by R/V Yokosuka (Jamstec) and recovered in Feb. 2003 by R/V Kaiyo. This LTOBS has been developed by ERI, which has the PMD sensor (WB2023LP) and a titanium sphere housing (D=50cm) and was already used in several long-term observations (ex. trans-PHS array observation presented at the AGU fall meeting, 2000, S51B-02). Two of 10 LTOBSs could not be recovered due to malfunction of the releasing system, and one recovered had a trouble in the sensor control unit. But, seven others have obtained more than 11 months long data continuously. As passive source studies of these observations use characteristic deep earthquakes in this area, the activity of them will be introduced in this presentation, from the data obtained just above them. At the first step, difference of hypocenters of known events, listed on the PDE catalog, is examined. There are 59 events of epicenters within a circular area centered at 19° N, 145° E with radius of 1000km from the catalog during the observation. P and S arrivals are picked by using the WIN system, and the iasp91 model (only {VP} with {{VP}/{V_S}=1.732}) is used for the hypocenter determination. Station corrections are applied only for the sediment layer, estimated from several arrival time data of P and P-S converted

  15. Using supervirtual first arrivals in controlled-source hardrock seismic imaging—well worth the effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, Joachim; Malehmir, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Varied applications of seismic interferometry have arisen in the last decade; however, the potential of the method to improve reflection seismic processing in hardrock environments has not explicitly been regarded. Therefore, in this paper we investigate the potential of retrieving the first arrivals originally hindered by high noise level in the exploitation of controlled-source data acquired over the iron-oxide apatite-rich deposit at Grängesberg (Sweden) and its mining-induced structures. The supervirtual first arrivals retrieved using interferometry methodologies allowed first breaks to be picked more extensively than in the original data. Revised static corrections significantly improved the linearity of the first arrivals and continuity of reflections in the source gathers. Especially, reflections considerably enhanced in the source gathers stacked constructively in the final section. Comparison with geological data, supported by traveltime forward modelling, indicates that these reflections represent the unmined part of the deposit. Other reflections at shallower depth are interpreted as anthropogenic faults possibly located at lithological contacts. Tomographic inversion was also run using the augmented traveltime data. The greater resolution and penetration of this new tomographic image allowed better bridging with the results of the reflection seismic section. Velocity anomalies depict the presence of mining-induced structures and a potential `Brewery fault', which is believed to put at risks an urban area. Even though the potential of first-arrival retrieval seems to be case-dependent, this study illustrates that interferometry may substantially improve the accuracy of static corrections and subsequent stack for hardrock imaging, as well as in the penetration and resolution of traveltime tomograms.

  16. Using supervirtual first arrivals in controlled-source hardrock seismic imaging — well worth the effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, Joachim; Malehmir, Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Varied applications of seismic interferometry have arisen in the last decade; however, the potential of the method to improve reflection seismic processing in hardrock environments has not explicitly been regarded. Therefore, in this paper we investigate the potential of retrieving the first arrivals originally hindered by high noise level in the exploitation of controlled-source data acquired over the iron-oxide apatite-rich deposit at Grängesberg (Sweden) and its mining-induced structures. The supervirtual first arrivals retrieved using interferometry methodologies allowed first breaks to be picked more extensively than in the original data. Revised static corrections significantly improved the linearity of the first arrivals and continuity of reflections in the source gathers. Especially, reflections considerably enhanced in the source gathers stacked constructively in the final section. Comparison with geologic data, supported by traveltime forward modelling, indicates that these reflections represent the unmined part of the deposit. Other reflections at shallower depth are interpreted as anthropogenic faults possibly located at lithological contacts. Tomographic inversion was also run using the augmented traveltime data. The greater resolution and penetration of this new tomographic image allowed better bridging with the results of the reflection seismic section. Velocity anomalies depict the presence of mining-induced structures and a potential "Brewery fault", which is believed to put at risks an urban area. Even though the potential of first-arrival retrieval seems to be case-dependent, this study illustrates that interferometry may substantially improve the accuracy of static corrections and subsequent stack for hardrock imaging, as well as in the penetration and resolution of traveltime tomograms.

  17. A FORTRAN source library for quaternion algebra. Application to multicomponent seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaïssa, A.; Benaïssa, Z.; Ouadfeul, S.

    2012-04-01

    The quaternions, named also hypercomplex numbers, constituted of a real part and three imaginary parts, allow a representation of multi-component physical signals in geophysics. In FORTRAN, the need for programming new applications and extend programs to quaternions requires to enhance capabilities of this language. In this study, we develop, in FORTRAN 95, a source library which provides functions and subroutines making development and maintenance of programs devoted to quaternions, equivalent to those developed for the complex plane. The systematic use of generic functions and generic operators: 1/ allows using FORTRAN statements and operators extended to quaternions without renaming them and 2/ makes use of this statements transparent to the specificity of quaternions. The portability of this library is insured by the standard FORTRAN 95 strict norm which is independent of operating systems (OS). The execution time of quaternion applications, sometimes crucial for huge data sets, depends, generally, of compilers optimizations by the use of in lining and parallelisation. To show the use of the library, Fourier transform of a real one dimensional quaternionic seismic signal is presented. Furthermore, a FORTRAN code, which computes the quaternionic singular values decomposition (QSVD), is developed using the proposed library and applied to wave separation in multicomponent vertical seismic profile (VSP) synthetic and real data. The extracted wavefields have been highly enhanced, compared to those obtained with median filter, due to QSVD which takes into account the correlation between the different components of the seismic signal. Taken in total, these results demonstrate that use of quaternions can bring a significant improvement for some processing on three or four components seismic data. Keywords: Quaternion - FORTRAN - Vectorial processing - Multicomponent signal - VSP - Fourier transform.

  18. Complete regional waveform modeling to estimate seismic velocity structure and source parameters for CTBT monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bredbeck, T; Rodgers, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    The velocity structures and source parameters estimated by waveform modeling provide valuable information for CTBT monitoring. The inferred crustal and uppermost mantle structures advance understanding of tectonics and guides regionalization for event location and identification efforts. Estimation of source parameters such as seismic moment, depth and mechanism (whether earthquake, explosion or collapse) is crucial to event identification. In this paper we briefly outline some of the waveform modeling research for CTBT monitoring performed in the last year. In the future we will estimate structure for new regions by modeling waveforms of large well-observed events along additional paths. Of particular interest will be the estimation of velocity structure in aseismic regions such as most of Africa and the Former Soviet Union. Our previous work on aseismic regions in the Middle East, north Africa and south Asia give us confidence to proceed with our current methods. Using the inferred velocity models we plan to estimate source parameters for smaller events. It is especially important to obtain seismic moments of earthquakes for use in applying the Magnitude-Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC; Taylor et al., 1999) to regional body-wave amplitudes for discrimination and calibrating the coda-based magnitude scales.

  19. Development of Active Seismic Vector-Wavefield Imaging Technology for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Hardage; J. L. Simmons, Jr.; M. DeAngelo

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the development and testing of vector-wavefield seismic sources that can generate shear (S) waves that may be valuable in geothermal exploration and reservoir characterization. Also described is a 3-D seismic data-processing effort to create images of Rye Patch geothermal reservoir from 3-D sign-bit data recorded over the geothermal prospect. Two seismic sources were developed and tested in this study that can be used to illuminate geothermal reservoirs with S-waves. The first was an explosive package that generates a strong, azimuth-oriented, horizontal force vector when deployed in a conventional shot hole. This vector-explosive source has never been available to industry before. The second source was a dipole formed by operating two vertical vibrators in either a force or phase imbalance. Field data are shown that document the strong S-wave modes generated by these sources.

  20. The Source Physics Experiments and Advances in Seismic Explosion Monitoring Predictive Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Antoun, T.; Pitarka, A.; Xu, H.; Vorobiev, O.; Rodgers, A.; Pyle, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Despite many years of study, a number of seismic explosion phenomena remain incompletely understood. These include the generation of S-waves, the variation of absolute amplitudes with emplacement media differences, and the occasional generation of reversed Rayleigh waves. Advances in numerical methods and increased computational power have improved the physics contained in the modeling software and it is possible to couple non-linear source-region effects to far-field propagation codes to predict seismic observables, thereby allowing end-to-end modeling. However, despite the many sensor records from prior nuclear tests, the data available to develop and validate the simulation codes remain limited in important ways. This is particularly the case for the range of both scaled depths of burial and of source media, especially where full near-field to far-field records are available along with key quantitative parameter data such as depth, material properties and yield. For example, two of the most widely used seismic source models, both derived from the best empirical data, Mueller and Murphy (1971) and Denny and Johnson (1989), predict very different amplitudes for greatly overburied explosions. To provide new data to advance predictive explosion modeling capabilities, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is carrying out a series of seven chemical explosions over a range of depths and sizes in the Source Physics Experiments (SPE). These shots are taking place in the Climax Stock granite at the Nevada National Security Site, the location where reversed Rayleigh waves from a nuclear test were first observed in the 1962 HARDHAT event (e.g. Brune and Pomeroy, 1963). Three of the SPE shots have successfully occurred so far, and were well-recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation including seismic, acoustic, EM, and remote sensing. In parallel, detailed site characterization has been conducted using geologic mapping and sampling, borehole geophysics

  1. Iceberg calving as a primary source of regional‐scale glacier‐generated seismicity in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neel, Shad; Larsen, Christopher F.; Rupert, Natalia; Hansen, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Since the installation of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network in the 1970s, data analysts have noted nontectonic seismic events thought to be related to glacier dynamics. While loose associations with the glaciers of the St. Elias Mountains have been made, no detailed study of the source locations has been undertaken. We performed a two-step investigation surrounding these events, beginning with manual locations that guided an automated detection and event sifting routine. Results from the manual investigation highlight characteristics of the seismic waveforms including single-peaked (narrowband) spectra, emergent onsets, lack of distinct phase arrivals, and a predominant cluster of locations near the calving termini of several neighboring tidewater glaciers. Through these locations, comparison with previous work, analyses of waveform characteristics, frequency-magnitude statistics and temporal patterns in seismicity, we suggest calving as a source for the seismicity. Statistical properties and time series analysis of the event catalog suggest a scale-invariant process that has no single or simple forcing. These results support the idea that calving is often a response to short-lived or localized stress perturbations. Our results demonstrate the utility of passive seismic instrumentation to monitor relative changes in the rate and magnitude of iceberg calving at tidewater glaciers that may be volatile or susceptible to ensuing rapid retreat, especially when existing seismic infrastructure can be used.

  2. A source generation model for near-field seismic impact of coal fractures in stress concentration zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Junjun; Wang, Enyuan; Shen, Rongxi; Chen, Liang; Li, Xuelong; Li, Nan

    2016-08-01

    To study the near-field seismic impact of coal fractures in stress concentration zones, we established a source generation model based on finite dislocation source theory and dynamic fracture mechanics, derived an analytical expression for near-field seismic displacements caused by coal fractures in the zone and numerically computed the resultant near-field seismic displacements within the coal mass. The results show that (1) the larger difference between the vertical and horizontal normal stresses in the stress concentration zone leads to a greater fracture speed, which thereby causes a stronger seismic impact; (2) the P-wave component in the near-field seismic displacements mainly impacts on the middle of the roadway, while the SH- and SV wave components mainly affect the junctions between the roadway and both the roof and the floor, and the damage caused by the SH- and SV waves within the coal mass is more significant than that caused by the P-waves; and (3) the effective way to mitigate the seismic impact induced by coal fractures in stress concentration zones is to reduce the difference between the vertical and horizontal normal stresses as far as possible. It is hoped that this study will provide a better understanding of the seismic impacts induced by coal fractures in stress concentration zones and thus help engineers to discover ways to prevent roadway failure.

  3. Exploring hydrocarbon-bearing shale formations with multi-component seismic technology and evaluating direct shear modes produced by vertical-force sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkan, Engin

    -P modes, and (4) analyze P and S radiation patterns produced by a variety of seismic sources. The research done in this study has contributed to understanding the physics involved in direct-S radiation from vertical-force source stations. A U.S. Patent issued to the Board of Regents of the University of Texas System now protects the intellectual property the Exploration Geophysics Laboratory has developed related to S-wave generation by vertical-force sources. The University's Office of Technology Commercialization is actively engaged in commercializing this new S-wave reflection seismic technology on behalf of the Board of Regents.

  4. Variation in harbour porpoise activity in response to seismic survey noise.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Brookes, Kate L; Graham, Isla M; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-05-01

    Animals exposed to anthropogenic disturbance make trade-offs between perceived risk and the cost of leaving disturbed areas. Impact assessments tend to focus on overt behavioural responses leading to displacement, but trade-offs may also impact individual energy budgets through reduced foraging performance. Previous studies found no evidence for broad-scale displacement of harbour porpoises exposed to impulse noise from a 10 day two-dimensional seismic survey. Here, we used an array of passive acoustic loggers coupled with calibrated noise measurements to test whether the seismic survey influenced the activity patterns of porpoises remaining in the area. We showed that the probability of recording a buzz declined by 15% in the ensonified area and was positively related to distance from the source vessel. We also estimated received levels at the hydrophones and characterized the noise response curve. Our results demonstrate how environmental impact assessments can be developed to assess more subtle effects of noise disturbance on activity patterns and foraging efficiency. PMID:24850891

  5. Variation in harbour porpoise activity in response to seismic survey noise

    PubMed Central

    Pirotta, Enrico; Brookes, Kate L.; Graham, Isla M.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Animals exposed to anthropogenic disturbance make trade-offs between perceived risk and the cost of leaving disturbed areas. Impact assessments tend to focus on overt behavioural responses leading to displacement, but trade-offs may also impact individual energy budgets through reduced foraging performance. Previous studies found no evidence for broad-scale displacement of harbour porpoises exposed to impulse noise from a 10 day two-dimensional seismic survey. Here, we used an array of passive acoustic loggers coupled with calibrated noise measurements to test whether the seismic survey influenced the activity patterns of porpoises remaining in the area. We showed that the probability of recording a buzz declined by 15% in the ensonified area and was positively related to distance from the source vessel. We also estimated received levels at the hydrophones and characterized the noise response curve. Our results demonstrate how environmental impact assessments can be developed to assess more subtle effects of noise disturbance on activity patterns and foraging efficiency. PMID:24850891

  6. Broad-band calibration of marine seismic sources used by R/V Polarstern for academic research in polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitzke, Monika; Boebel, Olaf; El Naggar, Saad; Jokat, Wilfried; Werner, Berthold

    2008-08-01

    Air guns and air-gun arrays of different volumes are used for scientific seismic surveys with R/V Polarstern in polar regions. To assess the potential risk of these research activities on marine mammal populations, knowledge of the sound pressure field of the seismic sources is essential. Therefore, a broad-band (0-80 kHz) calibration study was conducted at the Heggernes Acoustic Range, Norway. A GI (2.4 l), a G (8.5 l) and a Bolt gun (32.8 l) were deployed as single sources, 3 GI (7.4 l), 3 G (25.6 l) and 8 VLF™ Prakla-Seismos air guns (24.0 l) as arrays. Each configuration was fired along a line of 3-4 km length running between two hydrophone chains with receivers in 35, 100, 198 and 263 m depth. Peak-to-peak, zero-to-peak, rms and sound exposure levels (SEL) were analysed as functions of range. They show the typical dipole-like directivity of marine seismic sources with amplitude cancellation close to the sea surface, higher amplitudes in greater depths, and sound pressure levels which continuously decrease with range. Levels recorded during the approach are lower than during the departure indicating a shadowing effect of Polarsterns's hull. Backcalculated zero-to-peak source levels range from 224-240 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. Spectral source levels are highest below 100 Hz and amount to 182-194 dB re 1 μPa Hz-1. They drop off continuously with range and frequency. At 1 kHz they are ~30 dB, at 80 kHz ~60 dB lower than the peak level. Above 1 kHz amplitude spectra are dominated by Polarstern's self-noise. From the rms and sound exposure levels of the deepest hydrophone radii for different thresholds are derived. For a 180 dB rms-level threshold radii maximally vary between 200 and 600 m, for a 186 dB SEL threshold between 50 and 300 m.

  7. A new tool for rapid and automatic estimation of earthquake source parameters and generation of seismic bulletins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    RISS S.r.l. is a Spin-off company recently born from the initiative of the research group constituting the Seismology Laboratory of the Department of Physics of the University of Naples Federico II. RISS is an innovative start-up, based on the decade-long experience in earthquake monitoring systems and seismic data analysis of its members and has the major goal to transform the most recent innovations of the scientific research into technological products and prototypes. With this aim, RISS has recently started the development of a new software, which is an elegant solution to manage and analyse seismic data and to create automatic earthquake bulletins. The software has been initially developed to manage data recorded at the ISNet network (Irpinia Seismic Network), which is a network of seismic stations deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, November 23, MS 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. The software, however, is fully exportable and can be used to manage data from different networks, with any kind of station geometry or network configuration and is able to provide reliable estimates of earthquake source parameters, whichever is the background seismicity level of the area of interest. Here we present the real-time automated procedures and the analyses performed by the software package, which is essentially a chain of different modules, each of them aimed at the automatic computation of a specific source parameter. The P-wave arrival times are first detected on the real-time streaming of data and then the software performs the phase association and earthquake binding. As soon as an event is automatically detected by the binder, the earthquake location coordinates and the origin time are rapidly estimated, using a probabilistic, non-linear, exploration algorithm. Then, the software is able to automatically provide three different magnitude estimates. First, the local magnitude (Ml) is computed, using the peak-to-peak amplitude

  8. A case study of the seismic source function: Salmon and sterling reevaluated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Marvin D.; Goodman, Dennis M.

    1990-11-01

    As part of a larger joint effort by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency and the Department of Energy to study the seismic source problem, a comprehensive reevaluation of the 1964 Salmon and 1966 Sterling nuclear explosions in dome salt was carried out. The Sterling source function originally estimated by Springer et al. (1968) conveys the impression that the cavity was badly overdriven; on reexamination this does not appear to be the case. The work of Glenn et al. (1987) on the Sterling free-field data is expanded upon, confirming that the cavity response was close to the theoretical expectation. Sterling's source function is estimated and is found to be comparable to Patterson's (1966) slightly weakened salt model. A source model for Salmon is derived from the Sterling source model and the five seismic stations that recorded both events. The new source model has a reduced displacement potential ψ∝ of about half that previously estimated. A temporary nonlinear two-wave system developed during the Salmon explosion as the compressional wave evolved from a shock wave; the separation of these two waves resulted in a high-frequency roll-off of the reduced velocity potential of ω-3. In addition, it is shown that the comer frequency is much higher and is created much closer to the cavity than the eigenfrequency. For both Salmon and Sterling the radial stresses are approximately a low-passed damped sinusoid superimposed on a small step function. The decoupling value of 72 obtained by Springer et al. (1968) is confirmed. A revision of Patterson's (1966) partial decoupling curve shows that the value for full decoupling in a shot-generated cavity would be only slightly higher. Contrary to previous studies, decoupling as a function of frequency for the surface waves is found to be the same as for the P waves. A new definition of decoupling appropriate to threshold test-ban treaty monitoring is also proposed.

  9. b values and ω−γ seismic source models: Implications for tectonic stress variations along active crustal fault zones and the estimation of high-frequency strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    In this study the tectonic stress along active crustal fault zones is taken to be of the form , where  is the average tectonic stress at depth y and Δσp(x, y) is a seismologically observable, essentially random function of both fault plane coordinates; the stress differences arising in the course of crustal faulting are derived from Δσp(x, y). Empirically known frequency of occurrence statistics, moment-magnitude relationships, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops may be used to infer that the number of earthquakes N of dimension ≥r is of the form N ∼ 1/r2 and that the spectral composition of Δσp(x, y) is of the form , where  is the two-dimensional Fourier transform of Δσp(x, y) expressed in radial wave number k. The γ = 2 model of the far-field shear wave displacement spectrum is consistent with the spectral composition , provided that the number of contributions to the spectral representation of the radiated field at frequency ƒ goes as (k/k0)2, consistent with the quasi-static frequency of occurrence relation N ∼ 1/r2;k0 is a reference wave number associated with the reciprocal source dimension. Separately, a variety of seismologic observations suggests that the γ = 2 model is the one generally, although certainly not always, applicable to the high-frequency spectral decay of the far-field radiation of earthquakes. In this framework, then, b values near 1, the general validity of the γ = 2 model, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops independent of size are all related to the average spectral composition of. Should one of these change as a result of premonitory effects leading to failure, as has been specifically proposed for b values, it seems likely that one or all of the other characteristics will change as well from their normative values. Irrespective of these associations, the far-field, high-frequency shear radiation for the γ = 2 model in the presence of anelastic attenuation may be interpreted as

  10. Blind Source Separation of Seismic Events with Independent Component Analysis: CTBT related exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, Mikhail; Kitov, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods used in signal recovery applications are attractive for they use minimal a priori information about the signals they are dealing with. Homomorphic deconvolution and cepstrum estimation are probably the only methods used in certain extent in CTBT applications that can be attributed to the given branch of technology. However Expert Technical Analysis (ETA) conducted in CTBTO to improve the estimated values for the standard signal and event parameters according to the Protocol to the CTBT may face problems which cannot be resolved with certified CTBTO applications and may demand specific techniques not presently used. The problem to be considered within the ETA framework is the unambiguous separation of signals with close arrival times. Here, we examine two scenarios of interest: (1) separation of two almost co-located explosions conducted within fractions of seconds, and (2) extraction of explosion signals merged with wavetrains from strong earthquake. The importance of resolving the problem related to case 1 is connected with the correct explosion yield estimation. Case 2 is a well-known scenario of conducting clandestine nuclear tests. While the first case can be approached somehow with the means of cepstral methods, the second case can hardly be resolved with the conventional methods implemented at the International Data Centre, especially if the signals have close slowness and azimuth. Independent Component Analysis (in its FastICA implementation) implying non-Gaussianity of the underlying processes signal's mixture is a blind source separation method that we apply to resolve the mentioned above problems. We have tested this technique with synthetic waveforms, seismic data from DPRK explosions and mining blasts conducted within East-European platform as well as with signals from strong teleseismic events (Sumatra, April 2012 Mw=8.6, and Tohoku, March 2011 Mw=9.0 earthquakes). The data was recorded by seismic arrays of the

  11. Scaling Transition in Earthquake Sources: A Possible Link Between Seismic and Laboratory Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malagnini, Luca; Mayeda, Kevin; Nielsen, Stefan; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Munafo', Irene; Rawles, Christopher; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-10-01

    We estimate the corner frequencies of 20 crustal seismic events from mainshock-aftershock sequences in different tectonic environments (mainshocks 5.7 < M W < 7.6) using the well-established seismic coda ratio technique ( Mayeda et al. in Geophys Res Lett 34:L11303, 2007; Mayeda and Malagnini in Geophys Res Lett, 2010), which provides optimal stability and does not require path or site corrections. For each sequence, we assumed the Brune source model and estimated all the events' corner frequencies and associated apparent stresses following the MDAC spectral formulation of Walter and Taylor (A revised magnitude and distance amplitude correction (MDAC2) procedure for regional seismic discriminants, 2001), which allows for the possibility of non-self-similar source scaling. Within each sequence, we observe a systematic deviation from the self-similar line, all data being rather compatible with , where ɛ > 0 ( Kanamori and Rivera in Bull Seismol Soc Am 94:314-319, 2004). The deviation from a strict self-similar behavior within each earthquake sequence of our collection is indicated by a systematic increase in the estimated average static stress drop and apparent stress with increasing seismic moment (moment magnitude). Our favored physical interpretation for the increased apparent stress with earthquake size is a progressive frictional weakening for increasing seismic slip, in agreement with recent results obtained in laboratory experiments performed on state-of-the-art apparatuses at slip rates of the order of 1 m/s or larger. At smaller magnitudes ( M W < 5.5), the overall data set is characterized by a variability in apparent stress of almost three orders of magnitude, mostly from the scatter observed in strike-slip sequences. Larger events ( M W > 5.5) show much less variability: about one order of magnitude. It appears that the apparent stress (and static stress drop) does not grow indefinitely at larger magnitudes: for example, in the case of the Chi

  12. Near-field monitoring of seismic source behavior at South African deep gold mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, H.; Nakatani, M.; Iio, Y.; Ishii, H.; Yamada, T.; Naoi, M.; Yasutake, G.; Kawakata, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamauchi, T.; Nakao, S.; Yabe, Y.; Otsuki, K.; Satoh, T.; Kato, A.; Shinya, Y.; Nagata, K.; Kuwano, O.; Igarashi, T.; Miyake, H.; Ide, S.; van Aswegen, G.; Mendecki, A.; Ward, T.; SeeSA Research Group

    2007-12-01

    We introduce our SeeSA projects, as important as dense array monitoring According to a mining plan and a geological map detailing locations of faults or weakness, we can anticipate potential M > 2 seismic sources at depths of 2.0 - 3.6 km at South African gold mines. At such potential sources, we have installed instruments prior to an onset of irreversible process to monitor earthquake generation process. From the previous projects for periods of from a year to a few years, the possible widest dynamic range and resolution have revealed the finest detail of the process since 1995 in cooperation with ISS International Ltd and South African gold mines (Mponeng, Bambanani, Tau Tona, Buffelsfontein GM, and ERPM), Wits Univ., Geohydroseis CC., Seismogen CC., OHMS CC., GFZ, GMuG, CSIR. The talk summarizes examples of our successful monitoring and introduces some on-going projects. Highlighted are the following. Yamada et al. [05, 07] demonstrated that mine tremors have rupture process as complex as natural larger earthquakes and the scale dependency of rupture parameters is similar to that for natural larger earthquakes. We successfully recorded strain accumulations larger than 100 micro strain, followed by several hundreds of seismic events (-1 < M < 3; distance < ~ 250 m). The seismicity within about 100m from strainmeters caused frequent, seismic strain-steps; the largest recorded was greater than 100 micro strain by an M2.5 earthquake at a distance within ~100 m. One of the most important results were that no detectable accelerating precursors preceded strain-steps associated with several hundreds of the earthquakes (- 1 < M < 3) catalogued by mine's seismic networks (hereinafter Catalogued E/Q; Takeuchi 05), while significant post-seismic drifts followed some strain-steps by Catalogued E/Qs. Frequently observed were episodic strain changes with durations of much slower than strain-steps associated with the Catalogued E/Qs [Naoi et al. 06]. Striking were some examples

  13. Long Period seismic source characterization at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P. B.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Chouet, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    The seismicity of Popocatépetl from December, 1999 to February, 2000 was dominated by long-period (LP) and very-long period (VLP) signals associated with hydrothermal processes and magmatic degassing. We model the source mechanism of repetitive LP signals in the 0.4 - 2 s band using data recorded on a 15-station broadband network. Cross-correlation and stacking of LP events with similar waveforms are performed prior to waveform inversion to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The observed LP signals are well reproduced by a point source about 250 m below the summit crater floor. The inferred seismic source mechanism includes a volumetric component that can be modeled as resonance of a horizontal steam-filled crack and a vertical single-force component. Previous moment-tensor analysis of VLP waveforms with periods longer than 15 s pointed to the expansion and compression of a sill at depth of ~1500 m below the crater floor, coupled with smaller components of expansion and compression of a dike which was interpreted to represent the primary conduit from the sill to the summit crater. The LP source centroid is positioned ~200 m from the inferred magma conduit, suggesting that the LP events are closely related to the interaction between the magmatic system and a perched hydrothermal system. Repetitive injection of fluid into the horizontal fracture and subsequent sudden discharge when a critical pressure threshold is met provides a natural non-destructive source for the LP events. The imaged single force may be attributed to the movement of the overlying magma column induced during steam escape.

  14. Structural design of active seismic isolation floor with a charging function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakakoji, Hayato; Miura, Nanako

    2016-04-01

    This study shows an optimum structure of a seismic isolation floor against horizontal ground motions. Although a seismic isolation floor is effective with vibration reduction, the response of the floor becomes larger when excited by long-period ground motions. It is shown that caster equipment move and suffer damage in a seismic isolation structure by an experiment. Moreover, the permissible displacement of the floor is limited. Therefore, the focus is on an active seismic isolation. About active control, the system cannot operate without power supply. To solve these problems an energy regeneration is considered in our previous study. These studies only analyze simple model and did not choose the suitable structure for active control and energy regeneration. This research propose a new structure which has regenerated energy exceeds the energy required for the active control by numerical simulation.

  15. Annual Hanford seismic report -- fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic monitoring (SM) at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the US Atomic Energy Commission. Since 1980, the program has been managed by several contractors under the US Department of Energy (USDOE). Effective October 1, 1996, the Seismic Monitoring workscope, personnel, and associated contracts were transferred to the USDOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SM is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection and archives of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) located on and encircling the Hanford Site. SM is also tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data compiled are used by SM, Waste Management, and engineering activities at the Hanford Site to evaluate seismic hazards and seismic design for the Site.

  16. Shallow Seismic Reflection Study of Recently Active Fault Scarps, Mina Deflection, Western Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, R. A.; Christie, M.; Tsoflias, G. P.; Stockli, D. F.

    2006-12-01

    During the spring and summer of 2006 University of Kansas geophysics students and faculty acquired shallow, high resolution seismic reflection data over actively deforming alluvial fans developing across the Emmigrant Peak (in Fish Lake Valley) and Queen Valley Faults in western Nevada. These normal faults represent a portion of the transition from the right-lateral deformation associated with the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone to the normal and left-lateral faulting of the Mina Deflection. Data were gathered over areas of recent high resolution geological mapping and limited trenching by KU students. An extensive GPR data grid was also acquired. The GPR results are reported in Christie, et al., 2006. The seismic data gathered in the spring included both walkaway tests and a short CMP test line. These data indicated that a very near-surface P-wave to S-wave conversion was taking place and that very high quality S-wave reflections were probably dominating shot records to over one second in time. CMP lines acquired during the summer utilized a 144 channel networked Geode system, single 28 hz geophones, and a 30.06 downhole rifle source. Receiver spacing was 0.5 m, source spacing 1.0m and CMP bin spacings were 0.25m for all lines. Surveying was performed using an RTK system which was also used to develop a concurrent high resolution DEM. A dip line of over 400m and a strike line over 100m in length were shot across the active fan scarp in Fish Lake Valley. Data processing is still underway. However, preliminary interpretation of common-offset gathers and brute stacks indicates very complex faulting and detailed stratigraphic information to depths of over 125m. Depth of information was actually limited by the 1024ms recording time. Several west-dipping normal faults downstep towards the basin. East-dipping antithetic normal faulting is extensive. Several distinctive stratigraphic packages are bound by the faults and apparent unconformitites. A CMP dip line

  17. FM&TI (Forward Modeling & Tomographic Inversion) approach in passive and active seismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Seismic tomography is like a photography taken by a camera with deformed and blurred lenses. Amplitudes and shapes of seismic patterns derived at tomographic images are often strongly biased with respect to real structures in the Earth. In particular, tomography usually provides continuous velocity distributions, while the major velocity changes in the Earth often occur on first order interfaces. While working with noisy data, one has to apply strong damping which makes impossible retrieving realistic amplitudes of anomalies. Uneven ray sampling may cause variable damping effect: within one model, one may obtain over- and underdamped solutions in different parts of the study area. Lack of some ray orientations may cause smearing of seismic patterns. Due to these and other reasons, quantitative values reported in most tomographic studies, although supported by pseudo-formal criteria (e.g. trade-off curves), do not often represent the reality. We propose an approach which is used to construct a realistic structure of the Earth based on a combination of forward modeling and tomographic inversion. Based on available a-priori information we construct a synthetic model with realistic patterns. Then we compute synthetic times and invert them using the same tomographic code with the same parameters as in the case of observed data processing. The reconstruction result is compared with the tomographic image of observed data inversion. For the parts where discrepancy is observed, we correct the synthetic model and repeat the forward modeling and inversion again. After several trials we obtain similar results of synthetic and observed data inversion. In this case we claim that the derived synthetic model adequately represents the real structure of the Earth. In the talk, several examples of applying this approach at various scales for different data schemes are presented: (1) few real and synthetic examples of active source refraction travel time data; (2) local earthquake

  18. Spatial distribution of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation in active volcanic islands - II: Deception Island images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudencio, Janire; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; García-Yeguas, Araceli; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Posadas, Antonio M.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present regional maps of the inverse intrinsic quality factor (Qi-1), the inverse scattering quality factor (Qs-1) and total inverse quality factor (Qt-1) for the volcanic environment of Deception Island (Antarctica). Our attenuation study is based on diffusion approximation, which permits us to obtain the attenuation coefficients for every single couple source-receiver separately. The data set used in this research is derived from an active seismic experiment using more than 5200 offshore shots (air guns) recorded at 32 onshore seismic stations and four ocean bottom seismometers. To arrive at a regional distribution of these values, we used a new mapping technique based on a Gaussian space probability function. This approach led us to create `2-D probabilistic maps' of values of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation. The 2-D tomographic images confirm the existence of a high attenuation body below an inner bay of Deception Island. This structure, previously observed in 2-D and 3-D velocity tomography of the region, is associated with a massive magma reservoir. Magnetotelluric studies reach a similar interpretation of this strong anomaly. Additionally, we observed areas with lower attenuation effects that bear correlation with consolidated structures described in other studies and associated with the crystalline basement of the area. Our calculations of the transport mean-free path and absorption length for intrinsic attenuation gave respective values of ≈ 950 m and 5 km, which are lower than the values obtained in tectonic regions or volcanic areas such as Tenerife Island. However, as observed in other volcanic regions, our results indicate that scattering effects dominate strongly over the intrinsic attenuation.

  19. SAR interferometry and optical remote sensing for analysis of co-seismic deformation, source characteristics and mass wasting pattern of Lushan (China, April 2013) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, John; Majumdar, Ritwik; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-03-01

    Co-seismic deformation associated with the Lushan (China) earthquake that occurred along the south-western segment of the Longmenshan Fault Zone (LFZ) on the 20th April 2013 has been estimated by differential interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using Radarsat-2 data. The Lushan earthquake resulted in the deformation of the Sichuan basin and the Longmenshan ranges in proximity to the LFZ. The line of sight (LOS) displacement values obtained from DInSAR technique mainly range between -4.0 cm to +3.0 cm. The western Sichuan basin shows oblique westward movement with predominant downward component in areas farther from LFZ and predominant westward component over the downward movement in areas closer to the source fault. Inversion modelling has been used to derive the seismic source characteristics from DInSAR derived deformation values using elastic dislocation source type. The linear inversion model converged at a double-fault source solution consisting of a deeper, steep, NW dipping fault plane-1 of 60 km × 16 km dimension and a shallower, gentle, NW dipping fault plane-2 of 60 km × 15 km dimension, with distributed slip values varying between 0 to 2.26 m. These fault planes (fault planes-1 and -2) coincide with the Dachuan-Shuangshi fault and the buried Range Front Fault, respectively. The inversion model gives a moment magnitude of 6.81 and the geodetic moment of 2.07 × 1019 Nm, comparable to those given in literature, derived using teleseismic body wave data. Thus DInSAR technique helped to quantify the co-seismic deformation and to retrieve the source characteristics from the estimated deformation values. The study also evaluated the distribution pattern of earthquake induced landslides (EIL) triggered fresh or re-activated during the Lushan earthquake and found that they show spatial association with the seismic source zone and also with various pre-conditioning factors of slope instability.

  20. Small quasi-static displacements associated with shallow LP seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thun, J.; Bean, C. J.; Lokmer, I.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic long-period (LP) events are still not completely understood, in part because our source models are poorly constrained. In particular individual LP events are usually inverted using a very limited bandwidth, which might mask important aspects of the source. Following advances from earthquake seismology where sources are inverted using joint static and dynamic data we investigate the possibility of using seismometers as deformation sensors, where 'static' displacements are hypothesised to be in the micrometre range (Bean et al. 2014). We use data from high-density networks on a variety of volcanoes. The first component of this study focuses on the extraction of small static displacement steps from seismometer data. The main challenges we face include low signal-to-noise ratios and ambiguity of the extracted ground motion due to the tilt-sensitivity of the instruments. We use a combination of laboratory experiments on seismometers and numerical simulations to investigate the processing steps needed to perform the 'step' extraction task and to guide the interpretation of the resulting data. The method is applied to signals recorded near the summits of Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) and Mt Etna (Italy), which exhibit ramp-like displacement waveforms, coincidently associated by 'dynamic' LP recordings. Our interim conclusion is that these LP sources likely have a measurable static component in the source. Our next step is to use this static component to better constrain LP source inversions.

  1. Earthquake source parameters determined by the SAFOD Pilot Hole seismic array

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imanishi, K.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Prejean, S.G.

    2004-01-01

    We estimate the source parameters of #3 microearthquakes by jointly analyzing seismograms recorded by the 32-level, 3-component seismic array installed in the SAFOD Pilot Hole. We applied an inversion procedure to estimate spectral parameters for the omega-square model (spectral level and corner frequency) and Q to displacement amplitude spectra. Because we expect spectral parameters and Q to vary slowly with depth in the well, we impose a smoothness constraint on those parameters as a function of depth using a linear first-differenfee operator. This method correctly resolves corner frequency and Q, which leads to a more accurate estimation of source parameters than can be obtained from single sensors. The stress drop of one example of the SAFOD target repeating earthquake falls in the range of typical tectonic earthquakes. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Analysis of seismic sources for different mechanisms of fracture growth for microseismic monitoring applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duchkov, A. A.; Stefanov, Yu. P.

    2015-10-27

    We have developed and illustrated an approach for geomechanic modeling of elastic wave generation (microsiesmic event occurrence) during incremental fracture growth. We then derived properties of effective point seismic sources (radiation patterns) approximating obtained wavefields. These results establish connection between geomechanic models of hydraulic fracturing and microseismic monitoring. Thus, the results of the moment tensor inversion of microseismic data can be related to different geomechanic scenarios of hydraulic fracture growth. In future, the results can be used for calibrating hydrofrac models. We carried out a series of numerical simulations and made some observations about wave generation during fracture growth. In particular when the growing fracture hits pre-existing crack then it generates much stronger microseismic event compared to fracture growth in homogeneous medium (radiation pattern is very close to the theoretical dipole-type source mechanism)

  3. Analysis of seismic sources for different mechanisms of fracture growth for microseismic monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchkov, A. A.; Stefanov, Yu. P.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed and illustrated an approach for geomechanic modeling of elastic wave generation (microsiesmic event occurrence) during incremental fracture growth. We then derived properties of effective point seismic sources (radiation patterns) approximating obtained wavefields. These results establish connection between geomechanic models of hydraulic fracturing and microseismic monitoring. Thus, the results of the moment tensor inversion of microseismic data can be related to different geomechanic scenarios of hydraulic fracture growth. In future, the results can be used for calibrating hydrofrac models. We carried out a series of numerical simulations and made some observations about wave generation during fracture growth. In particular when the growing fracture hits pre-existing crack then it generates much stronger microseismic event compared to fracture growth in homogeneous medium (radiation pattern is very close to the theoretical dipole-type source mechanism).

  4. Issues Related to Seismic Activity Induced by the Injection of CO2 in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Sminchak, Joel; Gupta, Neeraj; Byrer, Charles; Bergman, Perry

    2001-05-31

    Case studies, theory, regulation, and special considerations regarding the disposal of carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline aquifers were investigated to assess the potential for induced seismic activity. Formations capable of accepting large volumes of CO2 make deep well injection of CO2 an attractive option. While seismic implications must be considered for injection facilities, induced seismic activity may be prevented through proper siting, installation, operation, and monitoring. Instances of induced seismic activity have been documented at hazardous waste disposal wells, oil fields, and other sites. Induced seismic activity usually occurs along previously faulted rocks and may be investigated by analyzing the stress conditions at depth. Seismic events are unlikely to occur due to injection in porous rocks unless very high injection pressures cause hydraulic fracturing. Injection wells in the United States are regulated through the Underground Injection Control (UIC) program. UIC guidance requires an injection facility to perform extensive characterization, testing, and monitoring. Special considerations related to the properties of CO2 may have seismic ramifications to a deep well injection facility. Supercritical CO2 liquid is less dense than water and may cause density-driven stress conditions at depth or interact with formation water and rocks, causing a reduction in permeability and pressure buildup leading to seismic activity. Structural compatibility, historical seismic activity, cases of seismic activity triggered by deep well injection, and formation capacity were considered in evaluating the regional seismic suitability in the United States. Regions in the central, midwestern, and southeastern United States appear best suited for deep well injection. In Ohio, substantial deep well injection at a waste disposal facility has not caused seismic events in a seismically active area. Current

  5. Seismic Activity at Vailulu'u, Samoa's Youngest Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konter, J.; Staudigel, H.; Hart, S.

    2002-12-01

    Submarine volcanic systems, as a product of the Earth's mantle, play an essential role in the Earth's heat budget and in the interaction between the solid Earth and the hydrosphere and biosphere. Their eruptive and intrusive activity exerts an important control on these hydrothermal systems. In March 2000, we deployed an array of five ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) on the summit region (625-995 m water depth) of Vailulu'u Volcano (14°12.9'S;169°03.5'W); this volcano represents the active end of the Samoan hotspot chain and is one of only a few well-studied intra-plate submarine volcanoes. We monitored seismic activity for up to 12 months at low sample rate (25 Hz), and for shorter times at a higher sample rate (125 Hz). We have begun to catalogue and locate a variety of acoustic events from this network. Ambient ocean noise was filtered out by a 4th-order Butterworth bandpass filter (2.3 - 10 Hz). We distinguish small local earthquakes from teleseismic activity, mostly identified by T- (acoustic) waves, by comparison with a nearby GSN station (AFI). Most of the detected events are T-phases from teleseismic earthquakes, characterized by their emergent coda and high frequency content (up to 30 Hz); the latter distinguishes them from low frequency emergent signals associated with the volcano (e.g. tremor). A second type of event is characterized by impulsive arrivals, with coda lasting a few seconds. The differences in arrival times between stations on the volcano are too small for these events to be T-waves; they are very likely to be local events, since the GSN station in Western Samoa (AFI) shows no arrivals close in time to these events. Preliminary locations show that these small events occur approximately once per day and are located within the volcano (the 95% confidence ellipse is similar to the size of the volcano, due to the small size of the OBH network). Several events are located relatively close to each other (within a km radius) just NW of the crater.

  6. DEVELOPING AND EXPLOITING A UNIQUE SEISMIC DATA SET FROM SOUTH AFRICAN GOLD MINES FOR SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND WAVE PROPAGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A A; Gok, R; Walter, W R; Linzer, L; Durrheim, R

    2008-07-08

    In this project, we are developing and exploiting a unique seismic data set to address the characteristics of small seismic events and the associated seismic signals observed at local (< 200 km) and regional (< 2000 km) distances. The dataset is being developed using mining-induced events from 3 deep gold mines in South Africa recorded on inmine networks (< 1 km) comprised of tens of high-frequency sensors, a network of 4 broadband stations installed as part of this project at the surface around the mines (1-10 km), and a network of existing broadband seismic stations at local/regional distances (50-1000 km) from the mines. After 1 year of seismic monitoring of mine activity (2007), over 10,000 events in the range -3.4 < ML < 4.4 have been catalogued and recorded by the in-mine networks. Events with positive magnitudes are generally well recorded by the surface-mine stations, while magnitudes 3.0 and larger are seen at regional distances (up to {approx}600 km) in high-pass filtered recordings. We have analyzed in-mine recordings in detail at one of the South African mines (Savuka) to (i) improve on reported hypocentral locations, (ii) verify sensor orientations, and (iii) determine full moment tensor solutions. Hypocentral relocations on all catalogued events have been obtained from P- and S-wave travel-times reported by the mine network operator through an automated procedure that selects travel-times falling on Wadati lines with slopes in the 0.6-0.7 range; sensor orientations have been verified and, when possible, corrected by correlating P-, SV-, and SH-waveforms obtained from theoretical and empirical (polarization filter) rotation angles; full moment tensor solutions have been obtained by inverting P-, SV-, and SH- spectral amplitudes measured on the theoretically rotated waveforms with visually assigned polarities. The relocation procedure has revealed that origin times often necessitate a negative correction of a few tenths of second and that hypocentral

  7. An active footwall shortcut thrust revealed by seismic reflection profiling: a case study of the Futaba fault, northern Honshu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Higashinaka, Motonori; Kurashimo, Eiji; Iwasaki, Takaya; Abe, Susumu

    2013-04-01

    The Futaba fault is located along the Pacific cast of southern part of Northern Honshu and continues at least 100 km. Based on tectonic morphological research, its central part show the active tectonic features. Due to the effect of M9 Tohoku Oki earthquake 2011, the evaluation of Coulomb stress changes on the fault surface is concerned for the assess of seismic hazards. To investigate the deep geometry of seismogenic source fault and basic crustal structure, we performed deep seismic reflection profiling along the 58-km-long seismic line across the Futaba fault. The seismic data were obtained using four vibroseis trucks and 1164 channel recorders. The seismic section portrays the half graben filled by 1000-m-thick lower Miocene fluvial sediments, suggesting that the Futaba fault reactivated as a west dipping normal fault during the early Miocene associated with opening of the Sea of Japan. On the hanging wall of the Miocene normal fault, Mesozoic metamorphic rocks are cropping out forming a narrow range parallel to the fault. On the footwall of this range, footwall shortcut thrust is clearly identified by the deformation of Plio-Pleistocene sediments on the seismic section. The deeper extension of the Futaba fault can be traced down to 4.5 seconds (TWT) and sub-horizontal reflectors are developed around 6-7 seconds (TWT). The dip angle of the Futaba fault in the seismogenic zone is about 45 degrees. The footwall shortcut thrust was formed at the shallow high-angle part of the Futaba fault as a low-angle (30 degrees) reverse fault. The formation of half graben is limited along the northern part of this fault system. The footwall shortcut thrust was developed along a 40-km-long segment only accompanied with the Miocene half graben. The southern segment of the surface trace of the Futaba fault suggests a straight geometry may represent a change in dip angle.

  8. Line-source simulation for shallow-seismic data. Part 1: theoretical background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbriger, Thomas; Groos, Lisa; Schäfer, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Equivalent line-source seismograms can be obtained from shallow seismic field recordings by (1) convolving the waveforms with √{t^{-1}}, (2) applying a √{t^{-1}} time-domain taper, where t is traveltime and (3) scaling the waveform with r_{offset}√{2}, where roffset is source-to-receiver offset. We require such a procedure when applying algorithms of 2-D adjoint full-waveform inversion (FWI) to shallow-seismic data. Although derived from solutions for acoustic waves in homogeneous full space this simple procedure performs surprisingly well when applied to vertical and radial components of shallow-seismic recordings from hammer blows or explosions. This is the case even in the near field of the force, although the procedure is derived from a far-field approximation. Similar approximative procedures recommended in literature are optimized for reflected waves and do not convert the amplitudes of all shallow seismic wavefield constituents equally well. We demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method for the viscoelastic case by numerical examples as well as analytical considerations. In contrast to the proposed single-trace procedure, integral-transform approaches are exact for all viscoelastic wavefield constituents of the near- and far-field in unknown 1-D-heterogeneous structure. Unfortunately, integral-transform approaches suffer from artefacts in applications to data sampled on 2-D structures. Here, we use the Fourier-Bessel integral transformation as a reference in 1-D heterogeneous structures. We unroll the wave-theoretical background of both approaches in order to demonstrate, why the simplistic single-trace simulation approach derived from the asymptotic acoustic case can perform so well when applied to the shallow elastic wavefield. Further we give recommendations for practical implementation and application to field data of the proposed simulation method and compare to the results of alternative conversion rules. The performance of the conversion

  9. SEISMIC SOURCE AND PATH CALIBRATION IN THE KOREAN PENINSULA, YELLOW SEA

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, R B; Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M

    2007-07-11

    Two significant seismic events were analyzed using the crustal velocity model developed under this contract. The M{sub W} = 4.55 Korea earthquake of January 20, 2007 occurred in the Republic of Korea on land and within the dense digital seismic network. Using P-wave arrivals from 60 broadband, short-period and acceleration stations, the event occurred at 37.68N, 128.58E at a depth of 7.5 km at 20070120115653.8. Source inversion was performed using the accelerometer recordings in the 0.05-0.20 Hz band the broadband data in the 0.02-0.10 Hz band, with identical focal mechanisms and source depths of 9 and 11 km, respectively. This is the largest event on land in South Korea since the M{sub W} 4.7 event on December 13, 1996. Forward modeling of the waveforms at INCN and MDJ indicates the ability of the current model to match observations on the Korean Peninsula and the effect of significant pulse shape modification for paths that partially cross the Sea of Japan. The results of using the local network data provide a ground truth point for other studies analyzing seismic events on the peninsula. The isotropic seismic moment of the October 9, 2006 North Korea explosion was estimated from the Rayleigh-wave spectral amplitudes observed at MDJ and INCN. Very little Love wave signal was observed, indicating weak tectonic release. The explosion yield was investigated using the Denny and Johnson (1991) model relating yield to the observed isotropic moment as a function of depth of burial and material properties. Sensitivity analysis highlights the strong effect of the assumed velocity and density structure in the upper kilometer of the Earth and the assumed depth of burial on the estimated yield. The crustal velocity model developed under this contract provides strong constraints on the expected shear-wave velocities in the shallow parts of the crust. Issues to be investigated include the effect of wave propagation through the Eastern Sea (Sea of Japan) to stations in South

  10. Variation of the Earth tide-seismicity compliance parameter during the recent seismic activity of Fthiotida, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael; Aarabelos, Dimitrios; Vergos, Georgios; Spatalas, Spyridon

    2014-05-01

    Applying the Hi(stogram)Cum(ulation) method, which was introduced recently by Cadicheanu, van Ruymbecke and Zhu (2007), we analyze the series of the earthquakes occurred in the last 50 years in seismic active areas of Greece, i.e. the areas (a) of the Mygdonian Basin(Contadakis et al. 2007), (b) of the Ionian Islands (Contadakis et al. 2012 ) and (c) of the Hellenic Arc (Vergos et al. 2012 ) . The result of the analysis for all the areas indicate that the monthly variation of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence is in accordance with the period of the tidal lunar monthly and semi-monthly (Mm and Mf) variations and the same happens with the corresponding daily variations of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence with the diurnal luni-solar (K1) and semidiurnal lunar (M2) tidal variations. In addition the confidence level for the identifiation of such period accordance between earthquakes occurrence frequency and tidal periods varies with seismic activity, i.e. the higher confidence level corresponds to periods with stronger seismic activity. These results are in favor of a tidal triggering process on earthquakes when the stress in the focal area is near the critical level. Based on these results, we consider the confidence level of earthquake occurrence - tidal period accordance, p, as an index of tectonic stress criticality for earthquake occurrence and we check on posterior if the variation of the confidence level index, p, indicate the fault matureness in the case of the recent seismic activity at Fthiotida, Greece. In this paper we present the results of this test. References Cadicheanu, N., van Ruymbeke, M andZhu P.,2007:Tidal triggering evidence of intermediate depth earthquakes in Vrancea zone(Romania), NHESS 7,733-740. Contadakis, M. E., Arabelos, D. N., Spatalas, S., 2009, Evidence for tidal triggering on the shallow earthquakes of the seismic area of Mygdonia basin, North Greece, in Terrestrial and Stellar Environment, eds.D. Arabelos, M

  11. Analysis of Micro-Seismic Signals and Source Parameters of Eruptions Generated by Rapid Decompression of Volcanic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M. A.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Delgado Granados, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic evaluation of well-controlled experimental volcanic simulations offers the hope of a better understanding of source mechanisms in natural volcanic seismicity. Here, we have performed the first investigation of the dynamics of explosive volcanic eruption of magma under controlled laboratory conditions. Specifically, we analyzed the micro-seismicity generated by the rapid depressurization of volcanic rocks in a shock tube apparatus, which represents the seismic mechanism. The source parameters and the force system have been analyzed considering the relationship F=πr2 Po. Our well-constrained physical mechanism consists of the slow pressurization of the system (using Argon gas) followed by rapid depressurization of natural volcanic samples (ash, pumice and fragmented particles of pumice) contained in a steel pipe-like conduit of radius r and height ~2r. Several experiments with samples with different porosities were performed under controlled pressure conditions (ranging from 4 to 20 MPa), at room temperature. We calculated the magnitude of the vertical and downward forces and forces at the walls of the reservoir, and the kinetic energy involved during decompression and fragmentation processes from the micro-seismic signals detected at several points in the apparatus using highly dynamic piezo-film transducers. We first characterized the frequencies of the apparatus in order to distinguish in the signals between the waves produced by the natural resonance of the system due to the pressure shock and the waves generated by the rapid depressurization of the samples. In the micro-seismic records the inflation-deflation states of the pipe-like conduit and the fragmentation process after the rapid removal of the diaphragm can be recognized clearly. The decompression time is directly measured from the pressure drop curves of the system recorded by dynamic pressure transducers and correlates well with the duration of maximum amplitudes of micro-seismic waves

  12. Assessing earthquake source models using 3-D forward modelling of long-period seismic data: application to the SCARDEC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Ana Mg; Vallee, Martin; Charlety, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Accurate earthquake point source parameters (e.g. seismic moment, depth and focal mechanism) provide key first-order information for detailed studies of the earthquake source process and for improved seismic and tsunami hazard evaluation. In order to objectively assess the quality of seismic source models, it is important to go beyond classical resolution checks. In particular, it is desirable to apply sophisticated modelling techniques to quantify inaccuracies due to simplified theoretical formulations and/or Earth structure employed to build the source models. Moreover, it is important to verify how well the models explain data not used in their construction. In this study we assess the quality of the SCARDEC method (see joint abstracts), which is a new automated technique that retrieves simultaneously the seismic moment, focal mechanism, depth and source time functions of large earthquakes. Because the SCARDEC method is based on body-wave deconvolution using ray methods in a 1D Earth model, we test how well SCARDEC source parameters explain long-period seismic data (surface waves and normal modes). We calculate theoretical seismograms using two forward modelling techniques (full ray theory and spectral element method) to simulate the long-period seismic wavefield for the 3D Earth model S20RTS combined with the crust model CRUST2.0, and for two point source models: (i) the SCARDEC model; and (ii) the Global CMT model. We compare the synthetic seismograms with real broadband data from the FDSN for the major subduction earthquakes of the last 20 years. We show that SCARDEC source parameters explain long-period surface waves as well as Global CMT solutions. This can be explained by the fact that most of the differences between SCARDEC and Global CMT solutions are linked to correlated variations of the seismic moment and dip of the earthquakes, and it is theoretically known that for shallow earthquakes it is difficult to accurately resolve these two parameters using

  13. Regional Seismic Signals from Chemical Explosions, Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: Results from the Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Gok, R; Mayeda, K; Sicherman, A; Bonner, J; Leidig, M

    2005-09-02

    Routine industrial mining explosions play two important roles in seismic nuclear monitoring research: (1) they are a source of background events that need to be discriminated from potential nuclear explosions; (2) as some of the only explosions occurring in the current de facto global moratoria on nuclear testing, their signals should be exploited to improve the calibration of seismic m monitoring systems. A common issue monitoring arising in both of these roles is our limited physical understanding of the causes behind observed differences and similarities in the seismic signals produced by routine industrial mining blasts and small underground nuclear tests. In 2003 a consortium (Weston, SMU, LLNL, LANL and UTEP) carried out a Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE), a series of dedicated explosions designed to improve this physical understanding, particularly as it relates to seismic methods of discriminating between signals from three different source types: earthquakes, industrial blasts, and nuclear tests. Here we very briefly review prior field experimental work that examined the seismic relationships between these source types.

  14. Numerical reconstruction of tsunami source using combined seismic, satellite and DART data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivorotko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey; Marinin, Igor

    2014-05-01

    Recent tsunamis, for instance, in Japan (2011), in Sumatra (2004), and at the Indian coast (2004) showed that a system of producing exact and timely information about tsunamis is of a vital importance. Numerical simulation is an effective instrument for providing such information. Bottom relief characteristics and the initial perturbation data (a tsunami source) are required for the direct simulation of tsunamis. The seismic data about the source are usually obtained in a few tens of minutes after an event has occurred (the seismic waves velocity being about five hundred kilometres per minute, while the velocity of tsunami waves is less than twelve kilometres per minute). A difference in the arrival times of seismic and tsunami waves can be used when operationally refining the tsunami source parameters and modelling expected tsunami wave height on the shore. The most suitable physical models related to the tsunamis simulation are based on the shallow water equations. The problem of identification parameters of a tsunami source using additional measurements of a passing wave is called inverse tsunami problem. We investigate three different inverse problems of determining a tsunami source using three different additional data: Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) measurements, satellite wave-form images and seismic data. These problems are severely ill-posed. We apply regularization techniques to control the degree of ill-posedness such as Fourier expansion, truncated singular value decomposition, numerical regularization. The algorithm of selecting the truncated number of singular values of an inverse problem operator which is agreed with the error level in measured data is described and analyzed. In numerical experiment we used gradient methods (Landweber iteration and conjugate gradient method) for solving inverse tsunami problems. Gradient methods are based on minimizing the corresponding misfit function. To calculate the gradient of the misfit

  15. Modelling Active Faults in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) with OpenQuake: Definition, Design and Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherill, Graeme; Garcia, Julio; Poggi, Valerio; Chen, Yen-Shin; Pagani, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) has, since its inception in 2009, made many contributions to the practice of seismic hazard modeling in different regions of the globe. The OpenQuake-engine (hereafter referred to simply as OpenQuake), GEM's open-source software for calculation of earthquake hazard and risk, has found application in many countries, spanning a diversity of tectonic environments. GEM itself has produced a database of national and regional seismic hazard models, harmonizing into OpenQuake's own definition the varied seismogenic sources found therein. The characterization of active faults in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is at the centre of this process, motivating many of the developments in OpenQuake and presenting hazard modellers with the challenge of reconciling seismological, geological and geodetic information for the different regions of the world. Faced with these challenges, and from the experience gained in the process of harmonizing existing models of seismic hazard, four critical issues are addressed. The challenge GEM has faced in the development of software is how to define a representation of an active fault (both in terms of geometry and earthquake behaviour) that is sufficiently flexible to adapt to different tectonic conditions and levels of data completeness. By exploring the different fault typologies supported by OpenQuake we illustrate how seismic hazard calculations can, and do, take into account complexities such as geometrical irregularity of faults in the prediction of ground motion, highlighting some of the potential pitfalls and inconsistencies that can arise. This exploration leads to the second main challenge in active fault modeling, what elements of the fault source model impact most upon the hazard at a site, and when does this matter? Through a series of sensitivity studies we show how different configurations of fault geometry, and the corresponding characterisation of near-fault phenomena (including

  16. Trace Gases - A Warning Signs of Impending Major Seismic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baijnath, J.; Freund, F.; Li, J.

    2013-12-01

    Seismological models can predict future earthquakes only with wide uncertainty windows, typically on the order of decades to centuries. To improve short-term earthquake forecasts, it is essential to understand the non-seismic processes that take place in Earth's crust during the build-up of tectonic stresses. Days prior to the January 2001 M 7.6 Gujurat earthquake in India, there was a significant increase in the regional CO concentration, reaching 240 ppbv over a 100 squared kilometers, as derived from data of the MOPITT sensor onboard the NASA Terra satellite. A possible explanation for these observations is that when stresses in Earth's crust are building, positive hole charge carriers are activated, which are highly mobile and spread from deep below the earth to the surface. Positive holes act as highly oxidizing oxygen radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. It is hypothesized that, as positive hole charge carriers arrive from below and traverse the soil, they are expected to oxidize soil organics, converting aliphatics to ketones, formaldehyde, CO and CO2. This is tested by using a closed chamber with a slab of gabbro rock. Ultrasound generated by a pair of 50 W, 40 kHz piezoelectric transducers, applied to one end of the gabbro slab was used to activate the positive holes. This created a high concentration of positive holes at the end of the rock that the electrical conductivity through the rock increased more than 1000-fold, while the increase in conductivity through the other end of the gabbro slab was on the order of 100-fold. On the other end of the slab, rock dust and various soils were placed. A stainless steel mesh was also placed over the soil and dust to allow a current to flow through the granular material. When the far end of the slab was subjected to the ultrasound, currents as large as 250 nA were recorded flowing through the length of the gabbro slab and through the dust/soil pile. Dry dust/soil and dust samples impregnated with

  17. Improving the Detectability of the Catalan Seismic Network for Local Seismic Activity Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara, Jose Antonio; Frontera, Tànit; Batlló, Josep; Goula, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The seismic survey of the territory of Catalonia is mainly performed by the regional seismic network operated by the Cartographic and Geologic Institute of Catalonia (ICGC). After successive deployments and upgrades, the current network consists of 16 permanent stations equipped with 3 component broadband seismometers (STS2, STS2.5, CMG3ESP and CMG3T), 24 bits digitizers (Nanometrics Trident) and VSAT telemetry. Data are continuously sent in real-time via Hispasat 1D satellite to the ICGC datacenter in Barcelona. Additionally, data from other 10 stations of neighboring areas (Spain, France and Andorra) are continuously received since 2011 via Internet or VSAT, contributing both to detect and to locate events affecting the region. More than 300 local events with Ml ≥ 0.7 have been yearly detected and located in the region. Nevertheless, small magnitude earthquakes, especially those located in the south and south-west of Catalonia may still go undetected by the automatic detection system (DAS), based on Earthworm (USGS). Thus, in order to improve the detection and characterization of these missed events, one or two new stations should be installed. Before making the decision about where to install these new stations, the performance of each existing station is evaluated taking into account the fraction of detected events using the station records, compared to the total number of events in the catalogue, occurred during the station operation time from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014. These evaluations allow us to build an Event Detection Probability Map (EDPM), a required tool to simulate EDPMs resulting from different network topology scenarios depending on where these new stations are sited, and becoming essential for the decision-making process to increase and optimize the event detection probability of the seismic network.

  18. Seismic attenuation structure of the Seattle Basin, Washington State from explosive-source refraction data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Q.; Wilcock, W.S.D.; Pratt, T.L.; Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    We used waveform data from the 1999 SHIPS (Seismic Hazard Investigation of Puget Sound) seismic refraction experiment to constrain the attenuation structure of the Seattle basin, Washington State. We inverted the spectral amplitudes of compressional- and shear-wave arrivals for source spectra, site responses, and one- and two-dimensional Q-1 models at frequencies between 1 and 40 Hz for P waves and 1 and 10 Hz for S waves. We also obtained Q-1 models from t* values calculated from the spectral slopes of P waves between 10 and 40 Hz. One-dimensional inversions show that Qp at the surface is 22 at 1 Hz, 130 at 5 Hz, and 390 at 20 Hz. The corresponding values at 18 km depth are 100, 440, and 1900. Qs at the surface is 16 and 160 at 1 Hz and 8 Hz, respectively, increasing to 80 and 500 at 18 km depth. The t* inversion yields a Qp model that is consistent with the amplitude inversions at 20 and 30 Hz. The basin geometry is clearly resolved in the t* inversion, but the amplitude inversions only imaged the basin structure after removing anomalously high-amplitude shots near Seattle. When these shots are removed, we infer that Q-1 values may be ???30% higher in the center of the basin than the one-dimensional models predict. We infer that seismic attenuation in the Seattle basin will significantly reduce ground motions at frequencies at and above 1 Hz, partially countering amplification effects within the basin.

  19. Aftershock and induced seismic activity of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake in the northern part of Tohoku district, NE Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the seismic activity around the northern neighbor of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) with special attention to a potential large aftershock in the area. We obtained a combined data set by adding our manually-picked locations to the catalog locations by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The hypocenter distribution delineates active and inactive bands of seismicity. The band of low seismicity corresponds to a zone of a large seismic slip, indicating that aftershocks occurred in peripheral neighbors of the mainshock asperity. The broad band of active seismicity along the coast corresponds to the zone of a large postseismic slip, suggesting the enhancement of the aftershock activity by the slip. Although the northern neighbor of the mainshock fault is a favored region of increased seismicity, as shown from a Coulomb stress calculation, no significant seismic activity is observed within the potential source area except along the Japan Trench and the SW corner. This implies that the zone of interplate moment release by previous large earthquakes and the subsequent slow slip acted as a barrier to the migration of both the mainshock rupture and aftershock activity. However, an aftershock area in the zone may reflect inhomogeneous moment release by past seismic and aseismic sequences. Induced inland seismicity is quite high in the Akita Prefecture on the Japan Sea side apart more than 100 km from the mainshock fault. There are some active clusters including moderate earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5. They are newly formed clusters after the mainshock, while the seismicity of previously active areas decreased significantly. Focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes in the new clusters show the types of strike-slip with consistently NW-SE trending T-axes. The predominant type of focal mechanisms in the Akita area before the mainshock was E-W compressional reverse faulting. Thus the stress field in the area has changed

  20. A study on the seismic source parameters for earthquakes occurring in the southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, H. M.; Sheen, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the characteristics of the seismic source parameters of the southern part of the Korean Peninsula for the 599 events with ML≥1.7 from 2001 to 2014. A large number of data are carefully selected by visual inspection in the time and frequency domains. The data set consist of 5,093 S-wave trains on three-component seismograms recorded at broadband seismograph stations which have been operating by the Korea Meteorological Administration and the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources. The corner frequency, stress drop, and moment magnitude of each event were measured by using the modified method of Jo and Baag (2001), based on the methods of Snoke (1987) and Andrews (1986). We found that this method could improve the stability of the estimation of source parameters from S-wave displacement spectrum by an iterative process. Then, we compared the source parameters with those obtained from previous studies and investigated the source scaling relationship and the regional variations of source parameters in the southern Korean Peninsula.

  1. Quaternary normal faulting in southeastern Sicily (Italy):a seismic source for the 1693 large earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianca, Marcello; Monaco, Carmelo; Tortorici, Luigi; Cernobori, Licio

    1999-11-01

    We present geological and morphological data, combined with an analysis of seismic reflection lines across the Ionian offshore zone and information on historical earthquakes, in order to yield new constraints on active faulting in southeastern Sicily. This region, one of the most seismically active of the Mediterranean, is affected by WNW-ESE regional extension producing normal faulting of the southern edge of the Siculo-Calabrian rift zone. Our data describe two systems of Quaternary normal faults, characterized by different ages and related to distinct tectonic processes. The older NW-SE-trending normal fault segments developed up to ~400 kyr ago and, striking perpendicular to the main front of the Maghrebian thrust belt, bound the small basins occurring along the eastern coast of the Hyblean Plateau. The younger fault system is represented by prominent NNW-SSE-trending normal fault segments and extends along the Ionian offshore zone following the NE-SW-trending Avola and Rosolini-Ispica normal faults. These faults are characterized by vertical slip rates of 0.7-3.3 mm yr-1 and might be associated with the large seismic events of January 1693. We suggest that the main shock of the January 1693 earthquakes (M~7) could be related to a 45 km long normal fault with a right-lateral component of motion. A long-term net slip rate of about 3.7 mm yr-1 is calculated, and a recurrence interval of about 550+/-50 yr is proposed for large events similar to that of January 1693.

  2. A new tool for rapid and automatic estimation of earthquake source parameters and generation of seismic bulletins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    RISS S.r.l. is a Spin-off company recently born from the initiative of the research group constituting the Seismology Laboratory of the Department of Physics of the University of Naples Federico II. RISS is an innovative start-up, based on the decade-long experience in earthquake monitoring systems and seismic data analysis of its members and has the major goal to transform the most recent innovations of the scientific research into technological products and prototypes. With this aim, RISS has recently started the development of a new software, which is an elegant solution to manage and analyse seismic data and to create automatic earthquake bulletins. The software has been initially developed to manage data recorded at the ISNet network (Irpinia Seismic Network), which is a network of seismic stations deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, November 23, MS 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. The software, however, is fully exportable and can be used to manage data from different networks, with any kind of station geometry or network configuration and is able to provide reliable estimates of earthquake source parameters, whichever is the background seismicity level of the area of interest. Here we present the real-time automated procedures and the analyses performed by the software package, which is essentially a chain of different modules, each of them aimed at the automatic computation of a specific source parameter. The P-wave arrival times are first detected on the real-time streaming of data and then the software performs the phase association and earthquake binding. As soon as an event is automatically detected by the binder, the earthquake location coordinates and the origin time are rapidly estimated, using a probabilistic, non-linear, exploration algorithm. Then, the software is able to automatically provide three different magnitude estimates. First, the local magnitude (Ml) is computed, using the peak-to-peak amplitude

  3. Crowd-Sourcing Seismic Data: Lessons Learned from the Quake-Catcher Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, E. S.; Sumy, D. F.; DeGroot, R. M.; Clayton, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Quake Catcher Network (QCN; qcn.caltech.edu) uses low cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors hosted by volunteers to collect seismic data. Volunteers use accelerometers internal to laptop computers, phones, tablets or small (the size of a matchbox) MEMS sensors plugged into desktop computers using a USB connector to collect scientifically useful data. Data are collected and sent to a central server using the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) distributed computing software. Since 2008, when the first citizen scientists joined the QCN project, sensors installed in museums, schools, offices, and residences have collected thousands of earthquake records. We present and describe the rapid installations of very dense sensor networks that have been undertaken following several large earthquakes including the 2010 M8.8 Maule Chile, the 2010 M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, and the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake. These large data sets allowed seismologists to develop new rapid earthquake detection capabilities and closely examine source, path, and site properties that impact ground shaking at a site. We show how QCN has engaged a wide sector of the public in scientific data collection, providing the public with insights into how seismic data are collected and used. Furthermore, we describe how students use data recorded by QCN sensors installed in their classrooms to explore and investigate earthquakes that they felt, as part of 'teachable moment' exercises.

  4. Elastic parabolic equation solutions for oceanic T-wave generation and propagation from deep seismic sources.

    PubMed

    Frank, Scott D; Collis, Jon M; Odom, Robert I

    2015-06-01

    Oceanic T-waves are earthquake signals that originate when elastic waves interact with the fluid-elastic interface at the ocean bottom and are converted to acoustic waves in the ocean. These waves propagate long distances in the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel and tend to be the largest observed arrivals from seismic events. Thus, an understanding of their generation is important for event detection, localization, and source-type discrimination. Recently benchmarked seismic self-starting fields are used to generate elastic parabolic equation solutions that demonstrate generation and propagation of oceanic T-waves in range-dependent underwater acoustic environments. Both downward sloping and abyssal ocean range-dependent environments are considered, and results demonstrate conversion of elastic waves into water-borne oceanic T-waves. Examples demonstrating long-range broadband T-wave propagation in range-dependent environments are shown. These results confirm that elastic parabolic equation solutions are valuable for characterization of the relationships between T-wave propagation and variations in range-dependent bathymetry or elastic material parameters, as well as for modeling T-wave receptions at hydrophone arrays or coastal receiving stations. PMID:26093440

  5. Detection of quasi-static displacement components of LP seismic sources near the volcanic summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thun, Johannes; Bean, Christopher J.; Lokmer, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Seismic long-period (LP) events are still not completely understood, but widely accepted source models involve fluids and fluid-driven resonance processes. Due to the difficulties related to installing seismometers in summit regions of volcanoes, the observations of volcanic seismicity are usually performed at distances not closer than 1-2 km from the hypocentre of a seismic event. Observations from high-density network experiments on different volcanoes lead to a new model proposed by Bean et al. (Nature Geoscience, January 2014). Therein LP events are explained as a consequence of a brittle-ductile failure occurring under the low-stress conditions in the shallow volcanic edifice, rather than fluid-driven resonance. One consequence of this model is a static displacement associated with these LP events. Unfortunately, the expected amplitude of the static shift is only several micrometres, i.e. not detectable by typical deformation measurements. Therefore, we try to develop methods for using seismometers as static shift detecting sensors. Our current inability to recover the full spectrum of recorded displacement results in a band-limited representation of the true process derived from moment-tensor inversions. If the actual source process is of a broadband character, our narrow-band results can be quite misleading. In this study we are focusing on quasi-static displacements we observed on seismometer data from Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica) and Mt Etna (Italy). These appear as ramp-like signals on displacement traces of LP events, most commonly on all three seismometer components, and have a magnitude of a few micrometres. Laboratory tests confirm that the seismometers used in our field experiments can indeed measure step-like signals, but they also show that long period noise can be a problem when trying to interpret these. Normal high pass filters suitable to remove this noise cannot be applied without losing the signal we are interested in. Therefore special

  6. Tsunami simulation using submarine displacement calculated from simulation of ground motion due to seismic source model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, S.; Kawaji, K.; Fujihara, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since fault fracturing due to an earthquake can simultaneously cause ground motion and tsunami, it is appropriate to evaluate the ground motion and the tsunami by single fault model. However, several source models are used independently in the ground motion simulation or the tsunami simulation, because of difficulty in evaluating both phenomena simultaneously. Many source models for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake are proposed from the inversion analyses of seismic observations or from those of tsunami observations. Most of these models show the similar features, which large amount of slip is located at the shallower part of fault area near the Japan Trench. This indicates that the ground motion and the tsunami can be evaluated by the single source model. Therefore, we examine the possibility of the tsunami prediction, using the fault model estimated from seismic observation records. In this study, we try to carry out the tsunami simulation using the displacement field of oceanic crustal movements, which is calculated from the ground motion simulation of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. We use two fault models by Yoshida et al. (2011), which are based on both the teleseismic body wave and on the strong ground motion records. Although there is the common feature in those fault models, the amount of slip near the Japan trench is lager in the fault model from the strong ground motion records than in that from the teleseismic body wave. First, the large-scale ground motion simulations applying those fault models used by the voxel type finite element method are performed for the whole eastern Japan. The synthetic waveforms computed from the simulations are generally consistent with the observation records of K-NET (Kinoshita (1998)) and KiK-net stations (Aoi et al. (2000)), deployed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). Next, the tsunami simulations are performed by the finite

  7. Seismicity study of volcano-tectonic in and around Tangkuban Parahu active volcano in West Java region, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ry, Rexha V.; Priyono, A.; Nugraha, A. D.; Basuki, A.

    2016-05-01

    Tangkuban Parahu is one of the active volcano in Indonesia located about 15 km northern part of Bandung city. The objective of this study is to investigate the seismic activity in the time periods of January 2013 to December 2013. First, we identified seismic events induced by volcano-tectonic activities. These micro-earthquake events were identified as having difference of P-wave and S-wave arrival times less than three seconds. Then, we constrained its location of hypocenter to locate the source of the activities. Hypocenter determination was performed using adaptive simulated annealing method. Using these results, seismic tomographic inversions were conducted to image the three-dimensional velocity structure of Vp, Vs, and the Vp/Vs ratio. In this study, 278 micro-earthquake events have been identified and located. Distribution of hypocenters around Tangkuban Parahu volcano forms an alignment structure and may be related to the stress induced by magma below, also movement of shallow magma below Domas Crater. Our preliminary tomographic inversion results indicate the presences of low Vp, high Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio that associate to accumulated young volcanic eruption products and hot material zones.

  8. Explosion Source Location Study Using Collocated Acoustic and Seismic Networks in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, V.; Gitterman, Y.; Arrowsmith, S.; Ben-Horin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We explore a joined analysis of seismic and infrasonic signals for improvement in automatic monitoring of small local/regional events, such as construction and quarry blasts, military chemical explosions, sonic booms, etc. using collocated seismic and infrasonic networks recently build in Israel (ISIN) in the frame of the project sponsored by the Bi-national USA-Israel Science Foundation (BSF). The general target is to create an automatic system, which will provide detection, location and identification of explosions in real-time or close-to-real time manner. At the moment the network comprises 15 stations hosting a microphone and seismometer (or accelerometer), operated by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII), plus two infrasonic arrays, operated by the National Data Center, Soreq: IOB in the South (Negev desert) and IMA in the North of Israel (Upper Galilee),collocated with the IMS seismic array MMAI. The study utilizes a ground-truth data-base of numerous Rotem phosphate quarry blasts, a number of controlled explosions for demolition of outdated ammunitions and experimental surface explosions for a structure protection research, at the Sayarim Military Range. A special event, comprising four military explosions in a neighboring country, that provided both strong seismic (up to 400 km) and infrasound waves (up to 300 km), is also analyzed. For all of these events the ground-truth coordinates and/or the results of seismic location by the Israel Seismic Network (ISN) have been provided. For automatic event detection and phase picking we tested the new recursive picker, based on Statistically optimal detector. The results were compared to the manual picks. Several location techniques have been tested using the ground-truth event recordings and the preliminary results obtained have been compared to the ground-truth locations: 1) a number of events have been located as intersection of azimuths estimated using the wide-band F-K analysis technique applied to the

  9. Bayesian inversion of seismic spectral ratio for source scaling: Application to a persistent multiplet in the western Corinth rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, Maxime; Bernard, Pascal; Dublanchet, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    We propose a method to precisely estimate earthquake source parameters as magnitude, size of rupture, stress drop, and coseismic slip, and their uncertainties. This method, which relies on a Bayesian approach, allows the determination of the scalar seismic moment, corner frequency (fc), and their associated uncertainties, by inverting ratios between seismic displacement spectra of nearby located earthquakes. We apply this method to a large earthquake multiplet (56 events) located under the northern coast of the Corinth gulf at 8 km depth. This multiplet is regularly active between 2001 and 2007. Results show fcP/fcS ratios globally between 1.0 and 1.5 which is compatible with the values predicted by Madariaga's circular rupture model. In detail, six earthquakes, however, exhibit corner frequency variations as a function of the station azimuth compatible with linear rupture propagation. Magnitude ranges 1.08 and 2.80 with a b value of 1.04. Source rupture length globally ranges between 40 and 170 m for stress drop between 1 and 100 MPa. We show that the number of ruptures and the cumulated coseismic slip are maximal at the center of the multiplet: this suggests that Multiplet-866 could be seen as a weak seismogenic patch surrounded by a locked fault. However, the large value of the maximum coseismic slip cumulated over the period 2000-2008 (10 cm) rather suggests creep allowing rapid stress reloading and repeated earthquakes with short delays. We therefore propose that Multiplet-866 is surrounded by a heterogeneous fault surface with both locked and creeping areas.

  10. New inferences from spectral seismic energy measurement of a link between regional seismicity and volcanic activity at Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, R.; Falsaperla, S.; Marrero, J. M.; Messina, A.

    2009-04-01

    The existence of a relationship between regional seismicity and changes in volcanic activity has been the subject of several studies in the last years. Generally, activity in basaltic volcanoes such as Villarica (Chile) and Tungurahua (Ecuador) shows very little changes after the occurrence of regional earthquakes. In a few cases volcanic activity has changed before the occurrence of regional earthquakes, such as observed at Teide, Tenerife, in 2004 and 2005 (Tárraga et al., 2006). In this paper we explore the possible link between regional seismicity and changes in volcanic activity at Mt. Etna in 2006 and 2007. On 24 November, 2006 at 4:37:40 GMT an earthquake of magnitude 4.7 stroke the eastern coast of Sicily. The epicenter was localized 50 km SE of the south coast of the island, and at about 160 km from the summit craters of Mt. Etna. The SSEM (Spectral Seismic Energy Measurement) of the seismic signal at stations at 1 km and 6 km from the craters highlights that four hours before this earthquake the energy associated with volcanic tremor increased, reached a maximum, and finally became steady when the earthquake occurred. Conversely, neither before nor after the earthquake, the SSEM of stations located between 80 km and 120 km from the epicentre and outside the volcano edifice showed changes. On 5 September, 2007 at 21:24:13 GMT an earthquake of magnitude 3.2 and 7.9 km depth stroke the Lipari Island, at the north of Sicily. About 38 hours before the earthquake occurrence, there was an episode of lava fountain lasting 20 hours at Etna volcano. The SSEM of the seismic signal recorded during the lava fountain at a station located at 6 km from the craters highlights changes heralding this earthquake ten hours before its occurrence using the FFM method (e.g., Voight, 1988; Ortiz et al., 2003). A change in volcanic activity - with the onset of ash emission and Strombolian explosions - was observed a couple of hours before the occurrence of the regional

  11. Application of a cross correlation-based picking algorithm to an active seismic experiment in Sicily and Aeolian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Alejandro; Álvarez, Isaac; De la Torre, Ángel; García, Luz; Benítez, Ma Carmen; Cortés, Guillermo

    2014-05-01

    The detection of the arrival time of seismic waves or picking is of great importance in many seismology applications. Traditionally, picking has been carried out by human operators. This process is not systematic and relies completely on the expertise and judgment of the analysts. The limitations of manual picking and the increasing amount of data daily stored in the seismic networks worldwide distributed and in active seismic experiments lead to the development of automatic picking algorithms. Current conventional algorithms work with single signals, such as the "short-term average over long-term average" (STA/LTA) algorithm, autoregressive methods or the recently developed "Adaptive Multiband Picking Algorithm" (AMPA). This work proposes a correlation-based picking algorithm, whose main advantage is the fact of using the information of a set of signals, improving the signal to noise ratio and therefore the picking accuracy. The main advantage of this approach is that the algorithm does not require to set up sophisticated parameters, in contrast to other automatic algorithms. The accuracy of the conventional STA/LTA algorithm, the recently developed AMPA algorithm, an autoregressive method, and a preliminary version of the cross correlation-based picking algorithm were assessed using a huge data set composed by active seismic signals from experiments in Tenerife Island (January 2007, Spain). The experiment consisted of the deployment of a dense seismic network on Tenerife Island (125 seismometers in total) and the shooting of air-guns around the island with the Spanish oceanographic vessel Hespérides (6459 air shots in total). Only 110937 signals (13.74% of the total) had the signal to noise ratio enough to be manually picked. Results showed that the use of the cross correlation-based picking algorithm significantly increases the number of signals that can be considered in the tomography. A new active seismic experiment will cover Sicily and Aeolian Islands (TOMO

  12. Geomorphological features of active tectonics and ongoing seismicity of northeastern Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Vivekanand; Pant, Charu C.; Darmwal, Gopal Singh

    2015-08-01

    The northeastern part of Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India, lying between the rupture zones of 1905, Kangra and 1934, Bihar-Nepal earthquakes and known as `central seismic gap' is a segment of an active fault known to produce significant earthquakes and has not slipped in an unusually long time when compared to other segments. The studied section forms a part of this seismic gap and is seismically an active segment of the Himalayan arc, as compared to the remaining part of the Kumaun Lesser Himalaya and it is evident by active geomorphological features and seismicity data. The geomorphological features of various river valley transects suggest that the region had a history of tectonic rejuvenation which is testified by the deposition of various levels of terraces and their relative uplift, shifting and ponding of river channels, uplifted potholes, triangular facets on fault planes, fault scarps, etc. Further, the seismic data of five-station digital telemetered seismic network along with two stand alone systems show the distribution of earthquakes in or along the analyzed fault transects. It is observed that the microseismic earthquakes (magnitude 1.0-3.0) frequently occur in the region and hypocenters of these earthquakes are confined to shallow depths (10-20 km), with low stress drop values (1.0-10 bar) and higher peak ground velocity (PGV). The cluster of events is observed in the region, sandwiched between the Berinag Thrust (BT) in south and Main Central Thrust (MCT) in north. The occurrences of shallow focus earthquakes and the surface deformational features in the different river valley transect indicates that the region is undergoing neotectonic rejuvenation. In absence of chronology of the deposits it is difficult to relate it with extant seismicity, but from the geomorphic and seismic observations it may be concluded that the region is still tectonically active. The information would be very important in identifying the areas of hazard prone and

  13. Long period seismic source characterization at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Dawson, Phillip; Chouet, Bernard A.

    2012-10-01

    The seismicity of Popocatépetl is dominated by long-period and very-long period signals associated with hydrothermal processes and magmatic degassing. We model the source mechanism of repetitive long-period signals in the 0.4-2 s band from a 15-station broadband network by stacking long-period events with similar waveforms to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The data are well fitted by a point source located within the summit crater ˜250 m below the crater floor and ˜200 m from the inferred magma conduit. The inferred source includes a volumetric component that can be modeled as resonance of a horizontal steam-filled crack and a vertical single force component. The long-period events are thought to be related to the interaction between the magmatic system and a perched hydrothermal system. Repetitive injection of fluid into the horizontal fracture and subsequent sudden discharge when a critical pressure threshold is met provides a non-destructive source process.

  14. Long period seismic source characterization at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Dawson, Phillip; Chouet, Bernard A.

    2012-01-01

    The seismicity of Popocatépetl is dominated by long-period and very-long period signals associated with hydrothermal processes and magmatic degassing. We model the source mechanism of repetitive long-period signals in the 0.4–2 s band from a 15-station broadband network by stacking long-period events with similar waveforms to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The data are well fitted by a point source located within the summit crater ~250 m below the crater floor and ~200 m from the inferred magma conduit. The inferred source includes a volumetric component that can be modeled as resonance of a horizontal steam-filled crack and a vertical single force component. The long-period events are thought to be related to the interaction between the magmatic system and a perched hydrothermal system. Repetitive injection of fluid into the horizontal fracture and subsequent sudden discharge when a critical pressure threshold is met provides a non-destructive source process.

  15. Characteristics of source properties and seismic energy of underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, T.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the shear-wave excitation mechanism is a key issue for effective seismic monitoring of nuclear explosions. The shear-wave excitation mechanism has not been fully understood yet despite efforts for several decades. The shear-wave excitation mechanism can be understood by examining the source properties and phase composition of wavetrains from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). The October 9, 2006 UNE in North Korea was well recorded by regional stations in South Korea, Japan and China. The dense regional observation allows us to study the regional source properties of the UNE. The source-spectral parameters and attenuation factors along ray paths can be inverted from the regional waveforms. High-frequency-rich energy from the UNE appears to be attenuated less during propagation across oceanic crust than a natural earthquake. The P/S amplitude ratio is observed to be useful for discriminating between the UNE and a natural earthquake. We also study the phase contents of regional and teleseismic wavetrains of various UNEs. We rarely observe shear waves at teleseismic distances, which suggests weak radiation of shear energy from the source at low takeoff angles.

  16. Variability of seismic source spectra derived from cohesive-zone models of symmetrical and asymmetrical ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Y.; Shearer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake stress drops are often estimated from far-field body-wave spectra using measurements of seismic moment, corner frequency, and a specific theoretical model of rupture behavior. Perhaps, the most widely-used model is from Madariaga (1976), who performed finite-difference calculations for a singular crack radially expanding at a constant speed and showed that fc=kβ/afc = k beta/a, where fcfc is spherically averaged corner frequency, βbeta is the shear-wave speed, aa is the radius of the circular source, and kk = 0.32 and 0.21 for P and S waves, respectively, assuming the rupture speed VrVr = 0.9βbeta. Since stress in the Madariaga model is singular at the rupture front, the finite mesh size and smoothing procedures may have affected the resulting corner frequencies. Here we investigate the behavior of source spectra derived from dynamic models of radially expanding rupture with a cohesive zone that prevents a stress singularity at the rupture front. We find that in the small-scale yielding limit where the cohesive-zone size becomes much smaller than the source dimension, P- and S-wave corner frequencies of far-field body-wave spectra are systematically larger than those predicted by Madariaga (1976). In particular, the model with rupture speed VrVr = 0.9βbeta shows that kk = 0.38 for P waves and kk = 0.26 for S waves, which are 19 and 24 percent larger, respectively, than those of Madariaga (1976). Thus for these ruptures, the application of the Madariaga model overestimates stress drops by a factor of 1.7. We further address the validity of a standard assumption on a symmetrical circular source applied to real earthquakes. Our results suggest that up to a factor of two differences in the spherical average of corner frequencies are expected simply from the variability in source geometry and rupture styles, translating into a factor of eight differences in estimated stress drops. In addition, the large dependence of corner frequency on take-off angle

  17. From the Atlas to the Rif a Crustal seismic image across Morocco: The SIMA & RIFSEIS control source wide-angle seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Ayarza, Puy; Gallart, Josep; Diaz, Jordi; Harnafi, Mimoun; Levander, Alan; Teixell, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The velocity structure of the crust and the geometry of the Moho across Morocco has been the main target of two recently acquired wide-angle seismic reflection transects. One is the SIMA experiment which provided seismic constraints beneath the Atlas Mountains and the second has been the RIFSEIS experiment which sampled the RIF orogen. Jointly these controlled source wide-angle seismic reflection data results in an almost 700 km, seismic profile going from the the Sahara craton across the High and Middle Atlas and Rif Mountain till the Gibraltar-Arc (Alboran). Current work on the interpretation of the seismic data-set is based on forward modeling, ray-tracing, as well as low fold wide-angle stacking. The data has resulted in a detailed crustal structure and velocity model for the Atlas Mountains and a 700 km transect revealing the irregular topography of the Moho beneath these two mountain orogens. Results indicate that the High Atlas features a moderate crustal thickness and that shortening is resolved at depth through a crustal root where the Saharan crust under-thrusts below the Moroccan crust, defining a lower crust imbrication which locally places the Moho boundary at, approximately, 40 km depth. The P-wave velocity model is characterized, in averaged, by relatively low velocities. These low deep crustal velocities together with other geophysical observables such as: conductivity estimates derived from Mt measurements; moderate Bouguer gravity anomaly; surface exposures of recent alkaline volcanics; lead the interpretation to propose that partial melts are currently emplaced in the deep crustal levels and in the upper mantle. The Moho discontinuity defines a crust which is in average relatively thin beneath the Atlas which is almost a 4000 m high orogenic belt. The resulting model supports existence of mantle upwelling as a possible mechanism that contributes, significantly, to maintain the High Atlas topography.

  18. Martian seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

  19. Roman literary and epigraphic sources for the study of historical seismicity in Algeria circa 42-420 ad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdi, Sabah; Harbi, Assia

    2014-04-01

    The seismicity of Algeria since the nineteenth century is relatively well documented. However, compared with the numerous damaging earthquakes that are documented since 1850, fewer than a dozen reports of earthquakes are listed for the pre-1850 ad period, suggesting that the historical record is missing a substantial number of earthquakes. This paper examines the use of literary and epigraphic sources relevant to the investigation of seismicity in Algeria during Roman times. We provide examples where the meager written literary record may be supplemented with appropriate archaeological and epigraphic data describing damage to ancient Roman sites. The examples show that collaboration between earth scientists and archeologists is of utility in improving the seismic record and highlights the need for further study of data sources and repositories located both inside and outside of Algeria.

  20. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  1. Induced seismicity during the construction of the Gotthard Base Tunnel, Switzerland: hypocenter locations and source dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, Stephan; Kissling, Edi; von Deschwanden, Angela

    2013-01-01

    A series of 112 earthquakes was recorded between October 2005 and August 2007 during the excavation of the MFS Faido, the southernmost access point of the new Gotthard Base Tunnel. Earthquakes were recorded at a dense network of 11 stations, including 2 stations in the tunnel. Local magnitudes computed from Wood-Anderson-filtered horizontal component seismograms ranged from -1.0 to 2.4; the largest earthquake was strongly felt at the surface and caused considerable damage in the tunnel. Hypocenter locations obtained routinely using a regional 3-D P-wave velocity model and a constant Vp/Vs ratio 1.71 were about 2 km below the tunnel. The use of seismic velocities calibrated from a shot in the tunnel revealed that routinely obtained hypocenter locations were systematically biased to greater depth and are now relocated to be on the tunnel level. Relocation of the shot using these calibrated velocities yields a location accuracy of 25 m in longitude, 70 m in latitude, and 250 m in focal depth. Double-difference relative relocations of two clusters with highly similar waveforms showed a NW-SE striking trend that is consistent with the strike of mapped faults in the MFS Faido. Source dimensions computed using the quasidynamic model of Madariaga (Bull Seismo Soc Am 66(3):639-666, 1976) range from 50 to 170 m. Overlapping source dimensions for earthquakes within the two main clusters suggests that the same fault patch was ruptured repeatedly. The observed seismicity was likely caused by stress redistribution due to the excavation work in the MFS Faido.

  2. Induced seismicity during the construction of the Gotthard Base Tunnel, Switzerland: hypocenter locations and source dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, Stephan; Kissling, Edi; von Deschwanden, Angela

    2012-04-01

    A series of 112 earthquakes was recorded between October 2005 and August 2007 during the excavation of the MFS Faido, the southernmost access point of the new Gotthard Base Tunnel. Earthquakes were recorded at a dense network of 11 stations, including 2 stations in the tunnel. Local magnitudes computed from Wood-Anderson-filtered horizontal component seismograms ranged from -1.0 to 2.4; the largest earthquake was strongly felt at the surface and caused considerable damage in the tunnel. Hypocenter locations obtained routinely using a regional 3-D P-wave velocity model and a constant Vp/Vs ratio 1.71 were about 2 km below the tunnel. The use of seismic velocities calibrated from a shot in the tunnel revealed that routinely obtained hypocenter locations were systematically biased to greater depth and are now relocated to be on the tunnel level. Relocation of the shot using these calibrated velocities yields a location accuracy of 25 m in longitude, 70 m in latitude, and 250 m in focal depth. Double-difference relative relocations of two clusters with highly similar waveforms showed a NW-SE striking trend that is consistent with the strike of mapped faults in the MFS Faido. Source dimensions computed using the quasidynamic model of Madariaga (Bull Seismo Soc Am 66(3):639-666, 1976) range from 50 to 170 m. Overlapping source dimensions for earthquakes within the two main clusters suggests that the same fault patch was ruptured repeatedly. The observed seismicity was likely caused by stress redistribution due to the excavation work in the MFS Faido.

  3. A Sled-Mounted Vibroseis Seismic Source for Geological Studies in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speece, M. A.; Luyendyk, B. P.; Harwood, D. M.; Powell, R. D.; Wilson, D. S.; Pekar, S. F.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Rack, F. R.

    2013-12-01

    Given the success of recent vibrator seismic source (vibroseis) tests in Antarctica, we propose the purchase of a large vibroseis for dedicated use by United States Antarctic Program (USAP) projects in Antarctica. Long seismic reflection profiles across Antarctica can be accomplished efficiently by pulling a sled-mounted vibrator that in turn pulls a snow streamer of gimbaled geophones. A baseplate or pad in the center of the sled will be lowered to the ground and support most of the weight of the vibrator assembly while an actuator vibrates the ground at each source location. The vibroseis will be moved to remote locations using over-ice/snow traverses given the increased reliance on traversing for supplying remote sites in Antarctica. Total vibrator hold-down weight when fully assembled will be ~66,000 lbs. Other design features include a 475 HP Caterpillar C15 diesel engine for the hydraulic power unit. The new vibrator will use an INOVA P-wave vibrator system: new Model PLS-362 actuator with up to 60,000 lbs of peak force and frequency limit of 5 Hz to 250Hz. Antarctic research objectives that could be impacted by the use of a vibrator include: (1) mapping of sub-ice stratigraphic sequences for drilling for paleoclimate information, e.g. the deep sedimentary basins of West Antarctica (Ross and Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelves and related divides); (2) correlating offshore and onshore seismic data and complementing airborne geophysical surveys to help determine Antarctica's geologic history; (3) identifying ice-bedrock interface properties and exploring grounding-line processes for ice dynamics; (4) exploring subglacial lakes and water-routing systems; and, (5) investigating the physical properties of ice sheets. An Antarctic Vibroseis Advisory Committee (AVAC) will promote the use of the vibroseis capability among Antarctic geophysical, geological, glaciological and related scientists and groups by encouraging and facilitating the development and submission of

  4. The Seismic Tool-Kit (STK): an open source software for seismology and signal processing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reymond, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    We present an open source software project (GNU public license), named STK: Seismic ToolKit, that is dedicated mainly for seismology and signal processing. The STK project that started in 2007, is hosted by SourceForge.net, and count more than 19 500 downloads at the date of writing. The STK project is composed of two main branches: First, a graphical interface dedicated to signal processing (in the SAC format (SAC_ASCII and SAC_BIN): where the signal can be plotted, zoomed, filtered, integrated, derivated, ... etc. (a large variety of IFR and FIR filter is proposed). The estimation of spectral density of the signal are performed via the Fourier transform, with visualization of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) in linear or log scale, and also the evolutive time-frequency representation (or sonagram). The 3-components signals can be also processed for estimating their polarization properties, either for a given window, or either for evolutive windows along the time. This polarization analysis is useful for extracting the polarized noises, differentiating P waves, Rayleigh waves, Love waves, ... etc. Secondly, a panel of Utilities-Program are proposed for working in a terminal mode, with basic programs for computing azimuth and distance in spherical geometry, inter/auto-correlation, spectral density, time-frequency for an entire directory of signals, focal planes, and main components axis, radiation pattern of P waves, Polarization analysis of different waves (including noize), under/over-sampling the signals, cubic-spline smoothing, and linear/non linear regression analysis of data set. A MINimum library of Linear AlGebra (MIN-LINAG) is also provided for computing the main matrix process like: QR/QL decomposition, Cholesky solve of linear system, finding eigen value/eigen vectors, QR-solve/Eigen-solve of linear equations systems ... etc. STK is developed in C/C++, mainly under Linux OS, and it has been also partially implemented under MS-Windows. Usefull links: http://sourceforge.net/projects/seismic

  5. High resolution seismic imaging of an active normal fault in the Agri Valley, Southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Improta, L.; Bruno, P.; di Fiore, V.; Mariani, S.

    2004-12-01

    The Agri Valley is an intermontane basin located in the Southern Apennine seismic belt (Italy) whose formation in tied to large NW-trending trastensional and extensional faults active since Early Pleistocene. Recent faulting activity in the area is documented by faulted paleosoils and suggested by a M7 earthquake that struck the basin in 1857. On the contrary, present-day background seismicity in the area is extremely low. Despite intense geomorphic investigations, the identification of the source responsible for this historical event and of further large seismogenic faults in the area is still a matter of debate. A new NW trending normal faulting system has been recently recognized based on subtle geomorphic expressions on the ridge bounding the basin westward. Recent faulting activity along this structure is locally documented by a trench. Aimed at yielding new information about the shallow structure of the fault, we conducted a high resolution seismic experiment in a small lacustrine basin, located 4 km south of the trench, in which the presence of the fault is inferred by a linear surface warping but trench excavation is impractical. Both multi-fold wide-angle data and multichannel near vertical reflection data have been collected along a 220-m-long profile in order to obtain an accurate model of the basin combining seismic velocity and reflectivity images. About 3600 first arrival traveltimes picked on 36 wide-angle record sections have been inverted by a non-linear tomographic technique that is specially designed to image complex structures. The tomographic inversion provides a high-resolution velocity model of the basin down to 60 m depth. The model is strongly heterogeneous and displays sharp lateral velocity variations. Seismic reflection processing has been applied to both data sets. Data have been edited for trace quality and first (refracted and direct) arrivals have been muted. A following FK dip filtering on the shot gathers reduced the energy

  6. Model space exploration for determining landslide source history from long period seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Mangeney, A.; Stutzmann, E.; Capdeville, Y.; Moretti, L.; Calder, E. S.; Smith, P. J.; Cole, P.; Le Friant, A.

    2012-12-01

    The seismic signals generated by high magnitude landslide events can be recorded at remote stations, which provides access to the landslide process. During the "Boxing Day" eruption at Montserrat in 1997, the long-period seismic signals generated by the debris avalanche are recorded by two stations at distances of 450km and 1261km. We investigate the landslide process considering that the landslide source can be described by single forces. The period band 25-50 sec is selected for which the landslide signal is clearly visible at the two stations. We first use the transverse component of the closest station to determine the horizontal forces. We model the seismogram by normal mode summation and investigate the model space. Two horizontal forces are found that best fit the data. These two horizontal forces have similar amplitude, but opposite direction and they are separated in time by 70 sec. The radiation pattern of the transverse component does not enable to determine the exact azimuth of these forces. We then model the vertical component of the seismograms which enable to retrieve both the vertical and horizontal forces. Using the parameter previously determined (amplitude ratio and time shift of the 2 horizontal forces), we further investigate the model space and show that a single vertical force together with the 2 horizontal forces enable to fit the data. The complete source time function can be described as follows: a horizontal force toward the opposite direction of the landslide flow is followed 40 sec later by a vertical downward force and 30 more seconds later by a horizontal force toward the direction of the flow. The volume of the landslide estimated from the force magnitude is compatible with the volume determined by field survey. Inverting directly the seismograms in the period band 25-50sec enable to retrieve a source time function that is consistent with the 3 forces determined previously. The source time function in this narrow period band alone

  7. Model space exploration for determining landslide source history from long period seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Juan; Mangeney, Anne; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Capdeville, Yann; Moretti, Laurent; Calder, Eliza S.; Smith, Patrick J.; Cole, Paul; Le Friant, Anne

    2013-04-01

    The seismic signals generated by high magnitude landslide events can be recorded at remote stations, which provides access to the landslide process. During the "Boxing Day" eruption at Montserrat in 1997, the long period seismic signals generated by the debris avalanche are recorded by two stations at distances of 450 km and 1261 km. We investigate the landslide process considering that the landslide source can be described by single forces. The period band 25-50 sec is selected for which the landslide signal is clearly visible at the two stations. We first use the transverse component of the closest station to determine the horizontal forces. We model the seismogram by normal mode summation and investigate the model space. Two horizontal forces are found that best fit the data. These two horizontal forces have similar amplitude, but opposite direction and they are separated in time by 70 sec. The radiation pattern of the transverse component does not enable to determine the exact azimuth of these forces. We then model the vertical component of the seismograms which enable to retrieve both the vertical and horizontal forces. Using the parameter previously determined (amplitude ratio and time shift of the 2 horizontal forces), we further investigate the model space and show that a single vertical force together with the 2 horizontal forces enable to fit the data. The complete source time function can be described as follows: a horizontal force toward the opposite direction of the landslide flow is followed 40 sec later by a vertical downward force and 30 more seconds later by a horizontal force toward the direction of the flow. Inverting directly the seismograms in the period band 25-50sec enable to retrieve a source time function that is consistent with the 3 forces determined previously. The source time function in this narrow period band alone does not enable easily to recover the corresponding single forces. This method can be used to determine the source

  8. A new view for the geodynamics of Ecuador: Implication in seismogenic source definition and seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepes, Hugo; Audin, Laurence; Alvarado, Alexandra; Beauval, Céline; Aguilar, Jorge; Font, Yvonne; Cotton, Fabrice

    2016-05-01

    A new view of Ecuador's complex geodynamics has been developed in the course of modeling seismic source zones for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. This study focuses on two aspects of the plates' interaction at a continental scale: (a) age-related differences in rheology between Farallon and Nazca plates—marked by the Grijalva rifted margin and its inland projection—as they subduct underneath central Ecuador, and (b) the rapidly changing convergence obliquity resulting from the convex shape of the South American northwestern continental margin. Both conditions satisfactorily explain several characteristics of the observed seismicity and of the interseismic coupling. Intermediate-depth seismicity reveals a severe flexure in the Farallon slab as it dips and contorts at depth, originating the El Puyo seismic cluster. The two slabs position and geometry below continental Ecuador also correlate with surface expressions observable in the local and regional geology and tectonics. The interseismic coupling is weak and shallow south of the Grijalva rifted margin and increases northward, with a heterogeneous pattern locally associated to the Carnegie ridge subduction. High convergence obliquity is responsible for the North Andean Block northeastward movement along localized fault systems. The Cosanga and Pallatanga fault segments of the North Andean Block-South American boundary concentrate most of the seismic moment release in continental Ecuador. Other inner block faults located along the western border of the inter-Andean Depression also show a high rate of moderate-size earthquake production. Finally, a total of 19 seismic source zones were modeled in accordance with the proposed geodynamic and neotectonic scheme.

  9. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment at Seaside, Oregon, for near-and far-field seismic sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Geist, E.L.; Jaffe, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Mofjeld, H.; Synolakis, C.E.; Titov, V.V.; Areas, D.; Bellomo, D.; Carlton, D.; Horning, T.; Johnson, J.; Newman, J.; Parsons, T.; Peters, R.; Peterson, C.; Priest, G.; Venturato, A.; Weber, J.; Wong, F.; Yalciner, A.

    2009-01-01

    The first probabilistic tsunami flooding maps have been developed. The methodology, called probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA), integrates tsunami inundation modeling with methods of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Application of the methodology to Seaside, Oregon, has yielded estimates of the spatial distribution of 100- and 500-year maximum tsunami amplitudes, i.e., amplitudes with 1% and 0.2% annual probability of exceedance. The 100-year tsunami is generated most frequently by far-field sources in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone and is characterized by maximum amplitudes that do not exceed 4 m, with an inland extent of less than 500 m. In contrast, the 500-year tsunami is dominated by local sources in the Cascadia Subduction Zone and is characterized by maximum amplitudes in excess of 10 m and an inland extent of more than 1 km. The primary sources of uncertainty in these results include those associated with interevent time estimates, modeling of background sea level, and accounting for temporal changes in bathymetry and topography. Nonetheless, PTHA represents an important contribution to tsunami hazard assessment techniques; viewed in the broader context of risk analysis, PTHA provides a method for quantifying estimates of the likelihood and severity of the tsunami hazard, which can then be combined with vulnerability and exposure to yield estimates of tsunami risk. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. A test of a mechanical multi-impact shear-wave seismic source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worley, David M.; Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; Stephenson, William J.

    2001-01-01

    We modified two gasoline-engine-powered earth tampers, commonly used as compressional-(P) wave seismic energy sources for shallow reflection studies, for use as shear(S)-wave energy sources. This new configuration, termed ?Hacker? (horizontal Wacker?), is evaluated as an alternative to the manual sledgehammer typically used in conjunction with a large timber held down by the front wheels of a vehicle. The Hacker maximizes the use of existing equipment by a quick changeover of bolt-on accessories as opposed to the handling of a separate source, and is intended to improve the depth of penetration of S-wave data by stacking hundreds of impacts over a two to three minute period. Records were made with a variety of configurations involving up to two Hackers simultaneously then compared to a reference record made with a sledgehammer. Preliminary results indicate moderate success by the higher amplitude S-waves recorded with the Hacker as compared to the hammer method. False triggers generated by the backswing of the Hacker add unwanted noise and we are currently working to modify the device to eliminate this effect. Correlation noise caused by insufficient randomness of the Hacker impact sequence is also a significant noise problem that we hope to reduce by improving the coupling of the Hacker to the timber so that the operator has more control over the impact sequence.

  11. Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

  12. Global detection and localization of seismic sources by using beamforming of multiple body wave phases with USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retailleau, L.; Shapiro, N.; Guilbert, J.; Campillo, M.; Roux, P.

    2015-12-01

    Detection methods are usually developed to observe earthquakes, and are not relevant to observe long event with emergent signals (e. g. event with long source duration). We present a new method to detect and localize seismic events without prior information about their source. This method explores the consistency and characteristic behavior of teleseismic body waves recorded by a large-scale seismic network. We show that the use of a seismic network as an antenna is a powerful tool to analyze sources without the need to pick phases arrivals. This allows the characterization of low amplitude events that compose the noise.The procedure consists of three steps. First, for every tested source location we perform a time-slowness analysis and compute the Tau-p transform from the dataset. For waves emitted by teleseismic sources, the amplitude of this transform has a very characteristic behavior with maxima corresponding to different seismic phases arrivals. Relative location of these maxima on the time-slowness plane strongly depends on the distance to the earthquake. In a second step, we convolve the Tau-P amplitude with a time-slowness filter whose maxima are computed based on prediction of global travel-time calculator (Buland and Chapman, 1983) in order to explore this dependence. As a third step we gather the results obtained with different sources to get a space/time likelihood function for the occurrence of a seismic event. This process is performed at different frequency bands to observe possible variations in time.We apply this method to continuous vertical-component seismograms of USArray. We highlight non earthquake events that occurred during 2010. We then compare our results with datasets of stations closer to the events and a numerical model for ocean low frequency noise. We identify several low frequency microseisms occurring all along the year.

  13. Seismic activity near the Moriyoshi-zan volcano in Akita Prefecture, northeastern Japan: implications for geofluid migration and a midcrustal geofluid reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, M.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku (Tohoku-oki) earthquake caused increased seismicity in many inland areas in Japan. A triggered seismic cluster north of the Moriyoshi-zan volcano in Akita prefecture, Tohoku District, is of interest in light of the contribution of geofluids to seismic activity. We observed an active seismic cluster characterized by the migration of seismicity and reflected/scattered phases. We relocated hypocenters of the cluster using data from temporal observations and the hypoDD location technique, which significantly increased the hypocentral accuracy. We interpreted a complex spatiotemporal variation of seismicity in the cluster as the migration of pore fluid pressure from multiple pressure sources. The hydraulic diffusivity of the cluster was in the range of 0.01 to 0.7 m2/s and increased with time, implying that the migration of hypocenters accelerated after a pathway for fluids was formed by fracturing of the wall rock during the initial stage of seismic activity. A prominent feature of the seismograms is a reflected/scattered phase observed at stations around the volcano. We regard the phase as S-to-S scattered waves and estimated the location of the scatterers using a back-projection method. The scatterers are inferred to be located about 5 km northwest of the Moriyoshi-zan volcano, at an approximate depth of 13 km. The Moriyoshi-zan area is one of the source areas of deep low-frequency earthquakes that have been interpreted as events generated by the migration of geofluids. The depth of the scatterers is close to the upper depth limit of low-frequency earthquakes. Thus, we interpret the observed scatterers to be a reservoir of geofluid that came from the uppermost mantle accompanying contemporaneous low-frequency earthquakes.

  14. Stable and unstable phases of elevated seismic activity at the persistently restless Telica Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Mel; Roman, Diana C.; Geirsson, Halldor; LaFemina, Peter; McNutt, Stephen R.; Muñoz, Angelica; Tenorio, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Telica Volca