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Sample records for active south polar

  1. Present Day Activity of South Polar Gullies on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raack, J.; Reiss, D.; Ruesch, O.; Hiesinger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Here we report on clearly identified seasonal changes of gullies observed within the last two martian years (MY) on slopes of a south polar pit, which is located in a filled crater (diameter ~54 km) north of Sisyphi Cavi at ~68.5°S and ~1.5°E. Using new high-resolution imaging (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, HiRISE), temperature (Thermal Emission Spectrometer, TES) and spectral data (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, CRISM; Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité, OMEGA), we analyzed the exact timing of changes of gullies and detect the possible medium (CO2, H2O or dry) and mechanism which initiate present day gully activity. Two locations in the study region with clear modifications of gullies were identified in MY 29 between LS 226° and LS 247° and between LS 209° and LS 247°. In MY 30 changes occur in both locations between LS 218° and LS 249°. Modifications are the formation of a new small apron and new deposits within the channel, both associated with the deposition of dark material. Erosion in gully alcoves or channels was not observed. TES data show temperatures between ~180 and ~240 K within the period of gully modifications. Maximum temperatures in the region rise up to ~285 K between LS ~270° and ~310°. Spectral data show a CO2-cover of the study region until LS 227°. CO2-ice free surface are spectrally observed for the first time at LS 249°. H2O was not spectrally detected in the study region and a mixture of CO2 and H2O as presented in [1] cannot be clearly detected. Unfortunately, there are no spectral data available between LS 227° and 249°. Modifications of gullies imply seasonal volatile activity. The activity can be narrowed down to occur between LS 226° and 247° at mean temperatures between ~180 and ~240 K. This is in the range of temperatures where CO2 sublimates back into the atmosphere. Based on the temperature range, the most likely candidate for the observed new

  2. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  3. South Polar Scarps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-438, 31 July 2003

    The terrain of the south polar residual ice cap, made up mostly of frozen carbon dioxide, has come to be known by many as 'swiss cheese terrain,' because many areas of the cap resemble slices of swiss cheese. However, not all of the south polar cap looks like a tasty lunch food. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of curving scarps formed by erosion and sublimation of carbon dioxide from the south polar cap. This area is located near 86.3oS, 51.2oW. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left; the area is about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) wide.

  4. South Polar Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of linear troughs and mesas formed in the frozen carbon dioxide of the martian south polar residual cap. This image, obtained in May 2005, is a reminder that not all of the south polar cap landscapes resemble 'swiss cheese.'

    Location near: 86.7oS, 24.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  5. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows landforms created by sublimation processes on the south polar residual cap of Mars. The bulk of the ice in the south polar residual cap is frozen carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 86.6oS, 342.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  6. Summer South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 April 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each summer, a little bit of this carbon dioxide sublimes away. Pits grow larger, and mesas get smaller, as this process continues from year to year. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of a small portion of the south polar cap as it appeared in mid-summer in January 2004. The dark areas may be places where the frozen carbon dioxide contains impurities, such as dust, or places where sublimation of ice has roughened the surface so that it appears darker because of small shadows cast by irregularities in the roughened surface. The image is located near 86.9oS, 7.6oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  7. South Polar Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 July 2004 This full-resolution (1.5 meters, 5 feet, per pixel) Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows mesa tops and depressions formed in layered carbon dioxide ice in the south polar residual cap. The image is located near 87.0oS, 341.9oW, and covers an area about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  8. South Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    2 July 2004 Beneath the ice caps of both martian poles lies extensive deposits of layered material. Whether the material includes ice is unknown. In the north polar region, some of the layers contain dark sand, others may consist of dust cemented by ice. The south polar layers are a little bit more challenging to understand. In most places, they have been covered by thin mantles of debris that mask the true nature of the layered material. This is the case, even in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shown here. South polar layers were eroded to provide this spectacular view, but later the materials were almost uniformly covered with a material that, when the image is viewed at full resolution (click on image, above), has become cracked. This picture is located near 82.0oS, 72.4oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  9. South Polar Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    5 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the south polar residual cap. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left, thus the somewhat kidney bean-shaped features are pits, not mounds. These pits and their neighboring polygonal cracks are formed in a material composed mostly of carbon dioxide ice. The image is located near 87.0oS, 5.7oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  10. South Polar Polygons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    4 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polgyon-cracked surface, into which deep, somewhat kidney-bean-shaped pits have formed. These are landscapes of the martian south polar residual cap. This view was captured during May 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 5.1oW Image width: 1.5 km (0.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season Southern Spring

  11. South Polar Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of erosion acting upon a layer of material in the south polar region of Mars. The elliptical pit in the lower left corner of the image was once buried beneath this eroding layer, as well. The processes that eroded the material, and the composition of the material, are unknown. The image is located near 80.7oS, 300.9oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the top.

  12. South Polar Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a circular depression and a suite of eroding mesas of carbon dioxide. These features occur in the south polar residual cap of Mars. The eroding carbon dioxide creates landforms reminiscent of 'Swiss cheese.' The circular feature might indicate the location of a filled, buried impact crater.

    Location near: 86.8oS, 111.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  13. South Polar Artwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-456, 18 August 2003

    Nature has created some interesting artwork on the south polar residual cap of Mars. This July 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example. The patterns in this picture are formed by erosion and sublimation of multiple layers of frozen carbon dioxide. The artwork is ephemeral and changing with each passing summer. By the end of the coming southern summer, the scarps in this area will have retreated an average of 3 meters (3.3 yards); some of the smaller buttes and ridges will have vanished. This picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is located near 86.6oS, 358.2oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  14. South Polar Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    8 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an area adjacent to the south polar residual cap that hosts several intricate fracture networks. Each network consists of multiple fractures radiating from a central location. Their origin is not understood -- some investigators have speculated that these are sites of release of carbon dioxide from beneath the ground, but this explanation seems inadequate to explain all attributes of the features. MOC images have shown that these features have not been changing from year to year during the course of the MGS mission.

    Location near: 87.1oS, 234.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  15. South Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-337, 21 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 'swiss cheese' pattern of frozen carbon dioxide on the south polar residual cap. Observation of these materials over two Mars years has revealed that the scarps that bound the mesas and small buttes are retreating-the carbon dioxide ice is subliming away-at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Mars year in some places. The picture covers an area about 900 m (about 900 yards) wide near 87.1oS, 93.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  16. South Polar 'Poodle'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-422, 15 July 2003

    Have you ever stared up at the clouds in the sky and seen the shapes of animals, people, or objects? Sometimes when the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) team is looking at newly-returned pictures from Mars, the same thing happens. This is a picture of pits and scarps in the frozen south polar carbon dioxide ice cap. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper right. At the bottom of the picture is a feature that resembles a long, thin poodle; its head faces to the left, the tail to the right. This picture is located near 86.9oS, 55.8oW.

  17. Neptune's south polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This image of Neptune's south polar region was obtained by the NASA Voyager narrow-angle camera on Aug. 23, 1989, when it was at a distance of 25 million kilometers (1.6 million miles). The smallest cloud features are 45 kilometers (28 miles) in diameter. The image shows the discovery of shadows in Neptune's atmosphere, shadows cast onto a deep cloud bank by small elevated clouds. Located at about 68 degrees south latitude, they are the first cloud shadows ever seen by the Voyager on any planet. The dark regions adjacent to the small bright clouds are believed to be shadows, because they are on the side of the cloud that is opposite to the incoming sunlight and because they lengthen in places where the sun lies closer to the horizon. Estimates of the height of these discrete clouds above the underlying cloud bank can be obtained by careful analysis of this data. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  18. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 8 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected March 5, 2002 during the southern summer season. Layering in the South polar cap interior is readily visible and may indicate yearly ice/dust deposition.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -86.6, Longitude 156.8 East (203.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  19. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  20. Present-Day Seasonal Gully Activity in a South Polar Pit (Sisyphi Cavi) on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raack, Jan; Reiss, Dennis; Appéré, Thomas; Vincendon, Mathieu; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal activity of gullies under current climatic conditions on Mars was observed by [1-7]. Dundas et al. [2] reviewed the present-day activity of classical gullies (including the gully presented in this work), dune gullies, and other mass wasting processes in the southern hemisphere on Mars. Recent polar gullies in Sisyphi Cavi were also analyzed by [8], who estimated ages of about 20 ka to 20 Ma for the gullies. In this study we focus on a single gully in Sisyphi Cavi, located in the south polar region at 1.44° E and 68.54° S. The gully occurs on the gullied equator-facing slope of an isolated polar pit within an infilled impact crater. Multi-temporal high-resolution image data analyses show new deposits at the terminus of the gully channel and on the gully apron within spring (after solar longitudes of 236°) of martian years (MY) 29 and 31. In MY 29 deposition of material shortens the channel by about 40 m; in MY 31 a new deposit at the western flank of the gully apron with approximately 300-600 m3 of material is visible [3]. Our morphological investigations show that the identified new deposits were formed by dark flows through the entire gully deposited on top of the apron between LS ~218° and ~226°. Thermal data show a temperature increase between solar longitudes (LS) ~218° and ~226°. Near-infrared spectral data show relatively constant band strengths of CO2 ice and H2O ice in this time range. After the formation of the dark flows (after LS ~226°), temperatures increase rapidly from ~180 K to >~270 K at LS ~250°. At this time, spectral data indicate that all volatiles on the surface sublimated. However, an earlier beginning of sublimation when the dark flows were observed (between LS ~218° and ~226°) is likely, due to the fact that the instruments can only show the last phase of sublimation (decrease of volatile band strengths) [3]. Spectral modeling shows that from winter to mid-spring, the surface of the studied area is covered by CO2 slab

  1. Textures in south polar ice cap #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 30 x 29 km area image (frame 7709) is centered near 87 degrees south, 77 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  2. Textures in south polar ice cap #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 15 x 14 km area image (frame 7306) is centered near 87 degrees south, 341 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  3. More South Polar 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Some of the surface of the residual south polar cap has a pattern that resembles that of sliced, swiss cheese. Shown here at the very start of southern spring is a frost-covered surface in which there are two layers evident--a brighter upper layer into which are set swiss cheese-like holes, and a darker, lower layer that lies beneath the 'swiss cheese' pattern. Nothing like this exists anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap.

    This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired on August 2,1999. It is located near 84.8oS, 71.8oW, and covers an area 3 km across and about 6.1 km long (1.9 by 3.8 miles).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  4. Semi-automatic measures of activity in selected south polar regions of Mars using morphological image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aye, Klaus-Michael; Portyankina, Ganna; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to monitor the seasonal evolution of several regions at high southern latitudes. Of particular interest have been jet-like activities that may result from the process described by Kieffer (2007), involving translucent CO2 ice. These jets are assumed to create fan-shaped ground features, as studied e.g. in Hansen et.al. (2010) and Portyankina et.al. (2010). In Thomas et.al. (2009), a small region of interest (ROI) inside the south polar Inca City region (81° S, 296° E) was defined for which the seasonal change of the number of fans was determined. This ROI was chosen for its strong visual variability in ground features. The mostly manual counting work showed, that the number of apparent fans increases monotonously for a considerable amount of time from the beginning of the spring time observations at Ls of 178° until approx. 230° , following the increase of available solar energy for the aforementioned processes of the Kieffer model. This fact indicates that the number of visual fan features can be used as an activity measure for the seasonal evolution of this area, in addition to commonly used evolution studies of surface reflectance. Motivated by these results, we would like to determine the fan count evolution for more south polar areas like Ithaca, Manhattan, Giza and others. To increase the reproducibility of the results by avoiding potential variability in fan shape recognition by human eye and to increase the production efficiency, efforts are being undertaken to automise the fan counting procedure. The techniques used, cleanly separated in different stages of the procedure, the difficulties for each stage and an overview of the tools used at each step will be presented. After showing a proof of concept in Aye et.al. (2010), for a ROI that is comparable to the one previously used for manual counting in Thomas et.al. (2009), we now will show

  5. Jetting Activity and Thermal Emission across the South Polar Terrain of Enceladus: Observations and Comparisons with Shear-Heating Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porco, C.; DiNino, D.; Nimmo, F.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Helfenstein, P.; Roatsch, T.; Mitchell, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    fractures, most on Cairo and Baghdad; only a few fall off a main fracture and on a nearby branch. To within measurement errors, all 8 previously measured jets have been recovered, with the notable distinction that at very high spatial scale, most of these 8 resolve into multiple narrower jets. Some jet sources that were prominent earlier in the mission appear to be less so in more recent images, indicating some degree of time variability. The most robust jetting activity still appears to be correlated with the hottest locales on the fractures. We will use this correlation between jetting activity and thermal power to produce a proxy thermal map of the SPT that we will then compare with (i) the best available thermal maps of the south polar terrain obtained by CIRS over the last 6 years and (ii) a map of predicted shear-heating along the south polar fractures.

  6. Titan's South Polar Vortex in Motion

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie captured by NASA'S Cassini spacecraft shows a south polar vortex, or a swirling mass of gas around the pole in the atmosphere, at Saturn’s moon Titan. The swirling mass appears to exec...

  7. South Pol: Revealing the polarized southern sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalha~es, A. M.; de Oliveira, C. M.; Carciofi, A.; Costa, R.; Dal Pino, E. M. G.; Diaz, M.; Ferrari, T.; Fernandez, C.; Gomes, A. L.; Marrara, L.; Pereyrac, A.; Ribeiro, N. L.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Rubinho, M. S.; Seriacopi, D. B.; Taylor, K.

    2012-05-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimetric module at an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile, in late 2012. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy <~ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar explosions and Solar System, among others.

  8. Titan's south polar stratospheric vortex evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teanby, Nicholas A.; Vinatier, Sandrine; Sylvestre, Melody; de Kok, Remco; Nixon, Conor; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph

    2016-10-01

    Titan experienced northern spring equinox in August 2009 when the south polar region was plunged into perpetual darkness. Following equinox, the south pole experienced the most extreme changes in stratospheric behaviour ever observed: the global stratospheric circulation cell reversed direction (Teanby et al 2012), HCN ice clouds (de Kok et al 2014) and other exotic condensates appeared over the south pole (Jennings et al 2015, West et al 2016), and significant composition and temperature changes occurred (Vinatier et al 2015, Teanby et al 2015, Coustenis et al 2016). Here we use Cassini CIRS limb and nadir observations from 2004-2016 to investigate the evolution of south polar stratospheric temperature and composition in the post-equinox period. Reversal following equinox was extremely rapid, taking less than 6 months (1/60th of a Titan year), which resulted in an initial adiabatic polar hot spot and increased trace gas abundances (Teanby et al 2012). However, rather than develop this trend further as winter progressed, Titan's polar hot spot subsequently disappeared, with the formation of a polar cold spot. Recently in late 2015 / early 2016 a more subdued hotspot began to return with associated extreme trace gas abundances. This talk will reveal the rapid and significant changes observed so far and discuss implications for possible polar feedback mechanisms and Titan's atmospheric dynamics.Coustenis et al (2016), Icarus, 270, 409-420.de Kok et al (2014), Nature, 514, 65-67.Jennings et al (2015), ApJL, 804, L34.Teanby et al (2012), Nature, 491, 732-735.Teanby et al (2015), DPS47, National Harbor, 205.02.Vinatier et al (2015), Icarus, 250, 95-115.West et al (2016), Icarus, 270, 399-408.

  9. Dynamics of Saturn's south polar vortex.

    PubMed

    Dyudina, Ulyana A; Ingersoll, Andrew P; Ewald, Shawn P; Vasavada, Ashwin R; West, Robert A; Del Genio, Anthony D; Barbara, John M; Porco, Carolyn C; Achterberg, Richard K; Flasar, F Michael; Simon-Miller, Amy A; Fletcher, Leigh N

    2008-03-28

    The camera onboard the Cassini spacecraft has allowed us to observe many of Saturn's cloud features. We present observations of Saturn's south polar vortex (SPV) showing that it shares some properties with terrestrial hurricanes: cyclonic circulation, warm central region (the eye) surrounded by a ring of high clouds (the eye wall), and convective clouds outside the eye. The polar location and the absence of an ocean are major differences. It also shares properties with the polar vortices on Venus, such as polar location, cyclonic circulation, warm center, and long lifetime, but the Venus vortices have cold collars and are not associated with convective clouds. The SPV's combination of properties is unique among vortices in the solar system.

  10. Two Mars Years of South Polar Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-367, 21 May 2003

    Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images acquired in 1999 and 2001 suggested that each Mars year, for the past several hundred years (if not thousands), the layered carbon dioxide ice of the south polar residual cap has been disappearing. Scarps formed by sublimation of these icy layers retreat at an average rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Martian year.

    MOC is now in its third Mars year of detailed exploration of the red planet. Recently, southern spring began, and the south polar cap emerged from winter darkness. The first picture shown here (top) was obtained by MOC less than a week ago (May 2003). The second picture shows the same area of the south polar residual cap, as it appeared 2 Mars years earlier in August 1999. Comparison shows that, between 1999 and 2003, several small mesas and buttes vanished, holes grew larger, and more cracks and pits appeared as carbon dioxide was removed from the polar cap.

    The image pair is located near 86.8oS, 109.0oW. Sunlight illuminates both from the upper right. One Mars year is about 687 Earth days long.

  11. Four Mars Years of South Polar Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] View in 1999View in 2001View in 2003View in 2005

    One of the most profound discoveries that would not have been possible if NASA's Mars Global Surveyor mission had not been extended beyond its primary mission of one Mars year (687 Earth days) is that of dramatic changes that take place in the south polar residual ice cap each martian year. To make this discovery, the Mars Orbiter Camera on the spacecraft had to be employed during a second Mars year to repeat images of sites on the south polar cap that had been imaged during the primary mission.

    The initial discovery was made in 2001, when the camera team repeated images of portions of the south polar cap that had already been imaged in 1999. The goal of these images was to obtain stereo views, which would allow investigators to see the topography of the cap in three dimensions and to measure the thickness of the polar ice layers.

    It was not possible to produce the desired 3-D views. To the team's surprise, the landforms of the south polar cap had changed.

    The south polar residual cap -- that is, the portion of the ice cap that remains bright and retains ice throughout the southern summer season -- was seen in 1997 and 1999 images to have a complex terrain of broad, relatively flat mesas, small buttes, and many pits and troughs. Pits are generally circular and in some areas visually resemble a stack of thin slices of Swiss cheese. Very early in the Mars Global Surveyor mission, the Mars Orbiter Camera team speculated that these landforms must be carved into frozen carbon dioxide, because they look so unfamiliar and because Viking orbiter infrared measurements indicated that the south polar cap is cold enough consist of frozen carbon dioxide, even in summer.

    The observations made by Mars Orbiter Camera in 2001, during the first part of the extended mission, showed that the scarps and pit walls of

  12. Mars South Polar Cap 'Fingerprint' Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Some portions of the martian south polar residual cap have long, somewhat curved troughs instead of circular pits. These appear to form in a layer of material that may be different than that in which 'swiss cheese' circles and pits form, and none of these features has any analog in the north polar cap or elsewhere on Mars. This picture shows the 'fingerprint' terrain as a series of long, narrow depressions considered to have formed by collapse and widening by sublimation of ice. Unlike the north polar cap, the south polar region stays cold enough in summer to retain frozen carbon dioxide. Viking Orbiter observations during the late 1970s showed that very little water vapor comes off the south polar cap during summer, indicating that any frozen water that might be there remains solid throughout the year.

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image was obtained in early southern spring on August 4, 1999. It shows an area 3 x 5 kilometers (1.9 x 3.1 miles) at a resolution of about 7.3 meters (24 ft) per pixel. Located near 86.0oS, 53.9oW.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  13. SOUTH POL: Revealing the Polarized Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimeter for an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in about two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy ≤ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar Explosions and Solar System, among others. The polarimeter is currently being built and its optics and electronics assembled. We will describe the current status of the project. This project is supported by FAPESP. AMM is also supported by CNPq.

  14. Interannual variability of Mars' south polar CAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, P. B.; Malolepszy, K. M.; Martin, L. J.

    1987-08-01

    Published observational data on the seasonal recession of the south polar cap on Mars (covering the period 1903-1977) are compiled in tables and graphs and analyzed statistically. The basic data set (photographic observations obtained at Lowell Observatory) of Fischbacher et al. (1960) and James and Lumme (1982) and the reduction procedures described by Baum and Martin (1973) are employed, and Viking data from 1977 are used for comparison; the early onset (relative to the mean) of the 1956 recession is characterized in detail. A list of photographically documented large dust storms is provided, and it is suggested that in years with early spring storms, recession may be slower than in years without such storms.

  15. Density of Mars' south polar layered deposits.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Smith, David E; Smrekar, Suzanne E

    2007-09-21

    Both poles of Mars are hidden beneath caps of layered ice. We calculated the density of the south polar layered deposits by combining the gravity field obtained from initial results of radio tracking of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter with existing surface topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and basal topography from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding on the Mars Express spacecraft. The results indicate a best-fit density of 1220 kilograms per cubic meter, which is consistent with water ice that has approximately 15% admixed dust. The results demonstrate that the deposits are probably composed of relatively clean water ice and also refine the martian surface-water inventory.

  16. South Polar Cryptic Terrain in Early Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the south polar region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1557 UTC (10:57 a.m. EST) on Feb. 10, 2007, near 77.55 degrees south latitude, 131.98 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 30 meters (98 feet) across. The region covered is just over 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide at its narrowest point, and is one of several in which CRISM is monitoring the evaporation (or 'sublimation') of the seasonal frost cap.

    The Martian south polar seasonal cap consists of carbon dioxide ice and frost, whose sublimation in the Martian spring creates a variety of features unlike anything in Earth's circumpolar regions. Part of the cap known as the 'cryptic region' is so cold that it must be covered with carbon dioxide frost, but it is also unexpectedly low in brightness and exhibits a variety of unusual dark blotches. Many scientists believe that carbon dioxide gas trapped below the sublimating ice is released in bursts, which carry along dust that gradually darkens the ice. One idea is that geyser-like dust eruptions form the dark blotches, and that the blotches grow, coalesce, and eventually hide the frost under a thin layer of dust.

    This image was taken shortly after sunrise with the Sun only about five degrees above the horizon. The left version shows brightness of the surface at 1.3 micrometers. The right version shows strength of an absorption band due to carbon dioxide frost at 1.435 micrometers; brighter areas have a stronger absorption and more carbon dioxide frost. However, even the darkest areas still have frost. The correlation between brightness and carbon dioxide frost abundance is striking, supporting the idea that the frost is being darkened by dust. Frost in the upper right corner shows the expected dark blotches, whereas the frost over the rest of the image is more uniformly dark, hinting that another

  17. Curtain eruptions from Enceladus' south-polar terrain.

    PubMed

    Spitale, Joseph N; Hurford, Terry A; Rhoden, Alyssa R; Berkson, Emily E; Platts, Symeon S

    2015-05-01

    Observations of the south pole of the Saturnian moon Enceladus revealed large rifts in the south-polar terrain, informally called 'tiger stripes', named Alexandria, Baghdad, Cairo and Damascus Sulci. These fractures have been shown to be the sources of the observed jets of water vapour and icy particles and to exhibit higher temperatures than the surrounding terrain. Subsequent observations have focused on obtaining close-up imaging of this region to better characterize these emissions. Recent work examined those newer data sets and used triangulation of discrete jets to produce maps of jetting activity at various times. Here we show that much of the eruptive activity can be explained by broad, curtain-like eruptions. Optical illusions in the curtain eruptions resulting from a combination of viewing direction and local fracture geometry produce image features that were probably misinterpreted previously as discrete jets. We present maps of the total emission along the fractures, rather than just the jet-like component, for five times during an approximately one-year period in 2009 and 2010. An accurate picture of the style, timing and spatial distribution of the south-polar eruptions is crucial to evaluating theories for the mechanism controlling the eruptions. PMID:25951283

  18. Curtain eruptions from Enceladus' south-polar terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitale, Joseph N.; Hurford, Terry A.; Rhoden, Alyssa R.; Berkson, Emily E.; Platts, Symeon S.

    2015-05-01

    Observations of the south pole of the Saturnian moon Enceladus revealed large rifts in the south-polar terrain, informally called `tiger stripes', named Alexandria, Baghdad, Cairo and Damascus Sulci. These fractures have been shown to be the sources of the observed jets of water vapour and icy particles and to exhibit higher temperatures than the surrounding terrain. Subsequent observations have focused on obtaining close-up imaging of this region to better characterize these emissions. Recent work examined those newer data sets and used triangulation of discrete jets to produce maps of jetting activity at various times. Here we show that much of the eruptive activity can be explained by broad, curtain-like eruptions. Optical illusions in the curtain eruptions resulting from a combination of viewing direction and local fracture geometry produce image features that were probably misinterpreted previously as discrete jets. We present maps of the total emission along the fractures, rather than just the jet-like component, for five times during an approximately one-year period in 2009 and 2010. An accurate picture of the style, timing and spatial distribution of the south-polar eruptions is crucial to evaluating theories for the mechanism controlling the eruptions.

  19. Curtain eruptions from Enceladus' south-polar terrain.

    PubMed

    Spitale, Joseph N; Hurford, Terry A; Rhoden, Alyssa R; Berkson, Emily E; Platts, Symeon S

    2015-05-01

    Observations of the south pole of the Saturnian moon Enceladus revealed large rifts in the south-polar terrain, informally called 'tiger stripes', named Alexandria, Baghdad, Cairo and Damascus Sulci. These fractures have been shown to be the sources of the observed jets of water vapour and icy particles and to exhibit higher temperatures than the surrounding terrain. Subsequent observations have focused on obtaining close-up imaging of this region to better characterize these emissions. Recent work examined those newer data sets and used triangulation of discrete jets to produce maps of jetting activity at various times. Here we show that much of the eruptive activity can be explained by broad, curtain-like eruptions. Optical illusions in the curtain eruptions resulting from a combination of viewing direction and local fracture geometry produce image features that were probably misinterpreted previously as discrete jets. We present maps of the total emission along the fractures, rather than just the jet-like component, for five times during an approximately one-year period in 2009 and 2010. An accurate picture of the style, timing and spatial distribution of the south-polar eruptions is crucial to evaluating theories for the mechanism controlling the eruptions.

  20. A clathrate reservoir hypothesis for Enceladus' south polar plume.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Susan W; Lu, Xinli; Bethke, Craig M; Spencer, John R; Marshak, Stephen; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2006-12-15

    We hypothesize that active tectonic processes in the south polar terrain of Enceladus, the 500-kilometer-diameter moon of Saturn, are creating fractures that cause degassing of a clathrate reservoir to produce the plume documented by the instruments on the Cassini spacecraft. Advection of gas and ice transports energy, supplied at depth as latent heat of clathrate decomposition, to shallower levels, where it reappears as latent heat of condensation of ice. The plume itself, which has a discharge rate comparable to Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, probably represents small leaks from this massive advective system.

  1. A clathrate reservoir hypothesis for Enceladus' south polar plume.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Susan W; Lu, Xinli; Bethke, Craig M; Spencer, John R; Marshak, Stephen; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2006-12-15

    We hypothesize that active tectonic processes in the south polar terrain of Enceladus, the 500-kilometer-diameter moon of Saturn, are creating fractures that cause degassing of a clathrate reservoir to produce the plume documented by the instruments on the Cassini spacecraft. Advection of gas and ice transports energy, supplied at depth as latent heat of clathrate decomposition, to shallower levels, where it reappears as latent heat of condensation of ice. The plume itself, which has a discharge rate comparable to Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, probably represents small leaks from this massive advective system. PMID:17170301

  2. Photometric Properties of Enceladus' South Polar Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annex, Andrew; Verbiscer, A. J.; Helfenstein, P.

    2012-10-01

    Cassini images reveal in exquisite detail the complex and varied terrains within the geologically active south pole of Enceladus. The region is dominated by four parallel rifts or sulci, informally known as tiger stripes, from which plumes comprised primarily of water vapor erupt [1,2]. The rich data set of Cassini images acquired at high spatial resolution (< 0.5 km/pixel) and a variety of viewing and illumination geometries enables the quantitative analysis of surface scattering properties through disk-resolved photometry. Here we investigate the photometric properties of individual terrain units [3] through fits of the Hapke photometric model [4] to data acquired in the clear (CL1 CL2), UV3, GRN, and IR3 filters, centered at 0.61, 0.34, 0.57, and 0.93 μm, respectively. Terrain units include the tiger stripe smooth and platy plank formations, tiger stripe medial dorsum structures, relict tiger stripe structures, south pole funiscular (ropy) plains, south pole lateral fold-and-wedge formations, and the south pole reticulated plains. Despite the constant, ubiquitous infall of plume particles onto the surface, differences in scattering properties, texture, and albedo among terrain units can be discerned. Work supported by NASA's Cassini Data Analysis Program. [1] Porco et al. 2006 Science 311, 1393-1401. [2] Hansen et al. 2008 Nature 456, 477-479. [3] Spencer et al. 2009 in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens (M. K. Dougherty et al. Eds.) 683-724. [4] Hapke 2002 Icarus 157, 523-534.

  3. Mobile Lid Convection Beneath Enceladus' South Polar Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    Enceladus' south polar region has a large heat flux, 55-110 milliwatts per square meter (or higher), that is spatially associated with cryovolcanic and tectonic activity. Tidal dissipation and vigorous convection in the underlying ice shell are possible sources of heat; however, prior predictions of the heat flux carried by stagnant lid convection range from F(sub conv) 15 to 30 milliwatts per square meter, too low to explain the observed heat flux. The high heat flux and increased cryovolcanic and tectonic activity suggest that near-surface ice in the region has become rheologically and mechanically weakened enough to permit convective plumes to reach close to the surface. If the yield strength of Enceladus' lithosphere is less than 1-10 kPa, convection may instead occur in the mobile lid" regime, which is characterized by large heat fluxes and large horizontal velocities in the near-surface ice. I show that model ice shells with effective surface viscosities between 10(exp 16) and 10(exp 17) Pa s and basal viscosities between 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 15) Pa s have convective heat fluxes comparable to that observed by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer. If this style of convection is occurring, the south polar terrain should be spreading horizontally with v1-10 millimeter per year and should be resurfaced in 0.1-10 Ma. On the basis of Cassini imaging data, the south polar terrain is 0.5 Ma old, consistent with the mobile lid hypothesis. Maxwell viscoelastic tidal dissipation in such ice shells is not capable of generating enough heat to balance convective heat transport. However, tidal heat may also be generated in the near-surface along faults as suggested by Nimmo et al. and/or viscous dissipation within the ice shell may occur by other processes not accounted for by the canonical Maxwell dissipation model.

  4. South Polar Region of Mars: Topography and Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, P. M.; Moore, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The polar layered deposits of Mars represent potentially important volatile reservoirs and tracers for the planet's geologically recent climate history. Unlike the north polar cap, the uppermost surface of the bright residual south polar deposit is probably composed of carbon dioxide ice. It is unknown whether this ice extends through the entire thickness of the deposit. The Mars Polar Lander (MPL), launched in January 1999, is due to arrive in December 1999 to search for water and carbon dioxide on layered deposits near the south pole (SP) of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Origins and variations of nitrate in south polar precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Legrand, M.R.; Kirchner, S. )

    1990-03-20

    South polar firn cores spanning the last millennium have been analyzed to determine the nitrate background level of high-latitude precipitation and its temporal variations. The resulting data reveal no evidence of a positive correlation between solar activity (11-year solar cycle, low solar activity time periods, and solar proton events) and the NO{sub 3} content of south polar snow. These data therefore suggest that NO{sub x} production in the upper stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere does not contribute significantly to the antarctic NO{sub 3} budget. This study of the NO{sub 3} content of high latitude precipitation suggests a major contribution by lightning (from a third to half of the total) and by NO{sub x} produced in the lower stratosphere (approximately a third from N{sub 2}O oxidation and to a lesser extent galactic cosmic rays) to the NO{sub 3} budget of this background atmosphere, the remaining portion being related to the present NO{sub x} surface sources of the southern hemisphere. For the first time these data point to a decrease of NO{sub 3} content when very large amounts of sulfuric acid are present in South Pole snow layers. The observation suggests a possible interaction (via the hydroxyl radical) between S- and N-derived species when large quantities of SO{sub 2} are injected by volcanic eruptions. Although the deposition mechanism of HNO{sub 3} in South Pole snow layers is far from well understood, the data suggest that only a minor amount of this compound is deposited directly on surface snow layers. Finally, the role played by particles (volcanic ash, terrestrial impurities, or ice particles) to enhance the uptake of odd nitrogen from the atmosphere by heterogeneous processes is discussed. In particular, it is suggested that in late winter, under certain meteorological conditions leading to ice particle formation, a significant uptake of HNO{sub 3} from the lower stratosphere can occur.

  6. Drawing the Curtain on Enceladus' South-Polar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitale, Joseph N.; Hurford, Terry A.; Rhoden, Alyssa R.; Berkson, Emily E.; Platts, Symeon S.

    2015-11-01

    For a comprehensive description of Enceladus' south-polar eruptions observed at high resolution, they must be represented as broad curtains rather than discrete jets. Meanders in the fractures from which the curtains of material erupt give rise to optical illusions that look like discrete jets, even along fractures with no local variations in eruptive activity, implying that many features previously identified as "jets" are in fact phantoms. By comparing Cassini images with model curtain eruptions, we are able to obtain maps of eruptive activity that are not biased by the presence of those phantom jets. The average of our activity maps over all times agrees well with thermal maps produced by Cassini CIRS. We can best explain the observed curtains by assuming spreading angles with altitude of up to 14° and zenith angles of up to 8°, for curtains observed in geometries that are sensitive to those quantities.

  7. Transient surface liquid in Titan's south polar region from Cassini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, A.G.; Aharonson, O.; Lunine, J.I.; Kirk, R.L.; Zebker, H.A.; Wye, L.C.; Lorenz, R.D.; Turtle, E.P.; Paillou, P.; Mitri, G.; Wall, S.D.; Stofan, E.R.; Mitchell, K.L.; Elachi, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cassini RADAR images of Titan's south polar region acquired during southern summer contain lake features which disappear between observations. These features show a tenfold increases in backscatter cross-section between images acquired one year apart, which is inconsistent with common scattering models without invoking temporal variability. The morphologic boundaries are transient, further supporting changes in lake level. These observations are consistent with the exposure of diffusely scattering lakebeds that were previously hidden by an attenuating liquid medium. We use a two-layer model to explain backscatter variations and estimate a drop in liquid depth of approximately 1-m-per-year. On larger scales, we observe shoreline recession between ISS and RADAR images of Ontario Lacus, the largest lake in Titan's south polar region. The recession, occurring between June 2005 and July 2009, is inversely proportional to slopes estimated from altimetric profiles and the exponential decay of near-shore backscatter, consistent with a uniform reduction of 4 ± 1.3 m in lake depth. Of the potential explanations for observed surface changes, we favor evaporation and infiltration. The disappearance of dark features and the recession of Ontario's shoreline represents volatile transport in an active methane-based hydrologic cycle. Observed loss rates are compared and shown to be consistent with available global circulation models. To date, no unambiguous changes in lake level have been observed between repeat images in the north polar region, although further investigation is warranted. These observations constrain volatile flux rates in Titan's hydrologic system and demonstrate that the surface plays an active role in its evolution. Constraining these seasonal changes represents the first step toward our understanding of longer climate cycles that may determine liquid distribution on Titan over orbital time periods.

  8. Frost streaks in the south polar cap of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Campos-Marquetti, R.

    1979-01-01

    Viking Orbiter images of the annual south polar cap on Mars exhibit elongated bright features that are associated with craters and resemble wind streaks observed elsewhere on Mars. The study focuses on the well-documented frost streaks. The discussion covers the morphology of frost streaks, occurrence, seasonal behavior, thickness of frost in streak deposits, wind patterns inferred from frost streaks and other eolian features in the south polar region, formation of frost streaks, and other locales of preferential frost accumulation. The form and seasonal behavior of the bright elongated albedo markings which extend from the rims of many craters in the south polar cap suggest that they are accumulations of CO2 frost in the lee of craters. The frost streaks appear in the fall, increasing in length but not changing in direction during fall and winter. The frost streaks indicate a prograde circulation pattern of near-surface winds around the pole. Other details are also presented.

  9. Mars: South Polar Spring Recession as observed by CRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A.; Roush, T. L.; Wiseman, S.; McGuire, P.; Wolff, M.; Smith, M.

    2007-12-01

    We are creating a seasonal mosaic of CRISM multispectral data for each MSP (multispectral) image obtained in the south polar region (all regions poleward of 55 deg S) since the start of the MRO primary mission. This effort compliments high resolution targeted observations of the South Polar Cryptic Region (Titus et al., 2007) and OMEGA observations of the south polar cap during spring recession (Langevin et al., 2007). Langevin et al. presented similar maps at 1-10km/pixel - CRISM multispectral observations used here have a nominal resolution of 200m (Seelos, 2007). A similar CRISM multispectral mosaic has been constructed for the north polar region by Seelos et al. (Seelos et al., 2007). Science objectives of this investigation include: 1. High resolution (200m/pixel) multispectral observations of CO2 and H2O seasonal distribution, 2. Observing the point where Cap Recession Observations indicate CO2 has Ultimately Sublimated (CROCUS) line (Kieffer et al., 2000) as a function of solar longitude (ls), 3. Observations of changes in CO2 grain size linked to seasonal brightening of the polar high latitude areas (Langevin et al., 2007), and 200m/pixel observations of dust cover linked to cold jets in the Cyptic Region (Kieffer et al., 2000; Langevin et al., 2007), 4. Observations of small water ice patches in late southern spring (Langevin et al., 2007), 5. Development of climate-based atmospheric correction for use with multispectral data based on TES climatology and DISORT. We will report on the progress of our investigation and present high resolution multispectral mosaics of the south polar cap during spring recession and compare them to data from previous years. References Kieffer, H., et al., 2000. Mars south polar spring and summer behavior observed by TES: Seasonal cap evolution controlled by frost grain size. JGR 105, 9653-9700. Langevin, Y., et al., 2007. Observations of the south seasonal cap of Mars during recession in 2004-2006 by the OMEGA visible

  10. Geological framework of the south polar region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, B.C.; Soderblom, L.A.; Cutts, J.A.; Sharp, R.P.; Milton, D.J.; Leighton, R.B.

    1972-01-01

    The first 4 months of Mariner 9 photography of the south polar region are discussed. Three major geological units have been recognized, separated by erosional unconformities. From oldest to youngest they are: cratered terrain, pitted plains, and laminated terrain. The latter unit is unique in occurrence to the polar region, volatiles are probably involved in its origin, and may still be present within the laminated terrain as layered ice. The residual south polar cap has been observed to survive the disappearance of the thin annual CO2 frost deposit and to last virtually unchanged in outline through the southern summer. That exposed deposit is inferred to be composed of water-ice. The residual cap appears to lie at the apex of an unusual quasi-circular structure composed of laminated terrain; a similar structure also appears to exist near the north pole. ?? 1972.

  11. Effects of Atmospheric Dust on Residual South Polar Cap Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonrv, B. P.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Hansen, G. B.; James, P. B.; Wolff, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Martian polar caps have been studied from the time of Herschel. Neither polar cap normally disappears in summer. The Residual North Polar Cap (portion that remains through summer) is composed of a mixture of water ice and dust, and its interannual stability is due to its low sublimation rate at the summer temperatures in the North Polar Region. The Residual South Polar Cap (RSPC) is more enigmatic, surviving the relatively hot perihelic summer season despite being composed of much more volatile CO2. It is able to do so because of its unusually high albedo, which is larger than that of other bright regions in the seasonal cap (e.g. Mountains of Mitchel). The proximity of the albedo of the RSPC to the critical albedo for stability raises the question of whether the RSPC exists in every Martian year. The ground based record is somewhat ambivalent. Douglass and Lowell reported that RSPC suddenly vanished at Ls=297deg in 1894 and did not reappear until Ls=0deg [1], and Kuiper reported that it disappeared in 1956 [2]; but both observations were questioned by contemporaries, who tended to attribute them to obscuring dust. Barker [3] reported a large amount of water vapor over the south polar cap in 1969 that could be attributed to exposure of near surface water ice during partial removal of the CO2 in the RSPC in 1969.

  12. Post-equinox evolution of Titan's south-polar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teanby, Nicholas; Vinatier, Sandrine; De Kok, Remco; Nixon, Conor; Sylvestre, Melody; Irwin, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Since northern spring equinox in mid-2009, Titan's atmosphere has demonstrated dramatic changes in temperature (Achterberg et al 2014), composition (Teanby et al 2012, Vinatier et al 2015, Coustenis et al 2016), and aerosol/ice distribution (de Kok et al 2014, Jennings et al 2015, West et al 2016). The greatest changes have been at the southern winter pole, which continues to enter deeper into Titan's shadow. Observational highlights include development of a south polar hot-spot, nitrile ice clouds, dense condensate clouds, and extreme trace gas concentrations. Here we use recent infrared spectral limb observations by Cassini/CIRS to determine the evolution of temperature and composition of the south polar region since equinox. Our observations show that the south polar hot-spot initially observed following equinox has now disappeared and been replaced by extremely low temperatures throughout the stratosphere, suspected to be due to enhanced radiative cooling. There also appears to be an unusual distribution of nitrile species, which suggests trace gases are now escaping the newly formed winter vortex. Thus providing clues to the underlying circulation. The new observations will be presented and implications for Titan's polar atmospheric dynamics discussed.

  13. Accumulation and erosion of Mars' south polar layered deposits.

    PubMed

    Seu, Roberto; Phillips, Roger J; Alberti, Giovanni; Biccari, Daniela; Bonaventura, Francesco; Bortone, Marco; Calabrese, Diego; Campbell, Bruce A; Cartacci, Marco; Carter, Lynn M; Catallo, Claudio; Croce, Anna; Croci, Renato; Cutigni, Marco; Di Placido, Antonio; Dinardo, Salvatore; Federico, Costanzo; Flamini, Enrico; Fois, Franco; Frigeri, Alessandro; Fuga, Oreste; Giacomoni, Emanuele; Gim, Yonggyu; Guelfi, Mauro; Holt, John W; Kofman, Wlodek; Leuschen, Carlton J; Marinangeli, Lucia; Marras, Paolo; Masdea, Arturo; Mattei, Stefania; Mecozzi, Riccardo; Milkovich, Sarah M; Morlupi, Antonio; Mouginot, Jérémie; Orosei, Roberto; Papa, Claudio; Paternò, Tobia; Persi del Marmo, Paolo; Pettinelli, Elena; Pica, Giulia; Picardi, Giovanni; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Provenziani, Marco; Putzig, Nathaniel E; Russo, Federica; Safaeinili, Ali; Salzillo, Giuseppe; Santovito, Maria Rosaria; Smrekar, Suzanne E; Tattarletti, Barbara; Vicari, Danilo

    2007-09-21

    Mars' polar regions are covered with ice-rich layered deposits that potentially contain a record of climate variations. The sounding radar SHARAD on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapped detailed subsurface stratigraphy in the Promethei Lingula region of the south polar plateau, Planum Australe. Radar reflections interpreted as layers are correlated across adjacent orbits and are continuous for up to 150 kilometers along spacecraft orbital tracks. The reflectors are often separated into discrete reflector sequences, and strong echoes are seen as deep as 1 kilometer. In some cases, the sequences are dipping with respect to each other, suggesting an interdepositional period of erosion. In Australe Sulci, layers are exhumed, indicating recent erosion.

  14. Monstrous Ice Cloud System in Titan's Present South Polar Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; McLain, Jason; Achterberg, Richard; Flasar, F. Michael; Milam, Stefanie

    2015-11-01

    During southern autumn when sunlight was still available, Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem discovered a cloud around 300 km near Titan's south pole (West, R. A. et al., AAS/DPS Abstracts, 45, #305.03, 2013); the cloud was later determined by Cassini's Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer to contain HCN ice (de Kok et al., Nature, 514, pp 65-67, 2014). This cloud has proven to be only the tip of an extensive ice cloud system contained in Titan's south polar stratosphere, as seen through the night-vision goggles of Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS). As the sun sets and the gloom of southern winter approaches, evidence is beginning to accumulate from CIRS far-IR spectra that a massive system of nitrile ice clouds is developing in Titan's south polar stratosphere. Even during the depths of northern winter, nothing like the strength of this southern system was evident in corresponding north polar regions.From the long slant paths that are available from limb-viewing CIRS far-IR spectra, we have the first definitive detection of the ν6 band of cyanoacetylene (HC3N) ice in Titan’s south polar stratosphere. In addition, we also see a strong blend of nitrile ice lattice vibration features around 160 cm-1. From these data we are able to derive ice abundances. The most prominent (and still chemically unidentified) ice emission feature, the Haystack, (at 220 cm-1) is also observed. We establish the vertical distributions of the ice cloud systems associated with both the 160 cm-1 feature and the Haystack. The ultimate aim is to refine the physical and possibly the chemical relationships between the two. Transmittance thin film spectra of nitrile ice mixtures obtained in our Spectroscopy for Planetary ICes Environments (SPICE) laboratory are used to support these analyses.

  15. Post-equinox evolution of Titan's south-polar stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teanby, Nicholas A.; Vinatier, Sandrine; de Kok, Remco; Nixon, Conor A.; Irwin, Patrick GJ

    2015-11-01

    Since northern spring equinox in mid-2009, Titan's atmosphere has demonstrated dramatic changes in temperature (Achterberg et al 2014), composition (Teanby et al 2012, Vinatier et al 2015, Coustenis et al 2015), and aerosol/ice distribution (de Kok et al 2014, Jennings et al 2015, West et al 2015). Changes have been greatest at the southern winter pole, which continues to enter deeper into Titan's shadow following the 2009 equinox. Observational highlights include development of a south polar hot-spot, nitrile ice clouds, dense condensate clouds, and extreme trace gas concentrations.Here we use recent infrared spectral limb observations by Cassini/CIRS to determine the evolution of temperature and composition of the south polar region since equinox. Our observations show that the south polar hot-spot initially observed following equinox has now disappeared and been replaced by extremely low temperatures throughout the stratosphere, suspected to be due to enhanced radiative cooling. There also appears to be an unusual distribution of nitrile species, which suggests trace gases are now escaping the newly formed winter vortex. Thus providing clues to the underlying circulation. The new observations will be presented and implications for Titan's polar atmospheric dynamics discussed.Achterberg et al (2014), DPS46, 102.07, Tucson.Coustenis et al (2015), Icarus (in press).de Kok et al (2014), Nature, 514, 65-67.Jennings et al (2015), ApJL, 804, L34.Teanby et al (2012), Nature, 491, 732-735.Vinatier et al (2015), Icarus, 250, 95-115.West et al (2015), Icarus (in press).

  16. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-07-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We summarize the published evidence from observation and modeling of the influence of meridional flow variations and decaying active region flux's spatial distribution, such as the Joy's law tilt angle. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms covering cycles 21-24, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed trailing-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with trailing-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. The activity complexes of the cycle 21 and 22 maxima were larger and longer-lived than those of the cycle 23 and 24 maxima, and the poleward surges were stronger and more unipolar and the polar field changes larger and faster. The cycle 21 and 22 polar reversals were dominated by only a few long-lived complexes whereas the cycle 23 and 24 reversals were the cumulative effects of more numerous, shorter-lived regions. We conclude that sizes and lifetimes of activity complexes are key to

  17. Stratigraphy of the south polar region of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the stratigraphy and geology in the south polar region of the Jovian satellite, Ganymede. Geologic mapping is based on inspection of Voyager images and compilation on an airbrush base map at a scale of 1:5M. Illumination and resolution vary greatly in the region. Approximately half of the quadripole is beyond the terminator. Low angle illumination over a large part of the area precludes distinction of some units by albedo characteristics. Several types of grooved terrain and groove related terrain occur in the southern polar region. Grooves typically occur in straight to curvilinear sets or lanes. Bright lanes and grooved lanes intersect at high angles outlining polygons of dark cratered terrain. Groove sets exhibit a range of ages as shown by superposition or truncation and by crater superposition ages.

  18. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed lagging-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with lagging-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Summer Research Assistantship (SRA) Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  19. Implications of Martian North/South Polar Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Bruce C.

    2003-01-01

    Our first requirement was to create the specialized tools necessary to precisely co-locate at highest spatial resolution the rapidly growing MOC/NA and MOLA data sets in the polar regions. This meant promptly creating a very accurate Mars Polar GIs system (based on the commercial ArcView product) along with various other supporting routines. Later we extended its use to the THEMIS/VIS data. That customized GIS and integrated data system has enabled all of our polar research to date. We focused initially on a preliminary geological reconnaissance in the Ultimi Lobe region of the South Polar Layered Deposits, which also included the intended MPL landing site about which much remote sensing data and interpretations had been accumulated before the failed landing attempt on December 3, 1999. The most interesting findings from that effort were discoveries about the layering, faulting and contact relationships exposed along the bounding scarp. Those results were published in Icarus. We have had a priority interest in the cratering record of the polar layered deposits, starting with the first post-Viking survey based on MOLA shaded relief maps and crossing profiles. Those results, based primarily on craters < 1 km diameter, were published in JGR and showed that a portion of the SPLD exhibited a large crater population consistent with an exposure age of 30 million years or more. Those craters also exhibited remarkably low Depth to Diameter ratios, which Asmin Pathare, then at UCLA, subsequently interpreted as due to slow viscous flow in the ice-rich material composing the PLD. Our cratering study also recognized that the craters of less than 1 km diameter were many order of magnitudes too few compared to what the crater production function of the larger craters requires.

  20. Mars at Ls 269o: South Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    30 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  1. Potential vorticity of the south polar vortex of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garate-Lopez, I.; Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; García Muñoz, A.

    2016-04-01

    Venus' atmosphere shows highly variable warm vortices over both of the planet's poles. The nature of the mechanism behind their formation and properties is still unknown. Potential vorticity is a conserved quantity when advective processes dominate over friction and diabatic heating and is a quantity frequently used to model balanced flows. As a step toward understanding the vortices' dynamics, we present maps of Ertel's potential vorticity (EPV) at Venus' south polar region. We analyze three configurations of the south polar vortex at the upper cloud level (P ~ 240 mbar; z ~ 58 km), based on our previous analyses of cloud motions and thermal structure from data acquired by the Visual and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer instrument on board Venus Express. Additionally, we tentatively estimate EPV at the lower cloud level (P ~ 2200 mbar; z ~ 43 km), based on our previous wind measurements and on static stability data from Pioneer Venus and the Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) model. Values of EPV are on the order of 10-6 and 10-8 K m2 kg-1 s-1 at the upper and lower cloud levels, respectively, being 3 times larger than the estimated errors. The morphology observed in EPV maps is mainly determined by the structures of the vertical component of the relative vorticity. This is in contrast to the vortex's morphology observed in 3.8 or 5 µm images which are related to the thermal structure of the atmosphere at the cloud top. Some of the EPV maps point to a weak ringed structure in the upper cloud, while a more homogenous EPV field is found in the lower cloud.

  2. North-south asymmetry of eolian features in Martian polar regions - Analysis based on crater-related wind markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.

    1981-01-01

    Crater-related wind markers in the north and south polar regions of Mars are analyzed in a study of possible north-south asymmetries in wind activity. Features including crater splotches and associated streaks, and depositional, erosional, frost and frost-sediment streaks were identified and analyzed as wind direction indicators on Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 images of areas poleward of + or - 40 deg latitude. The wind streaks reveal eolian activity at present to be strongest in the north in winter and in the south in spring, due to the hemispherical asymmetry in climate. The alignment of the more massive intercrater dune fields with the presently strongest wind may reflect a longer-term asymmetry in spring flows, as the reorientation times of the dunes exceeded the period of climate asymmetry cycles. Finally, a wider distribution of dune latitudes in the southern polar region is noted to be suggestive of the greater effectiveness of windflow from the south pole.

  3. The Changing South Polar Cap of Mars: 1999-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 July 2005 The south polar residual cap of Mars is composed of layered, frozen carbon dioxide. In 1999, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) showed that the carbon dioxide layers have been eroded to form a variety of circular pits, arcuate scarps, troughs, buttes, and mesas. In 2001, MOC images designed to provide repeated views of the areas imaged in 1999 -- with the hope of creating stereo (3-D) images, so that the height of scarps and depth of pits could be measured -- showed that the scarps had retreated, pits enlarged, and buttes and mesas shrank. Only carbon dioxide is volatile enough in the martian environment to have caused such dramatic changes -- the scarps were seen to retreat at an average rate of 3 meters (about 3 yards) per Mars year. Most of the scarp retreat occurs during the southern summer season; in some areas the scarps move as much as 8 meters, in others, only 1 meter per Mars year.

    Three Mars years have now elapsed since MOC first surveyed the south polar cap in 1999. Over the past several months, MGS MOC has been re-imaging areas that were seen in 1999, 2001, and 2003, to develop a detailed look at how the landscape has been changing. This animated GIF provides an example of the dramatic changes that have occurred during the past three martian years. The first image, a sub-frame of M09-05244, was acquired on 21 November 1999. The second image, a sub-frame of S06-00973, was obtained on 11 May 2005. The animation shows the changes that have occurred between 1999 and 2005. Each summer, the cap has lost more carbon dioxide. This may mean that the carbon dioxide content of the martian atmosphere has been increasing, bit by very tiny little bit, each of the years that MGS has been orbiting the red planet. These observations also imply that there was once a time, in the not-too-distant past (because there are no impact craters on the polar cap), when the atmosphere was somewhat thinner and colder, to permit the layers

  4. Complex Burial and Exhumation of South Polar Cap Pitted Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. The two prominent bright stripes at the left/center of the image are covered with bright frost and thus create the illusion that they are sunlit from the lower left.

    The large pits, troughs, and 'swiss cheese' of the south polar residual cap appear to have been formed in the upper 4 or 5 layers of the polar material. Each layer is approximately 2 meters (6.6 feet) thick. Some Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this terrain show examples in which older pitted and eroded layers have been previously buried and are now being exhumed. The example shown here includes two narrow, diagonal slopes that trend from upper left toward lower right at the left/center portion of the frame. Along the bottoms of these slopes are revealed a layer that underlies them in which there are many more pits and troughs than in the upper layer. It is likely in this case that the lower layer formed its pits and troughs before it was covered by the upper layer. This observation suggests that the troughs, pits, and 'swiss cheese' features of the south polar cap are very old and form over long time scales.

    The picture is located near 84.6oS, 45.1oW, and covers an area 3 km by 5 km (1.9 x 3.1 mi) at a resolution of about 3.8 meters (12 ft) per pixel. The image was taken during southern spring on August 29, 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  5. South Polar Residual Cap Geomorphology and Inferred Environmental Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A.; Pathare, A.

    2003-12-01

    The CO2 southern residual cap (SRC) both controls circulation patterns regionally and buffers the atmospheric pressure globally. In turn this CO2 deposit is affected by changes in environmental conditions wrought by external forces such as dust storm activity. Mars Global Surveyor data of this area have revealed a rich variety of geomorphic features (1) of which there are several distinct classes. These different classes may be end members of the same basic process of insolation driven ablation. We are currently investigating two types of SRC features. Swiss-cheese features (SCF) are depressions characterized by flat floors and steep walls, which retreat 1-3 meters each Martian year (2). In some regions they have a definite symmetry axis along the north-south direction (3). After the seasonal frost disappears the residual ice exposed in the walls has a lower albedo (4). Previously (5) we modeled the evolution and growth of these depressions as a hole in a layer of CO2 ice underlain by water ice, which best explains their morphologic and thermal properties. The observed thickness of the CO2 slab can be as high as 8 meters but in general is much lower. Larger SCF?s commonly possess a raised central island of CO2 surrounded by a moat that penetrates to the underlying water ice (3). The fast rate of wall retreat observed (2) combined with the small sizes of the SCF?s indicate that all SCF?s visible today were created geologically recently. Within a particular region the size distribution is quite narrow (3): no larger (older) or smaller (younger) features were seen indicating that some relatively abrupt change in environmental conditions initiated the growth of this particular population of features. Fingerprint terrain (1) are areas with evenly spaced parallel ridges, which are steeper on one side. These ridges may have small areas of water ice exposed in the intervening troughs. Their wavelength is on the order of 70-90m with the steep edges facing northeast although

  6. Albedo control of seasonal South Polar cap recession on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Frédéric; Douté, Sylvain; Schmitt, Bernard; Vincendon, Mathieu; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Omega Team

    2009-04-01

    Over the last few decades, General Circulation Models (GCM) have been used to simulate the current martian climate. The calibration of these GCMs with the current seasonal cycle is a crucial step in understanding the climate history of Mars. One of the main climatic signals currently used to validate GCMs is the annual atmospheric pressure cycle. It is difficult to use changes in seasonal deposits on the surface of Mars to calibrate the GCMs given the spectral ambiguities between CO 2 and H 2O ice in the visible range. With the OMEGA imaging spectrometer covering the near infra-red range, it is now possible to monitor both types of ice at a spatial resolution of about 1 km. At global scale, we determine the change with time of the Seasonal South Polar Cap (SSPC) crocus line, defining the edge of CO 2 deposits. This crocus line is not symmetric around the geographic South Pole. At local scale, we introduce the snowdrop distance, describing the local structure of the SSPC edge. Crocus line and snowdrop distance changes can now be used to calibrate GCMs. The albedo of the seasonal deposits is usually assumed to be a uniform and constant parameter of the GCMs. In this study, albedo is found to be the main parameter controlling the SSPC recession at both global and local scale. Using a defrost mass balance model (referred to as D-frost) that incorporates the effect of shadowing induced by topography, we show that the global SSPC asymmetry in the crocus line is controlled by albedo variations. At local scale, we show that the snowdrop distance is correlated with the albedo variability. Further GCM improvements should take into account these two results. We propose several possibilities for the origin of the asymmetric albedo control. The next step will be to identify and model the physical processes that create the albedo differences.

  7. A study of auroral activity in the nightside polar cap

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Using various ground observations at South Pole, Antarctica (invariant magnetic latitude -74{degree}) and its conjugate point, Frobisher Bay, Canada, the author has studied the following aspects of nightside polar cap auroral activity: the appearance and disappearance of polar cap auroras (diffuse and discrete) associated with substorms and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) variations; auroral optical emission line intensities; and the seasonal variation of auroral conjugacy. The observations show that the polar cap auroras usually fade away before the expansive phase of a substorm and bright auroral arcs reach high latitude (-74{degree}) near the recovery phase. Just before the auroras fade away the discrete polar cap auroral arcs, which are usually on the poleward boundary of the diffuse aurora, intensify for 1 to 2 minutes. The observations also indicate the IMF may have stronger control over polar cap auroral activity than do substorms. A search for energy spectral variation of precipitating electrons using the intensities of 630.0 nm (0) and 427 nm (N{sub 2}{sup +}) auroral emission lines reveals no dramatic changes in the energy spectrum; instead, the data show possible atmospheric scattering and geometric effects on the photometric measurements while the bright auroral arc is moving into the polar cap. The conjugate observations show that the stormtime auroral electrojet current, which is associated with the bright auroral arc, in most cases reaches higher (lower) latitudes in the winter (summer) hemisphere. An asymmetric plasma sheet (with respect to the neutral sheet) is proposed, which expands deeper into the winter lobe, under a tilted geomagnetic dipole. Accordingly, the winter polar cap would have smaller area and the auroral electrojet would be at higher latitude.

  8. Mass Wasting Processes in Vesta's South Polar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, K.; Jaumann, R.; Krohn, K.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Stephan, K.; Sykes, M. V.; Schenk, P.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    Images of Asteroid Vesta taken by the Dawn framing camera give insight to a wide range of geologic phenomena on Vesta's surface. In this abstract we focus on the evidence of different types of gravity-driven mass wasting that can be seen on Vesta with an emphasis on the south polar region where the formation of the giant impact basin of Rheasilvia (1, 2) caused significant mass movements and lateral displacement. During the formation of the impact basin various processes such as uplift and stretching moved material of the impact site (3). The remnant are fault scarps, ridges, and uplift features inside the Rheasilvia basin (2). Beside these mass movements, there are also three types of debris movement associated with the Rheasilvia impact basin: block slumping of solid material, granular landslides, and flow-like features. They all occur on the rim of the basin and the central peak with slopes varying from 10° to 40°. The movement, however, is in different directions. While the block slumping and landslides occur on the steep slopes of the crater wall facing inward, the flow-like movements go outward from the crater rim on less steep slopes. The block slumping is most prominent in the region between 80° and 120° east and 50° and 60° south (4). The slump blocks in a rotational movement showing multiple scarps and ridges. Landslides on the steep slopes inward of Rheasilvia have a length to height ratio of about 1. The flow-like features occur in the region between 50° and 90° east and 20° to 40° south. They are in a relatively young area and have a length to height ratio up to 35. Additionally, many small elongate depressions of about 1.5 km length can be found near the central peak of Rheasilvia. They are mainly arranged parallel to the slope with a slight curvature and are related to instability of granular material on a slope. References: (1) Jaumann et al., Science 336, 687 (2012); (2) Schenk et al., Science 336, 694 (2012); (3) Melosh, Impact Cratering

  9. Intermittent turbulence in solar wind from the south polar hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikin, A. A.; Feynman, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Smith, E. J.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields measured by the Ulysses spacecraft are used to study solar wind turbulence in the fast solar wind from the south polar hole. The spacecraft was at about 46 deg south latitude and 3.9 AU. For a magnetic field with a Gaussian distribution the power spectrum (second-order structure function) is sufficient to completely characterize the turbulence. However, the actual distribution is non-Gaussian so that the effects of intermittency must be taken into account. The observed spectral exponents include effects of intermittency and cannot be directly compared with the standard second-order spectral theories such as the Kolmogorov and Kraichnan theories. To permit a better comparison of the observations with the theoretical models, we study the structure characteristics of the data. We find the exponents of the second-order structure functions (power spectra) and the higher-order normalized structure functions for the components of the magnetic fields. We show that these sets of exponents can be approximately described by two basic numbers: the spectral exponent and the intermittency exponent. The intermittency exponent characterizes correlation properties of the energy cascade from large to small scales. Before comparing the observations to the theoretically expected values, a reduction must be made to the observed spectral exponent. The amount of the reduction depends on both the intermittency exponent and the model of the energy cascade assumed in the turbulence theory. We reduce the measured spectral indices according to a simple model for Alfven turbulence that is described here. We then compare our reduced spectral indices with second-order spectral theory. The reduced spectral indices for the period range of 1 min to about a half hour are remarkably constant and in good agreement with the value of 3/2. Thus our treatment is self-consistent. Our tentative conclusion is that the high-frequency turbulence appears to agree with the model of random

  10. Evolution of sunspot activity and inversion of the Sun's polar magnetic field in the current cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordvinov, A. V.; Grigoryev, V. M.; Erofeev, D. V.

    2015-06-01

    A spatiotemporal analysis of the Sun's magnetic field was carried out to study the polar-field inversion in the current cycle in relation to sunspot activity. The causal relationship between these phenomena was demonstrated in a time-latitude aspect. After decay of long-lived activity complexes their magnetic fields were redistributed into the surrounding photosphere and formed unipolar magnetic regions which were transported to high latitudes. Zones of intense sunspot activity during 2011/2012 produced unipolar magnetic regions of the following polarities, whose poleward drift led to the inversion of the Sun's polar fields at the North and South Poles. At the North Pole the polar field reversal was completed by May 2013. It was demonstrated that mixed magnetic polarities near the North Pole resulted from violations of Joy's law at lower latitudes. Later sunspot activity in the southern hemisphere has led to a delay in magnetic polarity reversal at the South Pole. Thus, the north-south asymmetry of sunspot activity resulted in asynchronous polar field reversal in the current cycle.

  11. CO_2 Frost Halos on the South Polar Residual Cap of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, P.; Byrne, S.; HiRISE Team

    2012-03-01

    We present observational analysis, and a numerical model to explain the formation of bright CO_2 frost halos seen by HiRISE on the edges of scarps and "swiss cheese" features in the south polar residual cap of Mars.

  12. Dominant Wavelength of Small-Scale Folds Between Enceladus' South Polar Tiger Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuss, L. J.; Barr, A. C.

    2010-03-01

    High-resolution images of Enceladus' south polar terrain reveal regions of small-scale folds between Damascus and Baghdad sulci. We will present the results of a systematic study of the folding wavelength using Fourier transform methods.

  13. Anticandidal activity of certain South Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Vaijayanthimala, J; Anandi, C; Udhaya, V; Pugalendi, K V

    2000-05-01

    The anticandidal activity of 20 household South Indian medicinal plants and/or plant products was studied using 30 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vaginal candidiasis patients of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital and compared with the anticandidal activity of garlic. Water and ethanol extracts were prepared and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined. Water extracts of three plants did not show any anticandidal activity, while Murrya koenigii did not exhibit any anticandidal activity in either extract. Other plants exhibited more activity in ethanol extracts showing that their active principle is more soluble in a non-polar solvent. PMID:10815017

  14. Continuous Lidar Monitoring of Polar Stratospheric Clouds at the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D

    2009-01-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) play a primary role in the formation of annual ozone holes over Antarctica during the austral sunrise. Meridional temperature gradients in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, caused by strong radiative cooling, induce a broad dynamic vortex centered near the South Pole that decouples and insulates the winter polar airmass. PSC nucleate and grow as vortex temperatures gradually fall below equilibrium saturation and frost points for ambient sulfate, nitrate, and water vapor concentrations (generally below 197 K). Cloud surfaces promote heterogeneous reactions that convert stable chlorine and bromine-based molecules into photochemically active ones. As spring nears, and the sun reappears and rises, photolysis decomposes these partitioned compounds into individual halogen atoms that react with and catalytically destroy thousands of ozone molecules before they are stochastically neutralized. Despite a generic understanding of the ozone hole paradigm, many key components of the system, such as cloud occurrence, phase, and composition; particle growth mechanisms; and denitrification of the lower stratosphere have yet to be fully resolved. Satellite-based observations have dramatically improved the ability to detect PSC and quantify seasonal polar chemical partitioning. However, coverage directly over the Antarctic plateau is limited by polar-orbiting tracks that rarely exceed 80 degrees S. In December 1999, a NASA Micropulse Lidar Network instrument (MPLNET) was first deployed to the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL) Atmospheric Research Observatory at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station for continuous cloud and aerosol profiling. MPLNET instruments are eye-safe, capable of full-time autonomous operation, and suitably rugged and compact to withstand long-term remote deployment. With only brief interruptions during the winters of 2001 and 2002, a nearly continuous data archive exists to the present.

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bear, penguin and south polar skua.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Corsolini, Simonetta; Evans, Thomas; Giesy, John P; Nakanishi, Junko; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (DFs) and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) were measured in livers of polar bears from the Alaskan Arctic and in eggs of Adelie penguin and south polar skua and weddell seal liver, fish and krill from Antarctica. This is one of the first reports to document the concentrations of PCDDs/DFs in polar bear livers from Alaska, and in penguin and skua eggs from Antarctica. Concentrations of total PCDD/DFs in livers of polar bears ranged from 8 to 66 (mean: 26) pg/g, on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of total PCDD/DFs in Antarctic samples were in the increasing order on a lipid weight basis; weddell seal liver (8.9 pg/g) < fish (11-17 pg/g) < krill (27 pg/g) south polar skua eggs (mean: 181 pg/g). Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs (including two di-ortho congeners) in polar bear livers were in the range of 1,080-3,930 ng/g, lipid wt. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in Antarctic samples were in the following order on a lipid weight basis; south polar skua eggs (mean: 1,440 ng/g) > > penguin eggs (30 ng/g) > seal liver (57 ng/g) > fishes (6.2 ng/g) > krill (0.9 ng/g). Concentrations of 2378-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) calculated based on the WHO TEFs were higher in the eggs of polar skua (mean: 344: range: 220-650 pg/g, lipid wt.) from Antarctica than in polar bear livers from Alaska (mean: 120; range: 69-192 pg/g). In general, concentrations of PCDFs were greater than those of PCDDs in polar organisms. 23478-PeCDF is one of the dominant congener found in several samples. Concentrations of TEQs in polar bear livers and skua eggs were close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Dioxin-like PCBs, particularly, non-ortho coplanar PCBs were the major contributors to TEQ concentrations in penguin and skua eggs whereas mono-ortho PCBs accounted for a major portion of TEQs in

  16. A History of Old Tiger Stripe Fracture Sets in the South-Polar Region of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Patthoff, D. A.

    2009-09-01

    The tiger stripe cracks in the south-polar region of Enceladus are the source of the geyser-like eruptions imaged by the Cassini spacecraft. Although past work has mainly focused on these active cracks, which have fairly consistent orientations, the south-polar terrain (SPT) has been pervasively fractured during a complex tectonic history. Our detailed mapping has revealed three additional relict fracture sets having tiger stripe-like characteristics, but with different orientations. Using crosscutting relationships, relative ages were established for the four systematic fracture sets, which show a counterclockwise progression in orientation through time. They imply the causal SPT stress field created distinct fracture sets at different points in time, gradually rotating 153° counterclockwise relative to the present day surface, culminating in the stress field that produced the tiger stripes. Older fracture sets influenced the development of younger sets. For example, the tiger stripe Alexandria Sulcus inherited a portion of an older set along part of its length, creating a dogleg shape. Intersections between different fracture sets also appear to correlate with eruptive plume locations, suggesting a structural control on sites of eruptions. The systematic nature of the fracture sets, combined with the temporal change in orientations, is compatible with the process of nonsynchronous rotation (NSR) being the primary cause of fracturing, as has been proposed for curvilinear fractures on Europa. If this is the case, it may hint at the presence of a global liquid ocean on Enceladus that decouples a mobile ice shell from the silicate interior. A global ocean has been previously conjectured; however, the SPT fracture history may provide indirect evidence. Although NSR may account for a temporal rotation of the stress field, the localization of activity in the SPT nonetheless points to other factors at work, such as a thermal plume in the ice beneath the south pole.

  17. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. In the fall of 2010 (when the North Pole was most visible), there was a strong flow in the North while in the spring of 2011 (when the South Pole was most visible) the flow there was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to this polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun s polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular.

  18. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun's polar regions in general and the polar meridonal flow in particular.

  19. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north ]south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north ]south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun fs polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular

  20. Ir Spectral Mapping of the Martian South Polar Residual CAP Using Crism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jacqueline; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to be important in theories of abiogenesis (Allamandola, 2011) . There is evidence that PAHs have been detected on two icy Saturnian satellites using the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft (Cruikshank et al., 2007). The hypothesised presence of PAHs in Mars south polar cap has not been systematically examined even though the Mars south polar cap may allow the preservation of organic molecules that are typically destroyed at the Martian surface by UV radiation (Dartnell et al. 2012). This hypothesis is supported by recent analyses of South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) structural evolution (Thomas et al., 2009) that suggest the possibility that seasonal and long term sublimation may excavate dust particles from within the polar ice. Periodic sublimation is believed to be responsible for the formation of so-called "Swiss Cheese Terrain", a unique surface feature found only in the Martian south polar residual cap consisting of flat floored, circular depressions (Byrne, 2009). We show the first examples of work towards the detection of PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain, using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), on board NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). CRISM is designed to search for mineralogical indications of past and present water, thus providing extensive coverage of the south polar cap. In this work, we discuss whether CRISM infrared spectra can be used to detect PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain and demonstrate a number of maps showing shifts in spectral profiles over the SPRC.

  1. Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.

    2014-03-01

    We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.

  2. Areas of permanent shadow in Mercury's south polar region ascertained by MESSENGER orbital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Harmon, John K.; Murchie, Scott L.; Blewett, David T.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zhong, Ellen D.

    2012-05-01

    Radar-bright features near Mercury's poles have been postulated to be deposits of water ice trapped in cold, permanently shadowed interiors of impact craters. From its orbit about Mercury, MESSENGER repeatedly imaged the planet's south polar region over one Mercury solar day, providing a complete view of the terrain near the south pole and enabling the identification of areas of permanent shadow larger in horizontal extent than approximately 4 km. In Mercury's south polar region, all radar-bright features correspond to areas of permanent shadow. Application of previous thermal models suggests that the radar-bright deposits in Mercury's south polar cold traps are in locations consistent with a composition dominated by water ice provided that some manner of insulation, such as a thin layer of regolith, covers many of the deposits.

  3. On the possibility of viscoelastic deformation of the large south polar craters and true polar wander on the asteroid Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Saman; Dombard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The asteroid Vesta, located within the inner asteroid belt, is a differentiated body with a prominent rotational bulge. NASA's Dawn mission revealed the presence of two large, relatively shallow impact craters in the south polar region, one with a high-standing central peak. The shallowness and prominent central peak are reminiscent of large craters on some icy satellites that may have experienced strong topographic relaxation. The location of these basins near the south pole is also unusual and suggests true polar wander, which requires relaxation of the rotational bulge. Thus, we use the finite element method and a viscoelastic rheology to examine the feasibility of relaxation processes operating on Vesta. Given the plausible thermal state of Vesta by the decay of long-lived radioactive elements, we find that the lithosphere is not compliant enough to allow strong relaxation of the large south polar craters, and thus the peculiar morphology is possibly a product of the formation of these large basins at a planetary scale. Additionally, the asteroid has not been warm enough to permit the relaxation of the rotational bulge. Consequently, these craters both happened to form near the south pole, as unlikely as that is.

  4. Pattern formation in Active Polar Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Arvind; Hagan, Michael; Baskaran, Aparna

    2011-03-01

    Systems such as bacterial suspensions or cytoskeletal filaments and motility assays can be described within the paradigm of active polar fluids. These systems have been shown to exhibit pattern formation raging from asters and vortices to traveling stripes. A coarse-grained description of such a fluid is given by a scalar density field and a vector polarization field. We study such a macroscopic description of the system using weakly nonlinear analysis and numerical simulations to map out the emergent pattern formation as a function of the hydrodynamic parameters in the context of two specific microscopic models - a quasi-2D suspension of cytoskeletal filaments and motor proteins and a system of self propelled hard rods that interact through excluded volume interactions. The authors thank the Brandeis MRSEC center for financial support.

  5. Mars south polar spring and summer temperatures - A residual CO2 frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    Viking infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) energy measurements over the Mars south polar cap throughout the Martian spring and summer revealed complex spatial, spectral, and temporal variations. High albedos did not directly correspond with low temperatures, and as the cap shrank to its residual position, it maintained large differences in brightness temperature between the four IRTM surface-sensing bands at 7, 9, 11, and 20 microns. The late summer infrared spectral pattern can be matched by a surface consisting of CO2 frost with 20 micron emissivity of 0.8 and about 6% dark, warm soil under a dusty atmosphere of moderate infrared opacity and spectral properties similar to those measured for the Martian global dust storms. Low temperature, the absence of appreciable water vapor in the south polar atmosphere, and the absence of surface warming expected if H2O were to become exposed, all imply that the residual south polar cap was covered by solid CO2.

  6. A synthesis of warm air advection to the South Polar Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Austin

    1997-06-01

    Surface temperature and wind chronologies of varying length and 10 m snow temperatures have been used to produce a synthesis of airflow into Antarctica. This synthesis shows relatively warm air over Ellsworth Land, which appears to enter the South Polar Plateau through a slightly lower-lying trough between the summit of the Transantarctic Mountains and the Polar Plateau. Comparison of recent automatic weather station (AWS) records from Mount Howe (88.5°S, 150°W) with four AWS surrounding South Pole at 89°S show that this upslope inflow is a frequent and persistent phenomenon.

  7. Topography and geologic characteristics of aeolian grooves in the south polar layered deposits of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, N.T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.

    2002-01-01

    The topographic and geologic characteristics of grooves and groove-like features in the south polar layered deposits near the Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2 landing sites are evaluated using Mariner 9 images and their derived photoclinometry, normalized using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data. Although both Mariner 9 and Viking images of the south polar layered deposits were available at the time of this study, Mariner 9 images of the grooves were selected because they were generally of higher resolution than Viking images. The dimensions and slopes of the grooves, together with orientations that nearly match the strongest winds predicted in the Martian Global Circulation Model and directions inferred from other wind indicators, suggest that they formed by aeolian scour of an easily erodible surface. Most grooves are symmetric and V-shaped in transverse profile, inconsistent with an origin involving extensional brittle deformation. Although the grooves strike along slopes and terraces of the south polar layered deposits, the variable depths and lack of terracing within the grooves themselves indicate that any stratigraphy in the uppermost 100 m of the polar layered deposits is composed of layers of similar, and relatively low, resistance. The grooves do not represent landing hazards at the scale of the Mariner 9 images (72-86 m/pixel) and therefore probably would not have affected Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2, had they successfully reached the surface. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  8. Thermal and albedo mapping of the polar regions of Mars using Viking thermal mapper observations: 2. South polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, David A.; Keegan, Kenneth D.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first maps of the apparent thermal inertia and albedo of the south polar region of Mars. The observations used to create these maps were acquired by the infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) instruments on the two Viking Orbiters over a 30-day period in 1977 during the Martian late southern summer season. The maps cover the region from 60 deg S to the south pole at a spatial resolution of 1 deg of latitude, thus completing the initial thermal mapping of the entire planet. The analysis and interpretation of these maps is aided by the results of a one-dimensional radiative convective model, which is used to calculate diurnal variations in surface and atmospheric temperatures, and brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere for a range of assumptions concerning dust optical properties and dust optical depths. The maps show that apparent thermal inertias of bare ground regions decrease systematically from 60 deg S to the south pole. In unfrosted regions close to the south pole, apparent thermal inertias are among the lowest observed anywhere on the planet. On the south residual cap, apparent thermal inertias are very high due to the presence of CO2 frost. In most other regions of Mars, best fit apparent albedos based on thermal emission measurements are generally in good agreement with actual surface albedos based on broadband solar reflectance measurements. The one-dimensional atmospheric model calculations also predict anomalously cold brightness temperatures close to the pole during late summer, and after considering a number of alternatives, it is concluded that the net surface cooling due to atmospheric dust is the best explanation for this phenomenon. The region of lowest apparent thermal inertia close to the pole, which includes the south polar layered deposits, is interpreted to be mantled by a continuous layer of aeolian material that must be at least a few millimeters thick. The low thermal inertias mapped in the south polar region imply an

  9. Possible recent and ancient glacial ice flow in the south polar region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    Martian polar science began almost as soon as small telescopes were trained on the planet. The seasonal expansion and contraction of the polar caps and their high albedoes led most astronomers to think that water ice is the dominant constituent. In 1911 Lowell perceived a bluish band around the retreating edge of the polar caps, and interpreted it as water from melting polar ice and seasonal snow. An alternative idea in his time was that the polar caps consist of frozen carbonic acid. Lowell rejected the carbonic acid hypothesis on account of his blue band. He also pointed out that carbonic acid would sublimate rather than melt at confining pressures near and below one bar, hence, carbonic acid could not account for the blue band. In comparing Lowell's theories with today's knowledge, it is recognized that (1) sublimation is mainly responsible for the growth and contraction of Mars' polar caps, (2) carbon dioxide is a major component of the southern polar cap, and (3) Lowell's blue band was probably seasonal dust and/or clouds. Geomorphic evidence that glacial ice and glacial melt waters once flowed over broad areas of the southern polar region. Two aspects of the south polar region suggest possible glacial processes during two distinct eras in Mars' history.

  10. Transport into the south polar vortex in early spring

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, D.L. ); Heidt, L.E. ); Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.R.; Vedder, J.; Starr, W.L.; Strahan, S.E. )

    1989-11-30

    Data collected during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment during August and September 22, 1987 show conclusively that a photochemical sink and not transport caused the ozone decline during that time. During the period August 23 to September 22, mixing ratios of trace constitutents with long lifetimes remained relatively constant for fixed potential temperature and latitude. Over the same period the ozone mixing ratio declined by more than 50% inside the polar vortex near 18 km altitude. This observation alone requires a substantial photochemical sink of ozone. The conservative tracer data indicate that the Lagrangian mean vertical velocity cannot have been upward inside the polar vortex where the ozone hole appeared. Tracer and ozone gradients in the region from 54{degree} to 72{degree}S imply that ozone could be transported into the polar vortex during the spring season. Observed gradients of conserved tracers with respect to latitude and potential temperature are used to deduce a relationship between meridional mixing on potential temperature surfaces and mean diabatic descent in the vortex. The observed gradients and time tendency of ozone are then used to infer the magnitude of the effect of ozone transport in mitigating the springtime ozone decline, using an assumed best guess heating rate of 0.2K/d. It is estimated that ozone transport increased the requirement for a photochemical sink by about 20% {plus minus} 10% near the 425-K potential temperature level during the period of the 1987 experiment, so that transport from other latitudes or heights had a relatively weak influence on the development of the ozone hole in 1987.

  11. Mariner 9 observations of the south polar CAP of Mars - Evidence for residual CO2 frost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paige, D. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Murray, B. C.

    1990-02-01

    The first spacecraft observations of the south residual polar cap of Mars were obtained by the Mariner 9 orbiter during the Martian southern summer season, 1971-1972. Analyses of Viking orbiter observations obtained 3 Mars years later have shown that residual carbon dioxide frost was present at the south polar cap in 1977. In this study, Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer spectra and television camera images are used in conjuction with multispectral thermal emission models to constrain the temperatures of dark bare ground and bright frost regions within the south residual cap. The results provide strong evidence that carbon dioxide frost was present throughout the summer season despite the fact that the residual frost deposits observed by Mariner 9 were less extensive than those observed by Viking.

  12. Mariner 9 observations of the south polar cap of Mars - Evidence for residual CO2 frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Murray, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    The first spacecraft observations of the south residual polar cap of Mars were obtained by the Mariner 9 orbiter during the Martian southern summer season, 1971-1972. Analyses of Viking orbiter observations obtained 3 Mars years later have shown that residual carbon dioxide frost was present at the south polar cap in 1977. In this study, Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer spectra and television camera images are used in conjuction with multispectral thermal emission models to constrain the temperatures of dark bare ground and bright frost regions within the south residual cap. The results provide strong evidence that carbon dioxide frost was present throughout the summer season despite the fact that the residual frost deposits observed by Mariner 9 were less extensive than those observed by Viking.

  13. Active polarization coupler for birefringent fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J. L.; Youngquist, R. C.; Kino, G. S.; Shaw, H. J.

    1984-06-01

    Static coupling between polarization modes achieved by periodically stressing birefringent fiber once per beat length was recently reported. The same scheme is now used to obtain coupling modulation at kilohertz-to-megahertz frequencies by applying pressure to the fiber with an oscillating piezoelectric ceramic. An amplitude of 30-50 V (peak to peak) was found to be necessary to modulate the polarization coupling from a minimum to a maximum. Polarization modulation is also achieved by applying stress along one fiber polarization axis between the two static couplers of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  14. Polarization rotator-splitters in standard active silicon photonics platforms.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Wesley D; Barwicz, Tymon; Taylor, Benjamin J F; Poon, Joyce K S

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate various silicon-on-insulator polarization management structures based on a polarization rotator-splitter that uses a bi-level taper TM0-TE1 mode converter. The designs are fully compatible with standard active silicon photonics platforms with no new levels required and were implemented in the IME baseline and IME-OpSIS silicon photonics processes. We demonstrate a polarization rotator-splitter with polarization crosstalk < -13 dB over a bandwidth of 50 nm. Then, we improve the crosstalk to < -22 dB over a bandwidth of 80 nm by integrating the polarization rotator-splitter with directional coupler polarization filters. Finally, we demonstrate a polarization controller by integrating the polarization rotator-splitters with directional couplers, thermal tuners, and PIN diode phase shifters. PMID:24663698

  15. Constraints on the composition of the martian south polar cap from gravity and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, Mark A.

    2008-08-01

    The polar caps of Mars have long been acknowledged to be composed of unknown proportions of water ice, solid CO 2 (dry ice), and dust. Gravity and topography data are here analyzed over the southern cap to place constraints on its density, and hence composition. Using a localized spectral analysis combined with a lithospheric flexure model of ice cap loading, the best fit density of the volatile-rich south polar layered deposits is found to be 1271 kg m -3 with 1- σ limits of 1166 and 1391 kg m -3. The best fit elastic thickness of this geologically young deposit is 140 km, though any value greater than 102 km can fit the observations. The best fit density implies that about 55% dry ice by volume could be sequestered in these deposits if they were completely dust free. Alternatively, if these deposits were completely free of solid CO 2, the dust content would be constrained to lie between about 14 and 28% by volume. The bulk thermal conductivity of the polar cap is not significantly affected by these maximum allowable concentrations of dust. However, even if a moderate quantity of solid CO 2 were present as horizontal layers, the bulk thermal conductivity of the polar cap would be significantly reduced. Reasonable estimates of the present day heat flow of Mars predict that dry ice beneath the thicker portions of the south polar cap would have melted. Depending on the quantity of solid CO 2 in these deposits today, it is even possible that water ice could melt where the cap is thickest. If independent estimates for either the dust or CO 2 content of the south polar cap could be obtained, and if radar sounding data could determine whether this polar cap is presently experiencing basal melting or not, it would be possible to use these observations to place tight constraints on the present day heat flow of Mars.

  16. South-polar features on Venus similar to those near the north pole.

    PubMed

    Piccioni, G; Drossart, P; Sanchez-Lavega, A; Hueso, R; Taylor, F W; Wilson, C F; Grassi, D; Zasova, L; Moriconi, M; Adriani, A; Lebonnois, S; Coradini, A; Bézard, B; Angrilli, F; Arnold, G; Baines, K H; Bellucci, G; Benkhoff, J; Bibring, J P; Blanco, A; Blecka, M I; Carlson, R W; Di Lellis, A; Encrenaz, T; Erard, S; Fonti, S; Formisano, V; Fouchet, T; Garcia, R; Haus, R; Helbert, J; Ignatiev, N I; Irwin, P G J; Langevin, Y; Lopez-Valverde, M A; Luz, D; Marinangeli, L; Orofino, V; Rodin, A V; Roos-Serote, M C; Saggin, B; Stam, D M; Titov, D; Visconti, G; Zambelli, M; Ammannito, Eleonora; Barbis, Alessandra; Berlin, Rainer; Bettanini, Carlo; Boccaccini, Angelo; Bonnello, Guillaume; Bouye, Marc; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Moinelo, Alejandro Cardesin; Carraro, Francesco; Cherubini, Giovanni; Cosi, Massimo; Dami, Michele; De Nino, Maurizio; Del Vento, Davide; Di Giampietro, Marco; Donati, Alessandro; Dupuis, Olivier; Espinasse, Sylvie; Fabbri, Anna; Fave, Agnes; Veltroni, Iacopo Ficai; Filacchione, Gianrico; Garceran, Katia; Ghomchi, Yamina; Giustini, Maurizio; Gondet, Brigitte; Hello, Yann; Henry, Florence; Hofer, Stefan; Huntzinger, Gerard; Kachlicki, Juergen; Knoll, René; Driss, Kouach; Mazzoni, Alessandro; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Mondello, Giuseppe; Monti, Francesco; Neumann, Christian; Nuccilli, Fabrizio; Parisot, Jerome; Pasqui, Claudio; Perferi, Stefano; Peter, Gisbert; Piacentino, Alain; Pompei, Carlo; Reess, Jean-Michel; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Romano, Antonio; Russ, Natalie; Santoni, Massimo; Scarpelli, Adelmo; Semery, Alain; Soufflot, Alain; Stefanovitch, Douchane; Suetta, Enrico; Tarchi, Fabio; Tonetti, Nazzareno; Tosi, Federico; Ulmer, Bernd

    2007-11-29

    Venus has no seasons, slow rotation and a very massive atmosphere, which is mainly carbon dioxide with clouds primarily of sulphuric acid droplets. Infrared observations by previous missions to Venus revealed a bright 'dipole' feature surrounded by a cold 'collar' at its north pole. The polar dipole is a 'double-eye' feature at the centre of a vast vortex that rotates around the pole, and is possibly associated with rapid downwelling. The polar cold collar is a wide, shallow river of cold air that circulates around the polar vortex. One outstanding question has been whether the global circulation was symmetric, such that a dipole feature existed at the south pole. Here we report observations of Venus' south-polar region, where we have seen clouds with morphology much like those around the north pole, but rotating somewhat faster than the northern dipole. The vortex may extend down to the lower cloud layers that lie at about 50 km height and perhaps deeper. The spectroscopic properties of the clouds around the south pole are compatible with a sulphuric acid composition.

  17. Polarized Cdc42 activation promotes polar body protrusion and asymmetric division in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dehapiot, Benoit; Carrière, Virginie; Carroll, John; Halet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric meiotic divisions in mammalian oocytes rely on the eccentric positioning of the spindle and the remodeling of the overlying cortex, resulting in the formation of small polar bodies. The mechanism of this cortical polarization, exemplified by the formation of a thick F-actin cap, is poorly understood. Cdc42 is a major player in cell polarization in many systems; however, the spatio-temporal dynamics of Cdc42 activation during oocyte meiosis, and its contribution to mammalian oocyte polarization, have remained elusive. In this study, we investigated Cdc42 activation (Cdc42–GTP), dynamics and role during mouse oocyte meiotic divisions. We show that Cdc42–GTP accumulates in restricted cortical regions overlying meiotic chromosomes or chromatids, in a Ran–GTP-dependent manner. This polarized activation of Cdc42 is required for the recruitment of N-WASP and the formation of F-actin-rich protrusions during polar body formation. Cdc42 inhibition in MII oocytes resulted in the release of N-WASP into the cytosol, a loss of the polarized F-actin cap, and a failure to protrude the second polar body. Cdc42 inhibition also resulted in central spindle defects in activated MII oocytes. In contrast, emission of the first polar body during oocyte maturation could occur in the absence of a functional Cdc42/N-WASP pathway. Therefore, Cdc42 is a new protagonist in chromatin-induced cortical polarization in mammalian oocytes, with an essential role in meiosis II completion, through the recruitment and activation of N-WASP, downstream of the chromatin-centered Ran–GTP gradient. PMID:23384564

  18. Pitting within the Martian South Polar Swiss Cheese Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, A.; Ingersoll, A.; Cushing, G.; Titus, T.

    2004-12-01

    The morphology of the Martian South Permanent Residual Cap is dominated by enigmatic quasi-circular landforms commonly referred to as "Swiss cheese" terrain. These large Swiss cheese depressions, which typically have widths of more than 100 m and extend down to the base of the layer, are expanding at rates of a few meters per Martian year due to CO2 sublimation. We present high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images detailing extensive "pits," by which we mean small cavities generally less than 10 m in diameter that do not penetrate completely through the Swiss cheese terrain. This pitting is only observed upon the thickest (~10 m) Swiss cheese mesas ("Unit A" as classified by Thomas et al. 2004), and moreover only occurs within 50 meters of the edges of these deposits. We argue that the pits are collapse features caused by the release of CO2 gas from a pressurized layer several meters below the mesa top. As the walls of the mesa retreat due to radiation imbalance, the pressurized layer is exposed, and CO2 vents out laterally, weakening the layer and causing the collapse. We can think of no other process that communicates laterally over distances of 50 meters in one Martian year, which is the time scale over which the pits form. For a layer 6 meters thick, the hydrostatic head is ~200 mbar, which provides an upper bound to the gas pressure in the sealed lower layer. However, for that maximum pressure to be attained, the CO2 in the lower layer must be approximately 30 K warmer than CO2 on the surface. Such a temperature differential is difficult to maintain, though, given that 6 meters is also the thermal skin depth for CO2 over 1 Martian year. We are exploring a number of mechanisms that might continually or cyclically warm this layer and enable rapid venting when the seal is broken. The persistence of polygonal cracks on the mesa tops could be further evidence of subsurface thermal variations.

  19. Unusual Polar Activity of the Sun in the Northern Hemisphere and Its Implications for Solar Cycle 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Masuda, Satoshi; Yashiro, Seiji; Akiyama, Sachiko; Shibasaki, Kiyoto

    2016-07-01

    Polar field strength in one solar cycle is known to indicate the strength (e.g., Sunspot number) and phase of the next cycle. In particular the polar field strength (or its proxies such as the polar coronal hole area and microwave polar brightness) during the minimum phase of a given cycle seem to be well correlated with the maximum sunspot number of the next cycle. Polar prominence eruptions and coronal mass ejections have also been found to be indicators of low polar field; their cessation signals the time of polarity reversal. While these indicators are present in the current cycle, significant differences are found regarding the phase lag between the two hemispheres and the duration of polar eruptions. We use data from the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, the Solar Dynamics Observatory, SOLIS, and Wilcox Solar Observatory to highlight these differences. We find that the north polar region of the Sun has near-zero field strength for more than three years. This is unusually long and caused by surges of both polarities heading toward the north pole that prevent the buildup of the polar field. This seems to be due to anti-Hale active regions that appeared around the 2012 peak sunspot activity in the northern hemisphere. The unusual condition is consistent with (i) the continued high-latitude prominence eruption, (ii) the extended period of high tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet, (iii) the weak microwave polar brightness, and (iv) the lack of north polar coronal hole. On the other hand, the south polar field has started building up and the coronal hole has appeared in early 2015 because of large active regions of the correct tilt in the southern hemisphere during the 2014 peak of sunspot activity. The extended period of near-zero field in the north polar region should result in very weak and delayed sunspot activity in the northern hemisphere in cycle 25. On the other hand the south polar field has already increased significantly, suggesting that the activity in

  20. Clues to the formation of Enceladus' south-polar terrain from simulations of funiscular plains formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, M. T.; McKinnon, W. B.

    2013-12-01

    Cassini imaging and thermal data have demonstrated that Enceladus' four south-polar linear-fractures are the source of both Enceladus' cryovolcanic plume and its extreme thermal emission. These long (130 km), parallel 'tiger stripes' are located within a young, quasi-circular, south-polar depression characterized by extensive tectonic deformation that includes sets of both small-scale fractures (possibly relic tiger stripes) [Patthoff and Kattenhorn 2011], and large-amplitude circumferential ridges. Between the tiger stripes themselves are broad regions of periodic, low amplitude (50-100 m), short-wavelength (1 km) ridges (dubbed 'funiscular' terrain) that generally run parallel to the larger tiger stripe fractures but occasionally intersect them at small angles [Spencer et al. 2009]. The formation of the south polar terrain (SPT) may be related to localized melting of Enceladus' ice layer [e.g., Collins and Goodman, 2007] but the detailed formation kinematics of the SPT and its specific tectonic structures is far from certain. Here we constrain the formation of the SPT by simulating the development of funiscular terrain specifically. This terrain dominates the central portion of the SPT, including regions immediately adjacent to the tiger stripes. The stripes are, in effect, large-scale fractures imbedded within the funiscular terrain; thus, any kinematic or dynamic prescription for SPT formation must account for funiscular morphology. The simplest formation mechanism consistent with the funiscular ridges is that of low-amplitude, short-wavelength folding of a thin surface layer. Barr and Pruess [2010] demonstrated the plausibility of this mechanism using an analytical model developed for folds forming on lava flow tops. We extend their analysis using finite element modeling of the contraction of a thin, brittle lithosphere overlying ductile ice. We find fold morphologies consistent with the funiscular terrain (50-100 m amplitude, 1.5 km wavelengths) for

  1. Buried CO2 Ice traces in South Polar Layered Deposits of Mars detected by radar sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, L.; Mège, D.; Orosei, R.; Séjourné, A.

    2014-12-01

    SHARAD (SHAllow RADar) is the subsurface sounding radar provided by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) as a facility instrument to NASA's 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The Reduced Data Record of SHARAD data covering the area of the South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD), has been used. The elaboration and interpretation of the data, aimed to estimate electromagnetic properties of surface layers, has been performed in terms of permittivity. The theory of electromagnetic scattering from fractal surfaces, and the estimation of geometric parameters from topographic data by Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) which was one of five instruments on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, has been used. A deep analysis of inversion has been made on all Mars and extended to the South Polar Caps in order to extract the area with a permittivity constant of CO2 ice. Several corrections have been applied to the data, moreover the calibration of the signal requires the determination of a constant that takes into account the power gain due to the radar system and the surface in order to compensate the power losses due to the orbitographic phenomena. The determination of regions with high probability of buried CO2 ice in the first layer of the Martian surface, is obtained extracting the real part of the permittivity constant of the CO2 ice (~2), estimated by other means. The permittivity of CO2ice is extracted from the Global Permittivity Map of Mars using the global standard deviation of itself as following: ɛCO2ice=ɛCO2ice+ Σ (1)where Σ=±std(ɛMapMars)/2Figure 1(a) shows the south polar areas where the values of the permittivity point to the possibility of a CO2 ice layer. Figure 1(b) is the corresponding geologic map. The comparison between the two maps indicates that the area with probable buried CO2 overlaps Hesperian and Amazonian polar units (Hp, Hesperian plains-forming deposits marked by narrow sinuous, anabranching ridges and irregular depressions, and

  2. Large Grooves in the South Polar Layered Deposits: Insights from Spacecraft Data and Terrestrial Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.

    2000-01-01

    The Martian polar layered deposits (PLD) are probably the best source of information about the recent climate history of Mars, but their origin and the mechanisms of accumulation are still a mystery. The polar layers are sedimentary deposits that most planetary scientists believe are composed of water ice and varying amounts of wind-blown dust, although their composition is poorly constrained. Interpretation of the observed polar stratigraphy in terms of global climate changes is complicated by the significant difference in surface ages between the north and south PLD inferred from crater statistics. The study reported here was undertaken as part of the landing site selection effort for the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) and Deep Space 2 (DS2) missions that made use of all available data. We used Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor images of the south PLD in the area accessible to MPL and DS2 to evaluate the topography and morphology of grooves, terraced layers, and other features. Here we report on results from grooves that appear to have been carved by strong winds. Because these features are found throughout the interior of the PLD, where MPL and DS2 were targeted to land, their topographic characteristics were judged as important input for landing site safety assessment. The characteristics of the grooves also provide constraints and insights into aeolian processes in the polar regions and the effects these have on PLD ablation. Our results indicate that these grooves do not represent landing hazards at the scale of the images (approx. 80 m/pixel). Their topography and shape do not seem correlated with south PLD layering. No Earth analog of suitable scale exists, although the grooves bear some resemblance to smaller terrestrial deflation hollows found in soft sediment and ice. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  3. Large Grooves in the South Polar Layered Deposits: Insights from Spacecraft Data and Terrestrial Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.

    2000-08-01

    The Martian polar layered deposits (PLD) are probably the best source of information about the recent climate history of Mars, but their origin and the mechanisms of accumulation are still a mystery. The polar layers are sedimentary deposits that most planetary scientists believe are composed of water ice and varying amounts of wind-blown dust, although their composition is poorly constrained. Interpretation of the observed polar stratigraphy in terms of global climate changes is complicated by the significant difference in surface ages between the north and south PLD inferred from crater statistics. The study reported here was undertaken as part of the landing site selection effort for the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) and Deep Space 2 (DS2) missions that made use of all available data. We used Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor images of the south PLD in the area accessible to MPL and DS2 to evaluate the topography and morphology of grooves, terraced layers, and other features. Here we report on results from grooves that appear to have been carved by strong winds. Because these features are found throughout the interior of the PLD, where MPL and DS2 were targeted to land, their topographic characteristics were judged as important input for landing site safety assessment. The characteristics of the grooves also provide constraints and insights into aeolian processes in the polar regions and the effects these have on PLD ablation. Our results indicate that these grooves do not represent landing hazards at the scale of the images (approx. 80 m/pixel). Their topography and shape do not seem correlated with south PLD layering. No Earth analog of suitable scale exists, although the grooves bear some resemblance to smaller terrestrial deflation hollows found in soft sediment and ice. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  4. Distinct water activation on polar/non-polar facets of ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Liu, Changjun; Wang, Yong

    2015-11-01

    ZnO nanoparticles with differing dominant facets were prepared and characterized by a complimentary of techniques such as X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, temperature programmed desorption of H2O, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of adsorbed D2O. For the first time, water interaction/activation is compared on ZnO polar and non-polar facets. We report that non-polar facets exhibit high activity in water activation, which favors reactions such as ketonization and steam reforming in which dissociated water is involved. The distinct water dissociation on ZnO non-polar facets could be related to its facile formation of oxygen vacancies under realistic reaction conditions.

  5. Regolith properties in the south polar region of the Moon from 70-cm radar polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Campbell, Donald B.

    2006-01-01

    The south polar region of the Moon contains areas permanently shadowed from solar illumination, which may provide cold traps for volatiles such as water ice. Previous radar studies have emphasized the search for diagnostic polarization signatures of thick ice in areas close to the pole, but near-surface regolith properties and regional geology are also important to upcoming orbital studies of the shadowed terrain. To study regional regolith variations, we collected 70-cm wavelength, 450-m resolution, dual-circular polarization radar data for latitudes 60-90° S using the Arecibo and Greenbank telescopes. The circular polarization ratio, μ, is sensitive to differences in rock abundance at the surface and up to tens of m below the surface, depending upon the regolith loss tangent. We observe significant variations in μ, attributed to changes in the surface and subsurface rock population, across the south polar highlands. Concentric haloes of low polarization ratio surrounding Hausen, Moretus, and other young craters represent rock-poor ejecta layers. Values of μ up to ˜1 occur in the floors and near-rim deposits of Eratosthenian and Copernican craters, consistent with abundant rocky ejecta and/or fractured impact melt. Enhanced μ values also correspond to areas mapped as Orientale-derived, plains-forming material [Wilhelms, D.E., Howard, K.A., Wilshire, H.G., 1979. USGS Map I-1162], and similar polarization properties characterize the permanently shadowed floors of craters Faustini and Shoemaker. Small areas of very high (>1.5) circular polarization ratio occur on shadowed and seasonally sunlit terrain, and appear to be associated with small craters. We suggest that regolith in low-lying areas near the south pole is characterized by a significant impact melt component from Orientale, which provides a source for excavation of the block-rich ejecta around small craters observed in this and earlier radar studies. The lower portion of the interior wall of Shackleton

  6. Modeling the Seasonal South Polar Cap Sublimation Rates at Dust Storm Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonev, B. P.; James, P. B.; Wolff, M. J.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Hansen, G. B.; Benson, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the principal component of the Martian atmosphere and its interaction with the polar caps forms the CO2 seasonal cycle on the planet. A significant fraction of the atmospheric constituent condenses on the surface during the polar winter and sublimes back during spring. The basic aspects of the CO2 cycle have been outlined by Leighton and Murray and a number of follow-up theoretical models ranging from energy balance to general circulation models have been used to study the physical processes involved in the cycle. This paper presents a modeling study on the seasonal south polar cap subliminiation rate under dust storm conditions. Mars Global Surveyor observations are also presented.

  7. Analysis of Properties of the North and South Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Byrne, S.; Richardson, M. I.; Vasavada, A. R.; Titus, T. N.; Bell, J. F.; McConnochie, T. H.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the many questions of Martian exploration is to uncover the history of Mars, through analysis of the polar layered deposits (PLD). Martian polar ice caps hold most of the exposed water ice on the surface of Mars and yet their history and physical processes involved in their formation are unclear. We will attempt to contribute to our knowledge of the composition and stratigraphy of the PLD. In this work we present the latest imaging data acquired by the Mars Odyssey THermal EMission Imaging System (THEMIS) [1] and place it into context of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data. We have discussed the North Polar data in [5]. This work concentrates on data acquired over the South pole of Mars and compares properties of North and South PLD. We are primarily interested in properties of the layers in both ice caps : their continuity, morphology and stratigraphy. These questions can be addressed by THEMIS VIS color images, along with MOC high resolution data and MOLA Digital Elevation Models (DEM). We will investigate thermophysical properties of the layered deposits employing THEMIS IR images. Based on the data obtained by the orbiting spacecraft and described here, we will attempt to expose major directions for modeling and further understanding of the physical processes involved in the formation of the polar layered terrain

  8. Production of HRSC Base DTMs for Multi-Instrument Auto Coregistration and Orthorectification Over the Mars South Polar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, A. R. D.; Sidiropoulos, P.; Muller, J.-P.

    2016-09-01

    Auto Coregistering and Orthorectifying (ACRO) multi-instrument images over the Mars South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) is useful for change detection research. To produce ACRO images, base DTM is needed. We are producing base HRSC DTMs over SPRC.

  9. Identifying Surface Changes on HRSC Images of the Mars South Polar Residual CAP (sprc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Alfiah Rizky Diana; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-06-01

    The surface of Mars has been an object of interest for planetary research since the launch of Mariner 4 in 1964. Since then different cameras such as the Viking Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS), Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) have been imaging its surface at ever higher resolution. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board of the European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express, has been imaging the Martian surface, since 25th December 2003 until the present-day. HRSC has covered 100 % of the surface of Mars, about 70 % of the surface with panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98 % at better than 100 m/pixel (Neukum et. al., 2004), including the polar regions of Mars. The Mars polar regions have been studied intensively recently by analysing images taken by the Mars Express and MRO missions (Plaut et al., 2007). The South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) does not change very much in volume overall but there are numerous examples of dynamic phenomena associated with seasonal changes in the atmosphere. In particular, we can examine the time variation of layers of solid carbon dioxide and water ice with dust deposition (Bibring, 2004), spider-like channels (Piqueux et al., 2003) and so-called Swiss Cheese Terrain (Titus et al., 2004). Because of seasonal changes each Martian year, due to the sublimation and deposition of water and CO2 ice on the Martian south polar region, clearly identifiable surface changes occur in otherwise permanently icy region. In this research, good quality HRSC images of the Mars South Polar region are processed based on previous identification as the optimal coverage of clear surfaces (Campbell et al., 2015). HRSC images of the Martian South Pole are categorized in terms of quality, time, and location to find overlapping areas, processed into high quality Digital Terrain

  10. North-south geological differences between the residual polar caps on Mars.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P C; Malin, M C; Edgett, K S; Carr, M H; Hartmann, W K; Ingersoll, A P; James, P B; Soderblom, L A; Veverka, J; Sullivan, R

    2000-03-01

    Polar processes can be sensitive indicators of global climate, and the geological features associated with polar ice caps can therefore indicate evolution of climate with time. The polar regions on Mars have distinctive morphologic and climatologic features: thick layered deposits, seasonal CO2 frost caps extending to mid latitudes, and near-polar residual frost deposits that survive the summer. The relationship of the seasonal and residual frost caps to the layered deposits has been poorly constrained, mainly by the limited spatial resolution of the available data. In particular, it has not been known if the residual caps represent simple thin frost cover or substantial geologic features. Here we show that the residual cap on the south pole is a distinct geologic unit with striking collapse and erosional topography; this is very different from the residual cap on the north pole, which grades into the underlying layered materials. These findings indicate that the differences between the caps are substantial (rather than reflecting short-lived differences in frost cover), and so support the idea of long-term asymmetry in the polar climates of Mars.

  11. North-south geological differences between the residual polar caps on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, P.C.; Malin, M.C.; Edgett, K.S.; Carr, M.H.; Hartmann, W.K.; Ingersoll, A.P.; James, P.B.; Soderblom, L.A.; Veverka, J.; Sullivan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Polar processes can be sensitive indicators of global climate, and the geological features associated with polar ice caps can therefore indicate evolution of climate with time. The polar regions on Mars have distinctive morphologic and climatologic features: thick layered deposits, seasonal CO2 frost caps extending to mid latitudes, and near-polar residual frost deposits that survive the summer. The relationship of the seasonal and residual frost caps to the layered deposits has been poorly constrained, mainly by the limited spatial resolution of the available data. In particular, it has not been known if the residual caps represent simple thin frost cover or substantial geologic features. Here we show that the residual cap on the south pole is a distinct geologic unit with striking collapse and erosional topography; this is very different from the residual cap on the north pole, which grades into the underlying layered materials. These findings indicate that the differences between the caps are substantial (rather than reflecting short-lived differences in frost cover), and so support the idea of long-term asymmetry in the polar climates of Mars.

  12. Before the Tiger Stripes: A History of Fracturing in the South Polar Terrain of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patthoff, D. A.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Extending for over 120 km, four fairly linear fractures (dubbed tiger stripes) stand out against the background of much shorter, but more numerous, fractures in the tectonically diverse south-polar region of Enceladus. The tiger stripes, and the plumes generated along them, have been the focus of numerous studies, leaving many of the smaller features largely ignored. Using the most recently available Cassini spacecraft images, we have created detailed maps revealing three additional relict, tiger stripe-like fracture sets among the smaller fractures. These old tiger stripe-like features have similar characteristics, but different orientations, to the present-day tiger stripes. The younger fractures have cut and deformed the older fractures, making them much less prominent than the named tiger stripes. However, the older fracture sets do retain some long, over 40 km, linear features. We believe these longer features once looked similar to the present day tiger stripes, before they were rotated away from the primary stress field in which they formed and were overprinted by younger features. By using crosscutting relationships, we were able to establish relative ages of the three old systematic fracture sets and the tiger stripes to determine the sequence of fracturing in the south polar terrain (SPT). The fracture sets show a counterclockwise progression in orientation through time which implies the causal SPT stress field created distinct fracture sets at different points in time, gradually rotating approximately 153° counterclockwise relative to the present day surface and culminating in the stress field that produced the tiger stripes. Older fracture sets clearly influenced the development of younger sets. For example, the tiger stripe Alexandria Sulcus inherited a portion of an older fracture along part of its length, creating a distinct jog along the otherwise nearly linear feature. Similar geometries occur at other locations where younger tiger stripes

  13. Perennial water ice identified in the south polar cap of Mars.

    PubMed

    Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Poulet, François; Gendrin, Aline; Gondet, Brigitte; Berthé, Michel; Soufflot, Alain; Drossart, Pierre; Combes, Michel; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Moroz, Vassili; Mangold, Nicolas; Schmitt, Bernard

    2004-04-01

    The inventory of water and carbon dioxide reservoirs on Mars are important clues for understanding the geological, climatic and potentially exobiological evolution of the planet. From the early mapping observation of the permanent ice caps on the martian poles, the northern cap was believed to be mainly composed of water ice, whereas the southern cap was thought to be constituted of carbon dioxide ice. However, recent missions (NASA missions Mars Global Surveyor and Odyssey) have revealed surface structures, altimetry profiles, underlying buried hydrogen, and temperatures of the south polar regions that are thermodynamically consistent with a mixture of surface water ice and carbon dioxide. Here we present the first direct identification and mapping of both carbon dioxide and water ice in the martian high southern latitudes, at a resolution of 2 km, during the local summer, when the extent of the polar ice is at its minimum. We observe that this south polar cap contains perennial water ice in extended areas: as a small admixture to carbon dioxide in the bright regions; associated with dust, without carbon dioxide, at the edges of this bright cap; and, unexpectedly, in large areas tens of kilometres away from the bright cap.

  14. Quasi-periodic dust events in the summertime south polar region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Takeshi; Ito, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    A Hovmöller diagram analysis of the dust optical depth measured by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer shows the occurrence of quasi-periodic westwardly-propagating disturbances with timescales of 10-20 sols during summer in the south polar region of Mars. Dust clouds emerge repeatedly around the region with a latitude of around 70-80°S and a longitude of 240-300°E, move westward at speeds of 3-6 m s -1, reach the region with a longitude of 60-120°E, and finally disappear. This longitude range coincides with elevated terrains in the south polar region, and in this region an increase of dust optical depth encircling the south pole is also observed. This implies that the quasi-periodic dust events will contribute to the enhancement of the atmospheric dust loading in this region. These dust events might be related to baroclinic instability caused by the thermal contrast across the CO 2 cap edge, or the horizontal advection or vertical convection with radiative-dynamical feedback. The westward movement of the dust clouds suggests steady westward winds blowing in the near-surface layer, where the quasi-periodic dust lifting is expected to occur. Such a westward cap-edge flow will be created by the Coriolis force acting on the flow from the ice side to the regolith side.

  15. Active tunable plasmonically induced polarization conversion in the THz regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Furi; Yao, Gang; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-10-01

    A plasmon-induced polarization conversion (PIPC) structure based on periodically patterned graphene was demonstrated in the THz regime. By varying the Fermi level of two connected T-shape graphene strips through the electrostatic gating, the peak frequency and the group index in the transparency window can be tuned, which is good agreement with the coupled Lorentz oscillator model. Due to interference between two polarization selective graphene plasmonic resonances coexisting in the planar metamaterial, polarization conversion can be achieved. The linearly polarized THz wave can be converted to elliptically and right circularly polarized THz wave through varying the relaxation time of electrons in graphene. This novel chip-scale active terahertz device promises essential application opportunities in terahertz sensing and terahertz communications.

  16. Active tunable plasmonically induced polarization conversion in the THz regime

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Furi; Yao, Gang; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    A plasmon-induced polarization conversion (PIPC) structure based on periodically patterned graphene was demonstrated in the THz regime. By varying the Fermi level of two connected T-shape graphene strips through the electrostatic gating, the peak frequency and the group index in the transparency window can be tuned, which is good agreement with the coupled Lorentz oscillator model. Due to interference between two polarization selective graphene plasmonic resonances coexisting in the planar metamaterial, polarization conversion can be achieved. The linearly polarized THz wave can be converted to elliptically and right circularly polarized THz wave through varying the relaxation time of electrons in graphene. This novel chip-scale active terahertz device promises essential application opportunities in terahertz sensing and terahertz communications. PMID:27734912

  17. Global tectonic of Enceladus driven by subsidence of South Polar Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-07-01

    Enceladus is the smallest celestial body in the Solar System where volcanic and tectonic activities are observed. Every second, the mass of ~200 kg is ejected into space from the South Polar Terrain (SPT) - [1]. Our hypothesis states that this mass loss is the main driving mechanism of the tectonic processes. The hypothesis is presented in [2] and [3]. We find that the loss of the volatiles results in a void, an instability, and motion of solid matter to fill the void. The motion includes: (i) Subsidence of the 'lithosphere' of SPT. (ii) Flow of the matter in the mantle. (iii) Motion of plates adjacent to SPT towards the active region. The numerical model of the subsidence process is developed. It is based on the model of thermal convection in the mantle. Special boundary conditions are applied that could simulate subsidence of SPT. If emerging void is being filled by the subsidence of SPT only, then the velocity of subsidence is ~0.05 mm per yr. However, numerical calculations indicate that all three types of motion are usually important. The role of a given motion depends on the viscosity distribution. Generally, for most of the models the subsidence is ~0.02 mm per yr, but mantle flow and plates' motion also play a role in filling the void. The preliminary results of the numerical model indicate also that the velocity of adjacent plates could be ~0.02 mm per yr for the Newtonian rheology. The SPT is not compressed, so "tiger stripes" could exist for long time. Only after significant subsidence the regime of stresses changes to compression. It means the end of activity in a given region. The future region of activity is suggested. Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by the National Science Centre (grant 2011/01/B/ST10/06653). Computer resources of Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modeling of University of Warsaw were also used in the research References [1] Spencer, J. R., et al. (2009) Enceladus: An Active Cryovolcanic

  18. A Sublimation Model for the Martian Polar Swiss-Cheese Features. Observational and Modeling Studies of the South Polar Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Shane; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    In their pioneering work Leighton and Murray argued that the Mars atmosphere, which is 95 percent CO2 today, is controlled by vapor equilibrium with a much larger polar reservoir of solid CO2. Here we argue that the polar reservoir is small and cannot function as a long-term buffer to the more massive atmosphere. Our work is based on modeling the circular depressions (Swiss-cheese features) in the south polar cap. We argue that a solid CO2 layer approximately 8 meters thick is being etched away to reveal water ice underneath. Preliminary results from the THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System) instrument seem to confirm our model.

  19. Survival, site and mate fidelity in south polar skuas Catharacta maccormicki at Anvers Island, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Parmelee, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    In 1974-1975, 34 adult South Polar Skuas Catharacta maccormicki were colour-ringed on 18 nest territories at Bonaparte Point, Anvers Island, near Palmer Station along the Antarctic Peninsula. Subsequently, the area was searched for these birds during the austral summers of 1975-1976 to 1984-1985 and in 1987-1988 and 1989-1990. Fifty-three percent were seen in 1984-1985, 32% in 1987-1988 and 21% in 1989-1990. Annual survival rate averaged 95% from 1974-1975 to 1984-1985; no sexual differences were detected (n = 28 of known sex). Strong territory and mate fidelity were apparent; 34 skuas averaged 1.1 nest territories and 1.7 mates each in 16 years. Only 4 of 34 individuals (all females) were known to change territories, and each territory change involved a change of mates. Although males showed higher territory fidelity than females (P < 0.01), most females (four of five) retained their territories when previous mates failed to return. Seventeen of 34 birds changed mates a total of 24 times; at least 20 mate changes followed the death or disappearance of the former mate. Males showed slightly higher mate fidelity than females (P < 0.04). Female South Polar and Brown Skuas Catharacta lonnbergi did not differ in territory or mate fidelity. From 1974-1975 to 1984-1985, 120 South Polar Skua chicks were ringed on 18 nest territories on Bonaparte Point; 17 were resighted in the Palmer area when they were 3-10 years old. All 17 returnees were found within 3 km of their natal nest sites, and four of them occupied nest territories on Bonaparte Point.

  20. Massive CO2 Ice Deposits Sequestered in the South Polar Layered Deposits of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Roger J.; Davis, Brian J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Byrne, Shane; Mellon, Michael T.; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Haberle, Robert M.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Smith, Isaac B.; Holt, John W.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Nunes, Daniel C.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Egan, Anthony F.; Titus, Timothy N.; Seu, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Shallow Radar soundings from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal a buried deposit of carbon dioxide (CO2) ice within the south polar layered deposits of Mars with a volume of 9500 to 12,500 cubic kilometers, about 30 times that previously estimated for the south pole residual cap. The deposit occurs within a stratigraphic unit that is uniquely marked by collapse features and other evidence of interior CO2 volatile release. If released into the atmosphere at times of high obliquity, the CO2 reservoir would increase the atmospheric mass by up to 80%, leading to more frequent and intense dust storms and to more regions where liquid water could persist without boiling.

  1. Some photometric properties of the Martian south polar cap region during the 1971 apparition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumme, K.; James, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    High-quality earth-based photographs from the Lowell Observatory Planetary Research Center collection have been analyzed to derive some photometric parameters for the Martian south polar cap region during the 1971 apparition. The optical thickness of the atmosphere above the cap varied with wavelength from 0.35 + or - 0.05 in red light to 0.58 + or 0.06 in UV light. The effective geometric albedo is calculated from the 30 deg phase data assuming isotropic scattering: it varies from 0.85 + or - 0.04 (in red light) to 0.63 + or 0.05 (in UV light).

  2. Zeno inhibition of polarization rotation in an optically active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo, Isabel; Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experiment in which the rotation of the polarization of light propagating in an optically active water solution of D-fructose tends to be inhibited by frequent monitoring whether the polarization remains unchanged. This is an example of the Zeno effect that has remarkable pedagogical interest because of its conceptual simplicity, easy implementation, low cost, and because the same the Zeno effect holds at classical and quantum levels. An added value is the demonstration of the Zeno effect beyond typical idealized assumptions in a practical setting with real polarizers.

  3. Polarity establishment requires localized activation of Cdc42

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Benjamin; Kuo, Chun-Chen; Wu, Chi-Fang; Zyla, Trevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of cell polarity in animal and fungal cells involves localization of the conserved Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase, Cdc42, to the cortical region destined to become the “front” of the cell. The high local concentration of active Cdc42 promotes cytoskeletal polarization through various effectors. Cdc42 accumulation at the front is thought to involve positive feedback, and studies in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have suggested distinct positive feedback mechanisms. One class of mechanisms involves localized activation of Cdc42 at the front, whereas another class involves localized delivery of Cdc42 to the front. Here we show that Cdc42 activation must be localized for successful polarity establishment, supporting local activation rather than local delivery as the dominant mechanism in this system. PMID:26459595

  4. Polarization ray tracing in anisotropic optically active media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Stephen C.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1992-01-01

    Procedures for performing polarization ray tracing through birefringent media are presented in a form compatible with the standard methods of geometric ray tracing. The birefringent materials treated include the following: anisotropic optically active materials such as quartz, non-optically active uniaxial materials such as calcite, and isotropic optically active materials such as mercury sulfide or organic liquids. Refraction and reflection algorithms are presented which compute both ray directions and wave directions. Methods for computing polarization modes, refractive indices, optical path lengths, and Fresnel transmission and reflection coefficients are also specified.

  5. Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items.

    PubMed

    Sivaswamy, S N; Balachandran, B; Balanehru, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

    1991-08-01

    Dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in South India were screened for their mutagenic activity. Kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and Kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. Certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. Cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seeds, aniseeds and ginger were not. Several perfumes, essential oils and colouring agents, which are commonly used were also screened and many of them exhibited their mutagenic potential by inducing the 'reverse mutation' in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains.

  6. Linking geomagnetic activity and polar surface air temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppala, Annika

    ERA-40 and ECMWF operational surface level air temperature (SAT) data sets from 1957 to 2006 were used to examine polar temperature variations during years with different levels of geomagnetic activity, as defined by the Ap index. Previous modelling work has suggested that NOx produced at high latitudes by energetic particle precipitation can eventually lead to detectable changes in polar SATs. We find that during winter months, ERA-40 and ECMWF polar SATs in years with high Ap index are different than in years with low Ap index; the differences are statistically significant at the 2-sigma level and range up to about ±4.5 K, de-pending on location. The temperature differences are larger when years with wintertime Sudden Stratospheric Warmings are excluded. Solar irradiance variations were taken into account in the analysis. Although using the re-analysis and operational data sets it was not possible to conclusively show that the polar SAT patterns are physically linked by geomagnetic activity, we conclude that geomagnetic activity likely plays a role in modulating polar wintertime surface air temperature patterns. The SAT results were tested against variation in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Annular Mode n (SAM). The results suggested that these were not driving the observed polar SAT variability. However, significant uncertainty is introduced by the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) and we could not robustly exclude a chance linkage between sea surface temperature (SST) variability and geomagnetic activity. Examining the physical link between geomagnetic activity and polar surface temperature variability patterns using atmospheric models is an ongoing task.

  7. Composition and abundance of epibenthic-sledge catches in the South Polar Front of the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, A.; Havermans, C.; Janussen, D.; Jörger, K. M.; Meyer-Löbbecke, A.; Schnurr, S.; Schüller, M.; Schwabe, E.; Brandão, S. N.; Würzberg, L.

    2014-10-01

    An epibenthic sledge (EBS) was deployed at seven different deep-sea stations along the South Polar Front of the Atlantic in order to explore the composition and abundance of macrofaunal organisms and to identify the most abundant taxa in this transition zone to the Southern Ocean. In total 3,130 specimens were sampled by means of the EBS on board of RV Polarstern during the expedition ANT-XXVIII/3 in the austral summer of 2012. Benthic and suprabenthic Crustacea occurred to be most frequent in the samples. Among those, copepods were by far most numerous, with 1,585 specimens followed by the peracarid taxa Isopoda (236 ind.), Amphipoda (103 ind.), Tanaidacea (78 ind.) and Cumacea (50 ind.). Annelida were represented by a high number of specimens belonging to different polychaete taxa (404 ind.). The molluscan fauna was clearly dominated by Bivalvia (255 ind.), followed in numbers of specimens by Gastropoda (47 ind.). The deep-sea benthos sampled along the Southern Polar Front occurred in surprisingly low abundances, contrasting the largely high surface productivity of the area. Numbers of specimens across different macrofaunal taxa and especially of peracarid crustaceans underscored by far those from South Ocean sites at higher latitudes in the Weddell Sea.

  8. Massive Late Noachian South Polar/Southern Upland Ice Deposits: Predictions and Tests of the Late Noachian "Cold and Icy Highlands" Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.

    2016-09-01

    New Noachian climate models predict a "cold and icy highlands": glacial ice dominates the southern highlands around a huge south polar ice deposit. We document the predicted nature of these polar/circumpolar deposits and test it with observations.

  9. Three-dimensional thermal structure of the South Polar Vortex of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Garate-Lopez, Itziar; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín

    2014-11-01

    We have analyzed thermal infrared images provided by the VIRTIS-M instrument aboard Venus Express (VEX) to obtain high resolution thermal maps of the Venus south polar region between 55 and 85 km altitudes. The maps investigate three different dynamical configurations of the polar vortex including its classical dipolar shape, a regularly oval shape and a transition shape between the different configurations of the vortex. We apply the atmospheric model described by García Muñoz et al. (2013) and a variant of the retrieval algorithm detailed in Grassi et al. (2008) to obtain maps of temperature over the Venus south polar region in the quoted altitude range. These maps are discussed in terms of cloud motions and relative vorticity distribution obtained previously (Garate-Lopez et al. 2013). Temperature maps retrieved at 55 - 63 km show the same structures that are observed in the ~5 µm radiance images. This altitude range coincides with the optimal expected values of the cloud top altitude at polar latitudes and magnitudes derived from the analysis of ~5 µm images are measured at this altitude range. We also study the imprint of the vortex on the thermal field above the cloud level which extends up to 80 km. From the temperature maps, we also study the vertical stability of different atmospheric layers. The cold collar is clearly the most statically stable structure at polar latitudes, while the vortex and subpolar latitudes show lower stability values. Furthermore, the hot filaments present within the vortex at 55-63 km exhibit lower values of static stability than their immediate surroundings.ReferencesGarate-Lopez et al. Nat. Geosci. 6, 254-257 (2013).García Muñoz et al. Planet. Space Sci. 81, 65-73 (2013).Grassi, D. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 113, 1-12 (2008).AcknowledgementsWe thank ESA for supporting Venus Express, ASI, CNES and the other national space agencies supporting VIRTIS on VEX and their principal investigators G. Piccioni and P. Drossart. This work

  10. IRTM brightness temperature maps of the Martian south polar region during the polar night: The cold spots don't move

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Crisp, D.; Santee, M. L.; Richardson, M. I.

    1993-01-01

    A series of infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) south polar brightness temperature maps obtained by Viking Orbiter 2 during a 35-day period during the southern fall season in 1978 was examined. The maps show a number of phenomena that have been identified in previous studies, including day to day brightness temperature variations in individual low temperature regions and the tendency for IRTM 11-micron channel brightness temperatures to also decrease in regions where low 20-micron channel brightness temperatures are observed. The maps also show new phenomena, the most striking of which is a clear tendency for the low brightness temperature regions to occur at fixed geographic regions. During this season, the coldest low brightness temperatures appear to be concentrated in distinct regions, with spatial scales ranging from 50 to 300 km. There are approximately a dozen of these concentrations, with the largest centered near the location of the south residual polar cap. Other concentrations are located at Cavi Angusti and close to the craters Main, South, Lau, and Dana. Broader, less intense regions appear to be well correlated with the boundaries of the south polar layered deposits and the Mountains of Mitchell. No evidence for horizontal motion of any of these regions has been detected.

  11. Frontier Science in the Polar Regions: Current Activities of the Polar Research Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Academies (the umbrella term for the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council) is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1863. The Polar Research Board (PRB) is the focal point within the Academies for providing advice on issues related to the Arctic, Antarctic, and cold regions in general. Tasks within the PRB mission include: providing a forum for the polar science community to address research needs and policy issues; conducting studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues in response to requests from federal agencies and others; providing program reviews, guidance, and assessments of priorities; and facilitating communication on polar issues among academia, industry, and government. The PRB also serves as the US National Committee to two international, nongovernmental polar science organizations: the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The polar regions are experiencing rapid changes in environment and climate, and the PRB has a number of completed and ongoing studies that will enhance scientific understanding of these issues. This poster will illustrate current PRB activities as well as results from two recently released reports: Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems and Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. In the former, a set of frontier research questions are developed to help scientists understand the impacts of climate change on polar ecosystems. The report builds on existing knowledge of climate change impacts and highlights the next big topics to be addressed in the coming decades. In addition, a number of methods and technologies are identified that will be useful to advance future research in polar ecosystem science. In the latter, changes to important science conducted on Antarctica and the surrounding

  12. Tectonic history of the south polar terrain of Saturn's moon Enceladus and evidence for a global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patthoff, D. Alex

    Enceladus, a small icy moon of Saturn, is one of the most geologically active bodies in the solar system. While other icy satellites of a similar size are heavily cratered with ancient surfaces, Enceladus has numerous fractures, plumes of water emanating from the south pole, and a larger than expected heat flux. To explain the anomalies, many models implicitly assume a global liquid water ocean beneath the ice shell. We show that the fracture patterns in the south-polar terrain (SPT) of Enceladus are inconsistent with contemporary stress fields, but instead formed in a temporally varying global stress field related to nonsynchronous rotation (NSR) of a floating ice shell above a global liquid ocean with a period of ~1 Myr. Stresses induced by the rotating ice shell can be 1-5 MPa, an order of magnitude larger than diurnal tidal stresses, large enough to overcome the tensile strength of ice and initiate fracturing. The magnitude of stress depends on the rotation rate of the ice shell, constitutive properties of the ice, thickness of the ice shell, and location on the surface of the satellite. To explain why the SPT is heavily fractured while regions to the north are not, we suggest the ice shell at the south pole is thinner, by 3-4 km, than the rest of the satellite. The thinner ice increases the NSR stress at the SPT which allows for fracture initiation while the thicker ice to the north limits the induced fracturing. Many of the observed plumes are located along the most prominent fissures (the tiger stripes), at the intersections of the tiger stripes and ancient tiger stripe fractures, or along the ancient tiger stripes. NSR stresses are likely necessary to open fracture segments, 20-30 km deep, into the ice shell to the liquid water layer or shear existing fracture segments, creating releasing bends where plume activity would be possible. We show that NSR must be considered when evaluating the moon's geological history.

  13. Circularly polarized antennas for active holographic imaging through barriers

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, Douglas L; Severtsen, Ronald H; Lechelt, Wayne M; Prince, James M

    2011-07-26

    Circularly-polarized antennas and their methods of use for active holographic imaging through barriers. The antennas are dielectrically loaded to optimally match the dielectric constant of the barrier through which images are to be produced. The dielectric loading helps to remove barrier-front surface reflections and to couple electromagnetic energy into the barrier.

  14. Geomagnetic activity and polar surface air temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, A.; Randall, C. E.; Clilverd, M. A.; Rozanov, E.; Rodger, C. J.

    2009-10-01

    Here we use the ERA-40 and ECMWF operational surface level air temperature data sets from 1957 to 2006 to examine polar temperature variations during years with different levels of geomagnetic activity, as defined by the A p index. Previous modeling work has suggested that NO x produced at high latitudes by energetic particle precipitation can eventually lead to detectable changes in surface air temperatures (SATs). We find that during winter months, polar SATs in years with high A p index are different than in years with low A p index; the differences are statistically significant at the 2-sigma level and range up to about ±4.5 K, depending on location. The temperature differences are larger when years with wintertime Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) are excluded. We take into account solar irradiance variations, unlike previous analyses of geomagnetic effects in ERA-40 and operational data. Although we cannot conclusively show that the polar SAT patterns are physically linked by geomagnetic activity, we conclude that geomagnetic activity likely plays a role in modulating wintertime surface air temperatures. We tested our SAT results against variation in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. The results suggested that these were not driving the observed polar SAT variability. However, significant uncertainty is introduced by the Northern Annular Mode, and we cannot robustly exclude a chance linkage between sea surface temperature variability and geomagnetic activity.

  15. Subsidence of the South Polar Terrain and global tectonic of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Enceladus is the smallest celestial body in the Solar System where volcanic and tectonic activities are observed. Every second, the mass of ˜200 kg is ejected into space from the South Polar Terrain (SPT) - [1]. The loss of matter from the body's interior should lead to global compression of the crust (like on Mercury). Typical effects of compression are: thrust faults, folding and subduction. However, such forms are not dominant on Enceladus. We propose here special dynamical process that could explain this paradox. Our hypothesis states that the mass loss from SPT is the main driving mechanism of the following tectonic processes: subsidence of SPT, flow in the mantle and motion of adjacent tectonic plates. The hypothesis is presented in [2] and [3]. We suggest that the loss of the volatiles results in a void, an instability, and motion of solid matter to fill the void. The motion includes: Subsidence of the 'lithosphere' of SPT. Flow of the matter in the mantle. Motion of plates adjacent to SPT towards the active region. Methods and results: The numerical model of the subsidence process is developed. It is based on the model of thermal convection in the mantle. Special boundary conditions are applied, that could simulate subsidence of SPT. If emerging void is being filled by the subsidence of SPT only, then the velocity of subsidence is ˜0.05 mmṡyr-1. However, numerical calculations indicate that all three types of motion are usually important. The role of a given motion depends on the viscosity distribution. Generally, for most of the models the subsidence is ˜0.02 mmṡyr-1, but mantle flow and plates' motion also play a role in filling the void. The preliminary results of the numerical model indicate also that the velocity of adjacent plates could be ˜0.02 mmṡyr-1 for the Newtonian rheology. Note that in our model the reduction of the crust area is not a result of compression but it is a result of the plate sinking. Therefore the

  16. Subsidence of the South Polar Terrain and global tectonic of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Enceladus is the smallest celestial body in the Solar System where volcanic and tectonic activities are observed. Every second, the mass of ˜200 kg is ejected into space from the South Polar Terrain (SPT) - [1]. The loss of matter from the body's interior should lead to global compression of the crust (like on Mercury). Typical effects of compression are: thrust faults, folding and subduction. However, such forms are not dominant on Enceladus. We propose here special dynamical process that could explain this paradox. Our hypothesis states that the mass loss from SPT is the main driving mechanism of the following tectonic processes: subsidence of SPT, flow in the mantle and motion of adjacent tectonic plates. The hypothesis is presented in [2] and [3]. We suggest that the loss of the volatiles results in a void, an instability, and motion of solid matter to fill the void. The motion includes: Subsidence of the 'lithosphere' of SPT. Flow of the matter in the mantle. Motion of plates adjacent to SPT towards the active region. Methods and results: The numerical model of the subsidence process is developed. It is based on the model of thermal convection in the mantle. Special boundary conditions are applied, that could simulate subsidence of SPT. If emerging void is being filled by the subsidence of SPT only, then the velocity of subsidence is ˜0.05 mmṡyr‑1. However, numerical calculations indicate that all three types of motion are usually important. The role of a given motion depends on the viscosity distribution. Generally, for most of the models the subsidence is ˜0.02 mmṡyr‑1, but mantle flow and plates' motion also play a role in filling the void. The preliminary results of the numerical model indicate also that the velocity of adjacent plates could be ˜0.02 mmṡyr‑1 for the Newtonian rheology. Note that in our model the reduction of the crust area is not a result of compression but it is a result of the plate sinking. Therefore the

  17. Cosmic ray density gradient and its dependence on the north-south asymmetry in solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    BADRUDDIN; Yadav, R. S.; Yadav, N. R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the diurnal anisotropy on geomagnetically quiet days was performed using neutron monitor data at Deep River, Leeds, Rome and Tokyo, well distributed in latitude and longitude for the period 1964-79. The days were separated according to the polarity of IMF on that day. A significant difference in the amplitude and phase was found on towards and away polarity days, particularly during the years of high solar activity and large north-south asymmetry. These results (particularly time of maximum) on geomagnetically quiet days show some better relationship to the expected results as compared to the results obtained using all the days in a year.

  18. How the geysers, tidal stresses, and thermal emission across the south polar terrain of enceladus are related

    SciTech Connect

    Porco, Carolyn; DiNino, Daiana; Nimmo, Francis

    2014-09-01

    We present the first comprehensive examination of the geysering, tidal stresses, and anomalous thermal emission across the south pole of Enceladus and discuss the implications for the moon's thermal history and interior structure. A 6.5 yr survey of the moon's south polar terrain (SPT) by the Cassini imaging experiment has located ∼100 jets or geysers erupting from four prominent fractures crossing the region. Comparing these results with predictions of diurnally varying tidal stresses and with Cassini low resolution thermal maps shows that all three phenomena are spatially correlated. The coincidence of individual jets with very small (∼10 m) hot spots detected in high resolution Cassini VIMS data strongly suggests that the heat accompanying the geysers is not produced by shearing in the upper brittle layer but rather is transported, in the form of latent heat, from a sub-ice-shell sea of liquid water, with vapor condensing on the near-surface walls of the fractures. Normal stresses modulate the geysering activity, as shown in the accompanying paper; we demonstrate here they are capable of opening water-filled cracks all the way down to the sea. If Enceladus' eccentricity and heat production are in steady state today, the currently erupting material and anomalous heat must have been produced in an earlier epoch. If regional tidal heating is occurring today, it may be responsible for some of the erupting water and heat. Future Cassini observations may settle the question.

  19. Stratigraphy and evolution of the buried CO2 deposit in the Martian south polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierson, C. J.; Phillips, R. J.; Smith, I. B.; Wood, S. E.; Putzig, N. E.; Nunes, D.; Byrne, S.

    2016-05-01

    Observations by the Shallow Radar instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal several deposits of buried CO2 ice within the south polar layered deposits. Here we present mapping that demonstrates this unit is 18% larger than previously estimated, containing enough mass to double the atmospheric pressure on Mars if sublimated. We find three distinct subunits of CO2 ice, each capped by a thin (10-60 m) bounding layer (BL). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that each BL is dominated by water ice. We model the history of CO2 accumulation at the poles based on obliquity and insolation variability during the last 1 Myr assuming a total mass budget consisting of the current atmosphere and the sequestered ice. Our model predicts that CO2 ice has accumulated over large areas several times during that period, in agreement with the radar findings of multiple periods of accumulation.

  20. Transient bright "halos" on the South Polar Residual Cap of Mars: Implications for mass-balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane; Brown, Adrian J.

    2015-05-01

    Spacecraft imaging of Mars' south polar region during mid-southern summer of Mars year 28 (2007) observed bright halo-like features surrounding many of the pits, scarps and slopes of the heavily eroded carbon dioxide ice of the South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC). These features had not been observed before, and have not been observed since. We report on the results of an observational study of these halos, and spectral modeling of the SPRC surface at the time of their appearance. Image analysis was performed using data from MRO's Context Camera (CTX), and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), as well as images from Mars Global Surveyor's (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). Data from MRO's Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) were used for the spectral analysis of the SPRC ice at the time of the halos. These data were compared with a Hapke reflectance model of the surface to constrain their formation mechanism. We find that the unique appearance of the halos is intimately linked to a near-perihelion global dust storm that occurred shortly before they were observed. The combination of vigorous summertime sublimation of carbon dioxide ice from sloped surfaces on the SPRC and simultaneous settling of dust from the global storm, resulted in a sublimation wind that deflected settling dust particles away from the edges of these slopes, keeping these areas relatively free of dust compared to the rest of the cap. The fact that the halos were not exhumed in subsequent years indicates a positive mass-balance for flat portions of the SPRC in those years. A net accumulation mass-balance on flat surfaces of the SPRC is required to preserve the cap, as it is constantly being eroded by the expansion of the pits and scarps that populate its surface.

  1. Structure and polarization of active region microwave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Alissandrakis, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Active region radio emission observations made at 6.16 cm wavelength during May 20-27, 1980, are the bases of maps of total intensity and circular polarization presented for the three regions whose Hale numbers are 16850, 16863, and 16864. A detailed comparison is made between these maps and on- and off-band H-alpha pictures and magnetograms. The neutral lines with which the strongest sources were associated have their two opposite polarities close to each other, implying a high magnetic field gradient, and are also associated with arch filament systems. A detailed analysis is undertaken of observations of the circular polarization sense inversion in region 16863. The large scale structure of the magnetic field can be approximated by a dipole with its axis inclined by 11 deg with respect to the photosphere, and with a dipole moment of about 2 x 10 to the 31 power cgs units.

  2. The spatial coherence of Schumann activity in the polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtham, P. M.; McAskill, B. J.

    1988-02-01

    The spatial coherence of the first two Schumann resonant modes has been studied at two locations in the polar cap separated by 1100 km. Measurements were made at Assistance Bay and Mould Bay, which have geomagnetic latitudes of 83 and 79 deg, respectively, and satellite time-keeping was employed to accurately synchronize the field stations. The coherence was found to be high, typically 95 percent for the first Schumann mode, and was unaffected by changes in Kp, a storm sudden commencement, or a solar flare event. Polarization rotations were observed between the two stations, which could most likely be attributed to the coastline effect. The results are consistent with a stable propagation of Schumann activity from midlatitudes to high latitudes that is relatively unaffected by changes in the polar cap ionosphere.

  3. Comparisons of Na densities, Fe densities, and temperature measured over south polar cap with model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; Gardner, C. S.; Vondrak, T.; Murray, B.; Plane, J. M.; Roble, R. G.; Espy, P. J.; Kawahara, T.

    Mesospheric Na and Fe layer densities and temperatures were measured by lidar systems at the South Pole, Syowa (69S, 39E), and Rothera (67.5S, 68.0W) during the past several years. Comparison of the wintertime temperatures measured above these sites with TIME-GCM predictions, suggests that the model over-estimates the compressional heating associated with downwelling. When simulating the winter Na and Fe densities at the pole using the UEA 1-D chemistry models, a 2-D general circulation model SOCRATES was used to predict the meridional and downward vertical transportation of O, H, etc. from the sunlit lower latitude into the polar vortex. However, the simulation indicates that the circulation, especially downward transport into the polar vortex, is overestimated by the general circulation model. Thus, the wintertime Na layer nearly disappears in the chemistry model, which does not agree with the maximum Na abundance observed in winter. In summer, the model correctly predicts the observed depletion of the metal atoms below 90 km. This results from the uptake of the metals onto ice particles, which seem to be a persistent feature of the summertime upper mesosphere at high latitudes. This paper will show that the observed seasonal behavior of the metal layers provides a rigorous test of general circulation models in the upper mesosphere.

  4. Determining the Heights and Distributions of Swiss Cheese Features on Mars South Polar Residual Cap Using Photoclinometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, E. O.; Titus, T. N.; Cushing, G. E.

    2009-03-01

    Strange features known as “Swiss cheese” form in the thin CO2 veneer of Mars south polar residual cap. Here we determine the heights and distributions of Swiss cheese features using photoclinometry in order to constrain the thickness of this veneer.

  5. LSPECS: A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared/submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared/submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. The presence of ice has been inferred independently from Clementine and Lunar Prospector, providing another incentive for a south polar mission. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Operation without the use of expendable cryogenics for cooling might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive

  6. SHARAD Finds Voluminous CO2 Ice Sequestered in the Martian South Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Davis, B. J.; Byrne, S.; Campbell, B. A.; Carter, L. M.; Haberle, R. M.; Holt, J. W.; Kahre, M. A.; Nunes, D. C.; Plaut, J. J.; Putzig, N. E.; Smith, I. B.; Smrekar, S. E.; Tanaka, K. L.; Titus, T. N.

    2010-12-01

    The SHARAD instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission has carried out systematic radar soundings of the layered deposits at both martian polar regions. While well-organized sets of radar reflectors are ubiquitous in the North Polar Layered Deposits, those in the South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD) are limited to specific regions, and it is difficult to map SPLD-wide radar stratigraphy. What is evident in the radar observations are four regional reflection-free zones (RFZ) distinguished qualitatively by their radar characteristics. They are up to a kilometer in thickness and extend downward from near the surface. One such zone (RFZ3) occurs beneath the South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC), which is composed of ~5 m of solid CO2 underlain by an apparently thin layer of water ice. Using a correlation technique, we inverted for the real permittivity, ɛ', on each of 41 usable SHARAD orbits over RFZ3. The results were mean values of ɛ' = 2.0 or 2.1, with a σ of 0.2. A secondary technique based on the “smoothest” solution gave similar results. These values are exceptionally close to the laboratory-measured permittivity value of bulk CO2 ice [Pettinelli et al., 2003] and distant from the bulk water ice value (ɛ' = 3.15); water ice is the dominant volatile in the SPLD. An alternative hypothesis for ɛ' = 2.0-2.1 is that the RFZ3 material is porous water ice, but this can be strongly discounted based on theoretical and empirical models of ɛ' of porous water ice vs. thickness. By the same arguments, the proposed CO2 material also cannot be very porous, and ɛ' should be close to the bulk value. With the permittivity estimates, radar time delays were converted to depth, and for RFZ3 a mean thickness of 210-220 m and a volume of 4,200-4,400 km3 result. This is unlikely to be the entire volume because MRO’s orbital inclination precludes SHARAD sounding poleward of ~87°S, where RFZ3 appears to extend. We do find a very good spatial correlation of RFZ3 with

  7. Systematic High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Investigation of Martian South Polar Landforms: Thermal Contraction Polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Hao, Jingyan

    2015-04-01

    The Martian poles are geomorphologically highly diverse as orbital high-resolution imaging data have shown since the early 2000s [1]. Apart from an initially unexpected diversity and an abundance of different and exotic landform types, image and topography data presented evidence for seasonal changes, not only with respect to the seasonal extent of the polar-caps but also with respect to individual landforms that have later been addressed as cryptic material [2]. Most of these features are - though not exclusively - located within the seasonal CO2 cap and their changes imply not only seasonal but also potentially long-term climatic changes [3]. Today, plausible formation processes for some of these landforms have been proposed [7-9; 11-13] and modelled but despite a wealth of new data, systematic surveys are relatively rare [10]. For more than 13,500 images taken by the MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC-NA) over the south-polar area (75'90°S) systematic mapping and classification of thermal contraction polygons have been conducted in previous work by the author and others [4-5], but seasonal changes were identified for few locations only due to limitations of image coverage. Reconstruction of thermal-contraction crack development suggests a complex interplay between seasonal H2O and CO2 ices [6] but image coverage was too sparse at that time to build a representative distribution model and to confirm formation models. Due to the small size of thermal contraction polygons (few tens of meters in diameter), data obtained by MEx/HRSC and MO/THEMIS could only marginally help to identify features and feature distributions. With the arrival of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Context Camera (CTX) provided new detailed insight into the seasonal behaviour of the south polar area of Mars and its landforms at geometric resolutions comparable to those of MOC. Four Martian years have been covered by now which allows us to reconstruct formation and analyse distribution of featured

  8. Investigating Seasonal Gravity Wave Activity in the Summer Polar Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M. J.; Randall, C. E.; Lumpe, J. D., Jr.; Siskind, D. E.; Bailey, S. M.; Russell, J. M., III

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite is the first satellite mission dedicated to studying polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). In particular, the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument onboard AIM obtains large-field PMC images enabling a unique investigation of the mesospheric gravity waves, as the satellite traverses over the summer polar regions. The high quality of CIPS data has provided an exceptional capability to investigate the gravity wave signatures in the summer polar mesosphere where previous measurements have been sparse. We have utilized 12 consecutive seasons of AIM/CIPS PMC albedo data to derive the statistical properties of a broad spectrum of gravity waves present in the PMC data. Over 60,000 waves with horizontal scale sizes ranging from ~50 to >2000 km were identified and measured, revealing a well-developed, consistent distribution for their horizontal wavelengths with a peak in occurrence frequency centered around 400 km. The same result was found from season to season and in both hemispheres. Throughout this study, the wave activity in the southern hemisphere was found to be 10-15% higher than in the northern hemisphere and both northern and southern wave activity was found to decrease systematically (average ~15%) during the course of each summer season. We present new results of the intra-seasonal, inter-annual and hemispheric variability of these waves observed over the whole summer polar cap regions. The systematic decrease in wave activity is consistent with background wind filtering in the northern hemisphere but is not apparently associated with the critical level filtering in the southern hemisphere.

  9. Investigating seasonal gravity wave activity in the summer polar mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M. J.; Randall, C. E.; Lumpe, J. D.; Siskind, D. E.; Bailey, S. M.; Russell, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    The NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite is the first spaceborne mission dedicated to studying high-altitude (~83 km) Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs). Since its launch in 2007, the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument onboard AIM has obtained large-field, high resolution (25 km2/pixel) images of the PMCs, enabling a unique investigation of mesospheric gravity wave activity in the summer polar mesosphere where previous measurements have been sparse. In this study, we have analyzed 12 consecutive seasons of AIM/CIPS PMC albedo data to determine the statistical properties of medium and large horizontal scale (>100 km) gravity waves present in the PMC data. Over 60,000 wave events with horizontal scale-sizes ranging up to >2000 km have been identified and measured, revealing a wealth of wave events particularly in the ~300-800 km range where our analysis sensitivity is largest. These data are ideal for investigating the intra-seasonal, inter-annual and hemispheric variability of these waves as observed over the whole summer polar cap regions. Throughout this 6 year study, the wave activity in the southern hemisphere was found to be consistently 10-15% higher than in the northern hemisphere and both the northern and southern hemisphere wave activity was determined to decrease systematically (by ~15%) during the course of each summer season. This decrease agrees well with previous seasonal stratospheric studies of variations in the wave energy, suggesting a direct influence of the lower atmospheric sources on polar mesospheric dynamics. Very similar and consistent results were also found from season to season in both hemispheres providing new information for gravity wave modeling and dynamical studies of the high-latitude summer-time mesosphere.

  10. Polarity Reversal of the Solar Photospheric Magnetic Field During Activity Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xudong; Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Junwei

    2014-06-01

    The large-scale solar magnetic field reverses its polarity during the maximum phase of each activity cycle. As observed on the photosphere, active region (AR) magnetic flux migrates poleward in narrow, sheared streams resulted from large-scale flows and diffusion. A small net flux of the trailing sunspot polarity eventually aggregates at high latitudes, manifesting the poloidal field of the next cycle. We characterize this process for the ongoing cycle 24 based on four years' line-of-sight magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). The axial dipole component reversed sign in early 2012, but the poleward flux migration was grossly out of phase in the two hemispheres. As a proxy, the northern polar field (taken as mean above 70 degrees latitude) switched from negative to positive in late 2012, whereas the southern remained positive as of March 2014. Three factors that are in line with the surface flux transport model may have contributed. First, AR emergence started and peaked earlier in the north. Second, several ARs with small or inverse tilt angles (w.r.t. the Joy's law) emerged in the south in late 2010. Third, meridional flow speed inferred from helioseismology varied greatly prior to 2013; slower streams (compared to a three-year mean at the same latitude) appeared earlier in the north. We correlate HMI with the long-running Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) dataset, and compare the current cycle with the previous three.

  11. A linearly and circularly polarized active integrated antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshniat, Ali

    This thesis work presents a new harmonic suppression technique for microstrip patch antennas. Harmonic suppression in active integrated antennas is known as an effective method to improve the efficiency of amplifiers in transmitter side. In the proposed design, the antenna works as the radiating element and, at the same time, as the tuning load for the amplifier circuit that is directly matched to the antenna. The proposed active antenna architecture is easy to fabricate and is symmetric, so it can be conveniently mass-produced and designed to have circular polarization, which is preferred in many applications such as satellite communications. The antenna simulations were performed using Ansoft High Frequency System Simulator (HFSS) and all amplifier design steps were simulated by Advanced Design System (ADS). The final prototypes of the linearly polarized active integrated antenna and the circularly polarized active integrated antenna were fabricated using a circuit board milling machine. The antenna radiation pattern was measured inside Utah State University's anechoic chamber and the results were satisfactory. Power measurements for the amplifiers' performance were carried out inside the chamber and calculated by using the Friis transmission equation. It is seen that a significant improvement in the efficiency is achieved compared to the reference antenna without harmonic suppression. Based on the success in the single element active antenna design, the thesis also presents a feasibility of applying the active integrated antenna in array configuration, in particular, in scanning array design to yield a low-profile, low-cost alternative to the parabolic antenna transmitter of satellite communication systems.

  12. Swarming of active colloidal Janus particles: Polar waves and vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cong; Yan, Jing; Han, Ming; Luijten, Erik; Granick, Steve

    2015-03-01

    The synthesis of artificial ``swarming'' particles with tunable interaction represents a strong interest of the soft active matter community. Here, we demonstrate a straightforward design of swarming Janus colloids that exhibit transient mutual alignment within a certain frequency range of an applied AC electric field. In a dense two-dimensional suspension of these Janus colloids, we observe that coherent polar waves emerge at first, which then collide and merge into stable discrete vortices. Based upon a careful analysis of the pair interaction, we propose a simple mechanism that explains the formation of the polar waves, with agreement between experiment and simulation. A rich spectrum of phenomena, including dimer swarming, chain formation, and particle clustering, can be further achieved by changing the frequency of the AC electric field. Currently working as a postdoctoral researcher in Princeton University.

  13. Phase diversity and polarization augmented techniques for active imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Peter M.

    A firm understanding of the space environment is necessary to defend US access to space-based systems. Conventional imaging systems have been developed to gather information on space-based objects, but they are incapable of imaging objects in the earth's shadow. In order close this gap in imaging-system coverage, an active-illumination based approach must be used. To facilitate this, a multi-frame active phase diversity imaging (APDI) algorithm is derived and demonstrated for the statistics of coherent light. In addition to conventional focal-plane and diversity-plane data, a statistical description for the pupil plane intensity distribution is formed and included in the derivation. The algorithm is implemented and characterized using a Monte Carlo approach. Analysis shows that the algorithm is robust, that the effect of system configuration on optimal algorithm parameters is minimal, that the algorithm is insensitive to detection noise for SNR ≥ 7, and that it performs well for SNRs as low as 2. Furthermore, it's shown that introduction of pupil-plane data on average results in a 60% better image reconstruction from dynamically aberrated data than is obtained using only focal-plane and diversity-plane data. Both an Expectation-Maximization algorithm and a lensless-APDI approach are presented for generating imagery directly from pupil-plane polarization measurements. Shortfalls of these methods and areas worthy of further consideration are identified. The use of pupil-plane polarization state measurements in place of pupil-plane intensity measurements in the APDI algorithm is explored. A framework for including polarization measurements into the APDI algorithm is demonstrated, and an initial statistical model and results are presented. Under the developed implementation, introduction of the polarization data doesn't result in better performance. Areas that may result in better reconstructions are discussed.

  14. Basins and the South Polar Terrain of Enceladus: Hotspots vs. Coldspots, and More Evidence for Crustal Spreading and Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, P. M.

    2009-09-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of 50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries (Schenk and McKinnon, GRL, in press). Their shape and scale are inconsistent with impact, geoid deflection, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus’ ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for the basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of 10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice. In contrast to the basins, the south polar depression (SPD) is larger ( 350 wide) and shallower ( 0.4-to-0.8 km deep) and correlates with the area of tectonic deformation and active resurfacing. The SPD also differs in that the floor is relatively flat (i.e., conforms roughly to the global triaxial shape, or geoid) with broad, gently sloping flanks. The relative flatness across the SPD suggests that it is in or near isostatic equilibrium, and underlain by denser material, supporting the polar sea hypothesis of Collins and Goodman [2007]. Near flatness is also predicted by a crustal spreading origin for the "tiger stripes” [e.g., Barr, 2008]; the extraordinary, high CIRS heat flows imply half-spreading rates in excess of 10 cm/yr, a very young surface age ( 250,000 yr), and a rather thin lithosphere (hence modest thermal topography). Topographic rises in places along the outer margin of the SPD correlate with parallel ridges and deformation along the edge of the resurfaced terrain, consistent with a compressional, imbricate thrust origin for these ridges, driven by the spreading.

  15. Gravitational spreading, bookshelf faulting, and tectonic evolution of the South Polar Terrain of Saturn's moon Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, An; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2015-11-01

    Despite a decade of intense research the mechanical origin of the tiger-stripe fractures (TSF) and their geologic relationship to the hosting South Polar Terrain (SPT) of Enceladus remain poorly understood. Here we show via systematic photo-geological mapping that the semi-squared SPT is bounded by right-slip, left-slip, extensional, and contractional zones on its four edges. Discrete deformation along the edges in turn accommodates translation of the SPT as a single sheet with its transport direction parallel to the regional topographic gradient. This parallel relationship implies that the gradient of gravitational potential energy drove the SPT motion. In map view, internal deformation of the SPT is expressed by distributed right-slip shear parallel to the SPT transport direction. The broad right-slip shear across the whole SPT was facilitated by left-slip bookshelf faulting along the parallel TSF. We suggest that the flow-like tectonics, to the first approximation across the SPT on Enceladus, is best explained by the occurrence of a transient thermal event, which allowed the release of gravitational potential energy via lateral viscous flow within the thermally weakened ice shell.

  16. The 1997 Spring Regression of the Martian South Polar Cap: Mars Orbiter Camera Observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, P.B.; Cantor, B.A.; Malin, M.C.; Edgett, K.; Carr, M.H.; Danielson, G.E.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Davies, M.E.; Hartmann, W.K.; McEwen, A.S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter cameras (MOC) on Mars Global Surveyor observed the south polar cap of Mars during its spring recession in 1997. The images acquired by the wide angle cameras reveal a pattern of recession that is qualitatively similar to that observed by Viking in 1977 but that does differ in at least two respects. The 1977 recession in the 0?? to 120?? longitude sector was accelerated relative to the 1997 observations after LS = 240??; the Mountains of Mitchel also detached from the main cap earlier in 1997. Comparison of the MOC images with Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data shows that the Mountains of Mitchel feature is controlled by local topography. Relatively dark, low albedo regions well within the boundaries of the seasonal cap were observed to have red-to-violet ratios that characterize them as frost units rather than unfrosted or partially frosted ground; this suggests the possibility of regions covered by CO2 frost having different grain sizes. ?? 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Reproductive performance and organochlorine pollutants in an Antarctic marine top predator: the south polar skua.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Tveraa, Torkild; Varpe, Øystein; Henden, John A; Skaare, Janneche U

    2007-10-01

    Despite low levels of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in Antarctic biota, some compounds may exceed the levels in equivalent Arctic species, and previous studies have found biochemical evidence of pollutant exposure in south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki), a common marine top predator in the region. In this study we examined relationships between fitness components (fecundity and adult return rate between breeding seasons) and concentrations of OCs in this species. In 65 nests, both males and females were caught, and using principal component analyses (PCA) we produced composite measurements (PC1 and PC2) of six highly correlated OCs measured in blood samples. Although the concentrations of OC were below those documented to have reproductive effects in other aquatic birds, we found that the eggs of females with high levels of OCs in the blood hatched later, and their chicks were in poorer condition at hatching, than females with low OC levels. Thus OCs may delay reproduction and reduce foetal growth in the skuas. However, there was no relationship between the parents' OC residues and the occurrence of non-viable eggs, although the proportion of nests containing non-viable eggs was high (47%). Moreover, there were no significant relationships between OCs and reproductive variables in males, even if males had higher OC levels than females, and no associations between OCs and adult return rate between breeding seasons. PMID:17561256

  18. Albedo of Carbon Dioxide Ice in Mars' Residual South Polar Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, P. B.; Wolff, M. J.; Bonev, B.

    2015-12-01

    The albedo of surface CO2 deposits in the Residual South Polar Cap (RSPC) of Mars controls their net condensation / sublimation over a martian year and is therefore a crucial parameter in determining RSPC stability. The albedo used in previous analyses is obtained by dividing I/F, determined from radiometrically calibrated imaging data, by the cosine of the incidence angle. Because of atmospheric aerosols, the albedo calculated from I/F above the atmosphere is not the surface albedo that enters into stability considerations. In order to determine the surface albedo, we interpolate optical depths determined from CRISM EPF measurements to provide estimates of the dust and ice opacities over the RSPC (Wolff et al., 2009) and use these to determine the actual surface albedos from MARCI images using the radiative transport program DISORT (Stamnes et al., 1988). Assuming that dust is the only contributor to atmospheric opacity, the retrieved surface albedos for the longer wavelength MARCI filters in MY 28 and 29 are found to be consistent despite very different dust opacities in the two years (James et al., 2014). However, this model fails to reproduce the short wavelength behavior in early summer and suggests either an additional opacity source or modification of the CRISM dust opacity or the dust phase function. The consequences of these changes will be discussed.

  19. New Model Predicts Fire Activity in South America

    NASA Video Gallery

    UC Irvine scientist Jim Randerson discusses a new model that is able to predict fire activity in South America using sea surface temperature observations of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. The find...

  20. Cassini Observes the Active South Pole of Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porco, C. C.; Helfenstein P.; Thomas, P. C.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Wisdom, J.; West, R.; Neukum, G.; Denk, T.; Wagner, R.; Roatsch, T.; Kieffer, S.; Turtle, E.; McEwen, A.; Johnson, T. V.; Rathbun, J.; Veverka, J.; Wilson, D.; Perry, J.; Spitale, J.; Brahic, A.; Burns, J. A.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dones, L.; Murray, C. D.; Squyres, S.

    2007-01-01

    Cassini has identified a geologically active province a the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The shape of Enceladus suggests a possible intense heating epoch in the past by capture into a 1:4 secondary spin/orbit resonance.

  1. Polarization aberrations in the solar activity measurements experiments (SAMEX) solar vector magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1989-01-01

    An optical design and polarization analysis of the Air Force/NASA Solar Activity Measurements Experiments solar vector magnetograph optical system is performed. Polarization aberration theory demonstrates that conventional telescope coating designs introduce unacceptably high levels of polarization aberrations into the optical system. Several ultralow polarization mirror and lens coatings designs for this instrument are discussed. Balancing of polarization aberrations at different surfaces is demonstrated.

  2. Post-Equinox Evolution of Titan’s Detached Haze and South Polar Vortex Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Robert A.; Ovanessian, A.; Del Genio, A.; Turtle, E. P.; Perry, J.; NcEwen, A.; Ray, T.; Roy, M.

    2013-10-01

    Instruments on the Cassini spacecraft discovered new phenomena related to the (presumably) seasonal behavior of photochemical haze and formation of the winter polar vortex. West et al. 2011 (Geophys. Res. Lett. , 380 , L06204. doi: 10.1029/2011GL046843) described a ‘detached’ haze layer that dropped in altitude from about 500 km in 2005 to about 360 km by late 2010. New images from the Cassini ISS camera show that the appearance of a detached layer is produced by a gap in the haze vertical profile and it is the gap rather than a haze layer that drops in altitude. Intensity profiles from different epochs form an envelope when plotted on top of each other, and the downward movement of the gap can be most easily seen when plotted that way. The movement of a gap rather than movement of a layer of enhanced haze density was suspected in the earlier publication but now it is more apparent. In recent months the gap became very shallow and the limb intensity profiles at a pixel scale ~10 km/pixel evolved from one local maximum/minimum into two local minima/maxima of smaller amplitude and appear to be trending toward the disappearance of relative maxima and minima, leaving a smooth envelope. These observations will require new developments in coupled dynamical and haze microphysical models as none of the current models account for this behavior. Titan’s south polar vortex cloud was detected concurrently by the ISS, VIMS, and CIRS instruments on Cassini in May of 2012. It has an unusual color (more yellow than Titan’s main haze in ISS images), morphology and texture (suggestive of a condensate cloud experiencing open cell convection) and displays a spectral feature at 220 cm-1 (Jennings et al., 2012, Astrophys. J. Lett. 761, L15 DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/761/1/L15). These attributes point to a condensate of unknown composition. The haze patch is seen in images up to the present (July, 2013), but the latest images suggest a ‘softening’ or more diffuse edge than the

  3. Preliminary geological assessment of the Northern edge of ultimi lobe, Mars South Polar layered deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, B.; Koutnik, M.; Byrne, S.; Soderblom, L.; Herkenhoff, K.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the local base of the south polar layered deposits (SPLD) exposed in the bounding scarp near 72??-74??S, 215??- 230??W where there is a clear unconformable contact with older units. Sections of layering up to a kilometer thick were examined along the bounding scarp, permitting an estimate of the thinnest individual layers yet reported in the SPLD. Rhythmic layering is also present locally, suggesting a similarly rhythmic variation in environmental conditions and a recorded climate signal at least in some SPLD strata. Locally, angular unconformities may be present, as has been reported for the north polar layered deposits (NPLD) and may likewise imply intervals of subaerial erosion in the SPLD. The outcropping layers display a broad range of weathering styles and may reflect more diverse conditions of depositions, erosion, and diagenesis than might have been expected from simple aeolian depostion modulated only by astronomically driven climatic fluctuations. An unexpected finding of our study is the presence of locally abundant small pits close to the bounding scarp. These quasi-circular, negative, rimless features probably originated as impact craters and were modified to varying degrees by local endogenic processes, as well as locally variable blanketing. A nominal exposure age for the most heavily cratered region in our study area is about 2 million years, and the crater statistics appear consistent with those for the overall SPLD, although there are large uncertainties in the absolute ages implied by the crater size-frequency statistics, as in all martian crater ages. Another new finding is the presence of mass wasting features along the steepest portion of the retreating bounding scarp as well as a number of examples of brittle fracture, consistent with large-scale slumping along the bounding scarp and probably also ancient basal sliding. Both subhorizontal and high angle faults appear to be exposed in the bounding scarp, but the dips of the

  4. Separation of lithospheric, external, and core components of the south polar geomagnetic field at satellite altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Von Frese, Ralph R. B.; Arkani-Hamed, Jafar; Noltimier, Hallan C.

    1994-01-01

    , these signatures are reduced in our total field map. This map significantly advances efforts for the identification and interpretation of magnetic anomalies of the south polar lithosphere.

  5. Human macrophage polarization in vitro: maturation and activation methods compared.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Daphne Y S; Glim, Judith E; Stavenuiter, Andrea W D; Breur, Marjolein; Heijnen, Priscilla; Amor, Sandra; Dijkstra, Christine D; Beelen, Robert H J

    2014-09-01

    Macrophages form a heterogeneous cell population displaying multiple functions, and can be polarized into pro- (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages, by environmental factors. Their activation status reflects a beneficial or detrimental role in various diseases. Currently several in vitro maturation and activation protocols are used to induce an M1 or M2 phenotype. Here, the impact of different maturation factors (NHS, M-CSF, or GM-CSF) and activation methods (IFN-γ/LPS, IL-4, dexamethason, IL-10) on the macrophage phenotype was determined. Regarding macrophage morphology, pro-inflammatory (M1) activation stimulated cell elongation, and anti-inflammatory (M2) activation induced a circular appearance. Activation with pro-inflammatory mediators led to increased CD40 and CD64 expression, whereas activation with anti-inflammatory factors resulted in increased levels of MR and CD163. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was induced by activation with IFN-γ/LPS, and TGF-β production was enhanced by the maturation factors M-CSF and GM-CSF. Our data demonstrate that macrophage marker expression and cytokine production in vitro is highly dependent on both maturation and activation methods. In vivo macrophage activation is far more complex, since a plethora of stimuli are present. Hence, defining the macrophage activation status ex vivo on a limited number of markers could be indecisive. From this study we conclude that maturation with M-CSF or GM-CSF induces a moderate anti- or pro-inflammatory state respectively, compared to maturation with NHS. CD40 and CD64 are the most distinctive makers for human M1 and CD163 and MR for M2 macrophage activation and therefore can be helpful in determining the activation status of human macrophages ex vivo.

  6. Spectral-induced polarization characteristics of rocks from Shinyemi deposit in Northeastern South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Samgyu; Shin, Seung Wook; Son, Jeong-Sul; Kim, Changryol

    2016-04-01

    Contact metasomatism between carbonate and igneous rocks leads to the formation of skarn deposits, and ore minerals are abundant. Geophysical methods that visualize the distributions of physical properties have been utilized to determine lithological boundaries in ore deposits. In particular, spectral-induced polarization (SIP) is the most effective of those methods for mineral exploration because it can obtain not only the boundaries but also the abundance and grain size of ore minerals. It is crucial to characterize the SIP responses of in situ rocks for a more realistic interpretation. Thus, typical rocks composed of igneous rock, skarn rock, skarn ore, and carbonate rock were sampled from drilling cores in the Shinyemi deposit, which is one of the well-known skarn deposits in Northeastern South Korea. The purpose of this study was to characterize the SIP responses of rocks by laboratory measurements. The characterization was performed by evaluating spectra and IP parameters. The IP properties were acquired from equivalent circuit analysis using a circuit model based on the electrochemical theory, and the analysis results of this circuit model were relatively well fit compared with those of the traditional Dias and Cole-Cole models. The frequency responses below 100 Hz in the spectra and the chargeability values of the skarn rocks and ores containing magnetite were relatively strong and high, respectively, compared with those of non-mineralized igneous and carbonate rocks. Therefore, it is considered that these characteristics are dependent on the abundance of magnetite. In case of the skarn ores with high magnetite content, the resistivity values were significantly low and the relaxation time values were influenced by the grain size of magnetite. On the other hand, it is considered that the DC resistivity and the relaxation time values of the igneous and carbonate rocks are slightly related to the porosity and the grade of hydrothermal alteration, respectively.

  7. Barriers to Participation in Physical Activity Among South Sudanese Children in South Australia: Parents' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mude, William; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the determinants of childhood obesity. Although its facilitators are well documented for the general community, limited evidence exists informing newly arrived and emerging migrant communities in Australia. To explore parents' perspectives of barriers to participation in physical activity among South Sudanese children in South Australia. Qualitative, face-to-face interviews were conducted with parents. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically using NVivo software. Multiple and complex barriers to physical activity participation were described. Enabling and supportive programs are needed to improve physical activity participation and health outcomes of new migrants. PMID:27536934

  8. Active colloidal suspensions exhibit polar order under gravity.

    PubMed

    Enculescu, Mihaela; Stark, Holger

    2011-07-29

    Recently, the steady sedimentation profile of a dilute suspension of chemically powered colloids was studied experimentally [J. Palacci et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 088304 (2010)]. It was found that the sedimentation length increases quadratically with the swimming speed of the active Brownian particles. Here we investigate theoretically the sedimentation of self-propelled particles undergoing translational and rotational diffusion. We find that the measured increase of the sedimentation length is coupled to a partial alignment of the suspension with the mean swimming direction oriented against the gravitational field. We suggest realistic parameter values to observe this polar order. Furthermore, we find that the dynamics of the active suspension can be derived from a generalized free energy functional.

  9. Some Activities with Polarized Light from a Laptop LCD Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhruddin, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The LCD screen of a laptop computer provides a broad, bright, and extended source of polarized light. A number of demonstrations on the properties of polarized light from a laptop computer screens are presented here.

  10. Dynamics of Venus' Southern hemisphere and South Polar Vortex from VIRTIS data obtained during the Venus Expres Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Garate-Lopez, I.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2011-12-01

    The VIRTIS instrument onboard Venus Express observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. The images have been used to trace the motions of the atmosphere at different layers of clouds [1-3]. We review the VIRTIS cloud image data and wind results obtained by different groups [1-3] and we present new results concerning the morphology and evolution of the South Polar Vortex at the upper and lower cloud levels with data covering the first 900 days of the mission. We present wind measurements of the South hemisphere obtained by cloud tracking individual cloud features and higher-resolution wind results of the polar region covering the evolution of the South polar vortex. The later were obtained by an image correlation algorithm run under human supervision to validate the data. We present day-side data of the upper clouds obtained at 380 and 980 nm sensitive to altitudes of 66-70 km, night-side data in the near infrared at 1.74 microns of the lower cloud (45-50 km) and day and night-side data obtained in the thermal infrared (wavelengths of 3.8 and 5.1 microns) which covers the dynamical evolution of Venus South Polar vortex at the cloud tops (66-70 km). We explore the different dynamics associated to the varying morphology of the vortex, its dynamical structure at different altitudes, the variability of the global wind data of the southern hemisphere and the interrelation of the polar vortex dynamics with the wind dynamics at subpolar and mid-latitudes. Acknowledgements: Work funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. References [1] A. Sánchez-Lavega et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L13204, (2008). [2] D. Luz et al., Science, 332, 577-580 (2011). [3] R. Hueso, et al., Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.020 (2011)

  11. Interfacial behavior of polar, weakly polar, and nonpolar compounds bound to activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Gun'ko, V M; Turov, V V; Zarko, V I; Goncharuk, O V; Nychiporuk, Yu M; Kozynchenko, O P; Skubiszewska-Zięba, J; Leboda, R; Charmas, B; Balakin, D Yu; Ptushinskii, Yu G

    2013-08-15

    Detailed analysis of the interfacial behavior of water and weakly polar or nonpolar organics adsorbed alone or co-adsorbed onto activated carbons (AC) at different temperatures is a complex problem important for practical applications of adsorbents. Interaction of water, 1-decanol, and n-decane with AC possessing highly developed porosity (pore volume Vp≈1.4-2.3 cm(3)/g, specific surface area S(BET)≈1500-3500 m(2)/g) was studied over a broad temperature range using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermoporometry, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, cryoporometry, and temperature-programmed desorption with mass-spectrometry control methods. Comparison of the pore size distributions (PSD) calculated using the DSC thermoporometry, NMR cryoporometry, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms allows us to determine localization of adsorbates in different pores, as well as changes in the PSD of AC due to freezing of adsorbates in pores. Theoretical calculations (using ab initio HF/6-31G(d,p), DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), and PM7 methods) explain certain aspects of the interfacial behavior of water, decane, and decanol adsorbed onto AC that appear in the experimental data. Obtained results show strong temperature dependence (above and below the freezing point, Tf, of bulk liquids) of the interfacial behavior of adsorbates on the textural characteristics and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of AC and the adsorbate amounts that affect the distributions of adsorbates unfrozen at T

  12. Interfacial behavior of polar, weakly polar, and nonpolar compounds bound to activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Gun'ko, V M; Turov, V V; Zarko, V I; Goncharuk, O V; Nychiporuk, Yu M; Kozynchenko, O P; Skubiszewska-Zięba, J; Leboda, R; Charmas, B; Balakin, D Yu; Ptushinskii, Yu G

    2013-08-15

    Detailed analysis of the interfacial behavior of water and weakly polar or nonpolar organics adsorbed alone or co-adsorbed onto activated carbons (AC) at different temperatures is a complex problem important for practical applications of adsorbents. Interaction of water, 1-decanol, and n-decane with AC possessing highly developed porosity (pore volume Vp≈1.4-2.3 cm(3)/g, specific surface area S(BET)≈1500-3500 m(2)/g) was studied over a broad temperature range using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermoporometry, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, cryoporometry, and temperature-programmed desorption with mass-spectrometry control methods. Comparison of the pore size distributions (PSD) calculated using the DSC thermoporometry, NMR cryoporometry, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms allows us to determine localization of adsorbates in different pores, as well as changes in the PSD of AC due to freezing of adsorbates in pores. Theoretical calculations (using ab initio HF/6-31G(d,p), DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), and PM7 methods) explain certain aspects of the interfacial behavior of water, decane, and decanol adsorbed onto AC that appear in the experimental data. Obtained results show strong temperature dependence (above and below the freezing point, Tf, of bulk liquids) of the interfacial behavior of adsorbates on the textural characteristics and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of AC and the adsorbate amounts that affect the distributions of adsorbates unfrozen at T

  13. Stratigraphy of the South Polar Layered Deposits in SHARAD Radar and Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkovich, S. M.; Plaut, J. J.; Phillips, R. J.; Seu, R.

    2007-12-01

    SHARAD (Shallow Radar) is a synthetic-aperture, orbital sounding radar on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) operating at 20 MHz, with a 10-MHz bandwidth that provides a free-space range resolution of approximately 15 m after pulse compression. SHARAD observes many tens of internal reflections in the Promethei Lingula (90°-140°E) region of the south polar layered deposits (SPLD). Multiple parallel reflections are traceable over distances of several hundred km in individual radargrams. There are several packets of multiple reflections separated by non-reflective regions with depth. By comparing crossing orbits and using stratigraphic correlations between orbits, a three dimensional picture of the internal structure of the SPLD as observed by SHARAD can be assembled. Reflections extend many hundreds of km throughout the Promethei Lingula region, and generally decrease in elevation towards the margins of the deposit. An angular unconformity between ~ 108°E and 123°E is observed in multiple orbits, and may be related to erosional features observed in the nearby canyon of Australe Sulci. Additional unusual reflections are observed in two orbits near 108°E, 84°S and are currently undergoing closer analysis. Comparisons of SHARAD reflections that intersect with the surface and THEMIS and MOC images indicate that an individual reflection may correlate to multiple (3-7) layers at MOC resolutions (~ 6 m/pxl). The layers in this region are eroding in groups, resulting in a stair-stepped topographic profile; the underlying physical properties of the layers causing this erosional behavior may also be the cause of a radar reflection. By fitting a surface to correlated reflections in multiple orbits using an inverse distance weighting technique and extrapolating that surface to the wall of Chasma Australe, it is possible compare the elevations of the reflectors to the sequence of layers exposed on the wall in THEMIS images. Preliminary results indicate that three major

  14. Mass balance of Mars' residual south polar cap from CTX images and other data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. C.; Calvin, W.; Cantor, B.; Haberle, R.; James, P. B.; Lee, S. W.

    2016-04-01

    Erosion of pits in the residual south polar cap (RSPC) of Mars concurrent with deposition and fluctuating cap boundaries raises questions about the mass balance and long term stability of the cap. Determining a mass balance by measurement of a net gain or loss of atmospheric CO2 by direct pressure measurements (Haberle, R.M. et al. [2014]. Secular climate change on Mars: An update using one Mars year of MSL pressure data. American Geophysical Union (Fall). Abstract 3947), although perhaps the most direct method, has so far given ambiguous results. Estimating volume changes from imaging data faces challenges, and has previously been attempted only in isolated areas of the cap. In this study we use 6 m/pixel Context Imager (CTX) data from Mars year 31 to map all the morphologic units of the RSPC, expand the measurement record of pit erosion rates, and use high resolution images to place limits on vertical changes in the surface of the residual cap. We find the mass balance in Mars years 9-31 to be -6 to +4 km3/♂y, or roughly -0.039% to +0.026% of the mean atmospheric CO2 mass/♂y. The indeterminate sign results chiefly from uncertainty in the amounts of deposition or erosion on the upper surfaces of deposits (as opposed to scarp retreat). Erosion and net deposition in this period appear to be controlled by summertime planetary scale dust events, the largest occurring in MY 9, another, smaller one in MY 28. The rates of erosion and the deposition observed since MY 9 appear to be consistent with the types of deposits and erosional behavior found in most of the residual cap. However, small areas (<10%) of the cap are distinguished by their greater thickness, polygonal troughs, and embayed contacts with thinner units. These deposits may require extended periods (>100 ♂y) of depositional and/or erosional conditions different from those occurring in the period since MY 9, although these environmental differences could be subtle.

  15. SWIR spectral mapping of the Martian South Polar Residual Cap using CRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jacqueline; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-10-01

    The Martian South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) exhibits unique CO2 ice sublimation features that cover the surface. These flat floored, circular depressions are highly dynamic, with scarp retreat rates of up to 8m per Martian Year. As the scarps sublimate in Martian Southern Hemisphere spring, they expose dust particles previously trapped within the ice during winter. This allows a window of opportunity to analyse the dust for fragile organic molecules that might otherwise be rapidly destroyed when subjected to ultraviolet radiation at the Martian surface. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one such type of organic compound that have not yet been reported as detected on Mars. PAHs are considered to be important in astrobiology as they potentially play a role in abiogenesis, and are a biomarker for extant life. PAHs are abundant on Earth, in deep space and in recent years have been identified on the Saturnian moons Iapetus and Phoebe.Utilising data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on board NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), SPRC features have been spectrally mapped, the effects of H2O and CO2 ice on infrared spectra eliminated, and regions with obvious dust particles analysed to establish their mineral composition, and signatures indicative of PAHs compared to Mars data.Spectral mapping has identified compositional differences between depression rims and the majority of the SPRC, allowing regions of spectral interest to be selected for in-depth analysis. CRISM spectra have been compared with known Martian mineralogy and PAH laboratory data, with results suggesting Magnesium Carbonate dust content in depression rims, and rims have been found to have higher water content than regions of featureless ice. CO2 ice has been found to be the most limiting factor in looking for PAH diagnostic signatures on the SPRC. Further work is being undertaken with more detailed results to be presented in the future.The research leading

  16. Time scales of erosion and deposition recorded in the residual south polar cap of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. C.; Calvin, W. M.; Gierasch, P.; Haberle, R.; James, P. B.; Sholes, S.

    2013-08-01

    The residual south polar cap (RSPC) of Mars has been subject to competing processes during recent Mars years of high resolution image coverage: continuing erosion of scarps while the maximum extent grows as well as shrinks (Piqueux, S., Christensen, P.R. [2008]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 113, 2006; James, P.B., Thomas, P.C., Malin, M.C. [2010]. Icarus 208, 82-85). Additionally, the cap has a variety of morphologies and erosion (scarp retreat) rates (Thomas, P.C., James, P.B., Calvin, W.M., Haberle, R., Malin, M.C. [2009]. Icarus 203, 352-375). Do these different forms and competing processes indicate an aging and possibly disappearing cap, a growing cap, or a fluctuating cap, and is it possible to infer the timescales of the processes acting on the RSPC? Here we use the latest imaging data from Mars' southern summer in Mars year 30 (Calendar year 2011) to evaluate erosion rates of forms in the RSPC over 6 Mars years, and to map more fully features whose sizes can be used to predict deposit ages. Data through Mars year 30 show that scarp retreat rates in the RSPC have remained approximately the same for at least 6 Mars years and that these rates of erosion also apply approximately over the past 21 Mars years. The thicker units appear to have undergone changes in the locations of new pit formation about 30-50 Mars years ago. The thinner units have some areas that are possibly 80 Mars years old, with some younger materials having accumulated more than a meter in thickness since Mars year 9. Formation of the thicker units probably required over 100 Mars years. The upper surfaces of most areas, especially the thicker units, show little change at the few-cm level over the last 2 Mars years. This observation suggests that current conditions are substantially different from those when the thicker units were deposited. A prime characteristic of the evolution of the RSPC is that some changes are progressive, such as those involving scarp retreat, while others, such as the

  17. Polarization states of diffracted light. Changes accompanying fiber activation.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J S; Baskin, R J; Baskin, R J; Burton, K; Shen, S; Yeh, Y

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of the state of optical polarization of light diffracted from single, skinned and intact fibers of anterior tibialis muscle from Rana pipiens revealed a dependence upon rigor, activation, and sarcomere length (SL) change. Changes in total birefringence, delta nT, and differential field ratio value, rT, were determined. In a relaxed, skinned fiber the total birefringence value, delta nT, decreases as sarcomere length is increased from 2.1 microns to approximately 2.8-3.0 microns. From there it increases significantly to a value of approximately 1.8 x 10(-3) at a sarcomere length of 3.6 microns. The differential field ratio, rT, also shows a biphasic response to increasing sarcomere length, first exhibiting a rapid decrease over shorter SL and leveling out after the SL is beyond 3.0 microns. In comparison, relaxed intact fibers change substantially less upon sarcomere length change, showing little change in birefringence and a small bi-phasic change in rT. Skinned fibers were activated using a solution that has the same ionic strength as the relaxing solution and allows repeatable, and sustained activation. A decrease in both delta nT and rT was observed upon fiber activation. The decrease in delta nT and rT was slightly larger at shorter sarcomere lengths than at longer lengths. Relaxed fibers placed in rigor showed changes in delta nT and rT similar to those observed in activated fibers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, after activation, a significant portion of the thick filament cross-bridges rotate towards the actin filament resulting in redistribution of the interfilament mass content. They are also consistent with an average orientation of crossbridges in the overlap region different from that in the nonoverlap region. PMID:2790140

  18. Polarization states of diffracted light. Changes accompanying fiber activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Baskin, R J; Baskin, R J; Burton, K; Shen, S; Yeh, Y

    1989-09-01

    Measurement of the state of optical polarization of light diffracted from single, skinned and intact fibers of anterior tibialis muscle from Rana pipiens revealed a dependence upon rigor, activation, and sarcomere length (SL) change. Changes in total birefringence, delta nT, and differential field ratio value, rT, were determined. In a relaxed, skinned fiber the total birefringence value, delta nT, decreases as sarcomere length is increased from 2.1 microns to approximately 2.8-3.0 microns. From there it increases significantly to a value of approximately 1.8 x 10(-3) at a sarcomere length of 3.6 microns. The differential field ratio, rT, also shows a biphasic response to increasing sarcomere length, first exhibiting a rapid decrease over shorter SL and leveling out after the SL is beyond 3.0 microns. In comparison, relaxed intact fibers change substantially less upon sarcomere length change, showing little change in birefringence and a small bi-phasic change in rT. Skinned fibers were activated using a solution that has the same ionic strength as the relaxing solution and allows repeatable, and sustained activation. A decrease in both delta nT and rT was observed upon fiber activation. The decrease in delta nT and rT was slightly larger at shorter sarcomere lengths than at longer lengths. Relaxed fibers placed in rigor showed changes in delta nT and rT similar to those observed in activated fibers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, after activation, a significant portion of the thick filament cross-bridges rotate towards the actin filament resulting in redistribution of the interfilament mass content. They are also consistent with an average orientation of crossbridges in the overlap region different from that in the nonoverlap region.

  19. Polar gravel beach-ridge systems as archive of climate variations (South Shetland Islands / Western Antarctic Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Sebastian; Schutter, Ilona; Betzler, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The architecture of polar gravel beach-ridge systems is presented and their potential as archive of past wave-climate conditions is evaluated. Raised beaches are common on paraglacial coasts which experienced a net uplift during the Holocene as the result of postglacial isostatic rebound. Ground-penetrating radar data obtained along the coasts of Potter Peninsula (King George Island) show that beach ridges unconformably overlie seaward-dipping strata of the strand plain. Whereas strand-plain progradation is the result of swash sedimentation at the beach face under enduring calm conditions, ridge construction reflects enhanced wave action at the beach as the result of increased storminess or reduced nearshore sea ice. The number of individual ridges which are preserved from a given time interval varies along the coast depending on the morphodynamic setting: Sheltered coasts are characterized by numerous small ridges, whereas fewer but larger ridges develop on exposed beaches. The sedimentary architecture of individual beach ridges is interpreted to reflect maximum wave-runup height during the time of ridge construction. Ridges at sheltered parts of the coast exhibit either seaward-dipping beds, interpreted to result from swash deposition, or an aggradational stacking pattern being the result of wave overtopping. At exposed beaches, larger ridges develop composed of seaward- as well as landward-dipping beds. Radiocarbon data indicate that the frequency of ridge building ranges from decades in low-energy settings to more than 1500 years under high-energy conditions. In the study area, beach ridges group into four distinct levels: up to 4 m, 5.5 m, 7.5 m, and 10 m above the present day storm beach. Hence, these levels are interpreted to reflect periods of increased wave activity in the area of the South Shetland Islands at about 4.3, 3.1, 1.9, and 0.35 ka cal BP.

  20. Asymmetry and polarity of the South Atlantic conjugated margins related to the presence of cratons: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés-Martínez, Miguel; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; de Monserrat Navarro, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic asymmetry of conjugated passive margins, where one margin is much narrower than the conjugate one, is commonly observed at many passive margins world-wide. Conjugate margin asymmetry has been suggested to be a consequence of lateral changes in rheology, composition, temperature gradient or geometries of the crust and lithosphere. Here we use the South Atlantic margins (from Camamu/Gabon to North Santos/South Kwanza) as a natural laboratory to understand conjugate margin asymmetry. Along this margin sector the polarity of the asymmetry changes. To the North, the Brazilian margin developed in the strong Sao Francisco craton, and this constitutes the narrow side of the conjugate pair. To the South, the Brazilian margin developed in the Ribeira fold belt, and the margin is wide. The opposite is true for the African side. We have thus numerically analysed how the relative distance between the initial location of extension and the craton influences the symmetry/asymmetry and polarity of the conjugate margin system. Our numerical model is 2D visco-elasto-plastic and has a free surface, strain weakening and shear heating. The initial set-up includes a cratonic domain, a mobile belt and a transition area between both. We have run tests with different rheologies, thickness of the lithosphere, and weak seeds at different distances from the craton. Results show asymmetric conjugated margins, where the narrower margin is generally the closest to the craton. Our models also allow us to study how the polarity is controlled by the distance between the initial weakness and the craton, and help to understand how the presence of cratonic domains affects the final architecture of the conjugated margins.

  1. Geomagnetic Polarity Reversal Model of Deeptow Magnetic Survey in the Southwest Subbasin of South China Sea Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, N.; Sun, Z.; Lin, J.; Li, C. F.; Xu, X.

    2014-12-01

    South China Sea basin, which evolved from Cenozoic continental margin rifting and subsequent seafloor spreading, is a classic example of a marginal sea in Western Pacific. Since the early 1980's, several models have been proposed for the formation of this sea basin. The previous studies were based mainly on the distribution of magnetic anomaly lineation obtained from aerial and shipboard measurements. However, large water depth (over 4.5km) and thick sediment cover (up to 1km or more) make the magnetic anoamaly information not so well displayed in aerial and shipboard data. To better understand the evolution of the sea basin, we increased anomaly amplitudes by collecting magnetic data along deep-tow profiles over the magnetic lineations in the South China Sea oceanic area. The one across the southwest subsea basin was analyzed first. The total field magnetic measurements were processed through filtering, resampling, diurnal variation removal, continuation to a level datum, regional field correction, projection to a common azimuth, and deskewing. A magnetic polarity reversal timescale was constructed by matching deep-tow anomalies with a simple, rectangular block magnetization model with the expansion rate for oceanic crust. We analyzed the spreading duration, rate, asymmetry, and reversal events of Southwest subbasin, in reference to the recent GTS2012 geomagnetic polarity representative data and concluded that the Southwest subbasin opened from around 21.767 Ma and stopped around C5C at about 15.974Ma. The full spreading rate varied from 8 to 40 cm/yr. Spreading is usually asymmetric by showing alternate faster spreading rate in one slab than the other in different time periods. From the comparison, several small reversal were revealed in addition to the standard geomagnetic polarity. These findings helped to understand the evolution of the Southwest subbasin of South China Sea and will also help to establish new reversal discrimination.

  2. An Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic pole from Ponta Grossa dikes (Brazil): Implications for the South American Mesozoic apparent polar wander path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomeu Raposo, Maria Irene; Ernesto, Marcia

    1995-10-01

    Paleomagnetic results from the Early Cretaceous Ponta Grossa dike swarm are reported. These dikes crosscut sediments and basement rocks associated with the Ponta Grossa Arch, a tectonic feature in the eastern border of the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Paraná Basin. These dikes are vertical or subvertical and trend mainly NW and NE. Samples from 127 dikes were submitted to both alternating field and thermal demagnetizations; 121 of them yielded characteristic directions interpreted as original thermal remanent magnetizations. Both normal and reversed polarities as well as intermediate directions (6 dikes) are recorded. The paleomagnetic pole is located at 30.3°E, 82.4°S (N=115; α95=2.0° k=43.8). This pole along with the available paleomagnetic poles for the Paraná Basin volcanics (Serra Geral Formation), recalculated in this paper in the light of reported 40Ar/39Ar ages describe an apparent polar wander path segment corresponding to a clockwise rotation (~6.9°) of the South American plate. This movement is compatible with the initial phase of the South Atlantic opening with rifting progressing from south to north. However, the calculated plate velocity is higher than the predicted velocities reported so far based on oceanic floor magnetic anomalies. The new data reported in this paper allowed the calculation of a mean Early Cretaceous pole (60.3°E, 83.8°S N=7, α95=2.9°) which can be discriminated from the Middle-Late Jurassic (191.3°E, 86.2°S N=3, α95=7.8°) and Late Cretaceous (346.5°E, 84.1°S N=5, α95=4.9°) mean poles for South America, indicating a more complex movement of the continent than the simple east-west drift generally proposed.

  3. Modular activation of Rho1 by GPCR signalling imparts polarized myosin II activation during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Stephen; Munjal, Akankshi; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Jha, Ankita; de las Bayonas, Alain Garcia; Saurin, Andrew J; Lecuit, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Polarized cell shape changes during tissue morphogenesis arise by controlling the subcellular distribution of myosin II. For instance, during Drosophila melanogaster gastrulation, apical constriction and cell intercalation are mediated by medial-apical myosin II pulses that power deformations, and polarized accumulation of myosin II that stabilizes these deformations. It remains unclear how tissue-specific factors control different patterns of myosin II activation and the ratchet-like myosin II dynamics. Here we report the function of a common pathway comprising the heterotrimeric G proteins Gα12/13, Gβ13F and Gγ1 in activating and polarizing myosin II during Drosophila gastrulation. Gα12/13 and the Gβ13F/γ1 complex constitute distinct signalling modules, which regulate myosin II dynamics medial-apically and/or junctionally in a tissue-dependent manner. We identify a ubiquitously expressed GPCR called Smog required for cell intercalation and apical constriction. Smog functions with other GPCRs to quantitatively control G proteins, resulting in stepwise activation of myosin II and irreversible cell shape changes. We propose that GPCR and G proteins constitute a general pathway for controlling actomyosin contractility in epithelia and that the activity of this pathway is polarized by tissue-specific regulators. PMID:26780298

  4. Expansion of student activities in Africa: from south to north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherif, Rim; Ben Salem, Amine; Gueddana, Amor; Zghal, Mourad; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew; Heidt, Alexander M.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2014-07-01

    Optics and photonics research in Africa has gradually grown in the past ten years with a very active optical community involved in state-of-the-art research. Despite relatively low resources, optics research in the continent is competitive with many international benchmarks and has had a significant impact within the African continent. In the past five years, a group of dynamic students have developed the student chapter network from Tunisia to South Africa. The first student chapters of the optical society of America (OSA) and the international society for optics and photonics (SPIE) were established in South Africa (in the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and in the University of Stellenbosch), followed by a chapter in Tunisia (Engineering school of communications of Tunis, Sup'Com). In this paper, we will present the major activities of the student chapters of Tunisia and South Africa, and how they are promoting optics and photonics in Africa.

  5. Influence of wave activity on the composition of the polar stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyshlyaev, S. P.; Pogoreltsev, A. I.; Galin, V. Ya.; Drobashevskaya, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The planetary wave impact on the polar vortex stability, polar stratosphere temperature, and content of ozone and other gases was simulated with the global chemical-climatic model of the lower and middle atmosphere. It was found that the planetary waves propagating from the troposphere into the stratosphere differently affect the gas content of the Arctic and Antarctic stratosphere. In the Arctic region, the degree of wave activity critically affects the polar vortex formation, the appearance of polar stratospheric clouds, the halogen activation on their surface, and ozone anomaly formation. Ozone anomalies in the Arctic region as a rule are not formed at high wave activity and can be registered at low activity. In the Antarctic Regions, wave activity affects the stability of polar vortex and the depth of ozone holes, which are formed at almost any wave activity, and the minimal ozone values depend on the strong or weak wave activity that is registered in specific years.

  6. Rebuilding cytoskeleton roads: Active-transport-induced polarization of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, R. J.; Bénichou, O.; Piel, M.; Voituriez, R.

    2009-10-01

    Many cellular processes require a polarization axis which generally initially emerges as an inhomogeneous distribution of molecular markers in the cell. We present a simple analytical model of a general mechanism of cell polarization taking into account the positive feedback due to the coupled dynamics of molecular markers and cytoskeleton filaments. We find that the geometry of the organization of cytoskeleton filaments, nucleated on the membrane (e.g., cortical actin) or from a center in the cytoplasm (e.g., microtubule asters), dictates whether the system is capable of spontaneous polarization or polarizes only in response to external asymmetric signals. Our model also captures the main features of recent experiments of cell polarization in two considerably different biological systems, namely, mating budding yeast and neuron growth cones.

  7. Dust-Driven Halos on the Martian South Polar Residual CAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, P.; Byrne, S.; Brown, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The CO2 ice South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) on Mars may be a sensitive indicator of inter-annual planetary climate variability. Imaging by HiRISE [1], and CTX [2] found that many scarps and pits in the 'Swiss cheese terrain' [3] of the SPRC exhibited a bright 'halo' around their edges. These halos appeared during Martian southern summer in Mars Year 28 (MY28, [4]), and have been observed in only one of eight mars years for which observations at high enough resolution exist. We hypothesize that the formation of these features is linked to the late-summer global dust storm of MY28 and report on observations and formation models. We surveyed HiRISE, CTX, and CRISM [5] data to constrain the optical properties and composition of the halos, as well as their time of appearance and location within the SPRC. The halos appeared throughout most of the surface area of the SPRC between Ls 280° and 330° in MY28. The widest portions of the halos occurred adjacent to north-facing walls, and the brightest parts adjacent to sun-facing walls, which points to a connection between insolation and halo appearance. CRISM spectral products rule out the presence of water ice as a factor in the halos' appearance. These data also imply larger CO2 ice grain sizes where the bright halos were seen, which are normally associated with lower, rather than higher, albedos [6]. Thus, we also ruled out CO2 ice grain size differences as the main cause for the halos. The remaining possibility is that the halos appeared due to differences in dust content between the terrain adjacent to the pit walls and the surrounding ice. To investigate this we made a Hapke [7] surface reflectance model in which the CO2 ice grain size, dust volumetric content and dust particle size were free parameters. We used the HiRISE and CRISM bandpass coefficients to simulate HiRISE I/F values and CRISM spectra, and attempted to match the HiRISE RED I/F, HiRISE BG/RED color ratio, and the CRISM 1.43 μm band depths. A self

  8. South African Curriculum Reform: Education for Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Juliana; Arendse, Agnetha

    2016-01-01

    The changing societal context in South Africa (SA) has necessitated curriculum reform to deal with the challenges of education, from apartheid to democracy, with the aim of promoting active citizenship education. The aim of the paper is thus to illuminate to what extent the Grade 11 Life Orientation (LO) curriculum prepares learners for active…

  9. Responses of polar mesospheric cloud brightness to stratospheric gravity waves at the South Pole and Rothera, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xinzhao; Yamashita, Chihoko; Espy, Patrick J.; Nott, Graeme J.; Jensen, Eric J.; Liu, Han-Li; Huang, Wentao; Thayer, Jeffrey P.

    2009-03-01

    We present the first observational proof that polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) brightness responds to stratospheric gravity waves (GWs) differently at different latitudes by analyzing the Fe Boltzmann lidar data collected from the South Pole and Rothera (67.5°S, 68.0°W), Antarctica. Stratospheric GW strength is characterized by the root-mean-square (RMS) relative density perturbation in the 30-45 km region and PMC brightness is represented by the total backscatter coefficient (TBC) in austral summer from November to February. The linear correlation coefficient (LCC) between GW strength and PMC brightness is found to be +0.09 with a 42% confidence level at the South Pole and -0.49 with a 98% confidence level at Rothera. If a PMC case potentially affected by a space shuttle exhaust plume is removed from the Rothera dataset, the negative correlation coefficient and confidence level increase to -0.61 and 99%, respectively. The Rothera negative correlation increases when shorter-period waves are included while no change is observed in the South Pole correlation. Therefore, observations show statistically that Rothera PMC brightness is negatively correlated with the stratospheric GW strength but no significant correlation exists at the South Pole. A positive correlation of +0.74 with a confidence level of 99.98% is found within a distinct subset of the South Pole data but the rest of the dataset exhibits a random distribution, possibly indicating different populations of ice particles at the South Pole. Our data show that these two locations have similar GW strength and spectrum in the 30-45 km region during summer. The different responses of PMC brightness to GW perturbations are likely caused by the latitudinal differences in background temperatures in the ice crystal growth region between the PMC altitude and the mesopause. At Rothera, where temperatures in this region are relatively warm and supersaturations are not as large, GW-induced temperature perturbations can

  10. Correlates of lifestyle: physical activity among South Asian Indian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis F; Miller, Arlene Michaels

    2013-01-01

    South Asian immigrants are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but little is known about their physical activity patterns. In this cross-sectional study, 110 participants were recruited to describe lifestyle physical activity behavior of this at-risk population. Education (p = .042), global health (p = .045), and self-efficacy (p = .000) had significant positive independent effects on leisure-time physical activity. Depression (p = .035) and waist circumference (p = .012) had significant negative independent effects, and frequency of experiencing discrimination a significant positive independent effect (p = .007) on daily step counts. Culture-sensitive physical activity interventions need to target South Asian Indian immigrants who are less educated, in poor health, concerned about racial discrimination, and have low self-efficacy.

  11. Correlates of lifestyle: physical activity among South Asian Indian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis F; Miller, Arlene Michaels

    2013-01-01

    South Asian immigrants are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but little is known about their physical activity patterns. In this cross-sectional study, 110 participants were recruited to describe lifestyle physical activity behavior of this at-risk population. Education (p = .042), global health (p = .045), and self-efficacy (p = .000) had significant positive independent effects on leisure-time physical activity. Depression (p = .035) and waist circumference (p = .012) had significant negative independent effects, and frequency of experiencing discrimination a significant positive independent effect (p = .007) on daily step counts. Culture-sensitive physical activity interventions need to target South Asian Indian immigrants who are less educated, in poor health, concerned about racial discrimination, and have low self-efficacy. PMID:24219639

  12. New mechanism of radiation polarization in type 1 Seyfert active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silant'ev, N. A.; Gnedin, Yu. N.; Piotrovich, M. Yu.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.; Buliga, S. D.

    2016-10-01

    In most type 1 Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the optical linear continuum polarization degree is usually small (less than 1 per cent) and the polarization position angle is nearly parallel to the AGN radio axis. However, there are many type 1 AGNs with unexplained intermediate values for both positional angles and polarization degrees. Our explanation of polarization degree and positional angle of type 1 Seyfert AGNs focuses on the reflection of non-polarized radiation from sub-parsec jets in optically thick accretion discs. The presence of a magnetic field surrounding the scattering media will induce Faraday rotation of the polarization plane, which may explain the intermediate values of positional angles if there is a magnetic field component normal to the accretion disc. The Faraday rotation depolarization effect in the disc diminishes the competition between polarization of the reflected radiation with the parallel component of polarization and the perpendicular polarization from internal radiation of the disc (the Milne problem) in favour of polarization of the reflected radiation. This effect allows us to explain the observed polarization of type 1 Seyfert AGN radiation even though the jet optical luminosity is much lower than the luminosity of the disc. We present the calculation of polarization degrees for a number of type 1 Seyfert AGNs.

  13. High Heat Flow from Enceladus' South Polar Region Measured using 10-600/cm(exp -1) Cassini/CIRS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howett, C. J. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Pearl, J.; Segura, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of 2008 Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) 10 to 600/cm thermal emission spectra of Enceladus shows that for reasonable assumptions about the spatial distribution of the emission and the thermophysical properties of the solar-heated background surface, which are supported by CIRS observations of background temperatures at the edge of the active region, the endogenic power of Enceladus' south polar terrain is 15.8 +/- 3.1 GW. This is significantly higher than the previous estimate of 5.8 +/- 1.9 GW. The new value represents an improvement over the previous one, which was derived from higher wave number data (600 to 1100/cm-I) and was thus only sensitive to high-temperature emission. The mechanism capable of producing such a high endogenic power remains a mystery and challenges the current models of proposed heat production.

  14. Interannual observations and quantification of summertime H2O ice deposition on the Martian CO2 ice south polar cap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Adrian J.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Titus, Timothy N.

    2014-01-01

    The spectral signature of water ice was observed on Martian south polar cap in 2004 by the Observatoire pour l'Mineralogie, l'Eau les Glaces et l'Activite (OMEGA) ( Bibring et al., 2004). Three years later, the OMEGA instrument was used to discover water ice deposited during southern summer on the polar cap ( Langevin et al., 2007). However, temporal and spatial variations of these water ice signatures have remained unexplored, and the origins of these water deposits remains an important scientific question. To investigate this question, we have used observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft of the southern cap during austral summer over four Martian years to search for variations in the amount of water ice. We report below that for each year we have observed the cap, the magnitude of the H2O ice signature on the southern cap has risen steadily throughout summer, particularly on the west end of the cap. The spatial extent of deposition is in disagreement with the current best simulations of deposition of water ice on the south polar cap (Montmessin et al., 2007). This increase in water ice signatures is most likely caused by deposition of atmospheric H2O ice and a set of unusual conditions makes the quantification of this transport flux using CRISM close to ideal. We calculate a ‘minimum apparent‘ amount of deposition corresponding to a thin H2O ice layer of 0.2 mm (with 70% porosity). This amount of H2O ice deposition is 0.6–6% of the total Martian atmospheric water budget. We compare our ‘minimum apparent’ quantification with previous estimates. This deposition process may also have implications for the formation and stability of the southern CO2 ice cap, and therefore play a significant role in the climate budget of modern day Mars.

  15. Three-year atmospheric monitoring of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar regions and the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Baek, Song-Yee; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-05-15

    XAD-2 resin based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for three one-year periods at the Korean polar and South Pacific research stations at Ny-Ålesund (2005-2009), King George Island (2005-2007), and Chuuk (2006-2009) to investigate long-range transport, local sources, and temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The highest hexachlocyclohexane (HCH) concentration (35.2-78.9 pg·m(-3)) over the entire sampling period was detected at Ny-Ålesund, in the Arctic. α-HCH was the dominant OCP (31.1-67.1 pg·m(-3)), contributing about 50% of the total OCP load. Additionally, a high and consistent α/γ-HCH ratio was observed at Ny-Ålesund. HCHs might reach Arctic sites more easily than other OCPs from surrounding countries through long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Interestingly, high levels of the current-use OCP endosulfan-particularly endosulfan-I--were detected at almost all sampling sites, including in Antarctica, ranging 12.2-88.5, 17.7-130, and ND-59.7 pg·m(-3) at King George Island, Ny-Ålesund, and Chuuk, respectively. Specific OCP and PCB patterns, such as low trans/cis-chlordane ratios and a prevalence of lighter PCB congeners, were observed in all three regions (excepting one site at Ny-Ålesund and one site in the South Pacific affected by local sources) during all sampling periods. This indicates that these Polar and remote South Pacific sites are mainly influenced by LRAT. Over the entire sampling period, a decreasing trend of HCHs (α- and γ-HCH) and an increasing trend of endosulfan-I were observed at the Ny-Ålesund sites.

  16. Comparison of the threshold of thermal-induced mode instabilities in polarization-maintaining and non-polarization-maintaining active fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Rumao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2016-06-01

    We present an investigation on the threshold of thermal-induced mode instability (MI) in ytterbium-doped polarization-maintaining and non-polarization-maintaining active fibers. By taking both electric fields along the two principal axes into consideration, we extend a previous steady-state theoretical model to analyze the polarization effect on MI. Based on the model, we analyzed whether maintaining the fiber’s polarization direction has an effect on the MI threshold, which showed that, for practical high power fiber laser systems, the MI threshold is nearly the same for polarization-maintaining and non-polarization-maintaining active fibers. Experimental validation of the theoretical analysis is presented with experimental results agreeing with the theoretical results, in which polarization-maintained and non-polarization-maintained fiber lasers with similar core/inner cladding diameters are employed.

  17. Active display and encoding by integrated plasmonic polarizer on light-emitting-diode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L.; Li, T.; Guo, R. Y.; Xia, W.; Xu, X. G.; Zhu, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    An electrical pumped microscopic active display with integration of plasmonic polarizer and light-emitting-diode is proposed. Thanks to the strong polarized emission through the rectangular nanoholes, well designed pixels with respect to different polarizations are engineered, which give rise to flexible and controllable active display. As results, polarization multiplexed letter encoding, single and double gray-scale images and animation movies are successfully realized. Our results demonstrate a new strategy in electro-optical integration and indicate potential applications in designing new type of microscopic electro-optical devices. PMID:24008314

  18. Diurnal patterns in lightning activity over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Eldo E.; Bürgesser, Rodrigo E.; Castellano, Nesvit E.; Nicora, M. Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Satellite observations of lightning flash distribution data are used to examine the diurnal cycle of lightning activity over the tropical and subtropical regions of South America. A harmonic analysis is used to study the spatial variations in the peak and strength of diurnal lightning activity across this area. Results show that in the northern and central regions of South America, the times of maxima in lightning activity was concentrated from late afternoon to evening hours (between 14:00 and 18:00 local time), which may be associated with the peaking of the local convective activity connected with heating of the surface caused by daytime insolation. In subtropical South America, particularly in the area limited by 25°S, 35°S of latitude and 70°W, 50°W of longitude, the time of maximum lightning activity was shifted to nocturnal hours, extending from close to midnight to early morning hours. This behavior can be associated to the peak in mesoscale convective systems in the region which occurs in the morning hours. The annual flash densities in the tropical and subtropical parts of the continent were found to have comparable magnitudes. However, the contribution of the continental tropics to the global electric circuit dominates over the continental subtropics contribution throughout all seasons, since the surface covered by the tropical region is more than twice the area covered by the subtropical region.

  19. Astrobiological Journeys to and from the South Polar Sea of Enceladus - Bidirectional Interactions with the Saturn Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Sittler, Edward C.; Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sturner, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The spectacularly cryovolcanic moon Enceladus is a major source of plasma for the Saturn magnetosphere via ionization of the ejected molecular species and ice grains. Field-aligned plasma flows from the Enceladus environment visibly impact the moon's magnetic footpoint in Saturn's polar auroral region, while water group and other ions from the moon emissions diffuse radially throughout the magnetosphere and may be the dominant source of oxygen for Titan's oxygen-poor upper atmosphere. But the moon-magnetosphere interaction is bidirectional in the sense that the moon surface is globally exposed to constant irradiation by the returning magnetospheric ions and by energetic electrons from the field-aligned and radially diffusing populations. The returning ion source operates both on global scales of the magnetosphere and locally for highly reactive species produced in the ejecta plume. All of these sources likely combine to produce a highly oxidized global surface layer. Since plasma electrons and ions are cooled by interaction with neutral gas and E-ring ice grains from Enceladus, the moon emissions have a governing effect on the seed populations of energetic particles that irradiate the surface. The proposed subsurface polar sea and transient crustal overturn in the south polar region could bring the polar surface oxidants into contact with hydrocarbons and ammonia to make oxidation product gases contributing to the cryovolcanic jets, a process first proposed by Cooper et al. (Plan. Sp. Sci., 2009). As has been previously suggested for Europa, the 'oxidants could contribute to enhanced astrobiological potential of Enceladus, perhaps even higher than for Europa where organic hydrocarbons have not yet been directly detected. Unlike Europa, Enceladus shows no sign of an oxygen-dominated exosphere that could otherwise be indicative of extreme surface and interior oxidation inhibiting the detectable survival and evolution of complex organics.

  20. Metabolic profile and biological activities of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco: studies on the essential oil and polar extracts.

    PubMed

    Costa, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Almeida, Carlos; Nogueira, José M F; Romano, Anabela

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the metabolic profile and biological activities of the essential oil and polar extracts of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco collected in south Portugal. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that oxygen-containing monoterpenes was the principal group of compounds identified in the essential oil. Camphor (40.6%) and fenchone (38.0%) were found as the major constituents. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis allowed the identification of hydroxycinnamic acids (3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and rosmarinic acids) and flavones (luteolin and apigenin) in the polar extracts, with rosmarinic acid being the main compound in most of them. The bioactive compounds from L. pedunculata polar extracts were the most efficient free-radical scavengers, Fe(2+) chelators and inhibitors of malondialdehyde production, while the essential oil was the most active against acetylcholinesterase. Our results reveal that the subspecies of L. pedunculata studied is a potential source of active metabolites with a positive effect on human health.

  1. Spin polarization and additional magneto-optical activity of nonmagnetic layers in Fe/Ag CMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. B.; Zhai, H. R.; Lu, M.; Jin, Q. Y.; Miao, Y. Z.

    1992-08-01

    The experimental magneto-optical Kerr rotation spectra of Fe/Ag compositionally modulated films reported by Katayama et al. are studied theoretically. It is found that the free electrons of Ag are spin polarized. The magnitude of the polarization is about 1% with a direction opposite to that of Fe. The polarized Ag also gives rise to an additional magneto-optical activity as in Pt and Pd.

  2. Photometry and polarimetry of Jupiter at large phase angles. II - Polarimetry of the south tropical zone, south equatorial belt, and the polar regions from the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. H.; Tomasko, M. G.

    1984-04-01

    One important objective of this work is to present the polarization maps of Jupiter obtained by the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions. Detailed measurements of the polarization of the STrZ, the SEBn, and a north-south cut are presented. In addition, the authors compare the data for these regions to models and reach several specific conclusions regarding the vertical structure and optical properties of the clouds and aerosols present in these regions.

  3. The polar wind: solar illumination, seasonal variations, and north-south asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Lukas; Maggiolo, Romain; André, Mats; Li, Kun; Eriksson, Anders; Haaland, Stein

    2016-04-01

    Solar illumination is the main driver of the polar wind. Since many of these outflowing ions can escape into the interplanetary medium - and contribute to atmospheric erosion - or end up in the plasma sheet - where they can affect magnetospheric dynamics - it is interesting to study the dependence of the polar wind flux on solar illumination. However, the bulk of these ions flowing out above the polar cap have very low energies and temperatures. This makes them very difficult to measure by a satellite crossing their path in the magnetospheric lobes. UV-radiation will cause the spacecraft to acquire a positive charge, repelling the ions, making those with too low energy invisible to the onboard detectors. An alternative method, using both of Cluster's electric field experiments, can exploit this fact to quantify the flux of the outflowing ions. This is done by André et al. [2015], and we use this data set in this study. It is extensive running over multiple years, during multiple months, with a large amount of measurements, allowing us to find effects of solar illumination despite the very large natural spread. We will show that solar illumination indeed has a strong control over the outflowing flux and that this results in seasonal variations. A difference between the flux from the northern and southern hemisphere is also found, which may be caused by an asymmetry in the magnetic field.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100 μg/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06 μg/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22704594

  5. Are boundary conditions in surface productivity at the Southern Polar Front reflected in benthic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Angelika; Vanreusel, Ann; Bracher, Astrid; Jule Marie Hoppe, Clara; Lins, Lidia; Meyer-Löbbecke, Anna; Altenburg Soppa, Mariana; Würzberg, Laura

    2014-10-01

    In austral summer 2012, during the expedition ANT-XXVIII/3 on board RV Polarstern, two sites were sampled 1600 km apart in the South Polar Front area (52°S) at the boundary of different productivity regimes for meio- and macrobenthos using a multiple-corer and an epibenthic sledge, respectively. Patterns in density and abundance data were compared between different size classes of the benthos and interpreted in relation to surface primary productivity data and sediment oxygen consumption. We tested the hypothesis that long-term satellite-derived surface phytoplankton biomass, in situ real time biomass, and productivity measurements at the surface and throughout the euphotic zone are reflected in abyssal benthos densities, abundances and activity. Specifically, we investigated the effect of boundary conditions for lower and higher surface productivity. Surface and integrated to 100 m depth biomass and primary productivity measurements vary stations, with the lowest values at station 85 (0.083 mg Chl-a m-3 at surface, 9 mg Chl-a m-2 and 161 mg C m-2 d-1- integrated over the first 100 m depth), and the highest values at station 86 (2.231 mg Chl-a m-3 at surface, 180 mg Chl-a m-2 and 2587 mg C m-2 d-1 integrated over first 100 m depth). Total meiofaunal densities varied between 102 and 335 individuals/10 cm². Densities were the highest at station 86-30 (335 individuals) and lowest at station 81-13 (102 individuals). Total macrofaunal densities (individuals/1000 m²) varied between 26 individuals at station 81-17 and 194 individuals at station 86-24. However, three EBS hauls were taken at station 86 with a minimum of 80 and a maximum of 194 individuals. Sediment oxygen consumption did not vary significantly between stations from east to west. Bentho-pelagic coupling of meio- and macrobenthic communities could not be observed in the South Polar Front at the boundary conditions from low to high surface productivity between stations 81 and 86.

  6. Asters, Vortices, and Rotating Spirals in Active Gels of Polar Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, K.; Joanny, J. F.; Jülicher, F.; Prost, J.; Sekimoto, K.

    2004-02-01

    We develop a general theory for active viscoelastic materials made of polar filaments. This theory is motivated by the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. The continuous consumption of a fuel generates a nonequilibrium state characterized by the generation of flows and stresses. Our theory applies to any polar system with internal energy consumption such as active chemical gels and cytoskeletal networks which are set in motion by active processes at work in cells.

  7. THE RELATION BETWEEN MAGNETIC FIELDS AND CORONAL ACTIVITIES IN THE POLAR CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shimojo, Masumi; Tsuneta, Saku

    2009-11-20

    We investigated the relation between polar magnetic fields and polar coronal activities based on Stokes maps of photospheric and chromospheric lines, simultaneous X-ray and EUV images. These images are taken with Hinode and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. With careful co-alignment between these images, we found that the X-ray jets, the X-ray bright points, and the coronal loops in the polar coronal hole appear around the relatively large magnetic concentrations near the kG-patches with minority polarity. The magnetic concentrations have magnetic polarity opposite to that of kG-patches, and they are clearly identified in the Stokes-V maps of the Na I line. We also found that such minority magnetic concentrations emerge from below the photosphere in the polar region. Our results suggest that the coronal activities and structures in the polar coronal hole can be used as a tracer of the appearance of the minority polarities in the polar region.

  8. Strong variable linear polarization in the cool active star II Peg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosén, Lisa; Kochukhov, Oleg; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic fields of cool active stars are currently studied polarimetrically using only circular polarization observations. This provides limited information about the magnetic field geometry since circular polarization is only sensitive to the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field. Reconstructions of the magnetic field topology will therefore not be completely trustworthy when only circular polarization is used. On the other hand, linear polarization is sensitive to the transverse component of the magnetic field. By including linear polarization in the reconstruction the quality of the reconstructed magnetic map is dramatically improved. For that reason, we wanted to identify cool stars for which linear polarization could be detected at a level sufficient for magnetic imaging. Four active RS CVn binaries, II Peg, HR 1099, IM Peg, and σ Gem were observed with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Mean polarization profiles in all four Stokes parameters were derived using the multi-line technique of least-squares deconvolution (LSD). Not only was linear polarization successfully detected in all four stars in at least one observation, but also, II Peg showed an extraordinarily strong linear polarization signature throughout all observations. This qualifies II Peg as the first promising target for magnetic Doppler imaging in all four Stokes parameters and, at the same time, suggests that other such targets can possibly be identified.

  9. Measurements of atmospheric mercury species at a coastal site in the Antarctic and over the south Atlantic Ocean during polar summer.

    PubMed

    Temme, Christian; Einax, Jürgen W; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Schroeder, William H

    2003-01-01

    Mercury and many of its compounds behave exceptionally in the environment because of their volatility, capability for methylation, and subsequent biomagnification in contrast with most of the other heavy metals. Long-range atmospheric transport of elemental mercury, its transformation to more toxic methylmercury compounds, the ability of some to undergo photochemical reactions, and their bioaccumulation in the aquatic food chain have made it a subject of global research activities, even in polar regions. The first continuous high-time-resolution measurements of total gaseous mercury in the Antarctic covering a 12-month period were carried out at the German Antarctic research station Neumayer (70 degrees 39' S, 8 degrees 15' W) between January 2000 and February 2001. We recently reported that mercury depletion events (MDEs) occur in the Antarctic after polar sunrise, as was previously shown for Arctic sites. These events (MDEs) end suddenly during Antarctic summer. A possible explanation of this phenomenon is presented in this paper, showing that air masses originating from the sea-ice surface were a necessary prerequisite for the observations of depletion of atmospheric mercury at polar spring. Our extensive measurements at Neumayer of atmospheric mercury species during December 2000-February 2001 show that fast oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury leads to variable Hg0 concentrations during Antarctic summer, accompanied by elevated concentrations, up to more than 300 pg/m3, of reactive gaseous mercury. For the first time in the Southern Hemisphere, atmospheric mercury species measurements were also performed onboard of a research vessel, indicating the existence of homogeneous background concentrations over the south Atlantic Ocean. These new findings contain evidence for an enhanced oxidizing potential of the Antarctic atmosphere over the continent that needs to be considered for the interpretation of dynamic transformations of mercury during summertime.

  10. SPT-3G: a next-generation cosmic microwave background polarization experiment on the South Pole telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, B. A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ahmed, Z.; Allen, S. W.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J. E.; Bender, A. N.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Cliche, J. F.; Crawford, T. M.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dutcher, D.; Everett, W.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Hanson, D.; Harrington, N. L.; Hattori, K.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Kubik, D.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; McDonald, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Montgomery, J.; Myers, M.; Natoli, T.; Nguyen, H.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pan, Z.; Pearson, J.; Reichardt, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Simard, G.; Smecher, G.; Sayre, J. T.; Shirokoff, E.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Suzuki, A.; Thompson, K. L.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Wang, G.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the design of a new polarization sensitive receiver, spt-3g, for the 10-meter South Pole Telescope (spt). The spt-3g receiver will deliver a factor of ~20 improvement in mapping speed over the current receiver, spt-pol. The sensitivity of the spt-3g receiver will enable the advance from statistical detection of B-mode polarization anisotropy power to high signal-to-noise measurements of the individual modes, i.e., maps. This will lead to precise (~0.06 eV) constraints on the sum of neutrino masses with the potential to directly address the neutrino mass hierarchy. It will allow a separation of the lensing and inflationary B-mode power spectra, improving constraints on the amplitude and shape of the primordial signal, either through spt-3g data alone or in combination with bicep2/keck, which is observing the same area of sky. The measurement of small-scale temperature anisotropy will provide new constraints on the epoch of reionization. Additional science from the spt-3g survey will be significantly enhanced by the synergy with the ongoing optical Dark Energy Survey (des), including: a 1% constraint on the bias of optical tracers of large-scale structure, a measurement of the differential Doppler signal from pairs of galaxy clusters that will test General Relativity on ~200Mpc scales, and improved cosmological constraints from the abundance of clusters of galaxies

  11. CO2 jets formed by sublimation beneath translucent slab ice in Mars' seasonal south polar ice cap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.; Titus, T.N.

    2006-01-01

    The martian polar caps are among the most dynamic regions on Mars, growing substantially in winter as a significant fraction of the atmosphere freezes out in the form of CO2 ice. Unusual dark spots, fans and blotches form as the south-polar seasonal CO2 ice cap retreats during spring and summer. Small radial channel networks are often associated with the location of spots once the ice disappears. The spots have been proposed to be simply bare, defrosted ground; the formation of the channels has remained uncertain. Here we report infrared and visible observations that show that the spots and fans remain at CO2 ice temperatures well into summer, and must be granular materials that have been brought up to the surface of the ice, requiring a complex suite of processes to get them there. We propose that the seasonal ice cap forms an impermeable, translucent slab of CO2 ice that sublimates from the base, building up high-pressure gas beneath the slab. This gas levitates the ice, which eventually ruptures, producing high-velocity CO 2 vents that erupt sand-sized grains in jets to form the spots and erode the channels. These processes are unlike any observed on Earth. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. CO2 jets formed by sublimation beneath translucent slab ice in Mars' seasonal south polar ice cap.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Hugh H; Christensen, Philip R; Titus, Timothy N

    2006-08-17

    The martian polar caps are among the most dynamic regions on Mars, growing substantially in winter as a significant fraction of the atmosphere freezes out in the form of CO2 ice. Unusual dark spots, fans and blotches form as the south-polar seasonal CO2 ice cap retreats during spring and summer. Small radial channel networks are often associated with the location of spots once the ice disappears. The spots have been proposed to be simply bare, defrosted ground; the formation of the channels has remained uncertain. Here we report infrared and visible observations that show that the spots and fans remain at CO2 ice temperatures well into summer, and must be granular materials that have been brought up to the surface of the ice, requiring a complex suite of processes to get them there. We propose that the seasonal ice cap forms an impermeable, translucent slab of CO2 ice that sublimates from the base, building up high-pressure gas beneath the slab. This gas levitates the ice, which eventually ruptures, producing high-velocity CO2 vents that erupt sand-sized grains in jets to form the spots and erode the channels. These processes are unlike any observed on Earth.

  13. No signature of clear CO2 ice from the 'cryptic' regions in Mars' south seasonal polar cap.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Yves; Douté, Sylvain; Vincendon, Mathieu; Poulet, François; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte; Schmitt, Bernard; Forget, F

    2006-08-17

    The seasonal polar ice caps of Mars are composed mainly of CO2 ice. A region of low (< 30%) albedo has been observed within the south seasonal cap during early to mid-spring. The low temperature of this 'cryptic region' has been attributed to a clear slab of nearly pure CO2 ice, with the low albedo resulting from absorption by the underlying surface. Here we report near-infrared imaging spectroscopy of the south seasonal cap. The deep and broad CO2 absorption bands that are expected in the near-infrared with a thick transparent slab of CO2 ice are not observed. Models of the observed spectra indicate that the low albedo results from extensive dust contamination close to the surface of a CO2 ice layer, which could be linked to atmospheric circulation patterns. The strength of the CO2 absorption increases after mid-spring, so part of the dust is either carried away or buried more deeply in the ice layer during the CO2 ice sublimation process.

  14. A hybrid particle-mesh method for incompressible active polar viscous gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Bourantas, George; Jülicher, Frank; Sbalzarini, Ivo F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a hybrid particle-mesh method for numerically solving the hydrodynamic equations of incompressible active polar viscous gels. These equations model the dynamics of polar active agents, embedded in a viscous medium, in which stresses are induced through constant consumption of energy. The numerical method is based on Lagrangian particles and staggered Cartesian finite-difference meshes. We show that the method is second-order and first-order accurate with respect to grid and time-step sizes, respectively. Using the present method, we simulate the hydrodynamics in rectangular geometries, of a passive liquid crystal, of an active polar film and of active gels with topological defects in polarization. We show the emergence of spontaneous flow due to Fréedericksz transition, and transformation in the nature of topological defects by tuning the activity of the system.

  15. Crustal Structure of the Caribbean-South American Diffuse Plate Boundary: Subduction Zone Migration and Polarity Reversal Along BOLIVAR Profile 64W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. A.; Levander, A.; Magnani, M.; Zelt, C. A.; Sawyer, D. S.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.

    2005-12-01

    The BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean-Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) project is an NSF funded, collaborative seismic experiment in the southeast Caribbean region. The purpose of the project is to understand the diffuse plate boundary created by the oblique collision between the Caribbean and South American plates. Profile 64W of the BOLIVAR experiment, a 450 km-long, N-S transect onshore and offshore Venezuela located at ~64°W longitude, images the deep crustal structures formed by this collision. The active source components of profile 64W include 300 km of MCS reflection data, 33 coincident OBSs, and 344 land seismic stations which recorded 7500 offshore airgun shots and 2 explosive land shots. Results from the reflection and refraction seismic data along 64W show complex crustal structure across the entire span of the diffuse plate boundary. The onshore portion of 64W crosses the fold and thrust belt of the Serrania del Interior, which formed at ~16 Ma by collision of the Caribbean forearc with the northern South American passive margin. Underlying the Serrania del Interior is a south-vergent, remnant Lesser Antillean subduction zone. As this Lesser Antilles subduction impinged on continental crust, it caused a polarity reversal and jump offshore to the north. Convergence was initially localized in the closure and inversion of the Grenada Basin. However, subduction could not develop because of the ~20-km-thick crust of the Aves Ridge; instead, north-vergent subduction initiated further to the north, where ~12-km-thick Caribbean oceanic crust of the Venezuela Basin began to subduct beneath the Aves Ridge in the Pliocene (~4 Ma) and appears to continue subducting today. Between the remnant subduction zone and the modern one, the El Pilar and Coche dextral strike-slip faults accommodate most of the transform motion of the plate boundary. From the Serrania del Interior to the Aves Ridge, ~260 km of accreted orogenic float comprises the diffuse

  16. New Observations Reveal How the Martian Residual South Polar Cap Develops Heart-Shaped and Quasi-Circular Pits, Troughs, and Moats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhler, P. B.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.

    2016-09-01

    New features seen in time series of HiRISE images reveal internal sublimation within the residual (CO2) South Polar Cap (RSPC), as well as how the diverse morphologies of the RSPC arise through the interplay of erosion and deposition of CO2.

  17. A Warmer Atmosphere on Mars Near the Noachian-Hesperian Boundary: Evidence from Basal Melting of the South Polar Ice Cap (Dorsa Argentea Formation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Forget, F.; Madeleine, J.-B.

    2011-03-01

    Dorsa Argentea Formation (Noachian-Hesperian) eskers are evidence for basal melting. Ice-flow models show that the mean annual south polar temperature must be raised to -50° to -75°C, providing an independent estimate of elevated lower latitude surface temperature.

  18. COMMENTS ON "MEASUREMENTS OF ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY SPECIES AT A COASTAL SITE IN THE ANTARCTIC AND OVER THE SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN DURING POLAR SUMMER"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attached comment submitted to Environmental Science and Technology entitled, Comments on "Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury Species at a Costal Site in the Antarctic and over the South Atlantic Ocean during Polar Summer" by Temme et al. Environmental Science and Technology 37 (...

  19. Evidence for CO2 Ice Formation and CO2 Gas Depletion in the South Polar Winter Atmosphere of Mars from Mars Climate Sounder Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinboehl, A.; Patel, P.; Schofield, J. T.; Kass, D. M.; Hayne, P. O.; McCleese, D. J.

    2016-09-01

    New 2D retrievals from MCS data show south polar winter atmospheric temperatures below the CO2 frost point, consistent with CO2 gas removal through condensation. Limb emission features suggest CO2 ice occurrence correlated with CO2 gas depletion.

  20. Researcher and Educator Long Term Collaboration with NOAA ESRL Regarding Atmospheric Ozone Changes at the South Pole Through the NSF PolarTREC Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergholz, E.; Johnson, B.; Hofmann, D.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA/ESRL team at South Pole has been monitoring the development of the annual ozone hole over two decades using balloon-borne and ground-based instruments. Collaboration with educators has become an important aspect of NOAA/ESRL to educate the public about ozone loss and ozone hole formation. Researcher Bryan Johnson and educator Elke Bergholz worked together at South Pole in 1998/1999 as part of the NSF teacher outreach program called Teachers Experiencing Antarctica (TEA). It has been almost a decade when they collaborated again concerning the ozone changes at South Pole as part of the International Polar Year (IPY) and the PolarTREC (http://www.polartrec.com) teacher outreach program sponsored by NSF. The TEA and PolarTREC programs selected teachers to travel to polar locations to work with research scientists collecting data and running experiments at various Arctic and Antarctic field sites. While in the field, daily contact with classrooms and students around the globe was done through internet journals, answering emails from students, and webinars. This will be followed up with presentations to schools and the public relating Ms Bergholz's experience and new "hands-on" understanding of ozone measurements and ozone depletion over Antarctica, and discussing what changes in ozone we have seen at South Pole since the first outreach program nearly a decade ago.

  1. Lysophosphatidylcholine perpetuates macrophage polarization toward classically activated phenotype in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaofei; Qiu, Chunguang; Zhao, Luosha

    2014-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory macrophages are involved in vascular inflammation and serve as the major effector cells in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major phospholipid moiety affixed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and thought to play important roles in the development of atherosclerosis. In this study we described that a bioactive lipid derivative, lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), generated from hydrolysis of the PC moiety of oxidized LDL, promoted and stabilized a strong M1 phenotype in macrophage polarization. Another derivative, 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), did not show the similar biological function. Blockade of G protein coupled receptor, G2A, which mediates the signal transduction of lysoPC, diminished the effects of lysoPC on the macrophage polarization toward M1 phenotype. The results provide insights into the new mechanism on how oxidized LDL participates in tissue inflammation in atherosclerosis. PMID:24841857

  2. Researcher and Educator Long Term Collaboration with NOAA ESRL Regarding Atmospheric Ozone Changes at the South Pole Through the NSF PolarTREC Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergholz, E. H.; Hofmann, D. J.; Johnson, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    The NOAA/ESRL team at South Pole has been monitoring the development of the annual ozone hole over two decades using balloon-borne and ground based instruments. Collaboration with educators has become an important aspect of NOAA/ESRL to educate the public about ozone loss and ozone hole formation. Researcher Bryan Johnson and educator Elke Bergholz worked together at South Pole in 1998/1999 as part of the NSF teacher outreach program called Teachers Experiencing Antarctica (TEA).It has been almost a decade when they collaborated again concerning the ozone changes at South Pole as part of the International Polar Year (IPY) and the PolarTREC ( http://wwpolartrec.com ) teacher outreach program sponsored by NSF. The TEA and PolarTREC programs selected teachers to travel to polar locations to work with research scientists collecting data and running experiments at various Arctic and Antarctic field sites, including Elke Bergholz working at the South Pole with the NOAA/ESRL team. While in the field, daily contact with classrooms and students around the globe was done through the internet journals, answering emails from students, and webinars. This has been followed up with presentations to schools and the public relating Ms. Bergholz’s experience and new “hands-on” understanding of ozone instruments and ozone depletion over Antarctica, and discussing what changes in the ozone we have seen at South Pole since the first outreach program nearly a decade ago. The lesson plans are available through the PolarTREC website or by contacting Elke Bergholz at ebergholz@unis.org.

  3. Active-polarization-controlled long-depth focus generated by orthogonal nanoslit array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lilin; Li, Yuanjie; Sun, Aihui; Xiong, Zhicheng; Liu, Cheng; Kong, Yan; Wang, Shouyu

    2016-08-01

    In order to realize long-range directional excitation and coupling, active-polarization-controlled Bessel beams with an orthogonal nanoslit array are proposed. Excited with left or right circular polarization light, long-depth focus from Bessel beams can be generated with different propagation directions. Moreover, multiple long-depth foci are also designed according to dual-conical phase settings. Proved with numerical simulations, it is considered that the active-polarization-controlled system can be potentially used in future logic photonic and plasmonic systems for optical switching and multichannel coupling.

  4. Postpartum ovarian activity in South Asian zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Brar, P S; Nanda, A S

    2008-07-01

    Timely onset of postpartum ovarian activity is vital for optimal reproductive performance of dairy cows. Much depends upon genetic constitution of an animal although several factors interplay to govern the onset of postpartum ovarian activity. South Asian zebu cattle have much longer service period when compared with other exotic or crossbred cattle reared in the same Asian environment, which suggests differences in their genetic makeup. However, the cows with same genetic configuration expressed better reproductive potential when reared under different environment, such as in Brazil and Mexico, which suggests the role of extrinsic factors such as management, nutrition, environment and disease conditions. Better management of animals (provision of proper shade, water and housing, efficient oestrous detection and timely insemination), good quality nutrition supplemented with appropriate minerals and vitamins, prevention of diseases (vaccination, deworming, suitable therapeutic interventions) and application of biotechnology have helped in improving postpartum ovarian activity and, therefore, reproductive performance of zebu cattle in Asia. No comprehensive study appears to have been carried out on the various aspects of reproduction in zebu cattle reared under South Asian socio-agro-climatic conditions. This paper is a modest effort to collect what ever information available and to critically review the postpartum ovarian activity in zebu cattle with special reference to the effect of the various managemental practices and pharmacological interventions. PMID:18638125

  5. POlarization Emission of Millimeter Activity at the Sun (POEMAS): new circular polarization solar telescopes at two millimeter wavelength ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valio, A. S.; Kaufmann, P.; Gimenez de Castro, C.; Raulin, J.; Fernandes, L. T.; Marun, A.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new system of two circular polarization solar radio telescopes, POEMAS, for observation of the Sun at 45 and 90 GHz. The novel characteristic of these instruments is the capability to measure circular right and left handed polarization at such high frequencies. The two frequencies were chosen so as to bridge the gap at radio frequencies between 20 and 200 GHz of the spectra of solar flares. The telescopes, installed at CASLEO Observatory (Argentina), observe the full disk of the Sun with HPBW of 1.4 degree, time resolution of 10 ms, sensitivity of 0.2 K at both frequencies, that corresponds to 0.5 and 4 SFU, and aperture efficiencies of 45% and 71% at 45 and 90 GHz, respectively. The telescopes system saw the first light on November 2011 and is operating daily since then. A few flares were observed and are presented here.; POEMAS (POlarization Emission of Millimeter Activity at the Sun) Telescopes operating continuously at 45 and 90 GHz.

  6. Diviner Lunar Radiometer observations of cold traps in the Moon's south polar region.

    PubMed

    Paige, David A; Siegler, Matthew A; Zhang, Jo Ann; Hayne, Paul O; Foote, Emily J; Bennett, Kristen A; Vasavada, Ashwin R; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Schofield, John T; McCleese, Daniel J; Foote, Marc C; DeJong, Eric; Bills, Bruce G; Hartford, Wayne; Murray, Bruce C; Allen, Carlton C; Snook, Kelly; Soderblom, Laurence A; Calcutt, Simon; Taylor, Fredric W; Bowles, Neil E; Bandfield, Joshua L; Elphic, Richard; Ghent, Rebecca; Glotch, Timothy D; Wyatt, Michael B; Lucey, Paul G

    2010-10-22

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies. PMID:20966246

  7. Diviner lunar radiometer observations of cold traps in the moon's south polar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paige, D.A.; Siegler, M.A.; Zhang, J.A.; Hayne, P.O.; Foote, E.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Vasavada, A.R.; Greenhagen, B.T.; Schofield, J.T.; McCleese, D.J.; Foote, M.C.; DeJong, E.; Bills, B.G.; Hartford, W.; Murray, B.C.; Allen, C.C.; Snook, K.; Soderblom, L.A.; Calcutt, S.; Taylor, F.W.; Bowles, N.E.; Bandfield, J.L.; Elphic, R.; Ghent, R.; Glotch, T.D.; Wyatt, M.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

  8. A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared / submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared / submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Passive cooling without the use of expendable cryogenics. might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive ice deposits, which may represent cometary infall with pre-biotic compounds.

  9. Lifestyle physical activity behavior among South Asian Indian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

    2013-12-01

    Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes than Whites. This was a cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for 7 days. Just over half (51.8 %) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-intensity or ≥75 min vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6,904.3, which is in the "low active" classification. Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed.

  10. Polar cap formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaya, E. J.; Pilcher, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that Ganymede's polar caps are the remnants of a more extensive covering of water ice that formed during a period in which the satellite was geologically active. It is inferred that the initial thickness of this covering was a significant fraction of the gardening depth since the covering formed. This suggests an initial thickness of at least a few meters over heavily cratered regions such as the south polar grooved terrain. The absence of similar polar caps on Callisto apparently reflects the absence of comparable geologic activity in the history of this satellite.

  11. GRAND MINIMA AND NORTH-SOUTH ASYMMETRY OF SOLAR ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Olemskoy, S. V.; Kitchatinov, L. L.

    2013-11-01

    A solar-type dynamo model in a spherical shell is developed with allowance for random dependence of the poloidal field generation mechanism on time and latitude. The model shows repeatable epochs of a strongly decreased amplitude of magnetic cycles similar to the Maunder minimum of solar activity. Random dependence of dynamo parameters on latitude breaks the equatorial symmetry of generated fields. The model shows the correlation of the occurrence of grand minima with deviations in the dynamo field from dipolar parity. An increased north-south asymmetry of magnetic activity can, therefore, be an indicator of transitions to grand minima. Qualitative interpretation of this correlation is suggested. Statistics of grand minima in the model are close to the Poisson random process, indicating that the onset of a grand minimum is statistically independent of preceding minima.

  12. Mapping Vesta Mid-Latitude Quadrangle V-12EW: Mapping the Edge of the South Polar Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Schenk, P.; Williams, D. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R.; Buczkowski, D.; McCord, T. B.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Gaskell, R. W.; Neukum, G.; Schmedemann, N.; Marchi, S.; Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; White, O. L.; DeSanctis, C.; Filacchione, G.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced based on Framing Camera images (FC: spatial resolution: ~65 m/pixel) along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR: spatial resolution: ~180 m/pixel) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). This poster presentation concentrates on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle V-12EW. This quadrangle is dominated by the arcuate edge of the large 460+ km diameter south polar topographic feature first observed by HST (Thomas et al., 1997). Sparsely cratered, the portion of this feature covered in V-12EW is characterized by arcuate ridges and troughs forming a generalized arcuate pattern. Mapping of this terrain and the transition to areas to the north will be used to test whether this feature has an impact or other (e.g., internal) origin. We are also using FC stereo and VIR images to assess whether their are any compositional differences between this terrain and areas further to the north, and image data to evaluate the distribution and age of young impact craters within the map area. The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science, Instrument and Operations Teams.

  13. The Spatial Distribution of Radiated Endogenic Power from Enceladus' South Polar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of the total power radiated by Enceladus' tiger stripes are constrained by Cassini CIRS observations of the thermal emission from the tiger stripe region. Unfortunately, these data have several limitations imposed by the nature of the CIRS instrument, and the very limited time available for high resolution observations of Enceladus' south pole. Short-wavelength (7 - 16 micron) maps have complete coverage with good spatial resolution, but do not capture the bulk of the radiated power, which is emitted at longer wavelengths. Long-wavelength (> 16 micron) maps which capture most of the emission have either very limited spatial coverage, or spatial resolution insufficient to separate the tiger stripes from background thermal emission. In Howett et al. (2011) we estimated ~16 GW of total endogenic heat flow based on low-resolution long-wavelength data. This estimate required model-dependent assumptions about passive background thermal emission, which was not directly separated spatially from the tiger stripes, but included potential inter-stripe endogenic background emission. Our recent much lower estimate of emission from the tiger stripes alone, ~4.5 GW (Spencer et al. 2013), uses high-resolution long-wavelength data to exclude both passive and possible endogenic inter-stripe emission, but is based on poorly-constrained extrapolations to the entire system of long-wavelength observations of small portions of the tiger stripes. We eagerly await the one remaining opportunity to extend long-wavelength, high spatial resolution, mapping to more of the tiger stripe system in Cassini's final close Enceladus flyby, in December 2015. In the meantime, existing long-wavelength data of intermediate spatial resolution provides intriguing additional clues about the true spatial distribution, and thus the total power, of the long-wavelength emission. In particular, a March 2008 scan of Damascus and Baghdad Sulci shows surprisingly bright 16 - 200 micron emission at the anti

  14. Active imaging with the aids of polarization retrieve in turbid media system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Qiangqiang; Sun, Yongxuan; Shen, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Guo, Zhongyi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel active imaging based on the polarization retrieve (PR) method in turbid media system. In our simulations, the Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm has been used to investigate the scattering process between the incident photons and the scattering particles, and the visually concordant object but with different polarization characteristics in different regions, has been selected as the original target that is placed in the turbid media. Under linearly and circularly polarized illuminations, the simulation results demonstrate that the corresponding polarization properties can provide additional information for the imaging, and the contrast of the polarization image can also be enhanced greatly compared to the simplex intensity image in the turbid media. Besides, the polarization image adjusted by the PR method can further enhance the visibility and contrast. In addition, by PR imaging method, with the increasing particles' size in Mie's scale, the visibility can be enhanced, because of the increased forward scattering effect. In general, in the same circumstance, the circular polarization images can offer a better contrast and visibility than that of linear ones. The results indicate that the PR imaging method is more applicable to the scattering media system with relatively larger particles such as aerosols, heavy fog, cumulus, and seawater, as well as to biological tissues and blood media.

  15. Changes in aerobic performance, body composition, and physical activity in polar explorers during a year-long stay at the polar station in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Araźny, Andrzej; Opyrchał, Marta

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in physical activity, aerobic performance, and body composition in polar explorers during a 1-year stay at the polar station. The study group consisted of 10 people, including 8 men and 2 women. Aerobic performance (maximal oxygen uptake), physical activity, body mass, and composition were evaluated for the polar explores of the Polish Polar Station prior to departure, and then during their stay at the station for a period of 1 year. The measurements were performed every 3 months. Compared to the measurements taken before going to the polar station, aerobic performance significantly (p = 0.02) increased in the first 3 months of residing at the polar station and then remained relatively stable for the following duration of the stay. In the first 3 months of the stay, we also observed the highest level of physical activity in participants. In the polar explorers, no significant (p > 0.05) body fatness changes were noted. Nonetheless, lean body mass, body mass, and BMI significantly increased compared to the measurements taken before departure to the polar station. The greatest changes in aerobic performance, physical activity, and body composition were observed during the first 3 months after arrival to the Arctic and then, despite changing biometeorological conditions, they remained stable for the next months of the stay. We recommend the introduction of a physical preparation program before departing to the polar station to improve explorers' physical fitness, so that they can meet the physical challenges they are faced with immediately after arrival to the polar station.

  16. Vertebrate records in polar sediments: Biological responses to past climate change and human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. G.; Emslie, S. D.; Huang, T.; Blais, J. M.; Xie, Z. Q.; Liu, X. D.; Yin, X. B.; Wang, Y. H.; Huang, W.; Hodgson, D. A.; Smol, J. P.

    2013-11-01

    Biological responses to climate and environmental changes in remote polar regions are of increasing interest in global change research. Terrestrial and marine polar ecosystems have suffered from impacts of both rapid climate change and intense human activities, and large fluctuations in the population sizes of seabirds, seals, and Antarctic krill have been observed in the past decades. To understand the mechanisms driving these regime shifts in polar ecosystems, it is important to first distinguish the influences of natural forcing from anthropogenic activities. Therefore, investigations of past changes of polar ecosystems prior to human contact are relevant for placing recent human-induced changes within a long-term historical context. Here we focus our review on the fossil, sub-fossil, archaeological, and biogeochemical remains of marine vertebrates in polar sediments. These remains include well-preserved tissues such as bones, hairs and feathers, and biogeochemical markers and other proxy indicators, including deposits of guano and excrement, which can accumulate in lake and terrestrial sediments over thousands of years. Analyses of these remains have provided insight into both natural and anthropogenic impacts on marine vertebrates over millennia and have helped identify the causal agents for these impacts. Furthermore, land-based seabirds and marine mammals have been shown to play an important role as bio-vectors in polar environments as they transport significant amounts of nutrients and anthropogenic contaminants between ocean and terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. Phantoms for polarized light exhibiting controllable scattering, birefringence, and optical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael F. G.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Guo, Xinxin; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2008-02-01

    Recently, the use of polarized light for medical diagnosis and therapeutic management has seen increased interest due the noninvasive nature of light-tissue interactions. Examples of the use of polarized light include polarization imaging to enhance spatial resolution in turbid media, selective imaging of polarized light to increase surface contrast in tissue, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), and glucose monitoring. With these emerging applications there is a need for controllable phantoms to validate the emerging techniques; however, this has been done only to a limited degree primarily due to the difficulty in creating controllable phantoms. The primary effects of tissue on the polarization of light are scattering, linear birefringence, and optical activity (circular birefringence). An ideal phantom would exhibit all these effects simultaneously in a controllable fashion. We have achieved this through the use of polyacrylamide gels with polystyrene microspheres added as scattering particles, strain applied to the gels to create birefringence, and sucrose added for optical activity. The phantom methodology has been validated using our polarimetry system. Currently, the phantom system is being used to extend our work in birefringence mapping of the myocardium and to further our work in characterizing tissue.

  18. Mechanisms of CDC-42 activation during contact-induced cell polarization.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily; Nance, Jeremy

    2013-04-01

    Polarization of early embryos provides a foundation to execute essential patterning and morphogenetic events. In Caenorhabditis elegans, cell contacts polarize early embryos along their radial axis by excluding the cortical polarity protein PAR-6 from sites of cell contact, thereby restricting PAR-6 to contact-free cell surfaces. Radial polarization requires the cortically enriched Rho GTPase CDC-42, which in its active form recruits PAR-6 through direct binding. The Rho GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP) PAC-1, which localizes specifically to cell contacts, triggers radial polarization by inactivating CDC-42 at these sites. The mechanisms responsible for activating CDC-42 at contact-free surfaces are unknown. Here, in an overexpression screen of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), which can activate Rho GTPases, we identify CGEF-1 and ECT-2 as RhoGEFs that act through CDC-42 to recruit PAR-6 to the cortex. We show that ECT-2 and CGEF-1 localize to the cell surface and that removing their activity causes a reduction in levels of cortical PAR-6. Through a structure-function analysis, we show that the tandem DH-PH domains of CGEF-1 and ECT-2 are sufficient for GEF activity, but that regions outside of these domains target each protein to the cell surface. Finally, we provide evidence suggesting that the N-terminal region of ECT-2 may direct its in vivo preference for CDC-42 over another known target, the Rho GTPase RHO-1. We propose that radial polarization results from a competition between RhoGEFs, which activate CDC-42 throughout the cortex, and the RhoGAP PAC-1, which inactivates CDC-42 at cell contacts.

  19. Anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation of Cryogenian glaciogenic and Ediacaran red beds, South Australia: Neoproterozoic apparent or true polar wander?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Phillip W.; Williams, George E.

    2013-11-01

    pole path for this period, for which true polar wander (TPW) has been inferred. However, until ages of Neoproterozoic strata in South Australia are better constrained uncertainty persists on whether the similarities of the Australian and North American pole paths reflect TPW.

  20. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

  1. Minimal model for spontaneous cell polarization and edge activity in oscillating, rotating and migrating cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynaud, Franck; Ambühl, Mark E.; Gabella, Chiara; Bornert, Alicia; Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B.

    2016-04-01

    How cells break symmetry and organize activity at their edges to move directionally is a fundamental question in cell biology. Physical models of cell motility commonly incorporate gradients of regulatory proteins and/or feedback from the motion itself to describe the polarization of this edge activity. These approaches, however, fail to explain cell behaviour before the onset of polarization. We use polarizing and moving fish epidermal cells as a model system to bridge the gap between cell behaviours before and after polarization. Our analysis suggests a novel and simple principle of self-organizing cell activity, in which local cell-edge dynamics depends on the distance from the cell centre, but not on the orientation with respect to the front-back axis. We validate this principle with a stochastic model that faithfully reproduces a range of cell-migration behaviours. Our findings indicate that spontaneous polarization, persistent motion and cell shape are emergent properties of the local cell-edge dynamics controlled by the distance from the cell centre.

  2. Cassini ISS observations of Titan's surface and changes in its south-polar lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, Elizabeth; Perry, Jason; McEwen, Alfred; Hayes, Alexander; West, Robert

    Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) has been returning images of Titan since early 2004, continuing through the 65 close Titan encounters that have been performed to date. These ob-servations have been combined to produce a 938-nm albedo map of the surface with resolutions ranging from several kilometers to several hundred meters. The morphologies observed on Titan's surface reflect a wide variety of geological features [1]: roughly east-west streamlined shapes, suggestive of aeolian processes, consistent with Cassini RADAR observations of dunes at low latitudes [2]; narrow, curvilinear channels; dark lakes and seas at high latitudes [e.g., 3]; rare impact structures, further evidence for a geologically young surface; and possible tec-tonic and cryovolcanic structures. Changes have also been observed: a new large dark area appeared between July 2004 and June 2005 [3] and may have subsequently faded. Recent ISS observations of Ontario Lacus suggest that its shoreline may have receded as well [cf. 4]. Such changes are interpreted to be the result of precipitation and ponding of liquid methane and the subsequent infiltration into the subsurface or evaporation thereof [3]. No changes have been observed to date in the lakes and seas at high northern latitudes. We will present ISS' most recent map of Titan's surface, documenting changes that may have resulted from weather and seasonal changes and their implications for Titan's active methane cycle. References: [1] Porco et al. (2005) Nature 434, 159-168. [2] Lorenz et al. (2006) Science 312, 724-727. [3] Turtle et al. (2009) GRL 36, DOI 0.1029/2008GL036186. [4] Hayes et al. (2009) Eos Trans. AGU, 90, Abstract P54C-02.

  3. Can the Solid State Greenhouse Effect Produce ~100 Year Cycles in the Mars South Polar Residual CO2 Ice Cap?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Line, M. R.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2010-12-01

    Malin et al. (2001) reported that the south perennial cap consists of quasi-circular pits ~8 meters deep, with a flat surface in between. The walls of the pits are retreating at a rate of 1 to 3 meters per year. Byrne and Ingersoll (2003a, 2003b) showed evidence that the floors of the pits are water ice and the upper layer is CO2. This layer will be gone in a few Martian centuries, if the observations are taken at face value. This raises some difficult questions: How likely is it that mankind would be witnessing the final few hundred years of the residual CO2 frost on Mars? Can one imagine extreme weather events that could recharge the residual CO2 frost once it is gone? Both seem unlikely, and we propose a different mechanism. Kieffer et al. (2000) showed that sunlight can penetrate several meters through the seasonal CO2 frost, where it warms the surface below. We have observational evidence that the same is happening in the perennial CO2 frost. Further, we have a model that shows how this "solid-state greenhouse" can lead to cyclic behavior, in which layers of CO2 build up on a water ice substrate, are heated internally by sunlight and lose mass from within. Eventually the layer becomes too weak to support itself, and it collapses to form pits. Then a new CO2 layer accumulates and the process repeats. Our study addresses fundamental questions of long-term stability of the Martian polar caps and how the caps control the atmospheric pressure. Instead of invoking extreme climate events to explain the data, we propose that processes within the frost itself can lead to cyclic growth and collapse of the pits. Our model implies that there is no long-term change in the ~8 meter layer of CO2 and no extreme weather events to make it change.

  4. Non-polar organic compounds in marine aerosols over the northern South China Sea: Influence of continental outflow.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yingyi; Fu, Pingqing; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Liu, Fobang; Zou, Shichun; Wang, Shan; Lai, Senchao

    2016-06-01

    Filter samples of total suspended particle (TSP) collected during a cruise campaign over the northern South China Sea (SCS) from September to October 2013 were analyzed for non-polar organic compounds (NPOCs) as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble ions. A total of 115 NPOCs species in groups of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), iso-/antiso-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, methylalkanes, branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes and phthalates were detected. The characteristics of NPOCs in marine TSP samples were investigated to understand the sources from the Asian continent and other regions. The concentrations of total NPOCs ranged from 19.8 to 288.2 ng/m(3) with an average of 87.9 ng/m(3), which accounted for 0.8-1.7% (average 1.0%) of organic matter (OM). n-Alkanes was the predominant group, accounting for 43.1-79.5%, followed by PAHs (5.5-44.4%) and hopanes (1.6-11.4%). We found that primary combustion (biomass burning/fossil fuel combustion) was the dominant source for the majority of NPOCs (89.1%). Biomass burning in southern/southeastern China via long-range transport was proposed to be a major contributor of NPOCs in marine aerosols over the northern SCS, suggested by the significant correlations between nss-K(+) and NPOCs groups as well as the analysis of air mass back-trajectory and fire spots. For the samples with strong continental influence, the strong enhancement in concentrations of n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes and steranes were attributed to fossil fuel (coal/petroleum) combustion. In addition, terrestrial plants waxes were another contributor to NPOCs. PMID:27023121

  5. Non-polar organic compounds in marine aerosols over the northern South China Sea: Influence of continental outflow.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yingyi; Fu, Pingqing; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Liu, Fobang; Zou, Shichun; Wang, Shan; Lai, Senchao

    2016-06-01

    Filter samples of total suspended particle (TSP) collected during a cruise campaign over the northern South China Sea (SCS) from September to October 2013 were analyzed for non-polar organic compounds (NPOCs) as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble ions. A total of 115 NPOCs species in groups of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), iso-/antiso-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, methylalkanes, branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes and phthalates were detected. The characteristics of NPOCs in marine TSP samples were investigated to understand the sources from the Asian continent and other regions. The concentrations of total NPOCs ranged from 19.8 to 288.2 ng/m(3) with an average of 87.9 ng/m(3), which accounted for 0.8-1.7% (average 1.0%) of organic matter (OM). n-Alkanes was the predominant group, accounting for 43.1-79.5%, followed by PAHs (5.5-44.4%) and hopanes (1.6-11.4%). We found that primary combustion (biomass burning/fossil fuel combustion) was the dominant source for the majority of NPOCs (89.1%). Biomass burning in southern/southeastern China via long-range transport was proposed to be a major contributor of NPOCs in marine aerosols over the northern SCS, suggested by the significant correlations between nss-K(+) and NPOCs groups as well as the analysis of air mass back-trajectory and fire spots. For the samples with strong continental influence, the strong enhancement in concentrations of n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes and steranes were attributed to fossil fuel (coal/petroleum) combustion. In addition, terrestrial plants waxes were another contributor to NPOCs.

  6. Mars south polar spring and summer behavior observed by TES: seasonal cap evolution controlled by frost grain size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Hugh H.; Titus, Timothy N.; Mullins, Kevin F.; Christensen, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations of the recession phase of Mars' south polar cap are used to quantitatively map this recession in both thermal and visual appearance. Geographically nonuniform behavior interior to the cap is characterized by defining several small regions which exemplify the range of behavior. For most of the cap, while temperatures remain near the CO2 frost point, albedos slowly increase with the seasonal rise of the Sun, then drop rapidly as frost patches disappear over a period of ∼20 days. A “Cryptic” region remains dark and mottled throughout its cold period. TES observations are compared with first-order theoretical spectra of solid CO2 frost with admixtures of dust and H2O. The TES spectra indicate that the Cryptic region has much larger grained solid CO2 than the rest of the cap and that the solid CO2 here may be in the form of a slab. The Mountains of Mitchel remain cold and bright well after other areas at comparable latitude, apparently as a result of unusually small size of the CO2 frost grains; we found little evidence for a significant presence of H2O. Although CO2 grain size may be the major difference between these regions, incorporated dust is also required to match the observations; a self-cleaning process carries away the smaller dust grains. Comparisons with Viking observations indicate little difference in the seasonal cycle 12 Martian years later. The observed radiation balance indicates CO2 sublimation budgets of up to 1250 kg m−2. Regional atmospheric dust is common; localized dust clouds are seen near the edge of the cap prior to the onset of a regional dust storm and interior to the cap during the storm.

  7. Temperature thresholds for chlorine activation and ozone loss in the polar stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drdla, K.; Müller, R.

    2012-07-01

    Low stratospheric temperatures are known to be responsible for heterogeneous chlorine activation that leads to polar ozone depletion. Here, we discuss the temperature threshold below which substantial chlorine activation occurs. We suggest that the onset of chlorine activation is dominated by reactions on cold binary aerosol particles, without the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), i.e. without any significant uptake of HNO3 from the gas phase. Using reaction rates on cold binary aerosol in a model of stratospheric chemistry, a chlorine activation threshold temperature, TACL, is derived. At typical stratospheric conditions, TACL is similar in value to TNAT (within 1-2 K), the highest temperature at which nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) can exist. TNAT is still in use to parameterise the threshold temperature for the onset of chlorine activation. However, perturbations can cause TACL to differ from TNAT: TACL is dependent upon H2O and potential temperature, but unlike TNAT is not dependent upon HNO3. Furthermore, in contrast to TNAT, TACL is dependent upon the stratospheric sulfate aerosol loading and thus provides a means to estimate the impact on polar ozone of strong volcanic eruptions and some geo-engineering options, which are discussed. A parameterisation of TACL is provided here, allowing it to be calculated for low solar elevation (or high solar zenith angle) over a comprehensive range of stratospheric conditions. Considering TACL as a proxy for chlorine activation cannot replace a detailed model calculation, and polar ozone loss is influenced by other factors apart from the initial chlorine activation. However, TACL provides a more accurate description of the temperature conditions necessary for chlorine activation and ozone loss in the polar stratosphere than TNAT.

  8. Active overbank deposition during the last century, South River, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzuto, Jim; Skalak, Katherine; Pearson, Adam; Benthem, Adam

    2016-03-01

    We quantify rates of overbank deposition over decadal to centennial timescales along the South River in Virginia using four independent methods. Detailed mercury profiles sampled adjacent to the stream channel preserve the peak historic mercury concentration on suspended sediment dating from 1955 to 1961 and suggest sedimentation rates of 8 to 50 cm/100 years. Sediment accumulation over the roots of trees suggest rates of 0 to 100 cm/100 years, with significantly higher values on levees and lower values on floodplains farther from the channel. Profiles of 137Cs and 210Pb from two eroding streambanks are fit with an advection-diffusion model calibrated at an upland reference site; these methods suggest sedimentation rates of 44 to 73 cm/100 years. Mercury inventories from 107 floodplain cores, combined with a previously published reconstruction of the history of mercury concentration on suspended sediment, provide spatially comprehensive estimates of floodplain sedimentation: median sedimentation rates are 3.8 cm/100 years for the < 0.3-year floodplain, 1.37 cm/100 years for the 0.3- to 2-year floodplain, 0.4 cm/100 years for the 2- to 5-year floodplain, and 0.1 cm/100 years for the 5- to 62-year floodplain. While these sedimentation rates are relatively low, the total mass of sediment stored from 1930 to 2007 is 4.9 ± 1.7 (95% confidence interval) × 107 kg, corresponding to an average thickness of 2.5 cm (3.2 cm/100 years). These results demonstrate that floodplains of our 4.5-km-long study reach have stored 8 to 12% of the total suspended sediment supplied to the study reach of the South River. Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) modeling demonstrates that the floodplain of the South River remains hydraulically connected to the channel: 56% of the 100-year floodplain is inundated every two years, and 83% of the floodplain is inundated every five years. These results, combined with previously published data, provide the basis for a

  9. Activation Layer Stabilization of High Polarization Photocathodes in Sub-Optimal RF Gun Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory A. Mulhollan

    2010-11-16

    Specific activation recipes for bulk, 100 nm thick MBE grown and high polarization III-V photocathode material have been developed which mitigate the effects of exposure to background gasses. Lifetime data using four representative gasses were acquired for bulk GaAs, 100 nm unstrained GaAs and strained superlattice GaAs/GaAsP, all activated both with Cs and then Cs and Li (bi-alkali). Each photoemitter showed marked resilience improvement when activated using the bi-alkali recipe compared to the standard single alkali recipe. A dual alkali activation system at SLAC was constructed, baked and commissioned with the purpose of performing spin-polarization measurements on electrons emitted from the bi-alkali activated surfaces. An end station at SSRL was configured with the required sources for energy resolved photoemission measurements on the bi-alkali activated and CO2 dosed surfaces. The bi-alkali recipes were successfully implemented at SLAC/SSRL. Measurements at SLAC of the photoelectron spin-polarization from the modified activation surface showed no sign of a change in value compared to the standard activated material, i.e., no ill effects. Analysis of photoemission data indicates that the addition of Li to the activation layer results in a multi-layer structure. The presence of Li in the activation layer also acts as an inhibitor to CO2 absorption, hence better lifetimes in worse vacuum were achieved. The bi-alkali activation has been tested on O2 activated GaAs for comparison with NF3 activated surfaces. Comparable resilience to CO2 exposure was achieved for the O2 activated surface. An RF PECVD amorphous silicon growth system was modified to allow high temperature heat cleaning of GaAs substrates prior to film deposition. Growth versus thickness data were collected. Very thin amorphous silicon germanium layers were optimized to exhibit good behavior as an electron emitter. Growth of the amorphous silicon germanium films on the above substrates was fine tuned

  10. Telmisartan prevention of LPS-induced microglia activation involves M2 microglia polarization via CaMKKβ-dependent AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Yurong; Wang, Yunjie; He, Ling; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Huang, Zhangjian; Liao, Hong; Li, Jia; Saavedra, Juan M; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao

    2015-11-01

    Brain inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric and neurological diseases. During brain inflammation, microglia cells are activated, producing neurotoxic molecules and neurotrophic factors depending on their pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. It has been demonstrated that Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) ameliorate brain inflammation and reduce M1 microglia activation. The ARB telmisartan suppresses glutamate-induced upregulation of inflammatory genes in cultured primary neurons. We wished to clarify whether telmisartan, in addition, prevents microglia activation through polarization to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. We found that telmisartan promoted M2 polarization and reduced M1 polarization in LPS-stimulated BV2 and primary microglia cells, effects partially dependent on PPARγ activation. The promoting effects of telmisartan on M2 polarization, were attenuated by an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor or AMPK knockdown, indicating that AMPK activation participates on telmisartan effects. Moreover, in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells, telmisartan enhancement of M2 gene expression was prevented by the inhibitor STO-609 and siRNA of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ), an upstream kinase of AMPK. Furthermore, telmisartan enhanced brain AMPK activation and M2 gene expression in a mouse model of LPS-induced neuroinflammation. In addition, telmisartan reduced the LPS-induced sickness behavior in this in vivo model, and this effect was prevented by prior administration of an AMPK inhibitor. Our results indicate that telmisartan can be considered as a novel AMPK activator, suppressing microglia activation by promoting M2 polarization. Telmisartan may provide a novel, safe therapeutic approach to treat brain disorders associated with enhanced inflammation.

  11. Human and climate impacts on Holocene fire activity recorded in polar and mountain ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie; Zennaro, Piero; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Li, Quanlian; Wang, Ninglian; Power, Mitchell; Zangrando, Roberta; Gabrielli, Paolo; Thompson, Lonnie; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Fire is one of the major influences of biogeochemical change on local to hemispheric scales through emitting greenhouse gases, altering atmospheric chemistry, and changing primary productivity. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is a specific molecular that can only be produced by cellulose burning at temperatures > 300°C, comprises a major component of smoke plumes, and can be transported across > 1000 km distances. Levoglucosan is deposited on and archived in glaciers over glacial interglacial cycles resulting in pyrochemical evidence for exploring interactions between fire, climate and human activity. Ice core records provide records of past biomass burning from regions of the world with limited paleofire data including polar and low-latitude, high-altitude regions. Here, we present Holocene fire activity records from the NEEM, Greenland (77° 27'N; 51° 3'W; 2454 masl), EPICA Dome C, Antarctica (75° 06'S; 123° 21'E; 3233 masl), Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (3° 05'S, 21.2° E, 5893 masl) and the Muztagh, China (87.17° E; 36.35° N; 5780 masl ice cores. The NEEM ice core reflects boreal fire activity from both North American and Eurasian sources. Temperature is the dominant control of NEEM levoglucosan flux over decadal to millennial time scales, while droughts influence fire activity over sub-decadal timescales. Our results demonstrate the prominence of Siberian fire sources during intense multiannual droughts. Unlike the NEEM core, which incorporates the largest land masses in the world as potential fire sources, EPICA Dome C is located far from any possible fire source. However, EPICA Dome C levoglucosan concentrations are consistently above detection limits and demonstrate a substantial 1000-fold increase in fire activity beginning approximately 800 years ago. This significant and sustained increase coincides with Maori arrival and dispersal in New Zealand augmented by later European arrival in Australia. The EPICA Dome C levoglucosan profile is

  12. Exhuming South Polar Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 February 2004 The large, circular feature in this image is an old meteor impact crater. The crater is larger than the 3 kilometers-wide (1.9 miles-wide) Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, thus only part of the crater is seen. The bright mesas full of pits and holes--in some areas resembling swiss cheese--are composed of frozen carbon dioxide. In this summertime view, the mesa slopes and pit walls are darkened as sunlight causes some of the ice to sublime away. At one time in the past, the crater shown here may have been completely covered with carbon dioxide ice, but, over time, it has been exhumed as the ice sublimes a little bit more each summer. The crater is located near 86.8oS, 111.6oW. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left.

  13. Volcanic activity within the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago, south of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskuldsson, A.; Kjartansson, E.; Hey, R.; Driscoll, N.

    2006-12-01

    Bathymetric research with multibeam techniques and chirp profiles reveal the volcanic topography of the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago just off the south coast of Iceland. Within the archipelago two historic eruptions have occurred, Surtsey 1963-1967 and the one of Heimaey in 1973. Five other eruptive vents have been identified as Holocene, Storhöfdi ~8000 BP, Sæfell ~6220 BP, Helgafell ~5900 BP and the islands Bjarnarey and Ellirey ~4500 BP. High precision multibeam data reveal several other eruptive vents and their geometry in the area. From the geometry it can be concluded that prehistoric volcanic activity in the area is dominated by phreatomagmatic activity. Tuff cones up to 2 km in diameter are observed in the area of Heimaey. Eustatic sea level changes can be inferred from these volcanic formations (Rofubodi vent) , indicating that a rise of up to 80 m has occurred since late Pleistocene times (~12000 years BP). Further our data show that sea level rise occurred in steps, as is manifested by the Alsey reef, now submerged and extending north of that island. The data also allow us to identify four major submarine lava flows in the area. One from the Eldfell eruption in 1973, one from the Helgafell eruption 5900 BP, one from the Storhofdi eruption ~8000BP and finally a lava flow that is extending from Faxasker towards the north west. The Vestmannaeyjar archipelago is forming a ridge extending NE to SW. The ridge is about 5 km wide and 30 km long. The ridge rises from a depth of some 72 m in the west but falls off to about 130 m in the east. The eastern border is more prominent than the western one. The Vestmannaeyjar ridge ends abruptly in the north, just prior to reaching the main outwash delta from the main island Iceland. A narrow trough has been formed in the area, Allinn, as the outwash delta propagates towards the ridge. Our data also allow for interpretation on relative timing of the volcanic formations. It has been shown that the LGM ice sheet extended to

  14. Photoemission from activated gallium arsenide. II. Spin polarization versus kinetic energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouhin, H.-J.; Hermann, C.; Lampel, G.

    1985-03-01

    The spin polarization of the electrons emitted by a GaAs photocathode under circularly polarized light excitation is investigated as a function of the electron kinetic energy. The photocathode is activated by cesium and oxygen coadsorption under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions to achieve a negative electron affinity. The spin polarization is measured by Mott scattering. The study is performed with a very-high-energy resolution (20 meV), at 300 and 120 K, under well-focused Kr+-laser light excitation (photon energy ranging from 1.55 to 2.60 eV). The polarization-versus-energy distribution curves show typical features related to those observed in the energy distribution curves, which are analyzed in detail in the preceding paper [H.-J. Drouhin, C. Hermann, and G. Lampel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 3859 (1985)]. A model is developed to account for the largest measured polarization, which arises from electrons excited from the heavy-hole band and emitted without suffering any collision: A (2/3) maximum value is expected, which is reduced by spin precession in the internal D'yakonov and Perel' (DP) field, due to the absence of space-inversion symmetry in GaAs. An estimation of the hot-electron mean free path (~0.1 μm for photon energy above 1.96 eV) is deduced. The photoemission polarizations of the electrons excited from each of the two other valence bands are also calculated using a nonparabolic Kane band model. The L and X subsidiary minima give rise to polarization plateaus originating from energy relaxation in the band-bending region. The main contribution to the photocurrent is due to electrons which were thermalized in the central minimum of the bulk crystal and have relaxed their energy in the band-bending region prior to emission into vacuum. Their polarization is studied in relation with the luminescence polarization, measured on the same samples, in the framework of a one-dimensional diffusion model. An additional depolarization, occurring during the escape process, is

  15. Proliferative effects of apical, but not basal, matrix metalloproteinase-7 activity in polarized MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, Permila C.; McCawley, Lisa J.; Fingleton, Barbara; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Matrisian, Lynn M. . E-mail: lynn.matrisian@vanderbilt.edu

    2005-02-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is primarily expressed in glandular epithelium. Therefore, its mechanism of action may be influenced by its regulated vectorial release to either the apical and/or basolateral compartments, where it would act on its various substrates. To gain a better understanding of where MMP-7 is released in polarized epithelium, we have analyzed its pattern of secretion in polarized MDCK cells expressing stably transfected human MMP-7 (MDCK-MMP-7), and HCA-7 and Caco2 human colon cancer cell lines. In all cell lines, latent MMP-7 was secreted to both cellular compartments, but was 1.5- to 3-fold more abundant in the basolateral compartment as compared to the apical. However, studies in the MDCK system demonstrated that MMP-7 activity was 2-fold greater in the apical compartment of MDCK-MMP-7{sup HIGH}-polarized monolayers, which suggests the apical co-release of an MMP-7 activator. In functional assays, MMP-7 over-expression increased cell saturation density as a result of increased cell proliferation with no effect on apoptosis. Apical MMP-7 activity was shown to be responsible for the proliferative effect, which occurred, as demonstrated by media transfer experiments, through cleavage of an apical substrate and not through the generation of a soluble factor. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of MMP-7 secretion in relation to its mechanism of action when expressed in a polarized epithelium.

  16. Radiative recombination from dark excitons in nanocrystals: Activation mechanisms and polarization properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodina, Anna V.; Efros, Alexander L.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze theoretically physical mechanisms responsible for the radiative recombination of the ground optically passive ("dark") exciton (DE), which dominates in photoluminescence (PL) of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) at low temperatures. The DE becomes optically active due to its mixing with the bright excitons caused by an external magnetic field, dangling-bond spins or by acoustic and optical phonons. These activation mechanisms mix the DE with different bright excitons and, consequently, lead to different PL polarization properties, because they are determined by dipole orientations of the bright excitons, which the DE is coupled with. We show that the PL polarization properties of prolate and oblate shape NCs are different due to different activation mechanisms responsible for the DE recombination.

  17. Role of interfacial friction for flow instabilities in a thin polar-ordered active fluid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Niladri; Basu, Abhik

    2015-11-01

    We construct a generic coarse-grained dynamics of a thin inflexible planar layer of polar-ordered suspension of active particles that is frictionally coupled to an embedding isotropic passive fluid medium with a friction coefficient Γ . Being controlled by Γ , our model provides a unified framework to describe the long-wavelength behavior of a variety of thin polar-ordered systems, ranging from wet to dry active matter and free-standing active films. Investigations of the linear instabilities around a chosen orientationally ordered uniform reference state reveal generic moving and static instabilities in the system that can depend sensitively on Γ . Based on our results, we discuss estimation of bounds on Γ in experimentally accessible systems.

  18. Observations of the northern seasonal polar cap on Mars: I. Spring sublimation activity and processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, C.J.; Byrne, S.; Portyankina, G.; Bourke, M.; Dundas, C.; McEwen, A.; Mellon, M.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.

    2013-01-01

    Spring sublimation of the seasonal CO2 northern polar cap is a dynamic process in the current Mars climate. Phenomena include dark fans of dune material propelled out onto the seasonal ice layer, polygonal cracks in the seasonal ice, sand flow down slipfaces, and outbreaks of gas and sand around the dune margins. These phenomena are concentrated on the north polar erg that encircles the northern residual polar cap. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has been in orbit for three Mars years, allowing us to observe three northern spring seasons. Activity is consistent with and well described by the Kieffer model of basal sublimation of the seasonal layer of ice applied originally in the southern hemisphere. Three typical weak spots have been identified on the dunes for escape of gas sublimed from the bottom of the seasonal ice layer: the crest of the dune, the interface of the dune with the interdune substrate, and through polygonal cracks in the ice. Pressurized gas flows through these vents and carries out material entrained from the dune. Furrows in the dunes channel gas to outbreak points and may be the northern equivalent of southern radially-organized channels (“araneiform” terrain), albeit not permanent. Properties of the seasonal CO2 ice layer are derived from timing of seasonal events such as when final sublimation occurs. Modification of dune morphology shows that landscape evolution is occurring on Mars today, driven by seasonal activity associated with sublimation of the seasonal CO2 polar cap.

  19. Polar bear hepatic cytochrome P450: Immunochemical quantitation, EROD/PROD activity and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J. |

    1994-12-31

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are an ubiquitous mammal atop the arctic marine food chain and bioaccumulate lipophilic environmental contaminants. Antibodies prepared against purified rat liver cytochrome P450-1 Al, -1 A2, -2Bl and -3Al enzymes have been found to cross-react with structurally-related orthologues present in the hepatic microsomes of wild polar bears, immunochemically determined levels of P450-1 A and -2B proteins in polar bear liver relative to liver of untreated rats suggested enzyme induction, probably as a result of exposure to xenobiotic contaminants. Optical density quantitation of the most immunochemically responsive isozymes P450-I Al, -IA2 and -2Bi to polygonal rabbit anti-rat P450-IA/IA2 sera and -2BI antibodies in hepatic microsomes of 13 adult male polar bars from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic is presented. Correlations with EROD and PROD catalytic activities and levels of organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p-DDE) and their methyl sulfone (MeSO2-) metabolites are made to determine if compound-specific enzyme induction linkages exist. Inter-species immunochemical quantitation of isozymic P450 cytochromes can serve as an indicator of exposure to biologically active contaminant.

  20. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens α-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears.

  1. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens α-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears. PMID:21358758

  2. MiR-16 regulates mouse peritoneal macrophage polarization and affects T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoqin; Li, Xiaomin; Shen, Yating; Miao, Junjun; Liu, Hao; Li, Guoli; Wang, Zhengbing

    2016-10-01

    MiR-16 is a tumour suppressor that is down-regulated in certain human cancers. However, little is known on its activity in other cell types. In this study, we examined the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of miR-16 on macrophage polarization and subsequent T-cell activation. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were isolated and induced to undergo either M1 polarization with 100 ng/ml of interferon-γ and 20 ng/ml of lipopolysaccharide, or M2 polarization with 20 ng/ml of interleukin (IL)-4. The identity of polarized macrophages was determined by profiling cell-surface markers by flow cytometry and cytokine production by ELISA. Macrophages were infected with lentivirus-expressing miR-16 to assess the effects of miR-16. Effects on macrophage-T cell interactions were analysed by co-culturing purified CD4(+) T cells with miR-16-expressing peritoneal macrophages, and measuring activation marker CD69 by flow cytometry and cytokine secretion by ELISA. Bioinformatics analysis was applied to search for potential miR-16 targets and understand its underlying mechanisms. MiR-16-induced M1 differentiation of mouse peritoneal macrophages from either the basal M0- or M2-polarized state is indicated by the significant up-regulation of M1 marker CD16/32, repression of M2 marker CD206 and Dectin-1, and increased secretion of M1 cytokine IL-12 and nitric oxide. Consistently, miR-16-expressing macrophages stimulate the activation of purified CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, miR-16 significantly down-regulates the expression of PD-L1, a critical immune suppressor that controls macrophage-T cell interaction and T-cell activation. MiR-16 plays an important role in shifting macrophage polarization from M2 to M1 status, and functionally activating CD4(+) T cells. This effect is potentially mediated through the down-regulation of immune suppressor PD-L1.

  3. Pre-recessional (Ls 160-200) Polar Water Ice Clouds at the Martian South Pole: Potential Tracers of East-West Asymmetry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. J.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    CRISM observations of the south polar region during the pre-spring recession period (Ls 160-200) show tenuous water ice signatures mixed with CO2 ice signatures over the polar cap between latitudes [1]. Water ice has been identified using the 1.5 micron absorption band, which is discernable within the CO2 1.435 micron band complex due to the narrow nature of the CO2 ice absorptions [2, 3]. A surface deposit of water ice is not favored due to the apparent fine grained nature of the water ice, which is indicated by the weak 1.5 micron absorption band, and the disappearance of the clouds prior to retreat of the south polar CO2 ice beneath them. CRISM observations show the pre-recessional water ice clouds appear to go through a steady growth phase from Ls 160-190 and have a short terminal phase from Ls 200-205 [1, 2]. The clouds never quite encircle the whole pole, and never penetrate the 80 degree latitude line. They are strongest at, and appear to originate from, the 90-150 degree meridian range. From Mars GCM simulations, similar patterns appear to originate from east-west asymmetries in the early spring circulation and low-level thermal environments of the high-latitude/polar regions of the southern hemisphere that arise due to asymmetries of large-scale orography and its effects on the atmosphere and climate. We are currently investigating the optical thickness of the water ice clouds using CRISM full resolution emission phase function observations and intend to examine the H2O absorption bands at 3.2 microns to further elucidate the cloud properties. The potential to trace asymmetric polar atmospheric fluxes using these water ice clouds as tracers may lead to a better understanding of the enigmatic cryptic region and the displacement of the south pole residual cap [5]. [1] Brown, A.J. (2007) Fall AGU abstract P33A-1016 [2] Brown, A.J. and Calvin, W. JGR in preparation [3] Langevin, Y. et al. (2006) JGR 112 doi:10.1029/2006JE002841 [4] Hollingsworth, J.L. et al

  4. 78 FR 16247 - Foreign-Trade Zone 38-Spartanburg County, South Carolina; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Production Activity; ZF Transmissions Gray Court, LLC (Automatic Transmissions); Gray Court, South Carolina... Transmissions Gray Court, LLC, within FTZ 38--Site 20, in Gray Court, South Carolina. The notification was... Federal Register inviting public comment (77 FR 70992-70993, 11-28-2012). The FTZ Board has...

  5. Active self-polarization of contractile cells in asymmetrically shaped domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemel, A.; Safran, S. A.

    2007-08-01

    Mechanical forces generated by contractile cells allow the cells to sense their environment and to interact with other cells. By locally pulling on their environment, cells can sense and respond to mechanical features such as the local stress (or strain), the shape of a cellular domain, and the surrounding rigidity; at the same time, they also modify the mechanical state of the system. This creates a mechanical feedback loop that can result in self-polarization of cells. In this paper, we present a quantitative mechanical model that predicts the self-polarization of cells in spheroidally shaped domains, comprising contractile cells and an elastic matrix, that are embedded in a three-dimensional, cell-free gel. The theory is based on a generalization of the known results for passive inclusions in solids to include the effects of cell activity. We use the active cellular susceptibility tensor presented by Zemel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 128103 (2006)] to calculate the polarization response and hence the elastic stress field developed by the cells in the cellular domain. The cell polarization is analyzed as a function of the shape and the elastic moduli of the cellular domain compared with the cell-free surrounding material. Consistent with experiment, our theory predicts the development of a stronger contractile force for cells in a gel that is surrounded by a large, cell-free material whose elastic modulus is stiffer than that of the gel that contains the cells. This provides a quantitative explanation of the differences in the development of cellular forces as observed in free and fixed gels. In the case of an asymmetrically shaped (spheroidal) domain of cells, we show that the anisotropic elastic field within the domain leads to a spontaneous self-polarization of the cells along the long axis of the domain.

  6. Assessing Challenges and Opportunities for Education and Communication Activities for International Polar Year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M. S.

    2005-05-01

    Considerable planning has gone into identifying ways to maximize International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) as a global event that will facilitate the integration of research and education inherent in IPY, and draw the interest and involvement of people around the world. Documents developed through the IPY planning process, including NRC Reports (2004), and drafts reports on education and outreach from the ICSU IPY Planning Group in the Fall of 2004, and the Bridging the Poles workshop of June, 2004, articulate the tremendous potential for IPY beyond the formal research agenda and goals. With less that two years before the start of IPY and fewer than fours years before the activities are completed, these and emerging opportunities face a number of challenges. In addition to the limited time frame remaining to prepare for these activities, participants involved with IPY education and outreach will also need to consider factors such as: uncertain funding for such activities; the lack of established international networks for geoscience education; the need for high level coordination of IPY education and communication; and the creative and intellectual challenge of making the polar regions relevant to people around the world. The planning process has identified six constituencies as key audiences of IPY communication efforts: i) the scientific/research community, ii) young and potentially new polar researchers, iii) the pre-university education community, iv) arctic communities, iv) the general public, and v) decision-makers. Understanding and meeting these audiences' expectations through on-going evaluation and engagement will be key to successful IPY education and outreach efforts. A number of distinct education and outreach projects have been proposed to the ICSU-WMO IPY planning process, such as courses and workshops on specific aspects of IPY, including efforts to address the social and cultural dimension of Arctic peoples. To help meet the challenges, achieve the

  7. Compact and highly-efficient polarization independent vertical resonant couplers for active-passive monolithic integration.

    PubMed

    Galarza, Marko; Van Thourhout, Dries; Baets, Roel; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2008-06-01

    Compact low-loss polarization independent vertical coupling between a 1.55 microm InGaAsP bulk active waveguide and a passive waveguide based on bimodal interference is presented. Simulation results show low coupling loss (<0.1 dB) over coupler lengths more than 5 times shorter than using the adiabatic design. The concept avoids submicron photolithographic features and shows acceptable fabrication tolerances.

  8. Active layer warming and deepening at Thule, Greenland during past decade: a comparison of a Polar Desert and a Polar Semi-desert site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletten, R. S.; Hagedorn, B.; Hallet, B.; Burnham, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Microclimate and soil temperature/moisture monitoring at a Polar Desert and a Polar Semi-Desert site at Thule, Greenland reveals recent warming trends and distinct differences between these two sites. Approximately 5 C of warming occurred at the Polar Desert site from 2004 to 2009, while the Polar Semi-desert site warmed only about 3.5 C. Since 2009, the temperatures remain higher but stable. This warming trend is also reflected in the active layer, both in warming of the soil and in deepening of the active layer. Trends in soil temperatures and active layer depth are controlled substantially by the snow cover. For the Polar Semi-desert site, soil temperatures are measured both under natural snow accumulation conditions and under enhanced snow accumulation where a snow fence was installed. The insulating effect of the snow cover is effective and results in significantly warmer winter soils, as has been shown in other artificial snow cover studies. The warmer winter soils may allow greater respiration during the transition seasons thereby releasing more of the accumulated soil carbon in these sites than that we have previously documented. The trends in temperature and moisture may in part be controlled by the higher wind velocities at the Polar Desert site. These conditions are likely to be dominant controls on the ecosystem, along with differences in lithology which affects the cryoturbation of the soils. This in-depth microclimate study, along with our studies of the soils and soil water chemistry provides a detailed comparison of the adjacent ecosystems and may allow us to better predict how slight changes in climatic conditions may influence these systems and their subsequent feedback on carbon cycling.

  9. Long-Term Trends of Nutrients and Apparent Oxygen Utilization South of the Polar Front in Southern Ocean Intermediate Water from 1965 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Takahiro; Odate, Tsuneo; Fukuchi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The variation of nutrients over decadal timescales south of the polar front in the Southern Ocean is poorly known because of a lack of continuous observational data in this area. We examined data from long-term continuous hydrographic monitoring of 43 years (1965–2008) in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, via the resupply of Antarctic stations under the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition and Australian Antarctic Research Expedition. We found significant increasing trends in phosphate and nitrate, and a decreasing trend in apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) in intermediate water (neutral density = 27.8–28.1 kgm−3) south of the polar front. The rates of phosphate and nitrate increase are 0.004 µmol yr−1 and 0.02 µmol yr−1, respectively. The rate of decline of AOU was 0.32 µmol yr−1. One reason for this phosphate and nitrate increase and AOU decline is reduced horizontal advection of North Atlantic Deep Water, which is characterized by low nutrients and high AOU. The relationship between climate change and nutrient variability remains obscure, emphasizing the importance of long-term monitoring. PMID:23990984

  10. Low-frequency Observations of Linearly Polarized Structures in the Interstellar Medium near the South Galactic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenc, E.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sun, X. H.; Sadler, E. M.; Willis, A. G.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bell, M. E.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Callingham, J. R.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dillon, J. S.; Dwarkanath, K. S.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; For, B.-Q.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Jacobs, D. C.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, H.-S.; Kratzenberg, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Murphy, T.; Neben, A. R.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Pindor, B.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, S. K.; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tegmark, M.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Zheng, Q.

    2016-10-01

    We present deep polarimetric observations at 154 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), covering 625 deg2 centered on α = 0hand δ = ‑27°. The sensitivity available in our deep observations allows an in-band, frequency-dependent analysis of polarized structure for the first time at long wavelengths. Our analysis suggests that the polarized structures are dominated by intrinsic emission but may also have a foreground Faraday screen component. At these wavelengths, the compactness of the MWA baseline distribution provides excellent snapshot sensitivity to large-scale structure. The observations are sensitive to diffuse polarized emission at ∼54‧ resolution with a sensitivity of 5.9 mJy beam‑1 and compact polarized sources at ∼2.‧4 resolution with a sensitivity of 2.3 mJy beam‑1 for a subset (400 deg2) of this field. The sensitivity allows the effect of ionospheric Faraday rotation to be spatially and temporally measured directly from the diffuse polarized background. Our observations reveal large-scale structures (∼1°–8° in extent) in linear polarization clearly detectable in ∼2 minute snapshots, which would remain undetectable by interferometers with minimum baseline lengths of >110 m at 154 MHz. The brightness temperature of these structures is on average 4 K in polarized intensity, peaking at 11 K. Rotation measure synthesis reveals that the structures have Faraday depths ranging from ‑2 to 10 rad m‑2 with a large fraction peaking at approximately +1 rad m‑2. We estimate a distance of 51 ± 20 pc to the polarized emission based on measurements of the in-field pulsar J2330–2005. We detect four extragalactic linearly polarized point sources within the field in our compact source survey. Based on the known polarized source population at 1.4 GHz and non-detections at 154 MHz, we estimate an upper limit on the depolarization ratio of 0.08 from 1.4 GHz to 154 MHz.

  11. The antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and selectivity index of leaf extracts of thirteen South African tree species used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diseases caused by bacteria remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The plants used in this study have been used in South Africa to treat helminth infections in livestock and humans. In a previous study we found a correlation between antifungal and anthelmintic activity in some cases. In this study we examined other potential uses of these thirteen plant species by determining the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf acetone extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by using a serial microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Bioautography was used to determine the number of antibacterial compounds. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS and DPPH methods. Results Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea with an MIC of 0.02 mg/ml had excellent antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a poor correlation between antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity with R2 = 0.143. This is because antibacterial activity is mainly related to non-polar compounds and antioxidant activity to polar compounds. Maesa lanceolata extracts had a low cytotoxicity with a selectivity index of 5.2, 2.6, 2.6 and 1.3 for P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus respectively. Strychnos mitis extracts had a therapeutic index of 1.1 for E. coli. Conclusions This study shows that plant extracts of some species used in ethnoveterinary medicine as anthelmintic may also have excellent antibacterial activity. PMID:24589020

  12. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia.

  13. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia. PMID:26503008

  14. Palmitoleate Reverses High Fat-induced Proinflammatory Macrophage Polarization via AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK)*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kenny L.; Pillon, Nicolas J.; Sivaloganathan, Darshan M.; Costford, Sheila R.; Liu, Zhi; Théret, Marine; Chazaud, Benedicte; Klip, Amira

    2015-01-01

    A rise in tissue-embedded macrophages displaying “M1-like” proinflammatory polarization is a hallmark of metabolic inflammation during a high fat diet or obesity. Here we show that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from high fat-fed mice retain a memory of their dietary environment in vivo (displaying the elevated proinflammatory genes Cxcl1, Il6, Tnf, Nos2) despite 7-day differentiation and proliferation ex vivo. Notably, 6-h incubation with palmitoleate (PO) reversed the proinflammatory gene expression and cytokine secretion seen in BMDM from high fat-fed mice. BMDM from low fat-fed mice exposed to palmitate (PA) for 18 h ex vivo also showed elevated expression of proinflammatory genes (Cxcl1, Il6, Tnf, Nos2, and Il12b) associated with M1 polarization. Conversely, PO treatment increased anti-inflammatory genes (Mrc1, Tgfb1, Il10, Mgl2) and oxidative metabolism, characteristic of M2 macrophages. Therefore, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids bring about opposite macrophage polarization states. Coincubation of BMDM with both fatty acids counteracted the PA-induced Nos2 expression in a PO dose-dependent fashion. PO also prevented PA-induced IκBα degradation, RelA nuclear translocation, NO production, and cytokine secretion. Mechanistically, PO exerted its anti-inflammatory function through AMP-activated protein kinase as AMP kinase knockout or inhibition by Compound C offset the PO-dependent prevention of PA-induced inflammation. These results demonstrate a nutritional memory of BMDM ex vivo, highlight the plasticity of BMDM polarization in response to saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and identify the potential to reverse diet- and saturated fat-induced M1-like polarization by administering palmitoleate. These findings could have applicability to reverse obesity-linked inflammation in metabolically relevant tissues. PMID:25987561

  15. Palmitoleate Reverses High Fat-induced Proinflammatory Macrophage Polarization via AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK).

    PubMed

    Chan, Kenny L; Pillon, Nicolas J; Sivaloganathan, Darshan M; Costford, Sheila R; Liu, Zhi; Théret, Marine; Chazaud, Benedicte; Klip, Amira

    2015-07-01

    A rise in tissue-embedded macrophages displaying "M1-like" proinflammatory polarization is a hallmark of metabolic inflammation during a high fat diet or obesity. Here we show that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from high fat-fed mice retain a memory of their dietary environment in vivo (displaying the elevated proinflammatory genes Cxcl1, Il6, Tnf, Nos2) despite 7-day differentiation and proliferation ex vivo. Notably, 6-h incubation with palmitoleate (PO) reversed the proinflammatory gene expression and cytokine secretion seen in BMDM from high fat-fed mice. BMDM from low fat-fed mice exposed to palmitate (PA) for 18 h ex vivo also showed elevated expression of proinflammatory genes (Cxcl1, Il6, Tnf, Nos2, and Il12b) associated with M1 polarization. Conversely, PO treatment increased anti-inflammatory genes (Mrc1, Tgfb1, Il10, Mgl2) and oxidative metabolism, characteristic of M2 macrophages. Therefore, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids bring about opposite macrophage polarization states. Coincubation of BMDM with both fatty acids counteracted the PA-induced Nos2 expression in a PO dose-dependent fashion. PO also prevented PA-induced IκBα degradation, RelA nuclear translocation, NO production, and cytokine secretion. Mechanistically, PO exerted its anti-inflammatory function through AMP-activated protein kinase as AMP kinase knockout or inhibition by Compound C offset the PO-dependent prevention of PA-induced inflammation. These results demonstrate a nutritional memory of BMDM ex vivo, highlight the plasticity of BMDM polarization in response to saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and identify the potential to reverse diet- and saturated fat-induced M1-like polarization by administering palmitoleate. These findings could have applicability to reverse obesity-linked inflammation in metabolically relevant tissues.

  16. Is the South Pacific helium-3 plume dynamically active?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stommel, Henry

    1982-11-01

    It is suggested that the hydrothermal vents of the South Pacific Rise produce a beta-governed circulation at mid-depth, and that perhaps the associated plume of excess 3He (Lupton and Craig [1]) points westward because of the dynamics of this circulation rather than as a passive tracer.

  17. Student Activism and Student Exclusions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Charlton; Cele, Mlungisi; Libhaber, Arial

    2006-01-01

    On average, about 25 percent of students leave higher education (HE) institutions annually in South Africa because they are excluded on academic and financial grounds. To resist such putouts, student boycotts and protests are common despite the fact that student organizations were incorporated into decision-making processes at HE institutions…

  18. Magnetic Tilts and Polarity Separations in Sunspot Groups and Active Regions the Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, S. I.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    We present the analysis of magnetic tilts in active regions and sunspot groups for 1996-2005 that are automatically extracted from the Solar Feature Catalogues (http://solar.inf.brad.ac.uk ). We investigate the statistical variations of magnetic field tilt in sunspot groups and whole active regions, their longitudinal and latitudinal distributions, drifts and daily polarity separation during different phases of the solar cycle 23. The classification results are compared with the similar research for the previous cycles and the specifics on the cycle 23 is discussed in conjunction to the solar dynamo theory.

  19. Flagellar dynamics of a connected chain of active, polar, Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Chelakkot, Raghunath; Gopinath, Arvind; Mahadevan, L; Hagan, Michael F

    2014-03-01

    We show that active, self-propelled particles that are connected together to form a single chain that is anchored at one end can produce the graceful beating motions of flagella. Changing the boundary condition from a clamp to a pivot at the anchor leads to steadily rotating tight coils. Strong noise in the system disrupts the regularity of the oscillations. We use a combination of detailed numerical simulations, mean-field scaling analysis and first passage time theory to characterize the phase diagram as a function of the filament length, passive elasticity, propulsion force and noise. Our study suggests minimal experimental tests for the onset of oscillations in an active polar chain.

  20. Polarized epithelial cells secrete matriptase as a consequence of zymogen activation and HAI-1-mediated inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jehng-Kang; Lee, Ming-Shyue; Tseng, I-Chu; Chou, Feng-Pai; Chen, Ya-Wen; Fulton, Amy; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Chen, Cheng-Jueng; Johnson, Michael D.; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Matriptase, a transmembrane serine protease, is broadly expressed by, and crucial for the integrity of, the epithelium. Matriptase is synthesized as a zymogen and undergoes autoactivation to become an active protease that is immediately inhibited by, and forms complexes with, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI-1). To investigate where matriptase is activated and how it is secreted in vivo, we determined the expression and activation status of matriptase in seminal fluid and urine and the distribution and subcellular localization of the protease in the prostate and kidney. The in vivo studies revealed that while the latent matriptase is localized at the basolateral surface of the ductal epithelial cells of both organs, only matriptase-HAI-1 complexes and not latent matriptase are detected in the body fluids, suggesting that activation, inhibition, and transcytosis of matriptase would have to occur for the secretion of matriptase. These complicated processes involved in the in vivo secretion were also observed in polarized Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. The cells target latent matriptase to the basolateral plasma membrane where activation, inhibition, and secretion of matriptase appear to take place. However, a proportion of matriptase-HAI-1 complexes, but not the latent matriptase, appears to undergo transcytosis to the apical plasma membrane for secretion. When epithelial cells lose their polarity, they secrete both latent and activated matriptase. Although most epithelial cells retain very low levels of matriptase-HAI-1 complex by rapidly secreting the complex, gastric chief cells may activate matriptase and store matriptase-HAI-1 complexes in the pepsinogen-secretory granules, suggesting an intracellular activation and regulated secretion in these cells. Taken together, while zymogen activation and closely coupled HAI-1-mediated inhibition are common features for matriptase regulation, the cellular location of matriptase activation and

  1. Influence of Polarity and Activation Energy in Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Antonio M; Prieto, Pilar; de la Hoz, Antonio; Díaz-Ortiz, Ángel; Martín, D Raúl; García, José I

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the parameters that have decisive roles in microwave-assisted reactions and to develop a model, using computational chemistry, to predict a priori the type of reactions that can be improved under microwaves. For this purpose, a computational study was carried out on a variety of reactions, which have been reported to be improved under microwave irradiation. This comprises six types of reactions. The outcomes obtained in this study indicate that the most influential parameters are activation energy, enthalpy, and the polarity of all the species that participate. In addition to this, in most cases, slower reacting systems observe a much greater improvement under microwave irradiation. Furthermore, for these reactions, the presence of a polar component in the reaction (solvent, reagent, susceptor, etc.) is necessary for strong coupling with the electromagnetic radiation. We also quantified that an activation energy of 20-30 kcal mol(-1) and a polarity (μ) between 7-20 D of the species involved in the process is required to obtain significant improvements under microwave irradiation.

  2. Influence of Polarity and Activation Energy in Microwave–Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS)

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Antonio M; Prieto, Pilar; de la Hoz, Antonio; Díaz-Ortiz, Ángel; Martín, D Raúl; García, José I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the parameters that have decisive roles in microwave-assisted reactions and to develop a model, using computational chemistry, to predict a priori the type of reactions that can be improved under microwaves. For this purpose, a computational study was carried out on a variety of reactions, which have been reported to be improved under microwave irradiation. This comprises six types of reactions. The outcomes obtained in this study indicate that the most influential parameters are activation energy, enthalpy, and the polarity of all the species that participate. In addition to this, in most cases, slower reacting systems observe a much greater improvement under microwave irradiation. Furthermore, for these reactions, the presence of a polar component in the reaction (solvent, reagent, susceptor, etc.) is necessary for strong coupling with the electromagnetic radiation. We also quantified that an activation energy of 20–30 kcal mol−1 and a polarity (μ) between 7–20 D of the species involved in the process is required to obtain significant improvements under microwave irradiation. PMID:26246993

  3. PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Thi Thu; Park, Wei Sun; Park, Byung Ouk; Kim, Cha Yeon; Oh, Yohan; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Hana; Kyung, Taeyoon; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Gabsang; Hahn, Klaus M; Meyer, Tobias; Heo, Won Do

    2016-09-01

    Cells migrate by directing Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42) activities and by polymerizing actin toward the leading edge of the cell. Previous studies have proposed that this polarization process requires a local positive feedback in the leading edge involving Rac small GTPase and actin polymerization with PI3K likely playing a coordinating role. Here, we show that the pleckstrin homology and RhoGEF domain containing G3 (PLEKHG3) is a PI3K-regulated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) for Rac1 and Cdc42 that selectively binds to newly polymerized actin at the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts. Optogenetic inactivation of PLEKHG3 showed that PLEKHG3 is indispensable both for inducing and for maintaining cell polarity. By selectively binding to newly polymerized actin, PLEKHG3 promotes local Rac1/Cdc42 activation to induce more local actin polymerization, which in turn promotes the recruitment of more PLEKHG3 to induce and maintain cell front. Thus, autocatalytic reinforcement of PLEKHG3 localization to the leading edge of the cell provides a molecular basis for the proposed positive feedback loop that is required for cell polarization and directed migration. PMID:27555588

  4. Macrophage activation and polarization modify P2X7 receptor secretome influencing the inflammatory process

    PubMed Central

    de Torre-Minguela, Carlos; Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Gómez, Ana I.; Martín-Sánchez, Fátima; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) on M1 polarized macrophages induces the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the establishment of the inflammatory response. However, P2X7R signaling to the NLRP3 inflammasome is uncoupled on M2 macrophages without changes on receptor activation. In this study, we analyzed P2X7R secretome in wild-type and P2X7R-deficient macrophages polarized either to M1 or M2 and proved that proteins released after P2X7R stimulation goes beyond caspase-1 secretome. The characterization of P2X7R-secretome reveals a new function of this receptor through a fine-tuning of protein release. We found that P2X7R stimulation in macrophages is able to release potent anti-inflammatory proteins, such as Annexin A1, independently of their polarization state suggesting for first time a potential role for P2X7R during resolution of the inflammation and not linked to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results are of prime importance for the development of therapeutics targeting P2X7R. PMID:26935289

  5. PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trang Thi Thu; Park, Wei Sun; Park, Byung Ouk; Kim, Cha Yeon; Oh, Yohan; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Hana; Kyung, Taeyoon; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Gabsang; Hahn, Klaus M.; Meyer, Tobias; Heo, Won Do

    2016-01-01

    Cells migrate by directing Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42) activities and by polymerizing actin toward the leading edge of the cell. Previous studies have proposed that this polarization process requires a local positive feedback in the leading edge involving Rac small GTPase and actin polymerization with PI3K likely playing a coordinating role. Here, we show that the pleckstrin homology and RhoGEF domain containing G3 (PLEKHG3) is a PI3K-regulated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) for Rac1 and Cdc42 that selectively binds to newly polymerized actin at the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts. Optogenetic inactivation of PLEKHG3 showed that PLEKHG3 is indispensable both for inducing and for maintaining cell polarity. By selectively binding to newly polymerized actin, PLEKHG3 promotes local Rac1/Cdc42 activation to induce more local actin polymerization, which in turn promotes the recruitment of more PLEKHG3 to induce and maintain cell front. Thus, autocatalytic reinforcement of PLEKHG3 localization to the leading edge of the cell provides a molecular basis for the proposed positive feedback loop that is required for cell polarization and directed migration. PMID:27555588

  6. AgI microplate monocrystals with polar {0001} facets: spontaneous photocarrier separation and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Qin; Zheng, Xiaoli; Yang, Shihe

    2014-02-24

    Elucidating the facet-dependent photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts is important in improving the overall efficiency of photocatalysis. Furthermore, combining facet control with selective deposition of oxidation and/or reduction cocatalysts on specific faces of semiconductor photocatalysts is potentially an effective strategy to synergistically optimize the functionality of photocatalysts. In the present study, high-purity wurtzite-type β-AgI platelet microcrystals with polar {0001} facets were prepared by a facile polyvinylpyrrolidone-assisted precipitation reaction. The polar-faceted AgI microplates were used as archetypes to demonstrate preferential diametric migration (i.e., effective separation) of photogenerated electrons and holes along the c axis. Such vectorial electron-hole separation stems from the asymmetric surface structures, which give rise to distinct photoexcited reaction behaviors on the ±(0001) polar facets of wurtzite-type semiconductors. Furthermore, on selective deposition of Ag and MnOx (1.5activity of the AgI microplates in degrading organic pollutants was dramatically enhanced thanks to the broad light-absorption range, strong dye-adsorption ability, and effective spatial separation of photocarriers. PMID:24449437

  7. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    SciTech Connect

    Lille-Langøy, Roger; Goldstone, Jared V.; Rusten, Marte; Milnes, Matthew R.; Male, Rune; Stegeman, John J.; Blumberg, Bruce; Goksøyr, Anders

    2015-04-01

    Background: Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. Objectives: In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Conclusions: Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. - Highlights: • Comparative study of ligand activation of human and polar bear PXRs. • Polar bear PXR is a promiscuous ligand-activated nuclear receptor but less so than human PXR. • Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear PXRs differently. • Expression and ligand promiscuity indicate that PXR is a xenosensor in polar bears.

  8. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  9. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  10. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. PMID:26185248

  11. Structural elucidation of olive pomace fed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) polar lipids with cardioprotective activities.

    PubMed

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Smith, Terry; Detopoulou, Maria; Tsikrika, Constantina; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Barkas, Dimitris; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2014-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to structurally characterise the polar lipids of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), fed with an experimental diet containing olive pomace (OP), that exhibit cardioprotective activities. OP has been added to conventional fish oil (FO) feed at 4% and this was the OP diet, having been supplemented as finishing diet to fish. Sea bass was aquacultured using either FO or OP diet. At the end of the dietary experiment, lipids in both samples of fish muscle were quantified and HPLC fractionated. The in vitro cardioprotective properties of the polar lipid fractions, using washed rabbit's platelets, have been assessed and the two most biologically active fractions were further analysed by mass spectrometry. The gas-chromatrograpy-mass spectrometric data shows that these two fractions contain low levels of myristic (14:0), oleic (18:1 cis ω-9) and linoleic acids (18:2 ω-6), but high levels of palmitic (16:0) and stearic acids (18:0) as well as eicosadienoic acid (20:2 ω-6). The first fraction (MS1) also contained significant levels of arachidonic acid (20:4 ω-6) and the omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (22:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6). Electrospray-mass spectrometry elucidated that the lipid composition of the two fractions contained various diacyl-glycerophospholipids species, where the majority of them have either 18:0 or 18:1 fatty acids in the sn-1 position and either 22:6 or 20:2 fatty acids in the sn-2 position for MS1 and MS2, respectively. Our research focuses on the structure/function relationship of fish muscle polar lipids and cardiovascular diseases and structural data are given for polar lipid HPLC fractions with strong cardioprotective properties. PMID:24128590

  12. A New Polar Magnetic Index of Geomagnetic Activity and its Application to Monitoring Ionospheric Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.

    2008-01-01

    For improving the reliability of Space Weather prediction, we developed a new, Polar Magnetic (PM) index of geomagnetic activity, which shows high correlation with both upstream solar wind data and related events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Similarly to the existing polar cap PC index, the new, PM index was computed from data from two near-pole geomagnetic observatories; however, the method for computing the PM index is different. The high correlation of the PM index with both solar wind data and events in Geospace environment makes possible to improve significantly forecasting geomagnetic disturbances and such important parameters as the cross-polar-cap voltage and global Joule heating in high latitude ionosphere, which play an important role in the development of geomagnetic, ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances. We tested the PM index for 10-year period (1995-2004). The correlation between PM index and upstream solar wind data for these years is very high (the average correlation coefficient R approximately equal to 0.86). The PM index also shows the high correlation with the cross-polar-cap voltage and hemispheric Joule heating (the correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted values of these parameters is approximately 0.9), which results in significant increasing the prediction reliability of these parameters. Using the PM index of geomagnetic activity provides a significant increase in the forecasting reliability of geomagnetic disturbances and related events in Geospace environment. The PM index may be also used as an important input parameter in modeling ionospheric, magnetospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  13. Structural elucidation of olive pomace fed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) polar lipids with cardioprotective activities.

    PubMed

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Smith, Terry; Detopoulou, Maria; Tsikrika, Constantina; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Barkas, Dimitris; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2014-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to structurally characterise the polar lipids of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), fed with an experimental diet containing olive pomace (OP), that exhibit cardioprotective activities. OP has been added to conventional fish oil (FO) feed at 4% and this was the OP diet, having been supplemented as finishing diet to fish. Sea bass was aquacultured using either FO or OP diet. At the end of the dietary experiment, lipids in both samples of fish muscle were quantified and HPLC fractionated. The in vitro cardioprotective properties of the polar lipid fractions, using washed rabbit's platelets, have been assessed and the two most biologically active fractions were further analysed by mass spectrometry. The gas-chromatrograpy-mass spectrometric data shows that these two fractions contain low levels of myristic (14:0), oleic (18:1 cis ω-9) and linoleic acids (18:2 ω-6), but high levels of palmitic (16:0) and stearic acids (18:0) as well as eicosadienoic acid (20:2 ω-6). The first fraction (MS1) also contained significant levels of arachidonic acid (20:4 ω-6) and the omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (22:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6). Electrospray-mass spectrometry elucidated that the lipid composition of the two fractions contained various diacyl-glycerophospholipids species, where the majority of them have either 18:0 or 18:1 fatty acids in the sn-1 position and either 22:6 or 20:2 fatty acids in the sn-2 position for MS1 and MS2, respectively. Our research focuses on the structure/function relationship of fish muscle polar lipids and cardiovascular diseases and structural data are given for polar lipid HPLC fractions with strong cardioprotective properties.

  14. HiRISE Monitoring of Ongoing Activity in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Russell, P. S.; Byrne, S.; Banks, M. E.; Hansen, C. J.; HiRISE Team

    2010-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) [1] on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has observed the north polar region during 3 summer seasons on Mars. Here we summarize analyses of the north polar data, focusing on active and recent processes including evolution of frost streaks, the north polar residual cap (NPRC), frost avalanches, and scarp erosion. Bright and dark streaks have been observed at the periphery of the NPRC by previous Mars orbiters and were the target of several HiRISE observations. Some of these HiRISE images indicate that formation of the streaks involves processes more complex than the emplacement of dark veneers proposed by Rodriguez et al. [2]. Bright and dark streaks are seen to evolve during the northern summer, evidence for active eolian redistribution of frost and perhaps darker (non-volatile) dust or sand. Based on MRO Context imager observations of craters on the NPRC, accumulation rates are estimated to be 4-5 mm/yr within these craters, with lower rates likely on the intracrater NPRC surface [3]. The observed crater population probably accumulated during the last 20 ka or less. It is likely that NPRC resurfacing is episodic rather than continuous, and that annual changes may be detectable at HiRISE image resolutions. Therefore, a campaign of HiRISE observations of four NPRC targets near 87°N latitude (the maximum latitude of the MRO ground track) was initiated during the Martian northern summer of 2008 and continued during the summer of 2010. The images acquired during this campaign, with nearly nadir viewing geometry and similar solar azimuth, are being searched for evidence for current redistribution of NPRC material. Analyses are ongoing; no changes have been detected to date. We also conducted an early- to mid-spring 2010 survey of circumpolar scarps to monitor for falls and avalanches of CO2 frost and dust, of the type discovered on a scarp in northern spring 2008 [4]. The results confirm the restriction of

  15. The Subarcsecond Mid-infrared View of Local Active Galactic Nuclei. III. Polar Dust Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, D.; Hönig, S. F.; Gandhi, P.

    2016-05-01

    Recent mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations have shown that in a few active galactic nuclei (AGNs) the bulk of the infrared emission originates from the polar region above the putative torus, where only a little dust should be present. Here, we investigate whether such strong polar dust emission is common in AGNs. Out of 149 Seyferts in the MIR atlas of local AGNs, 21 show extended MIR emission on single-dish images. In 18 objects, the extended MIR emission aligns with the position angle (PA) of the system axis, established by [O iii], radio, polarization, and maser-based PA measurements. The relative amount of resolved MIR emission is at least 40% and scales with the [O iv] fluxes, implying a strong connection between the extended continuum and [O iv] emitters. These results together with the radio-quiet nature of the Seyferts support the scenario that the bulk of MIR emission is emitted by dust in the polar region and not by the torus, which would demand a new paradigm for the infrared emission structure in AGNs. The current low detection rate of polar dust in the AGNs of the MIR atlas is explained by the lack of sufficient high-quality MIR data and the requirements on the orientation, strength of narrow-line region, and distance of the AGNs. The James Webb Space Telescope will enable much deeper nuclear MIR studies with comparable angular resolution, allowing us to resolve the polar emission and surroundings in most of the nearby AGNs. Based on European Southern Observatory (ESO) observing programmes 60.A-9242, 074.A-9016, 075.B-0182, 075.B-0621, 075.B-0631, 075.B-0727, 075.B-0791, 075.B-0844, 076.B-0194, 076.B-0468, 076.B-0599, 076.B-0621, 076.B-0656, 076.B-0696, 076.B-0743, 077.B-0060, 077.B-0135, 077.B-0137, 077.B-0728, 078.B-0020, 078.B-0173, 078.B-0255, 078.B-0303, 080.B-0240, 080.B-0860, 081.B-0182, 082.B-0299, 083.B-0239, 083.B-0452, 083.B-0536, 083.B-0592, 084.B-0366, 084.B-0606, 084.B-0974, 085.B-0251, 085.B-0639, 086.B-0242, 086.B-0257, 086

  16. Instabilities and boundary effects in a droplet of active polar liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Carl; Hawkins, Rhoda

    2015-03-01

    Using the active gel theoretical framework, we have performed analytical calculations and numerical simulations of a droplet of active polar liquid crystal at low Reynolds number. This system is a simplified model of a cytoskeletal network that generates internal stresses by converting chemical energy (in the form of ATP) into mechanical work via molecular motors. A physical understanding of these systems can give an insight into the complex and varied dynamics of eukaryotic cell migration and division. We perform a linear stability analysis on the system by separating the behaviour into two limits. One where the internal polarisation is dominated by the shape of the boundary and one where it is deformed by the activity. We find that the two regimes show different instability thresholds for the activity parameter suggesting interesting behaviour both in and between these limits. We also simulate the system numerically and find the resulting steady state of the droplet for a range of parameters between these two limits.

  17. Structural evidence for the role of polar core residue Arg175 in arrestin activation

    PubMed Central

    Granzin, Joachim; Stadler, Andreas; Cousin, Anneliese; Schlesinger, Ramona; Batra-Safferling, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Binding mechanism of arrestin requires photoactivation and phosphorylation of the receptor protein rhodopsin, where the receptor bound phosphate groups cause displacement of the long C-tail ‘activating’ arrestin. Mutation of arginine 175 to glutamic acid (R175E), a central residue in the polar core and previously predicted as the ‘phosphosensor’ leads to a pre-active arrestin that is able to terminate phototransduction by binding to non-phosphorylated, light-activated rhodopsin. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a R175E mutant arrestin at 2.7 Å resolution that reveals significant differences compared to the basal state reported in full-length arrestin structures. These differences comprise disruption of hydrogen bond network in the polar core, and three-element interaction including disordering of several residues in the receptor-binding finger loop and the C-terminus (residues 361–404). Additionally, R175E structure shows a 7.5° rotation of the amino and carboxy-terminal domains relative to each other. Consistent to the biochemical data, our structure suggests an important role of R29 in the initial activation step of C-tail release. Comparison of the crystal structures of basal arrestin and R175E mutant provide insights into the mechanism of arrestin activation, where binding of the receptor likely induces structural changes mimicked as in R175E. PMID:26510463

  18. Investigating the asymmetry of Mars' South Polar Cap using the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model with a CO2 cloud microphysics scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dequaire, J. M.; Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most intriguing and least understood climate phenomena on Mars is the existence of a high albedo perennial south polar CO2 ice cap that is offset from the pole in the western hemisphere (SPRC). Colaprete et al. (2005) hypothesize that since the process by which CO2 surface frost accumulates (i.e., precipitation or direct vapor deposition) affects the albedo of the ice, the atmosphere can play a role in the stability and asymmetry of the cap. They show that the basins of Hellas and Argyre force a stationary wave resulting in a colder western hemisphere in which atmospheric CO2 condensation and precipitation is favored. Because precipitated CO2 is brighter than directly deposited CO2, they suggest that this topography driven atmospheric circulation maintains the asymmetry of the southern ice cap. However, Colaprete et al (2005) do not explicitly model the albedo of the south cap to demonstrate the viability of their hypothesis. We build on their study with a version of the NASA Ames GCM that includes a newly incorporated CO2 cloud microphysics scheme. Simulated results compare well to observed temperatures, pressures, cap recession rates and cloud patterns (mesospheric and polar night clouds). Although mesospheric and polar night clouds are thoroughly documented in the literature, the model predicts a third type of cloud to form close to the surface of the subliming ice caps, which has not been observed. As hypothesized by Colaprete et al. (2005), we find that the zonally asymmetric topography forces a stationary wave in the atmosphere resulting in an asymmetric cloud cover over the south pole during fall and winter and enhanced snowfall over a region encompassing the SPRC. These positive results open to further studies including a mesospheric simulation to refine the horizontal grid around the SPRC as well as the implementation of an ice albedo scheme dependent both on the amount and size of aerosols falling onto the cap during fall and winter (snow

  19. Seasonal Evolution and Energy Budget of the South Residual Polar Cap of Mars from CRISM and HiRISE Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilorget, C.; Douté, S.; Vincendon, M.

    2016-09-01

    Here we use both HiRISE and CRISM data from the south residual cap to investigate its seasonal behavior (e.g. albedo increase) and determine its energy budget through the retrieval of the directional-hemispheric surface ice albedo.

  20. The morphology of an active zone near Enceladus' south pole and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Bernd; Helfenstein, Paul; Thomas, Peter C.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Perry, Jason; Wagner, Roland; Neukum, Gerhard; Porco, Carolyn C.

    2010-05-01

    On Cassini's 121st orbit, the onboard ISS camera acquired high-resolution (15-30 m/pxl) images in Enceladus' south polar province. The imaging sequence was specifically designed to study one of the source regions of Enceladus' erupting plumes, Baghdad Sulcus. To facilitate the analysis, we derived a digital elevation model in an active section (76°S/323°E) across Baghdad Sulcus. The model reveals that there is a V-shaped trough up to 500 m deep in the center of this section, with flanking slopes of 30° (SW-facing) and > 32° (NE-facing, this slope is in shadow). The slopes do approach angle of repose, but the morphology on the SW slope (blocky terrain with lineation patterns and even benches at angles to the maximum slope) suggests that this is not a slope undergoing angle-of-repose control. The trough, therefore, may owe its shape primarily to faulting, with only some modification by deposition of icy particles by the plume-forming gas. Blocky covering, which includes block sizes of up to 50 m, is not restricted to the trough but also occurs at about the same size and frequency distribution away from it. This suggests that the blocks are not related to the venting process, which concentrates in the trough. Rather, the association of the blocky surfaces with multiple patterns of lineations (presumably fractures and faults) suggests they are outcrops of fault-related ice blocks or lithified detritus undergoing some form of erosion. A potential erosion process may include seismic shaking. The V-shaped trough is partly accompanied by an elevated flanking ridge, which is indicative for rift zones and hints at an extensional origin of Baghdad Sulcus. Alternatively, fault-block rotation at large strains could have led to the elevated ridge.

  1. Polar Bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.D.; ,; Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  2. NMAAP1 Expressed in BCG-Activated Macrophage Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qihui; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Xiangfeng; Jing, Haifeng; Xie, Qi; Li, Peng; Li, Dong; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Xun

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are divided into two subpopulations: classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2). BCG (Bacilli Calmette-GuC)rin) activates disabled naC/ve macrophages to M1 macrophages, which act as inflammatory, microbicidal and tumoricidal cells through cell-cell contact and/or the release of soluble factors. Various transcription factors and signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of macrophage activation and polarization. We discovered that BCG-activated macrophages (BAM) expressed a new molecule, and we named it Novel Macrophage Activated Associated Protein 1 (NMAAP1). The current study found that the overexpression of NMAAP1 in macrophages results in M1 polarization with increased expression levels of M1 genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-N1), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Interleukin 12 (IL-12), Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1N2), and decreased expression of some M2 genes, such as Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), but not other M2 genes, including arginase-1 (Arg-1), Interleukin (IL-10), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-N2) and found in inflammatory zone 1 (Fizz1). Moreover, NMAAP1 overexpression in the RAW264.7 cell line increased cytotoxicity against MCA207 tumor cells, which depends on increased inflammatory cytokines rather than cell-cell contact. NMAAP1 also substantially enhanced the phagocytic ability of macrophages, which implies that NMAAP1 promoted macrophage adhesive and clearance activities. Our results indicate that NMAAP1 is an essential molecule that modulates macrophages phenotype and plays an important role in macrophage tumoricidal functions.

  3. Active phase and polarization locking of a 1.4 kW fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Goodno, Gregory D; McNaught, Stuart J; Rothenberg, Joshua E; McComb, Timothy S; Thielen, Peter A; Wickham, Michael G; Weber, Mark E

    2010-05-15

    A three-stage Yb-fiber amplifier emitted 1.43 kW of single-mode power when seeded with a 25 GHz linewidth master oscillator (MO). The amplified output was polarization stabilized and phase locked using active heterodyne phase control. A low-power sample of the output beam was coherently combined to a second fiber amplifier with 90% visibility. The measured combining efficiency agreed with estimated decoherence effects from fiber nonlinearity, linewidth, and phase-locking accuracy. This is the highest-power fiber laser that has been coherently locked using any method that allows brightness scaling.

  4. Nitroxyl (HNO) reduces endothelial and monocyte activation and promotes M2 macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Karen L; Sampson, Amanda K; Irvine, Jennifer C; Shihata, Waled A; Michell, Danielle L; Lumsden, Natalie G; Lim, Chloe; Huet, Olivier; Drummond, Grant R; Kemp-Harper, Barbara K; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P F

    2016-09-01

    Nitroxyl anion (HNO) donors are currently being assessed for their therapeutic utility in several cardiovascular disorders including heart failure. Here, we examine their effect on factors that precede atherosclerosis including endothelial cell and monocyte activation, leucocyte adhesion to the endothelium and macrophage polarization. Similar to the NO donor glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), the HNO donors Angeli's salt (AS) and isopropylamine NONOate (IPA/NO) decreased leucocyte adhesion to activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mouse isolated aorta. This reduction in adhesion was accompanied by a reduction in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) which was inhibitor of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) α (IκBα)- and subsequently NFκB-dependent. Intriguingly, the effects of AS on leucocyte adhesion, like those on vasodilation, were found to not be susceptible to pharmacological tolerance, unlike those observed with GTN. As well, HNO reduces monocyte activation and promotes polarization of M2 macrophages. Taken together, our data demonstrate that HNO donors can reduce factors that are associated with and which precede atherosclerosis and may thus be useful therapeutically. Furthermore, since the effects of the HNO donors were not subject to tolerance, this confers an additional advantage over NO donors. PMID:27231254

  5. Polar Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    30 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroding mesas of frozen carbon dioxide in the martian south polar residual cap. During the summer season, the scarps that bound each pit and mesa in the south polar region become dark as carbon dioxide sublimes away. The darkening might result from the roughening of the surfaces from which ice is subliming, or from the concentration of trace amounts of dust on these slopes, or both.

    Location near: 84.7oS, 48.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  6. Self-induced polar order of active Brownian particles in a harmonic trap.

    PubMed

    Hennes, Marc; Wolff, Katrin; Stark, Holger

    2014-06-13

    Hydrodynamically interacting active particles in an external harmonic potential form a self-assembled fluid pump at large enough Péclet numbers. Here, we give a quantitative criterion for the formation of the pump and show that particle orientations align in the self-induced flow field in surprising analogy to ferromagnetic order where the active Péclet number plays the role of inverse temperature. The particle orientations follow a Boltzmann distribution Φ(p) ∼ exp(Ap(z)) where the ordering mean field A scales with the active Péclet number and polar order parameter. The mean flow field in which the particles' swimming directions align corresponds to a regularized Stokeslet with strength proportional to swimming speed. Analytic mean-field results are compared with results from Brownian dynamics simulations with hydrodynamic interactions included and are found to capture the self-induced alignment very well.

  7. First evidence of widespread active methane seepage in the Southern Ocean, off the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, M.; Torres, M.; Kasten, S.; Kuhn, G.; Graham, A. G. C.; Mau, S.; Little, C. T. S.; Linse, K.; Pape, T.; Geprägs, P.; Fischer, D.; Wintersteller, P.; Marcon, Y.; Rethemeyer, J.; Bohrmann, G.

    2014-10-01

    An extensive submarine cold-seep area was discovered on the northern shelf of South Georgia during R/V Polarstern cruise ANT-XXIX/4 in spring 2013. Hydroacoustic surveys documented the presence of 133 gas bubble emissions, which were restricted to glacially-formed fjords and troughs. Video-based sea floor observations confirmed the sea floor origin of the gas emissions and spatially related microbial mats. Effective methane transport from these emissions into the hydrosphere was proven by relative enrichments of dissolved methane in near-bottom waters. Stable carbon isotopic signatures pointed to a predominant microbial methane formation, presumably based on high organic matter sedimentation in this region. Although known from many continental margins in the world's oceans, this is the first report of an active area of methane seepage in the Southern Ocean. Our finding of substantial methane emission related to a trough and fjord system, a topographical setting that exists commonly in glacially-affected areas, opens up the possibility that methane seepage is a more widespread phenomenon in polar and sub-polar regions than previously thought.

  8. Lipase in aqueous-polar organic solvents: Activity, structure, and stability

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Md Zahid; Yedavalli, Poornima; Deshmukh, Mandar V; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2013-01-01

    Studying alterations in biophysical and biochemical behavior of enzymes in the presence of organic solvents and the underlying cause(s) has important implications in biotechnology. We investigated the effects of aqueous solutions of polar organic solvents on ester hydrolytic activity, structure and stability of a lipase. Relative activity of the lipase monotonically decreased with increasing concentration of acetone, acetonitrile, and DMF but increased at lower concentrations (upto ∼20% v/v) of dimethylsulfoxide, isopropanol, and methanol. None of the organic solvents caused any appreciable structural change as evident from circular dichorism and NMR studies, thus do not support any significant role of enzyme denaturation in activity change. Change in 2D [15N, 1H]-HSQC chemical shifts suggested that all the organic solvents preferentially localize to a hydrophobic patch in the active-site vicinity and no chemical shift perturbation was observed for residues present in protein's core. This suggests that activity alteration might be directly linked to change in active site environment only. All organic solvents decreased the apparent binding of substrate to the enzyme (increased Km); however significantly enhanced the kcat. Melting temperature (Tm) of lipase, measured by circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry, altered in all solvents, albeit to a variable extent. Interestingly, although the effect of all organic solvents on various properties on lipase is qualitatively similar, our study suggest that magnitudes of effects do not appear to follow bulk solvent properties like polarity and the solvent effects are apparently dictated by specific and local interactions of solvent molecule(s) with the protein. PMID:23625694

  9. Transthyretin-binding activity of contaminants in blood from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; Simon, Eszter; Leonards, Pim E G; Lamoree, Marja; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Oystein; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Hamers, Timo

    2013-05-01

    We determined the transthyretin (TTR)-binding activity of blood-accumulating contaminants in blood plasma samples of approximately 4-months-old polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs from Svalbard sampled in 1998 and 2008. The TTR-binding activity was measured as thyroxine (T4)-like equivalents (T4-EQMeas). Our findings show that the TTR-binding activity related to contaminant levels was significantly lower (45%) in 2008 than in 1998 (mean ± standard error of mean: 1998, 2265 ± 231 nM; 2008, 1258 ± 170 nM). Although we cannot exclude a potential influence of between-year differences in capture location and cub body mass, our findings most likely reflect reductions of TTR-binding contaminants or their precursors in the arctic environment (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). The measured TTR-binding activity correlated positively with the cubs' plasma levels of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs). No such association was found between TTR-binding activity and the plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The OH-PCBs explained 60 ± 7% and 54 ± 4% of the TTR-binding activity in 1998 and 2008, respectively, and PFASs explained ≤1.2% both years. Still, almost half the TTR-binding activity could not be explained by the contaminants we examined. The considerable levels of TTR-binding contaminants warrant further effect directed analysis (EDA) to identify the contaminants responsible for the unexplained part of the observed TTR-binding activity.

  10. POlarization Emission of Millimeter Activity at the Sun (POEMAS): New Circular Polarization Solar Telescopes at Two Millimeter Wavelength Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valio, Adriana; Kaufmann, P.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Raulin, J.-P.; Fernandes, L. O. T.; Marun, A.

    2013-04-01

    We present a new system of two circular polarization solar radio telescopes, POEMAS, for observations of the Sun at 45 and 90 GHz. The novel characteristic of these instruments is the capability to measure circular right- and left-hand polarizations at these high frequencies. The two frequencies were chosen so as to bridge the gap at radio frequencies between 20 and 200 GHz of solar flare spectra. The telescopes, installed at CASLEO Observatory (Argentina), observe the full disk of the Sun with a half power beam width of 1.4∘, a time resolution of 10 ms at both frequencies, a sensitivity of 2 - 4 K that corresponds to 4 and 20 solar flux unit (=104 Jy), considering aperture efficiencies of 50±5 % and 75±8 % at 45 and 90 GHz, respectively. The telescope system saw first light in November 2011 and is satisfactorily operating daily since then. A few flares were observed and are presented here. The millimeter spectra of some flares are seen to rise toward higher frequencies, indicating the presence of a new spectral component distinct from the microwave one.

  11. Role of the active viscosity and self-propelling speed in channel flows of active polar liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaogang; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-28

    We study channel flows of active polar liquid crystals (APLCs) focusing on the role played by the active viscosity (β) and the self-propelling speed (ω) on the formation and long time evolution of spontaneous flows using a continuum model. First, we study the onset of spontaneous flows by carrying out a linear stability analysis on two special steady states subject to various physical boundary conditions. We identify a single parameter b1, proportional to a linear combination of the active viscosity and the self-propelling speed, and inversely proportional to a Frank elastic constant, the solvent viscosity, and the liquid crystal relaxation time. We show that the active viscosity and the self-propelling speed influence the onset of spontaneous flows through b1 in that for any fixed value of the bulk activity parameter ζ, large enough |b1| can suppress the spontaneous flow. We then follow spontaneous flows in long time to further investigate the role of β and ω on spatial-temporal structures in the nonlinear regime numerically. The numerical study demonstrates a strong correlation between the most unstable eigenfunction obtained from the linear analysis and the terminal steady state or the persistent, traveling wave structure, revealing the genesis of flow and orientational structures in the active matter system. In the nonlinear regime, a nonzero b1 facilitates the formation of traveling waves in the case of boundary anchoring (the Dirichlet boundary condition) so long as the linear stability analysis predicts an onset of spontaneous flows; in the case of the free boundary condition (the Neumann boundary condition), a stable, spatially homogeneous tilted state always emerges in the presence of two active effects. Finally, we note that various fully out-of-plane spatio-temporal structures can emerge in long time dynamics depending on the boundary condition as well as the initial state of the polarity vector field. PMID:26583506

  12. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, enhances the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Maria Ruweka; Reyes, Jose Luis; Iannuzzi, Jordan; Leung, Gabriella; McKay, Derek Mark

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are important innate immune cells that are associated with two distinct phenotypes: a pro-inflammatory (or classically activated) subset with prototypic macrophage functions such as inflammatory cytokine production and bactericidal activity, and an anti-inflammatory (or alternatively activated (AAM)) subset linked with wound healing and tissue repair processes. In this study, we examined the effect of interlukein-6 on human and murine macrophage polarization. The results indicate that despite being commonly associated with pro-inflammatory functions and being implicated in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of numerous inflammatory diseases, interleukin-6 can enhance the polarization of AAMs, based on increased expression of hallmark markers: arginase-1, Ym1 and CD206; this effect required the AAM differentiating cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. Co-treatment of AAMs with IL-6 resulted in spontaneous release of IL-10, suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide production and inhibited cytokine production by activated CD4+ T cells - immunoregulatory features not observed in the 'parent' IL-4+IL-13-induced AAM. The effect of IL-6 required signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3, was partially dependent on up-regulation of the IL4Rα chain, and was independent of autocrine IL-10. In the presence of IFNγ, IL-6 promoted the production of IL-1β and TNFα suggesting that this cytokine can enhance the phenotype to which a macrophage has committed. This finding may explain the pleiotrophic nature of IL-6, where it is associated with the perpetuation and enhancement of disease in inflammatory situations, but is also necessary for resolution of inflammation and adequate wound healing to occur in others. Thus, the potential benefit of IL-6 in promoting an AAM, with its' anti-inflammatory and wound healing ability, may need to be considered in immunotherapies aimed at in vivo modulation or inhibition of IL-6.

  13. Tumor cell-activated CARD9 signaling contributes to metastasis-associated macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Shao, J-H; Miao, Y-J; Cui, W; Qi, Y-F; Han, J-H; Lin, X; Du, J

    2014-08-01

    Macrophages are critical immune effector cells of the tumor microenvironment that promote seeding, extravasation and persistent growth of tumor cells in primary tumors and metastatic sites. Tumor progression and metastasis are affected by dynamic changes in the specific phenotypes of macrophage subpopulations; however, the mechanisms by which tumor cells modulate macrophage polarization remain incompletely understood. Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) is a central adaptor protein of innate immune responses to extracellular pathogens. We report that increased CARD9 expression is primarily localized in infiltrated macrophages and significantly associated with advanced histopathologic stage and the presence of metastasis. Using CARD9-deficient (CARD9(-/-)) mice, we show that bone marrow-derived CARD9 promotes liver metastasis of colon carcinoma cells. Mechanistic studies reveal that CARD9 contributes to tumor metastasis by promoting metastasis-associated macrophage polarization through activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that tumor cell-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor facilitates spleen tyrosine kinase activation in macrophages, which is necessary for formation of the CARD9-B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 complex. Taken together, our results indicating that CARD9 is a regulator of metastasis-associated macrophages will lead to new insights into evolution of the microenvironments supporting tumor metastasis, thereby providing targets for anticancer therapies.

  14. Photolysis of frozen iodate salts as a source of active iodine in the polar environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, Óscar; Baeza-Romero, M. Teresa; Sanz, Mikel; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    Reactive halogens play a key role in the oxidation capacity of the polar troposphere. However, sources and mechanisms, particularly those involving active iodine, are still poorly understood. In this paper, the photolysis of an atmospherically relevant frozen iodate salt has been experimentally studied using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The samples were generated at low temperatures in the presence of different amounts of water. The IR spectra have confirmed that, under near-ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) radiation, iodate is efficiently photolysed. The integrated IR absorption coefficient of the iodate anion on the band at 750 cm-1 has been measured to be A = 9.8 ± 0.5 × 10-17 cm molecule-1. The photolysis rate of the ammonium iodate salt was measured by monitoring the decay of ammonium or iodate IR bands (1430 and 750 cm-1 respectively) in the presence of a solar simulator. The absorption cross section of the liquid solutions of ammonium iodate at wavelengths relevant for the troposphere (250 to 400 nm) has been obtained and used to estimate the photolytic quantum yield for the frozen salt. Finally, using an atmospheric model, constrained with the experimental data, we suggest that the photolysis of iodate in frozen salt can potentially provide a pathway for the release of active iodine to the polar atmosphere.

  15. Quantitation of lysolipids, fatty acids, and phospholipase A2 activity and correlation with membrane polarity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasmeet; Ranganathan, Radha

    2012-01-01

    Acrylodan-labeled rat-intestinal fatty acid binding protein, ADIFAB, binds both of lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) and FA. Binding displaces Acrylodan and its fluorescence peak shifts from 432 to 505 nm. A fluorescence assay that relies on this shift is presented for quantitating LPC, FA, and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in phospholipid bilayers in absolute units of μM/min/mg of enzyme. This is a development over an earlier assay that took into account only FA binding. Activities of bee venom PLA2 on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers were measured. Standard pH-Stat assays validated the present assay. Products increase linearly with time for about one minute in DOPC and five minutes in DPPC corresponding to completion of 5 to 8% hydrolysis in DOPC and 20% in DPPC. Membrane polarity and microviscosity measured using electron spin resonance (ESR) exhibited discontinuities at compositions that mimicked similar percentages of hydrolysis products in the respective bilayers. The observed hydrolysis rate decrease following the initial linear period thus correlates to changes in membrane polarity. The ability of the assay to yield actual product concentrations, reveal structure in the reaction progress curves, and interpretation in light of the ESR data bring insight into the shape of the reaction curve. PMID:22773689

  16. Unexpected Levels of Biological Activity during the Polar Night Offer New Perspectives on a Warming Arctic.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jørgen; Daase, Malin; Renaud, Paul E; Ambrose, William G; Darnis, Gerald; Last, Kim S; Leu, Eva; Cohen, Jonathan H; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A; Cottier, Finlo; Varpe, Øystein; Shunatova, Natalia; Bałazy, Piotr; Morata, Nathalie; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Kosobokova, Ksenia; Hoppe, Clara J M; Węsławski, Jan Marcin; Kukliński, Piotr; Legeżyńska, Joanna; Nikishina, Daria; Cusa, Marine; Kędra, Monika; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Vogedes, Daniel; Camus, Lionel; Tran, Damien; Michaud, Emma; Gabrielsen, Tove M; Granovitch, Andrei; Gonchar, Anya; Krapp, Rupert; Callesen, Trine A

    2015-10-01

    The current understanding of Arctic ecosystems is deeply rooted in the classical view of a bottom-up controlled system with strong physical forcing and seasonality in primary-production regimes. Consequently, the Arctic polar night is commonly disregarded as a time of year when biological activities are reduced to a minimum due to a reduced food supply. Here, based upon a multidisciplinary ecosystem-scale study from the polar night at 79°N, we present an entirely different view. Instead of an ecosystem that has entered a resting state, we document a system with high activity levels and biological interactions across most trophic levels. In some habitats, biological diversity and presence of juvenile stages were elevated in winter months compared to the more productive and sunlit periods. Ultimately, our results suggest a different perspective regarding ecosystem function that will be of importance for future environmental management and decision making, especially at a time when Arctic regions are experiencing accelerated environmental change [1]. PMID:26412132

  17. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  18. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  19. Active Mass Wasting of Ices in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. S.; Byrne, S.; Pathare, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    The HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has discovered two forms of mass-wasting in the north-polar region. One is the scarpward retreat of bright layers of the north polar basal unit (BU, immediately underlying the north polar layered deposits, NPLD) and the overlying NPLD by fracture-controlled and undercutting-assisted piecewise failure of layer edges, resulting in rockfalls and rockslides, called blockfalls here. This is important as it suggests an alternative, significant mode of erosion in addition to sublimation which is traditionally held account-able for erosion of polar surfaces. The other form, caught in-action during imaging, comprises falls and avalanches of frost and dust over a few steep NPLD scarps during early spring. Here we report the latest findings in both of these dramatic and currently active processes and assess their role in the evolution and history of polar deposits. NPLD and BU mass wasting: Typical evidence of recent blockfall activity is in the form of blocks, flows, and debris on BU slopes. In a few cases, the appearance of new blocks in subsequent images proves this process is ongo-ing. In general, [likely] active outcrops have a higher overall MOLA-derived slope than [likely] quiescent outcrops (those with a lack of debris and abundance of sand on the BU). Furthermore, none of the NPLD peripheral scarps without BU exposure have slopes above 40°. This suggests BU exposure and this type of mass wasting play a role in maintaining and possibly creating over-steepened NPLD scarps (often 45°-65°, with sections approaching vertical). The lower-sloped NPLD scarps with no BU present also do not display the severe fracturing that characterizes steep NPLD cliffs directly above BU exposures. This may be due to fracture propagation from undercutting by the BU, thermal stresses induced by rapid and intense heating on steepened slopes with high solar incidence angles, or rapid uncovering of ice that was under compressive stresses

  20. Removal of highly polar micropollutants from wastewater by powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kovalova, Lubomira; Knappe, Detlef R U; Lehnberg, Kai; Kazner, Christian; Hollender, Juliane

    2013-06-01

    Due to concerns about ecotoxicological effects of pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants released from wastewater treatment plants, activated carbon adsorption is one of the few processes to effectively reduce the concentrations of micropollutants in wastewater. Although aimed mainly at apolar compounds, polar compounds are also simultaneously removed to a certain extent, which has rarely been studied before. In this study, adsorption isotherm and batch kinetic data were collected with two powdered activated carbons (PACs) to assess the removal of the polar pharmaceuticals 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) and cytarabine (CytR) from ultrapure water and wastewater treatment plant effluent. At pH 7.8, single-solute adsorption isotherm data for the weak acid 5-Fu and the weak base CytR showed that their adsorption capacities were about 1 order of magnitude lower than those of the less polar endocrine disrupting chemicals bisphenol A (BPA) and 17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). To remove 90 % of the adsorbate from a single-solute solution 14, 18, 70, and 87 mg L(-1) of HOK Super is required for EE2, BPA, CytR, and 5-Fu, respectively. Effects of solution pH, ionic strength, temperature, and effluent organic matter (EfOM) on 5-Fu and CytR adsorption were evaluated for one PAC. Among the studied factors, the presence of EfOM had the highest effect, due to a strong competition on 5-Fu and CytR adsorption. Adsorption isotherm and kinetic data and their modeling with a homogeneous surface diffusion model showed that removal percentage in the presence of EfOM was independent on the initial concentration of the ionizable compounds 5-Fu and CytR. These results are similar to neutral organic compounds in the presence of natural organic matter. Overall, results showed that PAC doses sufficient to remove >90 % of apolar adsorbates were able to remove no more than 50 % of the polar adsorbates 5-Fu and CytR and that the contact time is a critical parameter. PMID:23299971

  1. Seasonal variations of the Na and Fe layers at the South Pole and their implications for the chemistry and general circulation of the polar mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Chester S.; Plane, John M. C.; Pan, Weilin; Vondrak, Tomas; Murray, Benjamin J.; Chu, Xinzhao

    2005-05-01

    Lidar observations, conducted at the South Pole by University of Illinois researchers, are used to characterize the seasonal variations of mesospheric Na and Fe above the site. The annual mean layer abundances are virtually identical to midlatitude values, and the mean centroid height is just 100 m higher for Na and 450 m higher for Fe compared with 40°N. The most striking feature of the metal profiles is the almost complete absence of Na and Fe below 90 km during midsummer. This leads to summertime layers with significantly higher peaks, narrower widths, and smaller abundances than are observed at lower latitudes. The measurements are compared with detailed chemical models of these species that were developed at the University of East Anglia. The models accurately reproduce most features of these observations and demonstrate the importance of rapid uptake of the metallic species on the surfaces of polar mesospheric clouds and meteoric smoke particles. The models show that vertical downwelling in winter, associated with the meridional circulation system, must be less than about 1 cm s-1 in the upper mesosphere in order to avoid displacing the minor constituents O, H, and the metal layers too far below 85 km. They also show that an additional source of gas-phase metallic species, that is comparable to the meteoric input, is required during winter to correctly model the Na and Fe abundances. This source appears to arise from the wintertime convergence of the meridional flow over the South Pole.

  2. Flagellar dynamics of a connected chain of active, polar, Brownian particles

    PubMed Central

    Chelakkot, Raghunath; Gopinath, Arvind; Mahadevan, L.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    We show that active, self-propelled particles that are connected together to form a single chain that is anchored at one end can produce the graceful beating motions of flagella. Changing the boundary condition from a clamp to a pivot at the anchor leads to steadily rotating tight coils. Strong noise in the system disrupts the regularity of the oscillations. We use a combination of detailed numerical simulations, mean-field scaling analysis and first passage time theory to characterize the phase diagram as a function of the filament length, passive elasticity, propulsion force and noise. Our study suggests minimal experimental tests for the onset of oscillations in an active polar chain. PMID:24352670

  3. Starspots and active regions on IN Com: UBVRI photometry and linear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, I. Yu.; Kozlova, O. V.

    2014-06-01

    The activity of the variable star IN Com is considered using the latest multicolor UBVRI photometry and linear polarimetric observations carried out during a decade. The photometric variability of the star is fully described using the zonal spottedness model developed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO). Spotted regions cover up to 22% of the total stellar surface, with the difference in temperatures between the quiet photosphere and the spot umbra being 600 K. The spots are located at middle and low latitudes (40°-55°). The intrinsic broad-band linear polarization of IN Com and its rotational modulation in the U band due to local magnetic fields at the most spotted (active) stellar longitudes were detected for the first time.

  4. Investigations of electron helicity in optically active molecules using polarized beams of electrons and positrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gidley, D. W.; Rich, A.; Van House, J. C.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    A positronium-formation experiment with a high sensitivity to a possible relation between the helicity of beta particles emitted in nuclear beta decay and the optical asymmetry of biological molecules is presented. The experiment is based on a mechanism in which the electrons in optically active molecules possess a helicity of less than 0.001, too weak to detect in radiolysis experiments, the sign of which depends on the chirality of the isomer. A helicity-dependent asymmetry is sought in the formation of the triplet ground state of positronium when a low-energy beam of polarized positrons of reversible helicity interacts with an optically active substance coating a channel electron multiplier. Asymmetries between positronium decays observed at positive and negative helicities for the same substance can thus be determined with a sensitivity of 0.0001, which represents a factor of 100 improvement over previous positronium experiments.

  5. Polarized regulatory landscape and Wnt responsiveness underlie Hox activation in embryos.

    PubMed

    Neijts, Roel; Amin, Shilu; van Rooijen, Carina; Tan, Sander; Creyghton, Menno P; de Laat, Wouter; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2016-09-01

    Sequential 3'-to-5' activation of the Hox gene clusters in early embryos is a most fascinating issue in developmental biology. Neither the trigger nor the regulatory elements involved in the transcriptional initiation of the 3'-most Hox genes have been unraveled in any organism. We demonstrate that a series of enhancers, some of which are Wnt-dependent, is located within a HoxA 3' subtopologically associated domain (subTAD). This subTAD forms the structural basis for multiple layers of 3'-polarized features, including DNA accessibility and enhancer activation. Deletion of the cassette of Wnt-dependent enhancers proves its crucial role in initial transcription of HoxA at the 3' side of the cluster.

  6. Active polar gullies on Mars and the role of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Nick

    2002-01-01

    The detection of geologically recent channels and gullies on Mars has been interpreted as evidence for recent water activity on this arid and cold planet. The presence of active water would have considerable implications for the history of Mars and for the potential for an active near-surface biota; however, water is not the only substance that can flow and may actually be one of the least likely candidates when the modern permafrost environment is considered. Here, a key site of recent gully and channel development on Mars is reported at 71 degrees S in Sisyphi Cavi, within the annual zone of polar CO2 ice and snow accumulation. Superposition of channel features over and/or through the defrosting CO2 snowpack shows that the channels are active at the present day and probably have fluid flows every spring during the annual defrosting. In itself, this is a significant observation as active fluid flows of any nature have not yet been proven on Mars. However, the ambient temperature at the time of gully activity appears to require a role for CO2 in the formation of the channels, rather than water. A model is proposed for gas-lubricated flow in the channels based on avalanching of CO2 snowpack and clastic debris. If similar mechanisms are responsible for all the recent gullies on Mars, then perhaps no near-surface astrobiological targets are available.

  7. The pulsed nature of the nightside contribution to polar cap convection: repetitive substorm activity under steady interplanetary driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandholt, P. E.; Andalsvik, Y. L.; Farrugia, C. J.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relative contributions of dayside and nightside processes to the spatial and temporal structure of polar cap plasma convection. The central parameter is the cross-polar cap potential (CPCP). Selecting a 10-h-long interval of stable interplanetary driving by an interplanetary CME (ICME), we are able to distinguish between the dayside and nightside sources of the convection. The event was initiated by an abrupt enhancement of the magnetopause (MP) reconnection rate triggered by a southward turning of the ICME magnetic field. This was followed by a long interval (10 h) of steady and strong driving. Under the latter condition a long series of electrojet intensifications was observed which recurred at 50 min intervals. The detailed temporal structure of polar cap convection in relation to polar cap contraction events is obtained by combining continuous ground observations of convection-related magnetic deflections (including polar cap magnetic indices in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, PCN and PCS) and the more direct, but lower-resolution ion drift data obtained from a satellite (DMSP F13) in polar orbit. The observed PCN enhancements combined with DMSP satellite observations (F13 and F15 data) of polar cap contractions during the evolution of selected substorm expansions allowed us to estimate the CPCP enhancements (25%) associated with individual events in the series. Ground-satellite conjunctions are further used to investigate the spatial structure of polar cap convection, i.e., the homogeneous plasma flow in the centre (Vi ≤ 1 km s-1) versus channels of enhanced antisunward flows (Vi ≥ 1 km s-1) along the periphery of the polar cap. We emphasise the temporal structure of these polar cap flow phenomena in relation to the prevailing solar wind forcing and the repetitive substorm activity.

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone attenuates postincisional pain by regulating macrophage polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; Ohnou, Tetsuya; Godai, Kohei; Kurimoto, Tae; Nakama, Mayo; Kanmura, Yuichi

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone attenuated postincisional pain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone alters macrophage polarization to F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages at the incisional sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transplantation of rosiglitazone-treated macrophages produced analgesic effects. -- Abstract: Acute inflammation triggered by macrophage infiltration to injured tissue promotes wound repair and may induce pain hypersensitivity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR){gamma} signaling is known to regulate heterogeneity of macrophages, which are often referred to as classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages have considerable antimicrobial activity and produce a wide variety of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, M2 macrophages are involved in anti-inflammatory and homeostatic functions linked to wound healing and tissue repair. Although it has been suggested that PPAR{gamma} agonists attenuate pain hypersensitivity, the molecular mechanism of macrophage-mediated effects of PPAR{gamma} signaling on pain development has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the link between the phenotype switching of macrophage polarization induced by PPAR{gamma} signaling and the development of acute pain hypersensitivity. Local administration of rosiglitazone significantly ameliorated hypersensitivity to heat and mechanical stimuli, and paw swelling. Consistent with the down-regulation of nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) phosphorylation by rosiglitazone at the incisional sites, the number of F4/80{sup +}iNOS{sup +} M1 macrophages was decreased whereas numbers of F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages were increased in rosiglitazone-treated incisional sites 24 h after the procedure. In addition, gene induction of anti-inflammatory M2-macrophage-associated markers such as arginase1, FIZZ1 and interleukin (IL)-10 were significantly increased, whereas

  9. South Pole all-sky imager observations of dayside aurora activity induced by a solar wind dynamic pressure enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoba, T.; Kadokura, A.; Ebihara, Y.; Sato, N.

    2008-12-01

    Ground observations of the optical aurora in the dayside cusp region have the distinct advantages of continuity of coverage and sufficient temporal-spatial sensitivity to monitor dayside signatures of solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere interaction mechanisms. The South Pole Station (SP, geomagnetic latitude (GMLat) = -74.3 degs, magnetic local time = UT-3.5 h) in Antarctica is a unique place for dayside aurora observations during austral winter season. We present the detailed features of enhancements of dayside aurora activity induced by a sudden increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure (Psw), using a ground-based all-sky imager (ASI) at SP. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was northward during the Psw enhancement. Just after the arrival of the Psw enhancement on the Earth"fs magnetosphere, the 557.7 nm aurora activity on the dayside is suddenly intensified almost in the whole field of view of ASI. Further a few minutes later, the intensity of the auroral emissions shows a maximum, and then decays within about 5 minutes. Even after decay of the transient aurora activity at lower latitudes, the newly formed auroral emissions from the dayside cusp to the polar cap (GMLat -76 to -80 degs) develop during the Psw enhancement lasting about an hour. The polar aurora intensifications seem to be associated with lobe reconnection under the northward IMF conditions as well as the Psw enhancement. In this talk, two cases have been studied and the possible generation mechanisms will be discussed by comparing the ASI data at SP with other instruments.

  10. Emissions of carbon species, organic polar compounds, potassium, and mercury from prescribed burning activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Obrist, D.; Zielinska, B.; Gerler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning is an important emission source of pollutants to the atmosphere, but few studies have focused on the chemical composition of emissions from prescribed burning activities. Here we present results from a sampling campaign to quantify particulate-phase emissions from various types of prescribed fires including carbon species (Elemental Carbon: EC; Organic Carbon: OC; and Total Carbon: TC); polar organic compounds (12 different compounds and four functional classes); water-soluble potassium (K+); and mercury (Hg). We measured emissions from the following types of prescribed biomass burning in the Lake Tahoe basin located on the California/Nevada border: (i) log piles stacked and dried in the field; (ii) log piles along with green understory vegetation; and (iii) understory green vegetation and surface litter; further emissions were collected from burns conducted in a wood stove: (iv) dried wooden logs; (v) green foliage of understory vegetation collected from the field; and (vi) surface organic litter collected from the field; finally, samples were also taken from (vii) ambient air in residential areas during peak domestic wood combustion season. Results show that OC/EC ratios of prescribed burns in the field ranged from 4 to 10, but lower values (around 1) were observed in controlled stove fires. These results are consistent with an excess of OC emissions over EC found in wildfires. OC/EC ratios, however, showed clear separations between controlled wood stove combustion (higher EC) and prescribed burns in the field (lower EC). We attribute this difference to a higher combustion temperatures and dominance of flaming combustion in wood stove fires. OC positively and linearly correlated to the sum of polar organic compounds across all burn types (r2 of 0.82). The most prevalent group of polar compounds emitted during prescribed fires was resin acids (dehydroabietic, pimaric, and abietic acids), followed by levoglucosan plus mannositol. Negligible

  11. Hyaluronan synthesis is necessary for autoreactive T-cell trafficking, activation, and Th1 polarization

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Hedwich F.; Rieck, Mary; Gurevich, Irina; Nagy, Nadine; Negrin, Robert S.; Wight, Thomas N.; Steinman, Lawrence; Bollyky, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) accumulates at sites of autoimmune inflammation, including white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its functional importance in pathogenesis is unclear. We have evaluated the impact of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), an oral inhibitor of HA synthesis, on disease progression in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS. Treatment with 4-MU decreases the incidence of EAE, delays its onset, and reduces the severity of established disease. 4-MU inhibits the activation of autoreactive T cells and prevents their polarization toward a Th1 phenotype. Instead, 4-MU promotes polarization toward a Th2 phenotpye and induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Further, 4-MU hastens trafficking of T cells through secondary lymphoid organs, impairs the infiltration of T cells into the CNS parenchyma, and limits astrogliosis. Together, these data suggest that HA synthesis is necessary for disease progression in EAE and that treatment with 4-MU may be a potential therapeutic strategy in CNS autoimmunity. Considering that 4-MU is already a therapeutic, called hymecromone, that is approved to treat biliary spasm in humans, we propose that it could be repurposed to treat MS. PMID:26787861

  12. The response of ionospheric convection in the polar cap to substorm activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, M.; Lockwood, M.; Yeoman, T. K.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Luehr, H.; Bunting, R.; Farrugia, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    We report multi-instrument observations during an isolated substorm on 17 October 1989. The European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar operated in the SP-UK-POLI mode measuring ionospheric convection at latitudes 71 deg Lambda - 78 deg Lambda. Sub-Auroral Magnetometer Network (SAMNET) and the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross provide information on the timing of substorm expansion phase onset and subsequent intensifications, as well as the location of the field aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the substorm current wedge. Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-8 (IMP-8) magnetic field data are also included. Evidence of a substorm growth phase is provided by the equatorward motion of a flow reversal boundary across the EISCAT radar field of view at 2130 MLT, following a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We infer that the polar cap expanded as a result of the addition of open magnetic flux in the tail lobes during this interval. The flow reversal boundary, which is a lower limit to the polar cap boundary, reached an invariant latitude equatorward of 71 deg Lambda by the time of the expansion phase onset. We conclude that the substorm onset region in the ionosphere, defined by the westward electrojet, mapped to a part of the tail radially earthward of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux, the distant neutral line. Thus the substorm was not initiated at the distant neutral line, although there is evidence that it remained active during the expansion phase.

  13. Continuous activity and no cycling of clock genes in the Antarctic midge during the polar summer.

    PubMed

    Kobelkova, Alena; Goto, Shin G; Peyton, Justin T; Ikeno, Tomoko; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2015-10-01

    The extreme seasonal shifts of day length in polar regions, ranging from constant light in the summer to constant darkness in the winter, pose an intriguing environment for probing activity rhythms and the functioning of circadian clocks. Here, we monitor locomotor activity during the summer on the Antarctic Peninsula and under laboratory conditions, as well as the accompanying patterns of clock gene expression in the Antarctic midge, the only insect endemic to Antarctica. Larvae and adults are most active during the warmest portion of the day, but at a constant temperature they remain continuously active regardless of the photoregime, and activity also persists in constant darkness. The canonical clock genes period, timeless, Clock, and vrille are expressed in the head but we detected no cycling of expression in either the field or under diverse photoregimes in the laboratory. The timekeeping function of the clock has possibly been lost, enabling the midge to opportunistically exploit the unpredictable availability of permissive thermal conditions for growth, development, and reproduction during the short summer in Antarctica.

  14. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Lille-Langøy; V, Goldstone Jared; Marte, Rusten; R, Milnes Matthew; Rune, Male; J, Stegeman John; Bruce, Blumberg; Anders, Goksøyr

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. OBJECTIVES In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. RESULTS We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. CONCLUSIONS Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modelling studies suggests that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. PMID:25680588

  15. The physical activity profiles of South Asian ethnic groups in England

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Townsend, Nick; Shaw, Alison; Foster, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify what types of activity contribute to overall physical activity in South Asian ethnic groups and how these vary according to sex and age. We used the White British ethnic group as a comparison. Methods Self-reported physical activity was measured in the Health Survey for England 1999 and 2004, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that boosted ethnic minority samples in these years. We merged the two survey years and analysed data from 19 476 adults. The proportions of total physical activity achieved through walking, housework, sports and DIY activity were calculated. We stratified by sex and age group and used analysis of variances to examine differences between ethnic groups, adjusted for the socioeconomic status. Results There was a significant difference between ethnic groups for the contributions of all physical activity domains for those aged below 55 years, with the exception of walking. In women aged 16–34 years, there was no significant difference in the contribution of walking to total physical activity (p=0.38). In the 35–54 age group, Bangladeshi males have the highest proportion of total activity from walking (30%). In those aged over 55 years, the proportion of activity from sports was the lowest in all South Asian ethnic groups for both sexes. Conclusions UK South Asians are more active in some ways that differ, by age and sex, from White British, but are similarly active in other ways. These results can be used to develop targeted population level interventions for increasing physical activity levels in adult UK South Asian populations. PMID:26677257

  16. Correlation of Lunar South Polar Epithermal Neutron Maps: Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector and Lunar Prospector Neutron Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Sagdeev, R.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.; Sanin, A. B.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Harshman, K.; Finch, M. J.; Nandikotkur, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) was developed to refine the lunar surface hydrogen (H) measurements generated by the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer. LPNS measurements indicated a approx.4,6% decrease in polar epithermal fluxes equivalent to (1.5+/-0,8)% H concentration and are direct geochemical evidence indicating water /high H at the poles. Given the similar operational and instrumental objectives of the LEND and LPNS systems, an important science analysis step for LEND is to test correlation with existing research including LPNS measurements. In this analysis, we compare corrected low altitude epithermal rate data from LPNS available via NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) with calibrated LEND epithermal maps using a cross-correlation technique

  17. Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this systematic mixed-methods review is to assess what is currently known about the levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) and to contextualize these behaviors among South Asian women with an immigrant background. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using combinations of the key words PA, ST, South Asian, and immigrant. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize all evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. Twenty-six quantitative and twelve qualitative studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Results Studies quantifying PA and ST among South Asian women showed low levels of PA compared with South Asian men and with white European comparison populations. However making valid comparisons between studies was challenging due to a lack of standardized PA measurement. The majority of studies indicated that South Asian women did not meet recommended amounts of PA for health benefits. Few studies assessed ST. Themes emerging from qualitative studies included cultural and structural barriers to PA, faith and education as facilitators, and a lack of understanding of the recommended amounts of PA and its benefits among South Asian women. Conclusions Quantitative and qualitative evidence indicate that South Asian women do not perform the recommended level of PA for health benefits. Both types of studies suffer from limitations due to methods of data collection. More research should be dedicated to standardizing objective PA measurement and to understanding how to utilize the resources of the individuals and communities to increase PA levels and overall health of South Asian women. PMID:23256686

  18. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L

    2015-10-12

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell's electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects.

  19. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2015-10-01

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects.

  20. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects. PMID:26456585

  1. Seasonally active frost-dust avalanches on a north polar scarp of Mars captured by HiRISE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, P.; Thomas, N.; Byrne, S.; Herkenhoff, K.; Fishbaugh, K.; Bridges, N.; Okubo, C.; Milazzo, M.; Daubar, I.; Hansen, C.; McEwen, A.

    2008-01-01

    North-polar temporal monitoring by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) orbiting Mars has discovered new, dramatic examples that Mars1 CO2-dominated seasonal volatile cycle is not limited to quiet deposition and sublimation of frost. In early northern martian spring, 2008, HiRISE captured several cases of CO2 frost and dust cascading down a steep, polar scarp in discrete clouds. Analysis of morphology and process reveals these events to be similar to terrestrial powder avalanches, sluffs, and falls of loose, dry snow. Potential material sources and initiating mechanisms are discussed in the context of the Martian polar spring environment and of additional, active, aeolian processes observed on the plateau above the scarp. The scarp events are identified as a trigger for mass wasting of bright, fractured layers within the basal unit, and may indirectly influence the retreat rate of steep polar scarps in competing ways. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. SOLAR POLAR X-RAY JETS AND MULTIPLE BRIGHT POINTS: EVIDENCE FOR SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2012-02-15

    We present an analysis of X-ray bright points (BPs) and X-ray jets observed by Hinode/X-Ray Telescope on 2007 November 2-4, within the solar northern polar coronal hole. After selecting small subregions that include several BPs, we followed their brightness evolution over a time interval of a few hours, when several jets were observed. We find that most of the jets occurred in close temporal association with brightness maxima in multiple BPs: more precisely, most jets are closely correlated with the brightening of at least two BPs. We suggest that the jets result from magnetic connectivity changes that also induce the BP variability. We surmise that the jets and implied magnetic connectivity we describe are small-scale versions of the active-region-scale phenomenon, whereby flares and eruptions are triggered by interacting bipoles.

  3. Three-dimensional analysis of optical forces generated by an active tractor beam using radial polarization.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Blaya, Salvador

    2014-02-10

    We theoretically study the three-dimensional behavior of nanoparticles in an active optical conveyor. To do this, we solved the Langevin equation when the forces are generated by a focusing system at the near field. Analytical expressions for the optical forces generated by the optical conveyor were obtained by solving the Richards and Wolf vectorial diffraction integrals in an approximated form when a mask of two annular pupils is illuminated by a radially polarized Hermite-Gauss beam. Trajectories, in both the transverse plane and the longitudinal direction, are analyzed showing that the behavior of the optical conveyor can be optimized by conveniently choosing the configuration of the mask of the two annular pupils (inner and outer radius of the two rings) in order to trap and transport all particles at the focal plane. PMID:24663619

  4. Antarctic Polar Descent and Planetary Wave Activity Observed in ISAMS CO from April to July 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Nakamura, N.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Taylor, F. W.; Remedios, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Antarctic polar descent and planetary wave activity in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere are observed in ISAMS CO data from April to July 1992. CO-derived mean April-to-May upper stratosphere descent rates of 15 K/day (0.25 km/day) at 60 S and 20 K/day (0.33 km/day) at 80 S are compared with descent rates from diabatic trajectory analyses. At 60 S there is excellent agreement, while at 80 S the trajectory-derived descent is significantly larger in early April. Zonal wavenumber 1 enhancement of CO is observed on 9 and 28 May, coincident with enhanced wave 1 in UKMO geopotential height. The 9 May event extends from 40 to 70 km and shows westward phase tilt with height, while the 28 May event extends from 40 to 50 km and shows virtually no phase tilt with height.

  5. Generation of stationary and moving vortices in active polar fluids in the planar Taylor-Couette geometry.

    PubMed

    Neef, M; Kruse, K

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamics of an active polar fluid in the interstitial space between two fixed coaxial cylinders. For sufficiently large expansive or contractive active stresses, the fluid presents roll instabilities of axially symmetric states leading to the spontaneous formation of vortices in the flow field. These vortices are either stationary or travel around the inner cylinder. Increasing the activity further, our numerical solutions indicate the existence of active turbulence that coexists with regular vortex solutions.

  6. A New Class of Rhomboid Protease Inhibitors Discovered by Activity-Based Fluorescence Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Eliane V.; Zeißler, Annett; Vosyka, Oliver; Zeiler, Evelyn; Sieber, Stephan; Verhelst, Steven H. L.

    2013-01-01

    Rhomboids are intramembrane serine proteases that play diverse biological roles, including some that are of potential therapeutical relevance. Up to date, rhomboid inhibitor assays are based on protein substrate cleavage. Although rhomboids have an overlapping substrate specificity, substrates cannot be used universally. To overcome the need for substrates, we developed a screening assay using fluorescence polarization activity-based protein profiling (FluoPol ABPP) that is compatible with membrane proteases. With FluoPol ABPP, we identified new inhibitors for the E. coli rhomboid GlpG. Among these was a structural class that has not yet been reported as rhomboid inhibitors: β-lactones. They form covalent and irreversible complexes with the active site serine of GlpG. The presence of alkyne handles on the β-lactones also allowed activity-based labeling. Overall, these molecules represent a new scaffold for future inhibitor and activity-based probe development, whereas the assay will allow inhibitor screening of ill-characterized membrane proteases. PMID:23991088

  7. Polarized light propagation in multiply scattering media exhibiting both linear birefringence and optical activity: Monte Carlo model and experimental methodology.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael F G; Guo, Xinxin; Vitkin, I Alex

    2007-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model for polarized light propagation in birefringent, optically active, multiply scattering media is developed in an effort to accurately represent the propagation of polarized light in biological tissue. The model employs the Jones N-matrix formalism to combine both linear birefringence and optical activity into a single effect that can be applied to photons as they propagate between scattering events. Polyacrylamide phantoms with strain-induced birefringence, sucrose-induced optical activity, and polystyrene microspheres as scattering particles are used for experimental validation. Measurements are made using a Stokes polarimeter that detects scattered light in different geometries, and compared to the results of Monte Carlo simulations run with similar parameters. The results show close agreement between the experimental measurements and Monte Carlo calculations for phantoms exhibiting turbidity and birefringence, as well as for phantoms exhibiting turbidity, birefringence, and optical activity. Other scattering-independent polarization properties can be incorporated into the developed Jones N-matrix formalism, enabling quantification of the polarization effects via an accurate polarization-sensitive Monte Carlo model. PMID:17343504

  8. The Evolution of Student Activism and Its Influence on Tuition Fees in South Korean Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Kim, Hoon-Ho; Choi, Hong-Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article briefly overviews the student movement working for political democratisation during the authoritarian governments in South Korea. The article focuses on how student activism has changed as a reflection of political developments from the dictatorship through to the civilian democratic governments. Further, it analyses how tuition-fee…

  9. Guidelines to Assist the Implementation of Differentiated Learning Activities in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, Thelma

    2013-01-01

    Despite previous research and recommendations in South Africa, secondary-school teachers still encounter economic, social and cultural challenges in implementing differentiated learning activities in the classroom. The diversity of learners with learning barriers inevitably leads to an increase in workload for the teachers. This article draws on…

  10. Vesta's north pole quadrangle Av-1 (Albana): Geologic map and the nature of the south polar basin antipodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, David T.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Scully, Jennifer E.; O'Brien, David P.; Gaskell, Robert; Roatsch, Thomas; Bowling, Timothy J.; Ermakov, Anton; Hiesinger, Harald; Williams, David A.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2014-12-01

    As part of systematic global mapping of Vesta using data returned by the Dawn spacecraft, we have produced a geologic map of the north pole quadrangle, Av-1 Albana. Extensive seasonal shadows were present in the north polar region at the time of the Dawn observations, limiting the ability to map morphological features and employ color or spectral data for determination of composition. The major recognizable units present include ancient cratered highlands and younger crater-related units (undivided ejecta, and mass-wasting material on crater floors). The antipode of Vesta's large southern impact basins, Rheasilvia and Veneneia, lie within or near the Av-1 quadrangle. Therefore it is of particular interest to search for evidence of features of the kind that are found at basin antipodes on other planetary bodies. Albedo markings known as lunar swirls are correlated with basin antipodes and the presence of crustal magnetic anomalies on the Moon, but lighting conditions preclude recognition of such albedo features in images of the antipode of Vesta's Rheasilvia basin. “Hilly and lineated terrain,” found at the antipodes of large basins on the Moon and Mercury, is not present at the Rheasilvia or Veneneia antipodes. We have identified small-scale linear depressions that may be related to increased fracturing in the Rheasilvia and Veneneia antipodal areas, consistent with impact-induced stresses (Buczkowski, D. et al. [2012b]. Analysis of the large scale troughs on Vesta and correlation to a model of giant impact into a differentiated asteroid. Geol. Soc. of America Annual Meeting. Abstract 152-4; Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20123). The general high elevation of much of the north polar region could, in part, be a result of uplift caused by the Rheasilvia basin-forming impact, as predicted by numerical modeling (Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre

  11. Iron and silicic acid concentrations regulate Si uptake north and south of the Polar Frontal Zone in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Valerie M.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Nelson, David M.

    We investigated the relative roles of Fe and silicic acid availabilities in regulating Si uptake rates across the Polar Frontal Zone in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean (59-68°S, 170°W) during the US JGOFS Antarctic Environment Southern Ocean Process Study (AESOPS). Meridional gradients in silicic acid concentration ([Si(OH) 4]) of about 0.25-0.56 μM km -1 were observed in this area during austral spring and summer, 1997-1998, with [Si(OH) 4] ranging from <1 to 15 μM on the north side of the gradient to 40-60 μM on the south side. In two pairs of shipboard bottle-enrichment experiments conducted north and south of the Si gradient in spring and summer, we measured the effects of Fe, Zn and Si additions on 32Si(OH)4 and 15NO3- uptake rates, biogenic silica concentrations and Si(OH) 4 : NO 3- uptake ratios. Fe addition had little or no effect on Si uptake rates in enrichments conducted in the low-Si waters north of the Si gradient. However, Fe addition increased Si uptake rates 3-5 times over controls in enrichments conducted in the high-Si waters south of the gradient, in both spring and summer. Fe addition decreased Si(OH) 4 : NO 3- uptake ratios by 2-5 times, largely due to stimulation of NO 3- uptake rates. Zn addition had no effect on Si(OH) 4 and NO 3- uptake rates. Short-term (24 h) Si additions had varying effects on Si uptake rates, depending on season and location. In spring, additions of 40 μM Si to water from bottle enrichments, conducted north of the Si gradient (in situ [Si(OH) 4] ˜15 μM) did not increase Si uptake rates initially, but did increase uptake rates after 8 days. In the summer enrichment north of the Si gradient (in situ [Si(OH) 4] ˜5 μM), 50 μM Si additions doubled in situ Si uptake rates in the initial water collected for the enrichment, and increased Si uptake rates as much as 16-fold during the experiment. South of the Si gradient, where in situ [Si(OH) 4] was >40 μM in both spring and summer, Si addition had no effect

  12. Additions and corrections to the absorption coefficients of CO2 ice - Applications to the Martian south polar cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvin, Wendy M.

    1990-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of carbon dioxide frosts were calculated using the optical constants provided by Warren (1986) for the wavelength region 2-6 microns. In comparing these calculated spectra to spectra of frosts observed in the laboratory and on the surface of Mars, problems in the optical constants presented by Warren (1986) became apparent. Absorption coefficients for CO2 ice have been derived using laboratory reflectance measurements and the Hapke (1981) model for calculating diffuse reflectance. This provides approximate values in regions where no data were previously available and indicates where corrections to the compilation by Warren (1986) are required. Using these coefficients to calculate the reflectance of CO2 ice at varying grain sizes indicates that a typical Mariner polar cap spectrum is dominated by absorptions due to CO2 frost or ice at grain sizes that are quite large, probably of the order of millimeters to centimeters. There are indications of contamination of water frost or dust, but confirmation will require more precise absorption coefficients for solid CO2 than can be obtained from the method used here.

  13. Induced polarization imaging applied to exploration for low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposits, Seongsan mineralized district, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Man-Ho; Shin, Seung Wook; Park, Samgyu; Cho, Seong-Jun; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2016-10-01

    The determination of mineralization boundaries during mineral exploration for undiscovered low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposits is a significant challenge because of the extensive survey areas required. Induced polarization (IP) imaging is an effective geophysical technique for the detection of sulfides or clay. Thus, this method is considered useful to determine the boundaries of subsurface mineralization and hydrothermal alteration associated with epithermal deposits. We used 2D and 3D IP imaging to define the silicification and mineralization boundaries of the Moisan deposit in the Seongsan mineralized district, which is geologically well-known. The boundaries of the silicification zone were defined by high resistivity values of 600 Ω-m, and those of the mineralization zone were defined by high global chargeability values of 3 mV V-1. The continuity of the high resistivity anomaly corresponded well to the silicification (quartz veins) exposed in outcrop. In addition, it is geologically reasonable that the chargeability anomaly, ⩾3 mV V-1, associated with the mineralization/hydrothermal alteration zone was concentrated at near-surface depths, and extensively surrounding the resistivity anomaly, ⩾600 Ω-m, associated with the silicification zone.

  14. Integrating multiscale polar active contours and region growing for microcalcifications segmentation in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikidis, N. S.; Karahaliou, A.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Likaki, E.; Panagiotakis, G.; Costaridou, L.

    2009-07-01

    Morphology of individual microcalcifications is an important clinical factor in microcalcification clusters diagnosis. Accurate segmentation remains a difficult task due to microcalcifications small size, low contrast, fuzzy nature and low distinguishability from surrounding tissue. A novel application of active rays (polar transformed active contours) on B-spline wavelet representation is employed, to provide initial estimates of microcalcification boundary. Then, a region growing method is used with pixel aggregation constrained by the microcalcification boundary estimates, to obtain the final microcalcification boundary. The method was tested on dataset of 49 microcalcification clusters (30 benign, 19 malignant), originating from the DDSM database. An observer study was conducted to evaluate segmentation accuracy of the proposed method, on a 5-point rating scale (from 5:excellent to 1:very poor). The average accuracy rating was 3.98±0.81 when multiscale active rays were combined to region growing and 2.93±0.92 when combined to linear polynomial fitting, while the difference in rating of segmentation accuracy was statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  15. Transbilayer phospholipid flipping regulates Cdc42p signaling during polarized cell growth via Rga GTPase-activating proteins.

    PubMed

    Saito, Koji; Fujimura-Kamada, Konomi; Hanamatsu, Hisatoshi; Kato, Utako; Umeda, Masato; Kozminski, Keith G; Tanaka, Kazuma

    2007-11-01

    An important problem in polarized morphogenesis is how polarized transport of membrane vesicles is spatiotemporally regulated. Here, we report that a local change in the transbilayer phospholipid distribution of the plasma membrane regulates the axis of polarized growth. Type 4 P-type ATPases Lem3p-Dnf1p and -Dnf2p are putative heteromeric phospholipid flippases in budding yeast that are localized to polarized sites on the plasma membrane. The lem3Delta mutant exhibits prolonged apical growth due to a defect in the switch to isotropic bud growth. In lem3Delta cells, the small GTPase Cdc42p remains polarized at the bud tip where phosphatidylethanolamine remains exposed on the outer leaflet. Intriguingly, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine stimulate GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity of Rga1p and Rga2p toward Cdc42p, whereas PI(4,5)P(2) inhibits it. We propose that a redistribution of phospholipids to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane triggers the dispersal of Cdc42p from the apical growth site, through activation of GAPs.

  16. Geochemistry of soils of King George Island, South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica: Implications for pedogenesis in cold polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Il; Lim, Hyoun Soo; Yoon, Ho Il

    2004-11-01

    Fine fractions of soils on the Barton Peninsula, King George Island, West Antarctica have been forming during the last 6000 yr since the last deglaciation. Texturally, they are mostly composed of mineral and rock fragments with some volcanic ashes, which are also indicated by geochemical compositions representing for the nonclay silicate minerals and low values of chemical index of alteration. No significant changes are observed in major- and trace element abundances. Such geochemical characteristics suggest that chemical weathering of bedrocks on the Barton Peninsula seems insignificant and that the soils are composed of physically weathered mineral and rock fragments which are mixed with eolian additions of volcanic ashes and Patagonian dusts. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns of the Barton Peninsula soils are slightly different from those of bedrocks, indicating that the REE abundances and characteristics were influenced by eolian additions. Mixing calculations, which mass-balance the REEs, suggest that volcanic ashes blown from Deception Island were the major eolian contributor, followed by atmospheric dusts sourced from Patagonia, South America. Even in the warmer and humid climatic conditions in the maritime Antarctic region, the chemical weathering of bedrocks appears to be insignificant, probably due to the relatively short duration of weathering since the last deglaciation.

  17. Evaluation of wild herbivore faeces from South Africa as a potential source of hydrolytically active microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ndlela, Luyanda L; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed faecal matter from three indigenous South African herbivores-zebra, giraffe and impala-as a potential source for hydrolytically active aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Herbivore droppings were collected freshly in a local nature reserve in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Soil samples adjacent to faecal collection sites and faeces from a domestic herbivore, the Nguni cow, were included as controls. Hydrolase and dehydrogenase activity in faecal matter and soil samples were measured by the fluorescein diacetate and the triphenyltetrazolium chloride assay. Viable counts and counts for amylase, cellulase, esterase and protease producers were established using plate count agar and solid media containing cellulose, skim milk, starch and Tween 80. Zebra droppings produced the highest hydrolase and dehydrogenase activity. Faecal matter of the three indigenous herbivores generally produced higher hydrolytic activity than Nguni cow faeces and soil controls, thereby confirming that these materials are potential targets for hydrolytic enzyme mining. PMID:26900540

  18. Polar Stratospheric Cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modelled by ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Wohltmann, I.; Wegner, T.; Takeda, M.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Lehmann, R.; Santee, M. L.; Rex, M.

    2015-08-01

    We examined observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) by CALIPSO and of HCl, ClO and HNO3 by MLS along air mass trajectories to investigate the dependence of the inferred PSC composition on the temperature history of the air parcels, and the dependence of the level of chlorine activation on PSC composition. Several case studies based on individual trajectories from the Arctic winter 2009/10 were conducted, with the trajectories chosen such that the first processing of the air mass by PSCs in this winter occurred on the trajectory. Transitions of PSC composition classes were observed to be highly dependent on the temperature history. In cases of a gradual temperature decrease, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and super-cooled ternary solution (STS) mixture clouds were observed. In cases of rapid temperature decrease, STS clouds were first observed, followed by NAT/STS mixture clouds. When temperatures dropped below the frost point, ice clouds formed, and then transformed into NAT/STS mixture clouds when temperature increased above the frost point. The threshold temperature for rapid chlorine activation on PSCs is approximately 4 K below the NAT existence temperature, TNAT. Furthermore, simulations of the ATLAS chemistry and transport box model along the trajectories were used to corroborate the measurements and show good agreement with the observations. Rapid chlorine activation was observed when an airmass encountered PSCs. The observed and modelled dependence of the rate of chlorine activation on the PSC composition class was small. Usually, chlorine activation was limited by the amount of available ClONO2. Where ClONO2 was not the limiting factor, a large dependence on temperature was evident.

  19. Modeling the reflectance of CO2 frost with new optical constants: Application to Martian south polar cap spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Gary B.; Martin, Terry Z.

    1993-01-01

    New measurements of the absorption coefficients of CO2 ice, in most of the spectral range 0.2 to 3.9 microns where absorption coefficients are below 1.5 per cm, have recently been made. Although these measurements are preliminary, they contain spectral detail not seen previously in the literature. Therefore, it is useful to combine these new data with older data from spectral regions of stronger absorption and reformulate models of the albedo or reflectance of CO2 frost. These models can then be adjusted in an attempt to match measurements of Martian polar deposits, such as the set of spectra returned by the IRS instrument on Mariner 7 (1969). The new absorption coefficients of CO2 ice were measured on several samples of 41-mm thickness at 150-155 K. A portion of the spectrum from 1.9 to 3.9 microns wavelength is shown in the form of imaginary coefficient of refraction ( = linear absorption x wavelength / 4 pi). The data above 3x10(exp -5) are obtained from, except for the absorption line at 3.32 micrometers, which is extrapolated in a way that is consistent with laboratory frost measurements, but the peak level is still highly uncertain. This new imagary coefficient, combined with the real coefficient, can be immediately applied to the models for hemispherical albedo, resulting in markedly different results from those in that study. The results for an infinite optical depth layer and solar incidence of 60 degrees are plotted for a range of mean particle radii from 0.03 to 3 mm.

  20. Diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Yun; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in nine different deep-sea sediment samples of the South China Sea by culture-dependent methods followed by analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Although 14 out of 27 identified species were reported in a previous study, 13 species were isolated from sediments of deep-sea environments for the first report. Moreover, these ITS sequences of six isolates shared 84-92 % similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, which suggested that they might be novel phylotypes of genera Ajellomyces, Podosordaria, Torula, and Xylaria. The antimicrobial activities of these fungal isolates were explored using a double-layer technique. A relatively high proportion (56 %) of fungal isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium or fungus among four marine pathogenic microbes (Micrococcus luteus, Pseudoaltermonas piscida, Aspergerillus versicolor, and A. sydowii). Out of these antimicrobial fungi, the genera Arthrinium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities, while genus Aureobasidium displayed only antibacterial activity, and genera Acremonium, Cladosporium, Geomyces, and Phaeosphaeriopsis displayed only antifungal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable deep-sea-derived fungi in the South China Sea. These results suggest that diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea are a potential source for antibiotics' discovery and further increase the pool of fungi available for natural bioactive product screening.

  1. Giant cross-polarization conversion of terahertz radiation by plasmons in an active graphene metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polischuk, O. V.; Melnikova, V. S.; Popov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Results of theoretical investigation of the cross-polarization conversion of terahertz (THz) radiation by the graphene metasurface formed by a periodic array of graphene nanoribbons located at the surface of a high-refractive-index dielectric substrate are presented. Giant polarization conversion at the plasmon resonance frequencies takes place without applying external DC magnetic field. Pumping graphene by its direct optical illumination or diffusion pumping allows for compensating the Drude losses in graphene and leads to further enhancement of the polarization conversion. It is shown that the total polarization conversion can be achieved in the total internal reflection regime of THz wave from the graphene metasurface at room temperature.

  2. Physical Activity in South Asians: An In-Depth Qualitative Study to Explore Motivations and Facilitators

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Ruth; Harris, Fiona M.; Bowes, Alison; Robertson, Roma; Avan, Ghizala; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Background People of South Asian backgrounds living in the UK have a five-fold increased risk of diabetes and a two-fold increased risk of heart disease when compared to the general population. Physical activity can reduce the risk of premature death from a range of conditions. The aim of the study was to explore the motivating and facilitating factors likely to increase physical activity for South Asian adults and their families, in order to develop successful interventions and services. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a qualitative study using focus groups and in-depth interviews. Participants were 59 purposively selected Bangladeshi-, Indian- and Pakistani-origin men and women with an additional 10 key informants. The setting was three urban areas of Scotland: Aberdeen, Glasgow and Edinburgh. We undertook a theoretically informed thematic analysis of data. Study participants described engaging in a range of physical activities, particularly football and the gym for men, and walking and swimming for women. The main motivators for taking part in physical activity were external motivators – i.e. undertaking physical activity as a means to an end, which included the opportunities that physical activity provided for social activity and enjoyment. The goals of weight reduction and improving mental and physical health and were also mentioned. Role models were seen as important to inspire and motivate people to undertake activities that they may otherwise lack confidence in. Few people undertook physical activity for its own sake (intrinsic motivation). Conclusions/Significance Attempts at promoting physical activity in people of South Asian origin need to take account of the social context of people's lives and the external motivators that encourage them to engage in physical activity. Undertaking group based physical activity is important and can be facilitated through religious, community, friendship or family networks. Role models may also prove

  3. Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Macrophages Mediates Feedback Inhibition of M2 Polarization and Gastrointestinal Tumor Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Liu, Liping; Peek, Richard M; Hao, Xishan; Polk, D Brent; Li, Hui; Yan, Fang

    2016-09-23

    EGF receptor (EGFR) in tumor cells serves as a tumor promoter. However, information about EGFR activation in macrophages in regulating M2 polarization and tumor development is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EGFR activation in macrophages on M2 polarization and development of gastrointestinal tumors. IL-4, a cytokine to elicit M2 polarization, stimulated release of an EGFR ligand, HB-EGF, and transactivation and down-regulation of EGFR in Raw 264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages from WT mice. Knockdown of HB-EGF in macrophages inhibited EGFR transactivation by IL-4. IL-4-stimulated STAT6 activation, Arg1 and YM1 gene expression, and HB-EGF production were further enhanced by inhibition of EGFR activity in Raw 264.7 cells using an EGFR kinase inhibitor and in peritoneal macrophages from Egfr(wa5) mice with kinase inactive EGFR and by knockdown of EGFR in peritoneal macrophages from Egfr(fl/fl) LysM-Cre mice with myeloid cell-specific EGFR deletion. Chitin induced a higher level of M2 polarization in peritoneal macrophages in Egfr(fl/fl) LysM-Cre mice than that in Egfr(fl/fl) mice. Accordingly, IL-4-conditioned medium stimulated growth and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in gastric epithelial and colonic tumor cells, which were suppressed by that from Raw 264.7 cells with HB-EGF knockdown but promoted by that from Egfr(wa5) and Egfr(fl/fl) LysM-Cre peritoneal macrophages. Clinical assessment revealed that the number of macrophages with EGFR expression became less, indicating decreased inhibitory effects on M2 polarization, in late stage of human gastric cancers. Thus, IL-4-stimulated HB-EGF-dependent transactivation of EGFR in macrophages may mediate inhibitory feedback for M2 polarization and HB-EGF production, thereby inhibiting gastrointestinal tumor growth.

  4. Axi-symmetric patterns of active polar filaments on spherical and composite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Rao, Madan

    2014-03-01

    Experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells of cylindrical and spherical shapes, rod-shaped bacteria and reconstituted cylindrical liposomes suggest the influence of cell geometry on patterning of cortical actin. A theoretical model based on active hydrodynamic description of cortical actin that includes curvature-orientation coupling predicts spontaneous formation of acto-myosin rings, cables and nodes on cylindrical and spherical geometries [P. Srivastava et al, PRL 110, 168104(2013)]. Stability and dynamics of these patterns is also affected by the cellular shape and has been observed in experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells of spherical shape. Motivated by this, we study the stability and dynamics of axi-symmetric patterns of active polar filaments on the surfaces of spherical, saddle shaped and conical geometry and classify the stable steady state patterns on these surfaces. Based on the analysis of the fluorescence images of Myosin-II during ring slippage we propose a simple mechanical model for ring-sliding based on force balance and make quantitative comparison with the experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells. NSF Grant DMR-1004789 and Syracuse Soft Matter Program.

  5. Polar Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    10 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded remnants of carbon dioxide ice in the south polar residual cap of Mars. The scarps that outline each small mesa have retreated about 3 meters (10 feet) per Mars year since MGS began orbiting the red planet in 1997.

    Location near: 87.0oS, 31.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  6. Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a slope upon which are exposed some of the layered materials that underlie the south polar cap of Mars. The layers are generally considered to be sediments--perhaps dust--that may have been cemented by water ice.

    Location near: 84.1oS, 343.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  7. Polar stratospheric cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modeled by ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Wohltmann, Ingo; Wegner, Tobias; Takeda, Masanori; Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.; Lehmann, Ralph; Santee, Michelle L.; Rex, Markus

    2016-03-01

    We examined observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) by CALIPSO, and of HCl and ClO by MLS along air mass trajectories, to investigate the dependence of the inferred PSC composition on the temperature history of the air parcels and the dependence of the level of chlorine activation on PSC composition. Several case studies based on individual trajectories from the Arctic winter 2009/2010 were conducted, with the trajectories chosen such that the first processing of the air mass by PSCs in this winter occurred on the trajectory. Transitions of PSC composition classes were observed to be highly dependent on the temperature history. In cases of a gradual temperature decrease, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and super-cooled ternary solution (STS) mixture clouds were observed. In cases of rapid temperature decrease, STS clouds were first observed, followed by NAT/STS mixture clouds. When temperatures dropped below the frost point, ice clouds formed and then transformed into NAT/STS mixture clouds when temperature increased above the frost point. The threshold temperature for rapid chlorine activation on PSCs is approximately 4 K below the NAT existence temperature, TNAT. Furthermore, simulations of the ATLAS chemistry and transport box model along the trajectories were used to corroborate the measurements and show good agreement with the observations. Rapid chlorine activation was observed when an air mass encountered PSCs. Usually, chlorine activation was limited by the amount of available ClONO2. Where ClONO2 was not the limiting factor, a large dependence on temperature was evident.

  8. Alkaloid profiling and anticholinesterase activity of South American Lycopodiaceae species.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Eduardo Luis; Ortega, María Gabriela; de Loreto Bordignon, Sérgio; Apel, Miriam Anders; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha; Cabrera, José Luis

    2013-02-01

    The alkaloid extracts of four Huperzia and one Lycopodiella species, from Brazilian habitats, were tested for their in vitro anticholinesterase activities. IC(50) values showed a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibition for H. reflexa (0.11 ± 0.05 μg/mL), followed by H. quadrifariata (2.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL), H. acerosa (5.5 ± 0.9 μg/mL), H. heterocarpon (25.6 ± 2.7 μg/mL) and L. cernua (42.6 ± 1.5 μg/mL). A lower inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase was observed for all species with the exception of H. heterocarpon (8.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL), whose alkaloid extract presented a selectivity for pseudocholinesterase. Moreover, the chemical study of the bioactive extracts performed by GC-MS, revealed the presence of a number of Lycopodium alkaloids belonging to the lycopodane, flabellidane and cernuane groups. Surprisingly, the potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors huperzines A and B were not detected in the extracts, suggesting that other alkaloids may be responsible for such an effect. PMID:22117191

  9. Detection of a change in the North-South ratio of count rates of particles of high-energy cosmic rays during a change in the polarity of the magnetic field of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelin, A. V.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasil'ev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Gal'per, A. M.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskii, S. A.; Krut'kov, S. Yu.; Leonov, A. A.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Maiorov, A. G.; Malakhov, V. V.; Menn, W.; Mergè, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Rosetto, M. L.; Simon, M.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Formato, V.; Yurkin, Yu. T.

    2015-02-01

    A change in the ratio of the intensities of particles of high-energy cosmic rays arriving from the North and South in the time interval of 2010-2014 has been detected with a calorimeter entering into the experimental complex of the PAMELA satellite experiment since June 2006. The polarity of the magnetic field of the Sun changed in a part of this time interval. Thus, the results indicate that the North-South asymmetry of cosmic ray fluxes is related to the magnetic field of the Sun.

  10. On causes of the low seismic activity in the Earth's polar latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Boris; Sasorova, Elena; Domanski, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    The irregularity of distribution of seismic activity in the world was observed at the beginning of the era of instrumental seismology (B. Gutenberg, C. Richter, K. Kasahara). At the same time, the global nature of the symmetry of this effect has been established only in this millennium, with the participation of authors (Levin B.W., Sasorova E.V., 2010). Analysis of the global earthquake catalogs showed that almost all seismic events over the last century occurred within a limited latitudinal band contained between the 65 N and 65 S. The seismic activity in the polar regions of the planet was manifested very weakly. The reasons for such features were found by following the analysis of the characteristics associated with the theory of the figure of the Earth. In the works of the French mathematician A. Veronne (1912) was the first to introduce the concept of "critical" latitudes (φ1 = ±35°15' 22″) wherein the radius of the ellipsoid of revolution is equal to the radius of the sphere of the same volume. Variation of the radius vector of the ellipsoid at this latitude is equal to zero. There is the boundary between the compressed areas of the polar zones and equatorial region, where the rocks of the Earth are dominated by tensile forces. Analysis of the specific characteristics of the gravity force distribution on the surface of the ellipsoid has shown that there is a distribution of the same character with a singular point at latitude φ2 = ±61° 52' 12″. In case of variations in the angular velocity of the planet's rotation the variation of gravity force at the latitude φ2 is negligible, compared with variations of gravity force on the equator and pole, which exceed the previous value by 3-4 orders. Attempted analysis of the model of the ellipsoid of revolution in the theory of axisymmetric elastic shells has allowed to establish that in the elastic shell of the planet must occur meridional and ring forces. The theory shows that when the flatness (or polar

  11. Comparative Activity and Functional Ecology of Permafrost Soils and Lithic Niches in a Hyper-Arid Polar Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goordial, J.; Davila, A.; Greer, C. W.; Cannam, R.; DiRuggiero, J.; McKay, C. P.; Whyte, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    This study represents the first metagenomic interrogation of Antarctic permafrost and polar cryptoendolithic microbial communities. The results underlie two different habitability conditions in the same location under extreme cold and dryness: the permafrost habitat where viable microbial life and activity is questionable, and the cryptoendolithic habitat which contains organisms capable of growth under the extreme conditions of the Antarctic Dry Valleys.

  12. COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY METHOD FOR PREDICTING VAPOR PRESSURES AND ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS OF POLAR ORGANIC OXYGENATES IN PM2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Parameterizations of interactions of polar multifunctional organic oxygenates in PM2.5 must be included in aerosol chemistry models for evaluating control strategies for reducing ambient concentrations of PM2.5 compounds. Vapor pressures and activity coefficients of these compo...

  13. Can Indian Ocean SST variability impact TC activity in the South Pacific? A Spatial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Andrew D.; Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Kiem, Anthony S.

    2015-04-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) represent a significant natural hazard to the 15 island nations and 2.7 million inhabitants of the South Pacific, accounting for 76% of reported disasters in the region since 1950. This vast area, dominated by the coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions of the South Pacific fuels the highly variable nature of TCs (both spatially and temporally), leading to difficulties in planning for and responding to these extreme events. While it is well known that the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays a significant role in modulating the background state on which TCs form, there are other large-scale climate drivers operating on annual timescales or longer within the South Pacific (e.g. ENSO Modoki and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation) and outside the Pacific Basin (e.g. the Indian Ocean Dipole and the Southern Annular Mode) that may also influence TC formation. In response to this issue, the impact of these large-scale climate drivers upon the spatial characteristics of tropical cyclogenesis is assessed for the South Pacific region (5o-35oS, 145oE-130oW) over a 67-year period (1945-2011). It is shown, that in addition to the impact of 'Pacific-centric' climate drivers, eastern Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures significantly impact the spatial characteristics of tropical cyclogenesis in the South Pacific. In particular, warming (cooling) in the eastern Indian Ocean is found to result in an eastward (westward) shift in the average location of tropical cyclogenesis in the South Pacific (up to 712km between extreme phases). One mechanism that may account for this east/west modulation of TC activity in the South Pacific is the propagation of warmer water from the Timor Sea through the Coral Sea to the Pacific, resulting in a strengthening of the Pacific Warm Pool and associated meteorological characteristics connected with tropical cyclogenesis. Understanding how other large-scale climate modes interact with Indian Ocean processes is important

  14. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week−1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week−1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent “factor” describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week−1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10–15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  15. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  16. Solubilization of active ingredients of different polarity in Pluronic® micellar solutions - Correlations between solubilizate polarity and solubilization site.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Kim, Viet; Prévost, Sylvain; Seidel, Karsten; Maier, Walter; Marguerre, Ann-Kathrin; Oetter, Günter; Tadros, Tharwat; Gradzielski, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The solubilization of two pharmaceutically active ingredients (AI) with significantly different water solubility, namely carbamazepine and fenofibrate (solubility of 150ppm and 10ppm, respectively), has been investigated using a series of Pluronics® (Poloxamers) containing different ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (EO/PO) units in the molecule. The results show largely enhanced solubilization of fenofibrate by Pluronic® micelles that increases with the PPO chain length provided the temperature is above the critical micelle temperature (cmt). In contrast the more water-soluble carbamazepine only shows a moderate increase in solubilization upon addition of Pluronics®. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR experiments show that the solubilization of fenofibrate occurs in the core of the micelles, whereas carbamazepine shows no direct association with the micelles. These clearly different solubilization mechanisms for the two AIs were confirmed by Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments, which show that fenofibrate interacts only with the PPO core of the micelle, whereas carbamazepine interacts with both PPO and PEO similarly. Accordingly, the large enhancement of the solubilization of fenofibrate is related to the fact that it is solubilized within the PPO core of the Pluronic® micelles, while the much more moderate increase of carbamazepine solubility is attributed to the change of solvent quality due to the presence of the amphiphilic copolymer and the interaction with the EO and PO units in solution. PMID:27244594

  17. Cell polarity factor Par3 binds SPTLC1 and modulates monocyte serine palmitoyltransferase activity and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Tamehiro, Norimasa; Mujawar, Zahedi; Zhou, Suiping; Zhuang, Debbie Z; Hornemann, Thorsten; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Fitzgerald, Michael L

    2009-09-11

    Elevated sphingolipids have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease. Conversely, atherosclerosis is reduced in mice by blocking de novo synthesis of sphingolipids catalyzed by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The SPT enzyme is composed of the SPTLC1 and -2 subunits, and here we describe a novel protein-protein interaction between SPTLC1 and the PDZ protein Par3 (partitioning defective protein 3). Mammalian SPTLC1 orthologs have a highly conserved C terminus that conforms to a type II PDZ protein interaction motif, and by screening PDZ domain protein arrays with an SPTLC1 C-terminal peptide, we found it bound the third PDZ domain of Par3. Overlay and immunoprecipitation assays confirmed this interaction and indicate Par3 is able to associate with the SPTLC1/2 holoenzyme by binding the C-terminal SPTLC1 PDZ motif. The physiologic existence of the SPTLC1/2-Par3 complex was detected in mouse liver and macrophages, and short interfering RNA inhibition of Par3 in human THP-1 monocytes significantly reduced SPT activity and de novo ceramide synthesis by nearly 40%. Given monocyte recruitment into inflamed vessels is thought to promote atherosclerosis, and because Par3 and sphingolipids have been associated with polarized cell migration, we tested whether the ability of THP-1 monocytes to migrate toward MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) depended upon Par3 and SPTLC1 expression. Knockdown of Par3 significantly reduced MCP1-induced chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes, as did knockdown of SPTLC1, and this Par3 effect depended upon SPT activity and was blunted by ceramide treatment. In conclusion, protein arrays were used to identify a novel SPTLC1-Par3 interaction that associates with increased monocyte serine palmitoyltransferase activity and chemotaxis toward inflammatory signals. PMID:19592499

  18. Changing patterns of the long-term activity of the intermediate polar V1223 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2014-11-01

    High and low states represent a large variety of features in the optical activity of some types of cataclysmic variables. Here, we examine them in the intermediate polar V1223 Sgr. We use the photographic observations from the Bamberg Observatory and from Garnavich and Szkody, and the CCD ASAS-3 and NSVS data. One plate or CCD image was usually obtained per night. These data span 78 years. We use the histograms of brightness to set the separation between the high and low states in V1223 Sgr at the level of 13.9 mag(B). The profile of this statistical distribution is dominated by a broad bump with the peak-to-peak amplitude of more than 1 mag(B). This is the result of co-adding various episodes of the high states, sometimes with the brightness varying on a timescale of months even during a single episode. The high state is not any uniquely defined level of brightness. Groups of the low states represent tails from such bumps rather than forming specific levels of brightness. The fuzzy boundaries of the bright side of the statistical distributions of brightness show that the system cannot find equilibrium of the mass transfer even in the high state. We show that V1223 Sgr underwent a large change of its high/low state activity; we ascribe it to the changes of the stellar activity of the donor. The episodes of the low states with mutually similar depth and profile were observed to recur with a cycle of 1092 days in the data mapping the years from 1999 to 2009; this behavior was discordant with the typical recurrence times present before. In our scenario, this cycle is driven by the changing aspect of some structure (e.g. a sequence of star spots migrating across the L1 point) on the donor. Because of the differential rotation of the donor, this configuration cyclically influences the mass flow to the accretion disk.

  19. Effects of polarization induced by non-weak electric fields on the excitability of elongated neurons with active dendrites.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Robert I; Barreto, Ernest; Sander, Evelyn; So, Paul

    2016-02-01

    An externally-applied electric field can polarize a neuron, especially a neuron with elongated dendrites, and thus modify its excitability. Here we use a computational model to examine, predict, and explain these effects. We use a two-compartment Pinsky-Rinzel model neuron polarized by an electric potential difference imposed between its compartments, and we apply an injected ramp current. We vary three model parameters: the magnitude of the applied potential difference, the extracellular potassium concentration, and the rate of current injection. A study of the Time-To-First-Spike (TTFS) as a function of polarization leads to the identification of three regions of polarization strength that have different effects. In the weak region, the TTFS increases linearly with polarization. In the intermediate region, the TTFS increases either sub- or super-linearly, depending on the current injection rate and the extracellular potassium concentration. In the strong region, the TTFS decreases. Our results in the weak and strong region are consistent with experimental observations, and in the intermediate region, we predict novel effects that depend on experimentally-accessible parameters. We find that active channels in the dendrite play a key role in these effects. Our qualitative results were found to be robust over a wide range of inter-compartment conductances and the ratio of somatic to dendritic membrane areas. In addition, we discuss preliminary results where synaptic inputs replace the ramp injection protocol. The insights and conclusions were found to extend from our polarized PR model to a polarized PR model with I h dendritic currents. Finally, we discuss the degree to which our results may be generalized. PMID:26560333

  20. Functional demonstration of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter activity in isolated, polarized choroid plexus cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Delpire, E; Hebert, S C; Strange, K

    1998-12-01

    The function of the apical Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter in mammalian choroid plexus (CP) is uncertain and controversial. To investigate cotransporter function, we developed a novel dissociated rat CP cell preparation in which single, isolated cells maintain normal polarized morphology. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that in isolated cells the Na+-K+-ATPase, Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, and aquaporin 1 water channel remained localized to the brush border, whereas the Cl-/HCO-3 (anion) exchanger type 2 was confined to the basolateral membrane. We utilized video-enhanced microscopy and cell volume measurement techniques to investigate cotransporter function. Application of 100 microM bumetanide caused CP cells to shrink rapidly. Elevation of extracellular K+ from 3 to 6 or 25 mM caused CP cells to swell 18 and 33%, respectively. Swelling was blocked completely by Na+ removal or by addition of 100 microM bumetanide. Exposure of CP cells to 5 mM BaCl2 induced rapid swelling that was inhibited by 100 microM bumetanide. We conclude that the CP cotransporter is constitutively active and propose that it functions in series with Ba2+-sensitive K+ channels to reabsorb K+ from cerebrospinal fluid to blood. PMID:9843718

  1. In vivo antileishmanial activity and chemical profile of polar extract from Selaginella sellowii

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Dayane Priscilla de Souza; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Kadri, Mônica Cristina Toffoli; Rizk, Yasmin Silva; de Araujo, Vanessa Carneiro Pereira; Monteiro, Paulo Eduardo de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Patrik Oening; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Matos, Maria de Fátima Cepa; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The polar hydroethanolic extract from Selaginella sellowii(SSPHE) has been previously proven active on intracellular amastigotes (in vitro test) and now was tested on hamsters infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (in vivo test). SSPHE suppressed a 100% of the parasite load in the infection site and draining lymph nodes at an intralesional dose of 50 mg/kg/day × 5, which was similar to the results observed in hamsters treated with N-methylglucamine antimonate (Sb) (28 mg/Kg/day × 5). When orally administered, SSPHE (50 mg/kg/day × 20) suppressed 99.2% of the parasite load in infected footpads, while Sb suppressed 98.5%. SSPHE also enhanced the release of nitric oxide through the intralesional route in comparison to Sb. The chemical fingerprint of SSPHE by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and tandem mass spectrometry showed the presence of biflavonoids and high molecular weight phenylpropanoid glycosides. These compounds may have a synergistic action in vivo. Histopathological study revealed that the intralesional treatment with SSPHE induced an intense inflammatory infiltrate, composed mainly of mononuclear cells. The present findings reinforce the potential of this natural product as a source of future drug candidates for American cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:26910353

  2. A polyalanine peptide derived from polar fish with anti-infectious activities.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marlon H; Ribeiro, Suzana M; Nolasco, Diego O; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Felício, Mário R; Gonçalves, Sónia; Matos, Carolina O; Liao, Luciano M; Santos, Nuno C; Hancock, Robert E W; Franco, Octávio L; Migliolo, Ludovico

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing concern about antibiotic-resistant microbial infections, increasing support has been given to new drug discovery programs. A promising alternative to counter bacterial infections includes the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have emerged as model molecules for rational design strategies. Here we focused on the study of Pa-MAP 1.9, a rationally designed AMP derived from the polar fish Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP 1.9 was active against Gram-negative planktonic bacteria and biofilms, without being cytotoxic to mammalian cells. By using AFM, leakage assays, CD spectroscopy and in silico tools, we found that Pa-MAP 1.9 may be acting both on intracellular targets and on the bacterial surface, also being more efficient at interacting with anionic LUVs mimicking Gram-negative bacterial surface, where this peptide adopts α-helical conformations, than cholesterol-enriched LUVs mimicking mammalian cells. Thus, as bacteria present varied physiological features that favor antibiotic-resistance, Pa-MAP 1.9 could be a promising candidate in the development of tools against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26916401

  3. A polyalanine peptide derived from polar fish with anti-infectious activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Marlon H.; Ribeiro, Suzana M.; Nolasco, Diego O.; de La Fuente-Núñez, César; Felício, Mário R.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Matos, Carolina O.; Liao, Luciano M.; Santos, Nuno C.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Franco, Octávio L.; Migliolo, Ludovico

    2016-02-01

    Due to the growing concern about antibiotic-resistant microbial infections, increasing support has been given to new drug discovery programs. A promising alternative to counter bacterial infections includes the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have emerged as model molecules for rational design strategies. Here we focused on the study of Pa-MAP 1.9, a rationally designed AMP derived from the polar fish Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP 1.9 was active against Gram-negative planktonic bacteria and biofilms, without being cytotoxic to mammalian cells. By using AFM, leakage assays, CD spectroscopy and in silico tools, we found that Pa-MAP 1.9 may be acting both on intracellular targets and on the bacterial surface, also being more efficient at interacting with anionic LUVs mimicking Gram-negative bacterial surface, where this peptide adopts α-helical conformations, than cholesterol-enriched LUVs mimicking mammalian cells. Thus, as bacteria present varied physiological features that favor antibiotic-resistance, Pa-MAP 1.9 could be a promising candidate in the development of tools against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria.

  4. In vivo antileishmanial activity and chemical profile of polar extract from Selaginella sellowii.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Dayane Priscilla de Souza; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Kadri, Mônica Cristina Toffoli; Rizk, Yasmin Silva; Araujo, Vanessa Carneiro Pereira de; Monteiro, Paulo Eduardo de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Patrik Oening; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Matos, Maria de Fátima Cepa; Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto de

    2016-03-01

    The polar hydroethanolic extract from Selaginella sellowii(SSPHE) has been previously proven active on intracellular amastigotes (in vitro test) and now was tested on hamsters infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (in vivo test). SSPHE suppressed a 100% of the parasite load in the infection site and draining lymph nodes at an intralesional dose of 50 mg/kg/day × 5, which was similar to the results observed in hamsters treated with N-methylglucamine antimonate (Sb) (28 mg/Kg/day × 5). When orally administered, SSPHE (50 mg/kg/day × 20) suppressed 99.2% of the parasite load in infected footpads, while Sb suppressed 98.5%. SSPHE also enhanced the release of nitric oxide through the intralesional route in comparison to Sb. The chemical fingerprint of SSPHE by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and tandem mass spectrometry showed the presence of biflavonoids and high molecular weight phenylpropanoid glycosides. These compounds may have a synergistic action in vivo. Histopathological study revealed that the intralesional treatment with SSPHE induced an intense inflammatory infiltrate, composed mainly of mononuclear cells. The present findings reinforce the potential of this natural product as a source of future drug candidates for American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  5. Polarization of PI3K Activity Initiated by Ooplasmic Segregation Guides Nuclear Migration in the Mesendoderm.

    PubMed

    Takatori, Naohito; Oonuma, Kouhei; Nishida, Hiroki; Saiga, Hidetoshi

    2015-11-01

    Asymmetric localization of RNA is a widely observed mechanism of cell polarization. Using embryos of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, we previously showed that mesoderm and endoderm fates are separated by localization of mRNA encoding a transcription factor, Not, to the future mesoderm-side cytoplasm of the mesendoderm cell through asymmetric positioning of the nucleus. Here, we investigated the mechanism that defines the direction of the nuclear migration. We show that localization of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to the future mesoderm region determines the direction of nuclear migration. Localization of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 was dependent on the localization of PI3Kα to the future mesoderm region. PI3Kα was first localized at the 1-cell stage by the ooplasmic movement. Activity of localized PI3Kα at the 4-cell stage was required for the localization of PI3Kα up to the nuclear migration. Our results provide the scaffold for understanding the chain of causality leading to the separation of germ layer fates. PMID:26555053

  6. A polyalanine peptide derived from polar fish with anti-infectious activities

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marlon H.; Ribeiro, Suzana M.; Nolasco, Diego O.; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Felício, Mário R.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Matos, Carolina O.; Liao, Luciano M.; Santos, Nuno C.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Franco, Octávio L.; Migliolo, Ludovico

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing concern about antibiotic-resistant microbial infections, increasing support has been given to new drug discovery programs. A promising alternative to counter bacterial infections includes the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have emerged as model molecules for rational design strategies. Here we focused on the study of Pa-MAP 1.9, a rationally designed AMP derived from the polar fish Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP 1.9 was active against Gram-negative planktonic bacteria and biofilms, without being cytotoxic to mammalian cells. By using AFM, leakage assays, CD spectroscopy and in silico tools, we found that Pa-MAP 1.9 may be acting both on intracellular targets and on the bacterial surface, also being more efficient at interacting with anionic LUVs mimicking Gram-negative bacterial surface, where this peptide adopts α-helical conformations, than cholesterol-enriched LUVs mimicking mammalian cells. Thus, as bacteria present varied physiological features that favor antibiotic-resistance, Pa-MAP 1.9 could be a promising candidate in the development of tools against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26916401

  7. The Effects of Solvent Polarity on Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Securigera Securidaca (L.) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, A; Khalili, M; Margedari, Sh; Nahri-Niknafs, B

    2016-03-01

    The search for indigenous natural antidiabetic and antilipidemec agents is still ongoing. Medicinal plants are widely used for this purpose. These herbs are very rich sources of bioactive compounds as flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, alkaloids which have been reported as effective role to reduce blood glucose and lipid levels. Securigera securidaca seed is reputed in folk medicine for their value as antidiabetic and antilipidemec drugs. In this research, the effect of solvent polarity in bioactive extraction contents of this plant was evaluated by GC-MS analysis. Then antidiabetic and antilipidemic activies of different extracts were investigated in streptozotocine-induced diabetic rats and compared to glibenclamide as known chemical drug for diabetes.The results indicated that, carbon tetrachloride extract of Securigera securidaca seeds showed the best and significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities compared to other extracts because of its more sterols and fatty acids content with beta cells protecting effect from high glucose-induced apoptosis and also increasing in insulin level and sensitivity. PMID:26125283

  8. Establishing a definition of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health: a guide to research and management activities.

    PubMed

    Patyk, Kelly A; Duncan, Colleen; Nol, Pauline; Sonne, Christian; Laidre, Kristin; Obbard, Martyn; Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Regehr, Eric; Gustafson, Lori L; Atwood, Todd

    2015-05-01

    The meaning of health for wildlife and perspectives on how to assess and measure health, are not well characterized. For wildlife at risk, such as some polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations, establishing comprehensive monitoring programs that include health status is an emerging need. Environmental changes, especially loss of sea ice habitat, have raised concern about polar bear health. Effective and consistent monitoring of polar bear health requires an unambiguous definition of health. We used the Delphi method of soliciting and interpreting expert knowledge to propose a working definition of polar bear health and to identify current concerns regarding health, challenges in measuring health, and important metrics for monitoring health. The expert opinion elicited through the exercise agreed that polar bear health is defined by characteristics and knowledge at the individual, population, and ecosystem level. The most important threats identified were in decreasing order: climate change, increased nutritional stress, chronic physiological stress, harvest management, increased exposure to contaminants, increased frequency of human interaction, diseases and parasites, and increased exposure to competitors. Fifteen metrics were identified to monitor polar bear health. Of these, indicators of body condition, disease and parasite exposure, contaminant exposure, and reproductive success were ranked as most important. We suggest that a cumulative effects approach to research and monitoring will improve the ability to assess the biological, ecological, and social determinants of polar bear health and provide measurable objectives for conservation goals and priorities and to evaluate progress.

  9. Induced polarization and self-potential geophysical signature of bacterial activity in porous media (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.

    2013-12-01

    The first part of the presentation will be dedicated to the spectral induced polarization signature of bacteria in porous media. We developed a quantitative model to investigate frequency-domain induced polarization response of suspensions of bacteria and bacteria growth in porous media. Induced polarization of bacteria (alpha-polarization) is related to the properties of the electrical double layer of the bacteria. Surface conductivity and alpha-polarization are due to the Stern layer of counterions occurring in a brush of polymers coating the surface of the bacteria. These phenomena can be related to the cation exchange capacity of the bacteria. The mobility of the counterions in this Stern layer is found to be very small (4.7×10-10 m2s-1 V-1 at 25°C). This implies a very low relaxation frequency for the alpha-polarization of the bacteria cells (typically around 0.1 to 5 Hertz) in agreement with experimental observations. This new model can be coupled to reactive transport modeling codes in which the evolution of bacterial populations are usually described by Monod kinetics. We show that the growth rate and endogenous decay coefficients of bacteria in a porous sand can be inferred non-intrusively from time lapse frequency-domain induced polarization data. The second part of the presentation will concern the biogeobattery mechanism showing new data, the concept of transient biogeobattery and the influence of the concentration of the electron acceptors in the process.

  10. Establishing a definition of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health: A guide to research and management activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patyk, Kelly A.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Nol, Pauline; Sonne, C.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Regehr, Eric V.; Gustafson, L.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    The meaning of health for wildlife and perspectives on how to assess and measure health, are not well characterized. For wildlife at risk, such as some polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations, establishing comprehensive monitoring programs that include health status is an emerging need. Environmental changes, especially loss of sea ice habitat, have raised concern about polar bear health. Effective and consistent monitoring of polar bear health requires an unambiguous definition of health. We used the Delphi method of soliciting and interpreting expert knowledge to propose a working definition of polar bear health and to identify current concerns regarding health, challenges in measuring health, and important metrics for monitoring health. The expert opinion elicited through the exercise agreed that polar bear health is defined by characteristics and knowledge at the individual, population, and ecosystem level. The most important threats identified were in decreasing order: climate change, increased nutritional stress, chronic physiological stress, harvest management, increased exposure to contaminants, increased frequency of human interaction, diseases and parasites, and increased exposure to competitors. Fifteen metrics were identified to monitor polar bear health. Of these, indicators of body condition, disease and parasite exposure, contaminant exposure, and reproductive success were ranked as most important. We suggest that a cumulative effects approach to research and monitoring will improve the ability to assess the biological, ecological, and social determinants of polar bear health and provide measurable objectives for conservation goals and priorities and to evaluate progress.

  11. RoboPol: optical polarization-plane rotations and flaring activity in blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Papadakis, I. E.; Hovatta, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Liodakis, I.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Das, H.; Khodade, P.; Kiehlmann, S.; King, O. G.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Mahabal, A.; Marecki, A.; Modi, D.; Myserlis, I.; Paleologou, E.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Rajarshi, C.; Ramaprakash, A.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    We present measurements of rotations of the optical polarization of blazars during the second year of operation of RoboPol, a monitoring programme of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events, and we analyse the large set of rotation events discovered in two years of observation. We investigate patterns of variability in the polarization parameters and total flux density during the rotation events and compare them to the behaviour in a non-rotating state. We have searched for possible correlations between average parameters of the polarization-plane rotations and average parameters of polarization, with the following results: (1) there is no statistical association of the rotations with contemporaneous optical flares; (2) the average fractional polarization during the rotations tends to be lower than that in a non-rotating state; (3) the average fractional polarization during rotations is correlated with the rotation rate of the polarization plane in the jet rest frame; (4) it is likely that distributions of amplitudes and durations of the rotations have physical upper bounds, so arbitrarily long rotations are not realized in nature.

  12. Establishing a definition of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health: a guide to research and management activities.

    PubMed

    Patyk, Kelly A; Duncan, Colleen; Nol, Pauline; Sonne, Christian; Laidre, Kristin; Obbard, Martyn; Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Regehr, Eric; Gustafson, Lori L; Atwood, Todd

    2015-05-01

    The meaning of health for wildlife and perspectives on how to assess and measure health, are not well characterized. For wildlife at risk, such as some polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations, establishing comprehensive monitoring programs that include health status is an emerging need. Environmental changes, especially loss of sea ice habitat, have raised concern about polar bear health. Effective and consistent monitoring of polar bear health requires an unambiguous definition of health. We used the Delphi method of soliciting and interpreting expert knowledge to propose a working definition of polar bear health and to identify current concerns regarding health, challenges in measuring health, and important metrics for monitoring health. The expert opinion elicited through the exercise agreed that polar bear health is defined by characteristics and knowledge at the individual, population, and ecosystem level. The most important threats identified were in decreasing order: climate change, increased nutritional stress, chronic physiological stress, harvest management, increased exposure to contaminants, increased frequency of human interaction, diseases and parasites, and increased exposure to competitors. Fifteen metrics were identified to monitor polar bear health. Of these, indicators of body condition, disease and parasite exposure, contaminant exposure, and reproductive success were ranked as most important. We suggest that a cumulative effects approach to research and monitoring will improve the ability to assess the biological, ecological, and social determinants of polar bear health and provide measurable objectives for conservation goals and priorities and to evaluate progress. PMID:25679818

  13. Vibrio cholerae porin OmpU mediates M1-polarization of macrophages/monocytes via TLR1/TLR2 activation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Junaid; Sharma, Praveen K; Mukhopadhaya, Arunika

    2015-11-01

    Polarization of the monocytes and macrophages toward the M1 and M2 states is important for hosts' defense against the pathogens. Moreover, it plays a crucial role to resolve the overwhelming inflammatory responses that can be harmful to the host. Polarization of macrophages/monocytes can be induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PAMP-mediated monocyte/macrophage polarization is important during the infection, as pathogen can suppress host immune system by altering the polarization status of the macrophages/monocytes. OmpU, an outer membrane porin protein of Vibrio cholerae, possesses the ability to induce pro-inflammatory responses in monocytes/macrophages. It is also able to down-regulate the LPS-mediated activation of the monocytes/macrophages. Such observation leads us to believe that OmpU may induce a state that can be called as M1/M2-intermediate state. In the present study, we evaluated a set of M1 and M2 markers in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line, and THP-1 human monocytic cell line, in response to the purified OmpU protein. We observed that OmpU, as a PAMP, induced M1-polarization by activating the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. OmpU induced formation of TLR1/TLR2-heterodimers. OmpU-mediated TLR-activation led to the MyD88 recruitment to the TLR1/TLR2 complex. MyD88, in turn, recruited IRAK1. Ultimately, OmpU-mediated signaling led to the activation and subsequent nuclear translocation of the NFκB p65 subunit. We also observed that blocking of the TLR1, TLR2, IRAK1, and NFκB affected OmpU-mediated production of M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6.

  14. Active Upper-atmosphere Chemistry and Dynamics from Polar Circulation Reversal on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teanby, Nicholas A.; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Nixon, Conor A.; DeKok, Remco; Vinatier, Sandrine; Coustenis, Athena; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Calcutt, Simon B.; Flasar, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Saturn's moon Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere comparable to Earth's, with a surface pressure of 1.4 bar. Numerical models reproduce the tropospheric conditions very well but have trouble explaining the observed middle-atmosphere temperatures, composition and winds. The top of the middle-atmosphere circulation has been thought to lie at an altitude of 450 to 500 kilometres, where there is a layer of haze that appears to be separated from the main haze deck. This 'detached' haze was previously explained as being due to the colocation of peak haze production and the limit of dynamical transport by the circulation's upper branch. Herewe report a build-up of trace gases over the south pole approximately two years after observing the 2009 post-equinox circulation reversal, from which we conclude that middle-atmosphere circulation must extend to an altitude of at least 600 kilometres. The primary drivers of this circulation are summer-hemisphere heating of haze by absorption of solar radiation and winter-hemisphere cooling due to infrared emission by haze and trace gases; our results therefore imply that these effects are important well into the thermosphere (altitudes higher than 500 kilometres). This requires both active upper-atmosphere chemistry, consistent with the detection of high-complexity molecules and ions at altitudes greater than 950 kilometres, and an alternative explanation for the detached haze, such as a transition in haze particle growth from monomers to fractal structures.

  15. Active upper-atmosphere chemistry and dynamics from polar circulation reversal on Titan.

    PubMed

    Teanby, Nicholas A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Nixon, Conor A; de Kok, Remco; Vinatier, Sandrine; Coustenis, Athena; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Calcutt, Simon B; Flasar, F Michael

    2012-11-29

    Saturn's moon Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere comparable to Earth's, with a surface pressure of 1.4 bar. Numerical models reproduce the tropospheric conditions very well but have trouble explaining the observed middle-atmosphere temperatures, composition and winds. The top of the middle-atmosphere circulation has been thought to lie at an altitude of 450 to 500 kilometres, where there is a layer of haze that appears to be separated from the main haze deck. This 'detached' haze was previously explained as being due to the co-location of peak haze production and the limit of dynamical transport by the circulation's upper branch. Here we report a build-up of trace gases over the south pole approximately two years after observing the 2009 post-equinox circulation reversal, from which we conclude that middle-atmosphere circulation must extend to an altitude of at least 600 kilometres. The primary drivers of this circulation are summer-hemisphere heating of haze by absorption of solar radiation and winter-hemisphere cooling due to infrared emission by haze and trace gases; our results therefore imply that these effects are important well into the thermosphere (altitudes higher than 500 kilometres). This requires both active upper-atmosphere chemistry, consistent with the detection of high-complexity molecules and ions at altitudes greater than 950 kilometres, and an alternative explanation for the detached haze, such as a transition in haze particle growth from monomers to fractal structures.

  16. Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Coverage of Multi-Instrument Optical Images for Change Detection Research on the Mars South Polar Residual Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Alfiah Rizky Diana; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter; iMars Team

    2016-10-01

    Interest in Mars' surface started in 1965 with Mariner 4. Since then cameras on other fly-by satellites, such as the NASA Mariner 6 (1965), Mariner 7(1971), Mariner 9 (1972) and then orbiting satellites from Viking 1 and 2 (1975-1980), MGS MOC-NA and MOC-WA (1997-2006), Mars Odyssey THEMIS-VIS (2001-present), ESA Mars Express HRSC and SRC (2003-present), NASA MRO HiRISE and CTX (2006-present) and the latest ExoMars TGO CaSSIS launched in March 2016. Both poles of Mars are very fascinating because of their seasonal changes, such as Carbon Dioxide ice layers staying even in summer on South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC). On which features like so-called Swiss Cheese Terrain, spiders, polar dune flow and dust deposition under layers of ice have been identified. To detect changes between images, we need two or more co-registered images of the same area, and from different time periods, for seasonal features. We have studied the spatial and temporal coverage of images over SPRC. Using a single instrument, full SPRC spatial coverage is available for Viking, HRSC, and CTX images. Images from 25cm HiRISE and ≤10m MOC-NA however, are necessary to detect changes at sufficiently high resolution. The longest period for images from one instrument is 5 MY (for CTX and HiRISE, from MY 28-32). Combining multi-instrument images, we can lengthen the period to 10 MY (from MY 23-32, N.B. we are in MY 33 as present). We can compare the surface images over the 10 MY with the surface from MY 12 from Viking Orbiters. Using multi-instrument images we can increase the number of overlapping images over an area. Overlap information for a single instrument is important to obtain stereo-pairs to be used in DTM production. Overlap information from HRSC images and its DTMs can be used to map changes not only horizontally, but also vertically. We will demonstrate in this study the areas which can be most fruitfully employed for change detection research. The research leading to these results has

  17. Large-scale deformational systems in the South Polar Layered Deposits (Promethei Lingula, Mars): "Soft-sediment" and Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guallini, Luca; Brozzetti, Francesco; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2012-08-01

    The present study is the first attempt at a detailed structural and kinematic analysis of large-scale deformational systems observed in the South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLDs) in the Promethei Lingula (PL) margins (Mars). By systematically collecting attitude data referable to previously unknown deformational structures and defining the cross-cut relationships of the structures, we reconstructed a deformational history consisting of two superimposed, well-defined stages. The first stage is dominated by large-scale strike-slip and transtensional faults arranged into conjugate systems and delimiting shear zones that show a wide range of subsidiary structures, including normal and reverse faults, drag folds, boudins, S-C tectonites and sub-horizontal interstratal shear planes marked by sygmoidal boudins. Other typical structures referable to this event are ductile folds (locally true convolute folds) and lobes (ball-and-pillow structures) affecting certain marker beds of the succession. We suggest that the structural assemblage might be the expression of a shallow soft-sediment tectonics that possibly occurred during warm periods of the South Pole climate. The second stage seems to affect the weaker and in certain cases pre-deformed stratigraphic levels of the SPLD succession. This stage is mainly characterized by extensional deformations caused by gravity. The consequence of the deformations is the nucleation of Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DSGSDs) marked by typical morphostructures, such as scarps, trenches and bulging basal contractant zones. These phenomena were never observed within an ice cap. According to terrestrial modeling, these slow collapses were caused by (1) the presence of detachment levels (i.e., subhorizontal bedding planes) along which the ice-sheet margins can slide and (2) the development of listric faults within the glacial mass, which merge with sub-horizontal shear planes in the subsurface. The presence of complex

  18. Active Earth Display: Using Real-Time Data, Interactivity, and Storylines to Engage the Public in Polar Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, C. R.; Carroll, K. P.; Wilson, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    The Polar Earth Observation Network (POLENET) and UNAVCO are collaborating to develop new educational materials for the public focused on polar-based research. Polenet is a consortium that aims to dramatically improve the coverage of many different kinds of geophysical data sets across the polar regions of Earth. The data from Polenet will enable new research into the interaction between the atmosphere, oceans, polar ice-sheets, and the Earth's crust and mantle. It is important that this research is disseminated to the public in an engaging and accurate matter while avoiding oversimplification. The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology's (IRIS) Active Earth Display (AED), a touch screen web-based kiosk, was originally designed to highlight real-time seismic data, and therefore provides a useful format for showing real-time data from the poles. The new polar pages for the AED will highlight real-time data from Antarctica and Greenland, and provide a way for the public to learn about POLENET research. The polar AED pages aim to engage users through teaching about the importance of polar-based research using a rich interactive multimedia environment. The pages are organized around four storylines: equipment, ice movement through time, life on the ice, and what ice in Antarctica has to do with you. The pages present complex scientific concepts in a way that is accessible and engaging to the general public by using simplified text, real-time data, videos, interactive games, and a set of coherent storylines. For example, one interactive feature will be an energy game, where users adjust various sources to power a GPS unit through the polar night. Another interactive feature will be a map of Polar Regions with clickable hotspots that will show videos of calving glaciers and collapsing ice sheets from around the world. The AED maintains a constant Internet connection, so the storylines are flexible and can be changed to conform to the location of the kiosk and

  19. Internal wave activity in the polar atmospheric regions during 2006 - 2009 revealed by COSMIC radio occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillovich, Ivan; Gubenko, Vladimir; Pavelyev, Alexander; Liou, Yuei-An

    The satellite mission Formosat-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) consists of six micro-satellites, and each of them has four GPS-antennas. It was launched in April 2006, orbiting around the Earth at approximately 800 km. The primary scientific goal of the mission is to demonstrate the value of near-real-time radio occultation (RO) observations in improving operational numerical weather predictions (NWP). The goal is readily shown by assimilating the measurements of atmospheric parameters into used NWP-models. These parameters include density, temperature, pressure and relative humidity fields in the atmosphere. An analysis of their geographic and seasonal distributions is necessary to the understanding of the energy and momentum transfer and the reaction of the polar atmosphere in response to global warming. This task is especially important as the Polar Regions are very sensitive to the change in global temperature and it may be a major cause of global sea level rising. In this work, a statistical analysis of the internal gravity wave (IGW) activity in polar atmospheric regions (latitudes more than 60º) using Formosat-3/COSMIC RO temperature data collected from July 2006 to March 2009 has been performed. Geographic and seasonal distributions of the IGW potential energy (wave activity indicator) in the altitude interval from 15 to 35 km have been determined and analyzed. The obtained results show that the wave activity in the polar atmosphere is strong in winter and spring. The potential energy of IGWs in spring is largest in Antarctic atmospheric region, while it is largest in winter in Arctic region. The wave potential energy increases with altitude up to 35 km in the atmosphere of both Earth’s hemispheres. In Antarctic region, internal waves with high potential energy occur in the atmosphere over the Antarctic Peninsula. In Arctic region, a high wave activity is mainly observed over North Atlantic Ocean (Iceland

  20. Activation of PPARγ by a Natural Flavonoid Modulator, Apigenin Ameliorates Obesity-Related Inflammation Via Regulation of Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiujing; Weng, Dan; Zhou, Feifei; Owen, Young D; Qin, Haohan; Zhao, Jingfa; WenYu; Huang, Yahong; Chen, Jiajia; Fu, Haijian; Yang, Nanfei; Chen, Dianhua; Li, Jianxin; Tan, Renxiang; Shen, Pingping

    2016-07-01

    PPARγ has emerged as a master regulator of macrophage polarization and is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione drugs. Here we show that apigenin binds and activates PPARγ by acting as a modulator. Activation of PPARγ by apigenin blocks p65 translocation into nuclei through inhibition of p65/PPARγ complex translocation into nuclei, thereby decreasing NF-κB activation and favoringM2 macrophage polarization. In HFD and ob/ob mice, apigenin significantly reverses M1 macrophage into M2 and reduces the infiltration of inflammatory cells in liver and adipose tissues, as well as decreases the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby alleviating inflammation. Strikingly, apigenin reduces liver and muscular steatosis, decreases the levels of ALT, AST, TC and TG, improving glucose resistance obviously. Unlike rosiglitazone, apigenin does not cause significant weight gain, osteoporosis et al. Our findings identify apigenin as a modulator of PPARγ and a potential lead compound for treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27374313

  1. GPS scintillation effects associated with polar cap patches and substorm auroral activity: direct comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yaqi; Moen, Jøran I.; Miloch, Wojciech J.

    2014-08-01

    We directly compare the relative GPS scintillation levels associated with regions of enhanced plasma irregularities called auroral arcs, polar cap patches, and auroral blobs that frequently occur in the polar ionosphere. On January 13, 2013 from Ny-Ålesund, several polar cap patches were observed to exit the polar cap into the auroral oval, and were then termed auroral blobs. This gave us an unprecedented opportunity to compare the relative scintillation levels associated with these three phenomena. The blobs were associated with the strongest phase scintillation (σϕ), followed by patches and arcs, with σϕ up to 0.6, 0.5, and 0.1 rad, respectively. Our observations indicate that most patches in the nightside polar cap have produced significant scintillations, but not all of them. Since the blobs are formed after patches merged into auroral regions, in space weather predictions of GPS scintillations, it will be important to enable predictions of patches exiting the polar cap.

  2. Electrochemical Cathodic Polarization, a Simplified Method That Can Modified and Increase the Biological Activity of Titanium Surfaces: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The cathodic polarization seems to be an electrochemical method capable of modifying and coat biomolecules on titanium surfaces, improving the surface activity and promoting better biological responses. Objective The aim of the systematic review is to assess the scientific literature to evaluate the cellular response produced by treatment of titanium surfaces by applying the cathodic polarization technique. Data, Sources, and Selection The literature search was performed in several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Scielo and EBSCO Host, until June 2016, with no limits used. Eligibility criteria were used and quality assessment was performed following slightly modified ARRIVE and SYRCLE guidelines for cellular studies and animal research. Results Thirteen studies accomplished the inclusion criteria and were considered in the review. The quality of reporting studies in animal models was low and for the in vitro studies it was high. The in vitro and in vivo results reported that the use of cathodic polarization promoted hydride surfaces, effective deposition, and adhesion of the coated biomolecules. In the experimental groups that used the electrochemical method, cellular viability, proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, or bone growth were better or comparable with the control groups. Conclusions The use of the cathodic polarization method to modify titanium surfaces seems to be an interesting method that could produce active layers and consequently enhance cellular response, in vitro and in vivo animal model studies. PMID:27441840

  3. Aboveground activity rhythm in Arctic black-capped marmot ( Marmota camtschatica bungei Katschenko 1901) under polar day conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Youri; Ramousse, Raymond; Le Berre, Michel; Vassiliev, Vladimir; Solomonov, Nikita

    2001-04-01

    Daily aboveground activity of wild black-capped marmots of Yakutia ( Marmota camtschatica bungei) was recorded under 'polar day' conditions at 71°56' N and 127°19' E (north of the Polar Circle). From the beginning of May until the end of August, the sun was permanently above or close to the horizon. However under this condition of continuous lighting, the aboveground activity of these arctic hibernating mammals was periodic. Onset and end of activity showed marked changes throughout the seasons. Activity time increased strongly from hibernation emergence until the end of July and then decreased slowly until onset of hibernation. Below daily mean temperatures of 5 °C, activity started when the sun was 35° above the horizon, and ended when it dropped below 28°. When daily mean temperatures were above 5 °C, activity onset was synchronised with a solar altitude around 17-18° and activity ended at 10°. Activity onset was more precise relative to the solar altitude than the end of activity. This may be explained by late feeding bouts, following a midday thermal stress. In absence of rapid natural light-dark (LD) transitions that occur at civil twilight, our results suggest that the activity pattern of black-capped marmots may be synchronised by the light cycle through the solar altitude and ambient temperature.

  4. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and

  5. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  6. Bacterial and eukaryotic intact polar lipids in the eastern subtropical South Pacific: Water-column distribution, planktonic sources, and fatty acid composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.; Fredricks, Helen F.

    2010-11-01

    Fatty acids are generally the most abundant lipid molecules in plankton, and thus play a central role in the cycling of organic matter in the upper ocean. These fatty acids are primarily derived from intact polar diacylglycerolipids (IP-DAGs), which compose cell membranes in plankton. The molecular diversity of IP-DAGs in the upper ocean remains to be fully characterized, and the advent of high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) approaches have now provided the opportunity to readily analyze IP-DAGs from marine planktonic communities. We used HPLC/ESI-MS to determine the concentrations of three classes of phospholipids (phosphatidlyglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC)), three classes of betaine lipids (diacylglyceryl trimethylhomoserine (DGTS), diacylglyceryl hydroxymethyl-trimethyl-β-alanine (DGTA), and diacylglyceryl carboxyhydroxymethylcholine (DGCC)), and three classes of glycolipids (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG)) in plankton filtered (>0.2 μm) from seawater collected within the euphotic zone of the eastern South Pacific. The distributions of these IP-DAGs along the cruise transect provided important new insights on their tentative planktonic sources. Complementary data from our cruise, a principle components analysis of our IP-DAG concentrations, observed fatty acid compositions of IP-DAG classes and published IP-DAG distributions in pure cultures of plankton suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the dominant sources of PG and PE, while MGDG and SQDG originated primarily from Prochlorophytes. The origins of the other classes of IP-DAGs were less clear, although it is likely that PC, DGTS, DGTA, and DGCC were derived primarily from eukaryotic phytoplankton. The molecular distributions of fatty acids attached to the different classes of IP-DAGs were generally distinct from one

  7. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  8. Multi-compound polarization by DNP allows simultaneous assessment of multiple enzymatic activities in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David M.; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Chen, Albert P.; Hu, Simon; Van Criekinge, Mark; Bok, Robert; Nelson, Sarah J.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2010-07-01

    Methods for the simultaneous polarization of multiple 13C-enriched metabolites were developed to probe several enzymatic pathways and other physiologic properties in vivo, using a single intravenous bolus. A new method for polarization of 13C sodium bicarbonate suitable for use in patients was developed, and the co-polarization of 13C sodium bicarbonate and [1- 13C] pyruvate in the same sample was achieved, resulting in high solution-state polarizations (15.7% and 17.6%, respectively) and long spin-lattice relaxation times ( T1) (46.7 s and 47.7 s respectively at 3 T). Consistent with chemical shift anisotropy dominating the T1 relaxation of carbonyls, T1 values for 13C bicarbonate and [1- 13C] pyruvate were even longer at 3 T (49.7 s and 67.3 s, respectively). Co-polarized 13C bicarbonate and [1- 13C] pyruvate were injected into normal mice and a murine prostate tumor model at 3 T. Rapid equilibration of injected hyperpolarized 13C sodium bicarbonate with 13C CO 2 allowed calculation of pH on a voxel by voxel basis, and simultaneous assessment of pyruvate metabolism with cellular uptake and conversion of [1- 13C] pyruvate to its metabolic products. Initial studies in a Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model demonstrated higher levels of hyperpolarized lactate and lower pH within tumor, relative to surrounding benign tissues and to the abdominal viscera of normal controls. There was no significant difference observed in the tumor lactate/pyruvate ratio obtained after the injection of co-polarized 13C bicarbonate and [1- 13C] pyruvate or polarized [1- 13C] pyruvate alone. The technique was extended to polarize four 13C labelled substrates potentially providing information on pH, metabolism, necrosis and perfusion, namely [1- 13C]pyruvic acid, 13C sodium bicarbonate, [1,4- 13C]fumaric acid, and 13C urea with high levels of solution polarization (17.5%, 10.3%, 15.6% and 11.6%, respectively) and spin-lattice relaxation values similar to those

  9. Monitoring microbial growth and activity using spectral induced polarization and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Keating, Kristina; Revil, Andre

    2015-04-01

    Microbes and microbial activities in the Earth's subsurface play a significant role in shaping subsurface environments and are involved in environmental applications such as remediation of contaminants in groundwater and oil fields biodegradation. Stimulated microbial growth in such applications could cause wide variety of changes of physical/chemical properties in the subsurface. It is critical to monitor and determine the fate and transportation of microorganisms in the subsurface during such applications. Recent geophysical studies demonstrate the potential of two innovative techniques, spectral induced polarization (SIP) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for monitoring microbial growth and activities in porous media. The SIP measures complex dielectric properties of porous media at low frequencies of exciting electric field, and NMR studies the porous structure of geologic media and characterizes fluids subsurface. In this laboratory study, we examined both SIP and NMR responses from bacterial growth suspension as well as suspension mixed with silica sands. We focus on the direct contribution of microbes to the SIP and NMR signals in the absence of biofilm formation or biomineralization. We used Zymomonas mobilis and Shewanella oneidensis (MR-1) for SIP and NMR measurements, respectively. The SIP measurements were collected over the frequency range of 0.1 - 1 kHz on Z. mobilis growth suspension and suspension saturated sands at different cell densities. SIP data show two distinct peaks in imaginary conductivity spectra, and both imaginary and real conductivities increased as microbial density increased. NMR data were collected using both CPMG pulse sequence and D-T2 mapping to determine the T2-distribution and diffusion properties on S. oneidensis suspension, pellets (live and dead), and suspension mixed with silica sands. NMR data show a decrease in the T2-distribution in S. oneidensis suspension saturated sands as microbial density increase. A

  10. PPAR Activation Induces M1 Macrophage Polarization via cPLA2-COX-2 Inhibition, Activating ROS Production against Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gandarilla, J. A.; Osorio-Trujillo, C.; Hernández-Ramírez, V. I.; Talamás-Rohana, P.

    2013-01-01

    Defence against Leishmania depends upon Th1 inflammatory response and, a major problem in susceptible models, is the turnoff of the leishmanicidal activity of macrophages with IL-10, IL-4, and COX-2 upregulation, as well as immunosuppressive PGE2, all together inhibiting the respiratory burst. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) activation is responsible for macrophages polarization on Leishmania susceptible models where microbicide functions are deactivated. In this paper, we demonstrated that, at least for L. mexicana, PPAR activation, mainly PPARγ, induced macrophage activation through their polarization towards M1 profile with the increase of microbicide activity against intracellular pathogen L. mexicana. PPAR activation induced IL-10 downregulation, whereas the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 remained high. Moreover, PPAR agonists treatment induced the deactivation of cPLA2-COX-2-prostaglandins pathway together with an increase in TLR4 expression, all of whose criteria meet the M1 macrophage profile. Finally, parasite burden, in treated macrophages, was lower than that in infected nontreated macrophages, most probably associated with the increase of respiratory burst in these treated cells. Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:23555077

  11. Secondary metabolites from the South China Sea invertebrates: chemistry and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei; Gu, Yucheng

    2006-01-01

    The increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries has driven scientists to search for new sources of bioactive natural products. Marine invertebrates are a rich source of novel, bioactive secondary metabolites and they have attracted a great deal of attention from scientists in the fields of chemistry, pharmacology, ecology, and molecular biology. During the past 25 years, many complex and structurally unique secondary metabolites have been isolated from the invertebrates inhabiting the South China Sea. These metabolites are responsible for various bioactivities such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities, and/or they act on the cardiovascular system. This review will focus on the marine natural product chemistry of invertebrates from the South China Sea, aiming to give the reader a brief view of the compounds isolated from these invertebrates, as well as their biological activities. The article covers the literature published during the period from the beginning of 1980 to the end of 2005, with 340 citations and 811 compounds from invertebrates from the South China Sea, including sponges, coelenterates, molluscs and echinoderms.

  12. Loss of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 alters macrophage polarization and reduces NFκB activation in the foreign body response.

    PubMed

    Moore, Laura Beth; Sawyer, Andrew J; Charokopos, Antonios; Skokos, Eleni A; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials elicits a foreign body response characterized by fusion of macrophages to form foreign body giant cells and fibrotic encapsulation. Studies of the macrophage polarization involved in this response have suggested that alternative (M2) activation is associated with more favorable outcomes. Here we investigated this process in vivo by implanting mixed cellulose ester filters or polydimethylsiloxane disks in the peritoneal cavity of wild-type (WT) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) knockout mice. We analyzed classical (M1) and alternative (M2) gene expression via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both non-adherent cells isolated by lavage and implant-adherent cells. Our results show that macrophages undergo unique activation that displays features of both M1 and M2 polarization including induction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), which induces the expression and nuclear translocation of p50 and RelA determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Both processes were compromised in fusion-deficient MCP-1 KO macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, inclusion of BAY 11-7028, an inhibitor of NFκB activation, reduced nuclear translocation of RelA and fusion in WT macrophages. Our studies suggest that peritoneal implants elicit a unique macrophage polarization phenotype leading to induction of TNF and activation of the NFκB pathway. PMID:25242651

  13. [Study on scavenging activity to DPPH free radical of different polarity components in Guizhou Miao medicine "bod zangd dak"].

    PubMed

    Du, Hong-zhi; Nong, Heng; Dong, Li-sha; Li, Jia-li; Liu, Ming; He, Xi-cheng; Zhang, Jing

    2015-06-01

    The paper is aimed to search more natural plant antioxidants and further research and develop new medicinal plant resources in Guizhou. The Guizhou special miao medicine "bod zangd dak" was extracted with 60% ethanol. The antioxidant activity of the different polarity components separated from the extract was tested by DPPH method with ascorbic acid as positive control. The results showed that the IC50 of the different polarity components was as following: ascorbic acid (0.033 4 g x L(-1)) < ethyl acetate components (0.052 3 g x L(-1)) < total tannins components (0.054 9 g x L(-1)) < 60% ethanol extraction components (0.076 7 g x L(-1)) < butanol extraction components (0.110 g x L(-1)) < water-soluble polysaccharides components (0.168 g x L(-1)) < water extraction components (0.174 g x L(-1)) < water components after extraction (0.226 g x L(-1)) < total polysaccharides components (0.645 g x L(-1)). It is concluded that the different polarity components have different free radical scavenging activity and that provides a scientific basis for further search of the active ingredients and the activive mechanism.

  14. Loss of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 alters macrophage polarization and reduces NFκB activation in the foreign body response.

    PubMed

    Moore, Laura Beth; Sawyer, Andrew J; Charokopos, Antonios; Skokos, Eleni A; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials elicits a foreign body response characterized by fusion of macrophages to form foreign body giant cells and fibrotic encapsulation. Studies of the macrophage polarization involved in this response have suggested that alternative (M2) activation is associated with more favorable outcomes. Here we investigated this process in vivo by implanting mixed cellulose ester filters or polydimethylsiloxane disks in the peritoneal cavity of wild-type (WT) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) knockout mice. We analyzed classical (M1) and alternative (M2) gene expression via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both non-adherent cells isolated by lavage and implant-adherent cells. Our results show that macrophages undergo unique activation that displays features of both M1 and M2 polarization including induction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), which induces the expression and nuclear translocation of p50 and RelA determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Both processes were compromised in fusion-deficient MCP-1 KO macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, inclusion of BAY 11-7028, an inhibitor of NFκB activation, reduced nuclear translocation of RelA and fusion in WT macrophages. Our studies suggest that peritoneal implants elicit a unique macrophage polarization phenotype leading to induction of TNF and activation of the NFκB pathway.

  15. Loss of MCP-1 alters macrophage polarization and reduces NFκB activation in the foreign body response

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Laura Beth; Sawyer, Andrew J.; Charokopos, Antonios; Skokos, Eleni A.; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2014-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials elicits a foreign body response characterized by fusion of macrophages to form foreign body giant cells and fibrotic encapsulation. Studies of macrophage polarization in this response have suggested that alternative (M2) activation is associated with more favorable outcomes. Here we investigated this process in vivo by implanting mixed cellulose ester filters or PDMS disks in the peritoneal cavity of WT and MCP-1 KO mice. We analyzed classical (M1) and alternative (M2) gene expression via Q-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA in both non-adherent cells isolated by lavage and implant-adherent cells. Our results show that macrophages undergo unique activation that displays features of both M1 and M2 polarization including induction of TNF, which induces the expression and nuclear translocation of p50 and RelA determined by immunofluorescence and western blot. Both processes were compromised in fusion-deficient MCP-1 KO macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, inclusion of BAY 11-7028, an inhibitor of NFκB activation, reduced nuclear translocation of RelA and fusion in WT macrophages. Our studies suggest that peritoneal implants elicit a unique macrophage polarization phenotype leading to induction of TNF and activation of the NFκB pathway. PMID:25242651

  16. A complicated story of frost and wind: Present-day gully activity within the north polar erg, Mar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice; Allen, Amanda; Grisby, Nathan; Li, Zheyu Joey

    2016-10-01

    Analyses of high-resolution observations have shown that the dunes within the martian north polar erg (AKA Olympia Undae) are currently very active on seasonal and yearly timescales, with 20-60% of the dunes within five polar dune fields undergoing the formation of alcove-apron features each Mars year. Previous studies have hypothesized formation mechanisms, based on observations of when new alcove and alcove-apron features form within an individual field through one Mars year. However, results are ill-constrained (and thus different hypotheses have been proposed) as the polar hood and winter night mean very few images are taken during the actual period of activity. In this study, we mitigate this limitation by examining several fields over several Mars years -- thus bringing aggregated results as well as detailed correlation checks against environmental conditions and seasonal processes to bear on the problem. From this, we propose a new process that appears consistent with all observations: (1) small alcoves form along the dune brink in the autumn (under the polar hood) due to instabilities induced by the night-formation and morning-sublimation of frost. As autumn progresses, the seasonal frost layer builds over the altered dune slope. (2) In the early spring, sublimation activity is concentrated and/or enhanced over these alcoves, causing further erosion and the formation of larger alcove-apron features. From the planform dimensions of the newly formed alcoves, we can estimate the volume of sand moved down the dune slope during one period of activity and estimate the aeolian sediment flux by looking at how quickly the alcoves are erased. We find that, over a Mars year, the amount of material moved via alcove-apron activity and via the wind are both comparable to aeolian sand flux estimates over dunes within lower-latitude regions of Mars. Thus it appears that the formation of alcoves-aprons is a significant mechanism for dune advancement and evolution within the

  17. Summary of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) activities in South Dakota, 2000-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heakin, Allen J.; Neitzert, Kathleen M.; Shearer, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated data-collection activities for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-West (EMAP-West) in South Dakota during 2000. The objectives of the study were to develop the monitoring tools necessary to produce unbiased estimates of the ecological condition of surface waters across a large geographic area of the western United States, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of those tools in a large-scale assessment. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks (GF&P) established a cooperative agreement and assumed responsibility for completing the remaining assessments for the perennial, wadable streams of the EMAP-West in the State. Stream assessment sites were divided into two broad categories-the first category of sites was randomly selected and assigned by the USEPA for South Dakota. The second category consisted of sites that were specifically selected because they appeared to have reasonable potential for representing the best available physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the State. These sites comprise the second category of assessment sites and were called 'reference' sites and were selected following a detailed evaluation process. Candidate reference site data will serve as a standard or benchmark for assessing the overall ecological condition of the randomly selected sites. During 2000, the USEPA completed 22 statewide stream assessments in South Dakota. During 2001-2003, the USGS and GF&P completed another 42 stream assessments bringing the total of randomly selected stream assessments within South Dakota to 64. In addition, 18 repeat assessments designed to meet established quality-assurance/quality-control requirements were completed at 12 of these 64 sites. During 2002-2004, the USGS in cooperation with GF&P completed stream assessments at 45 candidate reference sites. Thus, 109 sites had stream assessments completed in South

  18. Active upper-atmosphere chemistry and dynamics from polar circulation reversal on Titan.

    PubMed

    Teanby, Nicholas A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Nixon, Conor A; de Kok, Remco; Vinatier, Sandrine; Coustenis, Athena; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Calcutt, Simon B; Flasar, F Michael

    2012-11-29

    Saturn's moon Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere comparable to Earth's, with a surface pressure of 1.4 bar. Numerical models reproduce the tropospheric conditions very well but have trouble explaining the observed middle-atmosphere temperatures, composition and winds. The top of the middle-atmosphere circulation has been thought to lie at an altitude of 450 to 500 kilometres, where there is a layer of haze that appears to be separated from the main haze deck. This 'detached' haze was previously explained as being due to the co-location of peak haze production and the limit of dynamical transport by the circulation's upper branch. Here we report a build-up of trace gases over the south pole approximately two years after observing the 2009 post-equinox circulation reversal, from which we conclude that middle-atmosphere circulation must extend to an altitude of at least 600 kilometres. The primary drivers of this circulation are summer-hemisphere heating of haze by absorption of solar radiation and winter-hemisphere cooling due to infrared emission by haze and trace gases; our results therefore imply that these effects are important well into the thermosphere (altitudes higher than 500 kilometres). This requires both active upper-atmosphere chemistry, consistent with the detection of high-complexity molecules and ions at altitudes greater than 950 kilometres, and an alternative explanation for the detached haze, such as a transition in haze particle growth from monomers to fractal structures. PMID:23192150

  19. Ferroelectric polarization effect on surface chemistry and photo-catalytic activity: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Nadeem, M. A.; Idriss, H.

    2016-03-01

    The current efficiency of various photocatalytic processes is limited by the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the photocatalyst as well as the back-reaction of intermediate species. This review concentrates on the use of ferroelectric polarization to mitigate electron-hole recombination and back-reactions and therefore improve photochemical reactivity. Ferroelectric materials are considered as wide band gap polarizable semiconductors. Depending on the surface polarization, different regions of the surface experience different extents of band bending and promote different carriers to move to spatially different locations. This can lead to some interesting interactions at the surface such as spatially selective adsorption and surface redox reactions. This introductory review covers the fundamental properties of ferroelectric materials, effect of an internal electric field/polarization on charge carrier separation, effect of the polarization on the surface photochemistry and reviews the work done on the use of these ferroelectric materials for photocatalytic applications such as dye degradation and water splitting. The manipulation of photogenerated charge carriers through an internal electric field/surface polarization is a promising strategy for the design of improved photocatalysts.

  20. Upper Thermosphere Winds and Temperatures in the Geomagnetic Polar Cap: Solar Cycle, Geomagnetic Activity, and Interplanetary Magnetic Field Dependencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killeen, T. L.; Won, Y.-I.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Burns, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers located at Thule, Greenland (76.5 deg. N, 69.0 deg. W, lambda = 86 deg.) and at Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland (67.0 deg. N, 50.9 deg. W, lambda = 74 deg.) have monitored the upper thermospheric (approx. 240-km altitude) neutral wind and temperature over the northern hemisphere geomagnetic polar cap since 1983 and 1985, respectively. The thermospheric observations are obtained by determining the Doppler characteristics of the (OI) 15,867-K (630.0-nm) emission of atomic oxygen. The instruments operate on a routine, automatic, (mostly) untended basis during the winter observing seasons, with data coverage limited only by cloud cover and (occasional) instrument failures. This unique database of geomagnetic polar cap measurements now extends over the complete range of solar activity. We present an analysis of the measurements made between 1985 (near solar minimum) and 1991 (near solar maximum), as part of a long-term study of geomagnetic polar cap thermospheric climatology. The measurements from a total of 902 nights of observations are compared with the predictions of two semiempirical models: the Vector Spherical Harmonic (VSH) model of Killeen et al. (1987) and the Horizontal Wind Model (HWM) of Hedin et al. (1991). The results are also analyzed using calculations of thermospheric momentum forcing terms from the Thermosphere-ionosphere General Circulation Model TGCM) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The experimental results show that upper thermospheric winds in the geomagnetic polar cap have a fundamental diurnal character, with typical wind speeds of about 200 m/s at solar minimum, rising to up to about 800 m/s at solar maximum, depending on geomagnetic activity level. These winds generally blow in the antisunward direction, but are interrupted by episodes of modified wind velocity and altered direction often associated with changes in the orientation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). The

  1. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction.

    PubMed

    Mason, Frank M; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C

    2013-08-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape. However, it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions. Rok recruits or stabilizes medioapical myosin II (Myo-II), which contracts dynamic medioapical actin cables. The formin Diaphanous mediates apical actin assembly to suppress medioapical E-cadherin localization and form stable connections between the medioapical contractile network and adherens junctions. Twist is not required for apical Rok recruitment, but instead polarizes Rok medioapically. Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape fluctuations.

  2. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Group of South African School Children

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Joanne; Meiring, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age) across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03), while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p < 0.001) for boys and girls and across all race groups. Associations between physical activity and body mass were observed for White children (r = -0.22, p < 0.001), but not for Black and Indian children (p > 0.05) whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p < 0.001), White (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) and Black (r = 0.37, p = 0.001). The strength of the associations was similar for boys and girls. Black and Indian children were less physically active than their white peers (p < 0.05), and Black children also spent more time in sedentary activity (p < 0

  3. Antifungal and antibacterial activity and chemical composition of polar and non-polar extracts of Athrixia phylicoides determined using bioautography and HPLC

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Athrixia phylicoides DC. (Asteraceae) is used medicinally in South Africa to treat a plethora of ailments, including heart problems, diabetes, diarrhoea, sores and infected wounds. It is also prepared in the form of a tea (hot decoction) taken as a refreshing, pleasant-tasting beverage with commercialization potential. Methods Extracts of the dried ground aerial parts were prepared using organic solvents (diethyl ether, dichloromethane/methanol, ethyl acetate and ethanol) and water. These extracts were subjected to HPLC, TLC and bioautography analysis with the aim of linking a range of peaks visualized in HPLC chromatography profiles to antibacterial and antifungal activity of the same extracts. Results HPLC revealed a group of compounds extracted by more than one solvent. Compounds identified include inositol, caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, hymenoxin and oleanolic acid. The organic extracts displayed similar TLC profiles, and bioautography indicated approximately five antibacterial compounds, but only two antifungal compounds in these extracts. Bioautography indicated that cold water extracted the least antimicrobial compounds. Conclusions Several previously unknown compounds were identified in Athrixia phylicoides extracts, and bioautography indicated a number of antibacterial and antifungal compounds. There were notable differences in chemical composition and bioactivity between the organic and aqueous extracts. Further research is necessary to fully characterize the active components of the extracts. PMID:24330447

  4. New Observations Reveal How the Martian Residual South Polar Cap Develops Quasi-Circular Pits, Heart-Shaped Pits, Troughs, and Moats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhler, Peter Benjamin; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Ehlmann, Bethany; Fassett, Caleb; Head, James W.

    2016-10-01

    The martian residual south polar cap (RSPC) is a ~1-10 m thick deposit of CO2 ice perched on the much larger H2O ice cap. Because it is the only known CO2 reservoir annually exchanging with the predominantly-CO2 martian atmosphere, understanding its evolution is important to understanding the modern martian climate. The 8 x 105 m2 RSPC is perennial and characterized by mesas dissected by quasi-circular pits, heart-shaped pits, linear troughs and ridges, and moats (a low, CO2-free boundary surrounding a mesa wholly contained within another mesa) that evolve at meter-scales each year [1,2]. However, the underlying processes leading to the development of these landforms have not yet been described. Using repeat-coverage HiRISE (25-50 cm/px) imagery, we observe previously undescribed features on the RSPC, which reveal the processes leading to the emergence of its meter-to-kilometer-scale morphology. We observe dark fans emanating from the sides of RSPC mesas and widespread fracturing and collapse of the upper surface of mesas, which we interpret as evidence for sublimation in the interiors of mesas. On relatively smooth areas of the RSPC, even small relief (~10 cm) collapses generate surface roughness, which concentrates sunlight and enhances sublimation, leading to the development of steep, eroding scarps. Typically, CO2 deposition during the winter then smooths terrain and creates gently sloping scarps (although uneven CO2 deposition can also create steep scarps). A collapse that drops down, such that it is entirely bounded by a steep scarp, develops into a quasi-circular pit. However, when a portion of the collapsing area remains attached to the upper surface, the perimeter is partially bounded by a steep scarp and partially bounded by a gently sloping ramp, which develops into either a heart-shaped pit, linear trough, or moat, depending on the local interplay between deposition and erosion. Finally, we use the spatial distribution of pits in order to determine the

  5. Polar gravel beach-ridge systems: Sedimentary architecture, genesis, and implications for climate reconstructions (South Shetland Islands/Western Antarctic Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Sebastian; Schutter, Ilona

    2014-09-01

    The sedimentary architecture of polar gravel-beach ridges is presented and it is shown that ridge internal geometries reflect past wave-climate conditions. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data obtained along the coasts of Potter Peninsula (King George Island) show that beach ridges unconformably overlie the prograding strand plain. Development of individual ridges is seen to result from multiple storms in periods of increased storm-wave impact on the coast. Strand-plain progradation, by contrast, is the result of swash sedimentation at the beach-face under persistent calm conditions. The sedimentary architecture of beach ridges in sheltered parts of the coast is characterized by seaward-dipping prograding beds, being the result of swash deposition under stormy conditions, or aggrading beds formed by wave overtopping. By contrast, ridges exposed to high-energy waves are composed of seaward- as well as landward-dipping strata, bundled by numerous erosional unconformities. These erosional unconformities are the result of sediment starvation or partial reworking of ridge material during exceptional strong storms. The number of individual ridges which are preserved from a given time interval varies along the coast depending on the morphodynamic setting: sheltered coasts are characterized by numerous small ridges, whereas fewer but larger ridges develop on exposed beaches. The frequency of ridge building ranges from decades in the low-energy settings up to 1600 years under high-energy conditions. Beach ridges in the study area cluster at 9.5, 7.5, 5.5, and below 3.5 m above the present-day storm beach. Based on radiocarbon data, this is interpreted to reflect distinct periods of increased storminess and/or shortened annual sea-ice coverage in the area of the South Shetland Islands for the times around 4.3, c. 3.1, 1.9 ka cal BP, and after 0.65 ka cal BP. Ages further indicate that even ridges at higher elevations can be subject to later reactivation and reworking. A

  6. Foraging behaviour of King Penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) in relation to predictable mesoscale oceanographic features in the Polar Front Zone to the north of South Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Annette; Trathan, Philip N.; Collins, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Marine predators are thought to utilise oceanic features adjusting their foraging strategy in a scale-dependent manner. Thus, they are thought to dynamically alter their foraging behaviour in response to environmental conditions encountered. In this study, we examined the foraging behaviour of King Penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) breeding at South Georgia in relation to predictable and stable oceanographic features. We studied penguins during their long post-laying foraging trips during December 2005 and January 2006. For this investigation, we undertook a simultaneous analysis of ARGOS satellite-tracking data and Mk 7 WildLife Computers Time Depth Recorder (TDR) dive data. To investigate correlations between foraging behaviour and oceanographic conditions, we used SST data from January 2006 from MODIS satellite AQUA. To determine changes in search effort, first passage time (FPT) was calculated; for analysis of dive behaviour, we used several dive parameters that are thought to be reliable indicators of changes in foraging behaviour. King Penguins appeared to target predictable mesoscale features in the Polar Front Zone (PFZ), either a warm-core eddy in the PFZ or regions of strong temperature gradients at oceanic fronts. Two different trip types could be distinguished: direct trips with a straight path to one foraging area at the edge of an eddy or at a thermal front, and circular trips where birds foraged along strong thermal gradients at the northern limit of the PFZ. It is likely that both trip types were a direct consequence of prey encounter rates and distributions, both of which are likely to be associated with these oceanographic features. Circular trips often included passages across the centre of an eddy where birds made deep foraging dives, but remained only a short time in the eddy, possibly because prey were too deep. All birds showed Area Restricted Search (ARS) at scales of <10 km. The two trip types had different ARS patterns, with clear ARS

  7. Dynamics of Giant Planet Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueshaber, Shawn R.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.

    2016-10-01

    The polar atmospheres of the giant planets have come under increasing interest since a compact, warm-core, stable, cyclonic polar vortex was discovered at each of Saturn's poles. In addition, the south pole of Neptune appears to have a similar feature, and Uranus' north pole is exhibiting activity that could indicate the formation of a polar vortex. We investigate the formation and maintenance of these giant planet polar vortices by varying several key atmospheric dynamics parameters in a forced-dissipative, 1.5-layer shallow water model. Our simulations are run using the EPIC (Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate) global circulation model, to which we have added a gamma-plane rectangular grid option appropriate for simulating polar atmospheric dynamics.In our numerical simulations, we vary the atmospheric deformation radius, planetary rotation rate, storm forcing intensity, and storm vorticity (cyclone-to-anticyclone) ratio to determine what combination of values favors the formation of a polar vortex. We find that forcing the atmosphere by injecting small-scale mass perturbations ("storms") to form either all cyclones, all anticyclones, or equal numbers of both, may all result in a cyclonic polar vortex. Additionally, we examine the role of eddy momentum convergence in the intensification and maintenance of a polar cyclone.Our simulation results are applicable to understanding all four of the solar system giant planets. In the future, we plan to expand our modeling effort with a more realistic 3D primitive equations model, also with a gamma-plane rectangular grid using EPIC. With our 3D primitive equations model, we will study how various vertical atmospheric stratification structures influence the formation and maintenance of a polar cyclone. While our shallow-water model only involves storms of a single layer, a 3D primitive equations model allows us to study how storms of finite vertical extent and at differing levels in the atmosphere may further favor

  8. Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic), that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of plant taxa sourced in South Africa were tested for larvicidal properties in an applicable assay. Thirty 3rd instar Anopheles arabiensis larvae were exposed to various extract types (dichloromethane, dichloromethane/methanol) (1:1), methanol and purified water) of each species investigated. Mortality was evaluated relative to the positive control Temephos (Mostop; Agrivo), an effective emulsifiable concentrate larvicide. Results Preliminary screening of crude extracts revealed substantial variation in toxicity with 24 of the 381 samples displaying 100% larval mortality within the seven day exposure period. Four of the high activity plants were selected and subjected to bioassay guided fractionation. The results of the testing of the fractions generated identified one fraction of the plant, Toddalia asiatica as being very potent against the An. arabiensis larvae. Conclusion The present study has successfully identified a plant with superior larvicidal activity at both the crude and semi pure fractions generated through bio-assay guided fractionation. These results have initiated further research into isolating the active compound and developing a malaria vector control tool. PMID:22963538

  9. Association of syntenin-1 with M-RIP polarizes Rac-1 activation during chemotaxis and immune interactions.

    PubMed

    Sala-Valdés, Mónica; Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Tejera, Emilio; Ibáñez, Anna; Cabrero, J Román; Ursa, Angeles; Mittelbrunn, María; Lozano, Francisco; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Yáñez-Mó, María

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we describe that the PDZ protein syntenin-1 is a crucial element for the generation of signaling asymmetry during the cellular response to polarized extracellular cues. We analyze the role of syntenin-1 in the control of asymmetry in two independent models of T cell polarization--the migratory response to chemoattractants and the establishment of cognate interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). A combination of mutant, biochemical and siRNA approaches demonstrate that syntenin-1 is vital for the generation of polarized actin structures such as the leading edge and the contact zone with APCs. We found that the mechanism by which syntenin-1 controls actin polymerization relies on its mandatory role for activation of the small GTPase Rac. Syntenin-1 controls Rac through a specific association with the myosin phosphatase Rho interacting protein (M-RIP), which occurs in response to phosphorylation of syntenin-1 by Src at Tyr4. Our data indicate the key role of syntenin-1 in the generation of functional asymmetry in T cells and provide a novel mechanistic link between receptor activation and actin polymerization and accumulation in response to extracellular stimulation.

  10. The F-BAR protein Hof1 tunes formin activity to sculpt actin cables during polarized growth

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Brian R.; Yu, Hoi-Ying E.; Alioto, Salvatore L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Ydenberg, Casey A.; Waterman, David P.; Garabedian, Mikael; Goode, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric cell growth and division rely on polarized actin cytoskeleton remodeling events, the regulation of which is poorly understood. In budding yeast, formins stimulate the assembly of an organized network of actin cables that direct polarized secretion. Here we show that the Fer/Cip4 homology–Bin amphiphysin Rvs protein Hof1, which has known roles in cytokinesis, also functions during polarized growth by directly controlling the activities of the formin Bnr1. A mutant lacking the C-terminal half of Hof1 displays misoriented and architecturally altered cables, along with impaired secretory vesicle traffic. In vitro, Hof1 inhibits the actin nucleation and elongation activities of Bnr1 without displacing the formin from filament ends. These effects depend on the Src homology 3 domain of Hof1, the formin homology 1 (FH1) domain of Bnr1, and Hof1 dimerization, suggesting a mechanism by which Hof1 “restrains” the otherwise flexible FH1-FH2 apparatus. In vivo, loss of inhibition does not alter actin levels in cables but, instead, cable shape and functionality. Thus Hof1 tunes formins to sculpt the actin cable network. PMID:24719456

  11. Mouse macrophage polarity and ROCK1 activity depend on RhoA and non-apoptotic Caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yianzhu; Minze, Laurie J; Mumma, Lindsay; Li, Xian C; Ghobrial, Rafik M; Kloc, Malgorzata

    2016-02-15

    The macrophages have different subtypes with different functions in immune response and disease. It has been generally accepted that M1 macrophages are responsible for stimulation of immune system and inflammation while M2 macrophages play a role in tissue repair. Irrespective of the type, macrophage functions depend on actin cytoskeleton, which is under the control of small GTPase RhoA pathway and its downstream effector ROCK1. We generated RhoA-deleted macrophages and compared the effect of RhoA deletion on M0, M1 and M2 macrophage phenotype. Our studies showed that, unexpectedly, the RhoA deletion did not eliminate macrophage ROCK1 expression and increased ROCK1 activity. The RhoA deletion effect on macrophage phenotype, structure and polarity was different for each subtype. Moreover, our study indicates that the up-regulation of ROCK1 activity in RhoA-deleted macrophages and macrophage phenotype/polarity are dependent on non-apoptotic Caspase-3 and are sensitive to Caspase-3 inhibition. These novel findings will revise/complement our understanding of RhoA pathway regulation of cell structure and polarity. PMID:26875770

  12. REGULARITY OF THE NORTH–SOUTH ASYMMETRY OF SOLAR ACTIVITY: REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Feng, W.

    2015-09-15

    Extended time series of Solar Activity Indices (ESAI) extended the Greenwich series of sunspot area from the year 1874 back to 1821. The ESAI's yearly sunspot area in the northern and southern hemispheres from 1821 to 2013 is utilized to investigate characteristics of the north–south hemispherical asymmetry of sunspot activity. Periodical behavior of about 12 solar cycles is also confirmed from the ESAI data set to exist in dominant hemispheres, linear regression lines of yearly asymmetry values, and cumulative counts of yearly sunspot areas in the hemispheres for solar cycles. The period is also inferred to appear in both the cumulative difference in the yearly sunspot areas in the hemispheres over the entire time interval and in its statistical Student's t-test. The hemispherical bias of sunspot activity should be regarded as an impossible stochastic phenomenon over a long time period.

  13. Climate modulates internal wave activity in the Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Davis, Kristen A.; Wong, George T. F.

    2015-02-01

    Internal waves (IWs) generated in the Luzon Strait propagate into the Northern South China Sea (NSCS), enhancing biological productivity and affecting coral reefs by modulating nutrient concentrations and temperature. Here we use a state-of-the-art ocean data assimilation system to reconstruct water column stratification in the Luzon Strait as a proxy for IW activity in the NSCS and diagnose mechanisms for its variability. Interannual variability of stratification is driven by intrusions of the Kuroshio Current into the Luzon Strait and freshwater fluxes associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Warming in the upper 100 m of the ocean caused a trend of increasing IW activity since 1900, consistent with global climate model experiments that show stratification in the Luzon Strait increases in response to radiative forcing. IW activity is expected to increase in the NSCS through the 21st century, with implications for mitigating climate change impacts on coastal ecosystems.

  14. No covariation between the geomagnetic activity and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the polar area of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, T.; Häggström, I.; Sandahl, I.; Lundberg, V.

    2002-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether there was any relation between the aurora borealis (measured as the geomagnetic activity) and the number of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the northern, partly polar, area of Sweden. The AMI cases were collected from The Northern Sweden MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) AMI registry between 1985 and 1998, inclusive, and the information on the geomagnetic activity from continuous measurements at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna. In the analyses, both the relation between the individual AMI case and ambient geomagnetic activity, and the relation between the mean daily K index and the daily number of AMI cases were tested. We found no statistically significant relation between the number of fatal or non-fatal AMI cases, the number of sudden deaths or the number of patients with chest pain without myocardial damage, and geomagnetic activity. Our data do not support a relation between the geomagnetic activity and AMI.

  15. Ra-226 and Pb-210/Ra-226 Activity Ratio in the Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi-Ju, L.; Yu-Chia, C.; Tsung-En, W.

    2004-05-01

    The surface water distributions and vertical profiles of Ra-226 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) have been measured. Surface water Ra-226 varies between 10 and 16 dpm/100 kg with higher values at stations adjacent to the landmass. Each Ra-226 profile shows an increase from the surface toward the bottom. Above 1000m depth Ra-226 is systematically about 5 dpm/100kg higher in the northern South China Sea than in the western North Pacific. This difference may be attributed to a strong Ra-226 source from the shelf and slope area of the SCS. Below this depth Ra-226 displays large variation within some of the profiles with lower limits being comparable to the activities of the western North Pacific but higher limits being systematically about 5 dpm/100kg higher. These high Ra-226 activities may reflect effects of the longer isolation time for the deep water in the SCS basin and strong Ra input from the underlying sediments. The Pb-210/Ra-226 activity ratio ranges between 1.4 and 2.7 in the surface water with higher activity ratio at the station closer to the Luzon Strait. The Pb-210 in excess over Ra-226 in the surface water due to atmospheric input may penetrate to a depth of about 200 to 500m. Below this depth, Pb-210/Ra-226 activity ratio ranges between 0.5 and 0.7 because Pb-210 is scavenged by settling particulates. Box model calculations within a mixed layer of 50m in the area yield a mean residence time of about 1 yr for Pb-210 if an atmospheric Pb-210 flux of 1 dpm/cm2/y is adopted. The activity ratio of about 0.5 to 0.7 in the deep water corresponds to a Pb-210 mean residence time of about 30 to 70 yrs with respect to particulate scavenging.

  16. Investigating the effect of electro-active ion concentration on spectral induced polarization signatures arising from biomineralization pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S. S.; Wu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Spectral induced polarization (SIP) is a proven geophysical method for detecting biomineral formation with promising applications for monitoring biogeochemical products during microbial induced sequestration of heavy metals and radionuclides in soils. SIP has been used to monitor the evolution of bioremediation-induced end-products at the uranium-contaminated U.S. Department of Energy Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado. Although a significant SIP response was detected, the quantitative interpretation is non-trivial as the polarization of metallic minerals depends both on the mineral surface properties and the electrolyte chemistry. In previous experiments SIP mechanisms were studied under complex environments and individual source mechanisms could not be evaluated. Here we examine the role of electrolyte chemistry by comparing the effect of redox active / inactive ions on metallic polarization. In these abiotic experiments magnetite was used as a proxy biomineral and dispersed within columns packed with sand. Parallel columns were saturated with solutions of different concentrations of active (Fe2+) and inactive (Ca2+) ions (0.01mM-10mM) and SIP measurements made (0.1-1000 Hz). Experimental results show small, but detectable, differences in the effect of active ion and inactive ion concentration on the SIP response. To better characterize the effect of electro-active ions on metallic minerals we used a Cole - Cole type relaxation model, to describe the SIP responses. In order to better resolve the relaxation model parameters, we followed a two-step approach whereby we started with a Bayesian based inversion to resolve for the initial parameter estimates, and subsequently used these estimates as a starting model for a deterministic solution. Our results suggest that changes in the active ion concentration, in the presence of magnetite, alone are unlikely to fully explain recent SIP monitoring data from the Rifle site.

  17. Recent advance in Asian polar science - Commemorating ten-year activities of the Asian Forum for Polar Sciences (AFoPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Doi, Koichiro; Ewe, Hong Tat; Krishnan, Kottekkatu Padinchati; Lee, Jae Il; Liu, Ruiyuan

    2015-12-01

    The Asian Forum for Polar Sciences (AFoPS) was established in 2004 to encourage and facilitate cooperation for the advance of polar sciences among countries in the Asian region. It commemorated tenth anniversary organizing the AFoPS Symposium on 7 October, 2014 in Port Dickson, Malaysia, hosted by the National Antarctic Research Center (NARC), University of Malaya. This second volume of AFoPS Special Issue includes those presentations submitted to the Symposium and scientific papers from AFoPS countries on wide variety of polar research. This publication is one of the excellent achievements of AFoPS.

  18. Polar Markings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02155 Polar Markings

    These bright and dark markings occurred near the end of summer in the south polar region. The dark material is likely dust that has been freed of frost cover.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -76.3N, Longitude 84.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02153 Polar Layers

    This image of the south polar region shows layered material. It is not known if the layers are formed yearly or if they form over the period of 10s to 100s of years or more.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.3N, Longitude 296.2E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Polar Ridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03662 Polar Ridges

    This ridge system is located in the south polar region.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -81.7N, Longitude 296.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Polar Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03638 Polar Textures

    This image illustrates the variety of textures that appear in the south polar region during late summer.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.5S, Longitude 57.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Polar Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03577 Polar Terrains

    The region surrounding the South Polar Cap contains many different terrain types. This image shows both etched terrain and a region of 'mounds'.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 75S, Longitude 286.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Longitudinal fecal hormone analysis for monitoring reproductive activity in the female polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Stoops, M A; MacKinnon, K M; Roth, T L

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify suitable enzyme immunoassays to monitor gonadal and placental function in the female polar bear. Immunoreactive progesterone, progesterone metabolite (PdG), estrogen, and androgen metabolite (T) concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected over 24 mo from captive female bears (N = 20). Whereas fecal extracts produced displacement curves parallel to the standard curve for each respective steroid, T and PdG more accurately reflected reproductive events. Concentrations of fecal T increased (P < 0.05) during the breeding season, and brief spikes were associated with estrus and mating. A postovulatory increase in PdG was not always detected, but sustained baseline T after mating appeared consistent with ovulation. Parturient bears excreted higher PdG concentrations (P < 0.05) during expected time of embryo implantation in Fall, and a late gestational rise in fecal T occurred 30 days prepartum. Many nonparturient bears also had a PdG rise in the Fall, suggesting they experienced either pregnancy loss or a pseudopregnancy. Differentiating pregnant and pseudopregnant states was not achieved using fecal PdG alone, but when combined with fecal T, comprehensive diagnoses could be made. Nonparturient bears demonstrated elevated (P < 0.05) fecal T during summer months, whereas parturient bears did not. In summary, noninvasive hormone monitoring techniques were established for the female polar bear. Although this study was directed at facilitating management and breeding efforts of captive polar bears, the methods could be applied to studies of reproductive function in wild populations.

  4. Serum from patients with systemic vasculitis induces alternatively activated macrophage M2c polarization.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Susanne M; Linge, Carl Petrus; Gullstrand, Birgitta; Lood, Christian; Johansson, Asa; Ohlsson, Sophie; Lundqvist, Andrea; Bengtsson, Anders A; Carlsson, Fredric; Hellmark, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitides (AAV) are conditions defined by an autoimmune small vessel inflammation. Dying neutrophils are found around the inflamed vessels and the balance between infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages is important to prevent autoimmunity. Here we investigate how sera from AAV patients may regulate macrophage polarization and function. Macrophages from healthy individuals were differentiated into M0, M1, M2a, M2b or M2c macrophages using a standardized protocol, and phenotyped according to their expression surface markers and cytokine production. These phenotypes were compared with those of macrophages stimulated with serum from AAV patients or healthy controls. While the healthy control sera induced a M0 macrophage, AAV serum promoted polarization towards the M2c subtype. No sera induced M1, M2a or M2b macrophages. The M2c subtype showed increased phagocytosis capacity compared with the other subtypes. The M2c polarization found in AAV is consistent with previous reports of increased levels of M2c-associated cytokines.

  5. Unusual Polar Conditions in Solar Cycle 24 and Their Implications for Cycle 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji; Akiyama, Sachiko

    2016-05-01

    We report on the prolonged solar-maximum conditions until late 2015 at the north-polar region of the Sun indicated by the occurrence of high-latitude prominence eruptions (PEs) and microwave brightness temperature close to the quiet-Sun level. These two aspects of solar activity indicate that the polarity reversal was completed by mid-2014 in the south and late 2015 in the north. The microwave brightness in the south-polar region has increased to a level exceeding the level of the Cycle 23/24 minimum, but just started to increase in the north. The north-south asymmetry in the polarity reversal has switched from that in Cycle 23. These observations lead us to the hypothesis that the onset of Cycle 25 in the northern hemisphere is likely to be delayed with respect to that in the southern hemisphere. We find that the unusual condition in the north is a direct consequence of the arrival of poleward surges of opposite polarity from the active region belt. We also find that multiple rush-to-the-pole episodes were indicated by the PE locations that lined up at the boundary between opposite-polarity surges. The high-latitude PEs occurred in the boundary between the incumbent polar flux and the insurgent flux of opposite polarity.

  6. Past and present active sedimentation and tectonics in the South Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Acremont, E.; Gorini, C.; El Abbassi, M.; Farran, M.; Leroy, S.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Migeon, S.; Poort, J.; Ammar, A.; Smit, J.; Do Couto, D.; Ercilla, G.; Alonso, B.

    2012-04-01

    Since the Tortonian, the thinned continental crust and the overlying sedimentary cover of the Alboran Sea are submitted to tectonic inversion due to the convergence between Eurasia and Africa. The past and present deformation is significant along the Moroccan margin where the MARLBORO-1 cruise in 2011, acquired 1100 km of mid-resolution seismic reflection along 20 profiles perpendicular and parallel to the margin, off Al Hoceima, to latitude 36°N. The study area located on the Xauen/Tofino banks and the South Alboran ridge off Morocco, shows signs of both past and present strong tectonic deformation, mass-movement deposits (mostly slides and mass flow deposits), and contourites. The lateral and longitudinal evolution of contourites and mass movement deposits and the geometric relationships between those deposits and active tectonic structures have been studied. In the distal margin, contourites and gravitational instabilities are the depositional systems that best record the tectonic signal of the area since at least the Messinian. On the two flanks of the Xauen/Tofino and South Alboran ridge, the sedimentary register affected by growth-faults is mainly composed of contourites. Internal strata pattern, spatial and temporal distribution of thickness and depocenters, and discontinuities help to infer sedimentary processes and their interaction with tectonics. In the southern Alboran Sea where the bathymetry shows abrupt slopes, the recurrent seismic activity seems to be the main factor triggering mass wasting as witnessed by the Mass transport complexes (MTCs). Recent MTCs originate from escarpments on the edge of the contourites. However, in most cases the seismic reflection data show the depositional bodies of numerous slides linked to the activity of growth-faults and thrusts observed on the Xauen and Tofino Bank's north flanks. Tectonic inversion is recorded since the late Miocene with an acceleration of the uplift and compressional activity evidenced during

  7. Radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants from Limpopo province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chauke, A M; Shai, L J; Mphahlele, P M; Mogale, M A

    2012-01-01

    Plants collected from Limpopo province of South Africa were investigated for their antioxidative potential using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Acetone extracts of Flueggea virosa had the highest antioxidant activity with an IC₅₀ value of 30 µg/ml, closely matching the ascorbic acid with an IC₅₀ value of 25 µg/ml. The lowest antioxidant readings were observed with extracts of Rhynchosia venulosa (root extract) and Ficus ingens (leaf extract). Acetone extract of Bridelia virosa leaves had the highest phenolic content (156 mg GAE/g extract), while the lowest content was recorded for R. venulosa root extract and leaf extract of F. ingens (8.3 and 17.7 mg GAE/g extract, respectively). There was a linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Extracts with high phenolic content had low IC₅₀ values, while extracts with low phenolic concentrations had high IC₅₀ values.

  8. The Impact of Human Activities on Microbial Quality of Rivers in the Vhembe District, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Afsatou N.; Mulaudzi, Khodani; Chari, Gamuchirai J.E.; Foord, Stefan H.; Mudau, Lutendo S.; Barnard, Tobias G.; Potgieter, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Water quality testing is dictated by microbial agents found at the time of sampling in reference to their acceptable risk levels. Human activities might contaminate valuable water resources and add to the microbial load present in water bodies. Therefore, the effects of human activities on the microbial quality of rivers collected from twelve catchments in the Vhembe District in South Africa were investigated, with samples analyzed for total coliform (TC) and Eschericha coli (E. coli) contents. Methods: Physical parameters and various human activities were recorded for each sampling site. The Quanti-Tray® method was adopted for the assessment of TC and E. coli contents in the rivers over a two-year period. A multiplex polymerase chain (PCR) method was used to characterize the strains of E. coli found. Results: The microbial quality of the rivers was poor with both TC and E. coli contents found to be over acceptable limits set by the South African Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS). No significant difference (p > 0.05) was detected between TC and E. coli risks in dry and wet seasons. All six pathogenic E. coli strains were identified and Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli (a-EPEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were the most prevalent E. coli strains detected (respectively, 87%, 86% and 83%). Conclusions: The study indicated that contamination in the majority of sampling sites, due to human activities such as car wash, animal grazing and farming, poses health risks to communities using the rivers for various domestic chores. It is therefore recommended that more education by the respective departments is done to avert pollution of rivers and prevent health risks to the communities in the Vhembe District. PMID:27529265

  9. Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide Weakly Activates M1 and M2 Polarized Mouse Macrophages but Induces Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Holden, James A.; Attard, Troy J.; Laughton, Katrina M.; Mansell, Ashley; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M.

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tooth's supporting tissues. Macrophages are important in chronic inflammatory conditions, infiltrating tissue and becoming polarized to an M1 or M2 phenotype. As responses to stimuli differ between these phenotypes, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 and M2 polarized macrophages were produced from murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMϕ) primed with gamma interferon (IFN-γ) or interleukin-4 (IL-4), respectively, and incubated with a low or high dose of P. gingivalis LPS or control TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. In M1-Mϕ, the high dose of P. gingivalis LPS (10 μg/ml) significantly increased the expression of CD40, CD86, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitric oxide secretion. The low dose of P. gingivalis LPS (10 ng/ml) did not induce costimulatory or antibacterial molecules but did increase the secretion of IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). P. gingivalis LPS marginally increased the expression of CD206 and YM-1, but it did enhance arginase expression by M2-Mϕ. Furthermore, the secretion of the chemokines KC, RANTES, eotaxin, and MCP-1 from M1, M2, and nonpolarized Mϕ was enhanced by P. gingivalis LPS. TLR2/4 knockout macrophages combined with the TLR activation assays indicated that TLR2 is the main activating receptor for P. gingivalis LPS and whole cells. In conclusion, although P. gingivalis LPS weakly activated M1-Mϕ or M2-Mϕ compared to control TLR ligands, it induced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-α from M1-Mϕ and IL-10 from M2-Mϕ, as well as chemotactic chemokines from polarized macrophages. PMID:25047849

  10. Restoring Akt1 activity in outgrowth endothelial cells from South Asian men rescues vascular reparative potential.

    PubMed

    Cubbon, Richard M; Yuldasheva, Nadira Y; Viswambharan, Hema; Mercer, Ben N; Baliga, Vivek; Stephen, Sam L; Askham, Jonathan; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Skromna, Anna; Mughal, Romana S; Walker, Andrew M N; Bruns, Alexander; Bailey, Marc A; Galloway, Stacey; Imrie, Helen; Gage, Matthew C; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Li, Jing; Porter, Karen E; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Beech, David J; Kearney, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Recent data suggest reduced indices of vascular repair in South Asian men, a group at increased risk of cardiovascular events. Outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC) represent an attractive tool to study vascular repair in humans and may offer potential in cell-based repair therapies. We aimed to define and manipulate potential mechanisms of impaired vascular repair in South Asian (SA) men. In vitro and in vivo assays of vascular repair and angiogenesis were performed using OEC derived from SA men and matched European controls, prior defining potentially causal molecular mechanisms. SA OEC exhibited impaired colony formation, migration, and in vitro angiogenesis, associated with decreased expression of the proangiogenic molecules Akt1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Transfusion of European OEC into immunodeficient mice after wire-induced femoral artery injury augmented re-endothelialization, in contrast with SA OEC and vehicle; SA OEC also failed to promote angiogenesis after induction of hind limb ischemia. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 (E17KAkt), but not green fluorescent protein control, in SA OEC increased in vitro angiogenesis, which was abrogated by a NOS antagonist. Moreover, E17KAkt expressing SA OEC promoted re-endothelialization of wire-injured femoral arteries, and perfusion recovery of ischemic limbs, to a magnitude comparable with nonmanipulated European OEC. Silencing Akt1 in European OEC recapitulated the functional deficits noted in SA OEC. Reduced signaling via the Akt/eNOS axis is causally linked with impaired OEC-mediated vascular repair in South Asian men. These data prove the principle of rescuing marked reparative dysfunction in OEC derived from these men.

  11. Evidence for a major, tectonically active structure beneath the coastal plain of North and South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Marple, R.T.; Talwani, P. . Geology Dept.); Olson, O.

    1994-03-01

    Evaluation of Landsat imagery, aerial photography, potential field data, and topographic maps have revealed a linear, [approximately]400-km-long, NNE-trending zone in the coastal plain of North and South Carolina. This zone is composed of subtle topographic highs, aeromagnetic anomalies, and in some locations mapped and inferred faults. It is also associated with a zone of river anomalies (ZRA). Various data suggest that the ZRA may be associated with tectonic activity on a large right-lateral strike-slip fault system. The ZRA in the South Carolina coastal plain is defined by an [approximately]15-km-wide NNE-trending zone that crosses NW-SE-flowing rivers. Along this zone the rivers are characterized by river bends that are convex toward the NNE, incised channels, changes in river patterns, and convex-upward longitudinal profiles. In the coastal plain and eastern Slate Belt of North Carolina the ZRA (width yet to be determined) displays a slightly more northeasterly trend that is highlighted by linear aeromagnetic anomalies and right-lateral offsets of larger rivers crossing its trend. This feature is not traceable across the southern flank of the Cape Fear Arch and north of this area the ZRA's trend is offset [approximately]15 km toward the east (right step geometry) from that of the ZRA in South Carolina. Analyses of geologic and geophysical data further indicate that these two zones may be the result of ongoing tectonic uplift along a NNE-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault zone possibly associated with recent seismicity near Charleston.

  12. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Simon E; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bechshøft, Thea Ø; Vorkamp, Katrin; Letcher, Robert J; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2013-07-01

    The aims of the project were to (i) extract the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the blood of 99 East Greenland polar bears and assess the combined mixture effect on the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated transactivity; (ii) To evaluate whether the receptor transactivities were associated with selected POP markers, and (iii) compare the receptor transactivities in polar bears with earlier studies on Greenlandic Inuit. Lipophilic POPs were extracted using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ER mediated transactivity was determined using the ER luciferase reporter MVLN cell assay. The extracts were tested alone (XER) and together with 17β-estradiol (E2) as a physiological mimic (XERcomp). Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds were extracted by a combination of SPE and the Supelco Dioxin Prep System®. AhR mediated dioxin-like transactivity was determined using the AhR luciferase reporter Hepa 1.12cR cell assay. Agonistic ER transactivity was elicited by 19% of the samples, and a further increased E2 induced ER response was found for 52%, whereas 17% antagonized the E2 induced ER response. Positive correlations were found in subadult bears between XER and several POP biomarkers. XER and XERcomp correlated positively to each other. A total of 91% of the polar bear blood extracts elicited agonistic AhR transactivity. The AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) median levels were higher among adult bears compared to subadult bears, but not significantly.

  13. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  14. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  15. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  16. Energetic auroral and polar ion outflow at DE 1 altitudes Magnitude, composition, magnetic activity dependence, and long-term variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, A. W.; Lenchyshyn, L.; Shelley, E. G.; Peterson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Data acquired from the Dynamics Explorer I Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer in the period from September 1981 to May 1984 are used to determine the magnitude of the terrestrial ion outflow in the 0.01-17 keV/el range. The data are also employed to investigate the mass composition and topology (local time and invariant latitude distributions) of the ion outflow, as well as the outflow's magnetic activity dependence and long-term variation. The relative importance of auroral versus polar cap upflowing ions as a source of energetic plasma for various parts of the magnetosphere is examined.

  17. WRM-1 activates the LIT-1 protein kinase to transduce anterior/posterior polarity signals in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, C E; Yasuda, J; Shin, T H; Lin, R; Sawa, H; Okano, H; Priess, J R; Davis, R J; Mello, C C

    1999-06-11

    During C. elegans development, Wnt/WG signaling is required for differences in cell fate between sister cells born from anterior/posterior divisions. A beta-catenin-related gene, wrm-1, and the lit-1 gene are effectors of this signaling pathway and appear to downregulate the activity of POP-1, a TCF/LEF-related protein, in posterior daughter cells. We show here that lit-1 encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase homolog related to the Drosophila tissue polarity protein Nemo. We demonstrate that the WRM-1 protein binds to LIT-1 in vivo and that WRM-1 can activate the LIT-1 protein kinase when coexpressed in vertebrate tissue culture cells. This activation leads to phosphorylation of POP-1 and to apparent changes in its subcellular localization. Our findings provide evidence for novel regulatory avenues for an evolutionarily conserved Wnt/WG signaling pathway. PMID:10380924

  18. Geology of the area of induced seismic activity at Monticello Reservoir, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Secor, D.T. Jr.; Smith, W.A.; Snoke, A.W.; Peck, L.S.; Pitcher, D.M.; Prowell, D.C.; Simpson, D.H.

    1982-08-10

    This study provides geological background information necessary for an evaluation of the earthquake hazard in an area of induced seismic activity at Monticello Reservoir, South Carolina. This region contains a thick stratified sequence of Proterozoic Z and Cambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. In the early to middle Paleozoic, this sequence was recrystallized and deformed under metamorphic conditions that ranged from greenschist to amphibolite facies and experienced at least two episodes of folding. The region has been intruded by late kinematic to postkinematic granitoid plutons of Silurian and Carboniferous ages and by numerous northwest trending diabase diks of Late Traissic and Early Jurassic age. The region south of Monticello Reservoir in the Carolina slate belt experienced two episodes of faulting in the late Paleozoic and/or early to middle Mesozoic. The older group of faults trends approximately east, has only small displacements, and is characterized by extensive silicifiction of the fault zones. The younger group of faults trends approximately north has experienced dip slip displacements up to 1700 m and is characterized by carbonate mineralization in the fault zones. Both sets of faults are cut by an undeformed diabase dike of Late Triassic or Early Jurassic age. The induced seismic activity around Monticello Reservoir is occurring in a heterogeneous quartz monzonite pluton of Carboniferous age. The pluton contains large enclaves of country rock and is cut by numerous, diversely oriented small faults and joint. These local inhomogeneities in the pluton together with an irregular stress field are interpreted to control the diffuse seismic activity around the reservoir. In view of the apparent absence of lengthy faults it is unlikely that a large-magnitude earthquake will occur in response to the stress and pore pressure changes related to the impoundment of Monticello Reservoir.

  19. Human saccadic eye movements and tracking by active foveation in log polar space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Fee-Lee; Venkatesh, Svetha; West, Geoffrey A. W.

    1996-04-01

    One of the possible models of the human visual system (HVS) in the computer vision literature has a high resolution fovea and exponentially decreasing resolution periphery. The high resolution fovea is used to extract necessary information in order to solve a vision task and the periphery may be used to detect motion. To obtain the desired information, the fovea is guided by the contents of the scene and other knowledge to position the fovea over areas of interest. These eye movements are called saccades and corrective saccades. A two stage process has been implemented as a mechanism for changing foveation in log polar space. Initially, the open loop stage roughly foveates on the best interest feature and then the closed loop stage is invoked to accurately iteratively converge onto the foveation point. The open loop stage developed for the foveation algorithm is applied to saccadic eye movements and a tracking system. Log polar space is preferred over Cartesian space as: (1) it simultaneously provides high resolution and a wide viewing angle; and (2) feature invariance occurs in the fovea which simplifies the foveation process.

  20. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured “duo-interviews” were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. Results The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of “convenient and less healthy foods”. Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. Conclusions The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important

  1. Extending the X/Ka Celestial Reference Frame over the South Polar Cap: Results from combined NASA-ESA Deep Space Network baselines to Malargüe, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; de Vicente, J.; Dugast, M.; García-Miró, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Lowe, S. T.; Maddè, R.; Mercolino, M.; Naudet, C. J.; Snedeker, L. G.; Sotuela, I.; White, L. A.

    2013-03-01

    In order to extend the X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) Celestial Reference Frame coverage over the south polar cap region of declinations -45 to -90 deg, we developed a collaboration between the NASA and ESA Deep Space Networks. In particular ESA's new 35-meter X/Ka-band antenna in Malargüe, Argentina which became operational in January 2013 is now available for X/Ka VLBI baselines to NASA's antennas in Tidbinbilla, Australia; Goldstone, California; and Robledo, Spain. We report first fringes on baselines from Malargüe to Tidbinbilla, Goldstone, and Robledo using a semi-portable digital backend recording at 256 Mbps. To the best of our knowledge the Giga-lambda Malargüe-Tidbinbilla baseline is producing the highest resolution interferometry ever achieved over the south polar cap. We will present the distribution of Ka-band sources detected on this all-southern baseline. Lastly, we will discuss the prospects for using these new baselines to improve the astrometric accuracy of the X/Ka frame in the southern hemisphere.

  2. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  3. Protumoral TSP50 Regulates Macrophage Activities and Polarization via Production of TNF-α and IL-1β, and Activation of the NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Song, Zhen-Bo; Hou, Ya-Qin; Bao, Yong-Li; Sun, Lu-Guo; Yu, Chun-Lei; Li, Yu-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50) is abnormally overexpressed in many kinds of cancers and promotes cell proliferation and migration. However, whether TSP50 can influence the tumor microenvironment, especially the function of immune cells in the microenvironment, remains largely unknown. We demonstrated that exposure to the conditioned medium from TSP50-overexpressing cells, or co-culture with TSP50-overexpressing cells, enhanced the cytokine production and phagocytic activities of macrophages, and induced M2b polarization. Further investigation showed that production of TNF-α and IL-1β was strongly induced by TSP50 in TSP50-overexpressing cells. TSP50-induced TNF-α and IL-1β were main factors that mediated the effects of TSP50-overexpressing cells on macrophages. The NF-κB pathway could be activated in macrophages upon the treatment of conditioned medium of TSP50-overexpressing cells and its activation is necessary for the observed effects on macrophages. Taken together, our results suggested that oncogenic TSP50 expressed in cells could activate surrounding macrophages and induce M2b polarization, partly through inducing TNF-α/ IL-1β secretion and subsequent NF-κB pathway activation. This implies a potential mechanism by which oncogene TSP50 regulates tumor microenvironment to support tumor development. PMID:26684869

  4. Variation in antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Fructus Jujubae in South Xinjiang area.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guoting; Zhang, Wuxia; Zhang, Amin; Mu, Haibo; Bai, Hongjin; Duan, Jinyou; Wu, Cuiyun

    2013-06-01

    The Fructus Jujubae has been widely used as favorable food and folk medicine in China and Russia. In this study, we compared the carbohydrate constituents and antioxidative effects of Fructus Jujubae polysaccharides from five different production areas in South Xinjiang. Results demonstrated that the average annual temperature (r=0.590) and frost-free period (r=0.779) were well correlated to the uronic acid content, while the neutral carbohydrate content showed negative correlation with precipitation amount (r=-0.567). Antioxidative tests indicated that Fructus Jujubae polysaccharides could scavenge chemicals-induced reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, these polysaccharides could rescue H₂O₂-induced HUVEC death. The antioxidative activity of polysaccharides from the Fructus Jujubae might contribute to their diverse medicinal and nutritional values. PMID:23507009

  5. Protease activity of Per a 10 potentiates Th2 polarization by increasing IL-23 and OX40L.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Komal; Kale, Sagar L; Arora, Naveen

    2015-12-01

    Proteases are implicated in exacerbation of allergic diseases. In this study, the role of proteolytic activity of Per a 10 was evaluated on Th2 polarization. Intranasal administration of Per a 10 in mice led to allergic airway inflammation as seen by higher IgE levels, cellular infiltration, IL-17A, and Th2 cytokines, whereas, inactive (Δ)Per a 10 showed attenuated response. There was an increased OX40L expression on lung and lymph node dendritic cells in Per a 10 immunized group and on Per a 10 stimulated BMDCs. Reduction in CD40 expression without any change at transcript level in lungs of Per a 10 immunized mice suggested CD40 cleavage. BMDCs pulsed with Per a 10 showed reduced CD40 expression with lower IL-12p70 secretion as compared to heat inactivated Per a 10. IL-23, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in Per a 10 stimulated BMDCs supernatant. In DC-T cell coculture studies, Per a 10 pulsed BMDCs showed higher levels of IL-4 and IL-13 that were reduced on blocking of either IL-23 or OX40L. In conclusion, the data suggests a critical role of protease activity of Per a 10 in promoting Th2 polarization by increasing IL-23 secretion and OX40L expression on dendritic cells. PMID:26417883

  6. 1,3-Dipolar cycloadditions of electrophilically activated benzonitrile N-oxides. Polar cycloaddition versus oxime formation.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Picher, M Teresa; Arroyo, Pau; Saez, José A

    2006-12-01

    The reactions of electrophilically activated benzonitrile N-oxides (BNOs) toward 3-methylenephthalimidines (MPIs) have been studied using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. For these reactions, two different channels allowing the formation of the [3 + 2] cycloadducts and two isomeric (E)- and (Z)-oximes have been characterized. The 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions take place along concerted but highly asynchronous transition states, while formation of the oximes is achieved through a stepwise mechanism involving zwitterionic intermediates. Both reactions are initiated by the nucleophilic attack of the methylene carbon of the MPIs to the carbon atom of the electrophilically activated BNOs. The analysis based on the natural bond orbital (NBO) and the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) at the transition structures and intermediates explains correctly the polar nature of these reactions. Solvent effects considered by the PCM model allow explaining the low incidence of the solvent polarity on the rate and composition of the reactions.

  7. Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Daniel; Chen, Yuan; Vazquez-Guardado, Abraham; Modak, Sushrut; Boroumand, Javaneh; Xu, Daming; Wu, Shin-Tson; Chanda, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Structural colour arising from nanostructured metallic surfaces offers many benefits compared to conventional pigmentation based display technologies, such as increased resolution and scalability of their optical response with structure dimensions. However, once these structures are fabricated their optical characteristics remain static, limiting their potential application. Here, by using a specially designed nanostructured plasmonic surface in conjunction with high birefringence liquid crystals, we demonstrate a tunable polarization-independent reflective surface where the colour of the surface is changed as a function of applied voltage. A large range of colour tunability is achieved over previous reports by utilizing an engineered surface which allows full liquid crystal reorientation while maximizing the overlap between plasmonic fields and liquid crystal. In combination with imprinted structures of varying periods, a full range of colours spanning the entire visible spectrum is achieved, paving the way towards dynamic pixels for reflective displays. PMID:26066375

  8. Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Daniel; Chen, Yuan; Vazquez-Guardado, Abraham; Modak, Sushrut; Boroumand, Javaneh; Xu, Daming; Wu, Shin-Tson; Chanda, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Structural colour arising from nanostructured metallic surfaces offers many benefits compared to conventional pigmentation based display technologies, such as increased resolution and scalability of their optical response with structure dimensions. However, once these structures are fabricated their optical characteristics remain static, limiting their potential application. Here, by using a specially designed nanostructured plasmonic surface in conjunction with high birefringence liquid crystals, we demonstrate a tunable polarization-independent reflective surface where the colour of the surface is changed as a function of applied voltage. A large range of colour tunability is achieved over previous reports by utilizing an engineered surface which allows full liquid crystal reorientation while maximizing the overlap between plasmonic fields and liquid crystal. In combination with imprinted structures of varying periods, a full range of colours spanning the entire visible spectrum is achieved, paving the way towards dynamic pixels for reflective displays. PMID:26066375

  9. Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Daniel; Chen, Yuan; Vazquez-Guardado, Abraham; Modak, Sushrut; Boroumand, Javaneh; Xu, Daming; Wu, Shin-Tson; Chanda, Debashis

    2015-06-11

    Structural colour arising from nanostructured metallic surfaces offers many benefits compared to conventional pigmentation based display technologies, such as increased resolution and scalability of their optical response with structure dimensions. However, once these structures are fabricated their optical characteristics remain static, limiting their potential application. Here, by using a specially designed nanostructured plasmonic surface in conjunction with high birefringence liquid crystals, we demonstrate a tunable polarization-independent reflective surface where the colour of the surface is changed as a function of applied voltage. A large range of colour tunability is achieved over previous reports by utilizing an engineered surface which allows full liquid crystal reorientation while maximizing the overlap between plasmonic fields and liquid crystal. In combination with imprinted structures of varying periods, a full range of colours spanning the entire visible spectrum is achieved, paving the way towards dynamic pixels for reflective displays.

  10. Wingless-type family member 3A triggers neuronal polarization via cross-activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bernis, María E.; Oksdath, Mariana; Dupraz, Sebastián; Nieto Guil, Alvaro; Fernández, Marisa M.; Malchiodi, Emilio L.; Rosso, Silvana B.; Quiroga, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Initial axonal elongation is essential for neuronal polarization and requires polarized activation of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1r) and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3k) pathway. Wingless-type family growth factors (Wnts) have also been implied in the regulation of axonal development. It is not known, however, if Wnts have any participation in the regulation of initial axonal outgrowth and the establishment of neuronal polarity. We used cultured hippocampal neurons and growth cone particles (GCPs) isolated from fetal rat brain to show that stimulation with the wingless family factor 3A (Wnt3a) was sufficient to promote neuronal polarization in the absence of IGF-1 or high insulin. We also show that Wnt3a triggered a strong activation of IGF-1r, PI3k, and Akt in developmental Stage 2 neurons and that the presence of activatable IGF-1r and PI3k activation were necessary for Wnt3a polarizing effects. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments show that Wnt3a did not bind specifically to the IGF-1r. Using crosslinking and immuno-precipitation experiments, we show that stimulation with Wnt3a triggered the formation of a complex including IGF-1r-Wnt3a-Frizzled-7. We conclude that Wnt3a triggers polarization of neurons via cross-activation of the IGF-1r/PI3k pathway upon binding to Fz7. PMID:24298236

  11. The Polar Insulation Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban-Rich, Juanita

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author developed an activity called "The Polar Insulation Investigation." This activity builds on students' natural interest in "things polar" and introduces them to animal adaptations in a unique way. The aim of the exploration is to determine the role of animal coverings (e.g., blubber, fur, and feathers) and to see which is…

  12. Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John

    2016-07-01

    Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that chara