Science.gov

Sample records for active space debris

  1. Canadian Activities in Space Debris Mitigation Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikanpour, Darius; Jiang, Xin Xiang; Goroshin, Samuel; Haddad, Emile; Kruzelecky, Roman; Hoa, Suong; Merle, Philippe; Kleiman, Jacob; Gendron, Stephane; Higgins, Andrew; Jamroz, Wes

    The space environment, and in particular the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), is becoming increasingly populated with space debris which include fragments of dysfunctional spacecraft parts and materials traveling at speeds up to 15 km per second. These pose an escalating potential threat to LEO spacecraft, the international space station, and manned missions. This paper presents the Canadian activities to address the concerns over space debris in terms of debris mitigation measures and technologies; these include novel spacecraft demise technologies to safely decommission the spacecraft at the end of the mission, integrated self-healing material technologies for spacecraft structures to facilitate self-repair and help maintain the spacecraft structural and thermal performance, hypervelocity ground test capability to predict the impact of space debris on spacecraft performance, and ways of raising awareness within the space community through participation in targeted Science and Technology conferences and international forums.

  2. Activities on Space Debris in U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2001-01-01

    In the U.S. space debris activities are addressed at all government levels, from the Executive Office of the President to the individual federal agencies to specialized centers, laboratories, organizations, and research groups. U.S. Space Policy specifically challenges government agencies to seek to minimize the creation of space debris and to promote debris minimization practices both domestically and internationally. A set of space debris mitigation standard practices has been developed and adopted by relevant US government agencies, and their application by the commercial aerospace community is highly encouraged. A growing number of US government agencies have issued their own space debris mitigation policies, directives, regulations, and standards. Space debris research, including the definition and modeling of the current and future near-Earth space environment and the development of debris protection technologies, is principally conducted by NASA and the Department of Defense. The U.S. Space Surveillance Network continues to provide the most complete and timely characterization of the population of space debris larger than 10 cm. During the past several years major advancements have been achieved in extending this environment definition in LEO to include particles as small as only a few millimeters. The inspection of returned spacecraft surfaces continues to shed light on the even smaller debris population. With improvements in computer technology, new and more capable programs have been and are being developed to solve a number of operational and research problems. Finally, the academic and industrial sectors of the U.S. are also increasing their participation in and contributions to space debris operations and research. The cooperation of satellite and launch vehicle developers and operators is essential to the U.S. objective of promoting the preservation of the space environment for future generations.

  3. Activities on space debris in U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2001-10-01

    In the U.S. space debris activities are addressed at all government levels, from the Executive Office of the President to the individual federal agencies to specialized centers, laboratories, organizations, and research groups. U.S. Space Policy specifically challenges government agencies to seek to minimize the creation of space debris and to promote debris minimization practices, both domestically and internationally. A set of space debris mitigation standard practices has been developed and adopted by relevant U.S. government agencies, and their application by the commercial aerospace community is highly encouraged. A growing number of U.S. government agencies have issued their own space debris mitigation policies, directives, regulations, and standards. Space debris research, including the definition and modeling of the current and future near-Earth space environment and the development of debris protection technologies, is principally conducted by NASA and the Department of Defense. The U.S. Space Surveillance Network continues to provide the most complete and timely characterization of the population of space debris larger than 10 cm. During the past several years major advancements have been achieved in extending this environment definition in LEO to include particles as small as only a few millimeters. The inspection of returned spacecraft surfaces continues to shed light on the even smaller debris population. With improvements in computer technology, new and more capable programs have been and are being developed to solve a number of operational and research problems. Finally, the academic and industrial sectors of the U.S. are also increasing their participation in and contributions to space debris operations and research. The cooperation of spacecraft and launch vehicle developers and operators is essential to the U.S. objective of promoting the preservation of the space environment for future generations.

  4. Present Research and Standardization Activities on Small Space Debris at Space Environment Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Yukihito; Hanada, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Higashide, Masumi; Okudaira, Osamu; Kamiya, Koki; Nitta, Kumi

    2016-07-01

    The micro-debris of the size from 100 μm to several mm is expected to cause a spacecraft critical failures and troubles. However, the collision probability of the micro-debris and its effect on space equipment are hardly predicted due to lack knowledge regarding the debris distribution and experimental/numerical investigation on material and components. This paper introduce research and standardization activities related on micro-debris for space environmental prevention

  5. Active space debris charging for contactless electrostatic disposal maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Hanspeter; Sternovsky, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    The remote charging of a passive object using an electron beam enables touchless re-orbiting of large space debris from geosynchronous orbit (GEO) using electrostatic forces. The advantage of this method is that it can operate with a separation distance of multiple craft radii, thus reducing the risk of collision. The charging of the tug-debris system to high potentials is achieved by active charge transfer using a directed electron beam. Optimal potential distributions using isolated- and coupled-sphere models are discussed. A simple charging model takes into account the primary electron beam current, ultra-violet radiation induced photoelectron emission, collection of plasma particles, secondary electron emission and the recapture of emitted particles. The results show that through active charging in a GEO space environment high potentials can be both achieved and maintained with about a 75% transfer efficiency. Further, the maximum electrostatic tractor force is shown to be insensitive to beam current levels. This latter later result is important when considering debris with unknown properties.

  6. Active space debris removal using capture and ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missel, Jonathan William

    2013-03-01

    Low Earth Orbit is over-cluttered with rogue objects that threaten existing technological assets and interfere with allocating new ones. Traditional satellite missions are not efficient enough to collect an appreciable amount of debris due to the high cost of orbit transfers. Many alternate proposals are politically controversial, costly, or dependent on undeveloped technology. This dissertation attempts to solve the problem by introducing a new mission architecture, Space Sweeper, and bespoke hardware, Sling-Sat, that sequentially captures and ejects debris plastically. Resulting momentum exchanges are exploited to aid in subsequent orbit transfers, thus saving fuel. Sling-Sat is a spinning satellite that captures debris at the ends of adjustable-length arms. Arm length controls the angular rate to achieve a desired tangential ejection speed. Timing the release exacts the ejection angle. This process redirects debris to burn up in the atmosphere, or reduce its lifetime, by lowering its perigee. This dissertation establishes feasibility of principles fundamental to the proposed concept. Hardware is conceptualized to accommodate Space Sweeper's specialized needs. Mathematical models are built for the purpose of analysis and simulation. A kinematic analysis investigates system demands and long-term behavior resulting from repeated debris interaction. A successful approach to enforce debris capture is established through optimal control techniques. A study of orbital parameters and their response to debris interactions builds an intuition for missions of this nature. Finally, a J2-compliant technique for path optimization is demonstrated. The results strongly support feasibility of the proposed mission.

  7. Review and comparison of active space debris capturing and removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Minghe; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    Space debris is considered as a serious problem for operational space missions. Many enabling space debris capturing and removal methods have been proposed in the past decade and several methods have been tested on ground and/or in parabolic flight experiments. However, not a single space debris has been removed yet. A space debris object is usually non-cooperative and thus different with targets of on-orbit servicing missions. Thus, capturing and removal of space debris is significantly more challenging. One of the greatest challenges is how to reliably capture and remove a non-cooperative target avoiding to generate even more space debris. To motivate this research area and facilitate the development of active space debris removal, this paper provides review and comparison of the existing technologies on active space debris capturing and removal. It also reviews research areas worth investigating under each capturing and removal method. Frameworks of methods for capturing and removing space debris are developed. The advantages and drawbacks of the most relevant capturing and removal methods are addressed as well. In addition, examples and existing projects related to these methods are discussed.

  8. Active space debris removal by using laser propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezunkov, Yu. A.

    2013-03-01

    At present, a few projects on the space debris removal by using highpower lasers are developed. One of the established projects is the ORION proposed by Claude Phipps from Photonics Associates Company and supported by NASA (USA) [1]. But the technical feasibility of the concept is limited by sizes of the debris objects (from 1 to 10 cm) because of a small thrust impulse generated at the laser ablation of the debris materials. At the same time, the removal of rocket upper stages and satellites, which have reached the end of their lives, has been carried out only in a very small number of cases and most of them remain on the Low Earth Orbits (LEO). To reduce the amount of these large-size objects, designing of space systems allowing deorbiting upper rocket stages and removing large-size satellite remnants from economically and scientifically useful orbits to disposal ones is considered. The suggested system is based on high-power laser propulsion. Laser-Orbital Transfer Vehicle (LOTV) with the developed aerospace laser propulsion engine is considered as applied to the problem of mitigation of man-made large-size space debris in LEO.

  9. Active space debris removal by a hybrid propulsion module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, L. T.; Bernelli, F.; Maggi, F.; Tadini, P.; Pardini, C.; Anselmo, L.; Grassi, M.; Pavarin, D.; Francesconi, A.; Branz, F.; Chiesa, S.; Viola, N.; Bonnal, C.; Trushlyakov, V.; Belokonov, I.

    2013-10-01

    During the last 40 years, the mass of the artificial objects in orbit increased quite steadily at the rate of about 145 metric tons annually, leading to a total tally of approximately 7000 metric tons. Now, most of the cross-sectional area and mass (97% in LEO) is concentrated in about 4600 intact objects, i.e. abandoned spacecraft and rocket bodies, plus a further 1000 operational spacecraft. Simulations and parametric analyses have shown that the most efficient and effective way to prevent the outbreak of a long-term exponential growth of the catalogued debris population would be to remove enough cross-sectional area and mass from densely populated orbits. In practice, according to the most recent NASA results, the active yearly removal of approximately 0.1% of the abandoned intact objects would be sufficient to stabilize the catalogued debris in low Earth orbit, together with the worldwide adoption of mitigation measures. The candidate targets for removal would have typical masses between 500 and 1000 kg, in the case of spacecraft, and of more than 1000 kg, in the case of rocket upper stages. Current data suggest that optimal active debris removal missions should be carried out in a few critical altitude-inclination bands. This paper deals with the feasibility study of a mission in which the debris is removed by using a hybrid propulsion module as propulsion unit. Specifically, the engine is transferred from a servicing platform to the debris target by a robotic arm so to perform a controlled disposal. Hybrid rocket technology for de-orbiting applications is considered a valuable option due to high specific impulse, intrinsic safety, thrust throttle ability, low environmental impact and reduced operating costs. Typically, in hybrid rockets a gaseous or liquid oxidizer is injected into the combustion chamber along the axial direction to burn a solid fuel. However, the use of tangential injection on a solid grain Pancake Geometry allows for more compact design of

  10. The INAF contribution to the ASI Space Debris program: observational activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Salerno, E.; Bartolini, M.; Di Martino, M.; Mattana, A.; Montebugnoli, S.; Portelli, C.; Pluchino, S.; Schillirò, F.; Konovalenko, A.; Nabatov, A.; Nechaeva, M.

    Space debris are man made objects orbiting around Earth that pose a serious hazard for both present and future human activities in space. Since 2007 the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) carried out a number of radar campaigns in the framework of the ASI ``Space Debris'' program. The observations were performed by using bi- and multi-static radars, composed of the INAF 32-m Italian radiotelescopes located at Medicina and Noto (used as receivers) and the 70-m parabolic antenna at Evpatoria (Ukraine) used as transmitter. The 32 m Ventspils antenna in Latvia also participated in the last campaign at the end of June 2010. Several kinds of objects in various orbital regions (radar calibrators, rocket upper stages, debris of different sizes) were observed and successfully detected. Some unknown objects were also discovered in LEO during the beam-park sessions. In this paper we describe some results of the INAF-ASI space debris research activity.

  11. An Introduction to Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David

    2008-04-01

    Space debris is any human-made object in orbit that no longer serves a useful purpose, including defunct satellites, discarded equipment and rocket stages, and fragments from the breakup of satellites and rocket stages. It is a concern because--due to its very high speed in orbit--even relatively small pieces can damage or destroy satellites in a collision. Since debris at high altitudes can stay in orbit for decades or longer, it accumulates as more is produced and the risk of collisions with satellites grows. Since there is currently no effective way to remove large amounts of debris from orbit, controlling the production of debris is essential for preserving the long-term use of space. Today there are 860 active satellites in orbit, supporting a wide range of civil and military uses. The 50 years of space activity since the launch of Sputnik 1 has also resulted in well over half a million pieces of orbiting debris larger than 1 cm in size. There are two main sources of space debris: (1) routine space activity and the accidental breakup of satellites and stages placed in orbit by such activity, and (2) the testing or use of destructive anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons that physically collide with satellites at high speed. The international community is attempting to reduce the first category by developing strict guidelines to limit the debris created as a result of routine space activities. However, the destruction of a single large spy satellite by an ASAT weapon could double the total amount of large debris in low earth orbit, and there are currently no international restrictions on these systems. This talk will give an introduction to what's in space, the origins of space debris, efforts to stem its growth, the threat it poses to satellites in orbit, and the long-term evolution of the debris population.

  12. SPACeMAN -a Satellite to Actively Reduce Sub-Centimeter Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knirsch, Uli

    In-orbit fragmentation events, whether accidental or intentional, are bound to increase the population of space debris. "Critical debris" ranging between 1 and 10mm are numerous and can be lethal to both satellites and inhabited structures. This in turn creates further debris, potentially leading to a chain reaction ("Kessler syndrome"). In first approximation, collecting sub-centimeter debris appears impractical since rendezvous maneuvers are prohibitively expensive in terms of delta v and hardware complexity. One possible solution is to fly a spacecraft with a small constant vertical thrust. As a result, it will move somewhat faster than other, passive objects in its orbit -such as space debris. This "non-Keplerian orbit" thus creates a small chance of accidental collision. The sPACeMAN is designed to withstand impacts, capturing the debris. Since the probability of capture is low, some active control, particularly of the vertical thrust, can be instituted. The sPACeMAN concept was developed to reduce the population of NaK droplets in critical orbits. However, it can be extended to other debris as well. Since its effectiveness is greatest in areas of relatively high population densities of space debris, it would be best suited for quick responses, such as after a fragmentation event.

  13. Harpoon technology development for the active removal of space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudziak, Roger; Tuttle, Sean; Barraclough, Simon

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary empirical testing and numerical modelling carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of using a harpoon in an ADR application. Empirical testing involving the impact of blunt and conical shaped steel tips into 3 mm Al plate showed that the ballistic limit varies in proportion to the tip circumference, with conical shapes resulting in a higher relative ballistic limit due to the additional energy required for petaling. The creation of secondary debris was also monitored. It was found that blunt shapes created a plug during penetration as a result of shearing around the periphery of the projectile, whilst conical tips resulted in minor spalling and fragmentation. Preliminary oblique impact testing with conical and blunt tips showed that the ballistic limit increases with obliquity at a greater rate for blunt tips than conical ones. Impact testing of 3 mm Al plate with conical projectiles at low temperatures showed a more brittle fracture mode when compared with targets impacted at room temperature. As such, the fragmentation and spalling evident in room temperature targets was absent. The energy required to perforate the cooled plates also increased. Impact testing of Al panel obstructed with fixed heat pipes showed that the harpoon could successfully penetrate a target panel with such an obstruction due to shearing of the pipe flange. Testing of two lock on mechanisms showed that both a spring activated and integrated toggle could reliably open upon impact. This testing also used a tensile testing machine to show that both designs could withstand the force expected during deorbiting manoeuvres after impact with Al H/C panels. A parametric simulation comparing the diameter of conical tips with ballistic limits showed a good agreement with the predictions of De Marre's formula for normal impact. This suggests that the ballistic limit of plates impacted by conical projectiles can be successfully extrapolated with limited

  14. Space debris executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Judd, O.; Naka, R.F.

    1996-09-01

    Spacecraft, boosters, and fragments are potential hazards to space vehicles, and it is argued that collisions between them could produce a cascade that could preclude activity in LEO in 25 to 50 years. That has generated pressure for constraints on military space operations, so the AF SAB performed a study of technical aspects of the debris problem. The Study was independent of the efforts of the Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) as well as those of and NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), which is the principal advocate for cascades and constraints. Most work on space debris has been performed by AFSPC and JSC, so the Study was in part an assessment of their efforts, in which both have been cooperative. The Study identified the main disagreements and quantified their impacts. It resolved some issues and provided bounds for the rest. It treated radar and optical observations; launch, explosion, and decay rates; and the number and distribution of fragments from explosions and collisions. That made it possible to address hazard to manned spacecraft at low altitudes and the possibility of cascading at higher altitudes, both of which now appear less likely.

  15. Space debris detection and mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Allahdadi, F.

    1993-01-01

    Space debris is defined as all useless man-made objects in space. This conference covers the following areas: debris detection, tracking, and surveillance; orbital debris analytical modeling; debris environment and safety issues; and orbital debris mitigation. Separate abstracts were prepared for 26 papers in this conference.

  16. Space Debris Environment Remediation Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Long-term projections of the space debris environment indicate that even drastic measures, such as an immediate, complete halt of launch and release activities, will not result in a stable environment of man-made space objects. Collision events between already existing space hardware will within a few decades start to dominate the debris population, and result in a net increase of the space debris population, also in size regimes which may cause further catastrophic collisions. Such a collisional cascading will ultimately lead to a run-away situation ("Kessler syndrome"), with no further possibility of human intervention. The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. In an ongoing activity, an IAA study group looks at ways of active space debris environment remediation. In contrast to the former mitigation study, the current activity concentrates on the active removal of small and large objects, such as defunct spacecraft, orbital stages, and mission-related objects, which serve as a latent mass reservoir that fuels initial catastrophic collisions and later collisional cascading. The paper will outline different mass removal concepts, e.g. based on directed energy, tethers (momentum exchange or electrodynamic), aerodynamic drag augmentation, solar sails, auxiliary propulsion units, retarding surfaces, or on-orbit capture. Apart from physical principles of the proposed concepts, their applicability to different orbital regimes, and their effectiveness concerning mass removal efficiency will be analyzed. The IAA activity on space debris environment remediation is a truly international project which involves more than 23 contributing authors from 9 different nations.

  17. Active Space Debris Removal using European Modified Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Equipped with Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, Ali S.; Emanuelli, Matteo; Raval, Siddharth; Turconi, Andrea; Becker, Cristoph

    2013-08-01

    During the past few years, several research programs have assessed the current state and future evolution of the Low Earth Orbit region. These studies indicate that space debris density could reach a critical level such that there will be a continuous increase in the number of debris objects, primarily driven by debris-debris collision activity known as the Kessler effect. This cascade effect can be even more significant when intact objects as dismissed rocket bodies are involved in the collision. The majority of the studies until now have highlighted the urgency for active debris removal in the next years. An Active Debris Removal System (ADRS) is a system capable of approaching the debris object through a close-range rendezvous, establishing physical connection, stabilizing its attitude and finally de-orbiting the debris object using a type of propulsion system in a controlled manoeuvre. In its previous work, this group showed that a modified Fregat (Soyuz FG's 4th stage) or Breeze-M upper stage (Proton-M) launched from Plesetsk (Russian Federation) and equipped with an electro-dynamic tether (EDT) system can be used, after an opportune inclination's change, to de-orbit a Kosmos-3M second stage rocket body while also delivering an acceptable payload to orbit. In this paper, we continue our work on the aforementioned concept, presented at the 2012 Beijing Space Sustainability Conference, by comparing its performance to ADR missions using only chemical propulsion from the upper stage for the far approach and the de-orbiting phase. We will also update the EDT model used in our previous work and highlight some of the methods for creating physical contact with the object. Moreover, we will assess this concept also with European launch vehicles (Vega and Soyuz 2-1A) to remove space debris from space. In addition, the paper will cover some economic aspects, like the cost for the launches' operator in term of payload mass' loss at the launch. The entire debris removal

  18. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  19. Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of national and international space debris mitigation guides is to promote the preservation of near-Earth space for applications and exploration missions far into the future. To accomplish this objective, the accumulation of objects, particularly in long-lived orbits, must be eliminated or curtailed.

  20. Space Debris Environent Remediation Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkrad, H.; Johnson, N. L.

    2009-03-01

    Long-term projections of the space debris environment indicate that even drastic measures, such as an immediate, complete halt of launch and release activities, will not result in a stable environment of man-made space objects. Collision events between already existing space hardware will within a few decades start to dominate the debris population, and result in a net increase of the space debris population, also at sizes which may cause further catastrophic collisions. A collisional cascading may ultimately lead to a run-away situation ("Kessler syndrome"), with no further possibility of human intervention.The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities, and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. In an on-going activity, an IAA study group looks into methods of active space debris environment remediation. In contrast to the former mitigation study, the current activity concentrates on the active removal of large objects, such as defunct spacecraft, orbital stages, and mission-related objects, which serve as a latent mass reservoir that fuels initial castastrophic collisions and later collisional cascading. The paper will outline different mass removal concepts, e.g. based on directed energy, tethers (momentum exchange or electro-dynamic), aerodynamic drag augmentation, solar sails, auxiliary propulsion units, retarding surfaces, or on-orbit capture. Apart from physical principles of the proposed concepts, their applicability to different orbital regimes, and their effectiveness concerning mass removal efficiency will be discussed.

  1. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  2. Space debris detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eather, Robert H.

    1992-12-01

    A feasibility study on the possibility of detecting less than or = 10 cm space debris using a large-aperture ground-based telescope (with an intensified CCD detector) was completed, showing that detection should be possible. A detector system was designed and built, and installed on the 2.54 m WRDC telescope at Wright Patterson AFB. Bad seeing conditions in the Dayton area prevented the expected debris detection. Subsequently, a small 40 cm telescope was built and operated from the Haystack Observatory (Groton, MA). Known objects were used to test pointing and acquisition procedures, and the system was then shipped to Rattlesnake Observatory (Richland, WA) for participation in the ODERAC's debris calibration experiment from the Space Shuttle. This experiment failed, and our instrument has been stored at Rattlesnake in anticipation of a new ODERAC's flight in late 1993.

  3. Space Debris Hazard Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Elmer H.; Winslow, Paul C., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    The hazard to space vehicles from natural space debris has been explored. A survey of the available information pertinent to this problem is presented. The hope is that this presentation gives a coherent picture of the knowledge to date in terms of the topic covered. The conclusion reached is that a definite hazard exists but that it can only be poorly assessed on the basis of present information. The need for direct measurement of this hazard is obvious, and some of the problems involved in making these direct measurements have been explored.

  4. Benefits of Active Debris Removal on the LEO Debris Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniwa, Kazuaki; Hanada, Toshiya; Kawamoto, Satomi

    Since the launch of Sputnik, orbital debris population continues to increase due to ongoing space activities, on-orbit explosions, and accidental collisions. In the future, a great deal of fragments can be expected to be created by explosions and collisions. In spite of prevention of satellite and rocket upper stage explosions and other mitigation measures, debris population in low Earth orbit may not be stabilized. To better limit the growth of the future debris population, it is necessary to remove the existing debris actively. This paper studies about the effectiveness of active debris removal in low Earth orbit where the collision rate with and between space debris is high. This study does not consider economic problems, but investigates removing debris which may stabilize well the current debris population based on the concept of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

  5. RS-34 Phoenix In-Space Propulsion System Applied to Active Debris Removal Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Burnside, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    In-space propulsion is a high percentage of the cost when considering Active Debris Removal mission. For this reason it is desired to research if existing designs with slight modification would meet mission requirements to aid in reducing cost of the overall mission. Such a system capable of rendezvous, close proximity operations, and de-orbit of Envisat class resident space objects has been identified in the existing RS-34 Phoenix. RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bi-propellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC has obtained permission from the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. The MSFC Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) was commissioned to lead a study for evaluation of the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system as it applies to an active debris removal design reference mission for resident space object targets including Envisat. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy payloads at multiple orbital locations. The RS-34 Concept Study lead by sought to further understand application for a similar orbital debris design reference mission to provide propulsive capability for rendezvous, close proximity operations to support the capture phase of the mission, and deorbit of single or multiple large class resident space objects. Multiple configurations varying the degree of modification were identified to trade for dry mass optimization and

  6. Space Debris and Space Safety - Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailor, W.; Krag, H.

    Man's activities in space are creating a shell of space debris around planet Earth which provides a growing risk of collision with operating satellites and manned systems. Including both the larger tracked objects and the small, untracked debris, more than 98% of the estimated 600,000 objects larger than 1 cm currently in orbit are “space junk”--dead satellites, expended rocket stages, debris from normal operations, fragments from explosions and collisions, and other material. Recognizing the problem, space faring nations have joined together to develop three basic principles for minimizing the growth of the debris population: prevent on-orbit breakups, remove spacecraft and orbital stages that have reached the end of their mission operations from the useful densely populated orbit regions, and limit the objects released during normal operations. This paper provides an overview of what is being done to support these three principles and describes proposals that an active space traffic control service to warn satellite operators of pending collisions with large objects combined with a program to actively remove large objects may reduce the rate of future collisions. The paper notes that cost and cost effectiveness are important considerations that will affect the evolution of such systems.

  7. Space debris mitigation measures in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimurthy, V.; Ganeshan, A. S.

    2006-02-01

    The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) recognizes the importance of the current space debris scenario, and the impact it has on the effective utilization of space technology for the improvement in the quality of life on the Earth. ISRO is committed to effective management of the threats due to space debris. Towards this commitment ISRO works on different aspects of space debris, including the debris mitigation measures. This paper highlights the activities and achievements in the implementation of the mitigation measures. ISRO successfully designed and developed a propellant venting system for implementation in the existing upper stage of India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), which uses Earth-storable liquid propellants. GSLV also employs passivation of the Cryogenic Upper Stage at the end of its useful mission. ISRO's communication satellites in GSO are designed with adequate propellant margins for re-orbiting at the end of their useful life to a higher graveyard orbit. A typical successful operation in connection with INSAT-2C is described. ISRO developed its debris environmental models and software to predict the close approach of any of the debris to the functional satellites. The software are regularly used for the debris risk management of the orbiting spacecraft and launch vehicles. ISRO recognizes the role of international cooperation in the debris mitigation measures and actively contributes to the efforts of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS).

  8. Remote Maneuver of Space Debris Using Photon Pressure for Active Collision Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2014-09-01

    The Space Environment Research Corporation (SERC) is a consortium of companies and research institutions that have joined together to pursue research and development of technologies and capabilities that will help to preserve the orbital space environment. The consortium includes, Electro Optics Systems (Australia), Lockheed Martin Australia, Optus Satellite Systems (Australia), The Australian national University, RMIT University, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, Japan) as well as affiliates from NASA Ames and ESA. SERC is also the recipient of and Australian Government Cooperative Research Centre grant. SERC will pursue a wide ranging research program including technologies to improve tracking capability and capacity, orbit determination and propagation algorithms, conjunction analysis and collision avoidance. All of these technologies will contribute to the flagship program to demonstrate active collision avoidance using photon pressure to provide remote maneuver of space debris. This project joins of the proposed NASA Lightforce concept with infrastructure and capabilities provided by SERC. This paper will describe the proposed research and development program to provide an on-orbit demonstration within the next five years for remote maneuver of space debris.

  9. Space Debris Modeling at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2001-01-01

    Since the Second European Conference on Space Debris in 1997, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has undertaken a major effort to update and improve the principal software tools employed to model the space debris environment and to evaluate mission risks. NASA's orbital debris engineering model, ORDEM, represents the current and near-term Earth orbital debris population from the largest spacecraft to the smallest debris in a manner which permits spacecraft engineers and experimenters to estimate the frequency and velocity with which a satellite may be struck by debris of different sizes. Using expanded databases and a new program design, ORDEM2000 provides a more accurate environment definition combined with a much broader array of output products in comparison with its predecessor, ORDEM96. Studies of the potential long-term space debris environment are now conducted with EVOLVE 4.0, which incorporates significant advances in debris characterization and breakup modeling. An adjunct to EVOLVE 4.0, GEO EVOLVE has been created to examine debris issues near the geosynchronous orbital regime. In support of NASA Safety Standard 1740.14, which establishes debris mitigation guidelines for all NASA space programs, a set of evaluation tools called the Debris Assessment Software (DAS) is specifically designed for program offices to determine whether they are in compliance with NASA debris mitigation guidelines. DAS 1.5 has recently been released with improved WINDOWS compatibility and graphics functions. DAS 2.0 will incorporate guideline changes in a forthcoming revision to NASA Safety Standard 1740.14. Whereas DAS contains a simplified model to calculate possible risks associated with satellite reentries, NASA's higher fidelity Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) has been upgraded to Version 5.0. With the growing awareness of the potential risks posed by uncontrolled satellite reentries to people and property on Earth, the

  10. LDEF meteoroid and debris special investigation group investigations and activities at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Warren, Jack L.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Dardano, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    Since the return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in January, 1990, members of the Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas have been examining LDEF hardware in an effort to expand the knowledge base regarding the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particulate environment. In addition to the various investigative activities, JSC is also the location of the general Meteoroid & Debris database. This publicly accessible database contains information obtained from the various M&D SIG investigations, as well as limited data obtained by individual LDEF Principal Investigators. LDEF exposed approximately 130 m(exp 2) of surface area to the LEO particulate environment, approximately 15.4 m(exp 2) of which was occupied by structural frame components (i.e., longerons and intercoastals) of the spacecraft. The data reported here was obtained as a result of detailed scans of LDEF intercoastals, 68 of which reside at JSC. The limited amount of data presently available on the A0178 thermal control blankets was reported last year and will not be reiterated here. The data presented here are limited to measurements of crater diameters and their frequency of occurrence (i.e., flux).

  11. LDEF meteoroid and debris special investigation group investigations and activities at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Thomas H.; Warren, Jack L.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Dardano, Claire B.

    1995-02-01

    Since the return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in January, 1990, members of the Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas have been examining LDEF hardware in an effort to expand the knowledge base regarding the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particulate environment. In addition to the various investigative activities, JSC is also the location of the general Meteoroid & Debris database. This publicly accessible database contains information obtained from the various M&D SIG investigations, as well as limited data obtained by individual LDEF Principal Investigators. LDEF exposed approximately 130 m(exp 2) of surface area to the LEO particulate environment, approximately 15.4 m(exp 2) of which was occupied by structural frame components (i.e., longerons and intercoastals) of the spacecraft. The data reported here was obtained as a result of detailed scans of LDEF intercoastals, 68 of which reside at JSC. The limited amount of data presently available on the A0178 thermal control blankets was reported last year and will not be reiterated here. The data presented here are limited to measurements of crater diameters and their frequency of occurrence (i.e., flux).

  12. Space debris modeling at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2001-10-01

    Since the Second European Conference on Space Debris in 1997, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has undertaken a major effort to update and improve the principal software tools employed to model the space debris environment and to evaluate mission risks. NASA's orbital debris engineering model, ORDEM, represents the current and near-term Earth orbital debris population from the largest spacecraft to the smallest debris in a manner which permits spacecraft engineers and experimenters to estimate the frequency and velocity with which a satellite may be struck by debris of different sizes. Using expanded databases and a new program design, ORDEM2000 provides a more accurate environment definition combined with a much broader array of output products in comparison with its predecessor, ORDEM96. Studies of the potential long-term space debris environment are now conducted with EVOVLE 4.0, which incorporates significant advances in debris characterization and breakup modeling. An adjunct to EVOLVE 4.0, GEO EVOLVE has been created to examine debris issues near the geosynchronous orbital regime. In support of NASA Safety Standard (NSS) 1740.14, which establishes debris mitigation guidelines for all NASA space programs, a set of evaluation tools called the Debris Assessment Software (DAS) is specifically designed for program offices to determine whether they are in compliance with NASA debris mitigation guidelines. DAS 1.5 has recently been completed with improved WINDOWS compatibility and graphics functions. DAS 2.0 will incorporate guideline changes in a forthcoming revision to NSS 1740.14. Whereas DAS contains a simplified model to calculate possible risks associated with satellite reentries, NASA's higher fidelity Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) has been upgraded to Version 5.0. With the growing awareness of the potential risks posed by uncontrolled satellite reentries to people and property on Earth, the application of

  13. Lightweight Shield Against Space Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, John W., Jr.; Lawson, Bobby E.; Miller, Andre E.; Cobb, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents concept for lightweight, deployable shield protecting orbiting spacecraft against meteoroids and debris, and functions as barrier to conductive and radiative losses of heat. Shield made in four segments providing 360 degree coverage of cylindrical space-station module.

  14. Nuclear-powered space debris sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, John D.; Leclaire, Rene J., Jr.; Howe, Steven D.; Burgin, Karen C.

    1989-01-01

    Future spacecraft design will be affected by collisions with man-made debris orbiting the earth. Most of this orbital space debris comes from spent rocket stages. It is projected that the source of future debris will be the result of fragmentation of large objects through hypervelocity collisions. Orbiting spacecraft will have to be protected from hypervelocity debris in orbit. The options are to armor the spacecraft, resulting in increased mass, or actively removing the debris from orbit. An active space debris sweeper is described which will utilize momentum transfer to the debris through laser-induced ablation to alter its orbital parameters to reduce orbital lifetime with eventual entry into the earth's atmosphere where it will burn. The paper describes the concept, estimates the amount of velocity change (Delta V) that can be imparted to an object through laser-induced ablation, and investigates the use of a neutral particle beam for the momentum transfer. The space sweeper concept could also be extended to provide a collision avoidance system for the space station and satellites, or could be used for collision protection during interplanetary travel.

  15. Optical Observations of Space Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Abercromby, Kira; Rodriquez, Heather; Barker, Edwin S.; Kelecy, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of optical telescopes to observe space debris. .It will present a brief review of how the survey is conducted, and what some of the significant results encompass. The goal is to characterize the population of debris objects at GEO, with emphasis on the faint object population. Because the survey observations extend over a very short arc (5 minutes), a full six parameter orbit can not be determined. Recently we have begun to use a second telescope, the 0.9-m at CTIO, as a chase telescope to do follow-up observations of potential GEO debris candidates found by MODEST. With a long enough sequence of observations, a full six-parameter orbit including eccentricity can be determined. The project has used STK since inception for planning observing sessions based on the distribution of bright cataloged objects and the anti-solar point (to avoid eclipse). Recently, AGI's Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) has been used to determine orbits, including the effects of solar radiation pressure. Since an unknown fraction of the faint debris at GEO has a high area-to-mass ratio (A/M), the orbits are perturbed significantly by solar radiation. The ODTK analysis results indicate that temporal variations in the solar perturbations, possibly due to debris orientation dynamics, can be estimated in the OD process. Additionally, the best results appear to be achieved when solar forces orthogonal to the object-Sun line are considered. Determining the A/M of individual objects and the distribution of A/M values of a large sample of debris is important to understanding the total population of debris at GEO

  16. Comparison of space debris estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Judd, O.P.; Naka, R.F.

    1996-10-01

    Debris is thought to be a hazard to space systems through impact and cascading. The current environment is assessed as not threatening to defense systems. Projected reductions in launch rates to LEO should delay concerns for centuries. There is agreement between AFSPC and NASA analyses on catalogs and collision rates, but not on fragmentation rates. Experiments in the laboratory, field, and space are consistent with AFSPC estimates of the number of fragments per collision. A more careful treatment of growth rates greatly reduces long-term stability issues. Space debris has not been shown to be an issue in coming centuries; thus, it does not appear necessary for the Air Force to take additional steps to mitigate it.

  17. Microchemical Analysis Of Space Operation Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Virginia J.; Kim, Hae Soo

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses techniques used in analyzing debris relative to space shuttle operations. Debris collected from space shuttle, expendable launch vehicles, payloads carried by space shuttle, and payloads carried by expendable launch vehicles. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, analytical electron microscopy with wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction chosen as techniques used in examining samples of debris.

  18. Space Debris: Its Causes and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2002-01-01

    Orbital debris is internationally recognized as an environmental issue which needs to be addressed today to preserve near-Earth space for future generations. All major space agencies are committed to mitigating the growth of the debris environment. Many commercial space system operators have responded positively to orbital debris mitigation principles and recommendations. Orbital debris mitigation measures are most cost-effective if included in the design development phase.

  19. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Debris Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Kristin; Kanner, Howard; Yu, Weiping

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident revealed a fundamental problem of the Space Shuttle Program regarding debris. Prior to the tragedy, the Space Shuttle requirement stated that no debris should be liberated that would jeopardize the flight crew and/or mission success. When the accident investigation determined that a large piece of foam debris was the primary cause of the loss of the shuttle and crew, it became apparent that the risk and scope of - damage that could be caused by certain types of debris, especially - ice and foam, were not fully understood. There was no clear understanding of the materials that could become debris, the path the debris might take during flight, the structures the debris might impact or the damage the impact might cause. In addition to supporting the primary NASA and USA goal of returning the Space Shuttle to flight by understanding the SRB debris environment and capability to withstand that environment, the SRB debris assessment project was divided into four primary tasks that were required to be completed to support the RTF goal. These tasks were (1) debris environment definition, (2) impact testing, (3) model correlation and (4) hardware evaluation. Additionally, the project aligned with USA's corporate goals of safety, customer satisfaction, professional development and fiscal accountability.

  20. Recent Developments in Space Debris Mitigation Policy and Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, emphasis has shifted from national efforts to control the space debris population to international ones. Here, too, great progress has been made, most notably by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) of the United Nations. Today, a firm international consensus is rapidly building on the principal space debris mitigation measures. The IADC is an association of the space agencies of ten countries (China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and the European Space Agency, representing 17 countries of which four (France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom) are also full IADC members. At the 17th meeting of the IADC in October 1999, a new Action Item (AI 17.2) was adopted to develop a set of consensus space debris mitigation guidelines. The purpose of the activity was to identify the most valuable space debris mitigation measures and to reach an international agreement on common directives. The IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines (www.iadc-online.org/index.cgi?item=docs_pub) were formally adopted in October 2002 during the Second World Space Congress in Houston, Texas. Two years later a companion document, entitled Support to the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, was completed to provide background and clarification for the guidelines.

  1. Space debris measurement program at Phillips Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Phan D.; Mcnutt, Ross T.

    1992-01-01

    Ground-based optical sensing was identified as a technique for measuring space debris complementary to radar in the critical debris size range of 1 to 10 cm. The Phillips Laboratory is building a staring optical sensor for space debris measurement and considering search and track optical measurement at additional sites. The staring sensor is implemented in collaboration with Wright Laboratory using the 2.5 m telescope at Wright Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. The search and track sensor is designed to detect and track orbital debris in tasked orbits. A progress report and a discussion of sensor performance and search and track strategies will be given.

  2. Reducing the Vulnerability of Space Systems to Small Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cougnet, C.; Oswald, M.

    2012-01-01

    The number of debris in space is continuously increasing. While debris larger than 10 cm can be tracked and debris smaller than 1mm are usually taken into account, small debris with size in between remains a significant threat for the space assets. A European FP7 project, entitled ReVuS, commenced in 2011 with the objective to define design solutions to reduce the vulnerability of future low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites to small sized debris. At first, the vulnerability of a current LEO satellite to these types of debris is assessed. Then, systems and satellite architecture solutions to minimise the vulnerability of the satellites will be analysed and assessed. The use of shielding protection appears as one of the main satellite architecture solutions, and shielding materials will be developed and tested during the project. The paper describes the activities that will be carried out during the project

  3. An adaptive strategy for active debris removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh G.

    2014-04-01

    Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), that will perform effectively in all possible future cases. Strategies that cannot perform effectively, because of this uncertainty, risk either not achieving their intended purpose, or becoming a hindrance to the efforts of spacecraft manufactures and operators to address the challenges posed by space debris. One method to tackle this uncertainty is to create a strategy that can adapt and respond to the space debris population. This work explores the concept of an adaptive strategy, in terms of the number of objects required to be removed by ADR, to prevent the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris population from growing in size. This was demonstrated by utilising the University of Southampton’s Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture to the Geosynchronous Environment (DAMAGE) tool to investigate ADR rates (number of removals per year) that change over time in response to the current space environment, with the requirement of achieving zero growth of the LEO population. DAMAGE was used to generate multiple Monte Carlo projections of the future LEO debris environment. Within each future projection, the debris removal rate was derived at five-year intervals, by a new statistical debris evolutionary model called the Computational Adaptive Strategy to Control Accurately the Debris Environment (CASCADE) model. CASCADE predicted the long-term evolution of the current DAMAGE population with a variety of different ADR rates in order to identify a removal rate that produced a zero net

  4. Space debris removal system using a small satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Shin-Ichiro; Kawamoto, Satomi; Okawa, Yasushi; Terui, Fuyuto; Kitamura, Shoji

    2009-07-01

    Since the number of satellites in Earth orbit is steadily increasing, space debris will eventually pose a serious problem to near-Earth space activities if left unchecked, and so effective measures to mitigate it are becoming urgent. Equipping new satellites with an end-of-life de-orbit or orbital lifetime reduction capability could be an effective means of reducing the amount of debris by reducing the probability of the collisions between objects. On the other hand, the active removal of space debris and the retrieval of failed satellites by spacecraft are other possible measures. The Institute of Aerospace Technology, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is studying a micro-satellite system for active space debris removal, and is examining the applicability of electro-dynamic tether (EDT) technology as its high efficiency orbital transfer system. A small EDT package provides a possible means for lowering the orbits of objects without the need for propellant. Capture is indispensable for the retrieval of large space debris objects, and we propose a flexible robot arm for this purpose. This paper discusses a space debris removal satellite system and describes the development status of prototypes of the EDT package and a new robot arm for capturing non-cooperative targets.

  5. Man-made space debris - Does it restrict free access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M.; Chobotov, V.; Kessler, D.; Reynolds, R.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the hazards posed by existing and future man-made space debris to spacecraft operations. The components of the hazard are identified as those fragments resulting from spacecraft explosions and spent stages which can be tracked, those fragments which are too small to be tracked at their present distances, and future debris, which, if present trends in spacecraft design and operation continue, may lead to an unacceptably high probability of collision with operational spacecraft within a decade. It is argued that a coordinated effort must be undertaken by all space users to evaluate means of space debris control in order to allow for the future unrestricted use of near-earth space. A plan for immediate action to forestall the space debris problem by activities in the areas of education, debris monitoring and collection technology, space vehicle design, space operational procedures and practices and space policies and treaties is proposed.

  6. Development of high precision laser measurement to Space Debris and Applications in SHAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongping; Chen, Juping; Xiong, Yaoheng; Han, Xingwei

    2016-07-01

    Artificial space debris has become the focus during the space exploration because of producing the damage for the future active spacecrafts and high precision measurement for space debris are required for debris surveillance and collision avoidance. Laser ranging technology is inherently high accurate and will play an important role in precise orbit determination, accurate catalog of space debris. Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) of CAS, has been developing the technology of laser measurement to space debris for several years. According to characteristics of laser echoes from space debris and the experiences of relevant activities, high repetition rate, high power laser system and low dark noise APD detector with high quantum efficiency and high transmissivity of narrow bandwidth spectral filter are applied to laser measurement to space debris in SHAO. With these configurations, great achievements of laser measurement to space debris are made with hundreds of passes of laser data from space debris in the distance between 500km and 2500km with Radar Cross Section (RCS) of more than 10 m^{2} to less than 0.5m^{2} at the measuring precision of less than 1m (RMS). For better application of laser ranging technology, Chinese Space Debris Observation network, consisting of Shanghai, Changchun and Kunming station, has been preliminary developed and the coordinated observation has been performed to increase the measuring efficiency for space debris. It is referred from data that laser ranging technology can be as the essential high accuracy measurement technology in the study of space debris.

  7. Comparison of national space debris mitigation standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, A.

    2001-01-01

    Several national organizations of the space faring nations have established Space Debris Mitigation Standards or Handbooks to promote efforts to deal with the space debris issue. This paper introduces the characteristics of each document and compares the structure, items and level of requirements. The contents of these standards may be slightly different from each other but the fundamental principles are almost the same; they are (1) prevention of on-orbit breakups, (2) removal of mission terminated spacecraft from the useful orbit regions, and (3) limiting the objects released during normal operations. The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee has contributed considerably to this trend. The Committee also found out by its recent survey that some commercial companies have begun to adopt the debris mitigation measures for their projects. However, the number of organizations that have initiated this kind of self-control is still limited, so the next challenge of the Committee is to promote the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines world-wide. IADC initiated this project in October 1999 and a draft is being circulated among the member agencies.

  8. Instability of the Current Space Debris Population in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniwa, Kazuaki; Hanada, Toshiya; Kawamoto, Satomi

    Since the launch of Sputnik, orbital debris population continues to increase due to ongoing space activities, on-orbit explosions, and accidental collisions. In the future, it is expected that a great deal of fragments will be created by explosions and collisions. Thus, the number of space debris may increase exponentially (Kessler Syndrome). This paper analyzes the Kessler Syndrome using the Low Earth Orbital Debris Environmental Evolutionary Model (LEODEEM) developed at Kyushu University with collaboration from JAXA. The purpose of the study aims at understanding the issues related to space environment conservation. The results provide effective conditions of Active Debris Removal which is one of the space debris mitigation procedures.

  9. Space Debris Orbit Modification Using Chemical Propulsion Shepherding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Thomas; Pellacani, Andrea; Attina, Primo; Lavagna, Michele; Benvenuto, Riccardo; Luraschi, Eleonora

    2013-08-01

    SysNova is an ESA's technology assessment scheme using "technology challenges" and competitions to survey a comparatively large number of alternative solutions. The COBRA concept was proposed as a solution to one of the challenges, and was declared the winner of the SysNova competition. The COBRA project is a feasibility study of an active debris removal concept which relies on contactless technology to modify the orbit of a space debris object. A ΔV of 50 m/s needs to be imparted on a 100 kg space debris object. Momentum is imparted on the debris object using the exhaust plume of a monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system. The mission concept uses a standard satellite bus with a modified payload bay to suit mission needs.

  10. From Asteroids to Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Daassou, Ahmed; Park, Jang-Hyun; Lazrek, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, Oukaimeden Observatory (OUCA) has become one of the active NEO search facilities in the word. Its discovery statistics shows that the MOSS (Morocco Oukaimeden Sky Survey) project received credits for more than 2,145 new designations, including 3 NEOs and 4 comets. Its excellent astro-climactic characteristics are partly behind the success. The average number of observable nights is around 280 nights per year, while median seeing is 0.8-0.9 arcsec. We completed construction of a new telescope at the site in March 2015. It is Optical Wide-field Patrol (OWL) facility designed and built by Korea Space Science Institute (KASI). The primary objective of this facility is to monitor national space assets of Korea; either wide-field imaging- or fast data acquisition- capabilities enable the 0.5m telescope to conduct observation programs to catalog and follow-up various transient events in the night sky. We present the seeing condition, the OWL system and preliminary results obtained at OWL@Oukaimeden during the past several months.

  11. Orbital debris research at NASA Johnson Space Center, 1986-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Robert C.; Potter, Andrew E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Research on orbital debris has intensified in recent years as the number of debris objects in orbit has grown. The population of small debris has now reached the level that orbital debris has become an important design factor for the Space Station. The most active center of research in this field has been the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Work is being done on the measurement of orbital debris, development of models of the debris population, and development of improved shielding against hypervelocity impacts. Significant advances have been made in these areas. The purpose of this document is to summarize these results and provide references for further study.

  12. Rates inferred from the space debris catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-08-01

    Collision and fragmentation rates are inferred from the AFSPC space debris catalog and compare with estimates from other treatments. The collision rate is evaluated without approximation. The fragmentation rate requires additional empirical assessments. The number of fragments per collision is low compared to analytic and numerical treatments, is peaked low, and falls rapidly with altitude.

  13. An Assessment of the Current LEO Debris Environment and the Need for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2010-01-01

    The anti-satellite test on the Fengun-1 C weather satellite in early 2007 and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 dramatically altered the landscape of the human-made orbital debris environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO). The two events generated approximately 5500 fragments large enough to be tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. Those fragments account for more than 60% increase to the debris population in LEO. However, even before the ASAT test, model analyses already indicated that the debris population (for those larger than 10 cm) in LEO had reached a point where the population would continue to increase, due to collisions among existing objects, even without any future launches. The conclusion implies that as satellites continue to be launched and unexpected breakup events continue to occur, commonly-adopted mitigation measures will not be able to stop the collision-driven population growth. To remediate the debris environment in LEO, active debris removal must be considered. This presentation will provide an updated assessment of the debris environment after the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 collision, an analysis of several future environment projections based on different scenarios, and a projection of collision activities in LEO in the near future. The need to use active debris removal to stabilize future debris environment will be demonstrated and the effectiveness of various active debris removal strategies will be quantified.

  14. Adaptive optics for space debris tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, Francis; D'Orgeville, Celine; Gao, Yue; Gardhouse, William; Paulin, Nicolas; Price, Ian; Rigaut, Francois; Ritchie, Ian T.; Smith, Craig H.; Uhlendorf, Kristina; Wang, Yanjie

    2014-07-01

    Space debris in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is becoming an increasing threat to satellite and spacecraft. A reliable and cost effective method for detecting possible collisions between orbiting objects is required to prevent an exponential growth in the number of debris. Current RADAR survey technologies used to monitor the orbits of thousands of space debris objects are relied upon to manoeuvre operational satellites to prevent possible collisions. A complimentary technique, ground-based laser LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) have been used to track much smaller objects with higher accuracy than RADAR, giving greater prediction of possible collisions and avoiding unnecessary manoeuvring. Adaptive optics will play a key role in any ground based LIDAR tracking system as a cost effective way of utilising smaller ground stations or less powerful lasers. The use of high power and high energy lasers for the orbital modification of debris objects will also require an adaptive optic system to achieve the high photon intensity on the target required for photon momentum transfer and laser ablation. EOS Space Systems have pioneered the development of automated laser space debris tracking for objects in low Earth orbit. The Australian National University have been developing an adaptive optics system to improve this space debris tracking capability at the EOS Space Systems Mount Stromlo facility in Canberra, Australia. The system is integrated with the telescope and commissioned as an NGS AO system before moving on to LGS AO and tracking operations. A pulsed laser propagated through the telescope is used to range the target using time of flight data. Adaptive optics is used to increase the maximum range and number or targets available to the LIDAR system, by correcting the uplink laser beam. Such a system presents some unique challenges for adaptive optics: high power lasers reflecting off deformable mirrors, high slew rate tracking, and variable off-axis tracking correction. A

  15. The Space Debris Environment for the ISS Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theall, Jeff; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Matney, Mark; Kessler, Don

    2001-01-01

    With thirty-five planned missions over the next five years, the International Space Station (ISS) will be the focus for manned space activity. At least 6 different vehicles will transport crew and supplies to and from the nominally 400 km, 51.6 degree orbit. When completed, the ISS will be the largest space structure ever assembled and hence the largest target for space debris. Recent work at the Johnson Space Center has focused on updating the existing space debris models. The Orbital Debris Engineering Model, has been restructured to take advantage of state of the art desktop computing capability and revised with recent measurements from Haystack and Goldstone radars, additional analysis of LDEF and STS impacts, and the most recent SSN catalog. The new model also contains the capability to extrapolate the current environment in time to the year 2030. A revised meteoroid model based on the work of Divine has also been developed, and is called the JSC Meteoroid Model. The new model defines flux on the target per unit angle per unit speed, and for Earth orbit, includes the meteor showers. This paper quantifies the space debris environment for the ISS orbit from natural and anthropogenic sources. Particle flux and velocity distributions as functions of size and angle are be given for particles 10 microns and larger for altitudes from 350 to 450 km. The environment is projected forward in time until 2030.

  16. Site candidates for ground-based telescope devoted to space debris searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hu; Hu, Haiying; Shen, Xue-min

    2015-12-01

    The demands for space debris scanning have been increasingly urgent in recent decade. The more space activities, the more urgent demands for space debris information. China has laid out space debris scanning from ground-based observation facilities. According to the latitudinal boundaries of China, north latitudes of 20deg, 30deg, 40deg, 50deg, 60deg are considered to be candidates for telescope sites. Space debris distribution is simulated under the assumption that telescopes are stationed in north latitudes of 20deg, 30deg, 40deg, 50deg, 60deg respectively. According to space debris simulations, it is recommended that the telescope dedicated to space debris scanning should be deployed in lower latitudes in order to achieve a better performance in detecting space debrises for China observing users.

  17. Charging of space debris in the LEO and GEO regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Abhijit; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar

    The near exponential rise of space debris at the satellite orbital altitudes (particularly in the low earth orbit (LEO) region) and the risk they pose for space assets is a source of major concern for all nations engaged in space activities. Considerable efforts are therefore being expended into accurate modeling and tracking of these objects and various ideas for the safe removal of these debris are being explored. The debris objects are likely to acquire a large amount of charge since they are typically found in a plasma environment - such as the earth’s ionospheric plasma in the LEO region (100 kms to 1000 kms) and the radiation belts in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) region. The consequent flow of electron and ion currents on them lead to the accumulation of a large amount of surface charge and the development of a surface potential on these objects. The influence of the plasma environment on the dynamics and charging of the debris is a relatively unexplored area of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Space Debris (SD) research and can be potentially important for the accurate prediction of the long-term evolution of debris orbits and their collision probabilities with other space objects. In this paper we will report on the charging of space debris under a variety of orbital conditions in the LEO and GEO regions using both analytic and particle-in-cell (PIC) modeling. The analytic estimates are obtained using refined Orbit Motion Limited (OML) modeling while the simulation studies are carried out using the SPIS code [1]. In the GEO region account is taken of charging due to photoemission processes as well as energetic beam charging. The PIC approach enables us to study charging of irregularly shaped debris objects as well as differential charging on objects that are composed of patches of conducting and insulated regions. The dynamical consequences of the debris charging on their orbital trajectories and rotational characteristics will be discussed. [1] J

  18. From Asteroids to Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Daassou, Ahmed; Jang-Hyun, Park; Lazrek, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Since 2011, the Oukaimeden Observatory (OUCA) located on the mountains of the Moroccan High Atlas has become one of the successful contributors in asteroid discovery in the world. The discovery statistics of the MOSS (Morocco Oukaimeden Sky Survey) telescope represents more than 2145 new designations to date for their credits. Its discoveries include three new NEOs and four new comets. The exceptional astro-climatic conditions in terms not only of number of clear nights, but also of atmospheric seeing are partly behind this success. Indeed the average number of observable nights is around 280 nights per year, while the average seeing is about 0.8 to 0.9 arcsec.In the meanwhile, the OUCA achieved construction and installation of a new facility in March 2015. It is a compact, 0.5 m aperture fast optics robotic telescope designed and implemented by the Optical Wide-field Patrol (OWL) team of Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). The primary object of the OWL project is to monitor national space-based assets, howevr either wide-field imaging- or fast data acquisition- capabilities enable to undertake observational program to catalog and follow-up various transient events in the night sky. We will brief future plan for this joint project between the OUCA and KASI.Our presentation aims to share the details of instrumentation implemented and cooperation opportunities it can arouse within the community for the data analysis and interpretation.

  19. Orbiting Debris: a Space Environmental Problem. Background Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Artificial debris, deposited in a multitude of orbits about the Earth as the result of the exploration and use of the space environment, poses a growing hazard to future space operations. Unless nations sharply reduce the amount of orbital debris they produce, future space activites could suffer loss of capability, loss of income, and even loss of life as a result of collisions between spacecraft and debris. This background paper discusses the sources of debris and how they can be greatly reduced.

  20. Micrometeoroid/space debris effects on materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, James M.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) micrometeoroid/space debris impact data has been reduced in terms that are convenient for evaluating the overall quantitative effect on material properties. Impact crater flux has been evaluated as a function of angle from velocity vector and as a function of crater size. This data is combined with spall data from flight and ground testing to calculate effective solar absorption and emittance values versus time. Results indicate that the surface damage from micrometeoroid/space debris does not significantly affect the overall surface optical thermal physical properties. Of course the local damage around impact craters radically alter optical properties. Damage to composites and solar cells on an overall basis was minimal.

  1. Dynamics, analytical solutions and choice of parameters for towed space debris with flexible appendages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanov, Vladimir S.; Yudintsev, Vadim V.

    2015-01-01

    Active debris removal is one of the promising techniques that will decrease the population of large, non-functional spacecraft (space debris) on orbit. Properties of space debris should be taken into account during planning an active debris removal mission. In this paper the thrusting phase of tethered deorbit of large space debris with flexible appendages is considered. The goal of the work is to investigate the mutual influence of the tether vibrations and the vibrations of flexible appendages during thrusting phase. A mathematical model of the space tug and the towed space debris with flexible appendages is developed. Parameters of the system are determined with assumptions that the system is moving in straight line, avoiding high amplitude vibrations of flexible appendages. The expression of the discriminant indicates that the vibrations of the tether and flexible appendages influence each other. A critical tether stiffness exists for the given space tug mass that should be avoided.

  2. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Marine, Micky; Colvin, James; Crockett, Richard; Sword, Lee; Putz, Jennifer; Woelfle, Sheri

    1991-01-01

    The development of an Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD) was the goal. The nature of this craft, which will process, in situ, orbital debris using resources available in low Earth orbit (LEO) is explained. The serious problem of orbital debris is briefly described and the nature of the large debris population is outlined. The focus was on the development of a versatile robotic manipulator to augment an existing robotic arm, the incorporation of remote operation of the robotic arms, and the formulation of optimal (time and energy) trajectory planning algorithms for coordinated robotic arms. The mechanical design of the new arm is described in detail. The work envelope is explained showing the flexibility of the new design. Several telemetry communication systems are described which will enable the remote operation of the robotic arms. The trajectory planning algorithms are fully developed for both the time optimal and energy optimal problems. The time optimal problem is solved using phase plane techniques while the energy optimal problem is solved using dynamic programming.

  3. Space Debris Laser Ranging at Graz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, Franz; Kucharski, Daniel; Ploner, Martin; Riede, Wolfgang; Voelker, Uwe; Buske, Ivo; Friedrich, Fabian; Baur, Oliver; Krauss, Sandro; Wirnsberger, Harald

    2013-08-01

    The Graz Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station usually measures distances to retro-reflector equipped satellites with an accuracy of few millimetres, using short laser pulses with 10 ps pulse width, a low energy of 400 μJ, and a repetition rate of 2 kHz. To test laser ranging possibilities to space debris, we installed two stronger lasers (a diode-pumped 25 mJ / 1 kHz / 10 ns / 532 nm laser, exchanged later to a flash lamp pumped 150 mJ / 100 Hz / 3 ns / 532 nm laser) - both on loan from DLR / German Aerospace Centre Stuttgart -, and built lownoise single-photon detection units. With this configuration, we successfully tracked ≈ 100 passes of almost 50 different space debris targets, in distances between 600 km and up to more than 2500 km, with radar cross sections from > 15 m2 down to < 0.3 m2 , and measured their distances with an average accuracy of 0.7 m (10 ns laser) resp. ≈ 0.5 m (3 ns laser) RMS. The resulting data will be used to calculate improved orbits of the tracked debris objects, and to compare them with radar-based TLE (two-line element) orbits. As demonstration experiment, here we provide findings for ENVISAT normal point analysis. As a next step, we plan to additionally taking pointing information into account. Potentially, the joint analysis of both ranges and orientation angles further improves space debris orbit accuracy. Orbit determination and prediction was done with the GEODYN software package. In addition, we successfully tested a 'bi-static' mode: Graz fired laser pulses to ENVISAT; while Graz detected photons reflected from the retro-reflector, the Swiss SLR station Zimmerwald detected the photons diffusely reflected from the satellite body.

  4. Laser space debris removal: now, not later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.

    2015-02-01

    Small (1-10cm) debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) are extremely dangerous, because they spread the breakup cascade depicted in the movie "Gravity." Laser-Debris-Removal (LDR) is the only solution that can address both large and small debris. In this paper, we briefly review ground-based LDR, and discuss how a polar location can dramatically increase its effectiveness for the important class of sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) objects. No other solutions address the whole problem of large ( 1000cm, 1 ton) as well as small debris. Physical removal of small debris (by nets, tethers and so on) is impractical because of the energy cost of matching orbits. We also discuss a new proposal which uses a space-based station in low Earth orbit (LEO), and rapid, head-on interaction in 10- 40s rather than 4 minutes, with high-power bursts of 100ps, 355nm pulses from a 1.5m diameter aperture. The orbiting station employs "heat-capacity" laser mode with low duty cycle to create an adaptable, robust, dualmode system which can lower or raise large derelict objects into less dangerous orbits, as well as clear out the small debris in a 400-km thick LEO band. Time-average laser optical power is less than 15kW. The combination of short pulses and UV wavelength gives lower required energy density (fluence) on target as well as higher momentum coupling coefficient. This combination leads to much smaller mirrors and lower average power than the ground-based systems we have considered previously. Our system also permits strong defense of specific assets. Analysis gives an estimated cost of about 1k each to re-enter most small debris in a few months, and about 280k each to raise or lower 1-ton objects by 40km. We believe it can do this for 2,000 such large objects in about four years. Laser ablation is one of the few interactions in nature that propel a distant object without any significant reaction on the source.

  5. Space debris hazard to defense systems

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-05-01

    Natural and man-made debris are argued to present hazards to space systems, but recent data indicate that at low altitudes, the impact rates from small particles may have been overestimated by an order of magnitude. At high altitudes, small particles only present an impact hazard to large satellites; they would not support a cascade. Large particles would apparently produce a cascade only on time scales of centuries or millennia. Radar and optical data should be capable of resolving these uncertainties, but their observations are, as yet, inconsistent. While independent analytic and numerical estimates of collision and cascade rates agree, given consistent inputs, different groups produced significantly different estimates of debris growth rates. This note examines the basis for these discrepancies.

  6. Changes of Space Debris Orbits After LDR Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnuk, E.; Golebiewska, J.; Jacquelard, C.; Haag, H.

    2013-09-01

    A lot of technical studies are currently developing concepts of active removal of space debris to protect space assets from on orbit collision. For small objects, such concepts include the use of ground-based lasers to remove or reduce the momentum of the objects thereby lowering their orbit in order to facilitate their decay by re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. The concept of the Laser Debris Removal (LDR) system is the main subject of the CLEANSPACE project. One of the CLEANSPACE objectives is to define a global architecture (including surveillance, identification and tracking) for an innovative ground-based laser solution, which can remove hazardous medium debris around selected space assets. The CLEANSPACE project is realized by a European consortium in the frame of the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), Space topic. The use of sequence of laser operations to remove space debris, needs very precise predictions of future space debris orbital positions, on a level even better than 1 meter. Orbit determination, tracking (radar, optical and laser) and orbit prediction have to be performed with accuracy much better than so far. For that, the applied prediction tools have to take into account all perturbation factors that influence object orbit. The expected object's trajectory after the LDR operation is a lowering of its perigee. To prevent the debris with this new trajectory to collide with another object, a precise trajectory prediction after the LDR sequence is therefore the main task allowing also to estimate re-entry parameters. The LDR laser pulses change the debris object velocity v. The future orbit and re-entry parameters of the space debris after the LDR engagement can be calculated if the resulting ?v vector is known with the sufficient accuracy. The value of the ?v may be estimated from the parameters of the LDR station and from the characteristics of the orbital debris. However, usually due to the poor knowledge of the debris

  7. Space debris selection and optimal guidance for removal in the SSO with low-thrust propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olympio, J. T.; Frouvelle, N.

    2014-06-01

    The current paper deals with the mission design of a generic active space debris removal spacecraft. Considered space debris are all on sun-synchronous orbits. A perturbed Lambert's problem, modelling the transfer between two space debris is devised to take into account J2 perturbation, and to quickly evaluate mission scenarios. A robust approach, using techniques of global optimisation, is followed to find the optimal space debris sequence and mission strategy. Low-thrust optimisation is then performed to turn bi-impulse transfers into optimal low-thrust transfers, and refine the selected scenarios.

  8. Research on Optical Observation for Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, R. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Space debris has been recognized as a serious danger for operational spacecraft and manned spaceflights. Discussions are made in the methods of high order position precision and high detecting efficiency for space debris, including the design of surveying strategy, the extraction of object centroid, the precise measurement of object positions, the correlation and catalogue technique. To meet the needs of detecting space objects in the GEO (Geosynchronous Orbit), and prevent the saturation of CCD pixels with a long exposure time, a method of stacking a series of short exposure time images is presented. The results demonstrate that the saturation of pixels is eliminated effectively, and the SNR (Signal Noise Ratio) is increased by about 3.2 times, the detection ability is improved by about 2.5 magnitude when 10 seriate images are stacked, and the accuracy is reliable to satisfy the requirement by using the mean plate parameters for the astronomical orientation. A method combined with the geometrical morphology identification and linear correlation is adopted for the data calibration of IADC (Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee) AI23.4. After calibration, 139 tracklets are acquired, in which 116 tracklets are correlated with the catalogue. The distributions of magnitude, semi-major axis, inclination, and longitude of ascending node are obtained as well. A new method for detecting space debris in images is presented. The algorithm sets the gate around the image of objects, then several criterions are introduced for the object detection, at last the object position in the frame is obtained by the barycenter method and a simple linear transformation. The tests demonstrate that this technique is convenient for application, and the objects in image can be detected with a high centroid precision. In the observations of space objects, the shutter of camera is often removed, and the smear noise is ineluctable. Based on the differences of the geometry between the

  9. Operability of Space Station Freedom's meteoroid/debris protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahl, Maggie S.; Stokes, Jack W.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Space Station Freedom's external structure must not only protect the spacecraft from the hazardous environment, but also must be compatible with the extra vehicular activity system for assembly and maintenance. The external procedures for module support are utility connections, external orbital replaceable unit changeout, and maintenance of the meteoroid/debris shields and multilayer insulation. All of these interfaces require proper man-machine engineering to be compatible with the extra vehicular activity and manipulator systems. This paper discusses design solutions, including those provided for human interface, to the Space Station Freedom meteoroid/debris protection system. The system advantages and current access capabilities are illustrated through analysis of its configuration over the Space Station Freedom resource nodes and common modules, with emphasis on the cylindrical sections and endcones.

  10. Rotating Space Debris Tracking Based on The Orbit-Attitude Coordinated Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuquan; Zhu, Lingchao

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the rotating space debris tracking problem. Active capturing and removal of space debris are challenging because the space debris is noncoorperating. The scenario considered is that a rotating space debris is the target to be captured by a spacecraft with a robotic arm. One rough approach is to capture the space debris with a strong arm then detumble the rotation of the whole system using the attitude control system on board. In this way the arm and the spacecraft have to be strong enough to withstand the impact caused by the relative orbital and attitude motions. Another way is to at first track the motion of the characterized surface, which should be easier to capture, of the debris. Then the robotic arm is engaged to capture the debris. In this way, the impact applied on the robotic arm is greatly reduced such that the possibility of causing new debris is also reduced. The orbit-attitude coordinated controller is developed to track the motion of the space debris. The controller is assymptotically stable without considering the boundness of the control efforts. The stability in the situation of bounded control inputs is analyzed. Analytical criterion for a successful tracking is obtained in the situation that rotational motion of the space debris is percession.

  11. Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Mitchell, Dominique; Taft, Brett

    1992-01-01

    A project in the Advanced Design Program at the University of Arizona is described. The project is named the Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD) and is a Universities Space Research Association (USRA) sponsored design project. The development of ASPOD and the students' abilities in designing and building a prototype spacecraft are the ultimate goals of this project. This year's focus entailed the development of a secondary robotic arm and end-effector to work in tandem with an existent arm in the removal of orbital debris. The new arm features the introduction of composite materials and a linear drive system, thus producing a light-weight and more accurate prototype. The main characteristic of the end-effector design is that it incorporates all of the motors and gearing internally, thus not subjecting them to the harsh space environment. Furthermore, the arm and the end-effector are automated by a control system with positional feedback. This system is composed of magnetic and optical encoders connected to a 486 PC via two servo-motor controller cards. Programming a series of basic routines and sub-routines allowed the ASPOD prototype to become more autonomous. The new system is expected to perform specified tasks with a positional accuracy of 0.5 cm.

  12. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  13. Effect of thermospheric contraction on remediation of the near-Earth space debris environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Hugh G.; Saunders, Arrun; Swinerd, Graham; Newland, Rebecca J.

    2011-08-01

    Historically, computer simulations of the near-Earth space debris environment have provided a basis for international debris mitigation guidelines and, today, continue to influence international debate on debris environment remediation and active debris removal. Approximately 22,500 objects larger than 10 cm are known to exist in Earth orbit, and less than 5% of these are operational payloads, with the remaining population classed as space debris. These objects represent a significant risk to satellite operations because of the possibility of damaging or catastrophic collisions, as demonstrated by the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in February 2009. Indeed, recent computer simulations have suggested that the current population in low Earth orbit (LEO) has reached a sufficient density at some altitudes for collision activity there to continue even in the absence of new launches. Even with the widespread adoption of debris mitigation guidelines, the growth of the LEO population, in particular, is expected to result in eight or nine collisions among cataloged objects in the next 40 years. With a new study using the University of Southampton's space debris model, entitled DAMAGE, we show that the effectiveness of debris mitigation and removal strategies to constrain the growth of the LEO debris population could be more than halved because of a long-term future decline in global thermospheric density. However, increasing debris remediation efforts can reverse the impact of this negative density trend.

  14. Space Debris in the neighborhood of the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Jarbas; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Celestino, Claudia C.; Fiorilo de Melo, Cristiano

    2016-07-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a great opportunity to use a research platform in space. An international partnership of space agencies provides the operation of the ISS since 2000. The ISS is in Low Earth Orbits, in the same region of most of the space debris orbiting the planet. In this way, several studies are important to preserve the operability of the space station and operational artificial satellites, considering the increasing number of distinct objects in the space environment offering collision risks. In this work, the orbital dynamics of space debris are studied in the neighborhood of the ISS - International Space Station. The results show that the collision risk of space debris with the ISS is high and purposes to avoid these events are necessary. Solutions for the space debris mitigation are considered.

  15. In-situ Observations of Space Debris at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolshagen, G.

    Information on the small size (millimetre or smaller) space debris and meteoroid population in space can only be obtained by in-situ detectors or the analysis of retrieved hardware. Past, ongoing and planned ESA activities in this field are presented. In 1996 the GORID impact detector was launched into a geostationary orbit on-board the Russian Express-2 telecommunication satellite. This impact ionisation detector had a sensor surface of 0.1 m2. Until July 2002 when the spacecraft was shut down it recorded more than 3000 impacts in the micrometre size range. Inter alia, GORID measured numerous clusters of events, believed to result from debris clouds, and indicated that debris fluxes in GEO are larger than predicted by present models. Another in-situ detector, DEBIE-1, was launched in October 2001 and is operating on-board the small technology satellite PROBA in a low polar orbit. It has two sensors, each of 0.01m2 size, pointing in different directions. A second detector of this type, DEBIE-2 with 3 sensors, is ready for flight on the EuTEF carrier (external payload to ISS). The data from GORID and DEBIE-1 are stored on-line in EDID (European Detector Impact Database). Post-flight impact analyses of retrieved hardware provide detailed information on the encountered meteoroid and debris fluxes over a large range of sizes. ESA initiated several analyses in the past ((EURECA, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar arrays). The most recent impact analysis was performed for the HST solar arrays retrieved in March 2002. Measured crater sizes in solar cells ranged from about 1 micron to 7 mm. A total of 175 complete penetrations of the 0.7 mm thick arrays were observed. A chemical analysis of impact residues allowed the distinction between space debris and natural meteoroids. Space debris was found to dominate for sizes smaller than 10 microns and larger than about 1 mm. For intermediate sizes impacts are mainly from meteoroids. Results of the analysis and comparisons with

  16. Orbital Debris: the Growing Threat to Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2010-01-01

    For nearly 50 years the amount of man-made debris in Earth orbit steadily grew, accounting for about 95% of all cataloged space objects over the past few decades. The Chinese anti-satellite test in January 2007 and the accidental collision of two spacecraft in February 2009 created more than 4000 new cataloged debris, representing an increase of 40% of the official U.S. Satellite Catalog. The frequency of collision avoidance maneuvers for both human space flight and robotic operations is increasing along with the orbital debris population. However, the principal threat to space operations is driven by the smaller and much more numerous uncataloged debris. Although the U.S. and the international aerospace communities have made significant progress in recognizing the hazards of orbital debris and in reducing or eliminating the potential for the creation of new debris, the future environment is expected to worsen without additional corrective measures.

  17. Evasive Maneuvers in Route Collision With Space Debris Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesus, A. D. C.; Sousa, R. R.; Neto, E. V.

    2015-10-01

    Collisions between operational vehicles and space debris can completely derail the continuity of space missions, especially if there is chain collisions between debris, which generate even smaller fragments. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics on between an operational vehicle and space debris that form a cloud, considering the possibility of collisions between debris during an evasive maneuver the vehicle. For a radius of 3 km celestial sphere, we find possibilities of collision between debris up to 10 m, while the vehicle performs an evasive maneuver in time 3,000 s range. These results depend on the time collision, the angular positions of the collisional objects and the amount of debris that form the cloud.

  18. Space Shuttle Systems Engineering Processes for Liftoff Debris Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the systems engineering process designed to reduce the risk from debris during Space Shuttle Launching. This process begins the day of launch from the tanking to the vehicle tower clearance. Other debris risks (i.e., Ascent, and micrometeoroid orbital debit) are mentioned) but are not the subject of this presentation. The Liftoff debris systems engineering process and an example of how it works are reviewed (i.e.,STS-119 revealed a bolt liberation trend on the Fixed Service Structure (FSS) 275 level elevator room). The process includes preparation of a Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) that includes (1) Lift-off debris from previous mission dispositioned, (2) Flight acceptance rationale has been provided for Lift-off debris sources/causes (3) Lift-off debris mission support documentation, processes and tools are in place for the up-coming mission. The process includes a liftoff debris data collection that occurs after each launch. This includes a post launch walkdown, that records each liftoff debris, and the entry of the debris into a database, it also includes a review of the imagery from the launch, and a review of the instrumentation data. There is also a review of the debris transport analysis process, that includes temporal and spatial framework and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. which incorporates a debris transport analyses (DTA), debris materials and impact tests, and impact analyses.

  19. International Space Station: Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Survivability and Vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Russell

    2000-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the surviability and vulnerability of the International Space Station (ISS) from the threat posed by meteoroid and orbital debris. The topics include: (1) Space station natural and induced environments (2) Meteoroid and orbital debris threat definition (3) Requirement definition (4) Assessment methods (5) Shield development and (6) Component vulnerability

  20. Location of space debris by infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asming, Vladimir; Vinogradov, Yuri

    2013-04-01

    After an exhausted stage has separated from a rocket it comes back to the dense atmosphere. It burns and divides into many pieces moving separately. Ballisticians can calculate an approximate trace of a falling stage and outline a supposed area where the debris can fall (target ellipse). Such ellipses are usually rather big in sizes (something like 60 x 100 km). For safety reasons all local inhabitants should be evacuated from a target area during rocket's launch. One of problems is that the ballistician can not compute the traces and areas exactly. There were many cases when debris had fallen outside the areas. Rescue teams must check such cases to make changes in rockets. The largest pieces can contain remains of toxic rocket fuel and therefore must be found and deactivated. That is why the problem of debris location is of significant importance for overland fall areas. It is more or less solved in Kazakhstan where large fragments of 1st stages can be seen in the Steppe but it is very difficult to find fragments of 2nd stages in Altai, Tomsk region and Komi republic (taiga, mountains, swamps). The rocket debris produces strong infrasonic shock waves during their reentry. Since 2009 the Kola Branch of Geophysical Survey of RAS participates in joint project with Khrunichev Space Center concerning with infrasound debris location. We have developed mobile infrasound arrays consisting of 3 microphones, analog-to-digit converter, GPS and notebook. The aperture is about 200 m, deployment time is less than 1 hour. Currently we have 4 such arrays, one of them is wireless and consists of 3 units comprising a microphone, GPS and radio-transmitter. We have made several field measurements by 3 or 4 such arrays placed around target ellipses of falling rocket stages in Kazakhstan ("Soyuz" rocket 1st stage), Altai and Tomsk region ("Proton" rocket 2nd stages). If was found that a typical 2nd stage divides into hundreds of pieces and each one generates a shock wave. This is a

  1. Development of Harpoon System for Capturing Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Jame; Barraclough, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Active removal of large space debris has been identified as a key activity to control the growth in the debris population and to limit the risk to active satellites. Astrium is developing technologies to enable such a mission, including a harpoon capture system. The harpoon is simple, compact and lightweight. Since the capture is fast (typically <0.5s) it is relatively insensitive to the dynamic state of the target and orbital dynamics, simplifying the mission design. The harpoon system is designed to attach to the target whilst also minimising damage. The harpoon consists of a set of barbs to robustly hold the target, a crushable section to absorb excess impact energy, and a tether to connect to the chaser vehicle. The baseline firing system uses compressed gas, although a simpler one-shot system has also been designed. To understand how a harpoon could be applicable to active debris removal an on-ground prototype and test-rig has been developed for trials with real structural elements of satellites and rocket bodies. Testing has demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and this paper describes the results as well as the next steps. A number of design variants are also proposed which could simplify the system design of an ADR mission.

  2. Space debris clearing with lasers: Myth and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2012-07-01

    Since the Chinese anti-missile test in 2007 the problem of space debris and their threat to all space assets has become known to a larger community. Today, advances in laser sources and large mirrors including adaptive optics have matured and are in principle available. The paper first addresses the current situation of accumulated space debris and future predictions of collisions in space. Second, different solutions to mitigate the debris problem will be reviewed with emphasis on the use of high power pulsed lasers as derived from fundamental relations governing the momentum imparted to the debris by the laser pulse and causing their re-entry into the atmosphere with subsequent burn up. Unfortunately the required laser specifications lead to a demand of laser sources which cannot be satisfied with currently available devices. Therefore, two novel laser architectures will be presented. Finally, operational concepts and safety aspects will be addressed in order to evaluate the prospects of laser debris removal.

  3. Space Shuttle Main Engine Debris Testing Methodology and Impact Tolerances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Stephens, Walter

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster every effort is being made to determine the susceptibility of Space Shuttle elements to debris impacts. Ice and frost debris is formed around the aft heat shield closure of the orbiter and liquid hydrogen feedlines. This debris has been observed to liberate upon lift-off of the shuttle and presents potentially dangerous conditions to the Space Shuttle Main Engine. This paper describes the testing done to determine the impact tolerance of the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzle coolant tubes to ice strikes originating from the launch pad or other parts of the shuttle.

  4. High Energy Laser for Space Debris Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Beach, R; Rubenchik, A

    2009-10-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has substantial relevant experience in the construction of high energy lasers, and more recently in the development of advanced high average power solid state lasers. We are currently developing new concepts for advanced solid state laser drivers for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) application, and other high average power laser applications that could become central technologies for use in space debris removal. The debris population most readily addressed by our laser technology is that of 0.1-10 cm sized debris in low earth orbit (LEO). In this application, a ground based laser system would engage an orbiting target and slow it down by ablating material from its surface which leads to reentry into the atmosphere, as proposed by NASA's ORION Project. The ORION concept of operations (CONOPS) is also described in general terms by Phipps. Key aspects of this approach include the need for high irradiance on target, 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which favors short (i.e., picoseconds to nanoseconds) laser pulse durations and high energy per pulse ({approx} > 10 kJ). Due to the target's orbital velocity, the potential duration of engagement is only of order 100 seconds, so a high pulse repetition rate is also essential. The laser technology needed for this application did not exist when ORION was first proposed, but today, a unique combination of emerging technologies could create a path to enable deployment in the near future. Our concepts for the laser system architecture are an extension of what was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), combined with high repetition rate laser technology developed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and heat capacity laser technology developed for military applications. The 'front-end' seed pulse generator would be fiber-optics based, and would generate a temporally, and spectrally tailored

  5. Operational Impact of Improved Space Tracking on Collision Avoidance in the Future LEO Space Debris Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, D.; Borgeson, D.; Peterson, G.; Jenkin, A.; Sorge, M.

    2010-09-01

    Even if global space policy successfully curtails on orbit explosions and ASAT demonstrations, studies indicate that the number of debris objects in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will continue to grow solely from debris on debris collisions and debris generated from new launches. This study examines the threat posed by this growing space debris population over the next 30 years and how improvements in our space tracking capabilities can reduce the number of Collision Avoidance (COLA) maneuvers required keep the risk of operational satellite loss within tolerable limits. Particular focus is given to satellites operated by the Department of Defense (DoD) and Intelligence Community (IC) in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The following debris field and space tracking performance parameters were varied parametrically in the experiment to study the impact on the number of collision avoidance maneuvers required: - Debris Field Density (by year 2009, 2019, 2029, and 2039) - Quality of Track Update (starting 1 sigma error ellipsoid) - Future Propagator Accuracy (error ellipsoid growth rates - Special Perturbations in 3 axes) - Track Update Rate for Debris (stochastic) - Track Update Rate for Payloads (stochastic) Baseline values matching present day tracking performance for quality of track update, propagator accuracy, and track update rate were derived by analyzing updates to the unclassified Satellite Catalog (SatCat). Track update rates varied significantly for active payloads and debris and as such we used different models for the track update rates for military payloads and debris. The analysis was conducted using the System Effectiveness Analysis Simulation (SEAS) an agent based model developed by the United States Air Force Space Command’s Space and Missile Systems Center to evaluate the military utility of space systems. The future debris field was modeled by The Aerospace Corporation using a tool chain which models the growth of the 10cm+ debris field using high fidelity

  6. Studying the MEO&GEO space debris environments with the Integrated Debris Evolution Suite (IDES) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Clare; Lewis, Hugh; Walker, Roger

    2001-10-01

    The Integrated Debris Evolution Suite (IDES) has been upgraded to facilitate the modelling of the current and future space debris environments throughout Earth orbit. This paper will highlight the principal features of the model that were upgraded to allow the simulation of the environment from low Earth orbit altitudes up to the geosynchronous region. It will then give a summary of the full capabilities of IDES 3.0. Having described the upgrade, some initial results for an historical evolution of the space debris environment in Earth orbit will be presented.

  7. Space Debris Removal Using Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savioli, L.; Francesconi, A.; Maggi, F.; Olivieri, L.; Lorenzini, E.; Pardini, C.

    2013-08-01

    The study and development of ADR missions in LEO have become an issue of topical interest to the attention of the space community since the future space flight activities could be threatened by collisional cascade events. This paper presents the analysis of an ADR mission scenario where modular remover kits are employed to de-orbit some selected debris in SSO, while a distinct space tug performs the orbital transfers and rendezvous manoeuvres, and installs the remover kits on the client debris. Electro-dynamic tether and electric propulsion are considered as de-orbiting alternatives, while chemical propulsion is employed for the space tug. The total remover mass and de-orbiting time are identified as key parameters to compare the performances of the two de-orbiting options, while an optimization of the ΔV required to move between five selected objects is performed for a preliminary design at system level of the space tug. Final controlled re-entry is also considered and performed by means of a hybrid engine.

  8. Experiment on diffuse reflection laser ranging to space debris and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Zhong-Ping; Wu, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Space debris poses a serious threat to human space activities and needs to be measured and cataloged. As a new technology for space target surveillance, the measurement accuracy of diffuse reflection laser ranging (DRLR) is much higher than that of microwave radar and optoelectronic measurement. Based on the laser ranging data of space debris from the DRLR system at Shanghai Astronomical Observatory acquired in March-April, 2013, the characteristics and precision of the laser ranging data are analyzed and their applications in orbit determination of space debris are discussed, which is implemented for the first time in China. The experiment indicates that the precision of laser ranging data can reach 39 cm-228 cm. When the data are sufficient enough (four arcs measured over three days), the orbital accuracy of space debris can be up to 50 m. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  9. Procedures for analysis of debris relative to Space Shuttle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hae Soo; Cummings, Virginia J.

    1993-01-01

    Debris samples collected from various Space Shuttle systems have been submitted to the Microchemical Analysis Branch. This investigation was initiated to develop optimal techniques for the analysis of debris. Optical microscopy provides information about the morphology and size of crystallites, particle sizes, amorphous phases, glass phases, and poorly crystallized materials. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry is utilized for information on surface morphology and qualitative elemental content of debris. Analytical electron microscopy with wavelength dispersive spectrometry provides information on the quantitative elemental content of debris.

  10. Object oriented studies into artificial space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, J. M.; Marshall, G.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype simulation is being developed under contract to the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE), Farnborough, England, to assist in the discrimination of artificial space objects/debris. The methodology undertaken has been to link Object Oriented programming, intelligent knowledge based system (IKBS) techniques and advanced computer technology with numeric analysis to provide a graphical, symbolic simulation. The objective is to provide an additional layer of understanding on top of conventional classification methods. Use is being made of object and rule based knowledge representation, multiple reasoning, truth maintenance and uncertainty. Software tools being used include Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) and SymTactics for knowledge representation. Hooks are being developed within the SymTactics framework to incorporate mathematical models describing orbital motion and fragmentation. Penetration and structural analysis can also be incorporated. SymTactics is an Object Oriented discrete event simulation tool built as a domain specific extension to the KEE environment. The tool provides facilities for building, debugging and monitoring dynamic (military) simulations.

  11. Technology Combination Analysis Tool (TCAT) for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamot, B.; Richard, M.; Salmon, T.; Pisseloup, A.; Cougnet, C.; Axthelm, R.; Saunder, C.; Dupont, C.; Lequette, L.

    2013-08-01

    This paper present the work of the Swiss Space Center EPFL within the CNES-funded OTV-2 study. In order to find the most performant Active Debris Removal (ADR) mission architectures and technologies, a tool was developed in order to design and compare ADR spacecraft, and to plan ADR campaigns to remove large debris. Two types of architectures are considered to be efficient: the Chaser (single-debris spacecraft), the Mothership/ Kits (multiple-debris spacecraft). Both are able to perform controlled re-entry. The tool includes modules to optimise the launch dates and the order of capture, to design missions and spacecraft, and to select launch vehicles. The propulsion, power and structure subsystems are sized by the tool thanks to high-level parametric models whilst the other ones are defined by their mass and power consumption. Final results are still under investigation by the consortium but two concrete examples of the tool's outputs are presented in the paper.

  12. Object Recognition Method of Space Debris Tracking Image Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Ping, Y. D.

    2015-09-01

    In order to strengthen the capability of the space debris researches, automated optical observation becomes more and more popular. Thus, the fully unattended automated object recognition framework is urgently needed to be studied. On the other hand, the open loop tracking which guides the telescope only with historical orbital elements is a simple and robust way to track space debris. According to the analysis of point distribution characteristics in pixel domain of object's open loop tracking image sequence, the Cluster Identification Method is introduced into automated space debris recognition method. With the comparison of three algorithm implements, it is shown that this method is totally available in actual research work.

  13. Augmentation of orbital debris shielding for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Crews, Jeanne Lee; Horn, Jennifer R.

    1990-01-01

    Augmentation concepts for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are described in detail and advantages and disadvantages of various proposals are evaluated. It is pointed out that early augmentation of SSF debris shielding, which would take place 6-9 years after the First Element Launch, could provide the greatest advantages to the program in terms of weight, cost, and safety benefits. Potential augmentation concepts include an attached, rigid aluminum second bumper; the multi-shock shield concept; a mesh double bumper concept; a debris shield augmentation element; a multi-shock airbag protection concept for 2-10 cm debris; and a debris sweeper. Requirements for and operation and deployment of these concepts are described in detail and an example of the augmentation effect on cumulative SSF probability of no-failure from debris and meteoroid impacts is given. An estimate of predicted encounter rates between debris and a 100 m radius sphere around SSF is presented.

  14. Characterization of Space Shuttle Ascent Debris Aerodynamics Using CFD Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Rogers, Stuart E.

    2005-01-01

    An automated Computational Fluid Dynamics process for determining the aerodynamic Characteristics of debris shedding from the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle during ascent is presented. This process uses Cartesian fully-coupled, six-degree-of-freedom simulations of isolated debris pieces in a Monte Carlo fashion to produce models for the drag and crossrange behavior over a range of debris shapes and shedding scenarios. A validation of the Cartesian methods against ballistic range data for insulating foam debris shapes at flight conditions, as well as validation of the resulting models, are both contained. These models are integrated with the existing shuttle debris transport analysis software to provide an accurate and efficient engineering tool for analyzing debris sources and their potential for damage.

  15. Removal of cellular debris formed in the Disse space in patients with cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, L; Bioulac-Sage, P; Boussarie, L; Quinton, A; Saric, J; de Mascarel, A; Balabaud, C

    1987-01-01

    Using electron microscopy, we investigated how cellular debris, formed in the Disse space during cholestasis, was cleared. Ten patients with cholestasis of varied origin and severity were studied and compared with 10 controls without liver disease. In cholestatic patients, sinusoidal cells contained variable amounts of amylase PAS-positive material. In clean perfusion-fixed sinusoids the endothelial cells often appeared swollen and active, with few fenestrations. Hepatocyte blebs and cellular debris were sometimes seen in the Disse space. Two mechanisms were apparently involved in the clearing process: phagocytosis by macrophages either infiltrated into the Disse space, or forming the barrier; and the passage of debris from the Disse space into the sinusoidal lumen through the endothelial wall. Debris was either forced through enlarged pores or through the wall, with a progressive invagination followed by an outpouching in the lumen. The force, possibly provided by endothelial massage, may not be sufficient to push out cellular debris from the Disse space; morphological data seemed to indicate that endothelial damage may be a necessary factor. Debris present in the lumen was phagocytized by numerous active macrophages. Cellular debris was not observed in the Disse space of control patients. PMID:3105169

  16. Chaos detection in the space debris population.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleflie, Florent; Hautesserres, Denis; Daquin, Jérôme; Morand, Vincent; Pretot, Nastassia; Fouchard, Marc

    Semi-analytical propagations, on the basis of long term analysis of artificial satellite trajectories, are a very efficient tool to define storage orbits, and to characterize the main properties within a given region. In particular the altitude of the perigee or the lifetime can be estimated. Dedicated s/w such as STELA (Semi-analytical Tool for End of Life Analysis), developed in the frame of the French Space Operations Act, offer these kinds of capabilities. With a very large integration step size, it is then possible to get time series of the equinoctial elements over long period of time (typically, from 20 to 200yr), after only a few seconds of CPU. In case of resonant trajectories, due to the third body potential or to the Earth gravity field, getting an accurate lifetime estimation is not that obvious: it is likely to be much more time consuming since a Monte Carlo analysis may be required. The last version of the STELA s/w offers as well the capability to derive some quantities linked to the chaoticity of a trajectory, or a family of trajectories, linked to the resonances. In particular the FLI (Fast Lyapunov Indicator) and the maximum exponent of Lyapunov are now implemented into the s/w. We show in this presentation some examples that are obtained from the propagation of the transition matrix, simultaneously with the equations of motion. We derive some general properties about the detection of chaos in the space debris population by propagating the whole TLE catalogue.

  17. Final design of a space debris removal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Erika; Casali, Steve; Chambers, Don; Geissler, Garner; Lalich, Andrew; Leipold, Manfred; Mach, Richard; Parry, John; Weems, Foley

    1990-01-01

    The objective is the removal of medium sized orbital debris in low Earth orbits. The design incorporates a transfer vehicle and a netting vehicle to capture the medium size debris. The system is based near an operational space station located at 28.5 degrees inclination and 400 km altitude. The system uses ground based tracking to determine the location of a satellite breakup or debris cloud. This data is unloaded to the transfer vehicle, and the transfer vehicle proceeds to rendezvous with the debris at a lower altitude parking orbit. Next, the netting vehicle is deployed, tracks the targeted debris, and captures it. After expending the available nets, the netting vehicle returns to the transfer vehicle for a new netting module and continues to capture more debris in the target area. Once all the netting modules are expended, the transfer vehicle returns to the space station's orbit, where it is resupplied with new netting modules from a space shuttle load. The new modules are launched by the shuttle from the ground, and the expended modules are taken back to Earth for removal of the captured debris, refueling, and repacking of the nets. Once the netting modules are refurbished, they are taken back into orbit for reuse. In a typical mission, the system has the ability to capture 50 pieces of orbital debris. One mission will take about six months. The system is designed to allow for a 30 degree inclination change on the outgoing and incoming trips of the transfer vehicle.

  18. Review of the Space Debris Protection Application on ``TIANGONG-1''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Ming; Han, Zengyao

    Meteoroid and orbital debris (M/OD) is the key factor related to the astronaut safety. The long-term manned spacelab generally adopts protection measures to reduce its hypervelocity impact (HVI) risk. This paper presents the engineering application on“Tiangong-1”,the first long-term spacelab in orbit for China.The application includes the M/OD shielding, active avoidance and mitigation. Firstly, the shielding concepts on“Tiangong-1”manned module and radiator are summarized. Two typical Whipple shields respectively with the 70mm and 50mm standoff are separately utilized for the front cone and cylinder pressurized walls. The ballistic limit Equations (BLE) of these two shieldings are achieved through the HVI tests and numerical simulation. The shields provide the resistance capability of space debris particle.Meanwhile, the M/OD risk is assessed by utilizing the MODAOST to predict the probability of penetration (PP) and probability of critical failure (PCF). The assessment shows that the shielding design meets the safety requirement with the PP of 2.09X10 (-3) and the critical cracking PCF of 3.35X10 (-4) . The radiator,the large-scaled component of manned Spacelab, adopts the Ω-shaped tube to improve the HVI resistance capability with the cost of less mass. Secondly, the orbit transfer strategy is designed not only to meet the requirement of the orbit phase of “Shenzhou” spacecraft but also actively avoid the rendezvous with the cataloged debris in orbit. This strategy is validated through the rendezvous and docking missions of “Shenzhou-8” and “Tiangong-1”,“Shenzhou-9”,“Shenzhou-10”. Thirdly, the mitigation and deactivation concepts are introduced by means of reentry simulation of “Tiangong-1” to protect the space environment and reduce the ground casualty. The space debris protection techniques applied on “Tiangong-1” have been broken through with the successful mission of “Tiangong-1”, and these applied techniques provide

  19. Applied Astronomy: An Optical Survey for Space Debris at GEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, K.; Rodriquez, H.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph is presented to discuss space debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The topics include: 1) Syncom1 launched February 14, 1963 Failed on orbit insertion 1st piece of GEO debris!; 2) Example of recent GEO payload: XM-2 Rock satellite for direct broadcast radio; 3) MODEST Michigan Orbital DEbrisSurvey Telescope the telescope formerly known as the Curtis-Schmidt; 4) GEO Debris Survey; 5) Examples of Detections; 6) Brightness Variations Common; 7) Observed Angular Rates; 8) Two Populations at GEO; 9) High Area-to-Mass Ratio Material (A/M); 10) Examples of MLI; 11) Examples of MLI Release in LEO; 12) Liou & Weaver (2005) models; 13) ESA 1-m Telescope Survey; 14) Two Telescopes March 2007 Survey and Follow-up; 15) Final Eccentricity; and 16) How control Space Debris?

  20. Space program: Space debris a potential threat to Space Station and shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Stephen A.; Beers, Ronald W.; Phillips, Colleen M.; Ramos, Yvette

    1990-01-01

    Experts estimate that more than 3.5 million man-made objects are orbiting the earth. These objects - space debris - include whole and fragmentary parts of rocket bodies and other discarded equipment from space missions. About 24,500 of these objects are 1 centimeter across or larger. A 1-centimeter man-made object travels in orbit at roughly 22,000 miles per hour. If it hit a spacecraft, it would do about the same damage as would a 400-pound safe traveling at 60 miles per hour. The Government Accounting Office (GAO) reviews NASA's plans for protecting the space station from debris, the extent and precision of current NASA and Defense Department (DOD) debris-tracking capabilities, and the extent to which debris has already affected shuttle operations. GAO recommends that the space debris model be updated, and that the findings be incorporated into the plans for protecting the space station from such debris. GAO further recommends that the increased risk from debris to the space shuttle operations be analyzed.

  1. Engineering Challenges for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    Recent modeling studies on the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have underlined the need for active debris removal. A 2009 analysis by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office shows that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products in the environment. Many of these objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 10 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects on a yearly basis, in a cost-effective manner, represents many challenges in engineering, technology development, and operations. This paper outlines a conceptual end-to-end debris removal operation, including launch, precision tracking, rendezvous, stabilization (of the tumbling targets), capture, and deorbit of the targets; and highlights major challenges associated with the operations. Pros and cons of several proposed removal techniques are also evaluated.

  2. Orbital Dynamics of Space Debris around operational artificial satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Jarbas

    2016-07-01

    The increasing number of space debris, orbiting the Earth justifies and requires more efforts to observe and track them to avoid collisions among them and the earth's satellites. In this way, several studies are important to preserve the operability of the artificial satellites. In this work, the orbital dynamics of space debris are studied in the neighborhood of operational artificial satellites. The results show that the collision risks between these objects is high and solutions to avoid these events are necessary.

  3. Tracking Debris Shed by a Space-Shuttle Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Phillip C.; Rogers, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    The DEBRIS software predicts the trajectories of debris particles shed by a space-shuttle launch vehicle during ascent, to aid in assessing potential harm to the space-shuttle orbiter and crew. The user specifies the location of release and other initial conditions for a debris particle. DEBRIS tracks the particle within an overset grid system by means of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the local flow field and a ballistic simulation that takes account of the mass of the particle and its aerodynamic properties in the flow field. The computed particle trajectory is stored in a file to be post-processed by other software for viewing and analyzing the trajectory. DEBRIS supplants a prior debris tracking code that took .15 minutes to calculate a single particle trajectory: DEBRIS can calculate 1,000 trajectories in .20 seconds on a desktop computer. Other improvements over the prior code include adaptive time-stepping to ensure accuracy, forcing at least one step per grid cell to ensure resolution of all CFD-resolved flow features, ability to simulate rebound of debris from surfaces, extensive error checking, a builtin suite of test cases, and dynamic allocation of memory.

  4. Active Debris Removal System Based on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzitelli, Federico; Valdatta, Marcelo; Bellini, Niccolo; Candini Gian, Paolo; Rastelli, Davide; Romei, Fedrico; Locarini, Alfredo; Spadanuda, Antonio; Bagassi, Sara

    2013-08-01

    Space debris is an increasing problem. The exponential increase of satellite launches in the last 50 years has determined the problem of space debris especially in LEO. The remains of past missions are dangerous for both operative satellites and human activity in space. But not only: it has been shown that uncontrolled impacts between space objects can lead to a potentially dangerous situation for civil people on Earth. It is possible to reach a situation of instability where the big amount of debris could cause a cascade of collisions, the so called Kessler syndrome, resulting in the infeasibility of new space missions for many generations. Currently new technologies for the mitigation of space debris are under study: for what concerning the removal of debris the use of laser to give a little impulse to the object and push it in a graveyard orbit or to be destroyed in the atmosphere. Another solution is the use of a satellite to rendezvous with the space junk and then use a net to capture it and destroy it in the reentry phase. In a parallel way the research is addressed to the study of deorbiting solutions to prevent the formation of new space junk. The project presented in this paper faces the problem of how to deorbit an existing debris, applying the studies about the use of polyurethane foam developed by Space Robotic Group of University of Bologna. The research is started with the Redemption experiment part of last ESA Rexus program. The foam is composed by two liquid components that, once properly mixed, trig an expansive reaction leading to an increase of volume whose entity depends on the chemical composition of the two starting components. It is possible to perform two kind of mission: 1) Not controlled removal: the two components are designed to react producing a low density, high expanded, spongy foam that incorporates the debris. The A/m ratio of the debris is increased and in this way also the ballistic parameter. As a consequence, the effect of

  5. NASA's Long-term Debris Environment and Active Debris Removal Modeling Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the modeling activities for modeling of the long-term debris environment, the updated assessments of the environment, and the necessity to model the effectiveness of the technologies aimed at the removal of orbital debris. The model being used is named a LEO to GEO environment debris (LEGEND). It is a high fidelity three dimensional numerical simulation model with the capability to treat objects individually. It uses a Monte Carlo approach and a collision probability evaluation algorithm to simulate future satellite breakups and the growth of the debris populations.

  6. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This work continues to develop advanced designs toward the ultimate goal of a Get Away Special to demonstrate economical removal of orbital debris using local resources in orbit. The fundamental technical feasibility was demonstrated in 1988 through theoretical calculations, quantitative computer animation, a solar focal point cutter, a robotic arm design, and a subscale model. Last year improvements were made to the solar cutter and the robotic arm. Also performed last year was a mission analysis that showed the feasibility of retrieving at least four large (greater than 1500-kg) pieces of debris. Advances made during this reporting period are the incorporation of digital control with the existing placement arm, the development of a new robotic manipulator arm, and the study of debris spin attenuation. These advances are discussed here.

  7. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Campbell, David; Marine, Micky; Saad, Mohamad; Bertles, Daniel; Nichols, Dave

    1990-01-01

    Advanced designs are being continued to develop the ultimate goal of a GETAWAY special to demonstrate economical removal of orbital debris utilizing local resources in orbit. The fundamental technical feasibility was demonstrated in 1988 through theoretical calculations, quantitative computer animation, a solar focal point cutter, a robotic arm design and a subcase model. Last year improvements were made to the solar cutter and the robotic arm. Also performed last year was a mission analysis which showed the feasibility of retrieve at least four large (greater than 1500 kg) pieces of debris. Advances made during this reporting period are the incorporation of digital control with the existing placement arm, the development of a new robotic manipulator arm, and the study of debris spin attenuation. These advances are discussed.

  8. Research on Long-Term Orbit Propagation for Space Debris in LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Keke; Pang, Baojun; Xiao, Weike

    2013-08-01

    Space debris long-term orbit propagation is one of the main problems for the space debris environment models. The evolution of space debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) is determined by a complex interplay of different perturbations. The aim of this paper is to investigate the long-term effects of the most dominating perturbations: Earth geopotential effects, atmospheric drag, luni-solar perturbations and solar radiation pressure. The atmospheric drag is the major non-gravitational perturbation in LEO. This article provides an average method of numerical integration on one revolution for rotating and stationary atmosphere, and then one can make use of various atmospheric densities to calculate the orbital evolution. Using this method, we have analyzed the effects of rotating and stationary atmospheric drag perturbation on orbital lifetime. The results show the effects of solar activity and geomagnetic index on orbital evolution are obvious. The lifetime difference in rotating atmosphere is mostly depending on inclinations of space debris.

  9. The Platform Design of Space-based Optical Observations of Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B. R.; Xiong, J. N.

    2016-03-01

    The basic design method of the platform for the space-based optical observations of space debris is introduced. The observation schemes of GEO (geosynchronous equatorial orbit) and LEO (low Earth orbit) debris are given respectively, including orbital parameters of platforms and pointing of telescopes, etc. Debris studied here is all from foreign catalog. According to the real orbit of space debris, the observational results of different schemes are simulated. By studying single platform, the optimal observing altitude for GEO debris and the optimal telescope's deflection angles at different altitudes for LEO debris are given. According to these, multi-platforms observation networks are designed. By analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme, it can provide reference for the application of space-based optical debris observation.

  10. Rings of earth. [orbiting bands of space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Richard M.; Randolph, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Small particles moving at an orbital velocity of 7.6 kilometers per second can present a considerable hazard to human activity in space. For astronauts outside of the protective shielding of their space vehicles, such particles can be lethal. The powerful radar at NASA's Goldstone Deep Communications Complex was used to monitor such orbital debris. This radar can detect metallic objects as small as 1.8 mm in diameter at 600 km altitude. The results of the preliminary survey show a flux (at 600 km altitude) of 6.4 objects per square kilometer per day of equivalent size of 1.8 mm or larger. Forty percent of the observed particles appear to be concentrated into two orbits. An orbital ring with the same inclination as the radar (35.1 degrees) is suggested. However, an orbital band with a much higher inclination (66 degrees) is also a possibility.

  11. Implications of Prolonged Solar Minimum Conditions for the Space Debris Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Hugh G.; Horbury, Timothy

    2013-08-01

    Observations of the current solar cycle show the likely continuation of a long-term decline in solar activity that began during the 1980s. This decline could lead to conditions similar to the Maunder minimum within 40 years [1], which would have consequences for the space debris environment. Solar activity is a key driver of atmospheric mass density and, subsequently, drag on orbiting spacecraft and debris. Whilst several studies have investigated potential effects on the global climate, no assessment has been made of the impact of a Maunder-like minimum on the space debris population in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Consequently, we present a new study of the future debris environment under Maunder minimum conditions and provide an assessment of the possible consequences to the LEO space debris population and space operations. The University of Southampton's Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture to the Geosynchronous Environment (DAMAGE) has been used to analyse the consequences of a Maunder minimum of approximately 50 years duration and to quantify the impact on the effectiveness of debris mitigation measures. Results from these studies suggest an increase in collision activity and a corresponding, rapid growth of the debris population during a Maunder minimum period, in spite of on-going mitigation efforts. In the best case, the DAMAGE results suggest that the population of debris > 10 cm could double in number by the end of Maunder minimum conditions. However, the rapid growth in the population is followed by a strong recovery period on exit from a Maunder minimum. The recovery is characterised by a decrease in the debris population, which can be to a level similar to that seen before the onset of the Maunder minimum, if mitigation efforts are sustained. As such, prolonged solar minimum conditions may have relatively benign implications for the long-term evolution of the debris environment. However, the risks to spacecraft from collisions with debris during a

  12. Engineering and Technology Challenges for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    After more than fifty years of space activities, the near-Earth environment is polluted with man-made orbital debris. The collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009 signaled a potential collision cascade effect, also known as the "Kessler Syndrome", in the environment. Various modelling studies have suggested that the commonly-adopted mitigation measures will not be sufficient to stabilize the future debris population. Active debris removal must be considered to remediate the environment. This paper summarizes the key issues associated with debris removal and describes the technology and engineering challenges to move forward. Fifty-four years after the launch of Sputnik 1, satellites have become an integral part of human society. Unfortunately, the ongoing space activities have left behind an undesirable byproduct orbital debris. This environment problem is threatening the current and future space activities. On average, two Shuttle window panels are replaced after every mission due to damage by micrometeoroid or orbital debris impacts. More than 100 collision avoidance maneuvers were conducted by satellite operators in 2010 to reduce the impact risks of their satellites with respect to objects in the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog. Of the four known accident collisions between objects in the SSN catalog, the last one, collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009, was the most significant. It was the first ever accidental catastrophic destruction of an operational satellite by another satellite. It also signaled the potential collision cascade effect in the environment, commonly known as the "Kessler Syndrome," predicted by Kessler and Cour-Palais in 1978 [1]. Figure 1 shows the historical increase of objects in the SSN catalog. The majority of the catalog objects are 10 cm and larger. As of April 2011, the total objects tracked by the SSN sensors were more than 22,000. However, approximately 6000 of

  13. Approaches and selection to space debris mitigation for small satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, B.; Zheng, Y.; Meng, B.; Xu, X.; Liu, Y.; Wu, Z.; Hao, Y.; Dong, Y.

    Aiming at space debris mitigation for small satellite after the end of mission, several approaches are analyzed and compared, and implementations are suggested in this paper. In recent years more and more small satellites have been developed and launched into orbit. Most of them run on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with height less than 2000km. On the one hand, the small satellites increase the density of space debris and the risk of collision; on the other hand, some of them have orbit lifetime over 25 years if only depending natural attenuation beyond the guideline of Inter-agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). In this paper several approaches are analyzed and compared for space debris mitigation after the end of mission, including the utilizations of air drag, solar radiation pressure, rocket propulsion, and others. The cost will be required for small satellite to mitigate space debris. For lower orbit small satellites and their constellation, the functions and performances perhaps are degraded. For higher orbit satellites, lifetime of spacecraft always is more than 25 years. Then some supererogatory equipments should be appended to shorten orbit lifetime, such as air chamber, sail, even thruster, usually they are not necessary for small satellites. Based on the analysis of effect and cost for these approaches, implementations are suggested for small satellite with different functions (whether or not provide capability of orbit control) and different mass: 50kg, 100kg, 150kg and 300kg. This research is supported by China National Space Administration (CNSA).

  14. Space debris orbit prediction requirements in the CLEANSPACE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnuk, Edwin; Jacquelard, Christophe; Esmiller, Bruno; Speiser, Jochen

    2012-07-01

    Overall CLEANSPACE objective is to define a global architecture (including surveillance, identification and tracking) for an innovative ground-based laser solution which can remove hazardous medium debris around selected space assets. The CLEANSPACE project is realized by an European consortium in the frame of the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), Space theme. The paper, in the first part, will present general information about the CLEANSPACE including the main drivers and requirements. Orbital requirements of space debris which have to be reached in the project will be discussed in the second part of the paper. Proposed systems of removal space debris objects with the use of sequence of laser operations, like the CLEANSPACE system, needs very precise predictions of future space debris orbital positions, on a level even better than 1 meter. Orbit determination, tracking (radar, optical and laser) and orbit prediction have to be performed with accuracy much better than so far. The applied prediction tools have to take into account all perturbation factors which influence object orbit, mainly geopotential effects with arbitrary degree and order spherical harmonic coefficients, luni-solar attractions, solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. In our paper we discuss the influence of all important perturbation factors on the space debris orbital motion, taking into account different contemporary force models, in particular, geopotential models, atmospheric models and the Sun and the Moon ephemeris.

  15. Laser-jet method of cleaning debris from space

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, L.I.; Yarygin, V.N.

    1994-12-31

    The material evaporation under laser radiation is followed by the erosion plume formation generating a momentum transfer on the irradiated surface. Such a laser jet engine, formed on small-sized space debris within the laser effect area, allows the alteration of the velocity of debris, transferring them to lower orbits where they burn up completely in the upper atmosphere. This is done with comparatively low power requirements.

  16. Laser ranging system and measurement analysis for space debris with high repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhibo; Zhang, Haifeng; Meng, Wendong; Li, Pu; Deng, Huarong; Tang, Kai; Ding, Renjie; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Laser measurement technology is inherently high accurate and will play an important role in precise orbit determination, accurate catalog, surveillance to space debris. Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) has been developing the technology of laser measurement to space debris for several years. Based on the first successful laser ranging measurement to space debris in country, by applying one new set of high power 532nm wavelength laser system with 200Hz repetition rate, and adopting low dark noise APD detector with high quantum efficiency and high transmissivity of narrow bandwidth spectral filter, SHAO have achieved hundreds of passes of laser data from space debris in 2014, and the measured objects with distance between 500km and 2200km, Radar Cross Section (RCS) of >10m2 to <0.5m2 at the precision of <1m RMS for small RCS targets ,and the success rate of measured passes of up to 80%. The results show that laser ranging technology in China can routinely measure space debris and provide enough measurement data with high accuracy to space debris applications and researches such as surveillance activities in the future.

  17. Assessment Study of Small Space Debris Removal by Laser Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Papa, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Space debris in Earth orbit poses significant danger to satellites, humans in space, and future space exploration activities. In particular, the increasing number of unidentifiable objects, smaller than 10 cm, presents a serious hazard. Numerous technologies have been studied for removing unwanted objects in space. Our approach uses a short wavelength laser stationed in orbit to vaporize these small objects. This paper discusses the power requirements for space debris removal using lasers. A short wavelength laser pumped directly or indirectly by solar energy can scan, identify, position, and illuminate the target, which will then be vaporized or slow down the orbital speed of debris by laser detonation until it re-enters the atmosphere. The laser-induced plasma plume has a dispersive motion of approximately 105 m/sec with a Lambertian profile in the direction of the incoming beam [1-2]. The resulting fast ejecting jet plume of vaporized material should prevent matter recombination and condensation. If it allows any condensation of vaporized material, the size of condensed material will be no more than a nanoscale level [3]. Lasers for this purpose can be indirectly pumped by power from an array of solar cells or directly pumped by the solar spectrum [4]. The energy required for vaporization and ionization of a 10 cm cube ( 2700 gm) of aluminum is 87,160 kJ. To remove this amount of aluminum in 3 minutes requires a continuous laser beam power of at least 5.38 MW under the consideration of 9% laser absorption by aluminum [5] and 5% laser pumping efficiency. The power needed for pumping 5.38 MW laser is approximately 108 MW, which can be obtained from a large solar array with 40% efficiency solar cells and a minimal area of 450 meters by 450 meters. This solar array would collect approximately 108 MW. The power required for system operation and maneuvering can be obtained by increasing solar panel size. This feasibility assessment covers roughly the power requirement

  18. Space Debris Radar Experiments at the Medicina VLBI Dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Montebugnoli, S.; Di Martino, M.; Salerno, E.; Bartolini, M.; Pluchino, S.; Schilliro, F.; Anselmo, L.; Portelli, C.; Konovalenko, A.; Nabatov, A.

    2009-03-01

    In 2007 three space debris detection tests were performed in the framework of a monitoring program carried out by the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - INAF - in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency - ASI. The observations were made by using the bistatic radar technique. The INAF 32 m radiotelescope located at Medicina (Bologna, Italy) was used as receiver whereas the Ukrainian 70 m parabolic antenna located at Evpatoria was utilized as transmitter. The aim of the experiment was to test the sensitivity of the Medicina-Evpatoria radar system in space debris detection, and to validate and optimize the hardware setup. Measurements were mainly carried out on inactive satellites and catalogued space debris. However the search for new fragments in LEO was also performed during the campaign. This paper reports on results of these observations.

  19. An efficient algorithm for orbital evolution of space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, Y.; Abd El-Salam, F.

    More than four decades of space exploration have led to accumulation of significant quantities of debris around the Earth. These objects range in size from a tiny piece of junk to a large inoperable satellite, although these objects that have small size they have high are-to-mass ratios, and consequently their orbits are strongly influenced by solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. So the increasing population of space debris object in the LEO, MEO and GEO present growing with time, serious hazard for the survival of operating spacecrafts, particularly satellites and astronomical observatories. Since the average collision velocity between any spacecraft orbiting in the LOE and debris objects is about 10 km/s and about 3 km/s in the GEO. Space debris may significantly disturb any satellite operations or cause catastrophic damage to a spacecraft itself. Applying different shielding techniques spacecraft my be protected against impacts of space debris with diameters smaller than 1 cm. For larger debris objects, only one effective method to avoid catastrophic consequence of collision is a manoeuvre that will change the spacecraft orbit. The necessary conditions in this case is to evaluate and predict future positions of the spacecraft and space debris with sufficient accuray. Numerical integration of equations of motion are used until now. Existing analytical methods can solve this problem only with low accuracy. Difficulties are caused mainly by the lack of satisfying analytical solution of the resonance problem for geosynchronous orbit as well as from the lack of efficient analytical theory combining luni-solar perturbation and solar radiation pressure with geopotential attraction. Numerical integration is time consuming in some cases, and then for qualitative analysis of the satellite's and debris's motion it is necessary to apply analytical solution. This is the reason for searching for an accurate model to evaluate the orbital position of the operating

  20. Development and Flight Demonstration of Space Debris Monitor (SDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Yukihito; Hanada, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Kobayashi, Masanori; Sakurai, Akira; Yasaka, Tetsuo; Funakoshi, Kunihiro; Hasegawa, Sunao; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Kimoto, Yugo; Okudaira, Osamu; Kamiya, Koki; Nakamura, Maki

    2016-07-01

    The space debris monitor (SDM) is a large-area impact sensor for in situ measurements of micro-meteoroids and space debris of the sub-millimeter to millimeter size in the near-Earth space environment. These meteoroid and debris particles are very small to be detected by ground-based observations (radars and optical telescopes) but are sufficiently large to cause serious damage to spacecraft equipment in the low Earth orbit region. The nominal detection area of the SDM is 0.1 m^2 (0.35 m × 0.3 m), but its dimensions can be easily modified to accommodate different SDM constraints. The SDM is made from a flexible printed circuit, which is produced from a thin film of a nonconductive material (such as polyimide) on which thin conductive stripes are formed in parallel. The stripe width is approximately 50 μm, and the spatial separation is approximately 100 μm, as shown in Figure 1. When a micro-debris particle with an effective diameter near to or larger than the spatial separation of the stripes (here approximately 100 μm) collides with the sensor film at a velocity sufficient to penetrate it, one or more of the stripes are cut and become nonconductive. Debris impacts can thus be detected by monitoring the electrical conductivity (resistivity) of the stripes. This sensor system can measure the size of the incident micro-debris particles by detecting the number of severed stripes. The measurement concept is registered as a patent in many countries. The first SDM was launched with HTV-5 on August 19, 2015 and represented the world's first micro-debris measurement demonstration experiment to be conducted on the ISS using the concept of conductive (resistive) strip lines for real-time debris detection.

  1. Operational Implementation of Space Debris Mitigation Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquel, Anne-Helene; Bonaventure, Francois

    2013-08-01

    During the spacecraft lifetime, Astrium supports its customers to manage collision risks alerts from the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). This was previously done with hot-line support and a manual operational procedure. Today, it is automated and integrated in QUARTZ, the Astrium Flight Dynamics operational tool. The algorithms and process details for this new 5- step functionality are provided in this paper. To improve this functionality, some R&D activities such as the study of dilution phenomenon and low relative velocity encounters are going on. Regarding end of life disposal, recent operational experiences as well as studies results are presented.

  2. Characterization of the Space Shuttle Ascent Debris using CFD Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Rogers, Stuart E.

    2005-01-01

    After video analysis of space shuttle flight STS-107's ascent showed that an object shed from the bipod-ramp region impacted the left wing, a transport analysis was initiated to determine a credible flight path and impact velocity for the piece of debris. This debris transport analysis was performed both during orbit, and after the subsequent re-entry accident. The analysis provided an accurate prediction of the velocity a large piece of foam bipod ramp would have as it impacted the wing leading edge. This prediction was corroborated by video analysis and fully-coupled CFD/six degree of freedom (DOF) simulations. While the prediction of impact velocity was accurate enough to predict critical damage in this case, one of the recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) for return-to-flight (RTF) was to analyze the complete debris environment experienced by the shuttle stack on ascent. This includes categorizing all possible debris sources, their probable geometric and aerodynamic characteristics, and their potential for damage. This paper is chiefly concerned with predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of a variety of potential debris sources (insulating foam and cork, nose-cone ablator, ice, ...) for the shuttle ascent configuration using CFD methods. These aerodynamic characteristics are used in the debris transport analysis to predict flight path, impact velocity and angle, and provide statistical variation to perform risk analyses where appropriate. The debris aerodynamic characteristics are difficult to determine using traditional methods, such as static or dynamic test data, due to the scaling requirements of simulating a typical debris event. The use of CFD methods has been a critical element for building confidence in the accuracy of the debris transport code by bridging the gap between existing aerodynamic data and the dynamics of full-scale, in-flight events.

  3. Space Debris Attitude Simulation - IOTA (In-Orbit Tumbling Analysis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzler, R.; Schildknecht, T.; Lips, T.; Fritsche, B.; Silha, J.; Krag, H.

    Today, there is little knowledge on the attitude state of decommissioned intact objects in Earth orbit. Observational means have advanced in the past years, but are still limited with respect to an accurate estimate of motion vector orientations and magnitude. Especially for the preparation of Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions as planned by ESA's Clean Space initiative or contingency scenarios for ESA spacecraft like ENVISAT, such knowledge is needed. The In-Orbit Tumbling Analysis tool (IOTA) is a prototype software, currently in development within the framework of ESA's “Debris Attitude Motion Measurements and Modelling” project (ESA Contract No. 40000112447), which is led by the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB). The project goal is to achieve a good understanding of the attitude evolution and the considerable internal and external effects which occur. To characterize the attitude state of selected targets in LEO and GTO, multiple observation methods are combined. Optical observations are carried out by AIUB, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is performed by the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IWF) and radar measurements and signal level determination are provided by the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR). Developed by Hyperschall Technologie Göttingen GmbH (HTG), IOTA will be a highly modular software tool to perform short- (days), medium- (months) and long-term (years) propagation of the orbit and attitude motion (six degrees-of-freedom) of spacecraft in Earth orbit. The simulation takes into account all relevant acting forces and torques, including aerodynamic drag, solar radiation pressure, gravitational influences of Earth, Sun and Moon, eddy current damping, impulse and momentum transfer from space debris or micro meteoroid impact, as well as the optional definition of particular spacecraft specific influences like tank sloshing, reaction wheel behaviour

  4. Improving the Precision of Astrometry for Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rongyu; Zhao, Changyin; Zhang, Xiaoxiang

    2014-03-01

    The data reduction method for optical space debris observations has many similarities with the one adopted for surveying near-Earth objects; however, due to several specific issues, the image degradation is particularly critical, which makes it difficult to obtain precise astrometry. An automatic image reconstruction method was developed to improve the astrometry precision for space debris, based on the mathematical morphology operator. Variable structural elements along multiple directions are adopted for image transformation, and then all the resultant images are stacked to obtain a final result. To investigate its efficiency, trial observations are made with Global Positioning System satellites and the astrometry accuracy improvement is obtained by comparison with the reference positions. The results of our experiments indicate that the influence of degradation in astrometric CCD images is reduced, and the position accuracy of both objects and stellar stars is improved distinctly. Our technique will contribute significantly to optical data reduction and high-order precision astrometry for space debris.

  5. Improving the precision of astrometry for space debris

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Rongyu; Zhao, Changyin; Zhang, Xiaoxiang

    2014-03-01

    The data reduction method for optical space debris observations has many similarities with the one adopted for surveying near-Earth objects; however, due to several specific issues, the image degradation is particularly critical, which makes it difficult to obtain precise astrometry. An automatic image reconstruction method was developed to improve the astrometry precision for space debris, based on the mathematical morphology operator. Variable structural elements along multiple directions are adopted for image transformation, and then all the resultant images are stacked to obtain a final result. To investigate its efficiency, trial observations are made with Global Positioning System satellites and the astrometry accuracy improvement is obtained by comparison with the reference positions. The results of our experiments indicate that the influence of degradation in astrometric CCD images is reduced, and the position accuracy of both objects and stellar stars is improved distinctly. Our technique will contribute significantly to optical data reduction and high-order precision astrometry for space debris.

  6. User's Manual for Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfer, N. C.

    1996-01-01

    A unique collection of computer codes, Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF), have been developed to assist in the design and analysis of space debris protection systems. SD_SURF calculates and summarizes a vehicle's vulnerability to space debris as a function of impact velocity and obliquity. An SD_SURF analysis will show which velocities and obliquities are the most probable to cause a penetration. This determination can help the analyst select a shield design which is best suited to the predominant penetration mechanism. The analysis also indicates the most suitable parameters for development or verification testing. The SD_SURF programs offer the option of either FORTRAN programs and Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheets and macros. The FORTRAN programs work with BUMPERII version 1.2a or 1.3 (Cosmic released). The EXCEL spreadsheets and macros can be used independently or with selected output from the SD_SURF FORTRAN programs.

  7. A novel signal processing approach for LEO space debris based on a fence-type space surveillance radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Hu, Weidong; Ghogho, Mounir; Xin, Qin; Du, Xiaoyong; Guo, Weiwei

    2012-12-01

    The increase in space debris can seriously threaten regular activities in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop robust, efficient and reliable techniques to understand the potential motions of the LEO debris. In this paper, we propose a novel signal processing approach to detect and estimate the motions of LEO space debris that is based on a fence-type space surveillance radar system. Because of the sparse distribution of the orbiting debris through the fence in our observations, we formulate the signal detection and the motion parameter estimation as a sparse signal reconstruction problem with respect to an over-complete dictionary. Moreover, we propose a new scheme to reduce the size of the original over-complete dictionary without the loss of the important information. This new scheme is based on a careful analysis of the relations between the acceleration and the directions of arrival for the corresponding LEO space debris. Our simulation results show that the proposed approach can achieve extremely good performance in terms of the accuracy for detection and estimation. Furthermore, our simulation results demonstrate the robustness of the approach in scenarios with a low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the super-resolution properties. We hope our signal processing approach can stimulate further work on monitoring LEO space debris.

  8. Active Debris Removal: Current Status of Activities in CNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnal, Christophe; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Desjean, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-01

    Most of the ongoing studies led at worldwide level, mainly through IADC Actions, conclude that in order to keep a stable Low Earth Orbit environment in the coming decades, it may be necessary to retrieve some 5 to 10 large objects annually. These operations, known as Active Debris Removal (ADR), raise a huge amount of difficulties in numerous domains: political, legal, insurance, defense, financing and, last but not least, technical questions. The current paper aims at reviewing the current status of the ADR activities led by CNES both at National and Multi-lateral level. The first question which is raised is that of the high level requirements to be applied. What are the requirements coming from the operators; do we want to stabilize the environment, decrease it or could we accept some increase over the years; when do we have to act; can we baseline random reentry of such large objects or do we have to stick to controlled destructive reentries?… There may not yet be clear answers to these points, so efforts at international level are required. The second part of the paper deals with the potential solutions at system level. Numerous possibilities can be identified, depending on the size of the launcher and of the strategy selected to de-orbit the debris. Large space tugs visiting some 10 debris or small dedicated chasers launched as piggyback are among the solutions which have been traded. The currently preferred solution is described in details. The third part of the paper is devoted to the chaser-debris operations themselves, following five key functions; - the long range rendezvous, - the short range rendezvous up to contact, - the mechanical interfacing of the debris, - its control by the chaser, when required, - the de-orbiting maneuver itself. For each of these functions, the current status of available technologies is described, enabling the identification of the most critical ones requiring additional R&T effort and subsequent demonstrations. Among them

  9. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The study of the natural space environment and its effects on spacecraft is one of the most important and least understood aspects of spacecraft design. The Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program prepared the Meteoroids and Orbital Debris Lesson Plan, a SEE-focused high school curriculum to engage students in creative activities that will…

  10. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Campbell, David; Brockman, Jeff P.; Carter, Bruce; Donelson, Leslie; John, Lawrence E.; Marine, Micky C.; Rodina, Dan D.

    1989-01-01

    This work continues to develop advanced designs toward the ultimate goal of a GETAWAY SPECIAL to demonstrate economical removal of orbital debris utilizing local resources in orbit. The fundamental technical feasibility was demonstrated last year through theoretical calculations, quantitative computer animation, a solar focal point cutter, a robotic arm design and a subscale model. During this reporting period, several improvements are made in the solar cutter, such as auto track capabilities, better quality reflectors and a more versatile framework. The major advance has been in the design, fabrication and working demonstration of a ROBOTIC ARM that has several degrees of freedom. The functions were specifically tailored for the orbital debris handling. These advances are discussed here. Also a small fraction of the resources were allocated towards research in flame augmentation in SCRAMJETS for the NASP. Here, the fundamental advance was the attainment of Mach numbers up to 0.6 in the flame zone and a vastly improved injection system; the current work is expected to achieve supersonic combustion in the laboratory and an advanced monitoring system.

  11. Active Debris Removal of Multiple Priority Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Vitali; Flegel, Sven Kevin; Vörsmann, Peter; Wiedemann, Carsten; Gelhaus, Johannes; Moeckel, Marek; Kebschull, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    Today's space debris environment shows major concentrations of objects within distinct orbital regions for nearly all size regimes. The most critical region is found at orbital altitudes near 800 kilometers with high declinations. Within this region many satellites are operated in so called sun-synchronous orbits (SSO). Among those, there are Earth observation, communication and weather satellites. Due to the orbital geometry, head-on encounters with relative velocities of about 15 km/s are most probable and would thus result in highly energetic collisions, which are often referred to as catastrophic collisions, leading to the complete fragmentation of the participating objects. So called feedback collisions can then be triggered by the newly generated fragments, thus leading to a further population increase in the affected orbital region. This effect is known as the Kessler syndrome. Current studies show that catastrophic collisions are not a major problem today, but will become the main process for debris generation within the SSO region in the near future, even without any future launches. In order to avoid this effect, objects with a major impact on collisional cascading have to be actively removed from the critical region after their end of life. Not having the capability to perform an end-of-life maneuver in order to transfer to a graveyard orbit or to de-orbit, many satellites and rocket bodies would have to be de-orbited within a dedicated mission. In such a mission, a service satellite would perform a de-orbit maneuver, after having docked to a specific target. In this paper several systems, e.g. chemical and electrical engines are analysed with the main focus on removing multiple targets within one single mission. The service satellite has to undock from the previously de-orbited target in order to start the rendezvous and docking phase for a subsequent target. The targets are chosen from a previously defined priority list in order to enhance the mission

  12. Active debris removal of multiple priority targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Vitali; Lüpken, A.; Flegel, S.; Gelhaus, J.; Möckel, M.; Kebschull, C.; Wiedemann, C.; Vörsmann, P.

    2013-05-01

    Today's space debris environment shows major concentrations of objects within distinct orbital regions for nearly all size regimes. The most critical region is found at orbital altitudes near 800 km with high declinations. Within this region many satellites are operated in so called sun-synchronous orbits (SSO). Among those, there are Earth observation, communication and weather satellites. Due to the orbital geometry in SSO, head-on encounters with relative velocities of about 15 km/s are most probable and would thus result in highly energetic collisions, which are often referred to as catastrophic collisions, leading to the complete fragmentation of the participating objects. So called feedback collisions can then be triggered by the newly generated fragments, thus leading to a further population increase in the affected orbital region. This effect is known as the Kessler syndrome.Current studies show that catastrophic collisions are not a major problem today, but will become the main process for debris generation within the SSO region in the near future, even without any further launches. In order to avoid this effect, objects with a major impact on collisional cascading have to be actively removed from the critical region after their end of life. Not having the capability to perform an end-of-life maneuver in order to transfer to a graveyard orbit or to de-orbit, many satellites and rocket bodies would have to be de-orbited within a dedicated mission. In such a mission, a service satellite would perform a de-orbit maneuver, after having docked to a specific target.In this paper, chemical and electric propulsion systems were analysed with the main focus on removing multiple targets within one single mission. The targets were chosen from a previously defined priority list in order to enhance the mission efficiency. Total mission time, ΔV and system mass were identified as key parameters to allow for an evaluation of the different concepts. It was shown that it

  13. International scientific optical network for space debris research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotov, I.; Agapov, V.; Titenko, V.; Khutorovsky, Z.; Burtsev, Yu.; Guseva, I.; Rumyantsev, V.; Ibrahimov, M.; Kornienko, G.; Erofeeva, A.; Biryukov, V.; Vlasjuk, V.; Kiladze, R.; Zalles, R.; Sukhov, P.; Inasaridze, R.; Abdullaeva, G.; Rychalsky, V.; Kouprianov, V.; Rusakov, O.; Litvinenko, E.; Filippov, E.

    A joint team of researchers under the auspices of the Center for Space Debris Information Collection, Processing and Analysis of the Russian Academy of Sciences collaborates with 15 observatories around the world to perform observations of space debris. For this purpose, 14 telescopes were equipped with charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, CCD frame processing and ephemeris computation software, with the support of the European and Russian grants. Many of the observation campaigns were carried out in collaboration with the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) team operating at the Zimmerwald observatory and conducting research for the European Space Agency (ESA), using the Tenerife/Teide telescope for searching and tracking of unknown objects in the geostationary region (GEO). More than 130,000 measurements of space objects along a GEO arc of 340.9°, collected and processed at Space Debris Data Base in the Ballistic Center of the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (KIAM) in 2005 2006, allowed us to find 288 GEO objects that are absent in the public orbital databases and to determine their orbital elements. Methods of discovering and tracking small space debris fragments at high orbits were developed and tested. About 40 of 150 detected unknown objects of magnitudes 15 20.5 were tracked during many months. A series of dedicated 22-cm telescopes with large field of view for GEO survey tasks is in process of construction. 7 60-cm telescopes will be modernized in 2007.

  14. Effects of Low Activity Solar Cycle on Orbital Debris Lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, Samual B.; Sutton, Eric K.; Lin, chin S.; Liou, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Long duration of low solar activity in the last solar minimum has an undesirable consequence of extending the lifetime of orbital debris. The AFRL TacSat-2 satellite decommissioned in 2008 has finally re-entered into the atmosphere on February 5th after more than one year overdue. Concerning its demise we have monitored its orbital decay and monthly forecasted Tacsat-2 re-entry since September 2010 by using the Orbital Element Prediction (OEP) model developed by the AFRL Orbital Drag Environment program. The model combines estimates of future solar activity with neutral density models, drag coefficient models, and an orbit propagator to predict satellite lifetime. We run the OEP model with solar indices forecast by the NASA Marshall Solar Activity Future Estimation model, and neutral density forecast by the MSIS-00 neutral density model. Based on the two line elements in 2010 up to mid September, we estimated at a 50% confidence level TacSat-2's re-entry time to be in early February 2011, which turned out to be in good agreement with Tacsat-2's actual re-entry date. The potential space weather effects of the coming low activity solar cycle on satellite lifetime and orbital debris population are examined. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of solar flux on the orbital debris population in the 200-600 km altitude environment. The results are discussed for developing satellite orbital drag application product.

  15. Need for a network of observatories for space debris dynamical and physical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piergentili, Fabrizio; Santoni, Fabio; Castronuovo, Marco; Portelli, Claudio; Cardona, Tommaso; Arena, Lorenzo; Sciré, Gioacchino; Seitzer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Space debris represents a major concern for space missions since the risk of impact with uncontrolled objects has increased dramatically in recent years. Passive and active mitigation countermeasures are currently under consideration but, at the base of any of such corrective actions is the space debris continuous monitoring through ground based surveillance systems.At the present, many space agencies have the capability to get optical measurements of space orbiting objects mainly relaying on single observatories. The recent research in the field of space debris, demonstrated how it is possible to increase the effectiveness of optical measurements exploitation by using joint observations of the same target from different sites.The University of Rome "La Sapienza", in collaboration with Italian Space Agency (ASI), is developing a scientific network of observatories dedicated to Space Debris deployed in Italy (S5Scope at Rome and SPADE at Matera) and in Kenya at the Broglio Space Center in Malindi (EQUO). ASI founded a program dedicated to space debris, in order to spread the Italian capability to deal with different aspects of this issue. In this framework, the University of Rome is in charge of coordinating the observatories network both in the operation scheduling and in the data analysis. This work describes the features of the observatories dedicated to space debris observation, highlighting their capabilities and detailing their instrumentation. Moreover, the main features of the scheduler under development, devoted to harmonizing the operations of the network, will be shown. This is a new system, which will autonomously coordinate the observations, aiming to optimize results in terms of number of followed targets, amount of time dedicated to survey, accuracy of orbit determination and feasibility of attitude determination through photometric data.Thus, the authors will describe the techniques developed and applied (i) to implement the multi-site orbit

  16. Impacts of nuclear power sources on space debris

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, Eduard I.; Doschatov, Vitali V.; Nikolaev, Vadim S.; Sokolov, Nikolai A.; Nazarenko, Andrei I.; Usov, Veniamin A.

    1997-01-10

    The paper presents some results of efforts dealing with computational analyses of probability of impact of nuclear power sources (NPS) on space debris (SD), destruction of the NPS structure on the impacts, change in orbital parameters as a result of the NPS impact and reentry.

  17. Impacts of nuclear power sources on space debris

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, E.I.; Doschatov, V.V.; Nikolaev, V.S.; Sokolov, N.A.; Nazarenko, A.I.; Usov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some results of efforts dealing with computational analyses of probability of impact of nuclear power sources (NPS) on space debris (SD), destruction of the NPS structure on the impacts, change in orbital parameters as a result of the NPS impact and reentry. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Geostationary satellites and space debris around the Earth (on Russian)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, P., P.

    Classification of artificial satellites, the history of development of the geostationary orbit (GSO). The main aim of ground-based optical, radar and other observations GSS. Methods of observation and control of the GSO. Catalogues satellites leading space country. The problem of space debris and the Kessler syndrome. Flashes from the satellites of the constellation "Iridium", and flashes from geostationary satellites. Tips, advice for amateur astronomers to observe when the flash GSS.

  19. Detection ability of space-based optical observation system to space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sisi; Ruan, Ningjuan; Zhuang, Xuxia

    2015-10-01

    For supplying the reference to the spaced-based optical observation system design and performance analysis, the space-based observation mode for space debris is established. Considering the geometry size, the material characteristics, and the distribution region of the debris, the visual magnitude of space debris is calculated in the condition of different detection range and different phase angle. Based on the typical instance, the simulation analysis of the space debris detection ability of space-based optical observation system, which is in LEO orbit and Sub-GEO orbit respectively, is carried out. The results show that the LEO spaced-based optical observation system having an aperture of 25cm can detect the LEO 3cm space debris, which is 100km far away and has the relative velocity of 1km/s, and can also detect the GEO 1m space object, which is 37000km far away and has the relative velocity of 4km/s. The Sub-GEO spaced-based optical observation system having an aperture of 25cm can detect the GEO 1cm space debris, which is 800km far away and has the relative velocity of 15m/s.

  20. Space-based millimeter-wave debris tracking radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kai; Pollock, Michael A.; Skrehot, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    NORAD system currently tracks and predicts orbits of space objects of 80 mm or larger in diameter. The small debris of less than 80 mm, traveling at high speed, could cause damage to Space Station or space vehicles. To overcome this problem, a 35 GHz space-based millimeter-wave radar system is proposed to track the particles ranging in size from 4 mm to 80 mm up to a range of 25 Km. The system requires a large phased array which should be developed in monolithic circuits for cost reduction.

  1. Projectile Shape Effects Analysis for Space Debris Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Kuniaki; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    (JEM IST), has a manned pressurized module used as a research laboratory on orbit and planned to be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Protection system from Micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MM/OD) is very important for crew safety aboard the ISS. We have to design a module with shields attached to the outside of the pressurized wall so that JEM can be protected when debris of diameter less than 20mm impact on the JEM wall. In this case, the ISS design requirement for space debris protection system is specified as the Probability of No Penetration (PNP). The PNP allocation for the JEM is 0.9738 for ten years, which is reallocated as 0.9814 for the Pressurized Module (PM) and 0.9922 for the Experiment Logistics Module-Pressurized Section (ELM-PS). The PNP is calculated with Bumper code provided by NASA with the following data inputs to the calculation. (1) JEM structural model (2) Ballistic Limit Curve (BLC) of shields pressure wall (3) Environmental conditions: Analysis type, debris distribution, debris model, debris density, Solar single aluminum plate bumper (1.27mm thickness). The other is a Stuffed Whipple shield with its second bumper composed of an aluminum mesh, three layers of Nextel AF62 ceramic fabric, and four layers of Kevlar 710 fabric with thermal isolation material Multilayer Insulation (MLI) in the bottom. The second bumper of Stuffed Whipple shields is located at the middle between the first bumper and the 4.8 mm-thick pressurized wall. with Two-Stage Light Gas Gun (TSLGG) tests and hydro code simulation already. The remaining subject is the verification of JEM debris protection shields for velocities ranging from 7 to 15 km/sec. We conducted Conical Shaped Charge (CSC) tests that enable hypervelocity impact tests for the debris velocity range above 10 km/sec as well as hydro code simulation. because of the jet generation mechanism. It is therefore necessary to analyze and compensate the results for a solid aluminum sphere, which

  2. Space Debris Optical Observation System in JAXA/IAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, A.; Kurosaki, H.; Fukaya, T.

    For the development of the optical observation technologies for space debris, Institute of Aerospace Technology(IAT) of JAXA has prepared two small optical observation facilities of LEO and GEO debris detections. LEO debris tracking facility is located at HQ of JAXA, Tokyo, with a 35cm telescope onboard the 3-axis tracking mount system, GEO debris observation facility is located at Nyukasa-yama mountain in Nagano Prefecture. A 35cm Newtonian optical telescope with 2K2K CCD camera and a 25cm BRC optical telescope with 4K4K CCD camera are supported on each equatorial mount system. The latter facility is under construction and will be operated within this autumn. The altitude of this site is 1,860m and the optical environment will be adequate for detecting faint objects. One of the most important study item in our R&D is to develop an automatic small size GEO debris detection software. In usual case, a long exposure time is necessary to detect a faint object by accumulating weak light energy during the time. On the contrary, short exposure observation is necessary for GEO debris detection to avoid the influence of the fixed star streaks image. We have proposed a stacking method for detecting a noise-level faint GEO debris by accumulating the signals of a number of images, for example, a hundred frames. By applying the stacking method for asteroid survey observation, 21st magnitude asteroid can be detected by using this small telescope. Another research item is to develop a high-speed read/write CCD camera. High efficiency back illuminated 1K1K and 2K2K CCD cameras were developed and 4K4K CCD camera is under testing. The read/write time of the 4K4K CCD camera is about 10 seconds, which is cooled by a sterling engine refrigerator. This paper introduces the JAXA's facilities for LEO and GEO space debris observation and describes some developing technologies and evaluated results.

  3. The impact of the atmospheric model and of the space weather data on the dynamics of clouds of space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Alexis; Lemaitre, Anne

    2016-06-01

    New tools are necessary to deal with more than hundred thousands of space debris, thus our aim is to develop software able to propagate numerous trajectories and manage collisions or fragmentations. Specifically in low orbits Earth, gravity and atmospheric drag are the two main forces that affect the dynamics of the artificial satellites or space debris. NIMASTEP, the local orbit propagator, initially designed for high altitudes, has been adapted to low altitude orbits. To study the future debris environment, we propose a suitable model of space weather and we compare three different atmospheric density models (Jacchia-Bowman 2008, DTM-2013, and TD-88) able to propagate with accuracy and efficiency a large population of space debris on long time scales. We compare the results in different altitudes and during the reentry regime; we show, with a ballistic coefficient constant, a trend to underestimate or overestimate the decrease of the semi-major axis, specifically during the periods of high solar activity. We parallelize our software and use the calculation power of a computing cluster, we propagate a huge cloud of debris and we show that its global evolution is in agreement with the observations on several years.

  4. National Standard of the Russian Federation for Space Debris Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, S.; Yakovlev, M.; Mikhailov, M.; Popkova, L.

    2009-03-01

    Normative and technical document that define requirements for the mitigation of human-produced near-earth space pollution develops in Russian Federation.NATIONAL STANDARD of the Russian Federation GOST R 52925-2008 «SPACE TECHNOLOGY ITEMS. General Requirements on Space Systems for the Mitigation of Human-Produced near-Earth Space Pollution» was approved in 2008 and entered into force since 1st January of 2009. Requirements of this standard harmonized with requirements of «UN SPACE DEBRIS MITIGATION GUIDELINESÈ»This standard consists of six parts:- Scope;- References to Standards;- Terms & Definitions;- Abbreviations;- General Provisions;- General Requirements on Space Systems for the Mitigation of Human-Produced near-Earth Space Pollution.

  5. A Numerical Approach to Estimate the Ballistic Coefficient of Space Debris from TLE Orbital Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkeliunas, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is full of space debris, which consist of spent rocket stages, old satellites and fragments from explosions and collisions. As of 2009, more than 21,000 orbital debris larger than 10 cm are known to exist], and while it is hard to track anything smaller than that, the estimated population of particles between 1 and 10 cm in diameter is approximately 500,000, whereas small as 1 cm exceeds 100 million. These objects orbit Earth with huge kinetic energies speeds usually exceed 7 kms. The shape of their orbit varies from almost circular to highly elliptical and covers all LEO, a region in space between 160 and 2,000 km above sea level. Unfortunately, LEO is also the place where most of our active satellites are situated, as well as, International Space Station (ISS) and Hubble Space Telescope, whose orbits are around 400 and 550 km above sea level, respectively.This poses a real threat as debris can collide with satellites and deal substantial damage or even destroy them.Collisions between two or more debris create clouds of smaller debris, which are harder to track and increase overall object density and collision probability. At some point, the debris density couldthen reach a critical value, which would start a chain reaction and the number of space debris would grow exponentially. This phenomenon was first described by Kessler in 1978 and he concluded that it would lead to creation of debris belt, which would vastly complicate satellite operations in LEO. The debris density is already relatively high, as seen from several necessary debris avoidance maneuvers done by Shuttle, before it was discontinued, and ISS. But not all satellites have a propulsion system to avoid collision, hence different methods need to be applied. One of the proposed collision avoidance concepts is called LightForce and it suggests using photon pressure to induce small orbital corrections to deflect debris from colliding. This method is very efficient as seen from

  6. Laser Ranging on Space Debris with the Changchun SLR Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengzhi

    2015-08-01

    The Changchun SLR station has upgraded to track space debris in 2014. The system operates with a 60mJ/10ns/500Hz 532.0nm laser (M2<1.5) and an optical camera for closed-loop tracking. With this configuration, 466 passes of 224 different space debris targets were obtained during 19 terminator sessions, each about 1.5h. Target distances are between 460 km and 1800 km, with RCS (radar cross sections) from >15 m2 down to <1.0 m2. Measured range had an average precision of about 1.0 m RMS. The system can be conveniently operated by one person. The presentation will introduce the technical developments and the observation results obtained. By analyzing the laser range data, range residual of about 1~2 meters is obtained.

  7. Influence of Earth's Shadowing Effects on Space Debris Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubaux, C.

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we present results about the stability of near geosynchronous space debris characterized by high area-to-mass ratios. We extend previous studies by considering the influence of the Earth's shadow on the short-and long-term time evolutions. To assess the orbits stability, we use the Global Symplectic Integrator (GSI) [18] which consists in the symplectic integration of both Hamiltonian equations of motion and variational equations. The solution of the variational equations is then used to compute the Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO) chaos indicator. The effects of the Earth's shadow are analyzed using the adapted conical and cylindrical Earth's shadowing models introduced by [10]. Our stability study shows that the Earth's shadow greatly affects the global behaviour of space debris orbits by increasing the size of chaotic regions around the geostationary altitude.

  8. International Space Station (ISS) Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.

    1999-01-01

    Design practices to provide protection for International Space Station (ISS) crew and critical equipment from meteoroid and orbital debris (M/OD) Impacts have been developed. Damage modes and failure criteria are defined for each spacecraft system. Hypervolocity Impact -1 - and analyses are used to develop ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for each exposed spacecraft system. BLEs define Impact particle sizes that result in threshold failure of a particular spacecraft system as a function of Impact velocity, angles and particle density. The BUMPER computer code Is used to determine the probability of no penetration (PNP) that falls the spacecraft shielding based on NASA standard meteoroid/debris models, a spacecraft geometry model, and the BLEs. BUMPER results are used to verify spacecraft shielding requirements Low-weight, high-performance shielding alternatives have been developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF) to meet spacecraft protection requirements.

  9. Momentum Transfer by Laser Ablation of Irregularly Shaped Space Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Liedahl, D A; Libby, S B; Rubenchik, A

    2010-02-04

    Proposals for ground-based laser remediation of space debris rely on the creation of appropriately directed ablation-driven impulses to either divert the fragment or drive it into an orbit with a perigee allowing atmospheric capture. For a spherical fragment, the ablation impulse is a function of the orbital parameters and the laser engagement angle. If, however, the target is irregularly shaped and arbitrarily oriented, new impulse effects come into play. Here we present an analysis of some of these effects.

  10. Influence of Earth's shadowing effects on space debris stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubaux, Ch.; Libert, A.-S.; Delsate, N.; Carletti, T.

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation pressure affects the evolution of high area-to-mass geostationary space debris. In this work, we extend the stability study of Valk et al. (2009) by considering the influence of Earth's shadows on the short- and long-term time evolutions of space debris. To assess the orbits stability, we use the Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO), which is an efficient numerical tool to distinguish between regular and chaotic behaviors. To reliably compute long-term space debris motion, we resort to the Global Symplectic Integrator (GSI) of Libert et al. (2011) which consists in the symplectic integration of both Hamiltonian equations of motion and variational equations. We show how to efficiently compute the MEGNO indicator in a complete symplectic framework, and we also discuss the choice of a symplectic integrator, since propagators adapted to the structure of the Hamiltonian equations of motion are not necessarily suited for the associated variational equations. The performances of our method are illustrated and validated through the study of the Arnold diffusion problem. We then analyze the effects of Earth's shadows, using the adapted conical and cylindrical Earth's shadowing models introduced by Hubaux et al. (2012) as the smooth shadow function deriving from these models can be easily included into the variational equations. Our stability study shows that Earth's shadows greatly affect the global behaviour of space debris orbits by increasing the size of chaotic regions around the geostationary altitude. We also emphasize the differences in the results given by conical or cylindrical Earth's shadowing models. Finally, such results are compared with a non-symplectic integration scheme.

  11. Momentum Transfer by Laser Ablation of Irregularly Shaped Space Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Liedahl, Duane A.; Libby, Stephen B.; Rubenchik, Alexander

    2010-10-08

    Proposals for ground-based laser remediation of space debris rely on the creation of appropriately directed ablation-driven impulses to either divert the fragment or drive it into an orbit with a perigee allowing atmospheric capture. For a spherical fragment, the ablation impulse is a function of the orbital parameters and the laser engagement angle. If, however, the target is irregularly shaped and arbitrarily oriented, new impulse effects come into play. Here we present an analysis of some of these effects.

  12. Laser measurements to space debris from Graz SLR station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, Franz; Friederich, Fabian; Buske, Ivo; Völker, Uwe; Riede, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In order to test laser ranging possibilities to space debris objects, the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) Station Graz installed a frequency doubled Nd:YAG pulse laser with a 1 kHz repetition rate, a pulse width of 10 ns, and a pulse energy of 25 mJ at 532 nm (on loan from German Aerospace Center Stuttgart - DLR). We developed and built low-noise single-photon detection units to enable laser ranging to targets with inaccurate orbit predictions, and adapted our standard SLR software to include a few hundred space debris targets. With this configuration, we successfully tracked - within 13 early-evening sessions of each about 1.5 h - 85 passes of 43 different space debris targets, in distances between 600 km and up to more than 2500 km, with radar cross sections from >15 m2 down to <0.3 m2, and measured their distances with an average precision of about 0.7 m RMS.

  13. Orbital Debris: A Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, Davis S. F. (Editor); Loftus, Joseph P., Jr. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This chronology covers the 37-year history of orbital debris concerns. It tracks orbital debris hazard creation, research, observation, experimentation, management, mitigation, protection, and policy. Included are debris-producing, events; U.N. orbital debris treaties, Space Shuttle and space station orbital debris issues; ASAT tests; milestones in theory and modeling; uncontrolled reentries; detection system development; shielding development; geosynchronous debris issues, including reboost policies: returned surfaces studies, seminar papers reports, conferences, and studies; the increasing effect of space activities on astronomy; and growing international awareness of the near-Earth environment.

  14. Space Station: Delays in dealing with space debris may reduce safety and increase costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    The majority of NASA's current designs for protecting the space station and crew from debris are outdated and its overall debris protection strategy is insufficient. NASA's contractors have designed the station using a 1984 model of the space environment that is obsolete, significantly underestimating the increasing amount of debris that the station will encounter during its 30-year lifetime. In February 1992, NASA directed its space centers to incorporate an updated 1991 model into their designs. However, the agency has not yet made critical decisions on how to implement this change. Preliminary evaluations show that incorporating the 1991 model using currently established safety criteria could entail a major redesign of some components, with significant cost impact and schedule delays. NASA's overall protection strategy for space debris is insufficient. While NASA has concentrated its protection on shielding the space station from small debris and plans to augment this initial shielding in orbit, it has not yet developed designs or studied the cost and operational impact of augmenting its protection with additional shielding. Further, current designs do not provide the capability of warning or protecting the crew from imminent collision with mid-size debris. Finally, although some capabilities exist for maneuvering the station away from large debris, the agency lacks collision-avoidance plans and debris-tracking equipment. In developing a comprehensive strategy to protect the station from the more severe debris environment, NASA cannot avoid some difficult decisions. These decisions involve tradeoffs between how much the agency is willing to pay to protect the station, the schedule delays it may incur, and the risk to station safety it is willing to accept. It is important that these decisions be made before NASA completes its critical design reviews in early 1993. At that time key designs will be made final and manufacturing will begin. Without a comprehensive

  15. Meteoroid and space debris impacts in grazing-incidence telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Wells, A.; Abbey, A. F.; Ambrosi, R. M.

    2008-06-01

    Context: Micrometeoroid or space debris impacts have been observed in the focal planes of the XMM-Newton and Swift-XRT (X-ray Telescope) X-ray observatories. These impacts have resulted in damage to, and in one case the failure of, focal-plane Charge-Coupled Device (CCDs) detectors. Aims: We aim to quantify the future risks of focal-plane impacts in present and future X-ray observatories. Methods: We present a simple model for the propagation of micrometeoroids and space debris particles into telescopes with grazing-incidence X-ray optics, which is based on the results of previous investigations into grazing-incidence hypervelocity impacts by microscopic particles. We then calculate micrometeoroid and space debris fluxes using the Micrometeoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference model (MASTER2005). The risks of future focal-plane impact events in three present (Swift-XRT, XMM-Newton, and Chandra) and two future (SIMBOL-X and XEUS) X-ray observatories are then estimated on the basis of the calculated fluxes and the model for particle propagation. Results: The probabilities of at least one impact occurring in the Swift-XRT, XMM-Newton, and Chandra focal planes, in a one year period from the time of writing in November 2007 are calculated to be ~5% and ~50% and ~3%. First-order predictions of the impact rates expected for the future SIMBOL-X and XEUS X-ray observatories yield probabilities for at least one focal-plane impact, during nominal 5-year missions, of more than 94% and 99%, respectively. Conclusions: The propagation of micrometeoroids and space debris particles into the focal planes of X-ray telescopes is highest for Wolter optics with the largest collecting areas and the lowest grazing angles. Telescopes in low-Earth orbits encounter enhanced particle fluxes compared with those in higher orbits and a pointing avoidance strategy for certain directions can reduce the risk of impacts. Future X-ray observatories, with large collecting areas and

  16. Debris Mitigation as a Component of Space Traffic Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper Force, M.

    2012-01-01

    The necessity of a traffic management in space is a consequence of our "free use" of it over the past fifty years, during which certain orbits have accumulated a significant amount of debris that may, in the future, threaten the feasibility of their use. This paper encapsulates the primary issues involved in the concept of space traffic management through basic questions, using as a case study the recent alarm caused by two close-misses of the ISS in one week, in order to guide the reader to an understanding of the current need for a space traffic management regime. The paper will describe the fundamental elements of space traffic management, including the tracking of objects, conjunction assessment, collision avoidance and orbital mechanics to understand why Earth-bound systems cannot be extrapolated to space. The paper will then focus on the primary concern of space debris, the acceptance and use of current guidelines in light of the existing corpus juris spatialis and international law, positing that the guidelines may soon develop into a customary norm. The paper will conclude that the latest close calls with the ISS demonstrate we cannot count on the mere vastness of space to reduce the probability of collisions with space objects. Despite the significant political, technical and economic challenges recognized by the International Space University Final Report of 2007, the International Academy of Astronautics' Cosmic Study of 2006 and the IAASS An ICAO for Space?, there is a need for a system to obviate the looming peril before governments and investors will sign on to a comprehensive program which limits their "free" use of space.

  17. Analysis of debris from Spacelab Space Life Sciences-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, S. V.; Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

    1992-07-01

    Airborne microbiological and particulate contamination generated aboard Spacelab modules is a potential safety hazard. In order to shed light on the characteristics of these contaminants, microbial and chemical/particulate analyses were performed on debris vacuumed from cabin and avionics air filters in the Space Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) module of the Space Transportation System 40 (STS-40) mission 1 month after landing. The debris was sorted into categories (e.g., metal, nonmetal, hair/fur, synthetic fibers, food particles, insect fragments, etc.). Elemental analysis of particles was done by energy dispersive analysis of x rays (metals) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (nonmetals). Scanning electron micrographs were done of most particles. Microbiological samples were grown on R2A culture medium and identified. Clothing fibers dominated the debris by volume. Other particles, all attributed to the crew, resulted from abrasions and impacts during missions operations (e.g., paint chips, plastic, electronic scraps and clothing fibers). All bacterial species identified are commonly found in the atmosphere or on the human body. Bacillus sp. was the most frequently seen bacterium. One of the bacterial species, Enterobacter agglomerans, could cause illness in crew members with depressed immune systems.

  18. The effect of simulated hypervelocity space debris on polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Verker, R. . E-mail: rverker@soreq.gov.il; Eliaz, N.; Gouzman, I.; Eliezer, S.; Fraenkel, M.; Maman, S.; Beckmann, F.; Pranzas, K.; Grossman, E.

    2004-11-08

    Space debris population in low Earth orbit has been increasing constantly with the increase in spacecraft missions. Hypervelocity space debris impacts limit the functionality of polymeric outer surfaces and, in extreme cases, might cause a total loss of a spacecraft. In this work, the fracture of Kapton films by ultrahigh velocity impacts was studied. A laser-driven flyer ground simulation system was used to accelerate aluminum flyers to impact velocities as high as 2.9 km/s against polymer films with different thicknesses. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the fracture morphology. Impact effects on the internal structure of the polymer were studied by means of X-ray microtomography. It was found that with an increase in debris velocity, a ductile-to-brittle transition occurred. However, fractures created by impacts at velocities above 1.7 km/s showed central impacts regions, which experienced the highest strain rate and were of ductile-type fracture, while the outer regions, which experienced a lower strain rate, failed through brittle cracking. A model explaining this phenomenon, based on the temperature gradient developed within the impacted region during collision, is presented.

  19. Analysis of debris from Spacelab Space Life Sciences-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, S. V.; Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne microbiological and particulate contamination generated aboard Spacelab modules is a potential safety hazard. In order to shed light on the characteristics of these contaminants, microbial and chemical/particulate analyses were performed on debris vacuumed from cabin and avionics air filters in the Space Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) module of the Space Transportation System 40 (STS-40) mission 1 month after landing. The debris was sorted into categories (e.g., metal, nonmetal, hair/fur, synthetic fibers, food particles, insect fragments, etc.). Elemental analysis of particles was done by energy dispersive analysis of x rays (metals) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (nonmetals). Scanning electron micrographs were done of most particles. Microbiological samples were grown on R2A culture medium and identified. Clothing fibers dominated the debris by volume. Other particles, all attributed to the crew, resulted from abrasions and impacts during missions operations (e.g., paint chips, plastic, electronic scraps and clothing fibers). All bacterial species identified are commonly found in the atmosphere or on the human body. Bacillus sp. was the most frequently seen bacterium. One of the bacterial species, Enterobacter agglomerans, could cause illness in crew members with depressed immune systems.

  20. Characterizing the Space Debris Environment with a Variety of SSA Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2010-01-01

    Damaging space debris spans a wide range of sizes and altitudes. Therefore no single method or sensor can fully characterize the space debris environment. Space debris researchers use a variety of radars and optical telescopes to characterize the space debris environment in terms of number, altitude, and inclination distributions. Some sensors, such as phased array radars, are designed to search a large volume of the sky and can be instrumental in detecting new breakups and cataloging and precise tracking of relatively large debris. For smaller debris sizes more sensitivity is needed which can be provided, in part, by large antenna gains. Larger antenna gains, however, produce smaller fields of view. Statistical measurements of the debris environment with less precise orbital parameters result. At higher altitudes, optical telescopes become the more sensitive instrument and present their own measurement difficulties. Space Situational Awareness, or SSA, is concerned with more than the number and orbits of satellites. SSA also seeks to understand such parameters as the function, shape, and composition of operational satellites. Similarly, debris researchers are seeking to characterize similar parameters for space debris to improve our knowledge of the risks debris poses to operational satellites as well as determine sources of debris for future mitigation. This paper will discuss different sensor and sensor types and the role that each plays in fully characterizing the space debris environment.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope meteoroid-debris protection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, J.; Maldonado, J.

    1986-01-01

    A system level failure could occur if the Hubble Space Telescope's (ST) capability to operate as a facility on-orbit is critically reduced or when a significant reduction in the quality of science data is registered. Failure could occur if a meteoroid/debris impact damages a component of a major support subsystem or if a meteoroid/debris penetration causes straylight contamination in the light shield, forward shell, aft shroud, or through the aperture door. The ST was analyzed to find the probability of no critical penetration. This probability value was found to be 92.25% for a two-year service life. A straylight leakage repair technique was recommended for the aft shroud, the region found most likely to be critically penetrated. Fozar tape and multilayer insulation blankets are suggested as posible repair materials.

  2. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE HD 202628 DEBRIS DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Krist, John E.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Plavchan, Peter

    2012-08-15

    A ring-shaped debris disk around the G2V star HD 202628 (d = 24.4 pc) was imaged in scattered light at visible wavelengths using the coronagraphic mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ring is inclined by {approx}64 Degree-Sign from face-on, based on the apparent major/minor axis ratio, with the major axis aligned along P.A. = 130 Degree-Sign . It has inner and outer radii (>50% maximum surface brightness) of 139 AU and 193 AU in the northwest ansae and 161 AU and 223 AU in the southeast ({Delta}r/r Almost-Equal-To 0.4). The maximum visible radial extent is {approx}254 AU. With mean surface brightness of V Almost-Equal-To 24 mag arcsec{sup -2}, this is the faintest debris disk observed to date in reflected light. The center of the ring appears offset from the star by {approx}28 AU (deprojected). An ellipse fit to the inner edge has an eccentricity of 0.18 and a = 158 AU. This offset, along with the relatively sharp inner edge of the ring, suggests the influence of a planetary-mass companion. There is a strong similarity with the debris ring around Fomalhaut, though HD 202628 is a more mature star with an estimated age of about 2 Gyr. We also provide surface brightness limits for nine other stars in our study with strong Spitzer excesses around which no debris disks were detected in scattered light (HD 377, HD 7590, HD 38858, HD 45184, HD 73350, HD 135599, HD 145229, HD 187897, and HD 201219).

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the HD 202628 Debris Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, John E.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Plavchan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A ring-shaped debris disk around the G2V star HD 202628 (d = 24.4 pc) was imaged in scattered light at visible wavelengths using the coronagraphic mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ring is inclined by approx.64deg from face-on, based on the apparent major/minor axis ratio, with the major axis aligned along PA = 130deg. It has inner and outer radii (> 50% maximum surface brightness) of 139 AU and 193 AU in the northwest ansae and 161 AU and 223 AU in the southeast ((Delta)r/r approx. = 0.4). The maximum visible radial extent is approx. 254 AU. With a mean surface brightnesses of V approx. = 24 mag arcsec.(sup -2), this is the faintest debris disk observed to date in reflected light. The center of the ring appears offset from the star by approx.28 AU (deprojected). An ellipse fit to the inner edge has an eccentricity of 0.18 and a = 158 AU. This offset, along with the relatively sharp inner edge of the ring, suggests the influence of a planetary-mass companion. There is a strong similarity with the debris ring around Fomalhaut, though HD 202628 is a more mature star with an estimated age of about 2 Gyr. We also provide surface brightness limits for nine other stars in our study with strong Spitzer excesses around which no debris disks were detected in scattered light (HD 377, HD 7590, HD 38858, HD 45184, HD 73350, HD 135599, HD 145229, HD 187897, and HD 201219).

  4. The detection capability of space-based combined system for space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yalin; Wang, Chao; Fu, Qiang; Zhan, Juntong; Han, Long

    2016-01-01

    It is urgent to tracking and making a catalog for space debris, since they are such serious threats to spacecraft. Space-based detection possess a great of development potential for its low energy consumption, high precision and miniaturization and other features. This paper discussed the capability of space-based combined system that is laser ranging and imaging integrated communication system. With the diameter of 15cm of space debris, the limit distance of communication, ranging and imaging system are discussed. The result shows that the limit distance of communication and energy imaging is longer, and the main factor to limit the distance is ranging and diffraction limit of imaging system.

  5. Parallel Computation of Orbit Determination for Space Debris Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Ramos-Lerate, Mercedes

    2009-03-01

    In this work we present an algorithm for computing Orbit Determination for Space Debris population. The method presents a high degree of parallelism. That means that the number of available computers divides the computational effort. The context of this work and the later scope is to have the capability of cataloguing and correlating the Space Debris population. In this sense, as better the accuracy provided by the orbit determination is, more accurate will be the estimation of the state vectors corresponding to the debris objects and better will be the accuracy of the future catalogue of Space Debris. As more objects we can determinate the corresponding orbit, more complete will be the future catalogue. Therefore numerical tools for orbit determination are a key point in the development of a future ESSAS. The first time that a new object is observed, six measurements (these measurements may come from RADAR, Ground Based Telescope or Space Based Telescope) are required for computing an Initial Orbit Determination (IOD). After that, the Initial Estimated State Vector (IESV) is improved within the next-coming measurement. The idea of this method is the following. From six initial measurements, we compute the IOD following the same ideas of [1]. We compute also the initial knowledge covariance matrix (IKCM) corresponding to the IESV. In general, the numerical error of the IOD is too big for processing the following measurements with a conventional numerical filter (like the Square Root Information Filter (SRIF)). The problem is that the improvement of the accuracy in the IOD is not an easy task in those cases with large initial error. However the computed IKCM give a realistic approximation of the committed error in the IOD. The proposed algorithm uses the IKCM for generating a cloud of IESVs. All the IESV inside the cloud are processed with a new and much smaller IKCM by using SRIF. In such a way that the ones that are close enough to the real state vector (and thus

  6. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  7. The International Space Station and the Space Debris Environment: 10 Years On

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    For just over a decade the International Space Station (ISS), the most heavily protected vehicle in Earth orbit, has weathered the space debris environment well. Numerous hypervelocity impact features on the surface of ISS caused by small orbital debris and meteoroids have been observed. In addition to typical impacts seen on the large solar arrays, craters have been discovered on windows, hand rails, thermal blankets, radiators, and even a visiting logistics module. None of these impacts have resulted in any degradation of the operation or mission of the ISS. Validating the rate of small particle impacts on the ISS as predicted by space debris environment models is extremely complex. First, the ISS has been an evolving structure, from its original 20 metric tons to nearly 300 metric tons (excluding logistics vehicles) ten years later. Hence, the anticipated space debris impact rate has grown with the increasing size of ISS. Secondly, a comprehensive visual or photographic examination of the complete exterior of ISS has never been accomplished. In fact, most impact features have been discovered serendipitously. Further complications include the estimation of the size of an impacting particle without knowing its mass, velocity, and angle of impact and the effect of shadowing by some ISS components. Inadvertently and deliberately, the ISS has also been the source of space debris. The U.S. Space Surveillance Network officially cataloged 65 debris from ISS from November 1998 to November 2008: from lost cameras, sockets, and tool bags to intentionally discarded equipment and an old space suit. Fortunately, the majority of these objects fall back to Earth quickly with an average orbital lifetime of less than two months and a maximum orbital lifetime of a little more than 15 months. The cumulative total number of debris object-years is almost exactly 10, the equivalent of one piece of debris remaining in orbit for 10 years. An unknown number of debris too small to be

  8. Small craters on the meteoroid and space debris impact experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humes, Donald H.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of 9.34 m(exp 2) of thick aluminum plates from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) using a 25X microscope revealed 4341 craters that were 0.1 mm in diameter or larger. The largest was 3 mm in diameter. Most were roughly hemispherical with lips that were raised above the original plate surface. The crater diameter measured was the diameter at the top of the raised lips. There was a large variation in the number density of craters around the three-axis gravity-gradient stabilized spacecraft. A model of the near-Earth meteoroid environment is presented which uses a meteoroid size distribution based on the crater size distribution on the space end of the LDEF. An argument is made that nearly all the craters on the space end must have been caused by meteoroids and that very few could have been caused by man-made orbital debris. However, no chemical analysis of impactor residue that will distinguish between meteoroids and man-made debris is yet available. A small area (0.0447 m(exp 2)) of one of the plates on the space end was scanned with a 200X microscope revealing 155 craters between 10 micron and 100 micron in diameter and 3 craters smaller than 10 micron. This data was used to extend the size distribution of meteoroids down to approximately 1 micron. New penetration equations developed by Alan Watts were used to relate crater dimensions to meteoroid size. The equations suggest that meteoroids must have a density near 2.5 g/cm(exp 3) to produce craters of the shape found on the LDEF. The near-Earth meteoroid model suggests that about 80 to 85 percent of the 100 micron to 1 mm diameter craters on the twelve peripheral rows of the LDEF were caused by meteoroids, leaving 15 to 20 percent to be caused by man-made orbital debris.

  9. Development of in-situ Space Debris Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Waldemar; Romberg, O.; Wiedemann, C.; Drolshagen, G.; Vörsmann, P.

    2014-11-01

    Due to high relative velocities, collisions of spacecraft in orbit with Space Debris (SD) or Micrometeoroids (MM) can lead to payload degradation, anomalies as well as failures in spacecraft operation, or even loss of mission. Flux models and impact risk assessment tools, such as MASTER (Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference) or ORDEM (Orbital Debris Engineering Model), and ESABASE2 or BUMPER II are used to analyse mission risk associated with these hazards. Validation of flux models is based on measured data. Currently, as most of the SD and MM objects are too small (millimeter down to micron sized) for ground-based observations (e.g. radar, optical), the only available data for model validation is based upon retrieved hardware investigations e.g. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). Since existing data sets are insufficient, further in-situ experimental investigation of the SD and MM populations are required. This paper provides an overview and assessment of existing and planned SD and MM impact detectors. The detection area of the described detectors is too small to adequately provide the missing data sets. Therefore an innovative detection concept is proposed that utilises existing spacecraft components for detection purposes. In general, solar panels of a spacecraft provide a large area that can be utilised for in-situ impact detection. By using this method on several spacecraft in different orbits the detection area can be increased significantly and allow the detection of SD and MM objects with diameters as low as 100 μm. The design of the detector is based on damage equations from HST and EURECA solar panels. An extensive investigation of those panels was performed by ESA and is summarized within this paper. Furthermore, an estimate of the expected sensitivity of the patented detector concept as well as examples for its implementation into large and small

  10. In-space technology development: Atomic oxygen and orbital debris effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T.; Potter, Andrew E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier Shuttle flight experiments have shown atomic oxygen within the orbital environment can interact with many materials to produce surface recession and mass loss and combine catalytically with other constituents to generate visible and infrared glows. In addition to these effects, examinations of returned satellite hardware have shown many spacecraft materials are also susceptible to damage from high velocity impacts with orbital space debris. These effects are of particular concern for large, multi-mission spacecraft, such as Space Station and SDI operational satellites, that will operate in low-Earth orbit (LEO) during the late 1990's. Not only must these spacecraft include materials and exterior coatings that are resistant to atomic oxygen surface interactions, but these materials must also provide adequate protection against erosion and pitting that could result from numerous impacts with small particles (less than 100 microns) of orbital space debris. An overview of these concerns is presented, and activities now underway to develop materials and coatings are outlined that will provide adequate atomic protection for future spacecraft. The report also discusses atomic oxygen and orbital debris flight experiments now under development to expand our limited data base, correlate ground-based measurments with flight results, and develop an orbital debris collision warning system for use by future spacecraft.

  11. Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Compiler); Su, S. Y. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Earth orbital debris issues and recommended future activities are discussed. The workshop addressed the areas of environment definition, hazards to spacecraft, and space object management. It concluded that orbital debris is a potential problem for future space operations. However, before recommending any major efforts to control the environment, more data are required. The most significant required data are on the population of debris smaller than 4 cm in diameter. New damage criteria are also required. When these data are obtained, they can be combined with hypervelocity data to evaluate the hazards to future spacecraft. After these hazards are understood, then techniques to control the environment can be evaluated.

  12. Active Debris Removal mission design in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Th.; Pérot, E.; Desjean, M.-Ch.; Bitetti, L.

    2013-03-01

    Active Debris Removal (ADR) aims at removing large sized intact objects ― defunct satellites, rocket upper-stages ― from space crowded regions. Why? Because they constitute the main source of the long-term debris environment deterioration caused by possible future collisions with fragments and worse still with other intact but uncontrolled objects. In order to limit the growth of the orbital debris population in the future (referred to as the Kessler syndrome), it is now highly recommended to carry out such ADR missions, together with the mitigation measures already adopted by national agencies (such as postmission disposal). At the French Space Agency, CNES, and in the frame of advanced studies, the design of such an ADR mission in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is under evaluation. A two-step preliminary approach has been envisaged. First, a reconnaissance mission based on a small demonstrator (˜500 kg) rendezvousing with several targets (observation and in-flight qualification testing). Secondly, an ADR mission based on a larger vehicle (inherited from the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept) being able to capture and deorbit several preselected targets by attaching a propulsive kit to these targets. This paper presents a flight dynamics level tradeoff analysis between different vehicle and mission concepts as well as target disposal options. The delta-velocity, times, and masses required to transfer, rendezvous with targets and deorbit are assessed for some propelled systems and propellant less options. Total mass budgets are then derived for two end-to-end study cases corresponding to the reconnaissance and ADR missions mentioned above.

  13. Kent in space: Cosmic dust to space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, J. A. M.

    1994-10-01

    The dusty heritage of the University of Kent's Space Group commenced at Jodrell Bank, Cheshire, U.K., the home of the largest steerable radio telescope. While Professor Bernard Lovell's 250 ft. diameter telescope was used to command the U.S. deep space Pioneer spacecraft, Professor Tony McDonnell, as a research student in 1960, was developing a space dust detector for the US-UK Ariel program. It was successful. With a Ph.D. safely under the belt, it seemed an inevitable step to go for the next higher degree, a B.T.A.] Two years with NASA at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, provided excellent qualifications for such a graduation ('Been to America'). A spirited return to the University of Kent at Canterbury followed, to one of the green field UK University sites springing from the Robbins Report on Higher Education. Swimming against the current of the brain drain, and taking a very considerable reduction in salary, it was with some disappointment that he found that the UK Premier Harold Wilson's 'white-hot technological revolution' never quite seemed to materialize in terms of research funding] Research expertise, centered initially on cosmic dust, enlarged to encompass planetology during the Apollo program, and rightly acquired international acclaim, notching up a history of space missions over 25 years. The group now comprises 38 people supported by four sources: the government's Research Councils, the University, the Space Agencies and Industry. This paper describes the thrust of the group's Research Plan in Space Science and Planetology; not so much based on existing international space missions, but more helping to shape the direction and selection of space missions ahead.

  14. Active Debris Removal and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent modeling studies on the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have underlined the need for active debris removal. A 2009 analysis by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office shows that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products in the environment. Many of these objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 7 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects on a yearly basis, in a cost-effective manner, represents many challenges in technology development, engineering, and operations. This paper outlines the fundamental rationale for considering active debris removal and addresses the two possible objectives of the operations -- removing large debris to stabilize the environment and removing small debris to reduce the threat to operational spacecraft. Technological and engineering challenges associated with the two different objectives are also discussed.

  15. An improved astrometric calibration technique for space debris observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rong-Yu; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Lu, Yao

    2016-02-01

    An optical survey is the main technique for detecting space debris. Due to the specific characteristics of observation, the pointing errors and tracking errors of the telescope as well as image degradation may be significant, which make it difficult for astrometric calibration. Here we present an improved method that corrects the pointing and tracking errors, and measures the image position precisely. The pipeline is tested on a number of CCD images obtained from a 1-m telescope administered by Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory while observing a GPS satellite. The results show that the position measurement error of the background stars is around 0.1 pixel, while the time cost for a single frame is about 7.5 s; hence the reliability and accuracy of our method are demonstrated. In addition, our method shows a versatile and feasible way to perform space debris observation utilizing non-dedicated telescopes, which means more sensors could be involved and the ability to perform surveys could be improved.

  16. The Predicted Growth of the Low Earth Orbit Space Debris Environment: An Assessment of Future Risk for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.

    2007-01-01

    Space debris is a worldwide-recognized issue concerning the safety of commercial, military, and exploration spacecraft. The space debris environment includes both naturally occuring meteoroids and objects in Earth orbit that are generated by human activity, termed orbital debris. Space agencies around the world are addressing the dangers of debris collisions to both crewed and robotic spacecraft. In the United States, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center leads the effort to categorize debris, predict its growth, and formulate mitigation policy for the environment from low Earth orbit (LEO) through geosynchronous orbit (GEO). This paper presents recent results derived from the NASA long-term debris environment model, LEGEND. It includes the revised NASA sodium potassium droplet model, newly corrected for a factor of two over-estimation of the droplet population. The study indicates a LEO environment that is already highly collisionally active among orbital debris larger than 1 cm in size. Most of the modeled collision events are non-catastrophic (i.e., They lead to a cratering of the target, but no large scale fragmentation.). But they are potentially mission-ending, and take place between impactors smaller than 10 cm and targets larger than 10 cm. Given the small size of the impactor these events would likely be undetectable by present-day measurement means. The activity continues into the future as would be expected. Impact rates of about four per year are predicted by the current study within the next 30 years, with the majority of targets being abandoned intacts (spent upper stages and spacecraft). Still, operational spacecraft do show a small collisional activity, one that increases over time as the small fragment population increases.

  17. Elimination of space debris and objects of natural origin by laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V V

    2013-09-30

    We discuss the application of ground-based repetitively pulsed, high-frequency DF-laser systems and space-based Nd : YAG-laser systems for elimination of space debris and objects of natural origin. We have estimated the average power level of such systems ensuring destruction of space debris and similar objects. (laser applications)

  18. Adaptive Optics for Satellite Imaging and Space Debris Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, F.; D'Orgeville, C.; Price, I.; Rigaut, F.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    Earth's space environment is becoming crowded and at risk of a Kessler syndrome, and will require careful management for the future. Modern low noise high speed detectors allow for wavefront sensing and adaptive optics (AO) in extreme circumstances such as imaging small orbiting bodies in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) at the Australian National University have been developing AO systems for telescopes between 1 and 2.5m diameter to image and range orbiting satellites and space debris. Strehl ratios in excess of 30% can be achieved for targets in LEO with an AO loop running at 2kHz, allowing the resolution of small features (<30cm) and the capability to determine object shape and spin characteristics. The AO system developed at RSAA consists of a high speed EMCCD Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror (DM), and realtime computer (RTC), and an imaging camera. The system works best as a laser guide star system but will also function as a natural guide star AO system, with the target itself being the guide star. In both circumstances tip-tilt is provided by the target on the imaging camera. The fast tip-tilt modes are not corrected optically, and are instead removed by taking images at a moderate speed (>30Hz) and using a shift and add algorithm. This algorithm can also incorporate lucky imaging to further improve the final image quality. A similar AO system for space debris ranging is also in development in collaboration with Electro Optic Systems (EOS) and the Space Environment Management Cooperative Research Centre (SERC), at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Canberra, Australia. The system is designed for an AO corrected upward propagated 1064nm pulsed laser beam, from which time of flight information is used to precisely range the target. A 1.8m telescope is used for both propagation and collection of laser light. A laser guide star, Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and DM are used for high order

  19. The geocentric particulate distribution: Cometary, asteroidal, or space debris?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Ratcliff, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Definition of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) particulate environment has been refined considerably with the analysis of data from NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Measurements of the impact rates from particulates ranging from sub-micron to millimetres in dimension and, especially, information on their directionality has permitted new scrunity of the sources of the particulates. Modelling of the dynamics of both bound (Earth orbital) and unbound (hyperbolic interplanetary) particulates intercepting LDEF's faces leads to the conclusion that the source is dominantly interplanetary for particle dimensions of greater than some 5 microns diameter; however the anisotropy below this dimension demands lower velocities and is compatible with an orbital component. Characteristics of the LDEF interplanetary component are compatible with familiar meteoroid sources and deep space measurements. Understanding of the orbital component which exceeds the interplanetary flux by a factor of 4 is less clear; although the very small particulates in orbit have been associated with space debris (Lawrance and Brownlee, 1986) this data conflicts with other measurements (McDonnell, Carey and Dixon, 1984) at the same epoch. By analysis of trajectories approaching the Earth and its atmosphere, we have shown that a significant contribution could be captured by aerocapture, i.e., atmospheric drag, from either asteroidal or cometary sources; such enhancement is unlikely however to provide the temporal and spatial fluctuations observed by the LDEF Interplanetary Dust Experiment (Mullholland et al. 1992). A further new mechanism is also examined, that of aerofragmentation capture, where an atmospheric grazing trajectory, which would not normally lead to capture, leads to fragmentation by thermal or mechanical shock; the microparticulates thus created can be injected in large numbers, but only into short-lifetime orbits. The concentration in one particular orbit plane, could explain the

  20. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Recent Studies and Technology Developments in the Area of SSA/Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Hovater, Mary; Kos, Larry

    2012-01-01

    NASA/MSFC has been investigating the various aspects of the growing orbital debris problem since early 2009. Data shows that debris ranging in size from 5 mm to 10 cm presents the greatest threat to operational spacecraft today. Therefore, MSFC has focused its efforts on small orbital debris. Using off-the-shelf analysis packages, like the ESA MASTER software, analysts at MSFC have begun to characterize the small debris environment in LEO to support several spacecraft concept studies and hardware test programs addressing the characterization, mitigation, and ultimate removal, if necessary, of small debris. The Small Orbital Debris Active Removal (SODAR) architectural study investigated the overall effectiveness of removing small orbital debris from LEO using a low power, space-based laser. The Small Orbital Debris Detection, Acquisition, and Tracking (SODDAT) conceptual technology demonstration spacecraft was developed to address the challenges of in-situ small orbital debris environment classification including debris observability and instrument requirements for small debris observation. Work is underway at MSFC in the areas of hardware and testing. By combining off the shelf digital video technology, telescope lenses, and advanced video image FPGA processing, MSFC is building a breadboard of a space based, passive orbital tracking camera that can detect and track faint objects (including small debris, satellites, rocket bodies, and NEOs) at ranges of tens to hundreds of kilometers and speeds in excess of 15 km/sec,. MSFC is also sponsoring the development of a one-of-a-kind Dynamic Star Field Simulator with a high resolution large monochrome display and a custom collimator capable of projecting realistic star images with simple orbital debris spots (down to star magnitude 11-12) into a passive orbital detection and tracking system with simulated real-time angular motions of the vehicle mounted sensor. The dynamic star field simulator can be expanded for multiple

  1. ROGER a potential orbital space debris removal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Juergen; Bischof, Bernd; Foth, W.-O.; -J., J.; Günther

    The previous activities in the field of On Orbit Servicing studied in the 1990's included in partic-ular the capability of vehicles in GEO to capture and support satellites (mainly communication satellites) to enable repair and continuation of operations, and finally the controlled transfer the target into a permanent graveyard orbit. The specific capture tools for these applications were mostly based on robotic systems to capture and fix the target under specific dynamic constraints (e.g. slowly tumbling target) without damage, and to allow the stabilization, re-orientation and potential repair of the target and subsequent release or transport to the final disposal orbit. Due to the drastically increasing number of debris particularly in the Low Earth Orbits (SSO) the active debris removal is now necessary to counteract to the predicted debris production cascade (Kessler Syndrome), which means the pollution of the total sphere in low earth orbit and not only the SSO area. In most of the debris congresses it was recommended to start removal with the still integrated systems as soon as possible. In the case of large debris objects, the soft capture system can be replaced by a simpler and robust system able to operate from a safe distance to the target and flexible enough to capture and hold different types of targets such as deactivated and/or defective satellites, upper stages and big fragments. These nominally non -cooperative targets might be partially destroyed by the capture process, but the production of additional debris shall be avoided. A major argument for the commercial applications is a multi-target mission potential, which is possible at GEO because the transfer propellant requirement to the disposal orbit and the return to the orbit of the next potential target is relative low (orbits with similar inclination and altitude). The proposed ROGER system is designed as a spacecraft with rendezvous capabilities including inspection in the vicinity of the

  2. On the effects of solar storms to the decaying orbital space debris

    SciTech Connect

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Rachman, Abdul

    2014-03-24

    Any man-made object in Earth's orbit that no longer serves a useful purpose is classified as orbital debris. Debris objects come from a variety of sources. The majority is related to satellite fragmentation. Other major sources of debris are propulsion systems, and fragmentation of spent upper stages, payload and mission related debris. Serious concern about orbital debris has been growing. Knowledge of the future debris environment is important to both satellite designers, and mission planners, who need to know what hazards a satellite might encounter during the course of its mission. Therefore, it is important to know how much debris is in orbit, where it is located, and when it will decay. The debris environment is complex and dynamically evolving. Objects of different shape and size behave differently in orbit. The geoeffectiveness space environments include solar flux at 10.7 cm, solar energetic particles flux or speed, solar wind flow pressure, electric field, and geomagnetic indices. We study the decaying orbital debris from Tracking and Impact Prediction (TIP) messages in conjuction with geoeffectiveness space environments through time epoch correlation. We found that the decaying and reentry orbital debris are triggered by space environment enhancement within at least one week before reentry. It is not necessary a transient or high energetic and severe solar storm events are needed in decaying processes. We propose that the gradual enhancement processes of space environment will cause satellite surface charging due to energetic electron and enhance drag force.

  3. Controlling the Growth of Future LEO Debris Populations with Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Johnson, N. L.; Hill, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    Active debris removal (ADR) was suggested as a potential means to remediate the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment as early as the 1980s. The reasons ADR has not become practical are due to its technical difficulties and the high cost associated with the approach. However, as the LEO debris populations continue to increase, ADR may be the only option to preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations. An initial study was completed in 2007 to demonstrate that a simple ADR target selection criterion could be developed to reduce the future debris population growth. The present paper summarizes a comprehensive study based on more realistic simulation scenarios, including fragments generated from the 2007 Fengyun-1C event, mitigation measures, and other target selection options. The simulations were based on the NASA long-term orbital debris projection model, LEGEND. A scenario, where at the end of mission lifetimes, spacecraft and upper stages were moved to 25-year decay orbits, was adopted as the baseline environment for comparison. Different annual removal rates and different ADR target selection criteria were tested, and the resulting 200-year future environment projections were compared with the baseline scenario. Results of this parametric study indicate that (1) an effective removal strategy can be developed based on the mass and collision probability of each object as the selection criterion, and (2) the LEO environment can be stabilized in the next 200 years with an ADR removal rate of five objects per year.

  4. ISU Team Project: An Integral View on Space Debris Mitigation and Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Philipp; Ricote Navarro, Carmon; Jehn, Rudiger; Gini, Andrea; Faure, Pauline; Adriaensen, Maarten; Datta, Iman; Hilbich, Daniel; Jacimovic, Aleksandar; Jacques, Lionel; Penent, Guilhem; Sinn, Thomas; Shioi, Hiroaki

    2013-08-01

    The issue of space debris poses challenges not only in technical, but also legal, political and economic dimensions. A sustainable solution needs to take into account all of them. This paper investigates such a potential solution in a multidisciplinary approach. To this end, it addresses the effectiveness of the existing debris mitigation guidelines, and identifies technical improvements for mitigation. It continues examining technical concepts for debris removal and performing proper cost-benefit trade-offs. The results of new simulations to assess the damage cost caused by space debris are presented. Based on these findings, an organizational framework and political recommendations are developed which will enable a sustainable use of space starting in 2020. The findings are compiled into a roadmap, which outlines 1) a path to the full adherence to debris mitigation guidelines and 2) the removal of ten large pieces of debris per year by a dedicated international organization, including expected expenditures necessary for its implementation.

  5. Characterization of space station multilayer insulation damage due to hypervelocity space debris impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rule, William Keith

    1990-01-01

    Four main tasks were accomplished. The first three tasks were related to the goal of measuring the degradation of the insulating capabilities of Space Station multilayer insulation (MLI) due to simulated space debris impacts at hypervelocities. The last task was associated with critically reviewing a Boeing document on the fracture characteristics of the Space Station pressure wall when subjected to a simulated hypervelocity space debris impact. In Task 1, a thermal test procedure for impact damaged MLI specimens was written. In Task 2, damaged MLI specimens were prepared. In Task 3, a computer program was written to simulate MLI thermal tests. In Task 4, the author reviewed a Boeing document describing hypervelocity impact testing on biaxially stressed plates.

  6. Space Debris Size Estimation Based on New Statistical Characteristics of Radar Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Wang, Zhuang; Hu, Weidong

    2009-03-01

    Radar Cross Section (RCS) of space debris is generally related to space debris geometrical structure. The estimation of space debris size from RCS is investigated in this paper. We first establish an ellipsoid model. Then, by researching the RCS series of ellipsoid, it is denoted that the ratio of the number of the bigger than the mean value of RCS series to the number of the smaller is equal to the ellipsoid's curvature. And this statistical characteristics is demonstrated in the paper. Based on it, we estimate the long and short axial size of space debris. A number of practical data is processed using this method, and the estimated values are compared with the result of MIT Lincoln Laboratory's method. The result suggests that the method has a high precision, and the estimated size can provide much information to space debris surveillance.

  7. Observation of space debris and GEO satellites in Derenivka, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepishev, Vitaly; Molotov, Igor; Kouprianov, Vladimir; Perig, Vasyl; Nojbauer, Ivan; Motrunich, Ivan

    Laboratory of space researches observe artificial satellites from its creation time. Geostationary satellites are main line of interest. Also we observe low orbit satellites, get photometric curves of LEO objects. Photometry of satellites in emergency situations is another main line of interest in laboratory research. We obtain such photometry curves for satellites like “Phobos-Gunt”, “Egypt-Sat”, “Sich-2”. Analyzing such photometric curves we obtain information about satellite position in space, it's shape and orientation, and if there is enough information we can tell what happened with satellite. From year 2010 Laboratory start collaboration with ISON project. In Derenivka point (that is situated in 15 km from Uzhgorod city) was mounted 25 cm telescope Takahashi BRC-250M with CCD camera Apogee Alta U9 (2049 x 3079). Telescope was mounted on WS-180 equatorial mount. Installation works was finished in November 2010 and we start to observe GSO with a modern equipment. From that time we usually observe 30 - 35 thousand of measurements in year. In this year we plan to install another telescope 40 cm diameter for observation of faint objects of space debris.

  8. Space Shuttle Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threat Assessment Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, J.; Christiansen, E.

    Prior to each shuttle mission, Meteoroid and orbital Debris (M/OD) threat assessments are performed to determine the critical penetration risk for the orbiter vehicle, the radiator tube leak risk &the window replacement risk. Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the assessment. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). An M/OD risk analysis is typically performed in support of orbiter Cargo Integration Reviews (CIR) and Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR). Three types of M/OD risk are assessed. The most important involves the calculation of "critical" penetration risk, defined as penetrations that may result in the catastrophic loss of vehicle and crew. Critical failure criteria have been established though detailed engineering evaluations by NASA and Boeing. The radiator assessment is concerned with premature end-of- mission due to loss of a coolant loop. The window assessment is a postflight maintenance and logistics issue. The result s are provided to the Space Shuttle Vehicle Engineering Office (MV) the Space and Life Science Directorate (SA) at JSC. This paper will document the inputs used in the critical penetration analysis for CIR, FRR, and post-flight assessments, it will also serve as a reference for the Space Shuttle Orbiter finite element model (FEM) surface property definitions that are used in M/OD threat assessments.

  9. Comparison between ASI, CNES and JAXA CCD analysis software for optical space debris monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolillo, Fabrizio; Laas-Bourez, Myrtille; Yanagisawa, Toshifumi; Cappelletti, Chantal; Graziani, Filippo; Vidal, Bruno

    Since nineties Italian Space Agency (ASI), Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales CNES and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) play an important role in Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) activities. Respectively the Group of Astrodynamics of Uni-versity Sapienza of Rome (GAUSS), TAROT team (Télescope a Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires) and Institute of Aerospace Technology (IAT), participate in optical space debris monitoring activities (WG1 at IADC ) with the following facilities: 1. SpaDE observatory of ASI/GAUSS in Collepardo (Fr.), country-regionplaceItaly. 2. TAROT observatories of CNES: one in Chili (ESO LA Silla) and one in placecountry-regionFrance (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, at Calern). 3. Nyukasayama Observatory of IAT/JAXA, country-regionplaceJapan. Due to the large amount of data collected during the IADC coordinated observation campaigns and the autonomous campaigns, these research groups developed three different software for image processing automation and for the correlation of the detected objects with the catalogue. Using these software the three different observatories are improving the knowledge of the space debris population, in particular in the so-called geostationary belt (AI23.4 IADC International 2007 optical observation campaigns in higher Earth orbits and AI23.2 Investigation of high A/m ratio debris in higher Earth orbits), but they use different space debris monitoring techniques. With the aim to improve CCD analysis capabilities of each research group, during the 27th IADC meeting ASI, CNES and JAXA started a cooperation in this field on the comparison between the image processing software. The objectives of this activity are: 1. Test of ASI, CNES and JAXA CCD analysis software on real images taken in the 3 dif-ferent observation strategies (each observatory uses a particular objects extraction pro-cedure). 2. Results comparison: number of bad detection, number of good detection, processing

  10. Microbiological analysis of debris from Space Transportation System (STS)-55 Spacelab D-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Filter debris from the Spacelab module D-2 of STS-55 was analyzed for microbial contamination. Debris from cabin and avionics filters was collected by Kennedy Space Center personnel on May 8, 1993, 2 days postflight. Debris weights were similar to those of previous Spacelab missions. Approximately 5.1E+5 colony forming units per gram of debris were enumerated from the cabin and avionics filter debris, respectively. these numbers were similar in previous missions for which the entire contents were analyzed without sorting of the material. Bacterial diversity was small compared to previous missions, with no gram negative bacteria isolated. Only one bacterial species, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, was not isolated previously by the laboratory from Spacelab debris. This organism is a normal inhabitant of the pharynx. A table listing all species of bacteria isolated by the laboratory from previous Spacelab air filters debris collection is provided.

  11. Ice/frost/debris assessment for space shuttle mission STS-27R, December 2, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    An Ice/Frost/Debris assessment was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-27R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by an on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is viewed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage. The Ice/Frost/Debris conditions of Mission STS-27R and their effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  12. Ice/frost/debris assessment for space shuttle mission STS-26R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    An Ice/Frost/Debris Assessment was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-26R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/Frost conditions are assessed by use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by an on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is viewed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage. The Ice/Frost/Debris conditions of Mission 26R and their effect on the Space Shuttle Program is documented.

  13. Ice/frost/debris assessment for space shuttle Mission STS-32 (61-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Speece, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    An Ice/Frost/Debris assessment was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-32 (61-C). This assessment begins with debris inspections of the flight elements and launch facilities before and after launch. Ice/Frost formations are calculated during cryogenic loading of the external tank followed by an on-pad assessment of the Shuttle vehicle and pad at T-3 hours in the countdown. High speed films are reviewed after launch to identify Ice/Frost/Debris sources and investigate potential vehicle damage. The Ice/Frost/Debris conditions and their effects on the Space Shuttle are documented.

  14. KSC ice/frost/debris assessment for space shuttle mission STS-29R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    An ice/frost/debris assessment was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-29R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by an on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage. The ice/frost/debris conditions of Mission STS-29R and their effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  15. KSC ice/frost/debris assessment for Space Shuttle Mission STS-30R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    An ice/frost/debris assessment was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-30R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by an on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage. The ice/frost/debris conditions of Mission STS-30R and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program is documented.

  16. Impact of high-risk conjunctions on Active Debris Removal target selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidtke, Aleksander A.; Lewis, Hugh G.; Armellin, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Space debris simulations show that if current space launches continue unchanged, spacecraft operations might become difficult in the congested space environment. It has been suggested that Active Debris Removal (ADR) might be necessary in order to prevent such a situation. Selection of objects to be targeted by ADR is considered important because removal of non-relevant objects will unnecessarily increase the cost of ADR. One of the factors to be used in this ADR target selection is the collision probability accumulated by every object. This paper shows the impact of high-probability conjunctions on the collision probability accumulated by individual objects as well as the probability of any collision occurring in orbit. Such conjunctions cannot be predicted far in advance and, consequently, not all the objects that will be involved in such dangerous conjunctions can be removed through ADR. Therefore, a debris remediation method that would address such events at short notice, and thus help prevent likely collisions, is suggested.

  17. NASA Now: Technology: Orbital Debris -- Man-made Objects in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Nicholas Johnson is chief scientist for the Orbital Debris Office at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. The office monitors nearly 22,000 objects in space every single day to keep astronauts...

  18. NASA Now Minute: Technology: Orbital Debris -- Man-made Objects in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Nicholas Johnson is chief scientist for the Orbital Debris Office atNASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. The office monitors nearly 22,000objects in space every single day to keep astronauts...

  19. An Assessment of Potential Detectors to Monitor the Man-made Orbital Debris Environment. [space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. C.; Ruck, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Observations using NORAD radar showed that man made debris exceeds the natural environment for large objects. For short times (a few days to a few weeks) after solid rocket motor (SRM) firings in LEO, man made debris in the microparticle size range also appears to exceed the meteoroid environment. The properties of the debris population between these size regimes is currently unknown as there has been no detector system able to perform the required observations. The alternatives for obtaining data on this currently unobserved segment of the population are assessed.

  20. Dynamical investigation of minor resonances for space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celletti, Alessandra; Galeş, Cătălin

    2015-10-01

    We study the dynamics of the space debris in regions corresponding to minor resonances; precisely, we consider the resonances 3:1, 3:2, 4:1, 4:3, 5:1, 5:2, 5:3, 5:4, where a j:ℓ resonance (with j, ℓ in {Z}) means that the periods of revolution of the debris and of rotation of the Earth are in the ratio j/ℓ . We consider a Hamiltonian function describing the effect of the geopotential and we use suitable finite expansions of the Hamiltonian for the description of the different resonances. In particular, we determine the leading terms which dominate in a specific orbital region, thus limiting our computation to very few harmonics. Taking advantage from the pendulum-like structure associated to each term of the expansion, we are able to determine the amplitude of the islands corresponding to the different harmonics. By means of simple mathematical formulae, we can predict the occurrence of splitting or overlapping of the resonant islands for different values of the parameters. We also find several cases which exhibit a transcritical bifurcation as the inclination is varied. These results, which are based on a careful mathematical analysis of the Hamiltonian expansion, are confirmed by a numerical study of the dynamical behavior obtained by computing the so-called fast Laypunov indicators. Since the Hamiltonian approach includes just the effect of the geopotential, we validate our results by performing a numerical integration in Cartesian variables of a more complete model including the gravitational attraction of Sun and Moon, as well as the solar radiation pressure.

  1. Prediction of HAMR Debris Population Distribution Released from GEO Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengren, A.; Scheeres, D.

    2012-09-01

    The high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) debris population is thought to have origins in the GEO region. Many of these objects are uncharacterized with apparent area-to-mass ratios of up to 30 meters squared per kilogram. The orbits of HAMR objects are highly perturbed due to the combined effect of solar radiation pressure (SRP), anomalies of the Earth gravitational field, and third-body gravitational interactions induced by the Sun and the Moon. A sound understanding of their nature, orbital evolution, and possible origin is critical for space situational awareness. The study of the orbital evolution of HAMR objects, taking into account both short-period and long-period terms, requires numerical integration of the precise set of differential equations, and the investigation of a broad range of possible parameter values. However, such computations become very costly when continuously applied over a period of several decades, as is necessary in the case of HAMR debris. It therefore seems reasonable to investigate the equations that govern the long-term behavior of orbits; such equations can be derived by the method of averaging. We have validated a semi-analytical averaged theory of HAMR object orbit evolution against high precision numerical integrations, and are able to capture the extreme dynamical behaviors reported for these objects. This new averaged model, explicitly given in terms of the eccentricity and angular momentum vectors, is several hundred times faster to numerically integrate than the non-averaged Newtonian counterpart, and provides a very accurate description of the long-term behavior. Using this model, it is possible to make predictions of how a population of HAMR objects, released into GEO orbit, will evolve over time. Our earlier analyses revealed that the population would have a range of orbits much different than circular GEO. Their orbits will suffer a sub-yearly oscillation in the eccentricity and inclination evolutions, and a longer-term drift

  2. Orbit Prediction Tool for Different Classes of Space Debris Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnuk, Edwin; Wytrzyszczak, Iwona; Golembiewska, Justyna; Klinkrad, Heiner

    There are two aspects of the orbital evolution of space debris: the long-term evolution and the short-term prediction of individual object orbits. In the case of the long-term evolution (years or tens of years time span) general characteristics (e.g. total number of objects, spa-tial distribution and density) of a future space environment are predicted with the use of a relatively simple theory of motion for statistical analysis of future orbits of a large number of objects -a cloud of particles". In the short-term orbital evolution of space debris objects, as considered in this paper, future positions and velocities of individual objects are calculated for a few days or a few weeks time span. A much more sophisticated theory of satellite motion is applied in this case. The paper presents the orbital prediction tool that uses an analytical and semi-analytical theories of satellite motion. The force model includes all important perturbing factors: geopotential effects with arbitrary degree and order spherical harmonic coefficients taken into account, luni-solar attractions, solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. The analytical theory of motion is of the second order and is not sensitive to singularities for small eccentricities and small inclinations. A new algorithm for the transformation between mean and osculating elements for the second order theory is applied. Predicted positions of a satel-lite on a given level of accuracy are calculated only with the use of terms that essentially influence on predicted satellite orbit, all other terms are omitted. The number of terms in for-mulas for perturbations, and thus complexity of the theory, depends on the defined level of accuracy and the type of orbit. In practice, we create a dynamical model for a given class of satellite orbit. Geopotential and luni-solar perturbations are calculated in the two following steps. In the first step, values of secular terms and all amplitudes of periodic terms are calculated

  3. Recent Measurements of the Orbital Debris Environment at NASA Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, E. G.; Settecerri, T. J.; Africano, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    Space debris presents many challenges to current space operations. Although, the probability of collision between an operational spacecraft and a piece of space debris is quite small, the potential losses can be quite high. Prior to 1990, characterization of the orbital debris environment was divided into two categories. Objects larger than 10 cm are monitored by the United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and documented in the U.S. Space Command (USSPACECOM) catalog. Knowledge of debris smaller than 0.1 cm has come from the analyses of returned surfaces. The lack of information about the debris environment in the size range from 0.1 to 1 0 cm led to a joint NASA-DOD effort for orbital debris measurements using the Haystack radar and the unbuilt Haystack Auxiliary (HAX) radars. The data from these radars have been critical to the design of shielding for the International Space Station and have been extensively used in the creation of recent models describing the orbital debris environment. Recent debris campaigns have been conducted to verify and validate through comparative measurements, the results and conclusions drawn from the Haystack/HAX measurements. The Haystack/HAX measurements and results will be described as well as the results of the recent measurement campaigns.

  4. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the issue of space debris, particularly in low-Earth orbit, can no longer be ignored or simply mitigated. Orbital debris currently threatens safe space flight for both satellites and humans aboard the International Space Station. Additionally, orbital debris might impact Earth upon re-entry, endangering human lives and damaging the environment with toxic materials. In summary, orbital debris seriously jeopardizes the future not only of human presence in space, but also of human safety on Earth. While international efforts to mitigate the current situation and limit the creation of new debris are useful, recent studies predicting debris evolution have indicated that these will not be enough to ensure humanity's access to and use of the near-Earth environment in the long-term. Rather, active debris removal (ADR) must be pursued if we are to continue benefiting from and conducting space activities. While the concept of ADR is not new, it has not yet been implemented. This is not just because of the technical feasibility of such a scheme, but also because of the host of economic, legal/regulatory, and political issues associated with debris remediation. The costs of ADR are not insignificant and, in today's restrictive fiscal climate, are unlikely/to be covered by any single actor. Similarly, ADR concepts bring up many unresolved questions about liability, the protection of proprietary information, safety, and standards. In addition, because of the dual use nature of ADR technologies, any venture will necessarily require political considerations. Despite the many unanswered questions surrounding ADR, it is an endeavor worth pursuing if we are to continue relying on space activities for a variety of critical daily needs and services. Moreover, we cannot ignore the environmental implications that an unsustainable use of space will imply for life on Earth in the long run. This paper aims to explore some of these

  5. Space Debris-de-Orbiting by Vaporization Impulse using Short Pulse Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J; Bibeau, C; Claude, P

    2003-09-16

    Space debris constitutes a significant hazard to low earth orbit satellites and particularly to manned spacecraft. A quite small velocity decrease from vaporization impulses is enough to lower the perigee of the debris sufficiently for atmospheric drag to de-orbit the debris. A short pulse (picosecond) laser version of the Orion concept can accomplish this task in several years of operation. The ''Mercury'' short pulse Yb:S-FAP laser being developed at LLNL for laser fusion is appropriate for this task.

  6. Space debris observational test with the Medicina-Evpatoria bistatic radar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Bartolini, M.; Cevolani, G.; Di Martino, M.; Falkovich, I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Malevinskij, S.; Montebugnoli, S.; Nabatov, A.; Pluchino, S.; Salerno, E.; Schillirò, F.; Zoni, L.

    In the framework of the space debris monitoring program of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), the Italian Institute of Radioastronomy (IRA), the Turin Astronomical Observatory (OATO) and the Ukrainian Institute of Radioastronomy performed a space debris observational test by using the Medicina-Evpatoria bistatic radar. Several kinds of objects orbiting in LEO, MEO, GEO and HEO were selected as target in order to validate the hardware setup and new observational techniques. Echoes coming from small space debris were detected with an extremely high signal to noise ratio as well as still unknown orbiting objects were presumably discovered during the observations.

  7. UniSat-5: a space-based optical system for space debris monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Roberto, Riccardo; Cappelletti, Chantal

    2012-07-01

    Micro-satellite missions, thanks to the miniaturization process of electronic components, now have a broader range of applications. Gauss Group at School of Aerospace Engineering has been a pioneer in educational micro-satellites, namely with UNISAT and EDUSAT missions. Moreover it has been long involved in space debris related studies, such as optical observations as well as mitigation. A new project is under development for a compact digital imaging system. The purpose will be in situ observation of space debris on board Unisat-5 micro-satellite. One of the key elements of observing on orbit is that many atmospheric phenomena would be avoided, such as diffraction and EM absorption. Hence images would gain more contrast and solar spectral irradiance would be higher for the whole visible spectrum Earlier limitations of power and instrument size prevented the inclusion of these payloads in educational satellite missions. The system is composed of an optical tube, a camera, C band and S band transceivers and two antennas. The system is independent from the rest of the spacecraft. The optical tube is a Schmidt-Cassegrain reflector, and the magnitude limit is 13. The camera is equipped with a panchromatic 5Mpix sensor, capable of direct video streaming, as well as local storage of recorded images. The transceivers operate on ISM 2.4GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi bands, and they provide stand-alone communication capabilities to the payload, and Unisat-5 OBDH can switch between the two. Both transceivers are connected to their respective custom-designed patch antenna. The ground segment is constituted of a high gain antenna dish, which will use the same transceiver on board the spacecraft as the feed, in order to establish a TCP/IP wireless link. Every component of this system is a consumer grade product. Therefore price reduction of cutting edge imaging technology now allows the use of professional instruments, that combined with the new wireless technology developed for

  8. A Deterministic Approach to Active Debris Removal Target Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidtke, A.; Lewis, H.; Armellin, R.

    2014-09-01

    Many decisions, with widespread economic, political and legal consequences, are being considered based on space debris simulations that show that Active Debris Removal (ADR) may be necessary as the concerns about the sustainability of spaceflight are increasing. The debris environment predictions are based on low-accuracy ephemerides and propagators. This raises doubts about the accuracy of those prognoses themselves but also the potential ADR target-lists that are produced. Target selection is considered highly important as removal of many objects will increase the overall mission cost. Selecting the most-likely candidates as soon as possible would be desirable as it would enable accurate mission design and allow thorough evaluation of in-orbit validations, which are likely to occur in the near-future, before any large investments are made and implementations realized. One of the primary factors that should be used in ADR target selection is the accumulated collision probability of every object. A conjunction detection algorithm, based on the smart sieve method, has been developed. Another algorithm is then applied to the found conjunctions to compute the maximum and true probabilities of collisions taking place. The entire framework has been verified against the Conjunction Analysis Tools in AGIs Systems Toolkit and relative probability error smaller than 1.5% has been achieved in the final maximum collision probability. Two target-lists are produced based on the ranking of the objects according to the probability they will take part in any collision over the simulated time window. These probabilities are computed using the maximum probability approach, that is time-invariant, and estimates of the true collision probability that were computed with covariance information. The top-priority targets are compared, and the impacts of the data accuracy and its decay are highlighted. General conclusions regarding the importance of Space Surveillance and Tracking for the

  9. A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal to Stabilize the Future LEO Debris Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent analyses of the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resources, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of the effectiveness of ADR must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ADR to preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-cost ratio. This paper describes a comprehensive sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term, orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of many key parameters. These parameters include (1) the starting epoch of ADR implementation, (2) various target selection criteria, (3) the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers, (4) the consequence of targeting specific inclination or altitude regimes, (5) the consequence of targeting specific classes of vehicles, and (6) the timescale of removal. Additional analyses on the importance of postmission disposal and how future launches might affect the requirements to stabilize the environment are also included.

  10. A Sensitivity Study on the Effectiveness of Active Debris Removal in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. C.; Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    The near-Earth orbital debris population will continue to increase in the future due to ongoing space activities, on-orbit explosions, and accidental collisions among resident space objects. Commonly adopted mitigation measures, such as limiting postmission orbital lifetimes of satellites to less than 25 years, will slow down the population growth, but may be insufficient to stabilize the environment. The nature of the growth, in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region, is further demonstrated by a recent study where no future space launches were conducted in the environment projection simulations. The results indicate that, even with no new launches, the LEO debris population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris. Therefore, to better limit the growth of future debris population to protect the environment, remediation option, i.e., removing existing large and massive objects from orbit, needs to be considered. This paper does not intend to address the technical or economical issues for active debris removal. Rather, the objective is to provide a sensitivity study to quantify the effectiveness of various remediation options. A removal criterion based upon mass and collision probability is developed to rank objects at the beginning of each projection year. This study includes simulations with removal rates ranging from 2 to 20 objects per year, starting in the year 2020. The outcome of each simulation is analyzed, and compared with others. The summary of the study serves as a general guideline for future debris removal consideration.

  11. Effects of meteoroids and space debris on the particulate environment for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seebaugh, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    A large orbiting platform such as Space Station will be subjected to numerous impacts by meteoroids and space debris fragments. These hypervelocity impacts will produce clouds of ejected structural material in the vicinity of the Station. The development of a preliminary model for impact-generated ejecta production which combines the fluxes of meteoroids and space debris fragments with a description of the number of ejecta particles produced by hypervelocity impacts is reported. Modeling results give mean ejecta densities from 30 to 100 percent of the present particulate background limitation of 1 particle 5 microns and larger per orbit per 1 x 10(-5) sr field-of-view as seen by a 1-m-diameter aperture telescope in the 1990's time frame. Projected increases in the space debris flux raise this density to 300 percent of this limitation after 2010. The model is also applied to estimate the vulnerability of metallic claddings on composite structural members to penetration by hypervelocity projectiles, thereby exposing the substrate to atomic oxygen. The estimated annual number of penetrations is from 4 to 8 per square meter of cross-sectional area in the mid 1990's, increasing to more than 40 penetrations per square meter after 2010.

  12. Orbital evolution of space debris due to aerodynamic forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, R.

    1993-08-01

    The concepts used in the AUDIT (Assessment Using Debris Impact Theory) debris modelling suite are introduced. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to determine the dominant parameters in the modelling process. A test case simulating the explosion of a satellite suggest that at the parent altitude there is a greater probability of collision with more massive fragments.

  13. Investigations Some Impact Space Debris and Working Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovchyk, Yeva

    Combining the coordinate with the photometric date of the artificial satellite the information of its behavior on the orbit, its orientation, form and optical characteristics of the object’s surface could be determined. The successful solution of this task could be received only on the base of complex observations. It means that one must have coordinate and photometric observations from some (at least two) stations and the observations must be done synchronous. Photometric observations enable to record the reflection of the Sunlight from the separate fragments of the object’s surface. The periodic splashes give the information of the own rotation and the precession of the object. But from the light curve of the object to the information of its rotations is a long way of mathematics analysis with the supplement of the information from the other type observations. As the example the way of received the information of the behavior of the two satellites -- “EgyptSat” in the June-August 2010 after its collision on the orbit with unknown space debris and Russian station “Fobos-grunt” in the November 2011 during the unsuccessfully launching, inoperative spacecraft Envisat is shown. In the paper the initial observations and mathematical process of the solution of this task would be given. These investigations were made by the team "Astronoms from Ukraine" -- Ja. Blagodyr, A.Bilinsky, Ye.Vovchyk,K.Martyniyuk-Lotocky from Astronomical Observatory of Ivan Franko National University, Lviv; V.Yepishev, V.Kudak, I.Motrunych,I.Najbaer from Laboratory of the Space Investigations, National University of Uzgorod; N.Koshkin,L. Shakun from Astronomical Observatory of National University of Odessa; V.Lopachenko,V.Rykhalsky from National Centre of Direction and Testing of the Space System, Yevpatoriya.

  14. Space Shuttle and Launch Pad Lift-Off Debris Transport Analysis: SRB Plume-Driven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff; Strutzenberg, Louis; Dougherty, Sam; Radke, Jerry; Liever, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the Space Shuttle Lift-Off model developed for potential Lift-Off Debris transport. A critical Lift-Off portion of the flight is defined from approximately 1.5 sec after SRB Ignition up to 'Tower Clear', where exhaust plume interactions with the Launch Pad occur. A CFD model containing the Space Shuttle and Launch Pad geometry has been constructed and executed. The CFD model works in conjunction with a debris particle transport model and a debris particle impact damage tolerance model. These models have been used to assess the effects of the Space Shuttle plumes, the wind environment, their interactions with the Launch Pad, and their ultimate effect on potential debris during Lift-Off. Emphasis in this paper is on potential debris that might be caught by the SRB plumes.

  15. Finite element analysis of space debris removal by high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Li; Jiang, Guanlei; Yu, Shuang; Li, Ming

    2015-08-01

    With the development of space station technologies, irradiation of space debris by space-based high-power lasers, can locally generate high-temperature plasmas and micro momentum, which may achieve the removal of debris through tracking down. Considered typical square-shaped space debris of material Ti with 5cm×5cm size, whose thermal conductivity, density, specific heat capacity and emissivity are 7.62W/(m·°C), 4500kg/m3, 0.52J/(kg·°C) and 0.3,respectively, based on the finite element analysis of ANSYS, each irradiation of space debris by high-power lasers with power density 106W/m2 and weapons-grade lasers with power density 3000W/m2 are simulated under space environment, and the temperature curves due to laser thermal irradiation are obtained and compared. Results show only 2s is needed for high-power lasers to make the debris temperature reach to about 10000K, which is the threshold temperature for plasmas-state conversion. While for weapons-grade lasers, it is 13min needed. Using two line elements (TLE), and combined with the coordinate transformation from celestial coordinate system to site coordinate system, the visible period of space debris is calculated as 5-10min. That is, in order to remove space debris by laser plasmas, the laser power density should be further improved. The article provides an intuitive and visual feasibility analysis method of space debris removal, and the debris material and shape, laser power density and spot characteristics are adjustable. This finite element analysis method is low-cost, repeatable and adaptable, which has an engineering-prospective applications.

  16. A Laser Optical System to Remove Low Earth Orbit Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.; Baker, Kevin L.; Libby, Stephen B.; Liedahl, Duane A.; Olivier, Scot S.; Pleasance, Lyn D.; Rubenchik, Alexander; Nikolaev, Sergey; Trebes, James E.; George, Victor E.; Marrcovici, Bogdan; Valley, Michael T.

    2013-08-01

    Collisions between existing Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris are now a main source of new debris, threatening future use of LEO space. As solutions, flying up and interacting with each object is inefficient due to the energy cost of orbit plane changes, while debris removal systems using blocks of aerogel or gas-filled balloons are prohibitively expensive. Furthermore, these solutions to the debris problem address only large debris, but it is also imperative to remove 10-cm-class debris. In Laser-Orbital-Debris-Removal (LODR), a ground-based pulsed laser makes plasma jets on LEO debris objects, slowing them slightly, and causing them to re-enter the atmosphere and burn up. LODR takes advantage of recent advances in pulsed lasers, large mirrors, nonlinear optics and acquisition systems. LODR is the only solution that can address both large and small debris. International cooperation is essential for building and operating such a system. We also briefly discuss the orbiting laser debris removal alternative.

  17. Invited Paper: The MASTER-2009 Space Debris Environment Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flegel, S.; Gelhaus, J.; Wiedemann, C.; Vorsmann, P.; Oswald, M.; Stabroth, S.; Klinkrad, H.; Krag, H.

    2009-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the improvements which are currently being made to ESA's MASTER model in preparation for the release of the new version, MASTER- 2009, in spring 2010. Within the current maintenance contract, improvements are being made to the population source models to account for new findings. Multi-Layered Insulation will be added as a new source for space debris based on a previously published model. The current paper highlights the background for the implementation of the model and changes which are being made to original model. On the user side of the tool, improvements will be made to allow a detailed investigation of individual fragmentation events. In the event of major fragmentation events which may pose a threat to operational satellites population files will be made available for download over the MASTER website. In addition, the current graphical user interface architecture will be revised. This will allow the current JAVA based user interface to be used for the online version of MASTER, replacing the current MARWIN interface.

  18. Pulsed laser interactions with space debris: Target shape effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liedahl, D. A.; Rubenchik, A.; Libby, S. B.; Nikolaev, S.; Phipps, C. R.

    2013-05-24

    Among the approaches to the proposed mitigation and remediation of the space debris problem is the de-orbiting of objects in low Earth orbit through irradiation by ground-based high-intensity pulsed lasers. Laser ablation of a thin surface layer causes target recoil, resulting in the depletion of orbital angular momentum and accelerated atmospheric re-entry. However, both the magnitude and direction of the recoil are shape dependent, a feature of the laser-based remediation concept that has received little attention. Since the development of a predictive capability is desirable, we have investigated the dynamical response to ablation of objects comprising a variety of shapes.more » We derive and demonstrate a simple analytical technique for calculating the ablation-driven transfer of linear momentum, emphasizing cases for which the recoil is not exclusively parallel to the incident beam. For the purposes of comparison and contrast, we examine one case of momentum transfer in the low-intensity regime, where photon pressure is the dominant momentum transfer mechanism, showing that shape and orientation effects influence the target response in a similar, but not identical, manner. As a result, we address the related problem of target spin and, by way of a few simple examples, show how ablation can alter the spin state of a target, which often has a pronounced effect on the recoil dynamics.« less

  19. Improving space debris detection in GEO ring using image deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Jorge; Núñez, Anna; Montojo, Francisco Javier; Condominas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we present a method based on image deconvolution to improve the detection of space debris, mainly in the geostationary ring. Among the deconvolution methods we chose the iterative Richardson-Lucy (R-L), as the method that achieves better goals with a reasonable amount of computation. For this work, we used two sets of real 4096 × 4096 pixel test images obtained with the Telescope Fabra-ROA at Montsec (TFRM). Using the first set of data, we establish the optimal number of iterations in 7, and applying the R-L method with 7 iterations to the images, we show that the astrometric accuracy does not vary significantly while the limiting magnitude of the deconvolved images increases significantly compared to the original ones. The increase is in average about 1.0 magnitude, which means that objects up to 2.5 times fainter can be detected after deconvolution. The application of the method to the second set of test images, which includes several faint objects, shows that, after deconvolution, up to four previously undetected faint objects are detected in a single frame. Finally, we carried out a study of some economic aspects of applying the deconvolution method, showing that an important economic impact can be envisaged.

  20. Pulsed laser interactions with space debris: Target shape effects

    SciTech Connect

    Liedahl, D. A.; Rubenchik, A.; Libby, S. B.; Nikolaev, S.; Phipps, C. R.

    2013-05-24

    Among the approaches to the proposed mitigation and remediation of the space debris problem is the de-orbiting of objects in low Earth orbit through irradiation by ground-based high-intensity pulsed lasers. Laser ablation of a thin surface layer causes target recoil, resulting in the depletion of orbital angular momentum and accelerated atmospheric re-entry. However, both the magnitude and direction of the recoil are shape dependent, a feature of the laser-based remediation concept that has received little attention. Since the development of a predictive capability is desirable, we have investigated the dynamical response to ablation of objects comprising a variety of shapes. We derive and demonstrate a simple analytical technique for calculating the ablation-driven transfer of linear momentum, emphasizing cases for which the recoil is not exclusively parallel to the incident beam. For the purposes of comparison and contrast, we examine one case of momentum transfer in the low-intensity regime, where photon pressure is the dominant momentum transfer mechanism, showing that shape and orientation effects influence the target response in a similar, but not identical, manner. As a result, we address the related problem of target spin and, by way of a few simple examples, show how ablation can alter the spin state of a target, which often has a pronounced effect on the recoil dynamics.

  1. Analyzing the capability of a radio telescope in a bistatic space debris observation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhe; Zhao, You; Gao, Peng-Qi

    2013-12-01

    A bistatic space debris observation system using a radio telescope as the receiving part is introduced. The detection capability of the system at different working frequencies is analyzed based on real instruments. The detection range of targets with a fixed radar cross section and the detection ability of small space debris at a fixed range are discussed. The simulations of this particular observation system at different transmitting powers are also implemented and the detection capability is discussed. The simulated results approximately match the actual experiments. The analysis in this paper provides a theoretical basis for developing a space debris observation system that can be built in China.

  2. Space Debris Symposium (A6.) Measurements and Space Surveillance (1.): Measurements of the Small Particle Debris Cloud from the 11 January, 2007 Chinese Anti-satellite Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark J.; Stansbery, Eugene; J.-C Liou; Stokely, Christopher; Horstman, Matthew; Whitlock, David

    2008-01-01

    On January 11, 2007, the Chinese military conducted a test of an anti-satellite (ASAT) system, destroying their own Fengyun-1C spacecraft with an interceptor missile. The resulting hypervelocity collision created an unprecedented number of tracked debris - more than 2500 objects. These objects represent only those large enough for the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN) to track - typically objects larger than about 5-10 cm in diameter. There are expected to be even more debris objects at sizes too small to be seen and tracked by the SSN. Because of the altitude of the target satellite (865 x 845 km orbit), many of the debris are expected to have long orbital lifetimes and contribute to the orbital debris environment for decades to come. In the days and weeks following the ASAT test, NASA was able to use Lincoln Laboratory s Haystack radar on several occasions to observe portions of the ASAT debris cloud. Haystack has the capability of detecting objects down to less than one centimeter in diameter, and a large number of centimeter-sized particles corresponding to the ASAT cloud were clearly seen in the data. While Haystack cannot track these objects, the statistical sampling procedures NASA uses can give an accurate statistical picture of the characteristics of the debris from a breakup event. For years computer models based on data from ground hypervelocity collision tests (e.g., the SOCIT test) and orbital collision experiments (e.g., the P-78 and Delta-180 on-orbit collisions) have been used to predict the extent and characteristics of such hypervelocity collision debris clouds, but until now there have not been good ways to verify these models in the centimeter size regime. It is believed that unplanned collisions of objects in space similar to ASAT tests will drive the long-term future evolution of the debris environment in near-Earth space. Therefore, the Chinese ASAT test provides an excellent opportunity to test the models used to predict the future debris

  3. Large craters on the meteoroid and space debris impact experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humes, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    Examination of 29.37 sq m of thick aluminum plates from the LDEF, which were exposed to the meteoroid and man-made orbital debris environments for 5.8 years, revealed 606 craters that were 0.5 mm in diameter or larger. Most were nearly hemispherical. There was a large variation in the number density of craters around the three axis gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. A new model of the near-Earth meteoroid environment gives good agreement with the crater fluxes measured on the fourteen faces of the LDEF. The man-made orbital debris model of Kessler, which predicts that 16 pct. of the craters would be caused by man-made debris, is plausible. No chemical analyses of impactor residue that will distinguish between meteoroids and man-made debris is yet available.

  4. On-line estimation of inertia parameters of space debris for its tether-assisted removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Sharf, Inna; Misra, Arun; Huang, Panfeng

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for on-line inertia parameters estimation for a rigid space debris captured by a tethered system, based on a new dynamics model of the system where the base satellite (chaser) and the space debris (target) are modeled as rigid bodies and the attachment points of the tether are offset from the centers of mass of the two bodies. Parameters estimation of unknown debris is critical for subsequent tasks in the space debris remediation mission, in particular, for debris retrieval and de-orbiting. In the proposed algorithm, the chaser and target are modeled as rigid bodies, the latter with unknown inertia parameters. Then, the parameters identification problem is formulated and solved in three phases. First, a coarse estimate of the target mass is obtained during the post-capture phase, while the length of tether is much longer than the offsets of base and target satellite, and the rigid body model is degenerated to a mass point model. Then, with a proper tension control scheme and the coarse estimate used as an initial guess, the debris is retrieved smoothly and a precise mass estimate is achieved during the first half of the retrieval. Finally, when the tether is retrieved relatively short and the rigid body model is used, moments of inertia and the offsets of the space debris will be estimated with a proper tension control scheme for rigid body model.

  5. Comparison of the 1999 beam-park experiment results with space debris models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehn, R.

    2001-01-01

    In order to validate space debris environment models they have to be compared with measurement data. US radars and the German FGAN radar are used since some years to measure the debris environment in the centimetre size range. In 1999, two 24-hour beam-park experiments were performed at FGAN in the framework of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). The observed detection rates can be evaluated to derive a confidence interval for the total number of objects in specified altitude bins which can be directly compared with the models. The difficulty consists in the fact that a radar does not have a uniform detection sensitivity within the radar beam. Thus, the concept of "average detection threshold" is described and used in this paper. For the FGAN TIRA system this average detection threshold is 1.6 cm for objects at 500 km range and 2.5 cm at 1100 km range. The analysis shows that the ESA MASTER (Meteoroid And Space debris Terrestrial Environment Reference) model, the DERA IDES (Integrated Debris Evolution Suite) model, the NASA/JSC EVOLVE model and the CNUCE Orbital Debris Reference Model (CODRM) are at the lower end or even below the measurement derived confidence intervals at most altitudes which means an underestimation of the current space debris environment.

  6. Active Debris Removal - A Grand Engineering Challenge for the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2010-01-01

    The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 underlined the potential of an ongoing collision cascade effect (the Kessler Syndrome ) in the near-Earth orbital debris environment. A 2006 NASA analysis of the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude) shows that the environment has reached a point where the debris population will continue to increase in the next 200 years, even without any future launches. The increase is driven by fragments generated via collisions among existing objects in LEO. In reality, the situation will be worse than this prediction because satellite launches will continue and unexpected major breakups may continue to occur. Mitigation measures commonly adopted by the international space community (such as the 25-year rule) will help, but will be insufficient to stop the population growth. To better preserve the near-Earth space environment for future generations, active debris removal (ADR) should be considered. The idea of active debris removal is not new. However, due to the monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges associated with removing objects from orbit, it has not yet been widely considered feasible. The recent major breakup events and the environment modeling efforts have certainly reignited the interest in using active debris removal to remediate the environment. This trend is further highlighted by the National Space Policy of the United States of America, released by the White House in June 2010, where the President explicitly directs NASA and the Department of Defense to pursue research and development of technology and techniques, to mitigate and remove on-orbit debris, reduce hazards, and increase understanding of the current and future debris environment. A 2009 modeling study by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has shown that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years

  7. Upgrade of DRAMA-ESA's Space Debris Mitigation Analysis Tool Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelhaus, Johannes; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Braun, Vitali; Kebschull, Christopher; de Oliveira, Joaquim Correia; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Raul; Wiedemann, Carsten; Krag, Holger; Vorsmann, Peter

    2013-08-01

    One decade ago ESA started the dev elopment of the first version of the software tool called DRAMA (Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis) to enable ESA space programs to assess their compliance with the recommendations in the European Code of Conduct for Space Debris Mitigation. This tool was maintained, upgraded and extended during the last year and is now a combination of five individual tools, each addressing a different aspect of debris mitigation. This paper gives an overview of the new DRAMA software in general. Both, the main tools ARES, OSCAR, MIDAS, CROC and SARA will be discussed and the environment used by DRAMA will be explained shortly.

  8. Review of uncertainty sources affecting the long-term predictions of space debris evolutionary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolado-Perez, J. C.; Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2015-08-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik-I in 1957, the amount of space debris in Earth's orbit has increased continuously. Historically, besides abandoned intact objects (spacecraft and orbital stages), the primary sources of space debris in Earth's orbit were (i) accidental and intentional break-ups which produced long-lasting debris and (ii) debris released intentionally during the operation of launch vehicle orbital stages and spacecraft. In the future, fragments generated by collisions are expected to become a significant source as well. In this context, and from a purely mathematical point of view, the orbital debris population in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) should be intrinsically unstable, due to the physics of mutual collisions and the relative ineffectiveness of natural sink mechanisms above~700 km. Therefore, the real question should not be "if", but "when" the exponential growth of the space debris population is supposed to start. From a practical point of view, and in order to answer the previous question, since the end of the 1980's several sophisticated long-term debris evolutionary models have been developed. Unfortunately, the predictions performed with such models, in particular beyond a few decades, are affected by considerable uncertainty. Such uncertainty comes from a relative important number of variables that being either under the partial control or completely out of the control of modellers, introduce a variability on the long-term simulation of the space debris population which cannot be captured with standard Monte Carlo statistics. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss many of the uncertainty sources affecting the long-term predictions done with evolutionary models, in order to serve as a roadmap for the uncertainty and the statistical robustness analysis of the long-term evolution of the space debris population.

  9. Detection of Space-debris Using Space-Based Integrated Detection and Image Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzazy, M.; Justice, J.

    2014-09-01

    Detection and cataloguing of space-debris is paramount to satellite operations. Space debris vary in size from very small objects 10-4 m2 to large objects approximately > 1 m2. The detection of small debris using earth-based telescopes and detection systems present a great challenge; long integration time, and large blur due to atmospheric turbulence. Space-based detection systems are usually expensive and have limited image processing capabilities to detect and track space debris. In this paper we describe the development of a relatively inexpensive space-based integrated sensor/processor that allows the detection of objects as small as 10-4 m2 at 50 km range (equivalent to star magnitude 10). The sensor noise floor is equivalent to star magnitude 12. The sensor field of regard is 60°x120°. The elevation field of regard is covered by two 25 mega-pixel focal plane arrays, each with 4 cm aperture covering 30 degrees field of view. A gimbal is then used to scan the sensor in the azimuthal direction. The sensor frame rate to cover the full field of regard is 10 frames/sec. The FPA outputs are processed onboard to register the images, remove background stars, identify the debris, and determine their coordinate and sidereal motion relative to the camera frame of reference. Image registration: rotation and translation to sub-pixel level was achieved using Radon transformation and fast Fourier transform techniques. The image registration algorithm was optimized to run on an FPGA. Star background is then removed from the registered images and the location and sidereal motion of the debris are then determined. The image processing system uses stars with magnitudes between 5 and 7 along with a look-up table map of the sky to convert the debris coordinate system to an inertial coordinate system which is then transmitted to the ground. A high fidelity simulation model has been developed and used to guide and test the image processing algorithms. The high fidelity simulation

  10. Eddy Currents applied to de-tumbling of space debris: feasibility analysis, design and optimization aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Gómez, Natalia; Walker, Scott J. I.

    Existent studies on the evolution of the space debris population show that both mitigation measures and active debris removal methods are necessary in order to prevent the current population from growing. Active debris removal methods, which require contact with the target, show complications if the target is rotating at high speeds. Observed rotations go up to 50 deg/s combined with precession and nutation motions. “Natural” rotational damping in upper stages has been observed for some debris objects. This phenomenon occurs due to the eddy currents induced by the Earth’s magnetic field in the predominantly conductive materials of these man made rotating objects. The idea presented in this paper is to submit the satellite to an enhanced magnetic field in order to subdue it and damp its rotation, thus allowing for its subsequent de-orbiting phase. The braking method that is proposed has the advantage of avoiding any kind of mechanical contact with the target. A deployable structure with a magnetic coil at its end is used to induce the necessary braking torques on the target. This way, the induced magnetic field is created far away from the chaseŕs main body avoiding undesirable effects on its instruments. This paper focuses on the overall design of the system and the parameters considered are: the braking time, the power required, the mass of the deployable structure and the magnetic coil system, the size of the coil, the materials selection and distance to the target. The different equations that link all these variables together are presented. Nevertheless, these equations lead to several variables which make it possible to approach the engineering design as an optimization problem. Given that only a few variables remain, no sophisticated numerical methods are called for, and a simple graphical approach can be used to display the optimum solutions. Some parameters are open to future refinements as the optimization problem must be contemplated globally in

  11. On the simulation of tether-nets for space debris capture with Vortex Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Eleonora M.; Sharf, Inna; Misra, Arun K.; Teichmann, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Tether-nets are one of the more promising methods for the active removal of space debris. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of this type of systems in space, which is still not well-known and the simulation of which has multiple outstanding issues. In particular, the focus is on the deployment and capture phases of a net-based active debris removal mission, and on the effect of including the bending stiffness of the net threads on the dynamical characteristics of the net and on the computational efficiency. Lumped-parameter modeling of the net in Vortex Dynamics, without bending stiffness representation, is introduced first and validated then, against results obtained with an equivalent model in Matlab, using numerical simulations of the deployment phase. A model able to reproduce the bending stiffness of the net in Vortex Dynamics is proposed, and the outcome of a net deployment simulation is compared to the results of simulation without bending stiffness. A simulation of net-based capture of a derelict spacecraft is analyzed from the point of view of evaluating the effect of modeling the bending stiffness. From comparison of simulations with and without bending stiffness representation, it is found that bending stiffness has a significant influence both on the simulation results and on the computation time. When bending stiffness is included, the net is more resistant to the changes in its shape caused both by the motion of the corner masses (during deployment) and by the contact with the debris (during capture).

  12. Space debris removal using a high-power ground-based laser

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The feasibility and practicality of using a ground-based laser (GBL) to remove artificial space debris is examined. Physical constraints indicate that a reactor-pumped laser (RPL) may be best suited for this mission, because of its capabilities for multimegawatt output long run-times, and near-diffraction-limited initial beams. Simulations of a laser-powered debris removal system indicate that a 5-MW RPL with a 10-meter-diameter beam director and adaptive optics capabilities can deorbit 1-kg debris from space station altitudes. Larger debris can be deorbited or transferred to safer orbits after multiple laser engagements. A ground-based laser system may be the only realistic way to access and remove some 10,000 separate objects, having velocities in the neighborhood of 7 km/sec, and being spatially distributed over some 10{sup 10} km{sup 3} of space.

  13. Space debris removal using a high-power ground-based laser

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    The feasibility and practicality of using a ground-based laser (GBL) to remove artificial space debris is examined. Physical constraints indicate that a reactor-pumped laser (RPL) may be best suited for this mission, because of its capabilities for multimegawatt output, long run-times, and near-diffraction-limited initial beams. Simulations of a laser-powered debris removal system indicate that a 5-MW RPL with a 10-meter-diameter beam director and adaptive optics capabilities can deorbit 1-kg debris from space station altitudes. Larger debris can be deorbited or transferred to safer orbits after multiple laser engagements. A ground-based laser system may be the only realistic way to access and remove some 10,000 separate objects, having velocities in the neighborhood of 7 km/sec, and being spatially distributed over some 10{sup 10} km{sup 3} of space.

  14. Effective Echo Detection and Accurate Orbit Estimation Algorithms for Space Debris Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoda, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Takuya; Sato, Toru

    Orbit estimation of space debris, objects of no inherent value orbiting the earth, is a task that is important for avoiding collisions with spacecraft. The Kamisaibara Spaceguard Center radar system was built in 2004 as the first radar facility in Japan devoted to the observation of space debris. In order to detect the smaller debris, coherent integration is effective in improving SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio). However, it is difficult to apply coherent integration to real data because the motions of the targets are unknown. An effective algorithm is proposed for echo detection and orbit estimation of the faint echoes from space debris. The characteristics of the evaluation function are utilized by the algorithm. Experiments show the proposed algorithm improves SNR by 8.32dB and enables estimation of orbital parameters accurately to allow for re-tracking with a single radar.

  15. New method of space debris cleaning based on light negative force: tractor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiongge; Gao, Long; Li, Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of space debris removal and protection, that is, using tractor laser, which based on light negative force, to achieve space debris cleaning and shielded. Tractor laser is traceable from the theory of optical tweezers, accompanied with non-diffraction beam. These kind of optical beams have the force named negative force pointing to optical source, this will bring the object along the trajectory of laser beam moving to the optical source. The negative force leads to the new method to convey and sampling the space micro-objects. In this paper, the application of tractor laser in the space debris collection and protection of 1cm is studied. The application of the several tractor beams in the space debris and sample collection is discussed. The proposed method can reduce the requirements of the laser to the satellite platform, and realize the collection of space debris, make the establishment of the space garbage station possible, and help to study the spatial non contact sample transmission and reduce the risk of space missions.

  16. An analytic method of space debris cloud evolution and its collision evaluation for constellation satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binbin; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    When a debris cloud is formed in the neighborhood of a constellation, the constellation satellites will face a serious threat of collision. In order to evaluate the collision probability in a long time scale, first we build an analytic model to describe the evolution process of the debris cloud. Under the perturbations of atmospheric drag, nonspherical gravity field, etc., results of numerical simulation indicate that after the breakup of an object, the distribution of debris cloud will evolve into a relatively stable band. Based on the stable distribution characteristic of the debris cloud, fragments are divided into several groups according their orbital heights and area-mass ratios. For each debris group, the dynamics of the distribution process under the perturbation of atmosphere drag is described by a partial differential equation (PDE). Solutions of those PDEs are obtained. And the distribution of the debris cloud can be easily propagated over long time scales. Applying this analytic model, the collision probability between a debris cloud and the Globalstar satellites is analyzed and computed. Results show that the collision probability is nearly 10,000 times of the average collision probability in the near Earth environment. Moreover, as the band distribution of the space debris cloud is stable, the collisional risk on constellation satellites will last for quite a long time.

  17. Sensor model for space-based local area sensing of debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Paul D.; Naudeau, Madeleine L.; Farrell, Thomas; Sorge, Marlon E.; Adjouadi, Malek

    2013-06-01

    A model is being developed to evaluate the capabilities of various LWIR sensors and combinations of sensors to provide Local Area Awareness for satellites in low-Earth and geostationary orbit. The model being developed will be used to evaluate the system performance of LWIR detectors mounted at various locations on the satellite against multiple observation scenarios with multiple debris configurations. LWIR sensors have been chosen as the detector technology for the initial phase of research because of their ability to operate with the sun in their field of view (FOV) while imaging nearby debris in the long-wave infrared band without the need for additive components such as baffles or solar occluders. This report describes progress on the development of this model. Preliminary results demonstrate the modeling of debris and its LWIR signature for each simulated orbital path. Results are presented in terms of radiant flux of the tracked debris. Radiant flux results are shown for all times the observed debris can be seen by the observing satellite or sensor platform. These results are evaluated for each face, or side, of the observed debris, as well as a composite of all faces. It is shown that intensity-based detection and characterization techniques may be quantified from this research, based on the different emissivities and temperatures of certain space debris materials. The results presented in this report are of simulated debris in the local are of a GEO based sensing platform.

  18. Methodology of design and analysis of external walls of space station for hypervelocity impacts by meteoroids and space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batla, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of criteria and methodology for the design and analysis of Space Station wall elements for collisions with meteoroids and space debris at hypervelocities is discussed. These collisions will occur at velocities of 10 km/s or more and can be damaging to the external wall elements of the Space Station. The wall elements need to be designed to protect the pressurized modules of the Space Station from functional or structural failure due to these collisions at hypervelocities for a given environment and population of meteoroids and space debris. The design and analysis approach and the associated computer program presented is to achieve this objective, including the optimization of the design for a required overall probability of no penetration. The approach is based on the presently available experimental and actual data on meteoroids and space debris flux and damage assessments and the empirical relationships resulting from the hypervelocity impact studies in laboratories.

  19. Optical and In-situ Debris Measurements under Collaboration with Space Weather Science and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Yoshikawa, Akimasa; Yanagisawa, Toshifumi; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    Kyushu University established International Centre for Space Weather Science and Education, shortly ICSWSE, in April 2012. The ICSWSE is leading two major research areas. One is magnetized environment of the Earth, and the other is space debris environment. Now, the ICSWSE fuses these two major research areas into one new project to contribute to the protection of space environment and space situational awareness. The ICSWSE has already established a technical and human network under the MAGnetic Data Acquisition System / Circum pan Pacific Magnetometer Array (MAGDAS/CPMN) project. Now, the ICSWSE is willing to establish a measurement network for space debris using small-aperture optical telescopes and small satellite constellation under the technical and human network, being named DEBris Data Acquisition System (DEBDAS). The telescopes are well organized to be robotically and remotely controlled, including sophisticated image processing techniques and orbit estimation software. The satellites are conducting in-situ measurements of micron-size debris using an easy-to-operate new sensor developed at JAXA. Data acquired from the systems will be analyzed and modeled in a manner coupled with space weather science to provide a better understanding of the present and future space debris environment. The ICSWSE also aims at education for practical astronomy and space engineering at Kyushu University, collaborative measurements in combination between robotic telescopes and small satellites, space environmental awareness and space science, including debris generation and resulting environment. Practical astronomy provides you with planning and observation, processing and detection, and origin identification. Space engineering provides you with small satellite design, production, and operation.

  20. Photon counting detector for space debris laser tracking and lunar laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan; Blazej, Josef; Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, Franz

    2014-08-01

    We are reporting on a design, construction and performance of solid state photon counting detector package which has been designed for laser tracking of space debris. The detector has been optimized for top photon detection efficiency and detection delay stability. The active area of the commercially available avalanche photodiode manufactured on Si (SAP500 supplied by Laser Components, Inc.) is circular with a diameter of 500 μm. The newly designed control circuit enables to operate the detection sensor at a broad range of biases 5-50 V above its breakdown voltage of 125 V. This permits to select a right trade-off between photon detection efficiency, timing resolution and dark count rate. The photon detection efficiency exceeds 70% at the wavelength of 532 nm. This is the highest photon detection efficiency ever reported for such a device. The timing properties of the detector have been investigated in detail. The timing resolution is better than 80 ps r.m.s, the detection delay is stable within units of picoseconds over several hours of operation. The detection delay stability in a sense of time deviation of 800 fs has been achieved. The temperature change of the detection delay is 0.5 ps/K. The detector has been tested as an echo signal detector in laser tracking of space debris at the satellite laser station in Graz, Austria. Its application in lunar laser ranging is under consideration by several laser stations.

  1. Bi-objective optimization of a multiple-target active debris removal mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérend, Nicolas; Olive, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of space debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) raises the question of future Active Debris Removal (ADR) operations. Typical ADR scenarios rely on an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) using one of the two following disposal strategies: the first one consists in attaching a deorbiting kit, such as a solid rocket booster, to the debris after rendezvous; with the second one, the OTV captures the debris and moves it to a low-perigee disposal orbit. For multiple-target ADR scenarios, the design of such a mission is very complex, as it involves two optimization levels: one for the space debris sequence, and a second one for the "elementary" orbit transfer strategy from a released debris to the next one in the sequence. This problem can be seen as a Time-Dependant Traveling Salesman Problem (TDTSP) with two objective functions to minimize: the total mission duration and the total propellant consumption. In order to efficiently solve this problem, ONERA has designed, under CNES contract, TOPAS (Tool for Optimal Planning of ADR Sequence), a tool that implements a Branch & Bound method developed in previous work together with a dedicated algorithm for optimizing the "elementary" orbit transfer. A single run of this tool yields an estimation of the Pareto front of the problem, which exhibits the trade-off between mission duration and propellant consumption. We first detail our solution to cope with the combinatorial explosion of complex ADR scenarios with 10 debris. The key point of this approach is to define the orbit transfer strategy through a small set of parameters, allowing an acceptable compromise between the quality of the optimum solution and the calculation cost. Then we present optimization results obtained for various 10 debris removal scenarios involving a 15-ton OTV, using either the deorbiting kit or the disposal orbit strategy. We show that the advantage of one strategy upon the other depends on the propellant margin, the maximum duration allowed

  2. A laser-optical system to re-enter or lower low Earth orbit space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.

    2014-01-01

    Collisions among existing Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris are now a main source of new debris, threatening future use of LEO space. Due to their greater number, small (1-10 cm) debris are the main threat, while large (>10 cm) objects are the main source of new debris. Flying up and interacting with each large object is inefficient due to the energy cost of orbit plane changes, and quite expensive per object removed. Strategically, it is imperative to remove both small and large debris. Laser-Orbital-Debris-Removal (LODR), is the only solution that can address both large and small debris. In this paper, we briefly review ground-based LODR, and discuss how a polar location can dramatically increase its effectiveness for the important class of sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) objects. With 20% clear weather, a laser-optical system at either pole could lower the 8-ton ENVISAT by 40 km in about 8 weeks, reducing the hazard it represents by a factor of four. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a space-based LODR system. We estimate cost per object removed for these systems. International cooperation is essential for designing, building and operating any such system.

  3. Laser/space material uncooperative propulsion for orbital debris removal and asteroid, meteoroid, and comet deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Taylor, Charles R.; Smalley, Larry L.; Dickerson, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Orbital debris in low-Earth orbit in the size range from 1 to 10 cm in diameter can be detected but not tracked reliably enough to be avoided by spacecraft. It can cause catastrophic damage even to a shielded spacecraft. With adaptive optics, a ground-based pulsed laser ablating the debris surface can produce enough propulsion in several hundred pulses to cause such debris to reenter the atmosphere. A single laser station could remove all of the 1-10 cm debris in three years or less. A technology demonstration of laser space propulsion is proposed which would pave the way for the implementation of such a debris removal system. The cost of the proposed demonstration is comparable with the estimated annual cost of spacecraft operations in the present orbital debris environment. Orbital debris is not the only space junk that is deleterious to the Earth's environment. Collisions with asteroids have caused major havoc to the Earth's biosphere many times in the ancient past. Since the possibility still exists for major impacts, it is shown that it is possible to scale up the systems to prevent these catastrophic collisions given sufficient early warning.

  4. Space debris removal by ground-based lasers: main conclusions of the European project CLEANSPACE.

    PubMed

    Esmiller, Bruno; Jacquelard, Christophe; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Wnuk, Edwin

    2014-11-01

    Studies show that the number of debris in low Earth orbit is exponentially growing despite future debris release mitigation measures considered. Specifically, the already existing population of small and medium debris (between 1 cm and several dozens of cm) is today a concrete threat to operational satellites. A ground-based laser solution which can remove, at low expense and in a nondestructive way, hazardous debris around selected space assets appears as a highly promising answer. This solution is studied within the framework of the CLEANSPACE project which is part of the FP7 space program. The overall CLEANSPACE objective is: to propose an efficient and affordable global system architecture, to tackle safety regulation aspects, political implications and future collaborations, to develop affordable technological bricks, and to establish a roadmap for the development and the future implantation of a fully functional laser protection system. This paper will present the main conclusions of the CLEANSPACE project. PMID:25402937

  5. Space debris removal using a high-power ground-based laser

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, D.K.

    1993-08-01

    The feasibility of utilizing a ground-based laser without an orbital mirror for space debris removal is examined. Technical issues include atmospheric transmission losses, adaptive-optics corrections of wavefront distortions, laser field of view limitations, and laser-induced impulse generation. The physical constraints require a laser with megawatt output, long run-time capability, and wavelength with good atmospheric transmission characteristics. It is found that a 5-MW reactor-pumped laser can deorbit debris having masses of the order of one kilogram from orbital altitudes to be used by Space Station Freedom. Debris under one kilogram can be deorbited after one pass over the laser site, while larger debris can be deorbited or transferred to alternate orbits after multiple passes over the site.

  6. LDEF (Prelaunch), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray F11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray F11 The Space Debris Impact Experiment consist of two (2) three sixteenth (3/16th) inch thick chromic anodized aluminum panels mounted in a three (3) inch deep peripheral LDEF experiment tray. The side of the panels exposed to the LDEF interior are painted black with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 wash primer. The panels are attached to the aluminum tray structure with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The panel coatings, a thin layer of chromic anodize facing out and the Chemglaze Z-306 black paint facing the LDEF interior, contribute significantly to thermal control of the LDEF spacecraft. The photograph shown is a photograph of a spare flight Debris experiment tray and is used as a prototype for descriptive purposes only. An individual photograph of each Debris Experiment tray was not taken prior to installation of the tray on the LDEF.

  7. The first velocity space image of a planetary debris disc orbiting a white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manser, Christopher James

    2015-12-01

    Since the first ESS meeting, dusty debris discs at white dwarfs have been firmly established as signposts of evolved planetary systems. We have identified a small number of systems where the circumstellar dust is accompanied by gas. The emission lines from these gaseous components are tracers of dynamic activity in these remnant planetary environments, and provide unparalleled insight into the formation and evolution of the debris discs, and into the properties of the parent planetesimals.Here we present the twelve years of spectroscopy of the prototypical gas disc at SDSS J1228+1040, revealing a spectacular long-term evolution in the morphology of the emission line profiles. Using Doppler tomography, we constructed an image of the gaseous disc in velocity space, and show that the observations are consistent with the precession of a fixed intensity pattern on a period of 27 ± 3 years. We speculate that the underlying cause of this dynamical activity is either a young, not fully circularised disc, or a perturbation of a previously stable and quiescent disc.

  8. Evaluation of Space Debris Impact on Spacecraft Structure Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashide, Masumi; Onose, Naomi; Hasegawa, Sunao

    Mission-critical components of unmanned spacecraft, such as electronic equipment, are often mounted on the interior surfaces of structure panels. This study investigated debris impact damage to structure panels to assess the degree to which they can protect components. If debris perforates a structure panel but is stopped by the equipment chassis, the impact will not affect the probability of mission success. The ballistic limit of the chassis therefore equals to the damage limit of the structure panel. To estimate this damage limit, hypervelocity impact experiments were conducted on sets of a honeycomb sandwich panel, simulating a structure panel, fixed directly to an aluminum alloy plate, simulating an equipment chassis, with no gap between the two. Debris environment models show that alumina debris particles smaller than 1 mm in diameter are dominant in low earth orbit, and the average impact velocity is over 10 km/sec. However, advanced techniques are required to accelerate small solid projectiles to such speeds, so steel projectiles at 6 km/sec were used to simulate the impact pressure caused by alumina impacting at 9 km/sec. The depths of the resulting impact craters on the chassis plates were measured with an optical microscope, and the damage limit equation of the structure panels was derived from the crater depths. The calculated damage limit equation was compared with the SRL ballistic limit equations. As a result, it was found that the equation obtained in this study showed safety results but was too robust. The stand-off distance between honeycomb sandwich panel and aluminum alloy plate was effective to decrease depths of craters in the plate.

  9. Design of a shuttle-based space debris telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, E. H.; Talent, D. L.; Tritsch, C. L.; Vilas, F.

    1990-01-01

    A 1.6-meter diameter f/0.95 all-reflecting telescope was designed to observe orbital debris particles as small as 1 mm from the shuttle payload bay. The telescope was specified to have a flat focal surface without the imposition of refractive elements. Two design configurations involving three mirrors were evaluated - a reflective Schmidt-Cassegrain and a modified Paul corrector. The Paul system was found to be more compact and appropriate for this application.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Micrometeoroid and Space Debris Impacts on the Space Station "Salyut-4"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebrikov, V. N.

    2009-03-01

    It is common to consider the flow of micrometeoroids and space debris (MM/SD) as the Poisson one when calculating risks for spaceship [1]. However even the first studies of the near Earth space with the aid of spaceships where sensors of particle registrations have been set allow us to suppose that registered streams have very complex features [2-3].The objective of this work is the statistical analysis of MM/SD registration data onboard station "Salut-4" and specification of their distribution models in the near Earth. As initial data we used results of studies performed on stations "Salyut-4" and obtained with the help of the control system. This system was used for detecting of the MM/SD impacts and consisted of condenser sensors (CS) and an electronic device.

  11. The Top 10 Questions for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. -C.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement and issues around removal of debris from the earth orbital environment. The 10 questions discussed are: 1. Which region (LEO/MEO/GEO) has the fastest projected growth rate and the highest collision activities? 2. Can the commonly-adopted mitigation measures stabilize the future environment? 3. What are the objectives of active debris removal (ADR)? 4. How can effective ADR target selection criteria to stabilize the future LEO environment be defined? 5. What are the keys to remediate the future LEO environment? 6. What is the timeframe for ADR implementation? 7. What is the effect of practical/operational constraints? 8. What are the collision probabilities and masses of the current objects? 9. What are the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers? 10. What is the next step?

  12. Real-time ground-based optical detection system for space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, Jonathan; Green, Simon; Dick, James

    1996-10-01

    There are many advantages to supplementing ground based radar debris detection systems with optical systems. For example: objects with a low radar signature can still be optically bright (and vice versa); in the field of space debris optical detection is less sensitive to range; the minimum detectable debris size for a given range is less than that for radar. Destructive debris can be as small as 1 cm, so any improvement in detection sensitivity towards this standard is important. To improve the accuracy of debris orbital elements, a real-time detection system might be preferable in contrast to one in which images are stored for post-observation ('daytime') analysis. This is because more than one telescope is needed to lengthen the observing baseline and so increase the detected fraction of the debris orbit. Therefore, any software based at one telescope that recognizes debris in its field of view, produces a first approximation of its orbit elements and alerts extra telescopes along track, must process its data quickly, and preferably during the same pass. A prototype of such a software system under development for use with a CCD camera at the Royal Greenwich Observatory's satellite laser ranger at Herstmonceux, East Sussex, England, is outlined. The methods which the detection algorithm employs to handle data from the camera system are described, along with the limitations that the hardware and processing time impose on the physical nature of the problem.

  13. Computational methodology to predict satellite system-level effects from impacts of untrackable space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, N.; Rudolph, M.; Schäfer, F.; Apeldoorn, J.; Janovsky, R.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a computational methodology to predict the satellite system-level effects resulting from impacts of untrackable space debris particles. This approach seeks to improve on traditional risk assessment practices by looking beyond the structural penetration of the satellite and predicting the physical damage to internal components and the associated functional impairment caused by untrackable debris impacts. The proposed method combines a debris flux model with the Schäfer-Ryan-Lambert ballistic limit equation (BLE), which accounts for the inherent shielding of components positioned behind the spacecraft structure wall. Individual debris particle impact trajectories and component shadowing effects are considered and the failure probabilities of individual satellite components as a function of mission time are calculated. These results are correlated to expected functional impairment using a Boolean logic model of the system functional architecture considering the functional dependencies and redundancies within the system.

  14. The mechanics of motorised momentum exchange tethers when applied to active debris removal from LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldecott, Ralph; Kamarulzaman, Dayangku N. S.; Kirrane, James P.; Cartmell, Matthew P.; Ganilova, Olga A.

    2014-12-01

    The concept of momentum exchange when applied to space tethers for propulsion is well established, and a considerable body of literature now exists on the on-orbit modelling, the dynamics, and also the control of a large range of tether system applications. The authors consider here a new application for the Motorised Momentum Exchange Tether by highlighting three key stages of development leading to a conceptualisation that can subsequently be developed into a technology for Active Debris Removal. The paper starts with a study of the on-orbit mechanics of a full sized motorised tether in which it is shown that a laden and therefore highly massasymmetrical tether can still be forced to spin, and certainly to librate, thereby confirming its possible usefulness for active debris removal (ADR). The second part of the paper concentrates on the modelling of the centripetal deployment of a symmetrical MMET in order to get it initialized for debris removal operations, and the third and final part of the paper provides an entry into scale modelling for low cost mission design and testing. It is shown that the motorised momentum exchange tether offers a potential solution to the removal of large pieces of orbital debris, and that dynamic methodologies can be implemented to in order to optimise the emergent design.

  15. The mechanics of motorised momentum exchange tethers when applied to active debris removal from LEO

    SciTech Connect

    Caldecott, Ralph; Kamarulzaman, Dayangku N. S.; Kirrane, James P.; Cartmell, Matthew P.; Ganilova, Olga A.

    2014-12-10

    The concept of momentum exchange when applied to space tethers for propulsion is well established, and a considerable body of literature now exists on the on-orbit modelling, the dynamics, and also the control of a large range of tether system applications. The authors consider here a new application for the Motorised Momentum Exchange Tether by highlighting three key stages of development leading to a conceptualisation that can subsequently be developed into a technology for Active Debris Removal. The paper starts with a study of the on-orbit mechanics of a full sized motorised tether in which it is shown that a laden and therefore highly massasymmetrical tether can still be forced to spin, and certainly to librate, thereby confirming its possible usefulness for active debris removal (ADR). The second part of the paper concentrates on the modelling of the centripetal deployment of a symmetrical MMET in order to get it initialized for debris removal operations, and the third and final part of the paper provides an entry into scale modelling for low cost mission design and testing. It is shown that the motorised momentum exchange tether offers a potential solution to the removal of large pieces of orbital debris, and that dynamic methodologies can be implemented to in order to optimise the emergent design.

  16. The bistatic radar capabilities of the Medicina radiotelescopes in space debris detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Pupillo, G.; Salerno, E.; Pluchino, S.; di Martino, M.

    2010-03-01

    An accurate measurement of the position and trajectory of the space debris fragments is of primary importance for the characterization of the orbital debris environment. The Medicina Radioastronomical Station is a radio observation facility that is here proposed as receiving part of a ground-based space surveillance system for detecting and tracking space debris at different orbital regions (from Low Earth Orbits up to Geostationary Earth Orbits). The proposed system consists of two bistatic radars formed by the existing Medicina receiving antennas coupled with appropriate transmitters. This paper focuses on the current features and future technical development of the receiving part of the observational setup. Outlines of possible transmitting systems will also be given together with the evaluation of the observation strategies achievable with the proposed facilities.

  17. Determining the effects of space debris impacts on spacecraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, William J.; Connell, John C.; McKnight, Darren S.; Allahdadi, Firooz; Reinhardt, Al; Hunt, Ronald D.; Hogg, David M.

    1992-07-01

    A Spacecraft Breakup Modeling Program initiated by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) in support of the DoD/NASA/DOT Orbital Debris Research Plan is discussed. The program is aimed at improving the accuracy and usefulness of satellite breakup models, with an emphasis on collision-induced events. The program encompasses hypervelocity impact tests, developing predictive models based on the analysis of test result, transferring appropriate technology to avoid duplication of effort, and continually interacting with DNA customers to identify and refine their specific technology needs.

  18. Three Dimension Position of Space Debris with Laser Ranging and Optical Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Li, Y.; Mao, Y. D.; Cao, J. J.; Tang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.

    2015-10-01

    According to the principles of space debris orbit determination, its success rate and reliability will be improved if the celestial coordinates are known at the time of the laser ranging. The method of determining the 3D location of space debris by laser ranging and optical astrometry is presented. A test platform is established by installing a photographic equipment on the 60cm satellite laser ranging telescope system of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory. Experimental observations are carried out and the satellite Ajisai is chosen as the target. The results show this method is feasible and the angle measurement accuracy of the satellite Ajisai is about 5 arc second.

  19. A novel data association scheme for LEO space debris surveillance based on a double fence radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Hu, Weidong; Xin, Qin; Guo, Weiwei

    2012-12-01

    The increasing amount of space debris threatens to seriously deteriorate and damage space-based instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environments. Therefore, LEO space debris surveillance systems must be developed to provide situational awareness in space and issue warnings of collisions with LEO space debris. In this paper, a double fence radar system is proposed as an emerging paradigm for LEO space debris surveillance. This system exhibits several unique and promising characteristics compared with existing surveillance systems. In this paper, we also investigate the data association scheme for LEO space debris surveillance based on a double fence radar system. We also perform a theoretical analysis of the performance of our proposed scheme. The superiority and the effectiveness of our novel data association scheme is demonstrated by experimental results. The data used in our experiments is the LEO space debris catalog produced by the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) up to 2009, especially for scenarios with high densities of LEO space debris, which were primarily produced by the collisions between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251. We hope that our work will stimulate and benefit future work on LEO space debris surveillance approaches and enable construction of the double fence radar system.

  20. Application of multi-agent coordination methods to the design of space debris mitigation tours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Jeffrey; Howell, Kathleen; Wilson, Roby

    2016-04-01

    The growth in the number of defunct and fragmented objects near to the Earth poses a growing hazard to launch operations as well as existing on-orbit assets. Numerous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of active debris mitigation campaigns upon the growth of debris populations, but comparatively fewer investigations incorporate specific mission scenarios. Furthermore, while many active mitigation methods have been proposed, certain classes of debris objects are amenable to mitigation campaigns employing chaser spacecraft with existing chemical and low-thrust propulsive technologies. This investigation incorporates an ant colony optimization routing algorithm and multi-agent coordination via auctions into a debris mitigation tour scheme suitable for preliminary mission design and analysis as well as spacecraft flight operations.

  1. Development of a Spacecraft concept to remove space debris from low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Emmanuelle; Starke, Jürgen; Wiedemann, Carsten

    On 2009 February 10, Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 collided in Low Earth orbit (LEO). Lately, crashes in space occur more often. The resulting debris represents a future risk for the pop-ulation in space. That is why some international guidelines have been set in order to reduce the number of orbiting objects, or at least decrease the growth. Hence new spacecrafts and launcher upper stages should be designed to limit their presence or be actively removed in protected LEO regions to less than 25 years after their end of mission. One debris mitigation measure is the removal of object after their end of mission. Within the low Earth orbit, the highest population density of potential hazardous inoperable spacecrafts and launcher stages are located in the so called sun synchronous orbit (SSO). This orbit combines altitude (around 900 km) and inclination (around 98) in such way that an object on orbit ascends or descends over any given point of the earth surface at the same mean solar time. Thus this orbit is commonly used for weather and earth observation satellites as ENVISAT. Since the satellites and space debris orbits cross each others at the pole, there is a high collision probability in the SSO vicinity. Furthermore the relative velocity is extremely high (around 15 km/s) as the objects can meet face to face. Those collisions are dramatic. The study focuses on the architecture assessment of a SSO satellite removal mission. The analysis takes into account the complete life cycle of the satellite remover including the launch, the rendezvous with the target(s), the capture and de-orbit as well as de-orbit of the remover satellite. . . The different concepts are considering either a pulling/pushing of the satellite by a remover spacecraft, either the delivering and implementation of an additional kit. Various technologies are currently developed to answer to this new demand (momentum exchange or electro dynamical tethers, solar sails, etc). It is also considering the

  2. Variation ranges of motion parameters for space debris in the geosynchronous ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Yu, Sheng-Xian; Xiong, Jian-Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Ting-Lei

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method that uses only one set of known orbital elements to directly determine the motion state and variation ranges of motion parameters, including the inclination, right ascension of the ascending node (RAAN), evolution period of the orbital plane, maximum libration amplitude of the semi-major axis, commensurable angle, libration period and drift period, for space debris in the geosynchronous ring. These variation ranges of motion parameters characterize the evolution of debris quantitatively and illustrate the three-dimensional (3D) variations. Employing the proposed method, we study the motion state and variation ranges of motion parameters for catalogued and uncontrolled space debris with existing two-line element (TLE) data in the geosynchronous ring, and present specific results. We also compare our results with actual observational results derived from long-term TLE historical data, and find that, in the vast majority of cases, our proposed method of determining the motion state and variation ranges of motion parameters via only one set of known orbital elements is effective. In addition, before the elaboration of the variation ranges of motion parameters stated above, we obtain the statistical distribution of space debris in the orbital plane and the daily motion from the TLE historical data. We then derive two mathematical formulae that explain the statistical distribution and daily motion on the basis of the essence of dynamics, which contributes to the characterization of the evolution of debris.

  3. Mitigation Policy Scenario of Space Debris Threat Related with National Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Frimawaty, Evy; Munir, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The development of air space recently entered a new phase, when the space issues correlated with the future of a country. In past time, the space authorization was related with advancing technology by many space mission and various satellite launchings, or it could be said that who ruled technology will rule the space. Therefore, the numerous satellites in the space could be a threat for the countries which are mainly located in the path of the satellite, especially in the equatorial region including Indonesia. This study aims to create a policy scenario in mitigating the threat of space debris. The results showed that although space debris was not threatened national security for now, but the potential and its impact on the future potentially harmful. The threats of orbit circulation for some experts considered as a threat for national security, because its danger potential which caused by space debris could significantly damage the affected areas. However, until now Indonesia has no comprehensive mitigation strategy for space matters although it has been ratified by the United Nations Convention.

  4. Micro-meteoroids and space debris impact risk assessment for the ConeXpress satellite using ESABASE2/Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, W.; Drolshagen, G.; Noomen, R.

    2010-03-01

    Micro-meteoroid and space debris impact risk assessments are performed to investigate the risk from hypervelocity impacts to sensitive spacecraft sub-systems. For these analyses, ESA’s impact risk assessment tool ESABASE2/Debris is used. This software tool combines micro-particle environment models, damage equations for different shielding designs and satellite geometry models to perform a detailed 3D micro-particle impact risk assessment. This paper concentrates on the impact risk for exposed pressurized tanks. Pressure vessels are especially susceptible to hypervelocity impacts when no protection is available from the satellite itself. Even small particles in the mm size range can lead to a fatal burst or rupture of a tank when impacting with a typical collision velocity of 10-20 km/s. For any space mission it has to be assured that the impact risk is properly considered and kept within acceptable limits. The ConeXpress satellite mission is analysed as example. ConeXpress is a planned service spacecraft, intended to extend the lifetime of telecommunication spacecraft in the geostationary orbit. The unprotected tanks of ConeXpress are identified as having a high failure risk from hypervelocity impacts, mainly caused by micro-meteoroids. Options are studied to enhance the impact protection. It is demonstrated that even a thin additional protective layer spaced several cm from the tank would act as part of a double wall (Whipple) shield and greatly reduce the impact risk. In case of ConeXpress with 12 years mission duration the risk of impact related failure of a tank can be reduced from almost 39% for an unprotected tank facing in flight direction to below 0.1% for a tank protected by a properly designed Whipple shield.

  5. Friction, mechanical and ageing properties of surface modified materials for space debris capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, S.; Perero, S.; Gautier di Confiengo, G.; Chiesa, A.; Messidoro, A.; Ferraris, M.

    2016-03-01

    Space debris removal is a challenging problem for a clean and safe space environment. The present paper focuses on a novel concept of capture mechanism in the framework of technologies, strategies and concepts known as "tentacles with belts" method. Within this framework two different strategies (based on inorganic or organic materials) have been developed in order to improve the capture efficiency of the belts. The mechanical, tribological and ageing characterization of modified belt fabrics for space application is reported and discussed.

  6. Space Debris Surfaces (Computer Code): Probability of No Penetration Versus Impact Velocity and Obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfer, N.; Meibaum, R.; Olsen, G.

    1995-01-01

    A unique collection of computer codes, Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF), have been developed to assist in the design and analysis of space debris protection systems. SD_SURF calculates and summarizes a vehicle's vulnerability to space debris as a function of impact velocity and obliquity. An SD_SURF analysis will show which velocities and obliquities are the most probable to cause a penetration. This determination can help the analyst select a shield design that is best suited to the predominant penetration mechanism. The analysis also suggests the most suitable parameters for development or verification testing. The SD_SURF programs offer the option of either FORTRAN programs or Microsoft-EXCEL spreadsheets and macros. The FORTRAN programs work with BUMPERII. The EXCEL spreadsheets and macros can be used independently or with selected output from the SD_SURF FORTRAN programs. Examples will be presented of the interaction between space vehicle geometry, the space debris environment, and the penetration and critical damage ballistic limit surfaces of the shield under consideration.

  7. Catalogue of space objects and events as a powerful tool for scientific researches on space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapov, V.; Stepanyants, V.; Tuchin, A.; Khutorovsky, Z.

    Wide work on developing and maintenance of the Catalogue of scientific information on space objects and events is continuing at the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics. The work is making in cooperation with Russian company "Space information analytical systems" (KIA Systems). Powerful software tool is developed by now including:- informational core (relational database in RDBMS Oracle 8i environment)with special tools for automatic initial processing and systematization ofdata- software complex for orbital modeling and space objects and eventsdynamical catalogue maintenance- special information - analytical software Informational core covers wide spectrum of data needed for following purposes:- full-scale and high quality modeling of object's motion in near-Earth space(orbital and measurement data, solar flux and geomagnetic indices, Earthrotation parameters etc.)- determination of various events parameters (launches, manoeuvres,fragmentations etc.)- analysis of space debris sources- studying long-term orbital evolution (over several years or tens of years)- other The database is storing huge volume of data including:- optical measurements- TLEs- information about all space launches took place since 1957- information about space missions and programs- manoeuvres- fragmentations- launch sequences for typical orbital insertions- various characteristics for orbital objects (payloads, stages, fragments)- officially released UN and ITU registration data- other By now there are records storing in informational core for more than 28000 orbital objects (both catalogued and not), about all orbital launch attempts since 04.10.1957 (including failed ones), more than 30millions records of orbital information (TLEs, state vectors, polynomial data), more than 200000 optical measurements (normal places) for GEO region objects, calculated data on more than 14 millions of close approaches had taken place during last five years and other data. Software complex for orbital

  8. Periprosthetic bone loss in total hip arthroplasty. Polyethylene wear debris and the concept of the effective joint space.

    PubMed

    Schmalzried, T P; Jasty, M; Harris, W H

    1992-07-01

    Thirty-four hips in which there had been prosthetic replacement were selected for study because of the presence of linear (diffuse) or lytic (localized) areas of periprosthetic bone loss. In all hips, there was careful documentation of the anatomical location of the material that had been obtained for histological analysis, and the specific purpose of the removal of the tissue was for examination to determine the cause of the resorption of bone. Specimens from twenty-three hips were retrieved during an operation and from eleven hips, at autopsy. The area of bone loss was linear only in sixteen hips, lytic only in thirteen, and both linear and lytic in five. In all thirty-four hips, intracellular particulate debris was found in the macrophages that were present in the area of bone resorption. All thirty-four had intracellular particles of polyethylene, many of which were less than one micrometer in size. Thirty-one hips had extracellular particles of polyethylene as well. Twenty-two of the thirty-four hips had intracellular metallic debris; in ten, metallic debris was found extracellularly as well. Ten of the sixteen cemented specimens had intracellular and extracellular polymethylmethacrylate debris. In the mechanically stable prostheses--cemented and uncemented--polyethylene wear debris was identified in areas of bone resorption far from the articular surfaces. The number of macrophages in a microscopic field was directly related to the amount of particulate polyethylene debris that was visible by light microscopy. Although the gross radiographic appearances of linear bone loss and lytic bone loss were different, the histological appearance of the regions in which there was active bone resorption was similar. Regardless of the radiographic appearance and anatomical origin of the specimen, bone resorption was found to occur in association with macrophages that were laden with polyethylene debris. In general, the number of macrophages present had a direct

  9. Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind in the space debris problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, C.; Celletti, A.; Galeş, C.

    2016-07-01

    We analyse the combined effect of Poynting-Robertson and solar-wind drag on space debris. We derive a model within Cartesian, Gaussian and Hamiltonian frameworks. We focus on the geosynchronous resonance, although the results can be easily generalized to any resonance in Medium Earth Orbit and in regions located outside the geostationary ring. By numerical and analytical techniques, we compute the drift in semimajor axis due to Poynting-Robertson and solar-wind drag. After a linear stability analysis of the equilibria, we combine a careful investigation of the regular, resonant, chaotic behaviour of the phase space with a long-term propagation of a sample of initial conditions. The results strongly depend on the value of the area-to-mass ratio of the debris, which might show different dynamical behaviours: temporary capture or escape from the geosynchronous resonance, as well as temporary capture or escape from secondary resonances involving the rate of variation of the longitude of the Sun. Such analysis shows that Poynting-Robertson and solar-wind drag must be taken into account, when looking at the long-term behaviour of space debris. Trapping or escape from the resonance can be used to place the debris in convenient regions of the phase space.

  10. Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind in the space debris problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, C.; Celletti, A.; Galeş, C.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the combined effect of Poynting-Robertson and solar wind drag on space debris. We derive a model within Cartesian, Gaussian and Hamiltonian frameworks. We focus on the geosynchronous resonance, although the results can be easily generalized to any resonance in MEO and in regions located outside the geostationary ring. By numerical and analytical techniques, we compute the drift in semi-major axis due to Poynting-Robertson and solar wind drag. After a linear stability analysis of the equilibria, we combine a careful investigation of the regular, resonant, chaotic behavior of the phase space with a long-term propagation of a sample of initial conditions. The results strongly depend on the value of the area-to-mass ratio of the debris, which might show different dynamical behaviors: temporary capture or escape from the geosynchronous resonance, as well as temporary capture or escape from secondary resonances involving the rate of variation of the longitude of the Sun. Such analysis shows that Poynting-Robertson and solar wind drag must be taken into account, when looking at the long-term behavior of space debris. Trapping or escape from the resonance can be used to place the debris in convenient regions of the phase space.

  11. A Method for Correcting Telescope Pointing Error in Optical Space Debris Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rong-yu; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Chang-yin

    2016-01-01

    In the data processing of optical space debris observations, the background stars may be mismatched or unable to get matched due to the influence of the telescope pointing error, then it is difficult to calculate the plate model and to determine accurately the object position. Based on the characteristics of debris CCD images, a multiple neighborhood matching method based on feature stars is proposed. The experimental results show that the influence of the telescope pointing error can be removed, and that the efficiency and correctness of background star map matching are improved significantly. Meanwhile, the time cost of this method is low, so it is beneficial to the real-time data reduction.

  12. Laser Ranging for Effective and Accurate Tracking of Space Debris in Low Earth Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Guillaume; Haag, Herve; Hennegrave, Laurent; Assemat, Francois; Vial, Sophie; Samain, Etienne

    2013-08-01

    The paper presents the results of preliminary design options for an operational laser ranging system adapted to the measurement of the distance of space debris. Thorough analysis of the operational parameters is provided with identification of performance drivers and assessment of enabling design options. Results from performance simulation demonstrate how the range measurement enables improvement of the orbit determination when combined with astrometry. Besides, experimental results on rocket-stage class debris in LEO were obtained by Astrium beginning of 2012, in collaboration with the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), by operating an experimental laser ranging system supported by the MéO (Métrologie Optique) telescope.

  13. An adaptive threshold method for improving astrometry of space debris CCD images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rong-yu; Zhao, Chang-yin

    2014-06-01

    Optical survey is a main technique for observing space debris, and precisely measuring the positions of space debris is of great importance. Due to several factors, e.g. the angle object normal to the observer, the shape as well as the attitude of the object, the variations of observed characteristics for low earth orbital space debris are distinct. When we look at optical CCD images of observed objects, the size and brightness are varying, hence it’s difficult to decide the threshold during centroid measurement and precise astrometry. Traditionally the threshold is given empirically and constantly in data reduction, and obviously it’s not suitable for data reduction of space debris. Here we offer a solution to provide the threshold. Our method assumes that the PSF (point spread function) is Gaussian and estimates the signal flux by a directly two-dimensional Gaussian fit, then a cubic spline interpolation is performed to divide each initial pixel into several sub-pixels, at last the threshold is determined by the estimation of signal flux and the sub-pixels above threshold are separated to estimate the centroid. A trail observation of the fast spinning satellite Ajisai is made and the CCD frames are obtained to test our algorithm. The calibration precision of various threshold is obtained through the comparison between the observed equatorial position and the reference one, the latter are obtained from the precise ephemeris of the satellite. The results indicate that our method reduces the total errors of measurements, it works effectively in improving the centering precision of space debris images.

  14. Preface: Advances in Asteroid and Space Debris Science and Technology - Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Massimiliano

    2015-08-01

    Asteroids and space debris represent a significant hazard for space and terrestrial assets; at the same time asteroids represent also an opportunity. In recent years it has become clear that the increasing population of space debris could lead to catastrophic consequences in the near term. The Kessler syndrome (where the density of objects in orbit is high enough that collisions could set off a cascade) is more realistic than when it was first proposed in 1978. Although statistically less likely to occur, an asteroid impact would have devastating consequences for our planet. While an impact with a large (∼10 km) to medium (∼300 m) sized, or diameter, asteroid is unlikely, still it is not negligible as the recent case of the asteroid Apophis has demonstrated. Furthermore impacts with smaller size objects, between 10 m to 100 m diameter, are expected to occur more frequently and hence are, proportionally, equally dangerous for humans and assets on Earth and in space.

  15. Preface: Advances in asteroid and space debris science and technology - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Asteroids and space debris represent a significant hazard for space and terrestrial assets; at the same time asteroids represent also an opportunity. In recent years it has become clear that the increasing population of space debris could lead to catastrophic consequences in the near term. The Kessler syndrome (where the density of objects in orbit is high enough that collisions could set off a cascade) is more realistic than when it was first proposed in 1978. Although statistically less likely to occur, an asteroid impact would have devastating consequences for our planet. Although an impact with a large (∼10 km) to medium (∼300 m) sized, or diameter, asteroid is unlikely, still it is not negligible as the recent case of the asteroid Apophis has demonstrated. Furthermore impacts with smaller size objects, between 10 m and 100 m diameter, are expected to occur more frequently and hence are, proportionally, equally dangerous for humans and assets on Earth and in space.

  16. LDEF (Flight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray A12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the center of the upper tray flange, the center of the right tray flange and the left end of the lower tray flange appear to have changed little from their original white color. A brown discoloration is visible on the experiment tray flanges and sidewalls. The Space Debris Impact Experiment consists of a three sixteenth (3/16) of an inch thick chromic anodized aluminum panel mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment tray. The side of the plate exposed to the LDEF interior is painted with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 wash primer. The panels are attached to the aluminum tray structure with non- magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The panel coatings, a thin layer of chromic anodize facing out and the Chemglaze Z-306 black paint facing the LDEF interior, contribute significantly to thermal control of the LDEF spacecraft. A portion of the greenish-gray tint on the two (2) debris panels are by-products of the chromic anodize coating process, however, additional blue can be attributed to reflections of the blue sky. The vertical streaks on the debris panels are by-products of chromic anodizing that have been enhanced by the blue reflection. Brown stains are located along the left edge of the right debris panel. An irregular shaped discoloration extends horizontally across the lower half of the left debris panel. The light band along the vertical edge of the left debris panel and across the top of both debris panels is a reflection from the tray sidewall.

  17. Application of electrical propulsion for an active debris removal system: a system engineering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covello, Fabio

    2012-10-01

    One of the main challenge in the design of an active removal system for space debris is the high ΔV required both to approach space debris lying in different orbits and to de-orbit/re-orbit them. Indeed if the system does not target a number of objects during its lifetime the cost of the removal will be far too high to be considered as the basis of an economically viable business case. Using a classical chemical propulsion (CP) system, the ΔV is limited by the mass of propellant that the system can carry. This limitation is greatly reduced if electrical propulsion is considered. Electrical propulsion (EP) systems are indeed characterized by low propellant mass requirements, however this comes at the cost of higher electrical power and, typically, higher complexity and mass of the power supply system. Because of this, the use of EP systems has been, therefore, primarily limited to station keeping maneuvers. However in the recent past, the success of missions using EP as primary propulsion (e.g. GOCE, SMART-1, Artemis, Deep Spcae1, Hayabusa) makes this technology a suitable candidate for providing propulsion for an active debris removal system. This study case will provide the analysis of the possible application of electrical propulsion systems in such a context, presenting a number of possible mission profiles. This paper will start with the description of possible mission concepts and the assessment of the EP technology, comparing near-term propulsion options, that best fits the mission. A more detailed analysis follows with the relevant trade-off to define the characteristics of the final system and its size in terms of mass and power required. A survey of available space qualified EP systems will be performed with the selection of the best candidates to be used and/or developed for an active debris removal system. The results of a similar analysis performed for a classical CP system are then presented and the two options are compared in terms of total cost of

  18. Debris Disk Science Enabled by a Probe-scale Space Coronagraph Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Trauger, J. T.; Krist, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Debris disks are the signposts of planetary systems: collisions between rocky/icy parent bodies maintain debris dust around main sequence stars against losses to radiation pressure and P-R drag. Debris disk structures show the location of asteroid/Kuiper belts around nearby stars, and reflect dynamical interactions with local extrasolar planets. Only 17 debris disks with high optical depth have been spatially resolved to date in scattered light images made with the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based adaptive optics. Hundreds more with lower optical depth have been identified among nearby stars through far-IR photometry with the Spitzer Space Telescope, and more should follow in the next few years from Herschel. The most capable means for imaging this larger disk population is a next-generation coronagraphic instrument on a 1.5m class optical space telescope. Utilizing high-contrasat imaging simulations validated by laboratory demonstrations on the JPL High Contrast Imaging Testbed, we show that such a mission will be capable of imaging Kuiper disk structures down to the 10 zodi level, and exozodiacal dust down to the 1 zodi level, around a major sample of nearby stars. This performance goes well beyond what is about to be achieved with upcoming extreme adaptive optics systems or the ALMA array, and thus provides the best path for imaging exploration of planetary systems in the solar neighborhood.

  19. Results of Space Debris Survey Observations on Highly-Eccentric MEO Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, Andreas; Schildknecht, T.; Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.

    2013-08-01

    Optical surveys for space debris in high-altitude orbits have been conducted since more than ten years. First observation strategies and processing techniques were successfully developed for the geostationary ring (GEO). The observations scenarios were adjusted for observations in the geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) and in the medium Earth orbit (MEO). After the already investigated circular MEO orbits of the GPS and GLONASS constellations the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) developed survey and follow-up strategies for the systematically search of space debris in highly-eccentric orbits in the MEO region, in particular in Molniya-type orbits. Several breakup events and deliberate fragmentations are known to have taken place in such orbits. The AIUB performed several survey campaigns between January 2013 and April 2013 to search for debris objects in this MEO region. The optical observations were conducted in the framework of an ESA study using ESA's Space Debris Telescope (ESASDT) the 1-m Zeiss telescope located at the Optical Ground Station (OGS) at the Teide Observatory at Tenerife, Spain. The results from the different observation campaigns will be presented.

  20. Space Shuttle and Launch Pad Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Lift-off Debris Transport Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, Sam; West, Jeff; Droege, Alan; Wilson, Josh; Liever, Peter; Slaby, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Space Shuttle Lift-off CFD model developed for potential Lift-off Debris transport for return-to-flight. The Lift-off portion of the flight is defined as the time starting with tanking of propellants until tower clear, approximately T0+6 seconds, where interactions with the launch pad cease. A CFD model containing the Space Shuttle and launch Pad geometry has been constructed and executed. Simplifications required in the construction of the model are presented and discussed. A body-fitted overset grid of up to 170 million grid points was developed which allowed positioning of the Vehicle relative to the Launch Pad over the first six seconds of Climb-Out. The CFD model works in conjunction with a debris particle transport model and a debris particle impact damage tolerance model. These models have been used to assess the interactions of the Space Shuttle plumes, the wind environment, and their interactions with each other and the Launch Pad and their ultimate effect on potential debris during Lift-off.

  1. Effectiveness of Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines: Economic Potential of LEO and Traffic Management Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belviso, Luciano

    Space debris probably represent one of the major issues for the future development and exploitation of space by all spacefaring nations. Considering the large range of possible mitigation techniques, some general criteria to evaluate them shall be taken into account: cost, effectiveness, technical and legal applicability in order to assess their effectiveness. Even though the Inter Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) guidelines are considered as the basis for a new regulatory regime of mitigation, the problem concerning the legal instrument by which the international community would accept these guidelines remains still unsolved. In this paper, we will focus on the following issues: Economic potential of orbital regions. Since the international community lacks consensus to conclude a legally binding instrument, a voluntary adherence regime seems a possible way to apply mitigation measures. However, with mitigation efforts having only small effects into the future, expenditures are not easy to be justified today even if they could reduce the economic consequences of debris in the long period[1]. Some orbital regions, such as the Geostationary Orbit, are already the subject of international agreements, however, the properties of other regions of near-earth space are also distinct as far as their potential economic value is concerned[2]. Therefore, the applicability of mitigation techniques on the basis of cost-benefit analysis will be considered in this paper. Applicability of satellites traffic control. For satellites in Low Earth Orbit, the main hazard is posed by other object located in narrow sets of altitudes and inclinations[4]. Satellites control systems usually allow only a limited number of operation mostly related to small trajectory corrections and they can result not sufficient to avoid collisions with debris. That is why a complementary approach is required although this could represent an additional cost. In this paper we will consider the

  2. On the connection of permafrost and debris flow activity in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Thomas; Kaitna, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows represent a severe hazard in alpine regions and typically result from a critical combination of relief energy, water, and sediment. Hence, besides water-related trigger conditions, the availability of abundant sediment is a major control on debris flows activity in alpine regions. Increasing temperatures due to global warming are expected to affect periglacial regions and by that the distribution of alpine permafrost and the depth of the active layer, which in turn might lead to increased debris flow activity and increased interference with human interests. In this contribution we assess the importance of permafrost on documented debris flows in the past by connecting the modeled permafrost distribution with a large database of historic debris flows in Austria. The permafrost distribution is estimated based on a published model approach and mainly depends of altitude, relief, and exposition. The database of debris flows includes more than 4000 debris flow events in around 1900 watersheds. We find that 27 % of watersheds experiencing debris flow activity have a modeled permafrost area smaller than 5 % of total area. Around 7 % of the debris flow prone watersheds have an area larger than 5 %. Interestingly, our first results indicate that watersheds without permafrost experience significantly less, but more intense debris flow events than watersheds with modeled permafrost occurrence. Our study aims to contribute to a better understanding of geomorphic activity and the impact of climate change in alpine environments.

  3. Quantifying and Improving International Space Station Survivability Following Orbital Debris Penetration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamsen, Joel; Evans, Hilary; Bohl, Bill; Evans, Steven; Parker, Nelson (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The increase of the orbital debris environment in low-earth orbit has prompted NASA to develop analytical tools for quantifying and lowering the likelihood of crew loss following orbital debris penetration of the International Space Station (ISS). NASA uses the Manned Spacecraft and Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) computer program to simulate the events that may cause crew loss following orbital debris penetration of ISS manned modules, including: (1) critical cracking (explosive decompression) of the module; (2) critical external equipment penetration (such as hydrazine and high pressure tanks); (3) critical internal system penetration (guidance, control, and other vital components); (4) hazardous payload penetration (furnaces, pressure bottles, and toxic substances); (5) crew injury (from fragments, overpressure, light flash, and temperature rise); (6) hypoxia from loss of cabin pressure; and (7) thrust from module hole causing high angular velocity (occurring only when key Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) equipment is damaged) and, thus, preventing safe escape vehicle (EV) departure. MSCSurv is also capable of quantifying the 'end effects' of orbital debris penetration, such as the likelihood of crew escape, the probability of each module depressurizing, and late loss of station control. By quantifying these effects (and their associated uncertainties), NASA is able to improve the likelihood of crew survivability following orbital debris penetration due to improved crew operations and internal designs.

  4. Failure Analysis in Space: International Space Station (ISS) Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, V. S.; Wright, M. C.; McDanels, S. J.; Lubas, D.; Tucker, B.; Marciniak, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the debris analysis of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ), a mechanism that is designed to keep the solar arrays facing the sun. The goal of this was to identify the failure mechanism based on surface morphology and to determine the source of debris through elemental and particle analysis.

  5. Laser ranging with the MéO telescope to improve orbital accuracy of space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennegrave, L.; Pyanet, M.; Haag, H.; Blanchet, G.; Esmiller, B.; Vial, S.; Samain, E.; Paris, J.; Albanese, D.

    2013-05-01

    Improving orbital accuracy of space debris is one of the major prerequisite to performing reliable collision prediction in low earth orbit. The objective is to avoid false alarms and useless maneuvers for operational satellites. This paper shows how laser ranging on debris can improve the accuracy of orbit determination. In March 2012 a joint OCA-Astrium team had the first laser echoes from space debris using the MéO (Métrologie Optique) telescope of the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), upgraded with a nanosecond pulsed laser. The experiment was conducted in full compliance with the procedures dictated by the French Civil Aviation Authorities. To perform laser ranging measurement on space debris, the laser link budget needed to be improved. Related technical developments were supported by implementation of a 2J pulsed laser purchased by ASTRIUM and an adapted photo detection. To achieve acquisition of the target from low accuracy orbital data such as Two Lines Elements, a 2.3-degree field of view telescope was coupled to the original MéO telescope 3-arcmin narrow field of view. The wide field of view telescope aimed at pointing, adjusting and acquiring images of the space debris for astrometry measurement. The achieved set-up allowed performing laser ranging and angular measurements in parallel, on several rocket stages from past launches. After a brief description of the set-up, development issues and campaigns, the paper discusses added-value of laser ranging measurement when combined to angular measurement for accurate orbit determination. Comparison between different sets of experimental results as well as simulation results is given.

  6. Behavior of tethered debris with flexible appendages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanov, Vladimir S.; Yudintsev, Vadim V.

    2014-11-01

    Active exploration of the space leads to growth of a near-Earth space pollution. The frequency of the registered collisions of space debris with functional satellites highly increased during last 10 years. As a rule a large space debris can be observed from the Earth and catalogued, then it is possible to avoid collision with the active spacecraft. However every large debris is a potential source of a numerous small debris particles. To reduce debris population in the near Earth space the large debris should be removed from working orbits. The active debris removal technique is considered that intend to use a tethered orbital transfer vehicle, or a space tug attached by a tether to the space debris. This paper focuses on the dynamics of the space debris with flexible appendages. Mathematical model of the system is derived using the Lagrange formalism. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the mutual influence of the oscillations of flexible appendages and the oscillations of a tether. It is shown that flexible appendages can have a significant influence on the attitude motion of the space debris and the safety of the transportation process.

  7. Hypervelocity impact facility for simulating materials exposure to impact by space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. F.; Best, S.; Chaloupka, T.; Stephens, B.; Crawford, G.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of man's venturing into space, the local debris contributed by his presence exceeds, at some orbital altitudes, that of the natural component. Man's contribution ranges from fuel residue to large derelect satellites that weigh many kilograms. Current debris models are able to predict the growth of the problem and suggest that spacecraft must employ armor or bumper shields for some orbital altitudes now, and that, the problem will become worse as a function of time. The practical upper limit to the velocity distribution is on the order of 40 km/s and is associated with the natural environment. The maximum velocity of the man-made component is in the 14-16 km/s range. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has verified that the 'high probability of impact' particles are in the microgram to milligram range. These particles can have significant effects on coatings, insulators, and thin metallic layers. The surface of thick materials becomes pitted and the local debris component is enhanced by ejecta from the debris spectrum in a controlled environment. The facility capability is discussed in terms of drive geometry, energetics, velocity distribution, diagnostics, and projectile/debris loading. The facility is currently being used to study impact phenomena on Space Station Freedom's solar array structure, other solar array materials, potential structural materials for use in the station, electrical breakdown in the space environment, and as a means of clarifying or duplicating the impact phenomena on the LDEF surfaces. The results of these experiments are described in terms of the mass/velocity distribution incident on selected samples, crater dynamics, and sample geometry.

  8. Streak detection and analysis pipeline for space-debris optical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Jenni; Poikonen, Jonne; Säntti, Tero; Komulainen, Tuomo; Torppa, Johanna; Granvik, Mikael; Muinonen, Karri; Pentikäinen, Hanna; Martikainen, Julia; Näränen, Jyri; Lehti, Jussi; Flohrer, Tim

    2016-04-01

    We describe a novel data-processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of moving objects, either of natural (asteroids, meteors) or artificial origin (satellites, space debris). The monitoring of the space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data, to support the development and validation of population models and to build and maintain catalogues of orbital elements. The orbital catalogues are, in turn, needed for the assessment of close approaches (for asteroids, with the Earth; for satellites, with each other) and for the support of contingency situations or launches. For both types of populations, there is also increasing interest to detect fainter objects corresponding to the small end of the size distribution. The ESA-funded StreakDet (streak detection and astrometric reduction) activity has aimed at formulating and discussing suitable approaches for the detection and astrometric reduction of object trails, or streaks, in optical observations. Our two main focuses are objects in lower altitudes and space-based observations (i.e., high angular velocities), resulting in long (potentially curved) and faint streaks in the optical images. In particular, we concentrate on single-image (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) and low-SNR detection of objects. Particular attention has been paid to the process of extraction of all necessary information from one image (segmentation), and subsequently, to efficient reduction of the extracted data (classification). We have developed an automated streak detection and processing pipeline and demonstrated its performance with an extensive database of semisynthetic images simulating streak observations both from ground-based and space-based observing platforms. The average processing time per image is about 13 s for a typical 2k-by-2k image. For long streaks (length >100 pixels), primary targets of the pipeline, the detection sensitivity (true positives) is about 90% for

  9. LDEF (Flight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray F11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the center of the lower tray flange, the center of the left tray flange and the right end of the upper tray flange appear to have changed little from their original white color. A discolorations is visible on the lower half of the right experiment tray flange. The Space Debris Impact Experiment consists of a three sixteenth (3/16) of an inch thick chromic anodized aluminum panel mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment tray. The side of the plate exposed to the LDEF interior is painted with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 wash primer. The panels are attached to the aluminum tray structure with non- magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The panel coatings, a thin layer of chromic anodize facing out and the Chemglaze Z-306 black paint facing the LDEF interior, contribute significantly to thermal control of the LDEF spacecraft. A portion of the greenish-gray tint on the two (2) debris panels are by-products of the chromic anodize coating process, however, additional blue can be attributed to reflections of the blue sky. The vertical streaks on the right debris panel are by-products of chromic anodizing that have been enhanced by the blue reflection. The brown stains along the top edge of the right debris panel appear to be fingerprints from prelaunch handling. Light colored spots or discolorations are along the left side of the right debris panel. The light band along the vertical edge of the left debris panel is a reflection from the tray sidewall.

  10. Photometric Monitoring of Non-resolved Space Debris and Databases of Optical Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, Thomas; Koshkin, Nikolay; Korobeinikova, Elen; Melikiants, Seda; Shakun, Leonid; Strakhova, Svetlana; Linder, Esther; Silha, Jiri; Hager, Monika

    The population of space debris increased drastically during the last years. Collisions involving massive objects may produce large number of fragments leading to significantly growth of the space debris population. An effective remediation measure in order to stabilize the population in LEO, is therefore the removal of large, massive space debris. To remove these objects, not only precise orbits, but also more detailed information about their attitude states will be required. One important property of an object targeted for removal is its spin period and spin axis orientation. If we observe a rotating object, the observer sees different surface areas of the object which leads to changes in the measured intensity. Rotating objects will produce periodic brightness variations with frequencies which are related to the spin periods. Photometric monitoring is the real tool for remote diagnostics of the satellite rotation around its center of mass. This information is also useful, for example, in case of contingency. Moreover, it is also important to take into account the orientation of non-spherical body (e.g. space debris) in the numerical integration of its motion when a close approach with the another spacecraft is predicted. We introduce the two databases of light curves: the AIUB data base, which contains about a thousand light curves of LEO, MEO and high-altitude debris objects (including a few functional objects) obtained over more than seven years, and the data base of the Astronomical Observatory of Odessa University (Ukraine), which contains the results of more than 10 years of photometric monitoring of functioning satellites and large space debris objects in low Earth orbit. AIUB used its 1m ZIMLAT telescope for all light curves. For tracking low-orbit satellites, the Astronomical Observatory of Odessa used the KT-50 telescope, which has an alt-azimuth mount and allows tracking objects moving at a high angular velocity. The diameter of the KT-50 main mirror is

  11. Morphology of meteoroid and space debris craters on LDEF metal targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, S. G.; Brownlee, D. E.; King, N. L.; Hoerz, F.

    1994-01-01

    We measured the depths, average diameters, and circularity indices of over 600 micrometeoroid and space debris craters on various metal surfaces exposed to space on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, as a test of some of the formalisms used to convert the diameters of craters on space-exposed surfaces into penetration depths for the purpose of calculating impactor sizes or masses. The topics covered include the following: targe materials orientation; crater measurements and sample populations; effects of oblique impacts; effects of projectile velocity; effects of crater size; effects of target hardness; effects of target density; and effects of projectile properties.

  12. MDD3-EMI's Upcoming Meteoroid and Space Debris Detector Experiment Onboard Russian Spektr-R Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmerohn, Martin; Schafer, Frank; Lomakin, Ilya; Willemsen, Philip

    2009-03-01

    The Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI) is currently developing its next meteoroid and space debris detector experiment, referred to as MDD3, which will be integrated onboard the Russian Spektr-R satellite. Taking this flight opportunity supported by the German Aerospace Center, MDD3 will be operated in a highly elliptical orbit, allowing for in-situ measurements of impact events in various Earth orbit particle environments. The detector system is equipped with several sensors, thus contributing to both the on-orbit verification of a robust impact detection system and the enhancement of knowledge about micrometeoroid and space debris populations. This paper addresses scientific and technical aspects of the MDD3 mission in a general overview. The status of MDD3 implementation, as well as facts on the Spektr-R mission and orbit environment are outlined for background information.

  13. Instrumentation development for space debris optical observation system in Indonesia: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dani, Tiar; Rachman, Abdul; Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar

    2015-09-01

    An increasing number of space junk in orbit has raised their chances to fall in Indonesian region. So far, three debris of rocket bodies have been found in Bengkulu, Gorontalo and Lampung. LAPAN has successfully developed software for monitoring space debris that passes over Indonesia with an altitude below 200 km. To support the software-based system, the hardware-based system has been developed based on optical instruments. The system has been under development in early 2014 which consist of two systems: the telescopic system and wide field system. The telescopic system uses CCD cameras and a reflecting telescope with relatively high sensitivity. Wide field system uses DSLR cameras, binoculars and a combination of CCD with DSLR Lens. Methods and preliminary results of the systems will be presented.

  14. Design of a secondary debris containment shield for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Taylor, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    All long-duration spacecraft are susceptible to impacts by meteoroids and pieces of orbiting space debris. Such impacts are expected to occur at extremely high speeds and can damage internal and external flight-critical systems of spacecraft. An effective mechanism is developed to protect external spacecraft subsystems against damage by ricochet particles formed during such impacts. Equations and design procedures for protective shield panels are developed based on observed ricochet phenomena and calculated ricochet particle sizes and speeds. Panel dimensions are shown to be strongly dependent on their inclination and on their distribution around a spacecraft module. It is concluded that obliquity effects of high-speed impacts must be considered in the design of any structure exposed to the meteoroid and space debris environment.

  15. Observations of the orbital debris complex by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, Faith; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Talent, Dave

    1997-01-01

    The midcourse space experiment (MSX) provides the opportunity to observe debris at multiple, simultaneous wavelengths, or in conjunction with other sensors and prior data sets. The instruments onboard MSX include an infrared telescope, an infrared interferometer, a visible telescope, an ultraviolet telescope and a spectroscopic imager. The spacecraft carries calibration spheres for instrument calibration and atmospheric drag studies. The experimental program, the implementation aspects, the data reduction techniques and the preliminary results are described.

  16. Modeling the space debris environment with MASTER-2009 and ORDEM2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flegel, Sven Kevin; Krisko, Paula; Gelhaus, Johannes; Wiedemann, Carsten; Moeckel, Marek; Krag, Holger; Klinkrad, Heiner; Xu, Yu-Lin; Horstman, Matthew; Matney, Mark; Vörsmann, Peter

    The two software tools MASTER-2009 and ORDEM2010 are the ESA and NASA reference software tools respectively which describe the earth's debris environment. The primary goal of both programs is to allow users to estimate the object flux onto a target object for mission planning. The current paper describes the basic distinctions in the model philosophies. At the core of each model lies the method by which the object environment is established. Cen-tral to this process is the role played by the results from radar/telescope observations or impact fluxes on surfaces returned from earth orbit. The ESA Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference Model (MASTER) is engineered to give a realistic description of the natural and the man-made particulate environment of the earth. Debris sources are simulated based on detailed lists of known historical events such as fragmentations or solid rocket motor firings or through simulation of secondary debris such as impact ejecta or the release of paint flakes from degrading spacecraft surfaces. The resulting population is then validated against historical telescope/radar campaigns using the ESA Program for Radar and Optical Observa-tion Forecasting (PROOF) and against object impact fluxes on surfaces returned from space. The NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) series is designed to provide reliable estimates of orbital debris flux on spacecraft and through telescope or radar fields-of-view. Central to the model series is the empirical nature of the input populations. These are derived from NASA orbital debris modeling but verified, where possible, with measurement data from various sources. The latest version of the series, ORDEM2010, compiles over two decades of data from NASA radar systems, telescopes, in-situ sources, and ground tests that are analyzed by statistical methods. For increased understanding of the application ranges of the two programs, the current paper provides an overview of the two

  17. Shroud debris modeling techniques for IR sensors in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderWyst, Anton; Jenkins, David G.; Ahmad, Anees

    2007-09-01

    Space-based surveillance sensors are covered by a shroud to protect the delicate optics from adverse environments (aerothermal heating and contamination) during hypersonic flight through the atmosphere. Once the sensor payload reaches a safe altitude, the shroud is deployed and then sensor operation begins. When the pyrotechnic actuators are fired to deploy the shroud or nosecone, large and microscopic particles are dislodged. The source of these particles is the charred thermal protection insulation material on outer surface of the shroud, and particulate contaminants deposited on the inside surface of shroud and on sensor components during assembly process. These dislodged particles can end up within the sensor field of view (FOV), and remain there for extended periods of time, with the duration depending on the air density and vehicle velocity. These undesirable particles within the sensor FOV can degrade infrared sensor performance in several ways. These particles can cause obscuration, scattering and produce spurious thermal signature, thus making it difficult to image the objects of interest. This paper presents the aeromodeling techniques used to estimate the number and size of particles, and the duration these particles can stay within the sensor FOV. This information can then be used to predict the resulting degradation in sensor performance.

  18. The Challenge of Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Since the dawn of the Space Age more than 50 years ago, humans have been launching objects into the space environment faster than they have been removed by active means or natural decay. This has led to a proliferation of debris -- derelict satellites, discarded rocket upper stages, and pieces from satellite breakups -- in Earth orbit, especially in well-used orbital regimes. This talk will summarize the current knowledge of the debris environment and describe plans to address the challenges orbital debris raises for the future usability of near-Earth space. The talk will be structured around 4 categories: Measurements, Modeling, Shielding, and Mitigation. This will include discussions of the long-term prognosis of debris growth (i.e., the "Kessler Syndrome") as well as plans for active debris removal.

  19. LDEF (Flight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray B11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the center of the upper tray flange, the center of the right tray flange and the left end of the lower tray flange have changed little from their original white color. The discolorations on the lower left experiment tray sidewall appear to be fingerprints from prelaunch handling. The Space Debris Impact Experiment consists of a three sixteenth (3/16) of an inch thick chromic anodized aluminum panel mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment tray. The side of the plate exposed to the LDEF interior is painted with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 wash primer. The panels are attached to the aluminum tray structure with non- magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The panel coatings, a thin layer of chromic anodize facing out and the Chemglaze Z-306 black paint facing the LDEF interior, contribute significantly to thermal control of the LDEF spacecraft. A portion of the pink and greenish-gray tint on the two (2) debris panels are by-products of the chromic anodize coating process, however, part of the intensity can be attributed to reflections of the blue sky. The vertical streaks on the right debris panel are by-products of chromic anodizing that have been enhanced by the blue reflection. A light irregular shaped discoloration is visible on the left debris panel, starting near the center of the left edge and progressing down and to the right. The light band along the vertical edge of the left debris panel is a reflection from the tray sidewall.

  20. French space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, R.

    1982-01-01

    The four main points of research and development of space programs by France are explained. The National Center of Space Studies is discussed, listing the missions of the Center and describing the activities of the staff.

  1. Space debris and micrometeorite events experienced by WL experiment 701 in prolonged low Earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, D.S.; Dueber, R.E. ); Taylor, E.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Air Force Systems Command Weapons Laboratory experiment 701 (Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optic Systems) was housed aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility and placed into orbit on April 6, 1984, by the shuttle Challenger. It was retrieved 69 months later by the shuttle Columbia on January 12, 1990. During this period in orbit, the experiment experienced numerous debris or micrometeorite impacts. Impact flux values, crater characteristics, and shock phenomena on the experiment's space-exposed surfaces were observed to be similar to returned materials of the Solar Max satellite. This paper presents the analysis of preliminary data, describes data reduction techniques, and outlines areas of future study.

  2. Space debris and micrometeorite events experienced by WL experiment 701 in prolonged low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. S.; Dueber, R. E.; Taylor, E. W.

    1991-06-01

    Air Force Systems Command Weapons Laboratory experiment 701 (Space Environment Effects on Fiber optic Systems) was housed aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility and placed into orbit on April 6, 1984, by the shuttle challenger. It was retrieved 69 months later by the shuttle Columbia on January 12, 1990. During this period in orbit, the experiment experienced numerous debris or micrometeorite impacts. Impact flux values, crater characteristics, and shock phenomena on the experiment's space-exposed surfaces were observed to be similar to returned materials of the Solar Max satellite. This paper presents the analysis of preliminary data, describes data reduction techniques, and outlines areas of future study.

  3. Spacecraft wall design for increased protection against penetration by space debris impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Tullos, Randy J.

    1990-01-01

    All orbiting spacecraft are susceptible to impacts by meteoroids and pieces of orbital space debris. These impacts occur at extremely high speeds and can damage flight-critical systems, which can in turn lead to catastrophic failure of the spacecraft. The design of a spacecraft for a long-duration mission into the meteoroid and space debris environment must include adequate protection against perforation of pressurized components by such impacts. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the perforation resistance of dual-wall structural systems fabricated with monolithic bumper plates and with corrugated bumper plates of equal weight. A comparative analysis of the impact damage in dual-wall systems with corrugated bumper specimens and that in dual-wall specimens with monolithic bumpers of similar weight is performed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of employing corrugated bumpers in structural wall systems for long-duration spacecraft. The analysis indicates that a significant increase in perforation protection can be achieved if a monolithic bumper is replaced by a corrugated bumper of equal weight. The parameters of the corrugations in the corrugated bumper plates are optimized in a manner that minimizes the potential for the creation of ricochet debris in the event of an oblique hypervelocity impact. Several design examples using the optimization scheme are presented and discussed.

  4. Research and Development on In-Situ Measurement Sensors for Micro-Meteoroid and Small Space Debris at JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Okudaira, Osamu; Kimoto, Yugo; Hanada, Toshiya; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Pauline, Faure; Sakurai, Akira; Funakoshi, Kunihiro; Yasaka, Testuo

    2015-04-01

    The history of Japanese R&D into in-situ sensors for micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) measurements is neither particularly long nor short. Research into active sensors started for the meteoroid observation experiment on the HITEN (MUSES-A) satellite of ISAS/JAXA launched in 1990, which had MDC (Munich Dust Counter) on-board sensors for micro meteoroid measurement. This was a collaboration between Technische Universität München and ISAS/JAXA. The main purpose behind the start of passive sensor research was SOCCOR, a late 80's Japan-US mission that planned to capture cometary dust and return to the Earth. Although this mission was canceled, the research outcomes were employed in a JAXA micro debris sample return mission using calibrated aerogel involving the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. There have been many other important activities apart from the above, and the knowledge generated from them has contributed to JAXA's development of a new type of active dust sensor. JAXA and its partners have been developing a simple in-situ active dust sensor of a new type to detect dust particles ranging from a hundred micrometers to several millimeters. The distribution and flux of the debris in the size range are not well understood and is difficult to measure using ground observations. However, it is important that the risk caused by such debris is assessed. In-situ measurement of debris in this size range is useful for 1) verifying meteoroid and debris environment models, 2) verifying meteoroid and debris environment evolution models, and 3) the real time detection of explosions, collisions and other unexpected orbital events. Multitudes of thin, conductive copper strips are formed at a fine pitch of 100 um on a film 12.5 um thick of nonconductive polyimide. An MMOD particle impact is detected when one or more strips are severed by being perforated by such an impact. This sensor is simple to produce and use and requires almost no calibration as

  5. Introducing ``platform''--A new software program to simulate debris and meteoroid impacts on space platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, H.; Crowther, R.; Walker, R.; Swinerd, G.; Aish, F.

    1997-05-01

    We describe a new software program called PLATFORM, which is being developed to simulate the risk and potential damage to spacecraft from debris and meteoroid impacts. The program first generates an accurate 3D solid model representation of a space platform. Debris and meteoroid impacts are simulated by sampling directional collision flux data, derived from environment models such as IDES, and firing test particles at the platform. The location of each impacting particle and the resultant damage, including the production of secondary ejecta, are calculated. A versatile query method is used to analyse impact distributions and their effect, thereby enabling potential damage to subsystems to be assessed. Alternative shielding strategies are then considered, leading to an enhancement of the platform's survivability.

  6. Meteoroid/orbital debris impact damage predictions for the Russian space station MIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, E. L.; Hyde, J. L.; Lear, D.

    1997-01-01

    Components of the Mir space station have been exposed to the meteoroid/orbital debris (M/OD) environment for up to 11 years. During this period, no M/OD impact perforation of the pressure shell of the manned modules were reported. The NASA standard M/OD analysis code BUMPER was used to predict the probability of M/OD impact damage to various components of Mir. The analysis indicates a 1 in 2.2 chance that a M/OD impact would have caused a penetration resulting in a pressure leak of the Mir modules since its launch up to the February 1997. For the next five years, the estimated odds become 1 in 3. On an annual basis, penetration risks are 60 percent higher, on the average, in the next five years due to the larger size of Mir and the growth in the orbital debris population.

  7. LAD-C: A Large Area Cosmic Dust and Orbital Debris Collector on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Giovane, F.; Corsaro, R.; Stansbery, E.

    2007-01-01

    A 10 m^2 aerogel and acoustic sensor system has been under development by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) with main collaboration from the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office at Johnson Space Center. This Large Area Debris Collector (LAD-C) is tentatively scheduled to be deployed by the U.S. Department of Defense Space Test Program (STP) on the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2007. The system will be retrieved, after one to two years of data and sample collection, for post-flight analysis. In addition to cosmic dust and orbital debris sample return, the acoustic sensors will record impact characteristics for potential orbit determination of some of the collected samples. Source identification based on their dynamical signatures may be possible. The LAD-C science return will benefit orbital debris, cosmic dust, and satellite safety communities. This paper presents an overview of the mission objectives, basic configuration, deployment consideration, and science return of the experiment.

  8. Debris Selection and Optimal Path Planning for Debris Removal on the SSO: Impulsive-Thrust Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olympio, J. T.; Frouvelle, N.

    2013-08-01

    The current paper deals with the mission design of a generic active space debris removal spacecraft. Considered debris are all on a sun-synchronous orbit. A perturbed Lambert's problem, modelling the transfer between two debris, is devised to take into account J2 perturbation, and to quickly evaluate mission scenarios. A robust approach, using techniques of global optimisation, is followed to find optimal debris sequence and mission strategy. Manoeuvres optimization is then performed to refine the selected trajectory scenarii.

  9. An optical survey for space debris on highly eccentric and inclined MEO orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, Thomas; Flohrer, Tim; Hinze, Andreas; Vananti, Alessandro; Silha, Jiri

    Optical surveys for space debris in high-altitude orbits have been conducted since more than fifteen years. Originally these efforts concentrated mainly on the geostationary ring (GEO) and its close region. Corresponding observation strategies, processing techniques and cataloguing approaches have been developed and successfully applied. The ESA GEO surveys, e.g., resulted in the detection of a significant population of small-size debris and later in the discovery of high area-to-mass ratio objects in GEO-like orbits. The observation scenarios were successively adapted to survey the geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) region; and surveys to search for debris in the medium Earth orbit (MEO) region of the global navigation satellite constellations were successfully conducted. Comparably less experience (both, in terms of practical observation and strategy definition) is available for eccentric orbits that (at least partly) are in the MEO region, in particular for the Molniya-type orbits. Several breakup events and deliberate fragmentations are known to have taken place in such orbits. Survey and follow-up strategies for searching space debris objects in highly-eccentric MEO orbits, and to acquire orbits which are sufficiently accurate to catalogue such objects and to maintain their orbits over longer time spans were developed and, eventually, optical observations were conducted in the framework of an ESA study using ESA' Space Debris Telescope (ESASDT) the 1-m Zeiss telescope located at the Optical Ground Station (OGS) at the Teide Observatory at Tenerife, Spain. Thirteen nights of surveys of Molniya-type orbits was performed between January and August 2013. A basic survey consisted of observing a single geocentric field for 10 minutes. If a faint object was found, follow-up observations were performed during the same night to ensure a save rediscovery of the object during the next nights. Additional follow-up observations to maintain the orbits of these newly

  10. Space-based application of the CAN laser to LIDAR and orbital debris remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, M. N.; Jukna, V.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Dicaire, I.; Soulard, R.; Summerer, L.; Couairon, A.; Mourou, G.

    2015-10-01

    Development of pulsed lasers for space-based science missions entail many additional challenges compared to terrestrial experiments. For systems requiring short pulses ≪1 ns with energies >100 mJ and fast repetition rates >10 kHz there are currently few if no laser architectures capable of operating with high electrical efficiency >20% and have good system stability. The emergence of a mulit-channel fiber-based Coherent-Amplifying-Network or CAN laser potentially enables such capability for space based missions. Here in this article we present an analysis of two such missions scaling up in pulse energy from ≈100 mJ for a supercontinuum LIDAR application utilising atmospheric filamentation to the higher energy demands needed for space debris remediation requiring ≈10 J pulses. This scalability of the CAN laser provides pathways for development of the core science and technology where many new novel space applications can be made possible.

  11. Active Removal of Large Debris: System Approach of Desorbiting Concepts and Technological Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzin, Patrice; Rembala, Richard; Teti, Frank; Bakouche, Charles; Billot, Carole

    2013-08-01

    The threat induced by large space debris, dead satellites or rocket bodies, in Low Earth Orbit has been identified years ago. A first part of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) study was dedicated to identify mission architectures that can fulfil the objective to eliminate the necessary number of critical debris. Those potential solutions and architectures have been compared taking into account cost considerations. The present paper reports the first results of the OTV step2 study funded by CNES that addresses different solutions for large debris removal. It compares different desorbiting concepts from selected single to multiple debris complying with the Space Law, i.e. able to ensure controlled re entries. Different capture options are presented, including sensors needs and an analysis of the problems posed by different solutions. The overall performances of the concepts are compared, showing the adequacy, the limits of each solutions and application domains.

  12. Implementation of an Open-Scenario, Long-Term Space Debris Simulation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Bron; Yang Yang, Fan; Carlino, Roberto; Dono Perez, Andres; Faber, Nicolas; Henze, Chris; Karacalioglu, Arif Goktug; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Stupl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a status update on the implementation of a flexible, long-term space debris simulation approach. The motivation is to build a tool that can assess the long-term impact of various options for debris-remediation, including the LightForce space debris collision avoidance concept that diverts objects using photon pressure [9]. State-of-the-art simulation approaches that assess the long-term development of the debris environment use either completely statistical approaches, or they rely on large time steps on the order of several days if they simulate the positions of single objects over time. They cannot be easily adapted to investigate the impact of specific collision avoidance schemes or de-orbit schemes, because the efficiency of a collision avoidance maneuver can depend on various input parameters, including ground station positions and orbital and physical parameters of the objects involved in close encounters (conjunctions). Furthermore, maneuvers take place on timescales much smaller than days. For example, LightForce only changes the orbit of a certain object (aiming to reduce the probability of collision), but it does not remove entire objects or groups of objects. In the same sense, it is also not straightforward to compare specific de-orbit methods in regard to potential collision risks during a de-orbit maneuver. To gain flexibility in assessing interactions with objects, we implement a simulation that includes every tracked space object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and propagates all objects with high precision and variable time-steps as small as one second. It allows the assessment of the (potential) impact of physical or orbital changes to any object. The final goal is to employ a Monte Carlo approach to assess the debris evolution during the simulation time-frame of 100 years and to compare a baseline scenario to debris remediation scenarios or other scenarios of interest. To populate the initial simulation, we use the entire space

  13. Dynamical Evolution of Space Debris Moving Inside and Across MEO Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospieszynski, Remigiusz; Gregorowicz, Dorota; Golembiewska, Justyna; Wnuk, Edwin

    2012-07-01

    MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) satellites are objects with semi-major axis greater than 8000 km and lower than 35000 km. The orbit period ranges from about 2 to 24 hours. That type of orbit is home to the navigation satellites such as GPS, Glonass and Galileo. According to the European Space Agency's debris environment model, MASTER 2001, about 60000 objects larger than 1 cm can be found moving within the region. The main challenge for the removal of the debris is the lack of natural removal mechanism such as atmospheric drag. Moreover, wide spread of altitudes make tracking of the debris extremely difficult due to their small angular size. Because of these issues it is very important to study the MEO dynamical evolution with high accuracy, taking into account force model consisting of: geopotential, luni-solar effects and solar radiation pressure. Also, mean motion (like 2:1 and 5:3) and luni-solar resonance of debris that populate the MEO region should be included. Resonances strongly influence the stability of the aforementioned constellations causing long-term eccentricity growth that could lead to dangerous crossing of the other orbits which could end up in collision. In this paper we present the results of calculations of orbit predictions for short and medium time span (up to several weeks). Due to the importance of the region, high quality data are required in the modeling, therefore, much attention is given to improve the accuracy of predicted orbits with preserving relatively short computational time. The atmospheric drag is negligible at the altitudes in question which suggests that focus should be given to the solar radiation pressure depending mainly on S/M (area-to-mass) ratio.

  14. LDEF (Flight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray E11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the center of the lower tray flange, the center of the left tray flange and the right end of the upper tray flange have changed little from their original white color. Discolorations are visible on the upper, left side and lower experiment tray flanges. The Space Debris Impact Experiment consists of a three sixteenth (3/16) of an inch thick chromic anodized aluminum panel mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment tray. The side of the plate exposed to the LDEF interior is painted with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 wash primer. The panels are attached to the aluminum tray structure with non- magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The panel coatings, a thin layer of chromic anodize facing out and the Chemglaze Z-306 black paint facing the LDEF interior, contribute significantly to thermal control of the LDEF spacecraft. A portion of the pink and greenish-gray tint on the two (2) debris panels are by-products of the chromic anodize coating process, however, part of the intensity can be attributed to reflections of the blue sky. The vertical streaks on the debris panel are by-products of chromic anodizing that have been enhanced by the blue reflection. The light band along the vertical edge of the left debris panel is a reflection from the tray sidewall.

  15. An Electric Propulsion "Shepherd" for Active Debris Removal that Utilizes Ambient Gas as Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus among the space debris technical community that limiting the long-term growth of debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) requires that space users limit the accumulation of mass in orbit. This is partially accomplished by mitigation measures for current and future LEO systems, but there is now interest in removing mass that has already accumulated in LEO from more than 50 years of space activity (termed "Active Debris Removal", or ADR). Many ADR proposals face complex technical issues of how to grapple with uncooperative targets. Some researchers have suggested the use of conventional ion thrusters to gently "blow" on objects to gradually change their orbits, without ever having to come into physical contact with the target. The chief drawback with these methods is the cost per object removed. Typically, a space "tug" or an ion-drive "shepherd" can only remove a few objects per mission due to limited propellant. Unless a cost-effective way that removes tens of objects per mission can be found, it is not clear that any of the ideas so far proposed will be economically viable. In this paper, a modified version of the ion-drive "shepherd" is proposed that uses ambient atmospheric gases in LEO as propellant for the ion drives. This method has the potential to greatly extend the operational lifetime of an ADR mission, as the only mission limit is the lifetime of the components of the satellite itself, not on its fuel supply. An ambient-gas ion-drive "shepherd" would enhance the local atmospheric drag on an object by ionizing and accelerating the ambient gas the target would have encountered anyway, thereby hastening its decay. Also, the "shepherd" satellite itself has a great deal of flexibility to maneuver back to high altitude and rendezvous with its next target using the ion drive not limited by fuel supply. However, the amount of available ambient gas is closely tied to the altitude of the spacecraft. It may be possible to use a "hybrid

  16. An Electric Propulsion "Shepherd" for Active Debris Removal that Utilizes Ambient Gas as Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus among the space debris technical community that limiting the long ]term growth of debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) requires that space users limit the accumulation of mass in orbit. This is partially accomplished by mitigation measures for current and future LEO systems, but there is now interest in removing mass that has already accumulated in LEO from more than 50 years of space activity (termed "Active Debris Removal", or ADR). Many ADR proposals face complex technical issues of how to grapple with uncooperative targets. Some researchers have suggested the use of conventional ion thrusters to gently "blow" on objects to gradually change their orbits, without ever having to come into physical contact with the target. The chief drawback with these methods is the cost per object removed. Typically, a space "tug" or an ion-drive "shepherd" can only remove a few objects per mission due to limited propellant. Unless a costeffective way that removes tens of objects per mission can be found, it is not clear that any of the ideas so far proposed will be economically viable. In this paper, a modified version of the ion-drive "shepherd" is proposed that uses ambient atmospheric gases in LEO as propellant for the ion drives. This method has the potential to greatly extend the operational lifetime of an ADR mission, as the only mission limit is the lifetime of the components of the satellite itself, not on its fuel supply. An ambient-gas ion-drive "shepherd" would the local atmospheric drag on an object by ionizing and accelerating the ambient gas the target would have encountered anyway, thereby hastening its decay. Also, the "shepherd" satellite itself has a great deal of flexibility to maneuver back to high altitude and rendezvous with its next target using the ion drive not limited by fuel supply. However, the amount of available ambient gas is closely tied to the altitude of the spacecraft. It may be possible to use a "hybrid" approach that

  17. A hypervelocity launcher for simulated large fragment space debris impacts at 10 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tullos, R. J.; Gray, W. M.; Mullin, S. A.; Cour-Palais, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    The background, design, and testing of two explosive launchers for simulating large fragment space debris impacts are presented. The objective was to develop a launcher capable of launching one gram aluminum fragments at velocities of 10 km/s. The two launchers developed are based on modified versions of an explosive shaped charge, common in many military weapons. One launcher design has yielded a stable fragment launch of approximately one gram of aluminum at 8.93 km/s velocity. The other design yielded velocities in excess of 10 km/s, but failed to produce a cohesive fragment launch. This work is ongoing, and future plans are given.

  18. Optical Studies of Space Debris at GEO: Survey and Follow-up with Two Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, P.; Abercomby, K. J.; Rodriquez, H. M.; Barker, E. S.

    2007-01-01

    For 14 nights in March 2007, we used two telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile to study the nature of space debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). In this project one telescope was dedicated to survey operations, while a second telescope was used for follow-up observations for orbits and colors. The goal was to obtain orbital and photometric information on every faint object found with the survey telescope. Thus we concentrate on objects fainter than R = 15th magnitude.

  19. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris advanced design project in support of solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Mitchell, Dominique; Taft, Brett; Chinnock, Paul; Kutz, Bjoern

    1992-01-01

    This paper is regarding a project in the Advanced Design Program at the University of Arizona. The project is named the Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD) and is a NASA/Universities Space Research Association (USRA) sponsored design project. The development of ASPOD and the students' abilities in designing and building a prototype spacecraft are the ultimate goals of this project. This year's focus entailed the development of a secondary robotic arm and end-effector to work in tandem with an existent arm in the removal of orbital debris. The new arm features the introduction of composite materials and a linear drive system, thus producing a light-weight and more accurate prototype. The main characteristic of the end-effector design is that it incorporates all of the motors and gearing internally, thus not subjecting them to the harsh space environment. Furthermore, the arm and the end-effector are automated by a control system with positional feedback. This system is composed of magnetic and optical encoders connected to a 486 PC via two servo-motor controller cards. Programming a series of basic routines and sub-routines has allowed the ASPOD prototype to become more autonomous. The new system is expected to perform specified tasks with a positional accuracy of 0.5 cm.

  20. Empirical model of motion of space debris in the geostationary region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtigaraev, N. S.; Levkina, P. A.; Chazov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Regular optical observations of small-sized space debris on a geosynchronous orbit are carried out at the Terskol Peak Observatory (Kabardino-Balkaria). The aim of these observations is to gather data on technogenic pollution of near-Earth space; discover small-sized space debris, determine their parameters, and catalogue them; and maintain an updated catalogue of orbits. The results obtained by processing topocentric measurements of positions of one such object are presented. This object is distinctive in that it is a small-sized fragment of the Fengyun 2D satellite (international designator 2006-053A) and moves about a Lagrangian point at 75° E with a small amplitude. The observational material was accumulated in 12 twoweek sessions within a 6-year interval from 2009 to 2014. The variability of the ratio of the maximum cross section area to the object mass is revealed, and a model of variations of this parameter is proposed. The basic period of variations is 392 days. The validity of the model was verified in a series of independent observations in March, 2015.

  1. Stabilization and parameter identification of tumbling space debris with bounded torque in postcapture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Teng; Yue, Xiaokui; Ning, Xin; Yuan, Jianping

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new control scheme for the problem of a space robot after capturing an unknown tumbling target, such as space debris. Robotic capturing the target may destabilize the base of spacecraft and control torque is bounded which would affect the performance of attitude control system. To stabilize the base with bounded torque in postcapture scenario, a new control scheme which utilizes the control torque to balance angular momentum and motion of the manipulator to compensate limitation of the torque, is proposed. Considering uncertainties of the target, parameter identification technique for tumbling target with linear momentum is utilized to correct parameters of the controller. To verify validity and feasibility of the proposed concept, a planar space robot capturing small, medium and large target with or without linear momentum is studied. The results show that the whole system is stabilized finally and all the inertial parameters of the target converge to their real values.

  2. Space construction activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado at Boulder was established in 1988 as a University Space Engineering Research Center. The mission of the Center is to conduct interdisciplinary engineering research which is critical to the construction of future space structures and systems and to educate students who will have the vision and technical skills to successfully lead future space construction activities. The research activities are currently organized around two central projects: Orbital Construction and Lunar Construction. Summaries of the research projects are included.

  3. Active Debris Removal - A Grand Engineering Challenge for the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 has reignited interest in using active debris removal to remediate the near-Earth orbital debris environment. A recent NASA study shows that, in order to stabilize the environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region for the next 200 years, active debris removal of about five large and massive (1 to more than 8 metric tons) objects per year is needed. To develop the capability to remove five of those objects per year in a cost-effective manner truly represents a grand challenge in engineering and technology development.

  4. LISK-BROOM: Clearing near-Earth space debris in 4 years using a 20-kW, 530-nm repetitively pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, C.R.; Michaelis, M.M.

    1994-10-01

    When space debris forced a change of plan for a recent US Space Shuttle mission, it finally reached the point of broad awareness. Almost a million pieces of debris have been generated by 35 years of spaceflight, and now threaten some long-term space missions. This problem can best a be solved by causing space debris items to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere on a computed trajectory. Illumination of the objects by a repetitively-pulsed laser will easily produce a laser-ablation jet providing the impulse to de-orbit the object. For reasons we will discuss, we propose the use of a ground-based laser system, atmospheric-turbulence compensating beam director, computer and high resolution detection system to solve this problem. A laser of just 2OkW average power and state-of-the-art detection capabilities could clear near-Earth space below 1100km altitude of all space debris larger than 1 cm but less massive than 100kg in about 4 years. The LISK-BROOM laser would be located near the Equator above 5km elevation [e.g., the Uhuru site on Kilimanjarol, minimizing turbulence correction and absorption of the 530-nm wavelength laser beam. LISK-BROOM is a special case of Laser Impulse Space Propulsion (LISP), by which objects are propelled in space by the ablation jet due to a distant laser. We will also discuss active beam phase error correction during passage through the atmosphere and the object detection system which are necessary.

  5. Hypervelocity impact facility for simulating materials exposure to impact by space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. Frank; Best, S. G.; Chaloupka, T.; Stephens, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Power Institute at Auburn University has constructed an electromagnetically driven particle accelerator for simulating the effects of space debris on the materials for use in advanced spacecraft. The facility consists of a capacitively driven accelerator section, a drift tube and a specimen impact chamber. The drift tube is sufficiently long that all electrical activity has ceased prior to impact in the specimen chamber. The impact chamber is large enough to allow a wide range of specimen geometries, ranging from small coupons to active portions of advanced spacecraft. The electric drive for the accelerator consists of a 67 kJ, 50 k capacitor bank arranged in a low inductance configuration. The bank is discharged through an aluminum armature/plastic ablator plate/projectile load in roughly 1.2 microsec. The evaporation of the ablaitor plate produces an expanding gas slug, mostly H2, traveling at a velocity of some 60 km/sec. Because of the pressure and local density, the expanding gas cloud accelerates projectiles due to plasma drag. To date, we have utilized projectiles consisting of 100 micron SiC, 100 and 400 micron Al2O3, 100 and 145 micron olivines. Since many particles are accelerated in a given experiment, there is a range of velocities for each shot as well as some particle breakup. Advanced diagnostics techniques allow determination of impact coordinates, velocity, and approximate size for as many as 50 individual impacts in a given experiment. We routinely measure velocities in the range 1-15 km/sec. We have used this facility to study a variety of impact generated phenomena on coated surfaces, both paint and plastic, thermal blanket material, solar cell arrays, and optical materials such as glass and quartz lenses. The operating characteristics of the gun, the advanced diagnostic scheme, and the results of studies of crater morphology are described in detail. Projectile residue analysis, as a function of impact velocity for the materials listed

  6. Active debris removal: Aspects of trajectories, communication and illumination during final approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloo, J. A. F.; Mooij, E.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate a debris-remediation technique where a chaser performs a rendezvous with the debris, establishes a rigid-link connection, and actively de-orbits the debris. ESA's satellite Envisat has been used as a design case. The research assessed passive safety aspects of the final-approach manoeuvres by analysing the resulting trajectories after thrust inhibit. Next, the research explored the possibility for continuous ground communication by considering the chain of European space tracking (ESTRACK) ground stations (located mainly in Europe). Furthermore, obstruction of the communication signal by the target was studied. Last, the research studies the illumination conditions encountered by the chaser, where obscuration of the Sun by the target was taken into account. Each of these elements are studied for the final approach only. In the topic of passive safety, the results confirm that manoeuvres on H-bar are passively unsafe, and indicate this also for the fly-around manoeuvres along the natural orbital motion. It can be concluded from the communication analysis that the maximum duration of the uninterrupted window varies between 22 and 32 min, using the chain of core ESTRACK ground stations. However, the study on communication blockage shows that frequent communication gaps can occur, with the longest gaps being in the order of one minute in duration. In the field of illumination, it can be concluded that correct target illumination and sensor visibility cannot be guaranteed. Furthermore, the average solar-array area available during final approach varies between 35% and 75%, due to both incorrect pointing of the solar array by the chaser and obscuration by the target.

  7. Pay Me Now or Pay Me More Later: Start the Development of Active Orbital Debris Removal Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D.

    2010-09-01

    time it takes for the actions to reap benefits. Additionally, if the growth of the lethal hazard grows faster than anticipated it may be necessary to replace some satellites, execute large object removal, and perform medium debris (i.e. lethal fragments) sweeping operations. The sooner the community starts to remove large derelict objects, the more likely satellite damage will be minimized and the less likely that medium debris sweeping will have to be implemented. While the research is focused on starting debris removal, the ensemble of observations reinforces the need to continue to push for as close to 100% compliance to debris mitigation guidelines as possible. This analysis is unique in its pragmatic application of advanced probability concepts, merging of space hazard assessments with space insurance thresholds, and the use of general risk management concepts on the orbital debris hazard control process. It is hoped that this paper provides an impetus for spacefaring organizations to start to actively pursue development and deployment of debris removal solutions and policies.

  8. StreakDet data processing and analysis pipeline for space debris optical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Jenni; Flohrer, Tim; Muinonen, Karri; Granvik, Mikael; Torppa, Johanna; Poikonen, Jonne; Lehti, Jussi; Santti, Tero; Komulainen, Tuomo; Naranen, Jyri

    We describe a novel data processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of space debris. The monitoring of space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data, to support the development and validation of space debris environment models, the build-up and maintenance of a catalogue of orbital elements. In addition, data is needed for the assessment of conjunction events and for the support of contingency situations or launches. The currently available, mature image processing algorithms for detection and astrometric reduction of optical data cover objects that cross the sensor field-of-view comparably slowly, and within a rather narrow, predefined range of angular velocities. By applying specific tracking techniques, the objects appear point-like or as short trails in the exposures. However, the general survey scenario is always a “track before detect” problem, resulting in streaks, i.e., object trails of arbitrary lengths, in the images. The scope of the ESA-funded StreakDet (Streak detection and astrometric reduction) project is to investigate solutions for detecting and reducing streaks from optical images, particularly in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) domain, where algorithms are not readily available yet. For long streaks, the challenge is to extract precise position information and related registered epochs with sufficient precision. Although some considerations for low-SNR processing of streak-like features are available in the current image processing and computer vision literature, there is a need to discuss and compare these approaches for space debris analysis, in order to develop and evaluate prototype implementations. In the StreakDet project, we develop algorithms applicable to single images (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) obtained with any observing scenario, including space-based surveys and both low- and high-altitude populations. The proposed processing pipeline starts from the

  9. Report on orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The success of space endeavors depends upon a space environment sufficiently free of debris to enable the safe and dependable operation of spacecraft. An environment overly cluttered with debris would threaten the ability to utilize space for a wide variety of scientific, technological, military, and commercial purposes. Man made space debris (orbital debris) differs from natural meteoroids because it remains in earth orbit during its lifetime and is not transient through the space around the Earth. The orbital debris environment is considered. The space environment is described along with sources of orbital debris. The current national space policy is examined, along with ways to minimize debris generation and ways to survive the debris environment. International efforts, legal issues and commercial regulations are also examined.

  10. Earth's gravity gradient and eddy currents effects on the rotational dynamics of space debris objects: Envisat case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Natalia Ortiz; Walker, Scott J. I.

    2015-08-01

    The space debris population has grown rapidly over the last few decades with the consequent growth of impact risk between current objects in orbit. Active Debris Removal (ADR) has been recommended to be put into practice by several National Agencies in order to remove objects that pose the biggest risk for the space community. The most immediate target that is being considered for ADR by the European Space Agency is the Earth-observing satellite Envisat. In order to safely remove such a massive object from its orbit, a capturing process followed by a controlled reentry is necessary. However, current ADR methods that require physical contact with the target have limitations on the maximum angular momentum that can be absorbed and a de-tumbling phase prior to the capturing process may be required. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for the ADR mission design to be able to predict accurately how the target will be rotating at the time of capture. This article analyses two perturbations that affect an object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), the Earth's gravity gradient and the eddy currents induced by the Earth's magnetic field. The gravity gradient is analysed using the equation of conservation of total energy and a graphical method is presented to understand the expected behaviour of any object under the effect of this perturbation. The eddy currents are also analysed by studying the total energy of the system. The induced torque and the characteristic time of decay are presented as a function of the object's magnetic tensor. In addition, simulations were carried out for the Envisat spacecraft including the gravity gradient perturbation as well as the eddy currents effect using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field IGRF-11 to model the Earth's magnetic field. These simulations show that the combined effect of these two perturbations is a plausible explanation for the rotational speed decay observed between April 2013 and September 2013.

  11. Orbital Debris Quarterly News, Vol. 13, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C. (Editor); Shoots, Debi (Editor)

    2009-01-01

    Topics include: debris clouds left by satellite collision; debris flyby near the International Space Station; and break-up of an ullage motor from a Russian Proton launch vehicle. Findings from the analysis of the STS-126 Shuttle Endeavour window impact damage are provided. Abstracts from the NASA Orbital Debris program office are presented and address a variety of topics including: Reflectance Spectra Comparison of Orbital Debris, Intact Spacecraft, and Intact Rocket Bodies in the GEO Regime; Shape Distribution of Fragments From Microsatellite Impact Tests; Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Threat Mitigation Techniques for the Space Shuttle Orbiter; Space Debris Environment Remediation Concepts; and, In Situ Measurement Activities at the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. Additionally, a Meeting Report is provided for the 12 meeting of the NASA/DoD Orbital Debris Working Group.

  12. Study of Damage of Gas-filled Spherical Pressure Vassel Subjected to Hypervelocity Impact by Space Debris with Different Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan; Pang, Baojun; Jia, Bin

    2013-08-01

    As an important component of spacecraft, if a gas-filled pressure vessel is impacted by space debris, it might occur even overall bursting. Spherical aluminum projectiles are used to simulate space debris impacting gas-filled spherical pressure vessel with hypervelocity. Projectiles impact places with the same thickness in different tests. By analyzing the maximum gas pressure of the spherical vessel, the inflation pressure is determined: 1.075MPa. By numerical simulation, the critical impact velocity to perforate the front wall is determined: 2.02mm ~ 2.31mm. As the projectile velocity increases, the damage patterns of the back wall are of different bulged outwards patterns.

  13. Orbital Debris Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2009-01-01

    The United States has one of the most active programs of research of the orbital debris environment in the world. Much of the research is conducted by NASA s Orbital Debris Program Office at the Johnson Space Center. Past work by NASA has led to the development of national space policy which seeks to limit the growth of the debris population and limit the risk to spacecraft and humans in space and on the Earth from debris. NASA has also been instrumental in developing consistent international policies and standards. Much of NASA's efforts have been to measure and characterize the orbital debris population. The U.S. Department of Defense tracks and catalogs spacecraft and large debris with it's Space Surveillance Network while NASA concentrates on research on smaller debris. In low Earth orbit, NASA has utilized short wavelength radars such as Haystack, HAX, and Goldstone to statistically characterize the population in number, size, altitude, and inclination. For higher orbits, optical telescopes have been used. Much effort has gone into the understanding and removal of observational biases from both types of measurements. NASA is also striving to understand the material composition and shape characteristics of debris to assess these effects on the risk to operational spacecraft. All of these measurements along with data from ground tests provide the basis for near- and long-term modeling of the environment. NASA also develops tools used by spacecraft builders and operators to evaluate spacecraft and mission designs to assess compliance with debris standards and policies which limit the growth of the debris environment.

  14. First astrometric observations of space debris with the MéO telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laas-Bourez, Myrtille; Wailliez, Sébastien; Deleflie, Florent; Klotz, Alain; Albanese, Dominique; Saba, Nathalie

    2012-02-01

    The MéO (for Métrologie Optique) telescope is the Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging (SLR) dedicated telescope of Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France) located at plateau de Calern. The telescope uses an altazimuth mount. The motorization of the mount has a capability of 6 deg/s allowing the follow up of Low Earth Orbits (LEO) satellites, as well as Medium Earth Orbits (MEO) and geostationary (GEO) satellites, and the Moon. The telescope has a primary mirror of 1.54 m. It uses a Nasmyth focus equipped with an EMCCD camera. The telescope field of view, defined by the equivalent focal length and the size of the camera, is currently 3.4 arcmin × 3.4 arcmin.Space debris observation with an optical telescope ideally requires a large field of view, accurate pointing, a fast slew rate, a high sensitivity, accurate astrometric positions, and a precise method for orbit propagation. The challenge is to obtain accurate orbits for all debris without compromising the field of view. The MéO telescope has a larger diameter than the ones habitually used for space debris tracking. It should improve the current accuracy of observations in the GEO region. For LEO, such sensitivity should allow observations of small pieces of debris at low altitudes.This paper presents the preliminary experiments carried out to benefit from the high astrometric quality of the instrument, namely the method developed to extract and to compute the astrometric positions of LEO and MEO satellites, as a test of the capabilities of such an instrument (very small field of view, but large aperture) for space debris tracking. Furthermore, we analyse the ability of MéO to keep track of an object for which only a preliminary orbit (computed by the Laplace method from previous observations) is known, so that high precision measurements can be obtained and the object can be catalogued with an updated orbit.The feasibility of our astrometric methods was tested throughout 2010. This paper presents the methods

  15. FIVE DEBRIS DISKS NEWLY REVEALED IN SCATTERED LIGHT FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE NICMOS ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall D.; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Élodie; Chen, Christine; Golimowski, David A.; Brendan Hagan, J.; Moerchen, Margaret; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Wolff, Schuyler; Debes, John; Hines, Dean C.; Mittal, Tushar; Rajan, Abhijith; Schneider, Glenn

    2014-05-10

    We have spatially resolved five debris disks (HD 30447, HD 35841, HD 141943, HD 191089, and HD 202917) for the first time in near-infrared scattered light by reanalyzing archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/NICMOS coronagraphic images obtained between 1999 and 2006. One of these disks (HD 202917) was previously resolved at visible wavelengths using the HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys. To obtain these new disk images, we performed advanced point-spread function subtraction based on the Karhunen-Loève Image Projection algorithm on recently reprocessed NICMOS data with improved detector artifact removal (Legacy Archive PSF Library And Circumstellar Environments (LAPLACE) Legacy program). Three of the disks (HD 30447, HD 35841, and HD 141943) appear edge-on, while the other two (HD 191089 and HD 202917) appear inclined. The inclined disks have been sculpted into rings; in particular, the disk around HD 202917 exhibits strong asymmetries. All five host stars are young (8-40 Myr), nearby (40-100 pc) F and G stars, and one (HD 141943) is a close analog to the young Sun during the epoch of terrestrial planet formation. Our discoveries increase the number of debris disks resolved in scattered light from 19 to 23 (a 21% increase). Given their youth, proximity, and brightness (V = 7.2-8.5), these targets are excellent candidates for follow-up investigations of planet formation at visible wavelengths using the HST/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph coronagraph, at near-infrared wavelengths with the Gemini Planet Imager and Very Large Telescope/SPHERE, and at thermal infrared wavelengths with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRCam and MIRI coronagraphs.

  16. Optical observation, image-processing, and detection of space debris in geosynchronous Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hiroshi; Kurosaki, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Toshifumi; Tagawa, Makoto

    We report on optical observations and an efficient detection method of space debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). We operate our new Australia Remote Observatory (ARO) where an 18 cm optical telescope with a charged-coupled device (CCD) camera covering a 3.14-degree field of view is used for GEO debris survey, and analyse datasets of successive CCD images using the line detection method (Yanagisawa and Nakajima 2005). In our operation, the exposure time of each CCD image is set to be 3 seconds, and the time interval of each images is about 4.7 seconds. We can detect faint signals (down to about 1.8 sigma of background noise) by applying the line detection method to 18 CCD images. As a result, we detected about 300 GEO objects up to magnitude of 14 among 5 nights data, and found that a certain amount of our detections are new objects that are not contained in the two-line-element (TLE) data provided by the U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). We conclude that our ARO posses a high efficiency detection of GEO objects despite the use of comparatively-inexpensive observation and analysis system. We also describe the image-processing method specialised for the detection of GEO objects (not for usual astronomical objects like stars) in this paper.

  17. The Laser-driven Flyer System for Space Debris Hypervelocity Impact Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zizheng; Dai, Fu; Yang, Jiyun; Hou, Mingqiang; Zheng, Jiandong; Tong, Jingyu; Pang, Hewei

    2009-06-01

    The Laser-driven flyer (LDF) technique is showing promiseful in simulating micro meteoroids and orbital debris (M/OD) hypervelocity impacting effects. LDF system with a single pulses from a Q-switched Nd: glass laser, of 15 ns duration and up to 20J energy, launched the aluminum films of 5 μm thickness up to 8.3km/s velocity was developed in Beijing Institute of Spacecrafts Environment Engineering(BISEE), CAST. The quantitative relationships between the flyer velocity and the laser energy, the width of laser pulse, the diameter of laser focal spot, and the flyer thickness were analyzed, according to Lawrence-Gurney model, and compared with the experimental results. Some experimental aspects in our efforts on the space debris Hypervelocity impacts on the outer surfaces functional material, such as the thermal control material, window glass, and OSR etc., are reviewed. Though still developing, the Laser-driven flyer technique has been demonstrated promise in simulating micro M/OD hypervelocity impacting effects.

  18. Ongoing Space Nuclear Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Most ongoing US activities related to space nuclear power and propulsion are sponsored by NASA. NASA-spons0red space nuclear work is currently focused on evaluating potential fission surface power (FSP) systems and on radioisotope power systems (RPS). In addition, significant efforts related to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been completed and will provide a starting point for potential future NTP work.

  19. Optimal planning of LEO active debris removal based on hybrid optimal control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qian; Chen, Li-hu

    2015-06-01

    The mission planning of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) active debris removal problem is studied in this paper. Specifically, the Servicing Spacecraft (SSc) and several debris exist on near-circular near-coplanar LEOs. The SSc should repeatedly rendezvous with the debris, and de-orbit them until all debris are removed. Considering the long-duration effect of J2 perturbation, a linear dynamics model is used for each rendezvous. The purpose of this paper is to find the optimal service sequence and rendezvous path with minimum total rendezvous cost (Δv) for the whole mission, and some complex constraints (communication time window constraint, terminal state constraint, and time distribution constraint) should be satisfied meanwhile. Considering this mission as a hybrid optimal control problem, a mathematical model is proposed, as well as the solution method. The proposed approach is demonstrated by a typical active debris removal problem. Numerical experiments show that (1) the model and solution method proposed in this paper can effectively address the planning problem of LEO debris removal; (2) the communication time window constraint and the J2 perturbation have considerable influences on the optimization results; and (3) under the same configuration, some suboptimal sequences are equivalent to the optimal one since their difference in Δv cost is very small.

  20. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Efficiency Assessment on an Entire Catalogue of Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupl, J.; Faber, N.; Foster, C.; Yang, F.; Levit, C.

    2013-09-01

    The potential to perturb debris orbits using photon pressure from ground-based lasers has been confirmed by independent research teams. Useful applications of this scheme are protecting space assets from impacts with debris and stabilizing the orbital debris environment, both relying on collision avoidance rather than de-orbiting debris. This paper presents the results of a new assessment method to analyze the efficiency of the concept. Earlier research concluded that one ground based system consisting of a 10 kW class laser, directed by a 1.5 m telescope with adaptive optics, can avoid a significant fraction of debris-debris collisions in low Earth orbit. That research used in-track displacement to measure efficiency and restricted itself to an analysis of a limited number of objects. As orbit prediction error is dependent on debris object properties, a static displacement threshold should be complemented with another measure to assess the efficiency of the scheme. In this paper we present the results of an approach using probability of collision. Using a least-squares fitting method, we improve the quality of the original TLE catalogue in terms of state and co-state accuracy. We then calculate collision probabilities for all the objects in the catalogue. The conjunctions with the highest risk of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the collision probability in a 24h window around the original conjunction. We then use different criteria to evaluate the utility of the laser based collision avoidance scheme and assess the number of base-line ground stations needed to mitigate a significant number of high probability conjunctions. Finally, we also give an account how a laser ground station can be used for both orbit deflection and debris tracking.

  1. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Efficiency Assessment on an Entire Catalogue of Space Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stupl, Jan Michael; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Yang Yang, Fan; Levit, Creon

    2013-01-01

    The potential to perturb debris orbits using photon pressure from ground-based lasers has been confirmed by independent research teams. Two useful applications of this scheme are protecting space assets from impacts with debris and stabilizing the orbital debris environment, both relying on collision avoidance rather than de-orbiting debris. This paper presents the results of a new assessment method to analyze the efficiency of the concept for collision avoidance. Earlier research concluded that one ground based system consisting of a 10 kW class laser, directed by a 1.5 m telescope with adaptive optics, can prevent a significant fraction of debris-debris collisions in low Earth orbit. That research used in-track displacement to measure efficiency and restricted itself to an analysis of a limited number of objects. As orbit prediction error is dependent on debris object properties, a static displacement threshold should be complemented with another measure to assess the efficiency of the scheme. In this paper we present the results of an approach using probability of collision. Using a least-squares fitting method, we improve the quality of the original TLE catalogue in terms of state and co-state accuracy. We then calculate collision probabilities for all the objects in the catalogue. The conjunctions with the highest risk of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the collision probability in a 20 minute window around the original conjunction. We then use different criteria to evaluate the utility of the laser-based collision avoidance scheme and assess the number of base-line ground stations needed to mitigate a significant number of high probability conjunctions. Finally, we also give an account how a laser ground station can be used for both orbit deflection and debris tracking.

  2. Japanese contribution to in-situ meteoroid and debris measurement in the near Earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime

    1999-11-01

    This paper reviews major results of present studies and recent developments for future missions in the Japanese space program regarding in-situ measurement and collection of micrometeoroids and orbital debris in the near Earth space. Japan's contribution in this area began with the post flight impact analysis of the Space Flyer Unit (SFU) satellite which was returned to Earth in 1996 after 10-month exposure in space. Despite a decade later than similar efforts first conducted in the USA and Europe, it resulted in a record of over 700 hypervelocity impact signatures, which now forms the nation's first database of real space impacts being open to public in the Internet. Together with laboratory impact tests, both morphological and elemental analyses of the impact craters yielded new insights of the meteoroid to debris ratio as well as flux variation compared with the previous spacecraft. The next step was a passive aerogel exposure in the STS-85 shuttle mission in 1997. No hypervelocity impact was found there but its experience has been incorporated for designing a microparticle collector to be on-board the Japan Experiment Module-Exposed Facility of the International Space Station. All of such "passive" collection of micro-impact features, however, still leave the significant uncertainty in the quest of their origins. Therefore an aerogel-based "hybrid" dust collector and detector (HD-CAD) is currently under the development. It measures time of impact and deduces impactors' orbital and physical parameters by detecting impact flash while still capturing them intact. The system is suitable for both (1) sample return missions in LEO as well as to parent bodies of meteoroids, i.e., comets and asteroids, and (2) one-way mission to where the thermal and plasma environment is such that impact induced plasma detectors may suffer from significant noise, e.g., a Mercury orbiter and a solar probe. Together with unambiguous dust samples from a comet by STARDUST and an asteroid

  3. Analysis of Particulate and Fiber Debris Samples Returned from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Coston, James E.

    2014-01-01

    During the period of International Space Station (ISS) Increments 30 and 31, crewmember reports cited differences in the cabin environment relating to particulate matter and fiber debris compared to earlier experience as well as allergic responses to the cabin environment. It was hypothesized that a change in the cabin atmosphere's suspended particulate matter load may be responsible for the reported situation. Samples were collected and returned to ground-based laboratories for assessment. Assessments included physical classification, optical microscopy and photographic analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) methods. Particular points of interest for assessing the samples were for the presence of allergens, carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA) zeolite dust, and FGB panel fibers. The results from the physical classification, optical microscopy and photographic analysis, and SEM EDS analysis are presented and discussed.

  4. Comparison of different methods to compute a preliminary orbit of Space Debris using radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hélène; Gronchi, Giovanni F.

    2014-07-01

    We advertise a new method of preliminary orbit determination for space debris using radar observations, which we call Infang †. We can perform a linkage of two sets of four observations collected at close times. The context is characterized by the accuracy of the range ρ, whereas the right ascension α and the declination δ are much more inaccurate due to observational errors. This method can correct α, δ, assuming the exact knowledge of the range ρ. Considering no perturbations from the J 2 effect, but including errors in the observations, we can compare the new method, the classical method of Gibbs, and the more recent Keplerian integrals method. The development of Infang is still on-going and will be further improved and tested.

  5. Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Threat Mitigation Techniques for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Kerr, Justin H.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of significant Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) impacts on the Payload Bay Door radiators, wing leading edge reinforced carbon-carbon panels and crew module windows will be presented, along with a discussion of the techniques NASA has implemented to reduce the risk from MMOD impacts. The concept of "Late Inspection" of the Nose Cap and Wing leading Edge (WLE) Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) regions will be introduced. An alternative mated attitude with the International Space Station (ISS) on shuttle MMOD risk will also be presented. The significant threat mitigation effect of these two techniques will be demonstrated. The wing leading edge impact detection system, on-orbit repair techniques and disabled vehicle contingency plans will also be discussed.

  6. Ground Testing Of Hypervelocity Impact Effects Of Micrometeoroids And Space Debris On Solar Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmerohn, Martin; Rott, Martin; Gerhard, Andreas; Osterholz, Jens; Schafer, Frank; D'Accolti, Gianfelice

    2011-10-01

    Solar arrays are the satellite component most exposed to micrometeoroid and space debris (MM/SD) impacts. The damage potential of hypervelocity impacts (HVI) is characterized by considerable energy released at the impact interface leading to mechanical damage and the generation of plasma. Impact experiments performed in the past indicate that the impact plasma can induce arcing, which consequently may lead to permanent power losses as known from electrostatic discharges. An ESA study is currently ongoing, the objective of which is to study and test the susceptibility of state-of-the art solar arrays to HVI. This paper describes potential failure modes, a ground testing approach to simulate them and its implementation for the test campaign, which will be performed at Fraunhofer EMI using a light gas gun and at Technische Universität München using a plasma-dynamic accelerator. Solar array simulation equipment and comprehensive plasma diagnostics are to be applied for ground testing.

  7. Energy coupling in short pulse laser solid interactions and its impact for space debris removal.

    PubMed

    Neely, David; Allott, Ric; Bingham, Bob; Collier, John; Greenhalgh, Justin; Michaelis, Max; Phillips, Jonathan; Phipps, Claude R; McKenna, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Significant advances have been made over the last decade to improve the performance, efficiency, and contrast of high peak and average power laser systems, driven by their use in a wide variety of fields, from the industrial to the scientific. As the contrast of the lasers has improved, interactions with contrasts of 1012 are now routinely undertaken. At such high contrasts, there is negligible preplasma formation and the ionized surface layer created by subpicosecond-duration pulses typically forms a highly reflective "plasma mirror" capable of reflecting between 70% and 90% of the incident energy. Although such interactions are of significant interest for applications such as harmonic source production and to enable the underlying physics to be studied, their low absorption can limit their usefulness for applications such as space debris removal. PMID:25402936

  8. Potential space debris shield structure using impact-initiated energetic materials composed of polytetrafluoroethylene and aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Qingming; Long, Renrong; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Jun

    2016-03-01

    A whipple shield using Al/PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) energetic material to protect against space debris is presented. The hypervelocity impact characteristics were investigated experimentally using a two-stage light gas gun at velocities between 3 and 6 km/s. A good protection of the shield was obtained through comparative experiments which used the same bumper areal density. The results showed that the critical projectile diameter can be improved by 28% by contrast with the Christiansen ballistic limit equations. The Al/PTFE energetic material bumper can break up the projectile into smaller, less massive, and slower projectiles due to the combined effect of impact and explosion, thereby producing a sharp rise in the spacecraft protection ability.

  9. LDEF (Postflight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray A05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to experiment removal from the LDEF. The originally white paint dots on clamp blocks at the center of the upper tray flange and at the center of the right flange are now brown. Since this tray is located adjacent to the LDEF's trailing edge, very little, if any, contami- nation has been cleaned away by atomic oxygen impacts. The greenish-gray and pink tints on the two (2) debris panels are a by-product of the chromic anodize coating process and not attributed to contamination and/or exposure to the space environment. The finger prints along the edges of the left panel that were observed in the flight photograph are still visible. Those seen previously along the top edges have been washed out by the lighting. The light band along the sides and across the bottom of the panels is caused by light reflecting from the tray sidewalls.

  10. Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Threat Mitigation Techniques for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Kerr, Justin H.

    2009-03-01

    An overview of significant Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) impacts on the Payload Bay Door radiators, wing leading edge reinforced carbon-carbon panels and crew module windows will be presented, along with a discussion of the techniques NASA has implemented to reduce the risk from MMOD impacts. The concept of "Late Inspection" of the Nose Cap and Wing Leading Edge (WLE) Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) regions will be introduced. An alternative mated attitude with the International Space Station (ISS) on shuttle MMOD risk will also be presented. The significant threat mitigation effect of these two techniques will be demonstrated. The wing leading edge impact detection system, on-orbit repair techniques and disabled vehicle contingency plans will also be discussed.

  11. Analysis of the 2007 Chinese ASAT Test and the Impact of its Debris on the Space Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T.

    On 2007 January 11, the People's Republic of China conducted a successful direct-ascent ASAT test against one of their own defunct polar-orbiting weather satellites. The test produced at least 1,337 pieces of debris large enough to be routinely tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office estimated it generated over 35,000 pieces of debris down to 1 centimeter in size. While this event captured worldwide attention in the weeks and months after the test was revealed, much of the information provided in the press was inaccurate or misleading and did not appear to be based on scientific analysis of the data available to the public. In order to help the public and key policy makers more fully understand the nature of the event and its impact on the existing satellite population, the Center for Space Standards & Innovation developed a series of animations, images, and graphical analyses to more clearly portray this event and provide a factual foundation for the subsequent debate. Those materials were all made publicly available via the Internet without restriction and have appeared in numerous publications. This paper will summarize the primary areas of analysis of this event, to include a confirmation of the basic facts initially reported in Aviation Week & Space Technology, a visualization of the initial spread of the debris cloud in the first couple of hours after the attack, analysis of the impact of the debris on the LEO space environment including the number of satellites potentially affected and the increase in the number of conjunctions, a look at the current debris environment, and an assessment of the orbital lifetimes that shows that these impacts will last not for years but for centuries. The visualization techniques used to portray these analyses played a substantial role in helping the scientific community to quickly and easily convey important aspects of this event to policy makers and the public at large.

  12. The Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Orbital debris scientists from major international space agencies, including JAXA and NASA, have worked together to predict the trend of the future environment. A summary presentation was given to the United Nations in February 2013. The orbital debris population in LEO will continue to increase. Catastrophic collisions will continue to occur every 5 to 9 years center dot To limit the growth of the future debris population and to better protect future spacecraft, active debris removal, should be considered.

  13. Cost estimation for the active debris removal of multiple priority targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Vitali; Wiedemann, Carsten; Schulz, Eugen

    The increasing number of space debris objects, especially in distinct low Earth orbit (LEO) altitudes between 600 and 1000 km, leads to an increase in the potential collision risk between the objects and threatens active satellites in that region. Several recent studies show that active debris removal (ADR) has to be performed in order to prevent a collisional cascading effect, also known as the Kessler syndrome. In order to stabilize the population growth in the critical LEO region, a removal of five prioritized objects per year has been recognized as a significant figure. Various proposals are addressing the technical issues for ADR missions, including the de-orbiting of objects by means of a service satellite using a chemical or an electric propulsion system. The servicer would rendezvous with a preselected target, perform a docking maneuver and then provide a de-orbit burn to transfer the target on a trajectory where it re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere within a given time frame. In this paper the technical aspects are complemented by a cost estimation model, focusing on multi target missions, which are based on a service satellite capable of de-orbiting more than one target within a single mission. The cost model for ADR includes initial development cost, production cost, launch cost and operation cost as well as the modelling of the propulsion system of the servicer. Therefore, different scenarios are defined for chemical and electric propulsion systems as applied to multi target missions, based on a literature review of concepts currently being under discussion. The costs of multi target missions are compared to a scenario where only one target is removed. Also, the results allow to determine an optimum number of objects to be removed per mission and provide numbers which can be used in future studies, e.g. those related to ADR cost and benefit analyses.

  14. Research and Development on In-Situ Measurement Sensors for Micro-Meteoroid and Small Space Debris at JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Okudaira, O.; Kimoto, Y.; Hanada, T.; Faure, P.; Akahoshi, Y.; Hattori, M.; Karaki, A.; Sakurai, A.; Funakoshi, K.; Yasaka, T.

    2013-08-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been conducting R&D into in-situ sensors for measuring micro-meteoroid and small-sized debris (MMSD) since the 1980s. Research into active sensors started with the meteoroid observation experiment conducted using the HITEN (MUSES-A) satellite that ISAS/JAXA launched in 1990. The main purpose behind the start of passive collector research was SOCCER, a late-80s Japan-US mission that was designed to capture cometary dust and then return to the Earth. Although this mission was cancelled, the research outcomes were employed in a JAXA mission for the return of MMSD samples using calibrated aerogel and involving the space shuttle and the International Space Station. Many other important activities have been undertaken as well, and the knowledge they have generated has contributed to JAXA's development of a new type of active dust sensor. This paper reports on the R&D conducted at JAXA into in-situ MMSD measurement sensors.

  15. Experimental technique to simulate orbital-debris impact on space shields at impact velocities over 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Boslough, M.B.

    1992-12-31

    With the development of a new HyperVelocity Launcher, HVL, at Sandia, it is now possible to perform experiments over the velocity range of 7 to 12 km/s. This velocity range has not been previously accessible for gram-size plates. This meets the requisite mass-velocity criteria established for the orbital debris environment. In this paper, the technique employed to launch thin flier plates to velocities not previously accessible on a two-stage light-gas gun is reported. In particular, this technique has been used on a two-stage light-gas gun to launch nominally 0.5 to 1.0-mm thick aluminum, titanium, and magnesium flier plates intact to velocities up to 12.2 km/s. Since the mass-velocity capability of the newly developed HVL meets the average specifications of the space debris environment, it is expected to be a useful tool to evaluate the effects of debris impact on space structures and debris shields. Examples of a plate impact i.e., orbital debris impact on a thin Whipple shield are presented in this paper.

  16. Experimental technique to simulate orbital-debris impact on space shields at impact velocities over 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Boslough, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    With the development of a new HyperVelocity Launcher, HVL, at Sandia, it is now possible to perform experiments over the velocity range of 7 to 12 km/s. This velocity range has not been previously accessible for gram-size plates. This meets the requisite mass-velocity criteria established for the orbital debris environment. In this paper, the technique employed to launch thin flier plates to velocities not previously accessible on a two-stage light-gas gun is reported. In particular, this technique has been used on a two-stage light-gas gun to launch nominally 0.5 to 1.0-mm thick aluminum, titanium, and magnesium flier plates intact to velocities up to 12.2 km/s. Since the mass-velocity capability of the newly developed HVL meets the average specifications of the space debris environment, it is expected to be a useful tool to evaluate the effects of debris impact on space structures and debris shields. Examples of a plate impact i.e., orbital debris impact on a thin Whipple shield are presented in this paper.

  17. Open Space Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a science activity in which students are given an opportunity to consider the values of open space. The program includes direct involvement as communicators of feelings and facts, leading students to a position of making wise decisions for land use in the future. (EB)

  18. Space Debris Hazards from Fragmentations in Collinear Earth-Moon Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Priyankar; Sharma, Ram Krishan; Tewari, Ashish

    2009-03-01

    The collinear Lagrange points of the Earth-Moon system provide an ideal environment for future missions. L1 point, which lies between the Earth and the Moon, has potential for a manned space station to transport cargo and personnel to the Moon and back. Similarly, L2 point can be a candidate location for communication satellites covering the far side of Moon. Because, Lagrange Points promise to be the hub of future space operations, it has become important to study effect of a spacecraft fragmentation at these points. In this context, Stumpff/Weiss four-body algorithm, which is an extension of the Encke method of orbit propagation, provides a very attractive proposition for the simulation of fragment evolution. The method is 10 to 15 times faster than the other similar techniques and hence permits Monte-Carlo (MC) analysis of fragmentation velocity. Following a fragmentation at Earth-Moon collinear point about 2% of the total number of debris pieces can come within GSO altitude (~ 3.6×104 km). Fragmentation at any one of the Earth-Moon collinear points poses small yet perceptible risk to space operation around the Earth. It is emphasized that there is a genuine need to conduct more detailed study on fragmentation at collinear Earth- Moon points.

  19. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OPTICAL IMAGING OF THE ERODING DEBRIS DISK HD 61005

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, H. L.; Kalas, P.; Peek, K. M. G.; Chiang, E. I.; Graham, James R.; Scherer, K.; Fitzgerald, M. P.; Hines, D. C.; Schneider, G.; Metchev, S. A.

    2009-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope optical coronagraphic polarization imaging observations of the dusty debris disk HD 61005. The scattered light intensity image and polarization structure reveal a highly inclined disk with a clear asymmetric, swept back component, suggestive of significant interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). The combination of our new data with the published 1.1 mum discovery image shows that the grains are blue scattering with no strong color gradient as a function of radius, implying predominantly submicron-sized grains. We investigate possible explanations that could account for the observed swept back, asymmetric morphology. Previous work has suggested that HD 61005 may be interacting with a cold, unusually dense interstellar cloud. However, limits on the intervening interstellar gas column density from an optical spectrum of HD 61005 in the Na I D lines render this possibility unlikely. Instead, HD 61005 may be embedded in a more typical warm, low-density cloud that introduces secular perturbations to dust grain orbits. This mechanism can significantly distort the ensemble disk structure within a typical cloud crossing time. For a counterintuitive relative flow direction-parallel to the disk midplane-we find that the structures generated by these distortions can very roughly approximate the HD 61005 morphology. Future observational studies constraining the direction of the relative ISM flow will thus provide an important constraint for future modeling. Independent of the interpretation for HD 61005, we expect that interstellar gas drag likely plays a role in producing asymmetries observed in other debris disk systems, such as HD 15115 and delta Velorum.

  20. Optical Observation, Image-processing, and Detection of Space Debris in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, H.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Tagawa, M.

    2014-09-01

    We report on optical observations and an efficient detection method of space debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). We operate our new Australia Remote Observatory (ARO) where an 18 cm optical telescope with a charged-coupled device (CCD) camera covering a 3.14-degree field of view is used for GEO debris survey, and analyse datasets of successive CCD images using the line detection method (Yanagisawa and Nakajima 2005). In our operation, the exposure time of each CCD image is set to be 3 seconds (or 5 seconds), and the time interval of CCD shutter open is about 4.7 seconds (or 6.7 seconds). In the line detection method, a sufficient number of sample objects are taken from each image based on their shape and intensity, which includes not only faint signals but also background noise (we take 500 sample objects from each image in this paper). Then we search a sequence of sample objects aligning in a straight line in the successive images to exclude the noise sample. We succeed in detecting faint signals (down to about 1.8 sigma of background noise) by applying the line detection method to 18 CCD images. As a result, we detected about 300 GEO objects up to magnitude of 15.5 among 5 nights data. We also calculate orbits of objects detected using the Simplified General Perturbations Satellite Orbit Model 4(SGP4), and identify the objects listed in the two-line-element (TLE) data catalogue publicly provided by the U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). We found that a certain amount of our detections are new objects that are not contained in the catalogue. We conclude that our ARO and detection method posse a high efficiency detection of GEO objects despite the use of comparatively-inexpensive observation and analysis system. We also describe the image-processing specialized for the detection of GEO objects (not for usual astronomical objects like stars) in this paper.

  1. Low altitude, one centimeter, space debris search at Lincoln Laboratory's (M.I.T.) experimental test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taff, L. G.; Beatty, D. E.; Yakutis, A. J.; Randall, P. M. S.

    1985-01-01

    The majority of work performed by the Lincoln Laboratory's Space Surveillance Group, at the request of NASA, to define the near-earth population of man-made debris is summarized. Electrooptical devices, each with a 1.2 deg FOV, were employed at the GEODSS facility in New Mexico. Details of the equipment calibration and alignment procedures are discussed, together with implementation of a synchronized time code for computer controlled videotaping of the imagery. Parallax and angular speed data served as bases for distinguishing between man-made debris and meteoroids. The best visibility was obtained in dawn and dusk twilight conditions at elevation ranges of 300-2000 km. Tables are provided of altitudinal density distribution of debris. It is noted that the program also yielded an extensive data base on meteoroid rates.

  2. Distinct molecular pathways mediate glial activation and engulfment of axonal debris after axotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ziegenfuss, Jennifer S.; Doherty, Johnna; Freeman, Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells efficiently recognize and clear cellular debris after nervous system injury to maintain brain homeostasis, but pathways governing glial responses to neural injury remain poorly defined. We identify the Drosophila guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) complex Crk/Mbc/dCed-12, and the small GTPase Rac1 as novel modulators of glial clearance of axonal debris. We show Crk/Mbc/dCed-12 and Rac1 function in a non-redundant fashion with the Draper pathway—loss of either pathway fully suppresses clearance of axonal debris. Draper signaling is required early during glial responses, promoting glial activation, which includes increased Draper and dCed-6 expression and extension of glial membranes to degenerating axons. In contrast, the Crk/Mbc/dCed-12 complex functions at later phases promoting glial phagocytosis of axonal debris. Our work identifies new components of the glial engulfment machinery and shows that glial activation, phagocytosis of axonal debris, and termination of responses to injury are genetically separable events mediated by distinct signaling pathways. PMID:22706267

  3. JUPITER AFTER THE 2009 IMPACT: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF THE IMPACT-GENERATED DEBRIS AND ITS TEMPORAL EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, H. B.; Wong, M. H.; Noll, K.; Clarke, J. T.; De Pater, I.; Fletcher, L. N.; Orton, G. S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2010-06-01

    We report Hubble Space Telescope images of Jupiter during the aftermath of an impact by an unknown object in 2009 July. The 2009 impact-created debris field evolved more slowly than those created in 1994 by the collision of the tidally disrupted comet D/Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9). The slower evolution, in conjunction with the isolated nature of this single impact, permits a more detailed assessment of the altitudes and meridional motion of the debris than was possible with SL9. The color of the 2009 debris was markedly similar to that seen in 1994, thus this dark debris is likely to be Jovian material that is highly thermally processed. The 2009 impact site differed from the 1994 SL9 sites in UV morphology and contrast lifetime; both are suggestive of the impacting body being asteroidal rather than cometary. Transport of the 2009 Jovian debris as imaged by Hubble shared similarities with transport of volcanic aerosols in Earth's atmosphere after major eruptions.

  4. Jupiter After the 2009 Impact: Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Impact-Generated Debris and Its Temporal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, H. B.; Wong, M. H.; Clarke, J. T.; de Pater, I.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hueso, R.; Noll, K.; Orton, G. S.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report Hubble Space Telescope images of Jupiter during the aftermath of an impact by an unknown object in 2009 July, The 2009 impact-created debris field evolved more slowly than those created in 1994 by the collision of the tidally disrupted comet D/Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9). The slower evolution, in conjunction with the isolated nature of this single impact, permits a more detailed assessment of the altitudes and meridional motion of the debris than was possible with SL9. The color of the 2009 debris was markedly similar to that seen in 1994, thus this dark debris is likely to be Jovian material that is highly thermally processed. The 2009 impact site differed from the 1994 SL9 sites in UV morphology and contrast lifetime; both are suggestive of the impacting body being asteroidal rather than cometary. Transport of the 2009 Jovian debris as imaged by Hubble shared similarities with transport of volcanic aerosols in Earth's atmosphere after major eruptions.

  5. Innovative observing strategy and orbit determination for Low Earth Orbit space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, A.; Farnocchia, D.; Dimare, L.; Rossi, A.; Bernardi, F.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a large scale simulation, reproducing the behavior of a data center for the build-up and maintenance of a complete catalog of space debris in the upper part of the Low Earth Orbits (LEOs) region. The purpose is to determine the performances of a network of advanced optical sensors, through the use of the newest correlation and orbit determination algorithms. This network is foreseen for implementation in a Space Situational Awareness system, such as the future European one. The conclusion is that it is possible to use a network of optical sensors to build up a catalog containing more than 98% of the objects with perigee height between 1100 and 2000 km, which would be observable by a reference radar system selected as comparison. It is also possible to maintain such a catalog within the accuracy requirements motivated by collision avoidance, and to detect catastrophic fragmentation events. The obtained results depend upon specific assumptions on the sensor and on the software technologies.

  6. Ballistic limit regression analysis for Space Station Freedom meteoroid and space debris protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, William H.

    1992-05-01

    Relationships defining the ballistic limit of Space Station Freedom's (SSF) dual wall protection systems have been determined. These functions were regressed from empirical data found in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Hypervelocity Impact Testing Summary (HITS) for the velocity range between three and seven kilometers per second. A stepwise linear least squares regression was used to determine the coefficients of several expressions that define a ballistic limit surface. Using statistical significance indicators and graphical comparisons to other limit curves, a final set of expressions is recommended for potential use in Probability of No Critical Flaw (PNCF) calculations for Space Station. The three equations listed below represent the mean curves for normal, 45 degree, and 65 degree obliquity ballistic limits, respectively, for a dual wall protection system consisting of a thin 6061-T6 aluminum bumper spaced 4.0 inches from a .125 inches thick 2219-T87 rear wall with multiple layer thermal insulation installed between the two walls. Normal obliquity is d(sub c) = 1.0514 v(exp 0.2983 t(sub 1)(exp 0.5228). Forty-five degree obliquity is d(sub c) = 0.8591 v(exp 0.0428) t(sub 1)(exp 0.2063). Sixty-five degree obliquity is d(sub c) = 0.2824 v(exp 0.1986) t(sub 1)(exp -0.3874). Plots of these curves are provided. A sensitivity study on the effects of using these new equations in the probability of no critical flaw analysis indicated a negligible increase in the performance of the dual wall protection system for SSF over the current baseline. The magnitude of the increase was 0.17 percent over 25 years on the MB-7 configuration run with the Bumper II program code.

  7. Ballistic limit regression analysis for Space Station Freedom meteoroid and space debris protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships defining the ballistic limit of Space Station Freedom's (SSF) dual wall protection systems have been determined. These functions were regressed from empirical data found in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Hypervelocity Impact Testing Summary (HITS) for the velocity range between three and seven kilometers per second. A stepwise linear least squares regression was used to determine the coefficients of several expressions that define a ballistic limit surface. Using statistical significance indicators and graphical comparisons to other limit curves, a final set of expressions is recommended for potential use in Probability of No Critical Flaw (PNCF) calculations for Space Station. The three equations listed below represent the mean curves for normal, 45 degree, and 65 degree obliquity ballistic limits, respectively, for a dual wall protection system consisting of a thin 6061-T6 aluminum bumper spaced 4.0 inches from a .125 inches thick 2219-T87 rear wall with multiple layer thermal insulation installed between the two walls. Normal obliquity is d(sub c) = 1.0514 v(exp 0.2983 t(sub 1)(exp 0.5228). Forty-five degree obliquity is d(sub c) = 0.8591 v(exp 0.0428) t(sub 1)(exp 0.2063). Sixty-five degree obliquity is d(sub c) = 0.2824 v(exp 0.1986) t(sub 1)(exp -0.3874). Plots of these curves are provided. A sensitivity study on the effects of using these new equations in the probability of no critical flaw analysis indicated a negligible increase in the performance of the dual wall protection system for SSF over the current baseline. The magnitude of the increase was 0.17 percent over 25 years on the MB-7 configuration run with the Bumper II program code.

  8. Space safety trajectory optimization and debris analysis using ASTOS at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo; Blasco, Ana; Weikert, Sven

    This paper describes the coupling of the space trajectory optimization software ASTOS with a tool for splashdown analysis of separated spacecraft stages and debris called DARS (Destructive Analysis for Re-entry Spacecraft), and a Risk Analysis Module called RAM. ASTOS is a main reference tool for space trajectory optimization at ESA. It is also used to compute demise and break up of rocket stages and re-entry vehicles and analyze the risk to populated areas. ASTOS software is a simulation and optimization environment to compute optimal trajectories for a variety of complex multi-phase optimal control problems. It consists of fast and powerful optimization programs, PROMIS, CAMTOS, SOCS and TROPIC, that handle large and highly discretized problems, a user interface with multiple plot capability, and GISMO, an integrated graphical iteration monitor to review the optimization process and plot the state and control histories at intermediate steps during the optimization. The optimization programs used by ASTOS use Non-Linear Programming (NLP) mathematical solvers like NPSOL, SLSQP, SLLSQP, and SNOPT. These solvers use Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) mathematical algorithms to find the solution of the non-linear programming problems in trajectory optimization. ASTOS comprises an extensive model library, which allows launcher and re-entry spacecraft trajectory optimization without programming work. DARS considers not only a stage break-up, but also ablation and melting of the fragments, taking diverse materials and shapes into account. The paper discusses hazard due to stage and debris impact, considering the ESA launchers and re-entry vehicles as examples. Previous approaches for the impact point calculation during trajectory optimization are presented. Subsequently the results of these approaches are compared to DARS results. This paper shows that ASTOS and the DARS and RAM extensions can calculate impact points with satisfactory accuracy and calculation time

  9. Contrasting mass-wasting activity in two debris flow-dominated catchments of the Venosta Valley/Vinschgau (Italy): 1945-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarini, Simone; Brardinoni, Francesco; Draganits, Erich; Cavalli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    combines zones with colluvial transport regimes with areas in which fluvial transport prevails, whereas Plaies is essentially dominated by mass-wasting processes strongly controlled by the dynamics of the overhanging Ortler Glacier. Further, Cengles is a supply-limited system, since there the occurrence of debris flows is strongly controlled by in-channel sediment evacuation and recharge cycles that interact with the overcoming of variable hydrometeorological thresholds. In contrast, Plaies is a transport-limited resulting from the almost unlimited availability of loose, mainly glacigenic material that can be mobilized. The debris-flow activity in Plaies is strongly controlled by a combination of hydrometeorological forcing and glacier dynamics. This work is part of SedAlp (www.sedalp.eu), a project funded through the Alpine Space Programme.

  10. Assessment and Management of the Risks of Debris Hits During Space Station EVAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth; Sachon, Marc

    1997-01-01

    economies of scale that could be gained from a two-branch manufacturing line (space and deep sea). Of course, the space suit would need to be space qualified. Some of the problems in adopting one of the hard suits were first that the testing had to be completed, and second that it required additional storage space. The decision was made not to develop a hard suit in time for the construction and operation of the ISS. Instead, to improve the safety of the current suit, it was decided to reinforce the soft parts of the shuttle EMU with KEVLAR linings to strengthen it against debris impacts. Test results, however, show that this advanced suit design has little effect on the penetration characteristics.

  11. Solution of the flyby problem for large space debris at sun-synchronous orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. A.; Grishko, D. A.; Medvedevskikh, V. V.; Lapshin, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    the paper considers the flyby problem related to large space debris (LSD) objects at low earth orbits. The data on the overall dimensions of known last and upper stages of launch vehicles makes it possible to single out five compact groups of such objects from the NORAD catalog in the 500-2000 km altitude interval. The orbits of objects of each group have approximately the same inclinations. The features of the mutual distribution of the orbital planes of LSD objects in the group are shown in a portrait of the evolution of deviations of the right ascension of ascending nodes (RAAN). In the case of the first three groups (inclinations of 71°, 74°, and 81°), the straight lines of relative RAAN deviations of object orbits barely intersect each other. The fourth (83°) and fifth (97°-100°) LSD groups include a considerable number of objects whose orbits are described by straight lines (diagonals), which intersect other lines many times. The use of diagonals makes it possible to significantly reduce the temporal and total characteristic velocity expenditures required for object flybys, but it complicates determination of the flyby sequence. Diagonal solutions can be obtained using elements of graph theory. A solution to the flyby problem is presented for the case of group 5, formed of LSD objects at sun-synchronous orbits.

  12. Experimental modeling of impact of space dust and debris on flying vehicles and their components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforov, B. D.

    2011-06-01

    For modeling the space dust and debris effect on flying vehicles, an investigation of the low-velocity impact of corundum and tungsten powders, accelerated by explosion, with particle size up to 50 microns on steel and duralumin targets was carried out. Also studied was the impact of sewing needles against metal and dielectric barriers, antimeteor shield models, and duralumin containers with hard materials, gunpowder, and explosives. At impact of powders at velocities of up to 2 km/s and needles at a velocity of up to 0.5 km/s against metals, the channels arose with lengths greater than 100 and 50 diameters of a striker. At impact of needles, the containers with hard explosive materials were destroyed because of ignition of their contents, and containers with plastic explosive were punched through, and no burning occurred. The energy, released at destruction of plexiglas blocks and containers with hard materials, many times exceeded the impact energy due to release of the elastic energy stored in them.

  13. Prospects for satellite and space debris observations with Pi of the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwiek, A.; Batsch, T.; Majcher, A.; Mankiewicz, L.; Wrochna, G.; ZadroŻny, A.; Żarnecki, A. F.

    2015-09-01

    Pi of the Sky is a system of wide field-of-view robotic telescopes designed for observations of short timescale astrophysical phenomena, especially for prompt optical GRB emission. The apparatus designed for autonomous operation follows the predefined observing strategy and adopts to the actual running conditions, monitoring a large part of the sky with time resolution of the order of 1 - 10 seconds and range 12m-13m. Observation strategy and system design was successfully tested with a prototype detector in Chile and starting 2013 the final Pi of the Sky detector system in operation at the INTA El Arenosillo Test Centre in Spain. For the analysis of the data from a wide field-of-view system a set of dedicated algorithms have been developed, which allowed us to reduce photometry uncertainty for bright stars to the level of 0.015m- 0.02m. Design of the Pi of the Sky telescopes allows also for measurements of near-Earth objects as comets, asteroids, satellites and space debris. Precise determination of the orbit parameters of the geostationary satellites is possible when using a parallax measured with simultaneous observations from Spain and Chile. Dedicated tests have been performed recently to verify system capabilities for observation of objects on lower orbits, moving at higher speeds. First results are discussed in this contribution.

  14. Space activities in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  15. Efficacy of laser-based irrigant activation methods in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities.

    PubMed

    Deleu, Ellen; Meire, Maarten A; De Moor, Roeland J G

    2015-02-01

    In root canal therapy, irrigating solutions are essential to assist in debridement and disinfection, but their spread and action is often restricted by canal anatomy. Hence, activation of irrigants is suggested to improve their distribution in the canal system, increasing irrigation effectiveness. Activation can be done with lasers, termed laser-activated irrigation (LAI). The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of different irrigant activation methods in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities. Twenty-five straight human canine roots were embedded in resin, split, and their canals prepared to a standardized shape. A groove was cut in the wall of each canal and filled with dentin debris. Canals were filled with sodium hypochlorite and six irrigant activation procedures were tested: conventional needle irrigation (CI), manual-dynamic irrigation with a tapered gutta percha cone (manual-dynamic irrigation (MDI)), passive ultrasonic irrigation, LAI with 2,940-nm erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser with a plain fiber tip inside the canal (Er-flat), LAI with Er:YAG laser with a conical tip held at the canal entrance (Er-PIPS), and LAI with a 980-nm diode laser moving the fiber inside the canal (diode). The amount of remaining debris in the groove was scored and compared among the groups using non-parametric tests. Conventional irrigation removed significantly less debris than all other groups. The Er:YAG with plain fiber tip was more efficient than MDI, CI, diode, and Er:YAG laser with PIPS tip in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities. PMID:24091791

  16. Conceptual design of an Orbital Debris Defense System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedillion, Erik; Blevins, Gary; Bohs, Brian; Bragg, David; Brown, Christopher; Casanova, Jose; Cribbs, David; Demko, Richard; Henry, Brian; James, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    Man made orbital debris has become a serious problem. Currently NORAD tracks over 7000 objects in orbit and less than 10 percent of these are active payloads. Common estimates are that the amount of debris will increase at a rate of 10 percent per year. Impacts of space debris with operational payloads or vehicles is a serious risk to human safety and mission success. For example, the impact of a 0.2 mm diameter paint fleck with the Space Shuttle Challenger window created a 2 mm wide by 0.6 mm deep pit. The cost to replace the window was over $50,000. A conceptual design for a Orbital Debris Defense System (ODDS) is presented which considers a wide range of debris sizes, orbits and velocities. Two vehicles were designed to collect and remove space debris. The first would attach a re-entry package to de-orbit very large debris, e.g. inactive satellites and spent upper stages that tend to break up and form small debris. This vehicle was designed to contain several re-entry packages, and be refueled and resupplied with more re-entry packages as needed. The second vehicle was designed to rendezvous with and capture debris ranging from 10 cm to 2 m. Due to tracking limitations, no technically feasible method for collecting debris below 10 cm in size could be devised; it must be accomplished through international regulations which reduce the accumulation of space debris.

  17. Conceptual design of an Orbital Debris Defense System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedillion, Erik; Blevins, Gary; Bohs, Brian; Bragg, David; Brown, Christopher; Casanova, Jose; Cribbs, David; Demko, Richard; Henry, Brian; James, Kelly

    1994-08-01

    Man made orbital debris has become a serious problem. Currently NORAD tracks over 7000 objects in orbit and less than 10 percent of these are active payloads. Common estimates are that the amount of debris will increase at a rate of 10 percent per year. Impacts of space debris with operational payloads or vehicles is a serious risk to human safety and mission success. For example, the impact of a 0.2 mm diameter paint fleck with the Space Shuttle Challenger window created a 2 mm wide by 0.6 mm deep pit. The cost to replace the window was over $50,000. A conceptual design for a Orbital Debris Defense System (ODDS) is presented which considers a wide range of debris sizes, orbits and velocities. Two vehicles were designed to collect and remove space debris. The first would attach a re-entry package to de-orbit very large debris, e.g. inactive satellites and spent upper stages that tend to break up and form small debris. This vehicle was designed to contain several re-entry packages, and be refueled and resupplied with more re-entry packages as needed. The second vehicle was designed to rendezvous with and capture debris ranging from 10 cm to 2 m. Due to tracking limitations, no technically feasible method for collecting debris below 10 cm in size could be devised; it must be accomplished through international regulations which reduce the accumulation of space debris.

  18. Orbital Debris: A Policy Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing orbital debris from a policy perspective is shown. The contents include: 1) Voyage through near-Earth Space-animation; 2) What is Orbital Debris?; 3) Orbital Debris Detectors and Damage Potential; 4) Hubble Space Telescope; 5) Mir Space Station Solar Array; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Satellite Explosions; 9) Satellite Collisions; 10) NASA Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines; 11) International Space Station Jettison Policy; 12) Controlled/Uncontrolled Satellite Reentries; 13) Return of Space Objects; 14) Orbital Debris and U.S. National Space Policy; 15) U.S Government Policy Strategy; 16) Bankruptcy of the Iridium Satellite System; 17) Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC); 18) Orbital Debris at the United Nations; 19) Chinese Anti-satellite System; 20) Future Evolution of Satellite Population; and 21) Challenge of Orbital Debris

  19. Space station integrated wall damage and penetration damage control. Task 5: Space debris measurement, mapping and characterization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lempriere, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    The procedures and results of a study of a conceptual system for measuring the debris environment on the space station is discussed. The study was conducted in two phases: the first consisted of experiments aimed at evaluating location of impact through panel response data collected from acoustic emission sensors; the second analyzed the available statistical description of the environment to determine the probability of the measurement system producing useful data, and analyzed the results of the previous tests to evaluate the accuracy of location and the feasibility of extracting impactor characteristics from the panel response. The conclusions were that for one panel the system would not be exposed to any event, but that the entire Logistics Module would provide a modest amount of data. The use of sensors with higher sensitivity than those used in the tests could be advantageous. The impact location could be found with sufficient accuracy from panel response data. The waveforms of the response were shown to contain information on the impact characteristics, but the data set did not span a sufficient range of the variables necessary to evaluate the feasibility of extracting the information.

  20. Satellite Vulnerability to Space Debris- An Improved 3D Risk Assessment Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Lilith; Destefanis, Roberto; Tiboldo, Francesca; Donath, Therese; Winterboer, Arne; Evand, Leanne; Janovsky, Rolf; Kempf, Scott; Rudolph, Martin; Schafer, Frank; Gelhaus, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    The work described in the present paper, performed as a part of the PÇ-ROTECT project, presents an enhanced method to evaluate satellite vulnerability to micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD), using the ESABASE2/Debris tool (developed under ESA contract). Starting from the estimation of induced failures on spacecraft (S/C) components and from the computation of lethal impacts (with an energy leading to the loss of the satellite), and considering the equipment redundancies and interactions between components, the debris-induced S/C functional impairment is assessed. The developed methodology, illustrated through its application to a case study satellite, includes the capability to estimate the number of failures on internal components, overcoming the limitations of current tools which do not allow propagating the debris cloud inside the S/C. The ballistic limit of internal equipment behind a sandwich panel structure is evaluated through the implementation of the Schäfer Ryan Lambert (SRL) Ballistic Limit Equation (BLE).

  1. ON THE DETECTION AND TRACKING OF SPACE DEBRIS USING THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY. I. SIMULATIONS AND TEST OBSERVATIONS DEMONSTRATE FEASIBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Kennewell, J.; Arcus, W.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Emrich, D.; Herne, D.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lynch, M.; Ord, S. M.; Waterson, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; McKinley, B.; Briggs, F.; Bell, M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Smith, C.; Zhang, K.; Barnes, D. G.; and others

    2013-10-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope, operating in the benign radio frequency environment of remote Western Australia. The MWA is the low-frequency precursor to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and is the first of three SKA precursors to be operational, supporting a varied science mission ranging from the attempted detection of the Epoch of Reionization to the monitoring of solar flares and space weather. In this paper we explore the possibility that the MWA can be used for the purposes of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). In particular we propose that the MWA can be used as an element of a passive radar facility operating in the frequency range 87.5-108 MHz (the commercial FM broadcast band). In this scenario the MWA can be considered the receiving element in a bi-static radar configuration, with FM broadcast stations serving as non-cooperative transmitters. The FM broadcasts propagate into space, are reflected off debris in Earth orbit, and are received at the MWA. The imaging capabilities of the MWA can be used to simultaneously detect multiple pieces of space debris, image their positions on the sky as a function of time, and provide tracking data that can be used to determine orbital parameters. Such a capability would be a valuable addition to Australian and global SSA assets, in terms of southern and eastern hemispheric coverage. We provide a feasibility assessment of this proposal, based on simple calculations and electromagnetic simulations, that shows that the detection of sub-meter size debris should be possible (debris radius of >0.5 m to ∼1000 km altitude). We also present a proof-of-concept set of observations that demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal, based on the detection and tracking of the International Space Station via reflected FM broadcast signals originating in southwest Western Australia. These observations broadly validate our calculations and simulations. We discuss some

  2. On the Detection and Tracking of Space Debris Using the Murchison Widefield Array. I. Simulations and Test Observations Demonstrate Feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Kaplan, D. L.; McKinley, B.; Briggs, F.; Wayth, R. B.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Kennewell, J.; Smith, C.; Zhang, K.; Arcus, W.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Emrich, D.; Herne, D.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lynch, M.; Ord, S. M.; Waterson, M.; Barnes, D. G.; Bell, M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Lenc, E.; Bernardi, G.; Greenhill, L. J.; Kasper, J. C.; Bowman, J. D.; Jacobs, D.; Bunton, J. D.; deSouza, L.; Koenig, R.; Pathikulangara, J.; Stevens, J.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Kincaid, B. B.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Salah, J. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Deshpande, A.; Prabu, T.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Goeke, R.; Morgan, E.; Remillard, R. A.; Williams, C. L.; Hazelton, B. J.; Morales, M. F.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Mitchell, D. A.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Webster, R. L.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Oberoi, D.; Roshi, A.; Sault, R. J.; Williams, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope, operating in the benign radio frequency environment of remote Western Australia. The MWA is the low-frequency precursor to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and is the first of three SKA precursors to be operational, supporting a varied science mission ranging from the attempted detection of the Epoch of Reionization to the monitoring of solar flares and space weather. In this paper we explore the possibility that the MWA can be used for the purposes of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). In particular we propose that the MWA can be used as an element of a passive radar facility operating in the frequency range 87.5-108 MHz (the commercial FM broadcast band). In this scenario the MWA can be considered the receiving element in a bi-static radar configuration, with FM broadcast stations serving as non-cooperative transmitters. The FM broadcasts propagate into space, are reflected off debris in Earth orbit, and are received at the MWA. The imaging capabilities of the MWA can be used to simultaneously detect multiple pieces of space debris, image their positions on the sky as a function of time, and provide tracking data that can be used to determine orbital parameters. Such a capability would be a valuable addition to Australian and global SSA assets, in terms of southern and eastern hemispheric coverage. We provide a feasibility assessment of this proposal, based on simple calculations and electromagnetic simulations, that shows that the detection of sub-meter size debris should be possible (debris radius of >0.5 m to ~1000 km altitude). We also present a proof-of-concept set of observations that demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal, based on the detection and tracking of the International Space Station via reflected FM broadcast signals originating in southwest Western Australia. These observations broadly validate our calculations and simulations. We discuss some

  3. Antiphospholipid antibodies prolong the activation of endothelial cells induced by necrotic trophoblastic debris: implications for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Guo, F; Hensby-Bennett, S; Stone, P; Chamley, L

    2012-10-01

    The symptoms of preeclampsia are preceded by endothelial cell activation/dysfunction which is induced by a placental trigger(s) but maternal risk factor(s) also contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. In this work we have investigated the interactions of a maternal risk factor, antiphospholipid antibodies, and a placental trigger, necrotic trophoblastic debris, on the activation of endothelial cells. Trophoblastic debris, from placental explants, was induced to become necrotic by freeze-thawing then exposed to endothelial cells for 24 h. After washing away residual trophoblastic debris antiphospholipid antibodies or a control antibody were added to the cultures then replaced with fresh medium in the presence or absence of antibodies. Endothelial cell activation was quantified by examining cell-surface ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion. Endothelial cells exposed to necrotic trophoblastic debris for 24 h became activated but the activation was lost 24 h after removal of the debris. Antiphospholipid antibodies alone did not active untreated endothelial cells, but did prolong the activation of endothelial cells which had been activated by pre-treatment with necrotic trophoblastic debris. When exposed to antiphospholipid antibodies the endothelial cells remained activated despite removal of the trophoblastic debris. In contrast, a control antibody did not prolong endothelial cell activation. Our data suggest that in women with antiphospholipid antibodies, activation of endothelial cells induced by necrotic trophoblastic debris could be maintained even if the endothelial cells were only intermittently exposed to necrotic debris. This might in part explain why antiphospholipid antibodies are such a strong maternal risk factor for preeclampsia. PMID:22902008

  4. A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal for LEO Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Recent analyses on the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of its effectiveness must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the need and feasibility of using ADR to better preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-to-cost ratio. This paper describes a new sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of several key parameters, including target selection criteria/constraints and the starting epoch of ADR implementation. Additional analyses on potential ADR targets among the currently existing satellites and the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers are also included.

  5. International Space Station environmental microbiome - microbial inventories of ISS filter debris.

    PubMed

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Vaishampayan, Parag; Cisneros, Jessica; Pierson, Duane L; Rogers, Scott O; Perry, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Despite an expanding array of molecular approaches for detecting microorganisms in a given sample, rapid and robust means of assessing the differential viability of the microbial cells, as a function of phylogenetic lineage, remain elusive. A propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment coupled with downstream quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and pyrosequencing analyses was carried out to better understand the frequency, diversity, and distribution of viable microorganisms associated with debris collected from the crew quarters of the International Space Station (ISS). The cultured bacterial counts were more in the ISS samples than cultured fungal population. The rapid molecular analyses targeted to estimate viable population exhibited 5-fold increase in bacterial (qPCR-PMA assay) and 25-fold increase in microbial (adenosine triphosphate assay) burden than the cultured bacterial population. The ribosomal nucleic acid-based identification of cultivated strains revealed the presence of only four to eight bacterial species in the ISS samples, however, the viable bacterial diversity detected by the PMA-pyrosequencing method was far more diverse (12 to 23 bacterial taxa) with the majority consisting of members of actinobacterial genera (Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium) and Staphylococcus. Sample fractions not treated with PMA (inclusive of both live and dead cells) yielded a great abundance of highly diverse bacterial (94 to 118 taxa) and fungal lineages (41 taxa). Even though deep sequencing capability of the molecular analysis widened the understanding about the microbial diversity, the cultivation assay also proved to be essential since some of the spore-forming microorganisms were detected only by the culture-based method. Presented here are the findings of the first comprehensive effort to assess the viability of microbial cells associated with ISS surfaces, and correlate differential viability with phylogenetic affiliation. PMID:24695826

  6. Design and fabrication of plasma accelerator for space micro-debris simulation and preliminary experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, J.; Li, X.; Chen, Z.; Quan, R.

    A simulation facility for hypervelocity impact of space micro-debris is designed and fabricated Just after the assembly of the facility some preliminary debugging experiments have conducted A plasma accelerator is the core component of the facility which composed of a coaxial discharge electrode an electromagnetic compressing coil and a nozzle The coaxial electrode is discharged synchronously by pulse injected gas from a delicate fabricated electromagnetic valve and pulse voltage from a capacitance bank The time periods for the pulse gas valve to turn on and to feed gas are 400 and 900 microseconds respectively As to the capacitance bank the maximum capacity is 512 mu F and can be charged as high as 30kV Therefore the maximum energy storage for the capacitance and discharge is 230KJ A custom designed control circuit ignites the pulse valve and discharge switch in turn Then a block of plasma is produced and accelerated into the electromagnetic coil where the plasma is compressed denser Eventually a plasma flow with high pressure and temperature is sprayed out the nozzle which pushes a cluster of micro-particles attached closely to the nozzle exit to hypervelocity During the preliminary debugging experiment 128 mu F capacitance is charged to 15kV and 400kA discharge current is generated then glass spheres with 100 mu m diameter is accelerated to 4 3km s Now the debug for the facility is still in progress in the near future it can accelerate micro-particles to higher velocity

  7. Small Orbital Debris Mitigation Mission Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Small orbital debris in LEO (1-10 cm in size) presents a clear and present danger to operational LEO spacecraft. This debris field has dramatically increased (nearly doubled) in recent years following the Chinese ASAT Test in 2007 and the Iridium/Cosmos collision in 2009. Estimates of the number of small debris have grown to 500,000 objects after these two events; previously the population was 300,000 objects. These small, untracked debris objects (appproximately 500,000) outnumber the larger and tracked objects (appproximately 20,000) by a factor 25 to 1. Therefore, the risk of the small untracked debris objects to operational spacecraft is much greater than the risk posed by the larger and tracked LEO debris objects. A recent study by The Aerospace Corporation found that the debris environment will increase the costs of maintaining a constellation of government satellites by 5%, a constellation of large commercial satellites by 11%, and a constellation of factory built satellites by 26% from $7.6 billion to $9.57 billion. Based upon these facts, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) performed an architecture study on Small Orbital Debris Active Removal (SODAR) using a space-based nonweapons- class laser satellite for LEO debris removal. The goal of the SODAR study was to determine the ability of a space-based laser system to remove the most pieces of debris (1 cm to 10 cm, locations unknown), in the shortest amount of time, with the fewest number of spacecraft. The ESA developed MASTER2005 orbital debris model was used to probabilistically classify the future debris environment including impact velocity, magnitude, and directionality. The study ground rules and assumptions placed the spacecraft into a high inclination Low Earth Orbit at 800 km as an initial reference point. The architecture study results found that a spacecraft with an integrated forward-firing laser is capable of reducing the small orbital debris flux within

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikari, L.

    these developments in way or another. In addition to national EIA regulations, there are also international agreements on EIA (i.a. the Espoo Convention) which establish their own EIA systems. In international law of outer space, environmental impact assessment is, however, not a well-established tool. The UN space treaties were drafted during a time when such consideratio ns were still not among the highest ranking items on national agendas. Therefore, these instruments fail to contain provisions regarding impact assessment, and also rest of the environmental content found in them is rather modest. The nearest equivalent to any impact assessment is contained in the Outer Space Treaty Article IX, namely the requirement of prior consultations in case of planned space activity or experiment that might cause "potentially harmful interference" with space activities of other St ates Parties. There also exist some applicable provisions on national level, such as the requirement of "formal assessment" on NASA programs of "[orbital] debris generation potential and debris mitigation options" in NASA Policy for Limiting Orbital Debris Generation (Art. 1.b). Also the national legislation of some space faring countries provides at least for the supply of some kind of information assessing the possible environmental consequences of proposed space activities. For instance, the Russian Statute on Lisencing Space Operations requires that for obtaining a license for space operation in the Russian Federation, the applicant has to supply, i.a. "documents confirming the safety of space operations (including ecological, fire and explosion safety) and the reliability of space equipment'"(Art.5.h). However, such provisions are obviously not enough for ensuring effective international regulation of the issue. The goal of this paper is to consider the usefulness of international environmental impact assessment for space activities. The space environment, however, is a unique arena in many ways

  9. Canadian space robotic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  10. LDEF (Flight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray D06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight/on-orbit photograph of the D06 integrated tray was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval, while the spacecraft was attached to the remote manipulator system. During the mission, the tray surface was at an angle of approximately eighty-two (82) degrees to the orbital velocity vector and therefore exposed to a higher atomic oxygen flux than if it had been parallel with the velocity vector. Note the difference in color of the paint dots on tray clampblocks; white dots along the top edge, a light tan color on the center dot and a dark brown stain on the dots along the bottom of the photograph. The dots near the top of the photograph are adjacent to experiment location D07 and are exposed to a higher atomic oxygen flux than those adjacent to experiment location D05. Impacts of atomic oxygen with a surface tends to scrub away contamination from the that surface and leave it a much cleaner. The two (2) Space Debris Impact Experiment detector plates, located in the center and left end sections of a three (3) inch deep experiment tray, show fingerprints and a palm print that occurred during installation of the panelsDE:into the tray. These prints are not visible on the prelaunch photograph. The light angle is such that the panel serial numbers, stamped in the upper left corner of the each panel, can be seen. The grazing light angle also makes numerous impact craters visible that would not be easily detectible if the light source was perpendicular to the tray surface. When comparing the flightDE:photograph with the prelaunch photograph, A switch in panel colors can be seen. The flight tray has a center section panel with a green tint and an end section panel with a pink tint. The opposite is seen in the prelaunch tray photograph. The center section panel has the pink tint and the end section panel is pale green. No definitive answer has been determined for the visual changes.

  11. Multibody dynamics driving GNC and system design in tethered nets for active debris removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, Riccardo; Lavagna, Michèle; Salvi, Samuele

    2016-07-01

    Debris removal in Earth orbits is an urgent issue to be faced for space exploitation durability. Among different techniques, tethered-nets present appealing benefits and some open points to fix. Former and latter are discussed in the paper, supported by the exploitation of a multibody dynamics tool. With respect to other proposed capture mechanisms, tethered-net solutions are characterised by a safer capturing distance, a passive angular momentum damping effect and the highest flexibility to unknown shape, material and attitude of the target to interface with. They also allow not considering the centre of gravity alignment with thrust axis as a constraint, as it is for any rigid link solution. Furthermore, the introduction of a closing thread around the net perimeter ensures safer and more reliable grasping and holding. In the paper, a six degrees of freedom multibody dynamics simulator is presented: it was developed at Politecnico di Milano - Department of Aerospace Science and Technologies - and it is able to describe the orbital and attitude dynamics of tethered-nets systems and end-bodies during different phases, with great flexibility in dealing with different topologies and configurations. Critical phases as impact and wrapping are analysed by simulation to address the tethered-stack controllability. It is shown how the role of contact modelling is fundamental to describe the coupled dynamics: it is demonstrated, as a major novel contribution, how friction between the net and a tumbling target allows reducing its angular motion, stabilizing the system and allowing safer towing operations. Moreover, the so-called tethered space tug is analysed: after capture, the two objects, one passive and one active, are connected by the tethered-net flexible link, the motion of the system being excited by the active spacecraft thrusters. The critical modes prevention during this phase, by means of a closed-loop control synthesis is shown. Finally, the connection between

  12. Electron microscope observations of impact crater debris amongst contaminating particulates on materials surfaces exposed in space in low-Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murr, L. E.; Rivas, J. M.; Quinones, S.; Niou, C.-S.; Advani, A. H.; Marquez, B.

    1993-01-01

    Debris particles extracted from a small sampling region on the leading edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft have been examined by analytical transmission electron microscopy and the elemental frequency observed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and compared with upper atmosphere (Earth) particle elemental frequency and the average elemental compositions of interplanetary dust particles. A much broader elemental distribution was observed for the exposed spacecraft surface debris milieu. Numerous metal microfragment analyses, particularly aluminum and stainless steel, were compared with scanning electron microscope observations-of impact crater features, and the corresponding elemental spectra on selected LDEF aluminium tray clamps and stainless steel bolts. The compositions and melt features for these impact craters and ejecta have been shown to be consistent with microcrystalline debris fragments in the case of aluminum, and these observations suggest an ever changing debris milieu on exposed surfaces for space craft and space system materials.

  13. Orbital Debris and NASA's Measurement Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Africano, J. L.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2002-05-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, the number of manmade objects in orbit around the Earth has dramatically increased. The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) tracks and maintains orbits on over nine thousand objects down to a limiting diameter of about ten centimeters. Unfortunately, active spacecraft are only a small percentage ( ~ 7%) of this population. The rest of the population is orbital debris or ``space junk" consisting of expended rocket bodies, dead payloads, bits and pieces from satellite launches, and fragments from satellite breakups. The number of these smaller orbital debris objects increases rapidly with decreasing size. It is estimated that there are at least 130,000 orbital debris objects between one and ten centimeters in diameter. Most objects smaller than 10 centimeters go untracked! As the orbital debris population grows, the risk to other orbiting objects, most importantly manned space vehicles, of a collision with a piece of debris also grows. The kinetic energy of a solid 1 cm aluminum sphere traveling at an orbital velocity of 10 km/sec is equivalent to a 400 lb. safe traveling at 60 mph. Fortunately, the volume of space in which the orbiting population resides is large, collisions are infrequent, but they do occur. The Space Shuttle often returns to earth with its windshield pocked with small pits or craters caused by collisions with very small, sub-millimeter-size pieces of debris (paint flakes, particles from solid rocket exhaust, etc.), and micrometeoroids. To get a more complete picture of the orbital-debris environment, NASA has been using both radar and optical techniques to monitor the orbital debris environment. This paper gives an overview of the orbital debris environment and NASA's measurement program.

  14. An Efficient Optical Observation Ground Network is the Fundamental basis for any Space Based Debris Observation Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibin, L.; Chiarini, M.; Annoni, G.; Milani, A.; Bernardi, F.; Dimare, L.; Valsecchi, G.; Rossi, A.; Ragazzoni, R.; Salinari, P.

    2013-08-01

    A matter which is strongly debated in the SSA Community, concerns the observation of Space Debris from Space [1]. This topic has been preliminary studied by our Team for LEO, MEO and GEO orbital belts, allowing to remark a fundamental concept, residing in the fact that to be suitable to provide a functionality unavailable from ground in a cost to performance perspective, any Space Based System must operate in tight collaboration with an efficient Optical Ground Observation Network. In this work an analysis of the different functionalities which can be implemented with this approach for every orbital belt is illustrated, remarking the different achievable targets in terms of population size as a function of the observed orbits. Further, a preliminary definition of the most interesting missions scenarios, together with considerations and assessments on the observation strategy and P/L characteristics are presented.

  15. Orbital debris-debris collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, James; Stupl, Jan; Marshall, William; Levit, Creon

    2011-11-01

    We focus on preventing collisions between debris and debris, for which there is no current, effective mitigation strategy. We investigate the feasibility of using a medium-powered (5 kW) ground-based laser combined with a ground-based telescope to prevent collisions between debris objects in low-Earth orbit (LEO). The scheme utilizes photon pressure alone as a means to perturb the orbit of a debris object. Applied over multiple engagements, this alters the debris orbit sufficiently to reduce the risk of an upcoming conjunction. We employ standard assumptions for atmospheric conditions and the resulting beam propagation. Using case studies designed to represent the properties (e.g. area and mass) of the current debris population, we show that one could significantly reduce the risk of nearly half of all catastrophic collisions involving debris using only one such laser/telescope facility. We speculate on whether this could mitigate the debris fragmentation rate such that it falls below the natural debris re-entry rate due to atmospheric drag, and thus whether continuous long-term operation could entirely mitigate the Kessler syndrome in LEO, without need for relatively expensive active debris removal.

  16. Biological activity of polyethylene wear debris produced in the patellofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Peter; Tipper, Joanne L; Jennings, Louise M; Fisher, John

    2012-05-01

    Polyethylene wear is considered a threat to the long-term survival of total knee replacements. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution that resurfacing the patella makes to wear debris-induced osteolysis following total knee replacement. Ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles were isolated from simulator lubricant. Particle shape, size, and volume distributions were recorded allowing the osteolytic potential of the wear debris produced in the patellofemoral joint to be estimated using the concept of specific biological activity and functional biological activity. Values were compared with those reported for the tibiofemoral joint. Specific biological activity for the patellofemoral joint was not significantly different from the values for the tibiofemoral joint of total knee replacement devices, and therefore, has a similar potential to stimulate osteolytic cytokine release from macrophages. Functional biological activity was significantly lower for the patellofemoral joint compared with the tibiofemoral joint. Functional biological activity was significantly lower for the patellofemoral joint compared with the fixed bearing and rotating platform total knee replacement devices. However, as patellar resurfacing is commonly fitted as part of a total knee replacement system, this results in a 20% increase in overall functional biological activity for the system. Therefore, implanting a patellar resurfacing will increase the potential for osteolysis in the knee. PMID:22720390

  17. STEREO SECCHI Observations of Space Debris: Are They Associated with S/WAVES Dust Detections?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Howard, R. A.; Wang, D.; Thompson, W. T.; Harrison, R. A.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    White-light coronagraphs are optimized to reject stray light in order to accomplish their primary science objective - - the observation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the corona. Because they were designed to detect these faint signals while pointing at the Sun, many spacebased coronagraphs in the past (Skylab, SMM, SOHO) have detected "debris" apparently associated with the vehicle. These appear to be sunlit particles very near the front of the telescope aperture (~meters). In at least one case, these earlier debris sightings were interpreted as deteriorating insulation from the thermal blankets on the spacecraft (St. Cyr and Warner, 1991ASPC...17..126S); and for the earlier Sklyab observations, the sightings were believed to be associated with water droplets (Eddy, "A New Sun: The Solar Results from Skylab", NASA SP-402, p119, 1979.) The STEREO SECCHI suite of white-light coronagraphs represents the most recent instantations of these specialized instruments, and for the first time we are able to track CMEs from their initiation at the Sun out to 1 A.U. Since observations commenced, the SECCHI white-light telescopes have been sporadically detecting debris particles. Most of the detections are individual or small numbers of bright objects in the field which therefore do not affect the primary science goals of the mission. But on several occasions in the eight months' of observation there have been "swarms" of these bright objects which completely obscure the field of view of one or more instrument for a brief period of time. Here we report on the intriguing possibility that the SECCHI debris sightings represent particles of thermal insulation, ejected from the spacecraft by interplanetary dust impacts. Because of the large field of view and high duty cycle of the Heliospheric Imagers on STEREO, we may be able to demonstrate that some of these have also been detected by STEREO S/WAVES as sporadic plasma emissions.

  18. Satellite vulnerability to space debris - an improved 3D risk assessment methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Lilith; Tiboldo, Francesca; Destefanis, Roberto; Donath, Thérèse; Winterboer, Arne; Evans, Leanne; Janovsky, Rolf; Kempf, Scott; Rudolph, Martin; Schäfer, Frank; Gelhaus, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    The work described in the present paper, performed as a part of the P2 project, presents an enhanced method to evaluate satellite vulnerability to micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD), using the ESABASE2/Debris tool (developed under ESA contract). Starting from the estimation of induced failures on spacecraft (S/C) components and from the computation of lethal impacts (with an energy leading to the loss of the satellite), and considering the equipment redundancies and interactions between components, the debris-induced S/C functional impairment is assessed. The developed methodology, illustrated through its application to a case study satellite, includes the capability to estimate the number of failures on internal components, overcoming the limitations of current tools which do not allow propagating the debris cloud inside the S/C. The ballistic limit of internal equipment behind a sandwich panel structure is evaluated through the implementation of the Schäfer Ryan Lambert (SRL) Ballistic Limit Equation (BLE). The analysis conducted on the case study satellite shows the S/C vulnerability index to be in the range of about 4% over the complete mission, with a significant reduction with respect to the results typically obtained with the traditional analysis, which considers as a failure the structural penetration of the satellite structural panels. The methodology has then been applied to select design strategies (additional local shielding, relocation of components) to improve S/C protection with respect to MMOD. The results of the analyses conducted on the improved design show a reduction of the vulnerability index of about 18%.

  19. The altitude effect on the climatic factors controlling debris flows activation: the Marderello Torrent case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Michela; Turconi, Laura; Savio, Gabriele; Tropeano, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    The left Cenischia valley includes some of the best known alpine basins prone to debris flow in Northwestern Italian Alps. In particular, in the Marderello catchment (6,6 km²), a left tributary of the Cenischia river, 31 important debris flood/flow events occurred during the last one hundred years. According to the chronicles of the last three centuries, events with significant volumes are on the average liable to take place every 3-4 years, whereas minor events may occur even twice per year. Due to the high frequency of activations, the site is of relevant interest for monitoring purposes. Since the early nineties, the CNR IRPI equipped the Marderello basin with meteorological monitoring devices. The rainfall monitoring network consists of four rain gauges, placed at different elevations, between 800 m a.s.l. and 2854 m a.s.l. Other meteorological data (air moisture and temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction) are provided by three stations located at 3150, 2150 and 830 m a.s.l. The main objective of the monitoring is the investigation of the triggering conditions for debris flows initiation. In the scientific literature the prediction of debris flows is often tackled by the use of empirical methods, based on the analysis of past activation and related rainfall triggering conditions. The effectiveness of these methods strictly depends on the representativeness of the meteorological monitoring stations used to collect the data. In complex orography sites, as the Alpine catchments are, the remarkable elevation gaps between the source areas of debris flows and the rain gauges position make it difficult to identify the triggering rainfall. To attain more reliable results, the elevation effect must be considered. In fact, elevation influences the precipitation in terms of cumulative values and, as a result of the temperature gradient, it controls the nature of the precipitation (rain/snow). In the present study we use the rainfall and temperature

  20. Antibiotic activity in space.

    PubMed

    Lapchine, L; Moatti, N; Gasset, G; Richoilley, G; Templier, J; Tixador, R

    1986-01-01

    Environmental factors in space exert an influence on the behaviour of bacteria, particularly on their sensitivity to antibiotics. Thus, G. Taylor and S. Zaloguev observed that bacterial samples collected on the crew during flight in the Apollo-Soyouz Test Project Mission presented higher antibiotic resistance than controls. This paper presents the results of two experiments performed in 1982 and 1985 (Cytos 2 during the French-Soviet Mission and "Antibio" in the Biorack programme of the European Space Agency). The results show an increase of antibiotic resistance in bacteria growth in flight and a modification in the structure of the cell wall. All these modifications are transitory. Two hypotheses are put forward to explain the phenomenon. PMID:3569006

  1. An investigation of an optical characteristics of a small-sized space debris objects on a ground based telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papushev, Pavel; Mishina, Marina

    The modern catalogues of artificial space objects are constructed on a basis only the data on position in space (the metric information, the coordinate information). However already today we faced with a problem of a prediction of position of small-sized space debris objects. On the short time intervals orbital characteristics these objects vary so considerably, that correlation between their orbital elements are very low. In the future we plan to continuously convoy these objects with the help wide-field optical systems for a high-speed sky survey. However, it does not solve a problem of their cataloguing. Except for orbital parameters, additional, more stable attributes which will allow identifying the debris objects are necessary. As example of the attributes one can use their optical characteristics (OC). Measurement OC is one of most difficult tasks of experimental astrophysics. The OC dates should be carefully calibrated and standardized. Only in this case classical photometrical data can be effectively used to recog-nitions and identifications of the artificial space objects. In some respects, only photometric measurements are not a successful choice. The photometrical measurements are more expense in time, the expellant atmospheric conditions are needed. Probably other methods -spectral and polarimetrical can be more convenient.In this work we shall use the spectrophotopolarimet-rical equipment Cassegrenian focus of telescope ZT33 (diameter of 1.7 meters). In experimental works on this telescope the opportunity of a detection moved objects up to 22 (R) magnitudes with the tracking is proved. An equipment will allow us to obtain the initial data on the faint objects less than 15 (R) magnitudes, their spectral and polarizing characteristics.Direction and the purpose of future work will presented.

  2. Imaging Scattered Light from Debris Disks Discovered by the Spitzer Space Telescope around 21 Sun-like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metchev, Stanimir

    2006-07-01

    We propose to use the high-contrast capability of the NICMOS coronagraph to image a sample of newly discovered circumstellar disks associated with Sun-like stars. These systems were identified by their strong thermal infrared {IR} emission with the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Spitzer Legacy Science program titled "The Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems" {FEPS, P.I.: M.Meyer}. Modeling of the thermal excess emission from the spectral energy distributions alone cannot distinguish between narrowly confined high-opacity disks and broadly distributed, low-opacity disks. By resolving light scattered by the circumstellar material, our proposed NICMOS observations can break this degeneracy, thus revealing the conditions under which planet formation processes are occuring or have occured. For three of our IR-excess stars that have known radial-velocity planets, resolved imaging of the circumstellar debris disks may further offer an unprecedented view of planet-disk interactions in an extrasolar planetary system. Even non-detections of the light scattered by the circumstellar material will place strong constraints on the disk geometries, ruling out disk models with high optical depth. Unlike previous disk imaging programs, our program contains a well-defined sample of 1 solar mass stars covering a range of ages from 3 Myr to 3 Gyr, thus allowing us to study the evolution of disks from primordial to debris for the first time. The results from our program will greatly improve our understanding of the architecture of debris disks around Sun-like stars, and will create a morphological context for the existence of our own solar system. This proposal is for a continuation of an approved Cycle 14 program {GO/10527, P.I.: D. Hines}.

  3. Orbital debris: A technical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleghorn, George; Asay, James; Atkinson, Dale; Flury, Walter; Johnson, Nicholas; Kessler, Donald; Knowles, Stephen; Rex, Dietrich; Toda, Susumu; Veniaminov, Stanislav

    1995-01-01

    To acquire an unbiased technical assessment of (1) the research needed to better understand the debris environment, (2) the necessity and means of protecting spacecraft against the debris environment, and (3) potential methods of reducing the future debris hazard, NASA asked the National Research Council to form an international committee to examine the orbital debris issue. The committee was asked to draw upon available data and analyses to: characterize the current debris environment, project how this environment might change in the absence of new measures to alleviate debris proliferation, examine ongoing alleviation activities, explore measures to address the problem, and develop recommendations on technical methods to address the problems of debris proliferation.

  4. GEO Debris Observation of PMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Yiding; Zhao, Changyin; Zhao, Haibin

    2009-03-01

    This paper summarizes observations and results obtained by Purple Mountain Observatory in March 2007 of space debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) in support of WG1 Action Item 23.4, International 2007 Optical Debris Campaign in Higher Earth Orbit, organized by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). The main goal of Pmo's work is to develop the observational techniques of Higher Earth Orbit Space debris for the future work. A new telescope designed for debris observation is also described here.

  5. The motion of tethered tug-debris system with fuel residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanov, Vladimir S.; Yudintsev, Vadim V.

    2015-10-01

    Active debris removal using a space tug with a tether is one of the promising techniques to decrease the population of large non-functional satellites and orbital stages in near Earth orbits. Properties of debris should be taken into account in the development of the space tugs. In this paper we consider the motion of a debris objects with fuel residuals that can affect the safety of the debris transportation process. The equations of the attitude motion of the tug-debris system in a central gravitational field are derived. Stationary solutions of the equations are found. The system of linearized equations are introduced that can be used for short term analysis. The numerical simulation results are provided that show good accuracy of the linearized equations. Proposed equations can be used to analyze the attitude motion of the tug-debris system and to determine the conventional parameters for safe tethered transportation of space debris.

  6. Space Shuttle Debris Impact Tool Assessment Using the Modern Design of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard; Rayos, Elonsio M.; Campbell, Charles H.; Rickman, Steven L.; Larsen, Curtis E.

    2007-01-01

    Complex computer codes are used to estimate thermal and structural reentry loads on the Shuttle Orbiter induced by ice and foam debris impact during ascent. Such debris can create cavities in the Shuttle Thermal Protection System. The sizes and shapes of these cavities are approximated to accommodate a code limitation that requires simple "shoebox" geometries to describe the cavities -- rectangular areas and planar walls that are at constant angles with respect to vertical. These approximations induce uncertainty in the code results. The Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) has recently been applied to develop a series of resource-minimal computational experiments designed to generate low-order polynomial graduating functions to approximate the more complex underlying codes. These polynomial functions were then used to propagate cavity geometry errors to estimate the uncertainty they induce in the reentry load calculations performed by the underlying code. This paper describes a methodological study focused on evaluating the application of MDOE to future operational codes in a rapid and low-cost way to assess the effects of cavity geometry uncertainty.

  7. Evidence for enhanced debris flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps since the 1980s (Plansee, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Andreas; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    From 1950 to 2011 almost 80.000 people lost their lives through the occurrence of debris flow events (Dowling and Santi, 2014). Debris flows occur in all alpine regions due to intensive rainstorms and mobilisable loose debris. Due to their susceptible lithology, the Northern Calcareous Alps are affected by a double digit number of major hazard events per year. Some authors hypothesised a relation between an increasing frequency of heavy rainstorms and an increasing occurrence of landslides in general (Beniston and Douglas, 1996) and debris flows in special (Pelfini and Santilli, 2008), but yet there is only limited evidence. The Plansee catchment in the Ammergauer Alps consists of intensely jointed Upper Triassic Hauptdolomit lithology and therefore shows extreme debris flow activity. To investigate this activity in the last decades, the temporal and spatial development of eight active debris flow fans is examined with GIS and field mapping. The annual rates since the late 1940s are inferred accurately by using aerial photos from 1947, 1952, 1971, 1979, 1987, 2000 and 2010. These rates are compared to the mean Holocene/Lateglacial debris flow volume derived from the most prominent cone. The contact with the underlying till is revealed by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). It shows that the mean annual debris flow volume has increased there by a factor of 10 from 1947-1952 (0.23 ± 0.07 10³m³/yr) to 1987-2000 (2.41 ± 0.66 10³m³/yr). A similar trend can be seen on all eight fans: mean post-1980 rates exceed pre-1980 rates by a factor of more than three. This increasing debris flow activity coincides with an enhanced rainstorm (def. 35 mm/d) frequency recorded at the nearest meteorological station. Since 1921 the frequency of heavy rainstorms has increased there on average by 10% per decade. Recent debris flow rates are also 2-3 times higher compared to mean Holocene/Lateglacial rates. Furthermore, we state a strong correlation between the non

  8. About possibilities of clearing near-Earth space from dangerous debris by a spaceborne laser system with an autonomous cw chemical HF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Avdeev, A V; Bashkin, A S; Katorgin, Boris I; Parfen'ev, M V

    2011-07-31

    The possibility of clearing hazardous near-Earth space debris using a spaceborne laser station with a large autonomous cw chemical HF laser is substantiated and the requirements to its characteristics (i.e., power and divergence of laser radiation, pulse duration in the repetitively pulsed regime, repetition rate and total time of laser action on space debris, necessary to remove them from the orbits of the protected spacecrafts) are determined. The possibility of launching the proposed spaceborne laser station to the orbit with the help of a 'Proton-M' carrier rocket is considered. (laser applications)

  9. Geosynchronous Large Debris Reorbiter: Challenges and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Hanspeter; Moorer, Daniel F.

    2012-06-01

    An elegant solution is proposed to an old problem of how to remove expired or malfunctioning satellites from the geosynchronous belt. Previous "space-tug" concepts describe a scenario where one craft (the tug) docks with another (debris) and then boosts that object to a super-synchronous orbit. The most challenging aspect of these concepts is the very complex proximity operations to an aging, possibly rotating and, probably, non-cooperative satellite. Instead, the proposed method uses an elegant blend of electrostatic charge control and low-thrust propulsion to avoid any contact requirement. The Geosynchronous Large Debris Reorbiter (GLiDeR) uses active charge emission to raise its own absolute potential to 10's of kilovolts and, in addition, directs a stream of charged particles at the debris to increase its absolute potential. In a puller configuration the opposite polarity of the debris creates an attractive force between the GLiDeR and the debris. Pusher configurations are feasible as well. Next, fuel-efficient micro-thrusters are employed to gently move the reorbiter relative to the debris, and then accelerate the debris out of its geosynchronous slot and deposit it in a disposal orbit. Preliminary analysis shows that a 1000 kg debris object can be re-orbited over two-four months. During the reorbit phase the separation distance is held nominally fixed without physical contact, even if the debris is tumbling, by actively controlling the charge transfer between the reorbiter and the debris. Numerical simulations are presented illustrating the expected performance, taking into account also the solar radiation pressure.

  10. Coordinated Observations of Space Debris as Optimisation Problem of Inter-Dependent Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciotti, M.; Charlish, A.

    2013-08-01

    Optimal allocation of sensor resources is addressed in this paper in the frame of space surveillance application. Inspiration is taken from the optimal management of multi-functional sensors and netted surveillance sensors, for which the Sensor Management problem is often addressed as a Markov Decision Process. This approach allows determining the optimal decision at each discrete time instant by quantifying the expected payoff coming from the selected action. An action might be the assignment of the i -th surveillance task to the m -th sensor in the network ('tasking'), the selection of the i -th task at the k -th time slot ('scheduling'), or the activation of a specific sensor configuration for the completion of the i -th task ('resource allocation'). The common objective is the maximization of the global reward coming from the selected sequence of actions over a finite or infinite time horizon. This leads to a sequence of coordinated observations carried out by the sensor(s), which are determined statically or dynamically by the Sensor Manager. In this paper, the allocation of space surveillance resources is analysed as a management problem for sensor(s) with finite resources. The proposed allocation is driven by the operational requirements for space objects cataloguing, such as the object population coverage and the track accuracy. A sequential resource allocation strategy is formulated in order to cope with such inter-dependent, concurring performance metrics. The approach can be also extended to multiple sensors with different performance or nature. Promising results are demonstrated over a phased array radar case study.

  11. Comparison of self-healing ionomer to aluminium-alloy bumpers for protecting spacecraft equipment from space debris impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesconi, A.; Giacomuzzo, C.; Grande, A. M.; Mudric, T.; Zaccariotto, M.; Etemadi, E.; Di Landro, L.; Galvanetto, U.

    2013-03-01

    This paper discusses the impact behavior of a self-healing ionomeric polymer and compares its protection capability against space debris impacts to that of simple aluminium-alloy bumpers. To this end, 14 impact experiments on both ionomer and Al-7075-T6 thin plates with similar surface density were made with 1.5 mm aluminium spheres at velocity between 1 and 4 km/s.First, the perforation extent in both materials was evaluated vis-à-vis the prediction of well known hole-size equations; then, attention was given to the damage potential of the cloud of fragments ejected from the rear side of the target by analysing the craters pattern and the momentum transferred to witness plates mounted on a ballistic pendulum behind the bumpers.Self-healing was completely successful in all but one ionomer samples and the primary damage on ionomeric polymers was found to be significantly lower than that on aluminium. On the other hand, aluminium plates exhibited slightly better debris fragmentation abilities, even though the protecting performance of ionomers seemed to improve at increasing impact speed.

  12. Spitzer Space Telescope Observations of G Dwarfs in the Pleiades: Circumstellar Debris Disks at 100 Myr Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, John R.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Carpenter, John; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Backman, Dana; Meyer, Michael; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Silverstone, Murray; Young, Erick; Hines, Dean C.; Soderblom, David R.; Mamajek, Eric; Morris, Patrick; Bouwman, Jeroen; Strom, Stephen E.

    2005-10-01

    Fluxes and upper limits in the wavelength range from 3.6 to 70 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope are provided for 20 solar-mass Pleiades members. One of these stars shows a probable mid-IR excess, and two others have possible excesses, presumably due to circumstellar debris disks. For the star with the largest, most secure excess flux at MIPS (Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer) wavelengths, HII 1101, we derive log(Ldust/L*)~-3.8 and an estimated debris disk mass of 4.2×10-5 M♁ for an assumed uniform dust grain size of 10 μm. If the stars with detected excesses are interpreted as stars with relatively recent, large collisional events producing a transient excess of small dust particles, the frequency of such disk transients is ~10% for our ~100 Myr, Pleiades G dwarf sample. For the stars without detected 24-70 μm excesses, the upper limits to their fluxes correspond to approximate 3 σ upper limits to their disk masses of 6×10-6 M♁ using the MIPS 24 μm upper limit or 2×10-4 M♁ using the MIPS 70 μm limit. These upper limit disk masses (for ``warm'' and ``cold'' dust, respectively) are roughly consistent with, but somewhat lower than, predictions of a heuristic model for the evolution of an ``average'' solar-mass star's debris disk based on extrapolation backward in time from current properties of the Sun's Kuiper Belt. This work is based (in part) on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

  13. Severe Impingement of Lumbar Disc Replacements Increases the Functional Biological Activity of Polyethylene Wear Debris

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ryan M.; MacDonald, Daniel W.; Kurtz, Steven M.; Steinbeck, Marla J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wear, oxidation, and particularly rim impingement damage of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene total disc replacement components have been observed following surgical revision. However, neither in vitro testing nor retrieval-based evidence has shown the effect(s) of impingement on the characteristics of polyethylene wear debris. Thus, we sought to determine (1) differences in polyethylene particle size, shape, number, or biological activity that correspond to mild or severe rim impingement and (2) in an analysis of all total disc replacements, regardless of impingement classification, whether there are correlations between the extent of regional damage and the characteristics of polyethylene wear debris. Methods: The extent of dome and rim damage was characterized for eleven retrieved polyethylene cores obtained at revision surgery after an average duration of implantation of 9.7 years (range, 4.6 to 16.1 years). Polyethylene wear debris was isolated from periprosthetic tissues with use of nitric acid and was imaged with use of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, particle size, shape, number, biological activity, and chronic inflammation scores were determined. Results: Grouping of particles by size ranges that represented high biological relevance (<0.1 to 1-μm particles), intermediate biological relevance (1 to 10-μm particles), and low biological relevance (>10-μm particles) revealed an increased volume fraction of particles in the <0.1 to 1-μm and 1 to 10-μm size ranges in the mild-impingement cohort as compared with the severe-impingement cohort. The increased volume fractions resulted in a higher specific biological activity per unit particle volume in the mild-impingement cohort than in the severe-impingement cohort. However, functional biological activity, which is normalized by particle volume (mm3/g of tissue), was significantly higher in the severe-impingement cohort. This increase was due to a larger volume

  14. Vulnerability of Space Station Freedom Modules: A Study of the Effects of Module Perforation on Crew and Equipment. Volume 2; Analytical Modeling of Internal Debris Cloud Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Davenport, Quint

    1995-01-01

    In this part of the report, a first-principles based model is developed to predict the overpressure and temperature effects of a perforating orbital debris particle impact within a pressurized habitable module. While the effects of a perforating debris particles on crew and equipment can be severe, only a limited number of empirical studies focusing on space vehicles have been performed to date. Traditionally, crew loss or incapacitation due to a perforating impact has primarily been of interest to military organizations and as such have focused on military vehicles and systems. The module wall considered in this study is initially assumed to be a standard Whippletype dual-wall system in which the outer wall protects the module and its inhabitants by disrupting impacting particles. The model is developed in a way such that it sequentially characterizes the phenomena comprising the impact event, including the initial impact, the creation and motion of a debris cloud within the dual-wall system, the impact of the debris cloud on the inner wall, the creation and motion of the debris cloud that enters the module interior, and the effects of the debris cloud within the module on module pressure and temperature levels. This is accomplished through the application of elementary shock physics and thermodynamic theory.

  15. ISODEX: An entry point for developing countries into space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Mark Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Several threads current in the community of international space actors have led to calls at UN COPUOS Scientific & Technical Sub-Committee meetings for enhancing the scientific information available on man-made space objects, whilst fostering international space object data sharing. Growing awareness of the problems of space debris proliferation and space traffic management, especially amongst developing countries and non-traditional space faring nations, have fueled their desires to become involved in the areas of space object tracking, utilizing relatively modest astronomical instrumentation. Additionally, several commercial satellite operators, members of the Satellite Data Association, have called for augmentation of the information available from existing catalogs. This confluence of factors has led to an international discussion, at the UN and elsewhere, of the possibility of creating a clearing-house for parties willing to share data on space objects, with a working title of the “International Space Object Data Exchange” (ISODEX). We discuss the ideas behind this concept, how it might be implemented, and it might enhance the public’s knowledge of space activities, as well as providing an entry point into space for developing countries.

  16. Orbital Debris Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.; Stansbery, G.

    2014-01-01

    Policies on limiting orbital debris are found throughout the US Government, many foreign space agencies, and as adopted guidelines in the United Nations. The underlying purpose of these policies is to ensure the environment remains safe for the operation of robotic and human spacecraft in near- Earth orbit. For this reason, it is important to consider orbital debris mitigation during the design of all space vehicles. Documenting compliance with the debris mitigation guidelines occurs after the vehicle has already been designed and fabricated for many CubeSats, whereas larger satellites are evaluated throughout the design process. This paper will provide a brief explanation of the US Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices, a discussion of international guidelines, as well as NASA's process for compliance evaluation. In addition, it will discuss the educational value of considering orbital debris mitigation requirements as a part of student built satellite design.

  17. Selection of a Propulsion System for Jason-CS in Order to Fulfil Space Debris Mitigation Requirements for ESA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthen, Bjoern; Beck, Jan; Duske, Norbert; Francis, Richard; Koeble, Klaus-Peter

    2013-08-01

    For two decades, the mission Topex-Poseidon and its successor mission Jason/Ocean Surface Topography Mission provide satellite data for the analysis of sea topography, wave heights and wind speeds. For the continuation of service mission Jason-CS, ESA's choice to rely on the CryoSat-2 platform design permits re-use of a well established product and proven processes. An industrial consortium led by Astrium GmbH has built the satellite CryoSat-2 which for over three years successfully provides altimeter measurements of the polar ice cap thickness evolutions. This platform is perfectly suited for accommodation of the Jason-CS instruments. Unlike CryoSat-2, Jason-CS is required to perform a post-mission disposal according to the Requirements for Space Debris Mitigation for ESA Projects. This paper discusses different technologies in terms of efficiency, feasibility and accommodation, aiming at minimizing necessary spacecraft design modifications.

  18. In Situ Measurement Activities at the Nasa Orbital Debris Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Burchell, M.; Corsaro, R.; Drolshagen, G.; Giovane, F.; Pisacane, V.; Stansbery, E.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has been involved in the development of several particle impact instruments since 2003. The main objective of this development is to eventually conduct in situ measurements to better characterize the small (millimeter or smaller) orbital debris and micrometeoroid populations in the near-Earth environment. In addition, the Office also supports similar instrument development to define the micrometeoroid and lunar secondary ejecta environment for future lunar exploration activities. The instruments include impact acoustic sensors, resistive grid sensors, fiber optic displacement sensors, and impact ionization sensors. They rely on different mechanisms and detection principles to identify particle impacts. A system consisting of these different sensors will provide data that are complimentary to each other, and will provide a better description of the physical and dynamical properties (e.g., size, mass, and impact speed) of the particles in the environment. Details of several systems being considered by the Office and their intended mission objectives are summarized in this paper.

  19. Impacts of tug and debris sizes on electrostatic tractor charging performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Erik A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2015-01-01

    Active debris removal techniques enable relocating noncooperative geosynchronous (GEO) debris objects into graveyard orbits. One proposed method is the electrostatic tractor concept. Here a tug vehicle approaches a target debris object and emits an electron beam onto the debris. The charging that results yields an attractive electrostatic force that is used to tow the debris object into a new orbit. In this study, the impacts of relative sizing between tug and debris on the efficacy of this charge transfer process are considered. By applying a charging model and incorporating nominal, quiet GEO space weather conditions, limitations on the size ratio that preclude charge transfer are identified for different levels of beam energy. The resulting electrostatic forces and impacts on reorbiting performance are studied. The results indicate that a larger tug vehicle will enable the tugging of a broader range of debris sizes, and that the tug size should be roughly as large as the expected debris size.

  20. Long-term explosive degassing and debris flow activity at West Mata submarine volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Baker, E. T.; Matsumoto, H.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Embley, R. W.; Merle, S. G.; Walker, S. L.; Lau, T.-K.; Chadwick, W. W.

    2015-03-01

    West Mata is a 1200 m deep submarine volcano where explosive boninite eruptions were observed in 2009. The acoustic signatures from the volcano's summit eruptive vents Hades and Prometheus were recorded with an in situ (~25 m range) hydrophone during ROV dives in May 2009 and with local (~5 km range) moored hydrophones between December 2009 and August 2011. The sensors recorded low frequency (1-40 Hz), short duration explosions consistent with magma bubble bursts from Hades, and broadband, 1-5 min duration signals associated with episodes of fragmentation degassing from Prometheus. Long-term eruptive degassing signals, recorded through May 2010, preceded a several month period of declining activity. Degassing episodes were not recorded acoustically after early 2011, although quieter effusive eruption activity may have continued. Synchronous optical measurements of turbidity made between December 2009 and April 2010 indicate that turbidity maxima resulted from occasional south flank slope failures triggered by the collapse of accumulated debris during eruption intervals.

  1. Orbital debris and near-Earth environmental management: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.; Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This chronology covers the 32-year history of orbital debris and near-Earth environmental concerns. It tracks near-Earth environmental hazard creation, research, observation, experimentation, management, mitigation, protection, and policy-making, with emphasis on the orbital debris problem. Included are the Project West Ford experiments; Soviet ASAT tests and U.S. Delta upper stage explosions; the Ariane V16 explosion, U.N. treaties pertinent to near-Earth environmental problems, the PARCS tests; space nuclear power issues, the SPS/orbital debris link; Space Shuttle and space station orbital debris issues; the Solwind ASAT test; milestones in theory and modeling the Cosmos 954, Salyut 7, and Skylab reentries; the orbital debris/meteoroid research link; detection system development; orbital debris shielding development; popular culture and orbital debris; Solar Max results; LDEF results; orbital debris issues peculiar to geosynchronous orbit, including reboost policies and the stable plane; seminal papers, reports, and studies; the increasing effects of space activities on astronomy; and growing international awareness of the near-Earth environment.

  2. Drainage basin morphometry controls on the active depositional area of debris flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihir, Monika; Wasklewicz, Thad; Malamud, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A majority of the research on understanding the connection between alluvial fans and drainage basins to date has focused on coarse-scale relations between total fan area and drainage basin area. Here we take a new approach where we assess relationships between active fan depositional area and drainage basin morphometry using 52 debris flow fans (32 from the White Mountains and 20 from the Inyo Mountains) on the eastern side of Owens Valley, California, USA. The boundaries for fans, drainage basin and active depositional areas were delineated from 10m digital elevation models and 1 m aerial photographs. We examined the relationships between the normalised active depositional area of the fan (Afad/Af, where Afad is the fan active depositional area and Af the entire fan area) and the following four variables for drainage basin: (i) area (Adb), (ii) total stream length (Ls), (iii) relief (BHH), (iv) roughness (R). We find a statistically significant (r2 > 0.40) inverse power-law relationship between recent sediment contribution to the fan and drainage basin area (Afad/Af = 0.29Adb-0.167) drainage network length (Afad/Af = 0.39Ls-0.161) and basin relief (Afad/Af = 3.90BHH-0.401), and a statistically weak (r2 = 0.22) inverse power law with basin roughness (Afad/Af = 0.32R0.5441). Drainage basin size combined with other morphometric variables may largely determine efficiency in sediment transport and delivery to the fan surface. A large proportion of the total fan area of smaller fans are flooded by debris flow indicating less sediment storage in the drainage basins and greater efficiency in sediment delivery. The findings signify the importance of coarse-scale relationships to both long- and short-term fan evolution.

  3. Frequency analysis of the non-principal-axis rotation of uniaxial space debris in circular orbit subjected to gravity-gradient torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hou-Yuan; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    The non-principal-axis rotational motion of uniaxial space debris can be decomposed into periodic motions associated with two frequencies: the polhode frequency of the space debris rotating around the symmetry axis, and the tumbling frequency of the symmetry axis rotating around the angular momentum. To determine from optical measurements the rotational motion of upper rocket stages in circular orbits subjected to gravity-gradient torque, the evolutions of these two frequencies need to be analyzed. Taking into account only the long-term changes in the long-period variables, the differential equations of the non-principal axis rotational motion of the uniaxial space debris are averaged and reduced, from which the evolutions of the polhode and tumbling frequencies are then obtained analytically. The theoretical results are verified by numerical simulations of the diffuse reflection model. The frequencies in the variation of the reflected light intensity in the simulation are analyzed using the frequency map analysis (FMA) method. Errors of these results are found to be less than 1%. Based on the theoretical expressions, the rotational state of the uniaxial space debris can be estimated in the simulation without any prior information except the orbital parameters. A series of state variables are estimated, including the ratio of the moments of inertia about the transverse axis and the symmetry axis, the instantaneous rotation velocity, the orientation of the angular momentum, and the precession cone of the symmetry axis.

  4. Extravehicular Mobility Unit Penetration Probability from Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris: Revised Analytical Model and Potential Space Suit Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Thomas D.; Splawn, Keith; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) micrometeoroid and orbital debris protection ability has recently been assessed against an updated, higher threat space environment model. The new environment was analyzed in conjunction with a revised EMU solid model using a NASA computer code. Results showed that the EMU exceeds the required mathematical Probability of having No Penetrations (PNP) of any suit pressure bladder over the remaining life of the program (2,700 projected hours of 2 person spacewalks). The success probability was calculated to be 0.94, versus a requirement of >0.91, for the current spacesuit s outer protective garment. In parallel to the probability assessment, potential improvements to the current spacesuit s outer protective garment were built and impact tested. A NASA light gas gun was used to launch projectiles at test items, at speeds of approximately 7 km per second. Test results showed that substantial garment improvements could be made, with mild material enhancements and moderate assembly development. The spacesuit s PNP would improve marginally with the tested enhancements, if they were available for immediate incorporation. This paper discusses the results of the model assessment process and test program. These findings add confidence to the continued use of the existing NASA EMU during International Space Station (ISS) assembly and Shuttle Operations. They provide a viable avenue for improved hypervelocity impact protection for the EMU, or for future space suits.

  5. Active debris multi-removal mission concept based on hybrid propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadini, P.; Tancredi, U.; Grassi, M.; Anselmo, L.; Pardini, C.; Francesconi, A.; Branz, F.; Maggi, F.; Lavagna, M.; DeLuca, L. T.; Viola, N.; Chiesa, S.; Trushlyakov, V.; Shimada, T.

    2014-10-01

    During the last 40 years, the mass of the artificial objects in orbit increased quite steadily at the rate of about 145 metric tons annually, leading to about 7000 metric tons. Most of the cross-sectional area and mass (97% in low Earth orbit) is concentrated in about 4500 intact abandoned objects plus a further 1000 operational spacecraft. Analyses have shown that the most effective mitigation strategy should focus on the disposal of objects with larger cross-sectional area and mass from densely populated orbits. Recent NASA results have shown that the worldwide adoption of mitigation measures in conjunction with active yearly removal of approximately 0.2-0.5% of the abandoned objects would stabilize the debris population. Targets would have typical masses between 500 and 1000 kg in the case of spacecraft, and of more than 1000 kg for rocket upper stages. In the case of Cosmos-3M second stages, more than one object is located nearly in the same orbital plane. This provides the opportunity of multi-removal missions, more suitable for yearly removal rate and cost reduction needs. This paper deals with the feasibility study of a mission for the active removal of large abandoned objects in low Earth orbit. In particular, a mission is studied in which the removal of two Cosmos-3M second stages, that are numerous in low Earth orbit, is considered. The removal system relies on a Chaser spacecraft which performs rendezvous maneuvers with the two targets. The first Cosmos-3M stage is captured and an autonomous de-orbiting kit, carried by the Chaser, is attached to it. The de-orbiting kit includes a Hybrid Propulsion Module, which is remotely ignited to perform stage disposal and controlled reentry after Chaser separation. Then, the second Cosmos-3M stage is captured and, in this case, the primary propulsion system of the Chaser is used for the disposal of the mated configuration. Critical mission aspects and related technologies are investigated at a preliminary level. In

  6. Current Issues in Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past two decades, great strides have been made in the international community regarding orbital debris mitigation. The majority of space-faring nations have reached a consensus on an initial set of orbital debris mitigation measures. Implementation of and compliance with the IADC and UN space debris mitigation guidelines should remain a high priority. Improvements of the IADC and UN space debris mitigation guidelines should continue as technical consensus permits. The remediation of the near-Earth space environment will require a significant and long-term undertaking.

  7. Space weather activities in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, D.

    Space Weather Plan Australia has a draft space weather plan to drive and focus appropriate research into services that meet future industry and social needs. The Plan has three main platforms, space weather monitoring and service delivery, support for priority research, and outreach to the community. The details of monitoring, service, research and outreach activities are summarised. A ground-based network of 14 monitoring stations from Antarctica to Papua New Guinea is operated by IPS, a government agency. These sites monitor ionospheric and geomagnetic characteristics, while two of them also monitor the sun at radio and optical wavelengths. Services provided through the Australian Space Forecast Centre (ASFC) include real-time information on the solar, space, ionospheric and geomagnetic environments. Data are gathered automatically from monitoring sites and integrated with data exchanged internationally to create snapshots of current space weather conditions and forecasts of conditions up to several days ahead. IPS also hosts the WDC for Solar-Terrestrial Science and specialises in ground-based solar, ionospheric, and geomagnetic data sets, although recent in-situ magnetospheric measurements are also included. Space weather activities A research consortium operates the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER), an HF southward pointing auroral radar operating from Hobart (Tasmania). A second cooperative radar (Unwin radar) is being constructed in the South Island of New Zealand. This will intersect with TIGER over the auroral zone and enhance the ability of the radar to image the surge of currents that herald space environment changes entering the Polar Regions. Launched in November 2002, the micro satellite FEDSAT, operated by the Cooperative Research Centre for Satellite Systems, has led to successful space science programs and data streams. FEDSAT is making measurements of the magnetic field over Australia and higher latitudes. It also carries a

  8. Protection of Space Vehicles from Micrometeoroid/Orbital Debris (MMOD) Damages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    As the environment that puts space vehicles at risk can never be eliminated, space vehicles must implement protection against the MMOD environment. In general, this protection has been implemented on a risk estimate basis, largely focused on estimates of impactor size and estimated flux. However, there is some uncertainty in applying these methods from data gathered in earth orbit to excursions outside. This paper discusses different past thresholds and processes of the past and suggests additional refinement or methods that could be used for future space endeavors.

  9. The Space Shuttle Program Pre-Flight Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Risk/Damage Predictions and Post-Flight Damage Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, George M.; Christiansen, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    The pre-flight predictions and postflight assessments carried out in relation to a series of Space Shuttle missions are reviewed, and data are presented for the meteoroid and orbital debris damage observed on the Hubble Space Telescope during the 1994 Hubble repair mission. Pre-flight collision risk analyses are carried out prior to each mission, and in the case of an unacceptable risk, the mission profile is altered until the risk is considered to be acceptable. The NASA's BUMPER code is used to compute the probability of damage from debris and meteoroid particle impacts based on the Poisson statistical model for random events. The penetration probability calculation requires information concerning the geometry of the critical systems, the penetration resistance and mission profile parameters. Following each flight, the orbiter is inspected for meteoroid and space debris damage. The emphasis is on areas such as the radiator panels, the windows and the reinforced carbon-carbon structures on the leading wing edges and on the nose cap. The contents of damage craters are analyzed using a scanning electron microscope to determine the nature and origin of the impactor. Hypervelocity impact tests are often performed to simulate the observed damage and to estimate the nature of the damaging particles. The number and type of damage observed provides information concerning the orbital debris environment.

  10. View of debris assembled at the Kennedy Space Center from STS 51-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Large portion of the three main engines of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Challenger have been recovered from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean to the east of the Kennedy Space Center. They have been moved to a large storage building to the east of the Logistics Facility at Complex 39. Most of the pieces were recovered by the Coast Guard and Navy following the accident.

  11. 14 CFR 417.211 - Debris analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Debris analysis. 417.211 Section 417.211... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.211 Debris analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a debris analysis. For an orbital or suborbital launch, a debris...

  12. 14 CFR 417.211 - Debris analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debris analysis. 417.211 Section 417.211... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.211 Debris analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a debris analysis. For an orbital or suborbital launch, a debris...

  13. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of International Space Station Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Shielding Using an Inhibited Shaped Charge Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Justin H.; Grosch, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Johnson Space Center have conducted hypervelocity impact (HVI) performance evaluations of spacecraft meteoroid and orbital debris (M/OD) shields at velocities in excess of 7 km/s. The inhibited shaped charge launcher (ISCL), developed by the Southwest Research Institute, launches hollow, circular, cylindrical jet tips to approximately 11 km/s. Since traditional M/OD shield ballistic limit performance is defined as the diameter of sphere required to just perforate or spall a spacecraft pressure wall, engineers must decide how to compare ISCL derived data with those of the spherical impactor data set. Knowing the mass of the ISCL impactor, an equivalent sphere diameter may be calculated. This approach is conservative since ISCL jet tips are more damaging than equal mass spheres. A total of 12 tests were recently conducted at the Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) on International Space Station M/OD shields. Results of these tests are presented and compared to existing ballistic limit equations. Modification of these equations is suggested based on the results.

  14. An LDEF 2 dust instrument for discrimination between orbital debris and natural particles in near-Earth space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuzzolino, A. J.; Simpson, J. A.; Mckibben, R. B.; Voss, H. D.; Gursky, H.

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of a space dust instrument which would be ideally suited to carry out near-Earth dust measurements on a possible Long Duraction Exposure Facility reflight mission (LDEF 2) is discussed. As a model for the trajectory portion of the instrument proposed for LDEF 2, the characteristics of a SPAce DUSt instrument (SPADUS) currently under development for flight on the USA ARGOS mission to measure the flux, mass, velocity, and trajectory of near-Earth dust is summarized. Since natural (cosmic) dust and man-made dust particles (orbital debris) have different velocity and trajectory distributions, they are distinguished by means of the SPADUS velocity/trajectory information. The SPADUS measurements will cover the dust mass range approximately 5 x 10(exp -12) g (2 microns diameter) to approximately 1 x 10(exp -5) g (200 microns diameter), with an expected mean error in particle trajectory of approximately 7 deg (isotropic flux). Arrays of capture cell devices positioned behind the trajectory instrumentation would provide for Earth-based chemical and isotopic analysis of captured dust. The SPADUS measurement principles, characteristics, its role in the ARGOS mission, and its application to an LDEF 2 mission are summarized.

  15. Touchless Electrostatic Three-dimensional Detumbling of Large Axi-symmetric Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Trevor; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2015-09-01

    Touchless detumbling of space debris is investigated to enable orbital servicing or active debris removal. Using active charge transfer between a servicer and debris object, control torques are created to reduce the debris spin rate prior to making any physical contact. In this work, the servicer shape is spherical and the debris is assumed to be cylindrical and tumbling. The attitude control goal is to reduce the debris tumbling motion while maintaining a fixed position ahead of the debris object. Prior work has identified the feasibility of electrostatic detumble for one degree of rotational freedom. This work extends the theory to three-dimensional tumbling motion. Using the previously developed Multi-Sphere modeling method for electrostatic forces and torques on non-spherical objects, detumble behavior is predicted and Lyapunov control theory and numerical simulations are used to demonstrate a stabilizing attitude control.

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the ISS requirements and initial design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to reduce risk -- given the determination and commitment to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS. While decades of work went into developing the ISS requirements, there are many things in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: (1) Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) (2) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Level 4 materials, emergency hardware and procedures) (3) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of nearly a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery.

  17. Impact gages for detecting meteoroid and other orbital debris impacts on space vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastandrea, J. R.; Scherb, M. V.

    1973-01-01

    Impacts on space vehicles have been simulated using the McDonnell Douglas Aerophysics Laboratory (MDAL) Light-Gas Guns to launch particles at hypervelocity speeds into scaled space structures. Using impact gages and a triangulation technique, these impacts have been detected and accurately located. This paper describes in detail the various types of impact gages (piezoelectric PZT-5A, quartz, electret, and off-the-shelf plastics) used. This description includes gage design and experimental results for gages installed on single-walled scaled payload carriers, multiple-walled satellites and space stations, and single-walled full-scale Delta tank structures. A brief description of the triangulation technique, the impact simulation, and the data acquisition system are also included.

  18. Space Station Freedom propulsion activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The technical highlights and accomplishments made at NASA LeRC in the development of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) propulsion system are discussed. The objectives are as follows: develop and characterize resistojet-thruster components and assemblies; develop and characterize hydrogen-oxygen thruster components; and conduct system trade studies. The research projects primarily characterize propulsion performance and life. Other tests include environmental impacts, such as exhaust gas profiles and electromagnetic interference. The technical activities that are highlighted are being conducted at LeRC within the Aerospace Technology and Space Station Freedom directorates. These activities include the following: derivation of design analysis models; trade studies of design options; propulsion system impact studies; and component testing for characterization and design verification.

  19. Implementation of the hazardous debris rule

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, J.E.

    1993-01-05

    Hazardous debris includes objects contaminated with hazardous waste. Examples of debris include tree stumps, timbers, boulders, tanks, piping, crushed drums, personal protective clothing, etc. Most of the hazardous debris encountered comes from Superfund sites and other facility remediation, although generators and treaters of hazardous waste also generate hazardous debris. Major problems associated with disposal of debris includes: Inappropriateness of many waste treatments to debris; Difficulties in obtaining representative samples; Costs associated with applying waste specific treatments to debris; Subtitle C landfill space was being used for many low hazard debris types. These factors brought about the need for debris treatment technologies and regulations that addressed these issues. The goal of such regulation was to provide treatment to destroy or remove the contamination if possible and, if this is achieved, to dispose of the cleaned debris as a nonhazardous waste. EPA has accomplished this goal through promulgation of the Hazardous Debris Rule, August 18, 1992.

  20. SPECS: Orbital debris removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The debris problem has reached a stage at which the risk to satellites and spacecraft has become substantial in low Earth orbit (LEO). This research discovered that small particles posed little threat to spacecraft because shielding can effectively prevent these particles from damaging the spacecraft. The research also showed that, even though collision with a large piece of debris could destroy the spacecraft, the large pieces of debris pose little danger because they can be tracked and the spacecraft can be maneuvered away from these pieces. Additionally, there are many current designs to capture and remove large debris particles from the space environment. From this analysis, it was decided to concentrate on the removal of medium-sized orbital debris, that is, those pieces ranging from 1 cm to 50 cm in size. The current design incorporates a transfer vehicle and a netting vehicle to capture the medium-sized debris. The system is based near an operational space station located at 28.5 deg inclination and 400 km altitude. The system uses ground-based tracking to determine the location of a satellite breakup or debris cloud. These data are uploaded to the transfer vehicle, which proceeds to rendezvous with the debris at a lower altitude parking orbit. Next, the netting vehicle is deployed, tracks the targeted debris, and captures it. After expending the available nets, the netting vehicle returns to the transfer vehicle for a new netting module and continues to capture more debris in the target area. Once all the netting modules are expended, the transfer vehicle returns to the space station's orbit where it is resupplied with new netting modules from a space shuttle load. The new modules are launched by the shuttle from the ground and the expended modules are taken back to Earth for removal of the captured debris, refueling, and repacking of the nets. Once the netting modules are refurbished, they are taken back into orbit for reuse. In a typical mission, the

  1. View of debris assembled at the Kennedy Space Center from STS 51-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Pieces of the external tank from the STS 51-L accident are assembled in a tent near the Logistics Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. Most of the pieces were recovered by the Coast Guard and Navy following the accident. The pieces were assembled so that the side which normally would face the Orbiter Challenger is in the center of the tent. The picture was taken from the right side of the rear of the tank facing toward the top.

  2. Meteoroids and space debris hypervelocity impact penetrations in LDEF map foils compared with hydrocode simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, W. G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Yano, H.; Fitzgerald, H. J.; Gardner, D. J.

    The continued analyses of penetrating impacts on MAP foils of Aluminium and Brass have produced data for several LDEF faces, i.e., Space, West, and East. These data have immediate bearing on the interpretation and design of devices to detect the penetration of a thin metallic film by a dust grain which have been tested both in the laboratory and in space. A crucial component of the analysis has been the theoretical calculation utilizing CTH, a Sandia National Laboratory Hydrodynamic computer code /1/ to assess the parameters of the hypervelocity penetration event. In particular theoretical hydrodynamic calculations have been conducted to simulate the hypervelocity impact event where various cosmic dust grain candidates, e.g., density = 0.998, 2.700, 7.870 (gm/cm^3), and velocities, i.e., 7 - 16 km/s, have been utilized to reproduce the events. Theoretical analyses of hypervelocity impact events will be reported which span an extensive matrix of values for velocity, density and size. Through a comparison between LDEF MAP foil measurements and CTH hydrocode calculations these analyses will provide an interpretation of the most critical parameters measured for space returned materials, i.e., for thin films, the diameter of the penetration hole, D_h, and for semi-infinite targets, the depth-to-diameter ratio of craters, D_c/T_c. An immediate consequence of a comparison of CTH calculations with space exposed materials will be an enhancement of the coherent model developed by UKC-USS researchers to describe penetration dynamics associated with LDEF MAP foils.

  3. Orbital Debris Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation outlne: (1) The NASA Orbital Debris (OD) Engineering Model -- A mathematical model capable of predicting OD impact risks for the ISS and other critical space assets (2) The NASA OD Evolutionary Model -- A physical model capable of predicting future debris environment based on user-specified scenarios (3) The NASA Standard Satellite Breakup Model -- A model describing the outcome of a satellite breakup (explosion or collision)

  4. Results of the Irkutsk Incoherent Scattering Radar for space debris studies in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Valentin; Kushnarev, Dmitriy; Nevidimov, Nikolay

    We present result of space object (SO) registration received on the Irkutsk Incoherent Scattering Radar (IISR) in June 2013 during regular ionospheric measurement. Diagnostic the of the radar for definition of the SO characteristics: range, beam velocity, azimuth angle, elevation, and signal amplitude were improved after the carried-out technological modernization and SO we have possibility of simultaneous measurement of parameters of parameters ionosphere and SO. Now the IISR new hardware-software complex allows to operate in a mode of ionospheric measurements up to 1000 SO flights per day, and to register objects of 10 cm in size at range of 800-900 km.

  5. A Summary of the NASA ISS Space Debris Collision Avoidance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Creating and implementing a process for the mitigation of the impact hazards due to cornets and asteroids will prove to be a complex and involved process. The closest similar program is the collision avoidance process currently used for protection of the International Space Station (ISS). This process, in operation for over three years, has many similarities to the NEG risk problem. By reviewing the ISS program, a broader perspective on the complications of and requirements for a NEO risk mitigation program might be obtained. Specifically, any lessons learned and continuing issues of concern might prove useful in the development of a NEO risk assessment and mitigation program.

  6. Change in snow avalanche and debris flow hazards in the region of Krasnaya Polyana as the result of anthropogenic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnyparkov, A. L.; Seliverstov, Y. G.; Sokratov, S. A.; Koltermann, K. P.

    2012-04-01

    The first evaluations of the snow avalanches and debris flow danger in the region of Krasnaya Polyana (Winter Olympic Games 2014 site) were made by the staff of LSADF in 1960s. In those times the danger was estimated as medium and low. Active development of the region started in 2000, when the ski (mountain climatic health) resort Alpika Service was constructed at the north slope of Aibga mountain range. Then the Alpine resorts Rosa Khutor and Gornaya Karusel [Mountain Carousel] were put into operation on the same slope. OAO Gazprom was also developing its own ski resort at the neighbouring Psekhako ridge. As the result of deforestation the quantity of small snow avalanches increased on the Aibga slopes. Skiers were caught several times by avalanches initiated by them in the reported avalanche events. The construction of ski runs, motorways, roads, as well as building of other related infrastructure has resulted in considerable change in relief. The sediment capping was dumped into stream canals, which resulted in the formation of debris flows, threatening the infrastructure of the ski resorts. The relief change related to the on going Olympic constructions is especially pronounced, when newly formed landfilling on some slopes becomes the material for landslides and debris flows and beds for avalanches. Thus, the degree of snow avalanche and debris flows danger increased considerably in the recent years, requiring originally unplanned mitigation measures.

  7. Crystallographic oxide phase identification of char deposits obtained from space shuttle Columbia window debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, J. D.; Wright, M. C.; Christoffersen, R.; Cone, D. M.; McDanels, S. J.

    2010-09-01

    Char deposits on recovered fragments of space shuttle Columbia windowpanes were analyzed to further understand the events that occurred during orbiter reentry and breakup. The TEM analysis demonstrated that oxides of aluminum and titanium mixed with silicon oxides to preserve a history of thermal conditions to which portions of the vehicle were exposed. The presence of Ti during the beginning of the deposition process, along with the thermodynamic phase precipitation upon cool down, indicated that temperatures well above the Ti melt point were experienced. The stratified observations implied that additional exothermic reactions, expectedly metal combustion of a Ti-6Al-4V structure, had to occur for oxide formation. Results are significant for aerospace vehicles, where thermal protection system (TPS) breaches could cause material originally designed for substructural applications to be in direct path with reentry plasma.

  8. Crystallographic Oxide Phase Identification of Char Deposits Obtained from Space Shuttle Columbia Window Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, J. D.; Wright, M. C.; Christoffersen, R.; Cone, D. M.; McDanels, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing the remains of Space Shuttle Columbia has proven technically beneficial years after the vehicle breakup. This investigation focused on charred deposits on fragments of Columbia overhead windowpanes. Results were unexpected relative to the engineering understanding of material performance in a reentry environment. The TEM analysis demonstrated that the oxides of aluminum and titanium mixed with silicon oxides to preserve a history of thermal conditions to which portions of the vehicle were exposed. The presence of Ti during the beginning of the deposition process, along with the thermodynamic phase precipitation upon cool down, indicate that temperatures well above the Ti melt point were experienced. The stratified observations implied that additional exothermic reaction, expectedly metal combustion of a Ti structure, had to be present for oxide formation. Results are significant for aerospace vehicles where thermal protection system (TPS) breaches cause substructures to be in direct path with the reentry plasma. 1

  9. Meteoroid/Debris Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides innovative, low-weight shielding solutions for spacecraft and the ballistic limit equations that define the shield's performance in the meteoroid/debris environment. Analyses and hypervelocity impact testing results are described that have been used in developing the shields and equations. Spacecraft shielding design and operational practices described in this report are used to provide effective spacecraft protection from meteoroid and debris impacts. Specific shield applications for the International Space Station (ISS), Space Shuttle Orbiter and the CONTOUR (Comet Nucleus Tour) space probe are provided. Whipple, Multi-Shock and Stuffed Whipple shield applications are described.

  10. Current activities and results of the Long Duration Exposure Facility Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 will bring to a close the initial investigative activities associated with the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF was a 14-faced spacecraft (i.e., 12-sided cylinder and two ends) which housed 54 different experimental packages in low-Earth orbit (LEO) from Apr. 1984 to Jan. 1990 (i.e., for approx. 5.75 years). Since LDEF's return, the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) has been examining various LDEF components in order to better understand and define the LEO particulate environment. Members of the M&D SIG at JSC in Houston, TX have been contributing to these studies by carefully examining and documenting all impact events found on LDEF's 6061-T6 aluminum Intercostals (i.e., one of the spacecraft's structural frame components). Unlike all other hardware on LDEF, the frame exposed significantly large surface areas of a single homogeneous material in all (i.e., 26) possible LDEF pointing directions. To date, 28 of the 68 Intercostals in the possession of the M&D SIG have been documented. This data, as well as similar information from various LDEF investigators, can be accessed through the M&D SIG Database which is maintained at JSC.

  11. Current activities and results of the Long Duration Exposure Facility Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Thomas H.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-03-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 will bring to a close the initial investigative activities associated with the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF was a 14-faced spacecraft (i.e., 12-sided cylinder and two ends) which housed 54 different experimental packages in low-Earth orbit (LEO) from Apr. 1984 to Jan. 1990 (i.e., for approx. 5.75 years). Since LDEF's return, the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) has been examining various LDEF components in order to better understand and define the LEO particulate environment. Members of the M&D SIG at JSC in Houston, TX have been contributing to these studies by carefully examining and documenting all impact events found on LDEF's 6061-T6 aluminum Intercostals (i.e., one of the spacecraft's structural frame components). Unlike all other hardware on LDEF, the frame exposed significantly large surface areas of a single homogeneous material in all (i.e., 26) possible LDEF pointing directions. To date, 28 of the 68 Intercostals in the possession of the M&D SIG have been documented. This data, as well as similar information from various LDEF investigators, can be accessed through the M&D SIG Database which is maintained at JSC.

  12. Simulations of SSLV Ascent and Debris Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart; Aftosmis, Michael; Murman, Scott; Chan, William; Gomez, Ray; Gomez, Ray; Vicker, Darby; Stuart, Phil

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulation of Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle (SSLV) ascent and debris transport analysis is shown. The topics include: 1) CFD simulations of the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle ascent; 2) Debris transport analysis; 3) Debris aerodynamic modeling; and 4) Other applications.

  13. Long-term evolution of space debris under the J_2 effect, the solar radiation pressure and the solar and lunar perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, Daniel; Petit, Alexis; Lemaître, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is the development of a model to propagate space debris in the geostationary ring considering the J_2 effect due to the Earth oblateness, the Sun and Moon perturbations, and the solar radiation pressure. We justify the importance of considering the J_2 effect when propagating space debris independently of the ratio A / m for short and long-term propagation. We study the role of the Sun and the Moon in the period and amplitude of the inclination for different values of A / m. Thanks to the Hamiltonian formulation of the problem and the use of Poincaré's variables it is possible to express the evolution of the space debris through a simplified dynamical system. We test and validate our obtained analytical solutions with the numerical ones, computed with a powerful integrator named NIMASTEP. We analyse the improvements obtained when we include the J_2 effect and the third body perturbations by a rigorous comparison with a previous model, which only considers the solar radiation pressure. Finally, we study the effect of the area-to-mass ratio on short and long-term propagation.

  14. Effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest of Brunei Darussalam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sohye; Kim, Seungjun; Roh, Yujin; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Davies, Stuart; Son, Yowhan

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests have been considered important ecosystems in terms of carbon cycle and climate change, because they sequester carbon more than any other terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, coarse woody debris is one of the main carbon storages, accounting for 10 ‑ 40% of the tropical forest carbon. Carbon in coarse woody debris is released by various activities of organisms, and particularly termite's feeding activities are known to be main process in tropical forests. Therefore, investigating the effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition is important to understanding carbon cycles of tropical forests. This study was conducted in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) of Brunei Darussalam, and three main MDF tree species (Dillenia beccariana, Macaranga bancana, and Elateriospermum tapos) were selected. Coarse woody debris samples of both 10 cm diameter and length were prepared, and half of samples were covered twice with nylon net (mesh size 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm) to prevent termite's approach. Three 2 m × 11 m permanent plots were installed in January, 2015 and eighteen samples per plot (3 species × 2 treatments × 3 repetitions) were placed at the soil surface. Weights of each sample were recorded at initial time, and weighed again in August, 2015. On average, uncovered and covered samples lost 18.9 % and 3.3 % of their initial weights, respectively. Weight loss percentage was highest in uncovered samples of M. bancana (23.9 %), and lowest in covered samples of E. tapos (7.8 %). Two-way ANOVA showed that tree species and termite exclusion treatment had statistically significant effects on coarse woody debris decomposition (P = 0.0001). The effect of species and termite exclusion treatment interaction was also statistically significant (P = 0.0001). The result reveals that termite activities promote the coarse woody debris decomposition and they influence differently along the wood species. However, many samples of D. beccariana

  15. Ground assisted rendezvous with geosynchronous satellites for the disposal of space debris by means of Earth-oriented tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobotov, Vladimir; Melamed, Nahum; Ailor, William H.; Campbell, W. Spencer

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that extended length Earth-oriented tethers in the geosynchronous (GEO) region can be used to re-orbit satellites to disposal orbits. One such approach involves the extension of a GEO based tether, collection of a debris object, and retraction of the tether, which transfers the retracted configuration to a higher energy orbit for debris disposal. The re-extension of the tether after debris disposal returns the configuration to the near-GEO altitude. The practical feasibility of such a system depends on the ability to collect GEO debris objects, attach them to a deployed tether system, and retract the tethers for transfer to the disposal orbits. This study addresses the collection and delivery of debris objects to the deployed tether system in GEO. The investigation considers the number, type and the characteristics of the debris objects as well as the collection tug that can be ground controlled to detect, rendezvous and dock with the debris objects for their delivery to the tethers system. A total of more than 400 objects are in drift orbits crossing all longitudes either below or above the geostationary radius. More than 130 objects are also known to librate around the stable points in GEO with periods of libration up to five or more years. A characterization of the position and velocity of the debris objects relative to the collection tug is investigated. Typical rendezvous performance requirements for uncooperative GEO satellites are examined, and the similarities with other approaches such as the ESA's CX-OLEV commercial mission proposal to extend the life of geostationary telecommunication satellites are noted.

  16. Laboratory simulation of the influence of space debris particles on structural and functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Lev; Samokhina, Maria S.; Bednyakov, Sergey A.; Zhilyakov, Lev A.; Ermolaev, Igor K.

    This paper presents results of laboratory experiments to study the impact of Al, Cr, Ti particles with diameter of 0.5-10 mum and speed of 0.1-10 km/s as well as steel balls (d = 0.5-1.0 mm; v = 0.05-4 km/s) on the samples of spacecraft materials (aluminum alloys, glass, silicon, polymer films). Metal microparticles were accelerated by electrostatic method with a Van de Graaff generator and a cascade generator. Charging of microparticles was performed by the contact method in a special injector. Steel balls were accelerated with a gas gun. The data on configurations of crates formed in ductile and fragile targets by the microparticle impact are presented. For metallized polymer films, peculiarities of films damage due to the combined impact of atomic oxygen and of hard microparticles, were studied. The results of laboratory experiments are compared with the data obtained in experiments on International Space Station. In experiments with metal balls, the relationship between a crater volume and a kinetic energy of an incident particle was thoroughly investigated. A nonmonotonic dependence of the specific energy per crater unit volume on the incident particle velocity in the range of 0.05-0.6 km/s was obtained. The observed behavior of this dependence in the specific energy range of 0.1-2.5 J/mm3 was explained by the distinction of physical processes happening in the collision zone at different velocities. With increasing the collision velocity, there occurred a gradual transition from the elastic interaction to the plastic deformation with partial melting of the target at the highest velocities.

  17. In vitro activation of human fibroblasts by retrieved titanium alloy wear debris.

    PubMed

    Manlapaz, M; Maloney, W J; Smith, R L

    1996-05-01

    concentrations, beginning at 12 hours. Levels of platelet-derived growth factor-AB and transforming growth factor-beta were not detectable in the controls or at any particle concentration tested. The results of this study showed that fibroblasts exposed to titanium alloy wear particles become activated and release proinflammatory mediators that influence bone metabolism. These data support the hypothesis that direct activation of fibroblasts by particulate wear may play a role in particle-mediated osteolysis. Fibroblast activation coupled with the biologic response of macrophages to wear debris in the loosening membrane may have a synergistic effect on pathologic bone resorption. PMID:8676260

  18. Best Mitigation Paths To Effectively Reduce Earth's Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegman, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some ways to reduce the problem posed by debris in orbit around the Earth. It reviews the orbital debris environment, the near-term needs to minimize the Kessler syndrome, also known as collisional cascading, a survey of active orbital debris mitigation strategies, the best paths to actively remove orbital debris, and technologies that are required for active debris mitigation.

  19. Space dust and debris; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission B (Meetings B2, B3, and B5) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Editor); Zarnecki, J. C. (Editor); Matson, D. L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on space dust and debris encompasses orbital debris, in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of space-dust particles, comparative studies of comets, asteroids, and dust, the protection and maneuvering of spacecraft in space-debris environments, and the out-of-elliptic distribution of interplanetary dust derived from near-earth flux. Specific issues addressed include asteroid taxonomy, the optical properties of dust from cometary and interplanetary grains, light scattering by rough surfaces on asteroidal/lunar regoliths, and the first results of particulate impacts and foil perforations on the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Also addressed are collision probability and spacecraft disposition in the geostationary orbit, a flash on the moon caused by orbital debris, the limits of population growth in low earth orbit due to collisional cascading, and the simulation of cosmic man-made dust effects on space-vehicle elements in rocket and laboratory experiments.

  20. Trends in space activities in 2014: The significance of the space activities of governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paikowsky, Deganit; Baram, Gil; Ben-Israel, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the principal events of 2014 in the field of space activities, and extrapolates from them the primary trends that can be identified in governmental space activities. In 2014, global space activities centered on two vectors. The first was geopolitical, and the second relates to the matrix between increasing commercial space activities and traditional governmental space activities. In light of these two vectors, the article outlines and analyzes trends of space exploration, human spaceflights, industry and technology, cooperation versus self-reliance, and space security and sustainability. It also reviews the space activities of the leading space-faring nations.

  1. Space-time organization of debris flows-triggering rainfall: effects on the identification of the rainfall threshold relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borga, Marco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios; Creutin, Jean Dominique; Marra, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Debris flow occurrence is generally forecasted by means of empirical rainfall depth-duration thresholds which are often derived based on rain gauge observations (Guzzetti et al., 2008). Rainfall sampling errors, related to the sparse nature of raingauge data, lead to underestimation of the intensity-duration thresholds (Nikolopoulos et al., 2014, Nikolopoulos et al., 2015). This underestimation may be large when debris flows are triggered by convective rainfall events, characterized by limited spatial extent, turning into less efficient forecasts of debris flow occurrence. This work investigates the spatial and temporal structure of rainfall patterns and its effects on the derived rainfall threshold relationships using high-resolution, carefully corrected radar data for 82 debris flows events occurred in the eastern Italian Alps. We analyze the spatial organization of rainfall depths relative to the rainfall occurred over the debris flows initiation point using the distance from it as the main coordinate observing that, on average, debris flows initiation points are characterized by a maximum in the rainfall depth field. We investigate the relationship between spatial organization and duration of rainfall pointing out that the rainfall underestimation is larger for the shorter durations and increases regularly as the distance between rainfall measurement location and debris flow initiation point increases. We introduce an analytical framework that explains how the combination of the mean rainfall depth spatial pattern and its relationship with rainfall duration causes the bias observed in the raingauge-based thresholds. The consistency of this analytical framework is proved by using a Monte Carlo sampling of radar rainfall fields. References Guzzetti, F., Peruccacci, S., Rossi, M., Stark, C.P., 2008. The rainfall intensity-duration control of shallow landslides and debris flows: an update. Landslides 5, 3-17, 10.1007/s10346-625 007-0112-1 Nikolopoulos, E.I., S

  2. Earth-like aqueous debris-flow activity on Mars at high orbital obliquity in the last million years.

    PubMed

    de Haas, T; Hauber, E; Conway, S J; van Steijn, H; Johnsson, A; Kleinhans, M G

    2015-01-01

    Liquid water is currently extremely rare on Mars, but was more abundant during periods of high obliquity in the last few millions of years. This is testified by the widespread occurrence of mid-latitude gullies: small catchment-fan systems. However, there are no direct estimates of the amount and frequency of liquid water generation during these periods. Here we determine debris-flow size, frequency and associated water volumes in Istok crater, and show that debris flows occurred at Earth-like frequencies during high-obliquity periods in the last million years on Mars. Results further imply that local accumulations of snow/ice within gullies were much more voluminous than currently predicted; melting must have yielded centimetres of liquid water in catchments; and recent aqueous activity in some mid-latitude craters was much more frequent than previously anticipated. PMID:26102485

  3. Earth-like aqueous debris-flow activity on Mars at high orbital obliquity in the last Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Hauber, Ernst; Conway, Susan; van Steijn, Henk; Johnsson, Andreas; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    Mars is currently very cold and dry and its thin atmosphere makes liquid water at its surface exceptionally rare. However, climatic conditions differed during periods of high orbital obliquity in the last few millions of years, and liquid water was probably more abundant, as testified by the widespread occurrence of mid-latitude gullies: small catchment-fan system (Fig. 1). There are no direct estimates of the amount and frequency of liquid water generation during these periods. We determined debris-flow size, frequency and associated water volumes in Istok crater, and show that debris flows occurred at Earth-like frequencies during high-obliquity periods in the last million years. This implies that (1) local accumulations of snow/ice within catchments were much more voluminous than generally predicted; (2) melting must have yielded centimeters of liquid water in catchments; and (3) recent aqueous activity in some mid-latitude craters was much more frequent than previously anticipated.

  4. Earth-like aqueous debris-flow activity on Mars at high orbital obliquity in the last million years

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, T.; Hauber, E.; Conway, S. J.; van Steijn, H.; Johnsson, A.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid water is currently extremely rare on Mars, but was more abundant during periods of high obliquity in the last few millions of years. This is testified by the widespread occurrence of mid-latitude gullies: small catchment-fan systems. However, there are no direct estimates of the amount and frequency of liquid water generation during these periods. Here we determine debris-flow size, frequency and associated water volumes in Istok crater, and show that debris flows occurred at Earth-like frequencies during high-obliquity periods in the last million years on Mars. Results further imply that local accumulations of snow/ice within gullies were much more voluminous than currently predicted; melting must have yielded centimetres of liquid water in catchments; and recent aqueous activity in some mid-latitude craters was much more frequent than previously anticipated. PMID:26102485

  5. Standardization by ISO to Ensure the Sustainability of Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, A.; Lazare, B.; Oltrogge, D.; Stokes, H.

    2013-08-01

    The ISO / Technical Committee 20 / Sub-committee 14 develops debris-related standards and technical reports to mitigate debris and help ensure mission and space sustainability. While UN Guidelines and the IADC Guidelines encourage national governments and agencies to promote debris mitigation design and operation, the ISO standards will help the global space industry promote and sustain its space-related business. In this paper the scope and status of each ISO standard is discussed within an overall framework. A comparison with international guidelines is also provided to demonstrate the level of consistency. Finally, as a case study, the ISO standards are applied to a CubeSat mission, thus demonstrating their usability on a relatively recent and popular class of satellite.

  6. Debris Disks in Aggregate: Using Hubble Space Telescope Coronagraphic Imagery to Understand the Scattered-Light Disk Detection Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of coronagraphic imaging of debris disk candidate stars, only 16 have been imaged in scattered light. Since imaged disks provide our best insight into processes which sculpt disks, and can provide signposts of the presence of giant planets at distances which would elude radial velocity and transit surveys, we need to understand under what conditions we detect the disks in scattered light, how these disks differ from the majority of debris disks, and how to increase the yield of disks which are imaged with 0.1" angular resolution. In this talk, I will review what we have learned from a shallow HSTINICMOS NIR survey of debris disks, and present first results from our on-going HST /STIS optical imaging of bright scattered-light disks.

  7. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement #NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, know as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  8. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  9. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David; Marshall, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  10. Debris Removal: An Opportunity for Cooperative Research?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    Space debris mitigation practices will be insufficient to prevent the continued growth of the Earth satellite population. Removal of orbital debris can improve the reliability of present and future space systems. The challenges of developing an effective, affordable debris removal capability are considerable. The time is right for a new look at space remediation concepts. In concert with or following the current IAA study An international approach to the remediation of the near-Earth space environment will likely be required.

  11. Near Term Effects from Satellite Break-Ups on Manned Space Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theall, J. R.; Matney, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1961, almost 160 satellite break-ups have occurred on-orbit, and have been the major contributor to the growth of the orbital debris population. When a satellite breaks up, the debris exists in a relatively concentrated form, orbiting in a loose cloud with the parent body until orbital perturbations disperse the cloud into the average background. Manned space activities, which usually take place in low Earth orbit at altitudes less than 500 km, have been continuous for the past I I years while Mir was inhabited and promise to be again continuous when the International Space Station becomes permanently manned. This paper surveys historical breakups over the last I I years to determine the number that affect altitudes lower than 500 km. Selected breakup are analyzed using NASA's Satellite Breakup Risk Assessment Model (SBRAM) to determine the specific short term risk from those breakups to manned missions.

  12. Orbital Debris Research in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Gene

    2009-01-01

    The presentation includes information about growth of the satellite population, the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, tracking and catalog maintenance, Haystack and HAX radar observation, Goldstone radar, the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST), spacecraft surface examinations and sample of space shuttle impacts. GEO/LEO observations from Kwajalein Atoll, NASA s Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2008), a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris Model (LEGEND), Debris Assessment Software (DAS) 2.0, the NASA/JSC BUMPER-II meteoroid/debris threat assessment code, satellite reentry risk assessment, optical size and shape determination, work on more complicated fragments, and spectral studies.

  13. Space activities and global popular music culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  14. History and Evolution of Active Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines active learning spaces as they have developed over the years. Consistently well-designed classrooms can facilitate active learning even though the details of implementing pedagogies may differ.

  15. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    PubMed

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls. PMID:25285423

  16. The Technology of Modeling Debris Cloud Produced by Hypervelocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhaoxia; Huang, Jie; Liang, Shichang; Zhou, Zhixuan; Ren, Leisheng; Liu, Sen

    2013-08-01

    Because of the large amount of debris in a debris cloud, it is hard to achieve a complete description of all the debris by a simple function. One workable approach is to use a group of complete distribution functions and MonteCarlo method to simplify the debris cloud simulation. Enough debris samples are produced by SPH simulation and debris identification program firstly. According to the distribution functions of debris mass, velocity and space angles determined by statistical analysis, the engineering model of debris cloud is set up. Combining the engineering model and MonteCarlo method, the fast simulation of debris cloud produced by an aluminum projectile impacting an aluminum plate is realized. An application example of the debris cloud engineering model to predict satellite damage caused by space debris impact is given at the end.

  17. 14 CFR 417.211 - Debris analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Debris analysis. 417.211 Section 417.211 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.211 Debris analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a...

  18. Shields for Enhanced Protection Against High-Speed Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Kerr, Justin H.

    2003-01-01

    A report describes improvements over the conventional Whipple shield (two thin, spaced aluminum walls) for protecting spacecraft against high-speed impacts of orbiting debris. The debris in question arises mainly from breakup of older spacecraft. The improved shields include exterior "bumper" layers composed of hybrid fabrics woven from combinations of ceramic fibers and high-density metallic wires or, alternatively, completely metallic outer layers composed of high-strength steel or copper wires. These shields are designed to be light in weight, yet capable of protecting against orbital debris with mass densities up to about 9 g/cubic cm, without generating damaging secondary debris particles. As yet another design option, improved shields can include sparsely distributed wires made of shape memory metals that can be thermally activated from compact storage containers to form shields of predetermined shape upon arrival in orbit. The improved shields could also be used to augment shields installed previously.

  19. Shields for Enhanced Protection Against High-Speed Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Kerr, Justin H.

    2003-01-01

    A report describes improvements over the conventional Whipple shield (two thin, spaced aluminum walls) for protecting spacecraft against high-speed impacts of orbiting debris. The debris in question arise mainly from breakup of older spacecraft. The improved shields include exterior bumper layers composed of hybrid fabrics woven from combinations of ceramic fibers and high-density metallic wires or, alternatively, completely metallic outer layers composed of high-strength steel or copper wires. These shields are designed to be light in weight, yet capable of protecting against orbital debris with mass densities up to about 9 g/cm3, without generating damaging secondary debris particles. As yet another design option, improved shields can include sparsely distributed wires made of shape-memory metals that can be thermally activated from compact storage containers to form shields of predetermined shape upon arrival in orbit. The improved shields could also be used to augment shields installed previously.

  20. 14 CFR 417.211 - Debris analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... activation; (2) Launch vehicle explosion; (3) Aerodynamic loads; (4) Inertial loads; (5) Atmospheric reentry heating; and (6) Impact of intact vehicle. (c) Debris fragment lists. A debris analysis must produce...

  1. 14 CFR 417.211 - Debris analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... activation; (2) Launch vehicle explosion; (3) Aerodynamic loads; (4) Inertial loads; (5) Atmospheric reentry heating; and (6) Impact of intact vehicle. (c) Debris fragment lists. A debris analysis must produce...

  2. Micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact inspection of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 radiator and the implications for the near-Earth small particle environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Anz-Meador, P.; Opiela, J.; Christiansen, E.; Cowardin, H.; Davidson, W.; Ed-Wards, D.; Hedman, T.; Herrin, J.; Hyde, J.; Juarez, Q.; Lear, D.; McNamara, K.; Moser, D.; Ross, D.; Stansbery, E.

    The STS-125 Atlantis astronauts retrieved the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) during a very successful servicing mission to the HST in May 2009. The radiator attached to WFPC2 has dimensions of 2.2 m by 0.8 m. Its outermost layer is a 4-mm thick aluminum plate covered with a white thermal control coating. This radiator had been exposed to space since the deployment of WFPC2 in 1993. Due to its large surface area and long exposure time, the radiator serves as a unique witness plate for the micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment between 560 and 620 km altitude. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office is leading an effort, with full support from the HST Program at GSFC, NASA Curation Office at JSC, NASA Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility at JSC, and NASA Meteoroid Environment Office at MSFC, to inspect the exposed radiator surface. The objective is to measure and analyze the MMOD impact damage on the radiator, and then apply the data to validate or improve the near-Earth MMOD environment definition. The initial inspection was completed in September 2009. A total of 685 MMOD impact features (larger than about 0.3 mm) were identified and documented. This paper will provide an overview of the inspection, the analysis of the data, and the initial effort to use the data to model the MMOD environment.

  3. Stennis hosts Space Day activities at USM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Fallon Nettles (left), an Astro Camp counselor at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, assists a young fan attending the University of Southern Mississippi football game in Hattiesburg, Miss., on Oct. 17 in launching a balloon 'rocket.' Prior to the game, Stennis Space Center hosted hands-on activities and exhibits for families as part of its first-ever Space Day at USM. The activities were versions of those featured in the daylong and weeklong Astro Camp sessions sponsored by Stennis throughout each year. Stennis Space Center is located in nearby Hancock County and is the nation's premier rocket engine testing facility. The USM activities were part of Stennis' ongoing effort to educate people about the NASA mission and to introduce children and young people to space and space exploration.

  4. Space activities in 2009/2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagkratis, Spyros

    2011-09-01

    The global financial crisis of 2008 has created an economic environment unfavourable to public and corporate economic activity alike, which could not have left space activities unaffected. However, the effects of the crisis upon the space sector have been so far less damaging than anticipated. The following paper presents recent developments in the field of space policies, institutional budgets and commercial activity worldwide, in an effort to improve the understanding of the new trends in commercial and public space activities. It particularly explores the strategies followed by space stakeholders in different countries and regions in order to pursue their planned space programmes in view of difficult financial conditions. Finally, it highlights the differences in the outlook of space activities between established and emerging space-faring nations and attempts to explore their medium-term consequences on an international level. For this purpose, it was based on research conducted in the framework of a recent ESPI report on "Space Policies, Issues and trends in 2009/2010".

  5. Aeronautics and space report of the President: 1981 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Achievements in the aeronautics and space program by function are summarized. Activities in communications, Earth's resources and environment, space science, space transportation, international activities, and aeronautics are included.

  6. BALLIST: A computer program to empirically predict the bumper thickness required to prevent perforation of the Space Station by orbital debris