Science.gov

Sample records for active stream channel

  1. Stream Channel Stability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    geometry of the stilling basin and appurtenances for optimum energy dissipation. The hydraulic design, based on a 100-year return period design storm...cases the only viable alternative based on present technology is to let the channel seek its oa equilibrium, but attempt to minimize total losses by...are degrading, resulting in bank caving, land loss , and damage to highway bridges. Many streams have enlarged to the extent that 50 to 100-year runoff

  2. Active subglacial lakes and channelized water flow beneath the Kamb Ice Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeong-Hoon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Seo, Ki-Weon; Lee, Won Sang; Scambos, Ted

    2016-12-01

    We identify two previously unknown subglacial lakes beneath the stagnated trunk of the Kamb Ice Stream (KIS). Rapid fill-drain hydrologic events over several months are inferred from surface height changes measured by CryoSat-2 altimetry and indicate that the lakes are probably connected by a subglacial drainage network, whose structure is inferred from the regional hydraulic potential and probably links the lakes. The sequential fill-drain behavior of the subglacial lakes and concurrent rapid thinning in a channel-like topographic feature near the grounding line implies that the subglacial water repeatedly flows from the region above the trunk to the KIS grounding line and out beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. Ice shelf elevation near the hypothesized outlet is observed to decrease slowly during the study period. Our finding supports a previously published conceptual model of the KIS shutdown stemming from a transition from distributed flow to well-drained channelized flow of subglacial water. However, a water-piracy hypothesis in which the KIS subglacial water system is being starved by drainage in adjacent ice streams is also supported by the fact that the degree of KIS trunk subglacial lake activity is relatively weaker than those of the upstream lakes.

  3. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

           n in which V = mean cross-sectional velocity of flow, in feet per second; R = hydraulic radius at a cross section, which is the cross-sectional area divided by the wetter perimeter, in feet; Se = energy slope; and n = coefficient of roughness. Many research studies have been made to determine "n" values for open-channel flow (Carter and others, 1963). Guidelines for selecting coefficient of roughness for stream channels are given in most of the literature of stream-channel hydraulics, but few of the data relate directly to streams of Arizona, The U.S> Geological Survey, at the request of the Arizona Highway Department, assembled the color photographs and tables of the Manning "n" values in this report to aid highway engineers in the selection of roughness coefficients for Arizona streams. Most of the photographs show channel reaches for which values of "n" have been assigned by experienced Survey personnel; a few photographs are included for reaches where "n" values have been verified. Verified "n" values are computed from a known discharge and measured channel geometry. Selected photographs of stream channels for which "n" values have been verified are included in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1849 (Barnes, 1967); stereoscopic slides of Barnes' (1967) photographs and additional photographs can be inspected at U.S> Geological Survey offices in: 2555 E. First Street, Tucson; and 5017 Federal Building, 230 N. First Avenue, Phoenix.

  4. Stream Succession: Channel Changes After Wildfire Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, N. E.; Luce, C. H.; Buffington, J. M.; Rieman, B.; Black, T.

    2004-12-01

    One paradigm in geomorphology is that vegetation is a fundamental control on sediment and water supplies to streams, and therefore on downstream geomorphology. Within this paradigm, wildfire has been implicated as a major driving force behind landscape erosion and changes to stream channels, periodically yielding pulses of sediment from upland basins, which, in turn, hypothetically, drive cyclical changes to stream channels. Within the context of management for ecologically valuable aquatic species across a landscape, biologists have envisioned available stream habitats cycling on long time scales, with some habitats increasing or decreasing in productivity, while others are temporarily taken out of production by severe disturbances related to fire. Some hypothesize that stream habitats may benefit from disturbance after the initial reorganization, increasing in quality over time, until the disturbance-supplied materials, gravel and wood, eventually become scarce, reducing habitat quality until the next disturbance. Systematic observations of actual channel "succession", however, are rare. We examined the long-term effects of wildfire disturbance on channel characteristics in moderate-gradient (2.3-3.9%), unconfined, mountain streams. Selection of this stream type excludes direct impacts from post-fire debris flows and allows us to focus on post-fire changes in basin hydrology, sediment supply and proximal riparian characteristics (supply of wood debris, bank strength from roots, etc.). The study was designed using a space-for-time substitution within the Idaho batholith. We considered three different forest age classes, corresponding with three different times since fire: recent (15-20 yrs), mid (90-130 yrs), and old (>150 yrs). Variables independent of fire and with potentially confounding effects (elevation, drainage area, land use, lithology, valley slope) were controlled to isolate the effect of fire on channel characteristics. Characteristics of interest

  5. THERMAL HETEROGENEITY, STREAM CHANNEL MORPHOLOGY, AND SALMONID ABUNDANCE IN NORTHEASTERN OREGON STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heterogeneity in stream water temperatures created by local influx of cooler subsurface waters into geomorphically complex stream channels was associated with increased abundance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in northeastern Oregon. Th...

  6. Measurement of stream channel habitat using sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flug, M.; Seitz, H.; Scott, J.

    1998-01-01

    An efficient and low cost technique using a sonar system was evaluated for describing channel geometry and quantifying inundated area in a large river. The boat-mounted portable sonar equipment was used to record water depths and river width measurements for direct storage on a laptop computer. The field data collected from repeated traverses at a cross-section were evaluated to determine the precision of the system and field technique. Results from validation at two different sites showed average sample standard deviations (S.D.s) of 0.12 m for these complete cross-sections, with coefficient of variations of 10%. Validation using only the mid-channel river cross-section data yields an average sample S.D. of 0.05 m, with a coefficient of variation below 5%, at a stable and gauged river site using only measurements of water depths greater than 0.6 m. Accuracy of the sonar system was evaluated by comparison to traditionally surveyed transect data from a regularly gauged site. We observed an average mean squared deviation of 46.0 cm2, considering only that portion of the cross-section inundated by more than 0.6 m of water. Our procedure proved to be a reliable, accurate, safe, quick, and economic method to record river depths, discharges, bed conditions, and substratum composition necessary for stream habitat studies. ?? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  8. Effects of Stream Channel Characteristics on Nitrate Delivery to Streams and In-Stream Denitrification Rates, Raccoon River, Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; O'Connell, M.

    2004-05-01

    Streams in agricultural areas often exhibit significant channel and sediment modifications; they are often incised and transport more fine sediment than non-agricultural streams. These channel characteristics can influence stream water quality by modifying surface-groundwater interactions. In the Raccoon River basin, channel incision increases the delivery of nitrate from the groundwater to the streams. The sandy in-stream sediments, however, serve as very effective sites for in-stream denitrification. Nitrate delivery and in-stream denitrification was examined in 3 subwatersheds of the Raccoon River. Stream morphology, water quality, and sediment characteristics were measured at 35 sites with varying land uses. Headwater stream nitrate concentration increased with percent row crops and the amount of channel incision. Downstream sites showed a wide variation in nitrate concentration with land use. Stream nitrate concentrations were measured at 6 sites in each of 3 streams with high percentages of row crop land uses during high summer baseflow following the 1993 floods and during average summer baseflow in 1995. Nitrate concentrations were systematically higher for the high baseflow conditions of 1993 than the average year (1995). This change in nitrate concentration is interpreted as the increased effectiveness of nitrate delivery to the stream during periods of high water tables. The effect was most pronounced in incised reaches. All 3 streams show downstream decreases in nitrate concentration. Water samples for all the sites in the watersheds were analyzed for nitrogen isotopic composition. The nitrogen isotopic composition shifts with towards higher d 15N values with decreasing nitrate concentration. This is consistent with denitrification reactions that selectively remove the 14N leaving a higher proportion of 15N in the nitrate. This suggests that most of the downstream decrease in nitrate concentrations is a result of in-stream denitrification. The high rates

  9. Natural Stream Channel Design Techniques and Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Need for a Review Checklist: Stream restoration problems include; design complexity, many different design methodologies, inconsistency in design deliverables, communication difficulties, many failed projects

  10. CHANNEL EVOLUTION IN MODIFIED ALLUVIAL STREAMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, Andrew; Hupp, Cliff R.

    1987-01-01

    This study (a) assesses the channel changes and network trends of bed level response after modifications between 1959 and 1972 of alluvial channels in western Tennessee and (b) develops a conceptual model of bank slope development to qualitatively assess bank stability and potential channel widening. A six-step, semiquantitative model of channel evolution in disturbed channels was developed by quantifying bed level trends and recognizing qualitative stages of bank slope development. Development of the bank profile is defined in terms of three dynamic and observable surfaces: (a) vertical face (70 to 90 degrees), (b) upper bank (25 to 50 degrees), and (c) slough line (20 to 25 degrees).

  11. Optimized transmission of JPEG2000 streams over wireless channels.

    PubMed

    Thomos, Nikolaos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V; Strintzis, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    The transmission of JPEG2000 images over wireless channels is examined using reorganization of the compressed images into error-resilient, product-coded streams. The product-code consists of Turbo-codes and Reed-Solomon codes which are optimized using an iterative process. The generation of the stream to be transmitted is performed directly using compressed JPEG2000 streams. The resulting scheme is tested for the transmission of compressed JPEG2000 images over wireless channels and is shown to outperform other algorithms which were recently proposed for the wireless transmission of images.

  12. Channel Forming Discharges and Scaling Relationships in Small Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brayshaw, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    One of the major challenges in predicting or mitigating the impacts of disturbance on hydrologic systems is to link changes in hydrology to changes in sediment delivery and transport. Because of the complexity of modelling, usually only one system is considered in isolation, with any potential changes in the corresponding system inferred. For instance, a study of a small watershed might consider changes to peak flows or to sediment delivery to the channel, but not alteration in channel pattern caused by those changes. Linking our understanding of expected changes in hydrology and sediment transport is therefore important for improving land use management. In order to improve this understanding, the development of models and concepts linking hydrologic change to geomorphic change, and vice versa, is necessary. Channel and reach parameters (such as width, depth, slope, and channel pattern) reflect the adjustment of the stream channel to inputs of water, wood and sediment from upstream and upslope. Therefore, channel parameters can be used as indicators which synthesize the hydrologic and geomorphic processes occurring in a watershed (Goodwin et al, 1998). Two parameters which are particularly relevant are the bankfull discharge and the effective discharge. Bankfull discharge (Wolman and Leopold, 1957) is defined as the discharge at which the stream channel is full to the top of its banks, but not flooding over the bank. Effective discharge (Wolman and Miller, 1960) is defined as the discharge that, averaged over time, transports the most sediment. Estimating the frequency, magnitude, and duration of bankfull and effective discharge in a single stream reach provides an indication of the stream channel's stability and the frequency with which geomorphically effective events occur in the watershed upstream. Determining the bankfull and effective discharge for multiple streams across a region enables regionalization, consideration of scaling relationships, and evaluation

  13. Groundwater Discharge along a Channelized Coastal Plain Stream

    SciTech Connect

    LaSage, Danita M; Sexton, Joshua L; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E; Greb, Stephen F

    2015-10-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  14. Groundwater discharge along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaSage, D.M.; Sexton, J.L.; Mukherjee, A.; Fryar, A.E.; Greb, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Riparian vegetation recovery patterns following stream channelization: a geomorphic perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Hundreds of kilometres of West Tennessee streams have been channelized since the turn of the century. After a stream is straightened, dredged, or cleared, basin-wide ecologic, hydrologic, and geomorphic processes bring about an integrated, characteristic recovery sequence. The rapid pace of channel responses to channelization provides an opportunity to document and interpret vegetation recovery patterns relative to otherwise long-term, concomitant evolution of river geomorphology. The linkage of channel bed aggradation, woody vegetation establishment, and bank accretion all lead to recovery of the channel. Pioneer species are hardy and fast growing, and can tolerate moderate amounts of slope instability and sediment deposition; these species include river birch (Betula nigra), black willow (Salix nigra), boxelder (Acer negundo), and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). High stem densities and root-mass development appear to enhance bank stability. Tree-ring analyses suggest that on average 65 yr may be required for recovery after channelization. -from Author

  16. Public Health Perspectives of Channelized and Unchannelized Headwater Streams in Central Ohio: A Case Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Headwater streams constitute the majority of watersheds in the United States and many headwater streams in the midwest have been channelized for agricultural drainage. Public health implications of water chemistry and aquatic macroinvertebrates within channelized and unchannelized headwater streams ...

  17. Influence of Beaver Dams on Channel Complexity, Hydrology, and Temperature Regime in a Mountainous Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majerova, M.; Neilson, B. T.; Schmadel, N. M.; Wheaton, J. M.; Snow, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Beaver dams and beaver activity affect hydrologic processes, sediment transport, channel complexity and water quality of streams. Beaver ponds, which form behind beaver dams, increase in-channel water storage affecting the timing and volume of flow and resulting in the attenuation and flattening of the hydrograph. Channel complexity also increases the potential for transient storage (both surface and subsurface) and influences stream temperature. Impacts of beaver dams and beaver activity on stream responses are difficult to quantify because responses are dynamic and spatially variable. Few studies have focused on the reach scale temporal influences on stream responses and further research is needed particularly in quantifying the influence of beaver dams and their role in shaping the stream habitat. This study explores the changing hydrology and temperature regime of Curtis Creek, a mountainous stream located in Northern Utah, in a 560 m long reach where groundwater exchanges and temperature differences were observed over a three-year period. We have collected continuous stream discharge, stream temperature data and performed tracer experiments. During the first year, we were able to capture the pre-beaver activity. In the second year, we captured the impacts of some beaver activity with only a few dams built in the reach, while the third year included the effects of an entire active beaver colony. By the end of the study period, a single thread channel had been transformed into a channel with side channels and backwaters at multiple locations therefore increasing channel complexity. The cumulative influence of beaver dams on reach scale discharge resulted in a slightly losing reach that developed into a gaining reach. At the smaller sub-reach scale, both losing to gaining and gaining to losing transformations were observed. Temperature differences showed a warming effect of beaver dams at the reach scale. The reach stream temperature difference increased on

  18. Stream Channel Stability. Appendix E. Geomorphic Controls of Channel Stability,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Erosion and Channels Research Unit, USDA Sedimentation Laboratory, Oxford, MS. 1,"<Xi i .. i,,< .;,i,<..7 PREFACE This process -oriented study was...organized to investigate three complementary aspects of channel stability including (a) the nature of channel failure processes ; (b) the influences of...valley-fill depositional units on these processes and (c) the properties and distributions of the valley-fill units. The study was process oriented to

  19. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  20. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sanjeev S; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-09-23

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is essential for various physiological processes such as the conscious sensations of touch and hearing, and the unconscious sensation of blood flow. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels.

  1. Influence of instream habitat and water chemistry on amphibians within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for draining agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States, Canada, and Europe. Channelized agricultural he...

  2. Conservation implications of amphibian habitat relationships within channelized agricultural headwater streams in the midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for removing water from agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States. Channelized agricultural headwater s...

  3. Discharge of sediment in channelized alluvial streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 400 million cubic feet of channel sediments have been delivered to the Mississippi River from the Obion-Forked Deer River system in the last 20 years. The discharge of sediment from these channelized networks in West Tennessee varies systematically with the stage of channel evolution. Maximum bed-material discharges occur during the initial phases of degradation (Stage III). In contrast, yields of suspended-sediment peak during the threshold stage (Stage IV: large-scale mass wasting) as sediments are delivered from main-channel banks and tributary beds. Suspended-sediment yields then decrease as aggradation (Stage V) becomes the dominant trend in the main channels, but remains relatively high through restabilization (Stage VI) because of continued degradation and widening in the tributaries. Bed-material discharges decrease from the degradation stage (III) to Stage V, and increase again during restabilization (Stage VI) because secondary aggradation increases gradients and incipient meandering serves to rework bed sediments. Additional aspects of the subject are discussed.

  4. Antarctic ice streams and outflow channels on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, B.K.

    2001-01-01

    New sonar images of the Antarctic sea floor reveal mega-scale glacial lineations that are strikingly similar to longitudinal flutes in martian outflow channels. The analogs suggest that ice moved through the martian channels in places and carved the flutes. The ice in martian channels may have moved like Antarctic ice streams on deformable debris saturated with water under high pore pressure. On Mars, water at the base of ice-filled channels may have come from residual water or melt water liberated during past warmer climates or higher heat flows.

  5. Multiple-channel Streaming Delivery for Omnidirectional Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Yoshio; Nagahara, Hajime; Yachida, Masahiko

    An omnidirectional vision is an imaging system that can capture a surrounding image in whole direction by using a hyperbolic mirror and a conventional CCD camera. This paper proposes a streaming server that can efficiently transfer movies captured by an omnidirectional vision system through the Internet. The proposed system uses multiple channels to deliver multiple movies synchronously. Through this method, the system enables clients to view the different direction of omnidirectional movies and also support the function to change the view are during playback period. Our evaluation experiments show that our proposed streaming server can effectively deliver multiple movies via multiple channels.

  6. Channel movement of meandering Indiana streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, James F.

    1971-01-01

    Because of the consistency of yearly above-average discharge volumes, it was possible to develop a general relation between path-length increase per thousand cubic-feet-per-second-days per square mile of drainage area above average discharge and the width-depth ratio of the channel. Little progress was made toward defining relationships for rotation and translation.

  7. A standardized sampling protocol for channel catfish in prairie streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vokoun, Jason C.; Rabeni, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Three alternative gears—an AC electrofishing raft, bankpoles, and a 15-hoop-net set—were used in a standardized manner to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in three prairie streams of varying size in three seasons. We compared these gears as to time required per sample, size selectivity, mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) among months, mean CPUE within months, effect of fluctuating stream stage, and sensitivity to population size. According to these comparisons, the 15-hoop-net set used during stable water levels in October had the most desirable characteristics. Using our catch data, we estimated the precision of CPUE and size structure by varying sample sizes for the 15-hoop-net set. We recommend that 11–15 repetitions of the 15-hoop-net set be used for most management activities. This standardized basic unit of effort will increase the precision of estimates and allow better comparisons among samples as well as increased confidence in management decisions.

  8. Restoring the sinuosity of artificially straightened stream channels

    SciTech Connect

    Brookes, A. )

    1987-01-01

    Restoration of Danish stream channels is encouraged by the Watercourse Act of 1982 and has been undertaken partly because of the adverse physical and biological effects caused by artificial straightening. A new technique for restoring morphologic and hydrologic diversity to stream channels has been developed, exemplifying the concept of working with nature rather than against it. This relies on re-creating the former sinuosity, cross-sectional dimensions, slope and substrate of a stream channel. Natural fluvial features are restored to a channel, and because slope is decreased stability is probable. In turn, this could be beneficial to the flora and fauna of a watercourse and to aesthetic qualities. The technique was applied successfully to a small stream in southern Jutland, Denmark, in 1984/5. Additional methods of bank and bed protection were required to limit subsequent minor adjustments along the new course. Further applications of the technique need to be treated individually because of varying local hydrologic and sedimentologic conditions. On-site supervision during construction and planned maintenance are vital components of restoration.

  9. Man-induced channel adjustment in Tennessee streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.H.; Simon, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    Channel modifications in Tennessee, particularly in the western part, have led to large-scale instabilities in the channelized rivers and may have contributed to several bridge failures. These modifications, together with land-use practices, led to downcutting, headward erosion, downstream aggradation, accelerated scour, and bank instabilities. Changes in gradient by channel straightening caused more severe channel response than did dredging or clearing. Large-scale changes continue to occur in all the channelized rivers: the Obion River, its forks, and the South Fork Forked Deer River. However, the non-channelized Hatchie River in west Tennessee not only withstood the natural stresses imposed by the wet years of 1973 to 1975 but continues to exhibit characteristics of stability. Water-surface slope, the primary dependent variable, proved to be a sensitive and descriptive parameter useful in determining channel adjustment. Adjustments to man-induced increases in channel-slope are described by inverse exponential functions of the basic form S=ae(-b(t)); where ' S ' is some function describing channel-slope, ' t ' is the number of years since completion of channel work, and ' a ' and ' b ' are coefficients. Response times for the attainment of ' equilibrium ' channel slopes are a function of the magnitude and extent of the imposed modifications. The adjusted profile gradients attained by the streams following channelization are similar to the predisturbed profile gradients, where no alteration to channel length was made. Where the channels were straightened by constructing cut-offs, thus shortening channel length, then slope adjustments (reduction) proceed past the predisturbed profile gradients, to new profiles with lower gradients. (USGS)

  10. Guidelines for Surveying Bankfull Channel Geometry and Developing Regional Hydraulic-Geometry Relations for Streams of New York State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Rocky O.; Miller, Sarah J.; Westergard, Britt E.; Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Gallagher, Anne S.; Starr, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    Many disturbed streams within New York State are being restored in an effort to provide bank and bed stability and thereby decrease sedimentation and erosion. Efforts to identify and provide accurate indicators for stable-channel characteristics for ungaged streams have been hampered by the lack of regional equations or relations that relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and to channel depth, width, and cross-sectional area (bankfull hydraulic-geometry relations). Regional equations are needed to confirm bankfull hydraulic-geometry, assess stream stability, evaluate restoration needs, and verify restoration design for ungaged streams that lack stage-to-discharge ratings or historic peak-flow records. This report presents guidelines for surveying bankfull channel geometry at USGS stream gages and developing regional hydraulic-geometry relations (equations) for wadeable streams in New York. It summarizes methods to (1) compile and assess existing hydrologic, geometric, photographic, and topographic data, (2) conduct stream-reconnaissance inspections, (3) identify channel-bankfull characteristics, (4) conduct longitudinal and cross-section surveys, (5) measure stream discharge, (6) develop and refine bankfull hydraulic-geometry equations, and (7) analyze and assure data completeness and quality. The techniques primarily address wadeable streams with either active or discontinued surface-water and crest-stage gages. The relations can be applied to ungaged or actively gaged streams that are wadeable, and may be extended to non-wadeable streams (with some limitations) if they have drainage areas comparable to those used to develop the relations.

  11. Recent (circa 1998 to 2011) channel-migration rates of selected streams in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was completed to document recent (circa 1998 to 2011) channel-migration rates at 970 meander bends along 38 of the largest streams in Indiana. Data collection was completed by using the Google Earth™ platform and, for each selected site, identifying two images with capture dates separated by multiple years. Within each image, the position of the meander-bend cutbank was measured relative to a fixed local landscape feature visible in both images, and an average channel-migration rate was calculated at the point of maximum cutbank displacement. From these data it was determined that 65 percent of the measured sites have recently been migrating at a rate less than 1 ft/yr, 75 percent of the sites have been migrating at a rate less than 10 ft/yr, and while some sites are migrating in excess of 20 ft/yr, these occurrences are rare. In addition, it is shown that recent channel-migration activity is not evenly distributed across Indiana. For the stream reaches studied, far northern and much of far southern Indiana are drained by streams that recently have been relatively stationary. At the same time, this study shows that most of the largest streams in west-central Indiana and many of the largest streams in east-central Indiana have shown significant channel-migration activity during the recent past. It is anticipated that these results will support several fluvial-erosion-hazard mitigation activities currently being undertaken in Indiana.

  12. Nutrient processes at the stream-lake interface for a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niswonger, Richard; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Smith, David; Constantz, James E.; Allander, Kip K.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Neilson, Bethany; Rosen, Michael R.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic forms of nitrogen and phosphorous impact freshwater lakes by stimulating primary production and affecting water quality and ecosystem health. Communities around the world are motivated to sustain and restore freshwater resources and are interested in processes controlling nutrient inputs. We studied the environment where streams flow into lakes, referred to as the stream-lake interface (SLI), for a channelized and unmodified stream outlet. Channelization is done to protect infrastructure or recreational beach areas. We collected hydraulic and nutrient data for surface water and shallow groundwater in two SLIs to develop conceptual models that describe characteristics that are representative of these hydrologic features. Water, heat, and solute transport models were used to evaluate hydrologic conceptualizations and estimate mean residence times of water in the sediment. A nutrient mass balance model is developed to estimate net rates of adsorption and desorption, mineralization, and nitrification along subsurface flow paths. Results indicate that SLIs are dynamic sources of nutrients to lakes and that the common practice of channelizing the stream at the SLI decreases nutrient concentrations in pore water discharging along the lakeshore. This is in contrast to the unmodified SLI that forms a barrier beach that disconnects the stream from the lake and results in higher nutrient concentrations in pore water discharging to the lake. These results are significant because nutrient delivery through pore water seepage at the lakebed from the natural SLI contributes to nearshore algal communities and produces elevated concentrations of inorganic nutrients in the benthic zone where attached algae grow.

  13. Small mammal habitat use within restored riparian habitats adjacent to channelized streams in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian zones of channelized agricultural streams in northwestern Mississippi typically consist of narrow vegetative corridors low in habitat diversity and lacking riparian wetlands. Land clearing practices and stream channelization has led to the development of gully erosion and further fragmenta...

  14. Effects of Snow-making, Grading, and Timber Harvest on Stream Channel Morphology in the White River National Forest, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, G. C.; Bledsoe, B. P.; Merritt, D. M.; Wohl, E.

    2005-12-01

    The White River National Forest Service is responsible for managing and protecting the ecological integrity of many streams in some of the major ski resorts in Colorado. The combined effects of timber harvesting, snow-making, grading and road construction can increase streamflows but the effects of these four activities on stream channel stability are not well documented. Increased flow can result in bank failure, increased amounts of large woody debris, pool scour and bed coarsening. Specific stream channel response to increased flows associated with ski resort activities partly depends on the type of vegetation growing along stream banks and the amount of human development in the basin. We hypothesize that a threshold of development must be attained for each vegetation type before the stream channel is significantly impacted. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed channel condition, channel dimensions, and vegetation along 49 stream reaches (200 - 300 m in length). Twenty-four of these streams are within ski areas (project streams), either adjacent to or downstream from ski slopes. Twenty-five ""reference"" streams have very little to no development in their basins. These streams are used to define reference conditions bank stability, bank undercutting, bank height, bank angle, percent of large woody debris, pool depth, sediment size, and vegetation structure. A Principle Component Analysis will be utilized to ordinate and allow comparison of project and reference streams. The effects of overstory and understory vegetation on bank height, angle and stability will also be determined. A larger percentage of willows adjacent to stream channels may decrease bank height and angle thereby increasing stability. These data will help in the revision of a forest management plan to provide guidelines for planning and development of ski areas on public lands.

  15. Grazed riparian management and stream channel response in southeastern Minnesota (USA) streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magner, J.A.; Vondracek, B.; Brooks, K.N.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Instream wood recruitment, channel complexity, and their relationship to stream ecology in forested headwater streams under alternative stable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livers, B.; Wohl, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human alteration to forests has had lasting effects on stream channels worldwide. Such land use changes affect how wood enters and is stored in streams as individual pieces and as logjams. Changes in wood recruitment affect the complexity and benefits wood can provide to the stream environment, such as zones of flow separation that store fine sediment and organic matter, increased nutrient processing, and greater habitat potential, which can enhance biota and cascade through stream-riparian ecosystems. Previous research in our study area shows that modern headwater streams flowing through old-growth, unmanaged forests have more wood than streams in young, managed forests, but does not explicitly evaluate how wood affects channel complexity or local ecology. 'Managed' refers to forests previously or currently exposed to human alteration. Alteration has long since ceased in some areas, but reduced wood loads in managed streams persist. Our primary objective was to quantify stream complexity metrics, with instream wood as a mediator, on streams across a gradient of management and disturbance histories in order to examine legacy effects of human alteration to forests. Data collected in the Southern Rocky Mountains include 24 2nd to 3rd order subalpine streams categorized into: old-growth unmanaged; younger, naturally disturbed unmanaged; and younger managed. We assessed instream wood loads and logjams and evaluated how they relate to channel complexity using a number of metrics, such as standard deviation of bed and banks, volume of pools, ratios of stream to valley lengths and stream to valley area, and diversity of substrate, gradient, and morphology. Preliminary results show that channel complexity is directly related to instream wood loads and is greatest in streams in old-growth. Related research in the field area indicates that streams with greater wood loads also have increased nutrient processing and greater abundance and diversity of aquatic insect predators.

  17. Simple measures of channel habitat complexity predict transient hydraulic storage in streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream thalweg depth profiles (along path of greatest channel depth) and woody debris tallies have recently become components of routine field procedures for quantifying physical habitat in national stream monitoring efforts. Mean residual depth, standard deviation of thalweg dep...

  18. Differences in instream wood characteristics between channelized and unchannelized agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Instream wood is an important resource for stream biota because it provides cover for fishes, substrate for macroinvertebrates, and increases habitat diversity. However, current management of instream wood within channelized agricultural headwater streams (drainage ditches) involves removing instrea...

  19. Stream Channel Stability. Appendix D. Bank Stability and Bank Material Properties in the Bluffline Streams of Northwest Mississippi,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    2.5 Pulling Assembly, Base Plate and Gas Control Console ....... . 197 2.6 Pulling force is applied by cranking the handle at a rate of two turns per...last fifty years. This degradation is the result of changes in land use, channel straightening and lowering of effective base level by trunk stream... overfall . This headcut forms where the channel bed breaks through resistant substrata of ironstone or clay. The streams lack any bedrock control and are

  20. Influence of Gully Erosion Control on Amphibian and Reptile Communities within Riparian Zones of Channelized Streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian zones of streams in northwestern Mississippi have been impacted by agriculture, channelization, channel incision, and gully erosion. Riparian gully formation has resulted in the fragmentation of remnant riparian zones within agricultural watersheds. One widely used conservation practice for...

  1. The effect of in-stream activities on the Njoro River, Kenya. Part I: Stream flow and chemical water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yillia, Paul T.; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Mathooko, Jude M.

    For shallow streams in sub-Saharan Africa, in-stream activities could be described as the actions by people and livestock, which take place within or besides stream channels. This study examined the nature of in-stream activities along a rural stream in Kenya and established the inequality in water allocation for various livelihood needs, as well as the negative impact they have on dry weather stream flow and chemical water quality. Seven locations along the stream were studied in wet and dry weather of 2006. Enumeration consisted of making head counts of people and livestock and tallying visitors at hourly intervals from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. To estimate water abstraction, filled containers of known volume were counted and the stream was sampled to examine the impact on water quality. Water samples were obtained upstream and downstream of in-stream activities before (6 a.m.) and during (11 a.m., 6 p.m.) activities. Samples were analyzed for suspended solids, turbidity, BOD 5, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The daily total abstraction at the middle reaches during dry weather was 120-150 m 3 day -1. More than 60% of abstraction was done by water vendors. Vended water from the stream was sold at US 3.5-7.5 per m 3 and vendors earned between US 3-6 a day. Abstracted water contributed approximately 40-60% of the total daily consumptive water use in the riparian area during dry weather but >30% of the morning stream flow was abstracted thereby upsetting stream flow in the lower reaches. The daily total water abstraction correlated positively ( R2, 0.98) and significantly ( p < 0.05) with the daily total human visit, which was diurnally periodic with two peaks, occurring between 9 a.m. and 10 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. This diurnal pattern of visits and the corresponding in-stream activities affected water quality. In particular, suspended solids, turbidity and BOD 5 levels increased significantly ( p < 0.05) downstream during in-stream activities. It was concluded

  2. Long-term impacts of land cover changes on stream channel loss

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land cover change and stream channel loss are two related global environmental changes that are expanding and intensifying. Here, we examine how different types and transitions of land cover change impact stream channel loss across a large urbanizing watershed with large areas of...

  3. Rain and channel flow supplements to subsurface water beneath hyper-arid ephemeral stream channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, Stephanie K.; Faulconer, Joshua; Shaw, Jeremy R.; Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Cooper, David J.

    2016-05-01

    In hyper-arid regions, ephemeral stream channels are important sources of subsurface recharge and water supply for riparian vegetation, but few studies have documented the subsurface water content dynamics of these systems. This study examines ephemeral channels in the hyper-arid western Sonoran Desert, USA to determine how frequently water recharges the alluvial fill and identify variables that affect the depth and persistence of recharge. Precipitation, stream stage, and subsurface water content measurements were collected over a three-year study at six channels with varying contributing areas and thicknesses of alluvial fill. All channels contain coarse alluvium composed primarily of sands and gravels, and some locations also have localized layers of fine sediment at 2-3 m depth. Rain alone contributed 300-400 mm of water input to these channels over three years, but water content responses were only detected for 36% of the rain events at 10 cm depth, indicating that much of the rain water was either quickly evaporated or taken up by plants. Pulses of water from rain events were detected only in the top meter of alluvium. The sites each experienced ⩽5 brief flow events, which caused transient saturation that usually lasted only a few hours longer than flow. These events were the only apparent source of water to depths >1 m, and water from flow events quickly percolated past the deepest measurement depths (0.5-3 m). Sustained saturation in the shallow subsurface only developed where there was a near-surface layer of finer consolidated sediments that impeded deep percolation.

  4. Groundwater exchanges near a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth discharging to a subalpine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, James; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Niswonger, Richard; Allander, Kip K.; Neilson, B.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Smith, David W.; Rosecrans, C.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The terminus of a stream flowing into a larger river, pond, lake, or reservoir is referred to as the stream-mouth reach or simply the stream mouth. The terminus is often characterized by rapidly changing thermal and hydraulic conditions that result in abrupt shifts in surface water/groundwater (sw/gw) exchange patterns, creating the potential for unique biogeochemical processes and ecosystems. Worldwide shoreline development is changing stream-lake interfaces through channelization of stream mouths, i.e., channel straightening and bank stabilization to prevent natural meandering at the shoreline. In the central Sierra Nevada (USA), Lake Tahoe's shoreline has an abundance of both “unmodified” (i.e., not engineered though potentially impacted by broader watershed engineering) and channelized stream mouths. Two representative stream mouths along the lake's north shore, one channelized and one unmodified, were selected to compare and contrast water and heat exchanges. Hydraulic and thermal properties were monitored during separate campaigns in September 2012 and 2013 and sw/gw exchanges were estimated within the stream mouth-shoreline continuum. Heat-flow and water-flow patterns indicated clear differences in the channelized versus the unmodified stream mouth. For the channelized stream mouth, relatively modulated, cool-temperature, low-velocity longitudinal streambed flows discharged offshore beneath warmer buoyant lakeshore water. In contrast, a seasonal barrier bar formed across the unmodified stream mouth, creating higher-velocity subsurface flow paths and higher diurnal temperature variations relative to shoreline water. As a consequence, channelization altered sw/gw exchanges potentially altering biogeochemical processing and ecological systems in and near the stream mouth.

  5. Groundwater exchanges near a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth discharging to a subalpine lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J.; Naranjo, R.; Niswonger, R.; Allander, K.; Neilson, B.; Rosenberry, D.; Smith, D.; Rosecrans, C.; Stonestrom, D.

    2016-03-01

    The terminus of a stream flowing into a larger river, pond, lake, or reservoir is referred to as the stream-mouth reach or simply the stream mouth. The terminus is often characterized by rapidly changing thermal and hydraulic conditions that result in abrupt shifts in surface water/groundwater (sw/gw) exchange patterns, creating the potential for unique biogeochemical processes and ecosystems. Worldwide shoreline development is changing stream-lake interfaces through channelization of stream mouths, i.e., channel straightening and bank stabilization to prevent natural meandering at the shoreline. In the central Sierra Nevada (USA), Lake Tahoe's shoreline has an abundance of both "unmodified" (i.e., not engineered though potentially impacted by broader watershed engineering) and channelized stream mouths. Two representative stream mouths along the lake's north shore, one channelized and one unmodified, were selected to compare and contrast water and heat exchanges. Hydraulic and thermal properties were monitored during separate campaigns in September 2012 and 2013 and sw/gw exchanges were estimated within the stream mouth-shoreline continuum. Heat-flow and water-flow patterns indicated clear differences in the channelized versus the unmodified stream mouth. For the channelized stream mouth, relatively modulated, cool-temperature, low-velocity longitudinal streambed flows discharged offshore beneath warmer buoyant lakeshore water. In contrast, a seasonal barrier bar formed across the unmodified stream mouth, creating higher-velocity subsurface flow paths and higher diurnal temperature variations relative to shoreline water. As a consequence, channelization altered sw/gw exchanges potentially altering biogeochemical processing and ecological systems in and near the stream mouth.

  6. Channel erosion in steep gradient, gravel-paved streams

    SciTech Connect

    Lepp, L.R.; Koger, C.J.; Wheeler, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    Discharges were measured in steep gradient (> 5 percent) gravel-paved streams from 1988 to 1991 in order to empirically determine erosional thresholds based on sediment size, related to critical velocity, tractive force, and unit stream power. Results suggest that the empirical relationship between sediment size and unit stream power provides an accurate and simple methodology for determining the minimum erosion threshold discharge for steep gradient streams common in western Washington and other similar mountain terrains.

  7. West-Antarctic Ice Streams: Analog to Ice Flow in Channels on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1997-01-01

    Sounding of the sea floor in front of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica recently revealed large persistent patterns of longitudinal megaflutes and drumlinoid forms, which are interpreted to have formed at the base of ice streams during the list glacial advance. The flutes bear remarkable resemblance to longitudinal grooves and highly elongated streamlined islands found on the floors of some large martian channels, called outflow channels. ln addition, other similarities exist between Antarctic ice streams and outflow channels. Ice streams are 30 to 80 km wide and hundreds of kilometers long, as are the martian channels. Ice stream beds are below sea level. Floors of many martian outflow channels lie below martian datum, which may have been close to or below past martian sea levels. The Antarctic ice stream bed gradient is flat and locally may go uphill, and surface slopes are exceptionally low. So are gradients of martian channels. The depth to the bed in ice streams is 1 to 1.5 km. At bankful stage, the depth of the fluid in outflow channels would have been 1 to 2 km. These similarities suggest that the martian outflow channels, whose origin is commonly attributed to gigantic catastrophic floods, were locally filled by ice that left a conspicuous morphologic imprint. Unlike the West-Antarctic-ice streams, which discharge ice from an ice sheet, ice in the martian channels came from water erupting from the ground. In the cold martian environment, this water, if of moderate volume, would eventually freeze. Thus it may have formed icings on springs, ice dams and jams on constrictions in the channel path, or frozen pools. Given sufficient thickness and downhill surface gradient, these ice masses would have moved; and given the right conditions, they could have moved like Antarctic ice streams.

  8. Instream Wood Loads and Channel Complexity in Headwater Streams Under Alternative Stable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livers, B.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Channel morphology and irregularities in stream boundaries can create zones of flow separation, where lower velocities trap fine sediment and organic matter and increase opportunities for nutrient processing and biological uptake. This effect is most pronounced with channel-spanning structures such as logjams. Humans have changed the spatial and temporal characteristics of wood distribution in streams, with lasting effects on instream wood recruitment, wood loads, logjam distribution, and hydraulic roughness. Previous studies in the Colorado Front Range show that contemporary headwater streams flowing through old-growth, unmanaged forests have more wood than streams flowing through younger-growth, managed forests, but do not evaluate the effects of wood on channel complexity. 'Managed' versus 'unmanaged' refers to whether forests were or are currently exposed to human alteration. Although some alteration has long since ceased, reduced wood loads in managed streams persist. Our primary objective was to quantify differences in logjams, wood volumes, stream complexity, and organic carbon storage on streams with different management and disturbance histories in order to examine legacy effects across a gradient of stream management. Data were collected during the summers of 2013 and 2014 in the Southern Rocky Mountains. The 25 stream reaches studied are 2nd to 3rd order, subalpine streams that are categorized into: old-growth unmanaged forests; younger, naturally disturbed unmanaged forests; and younger managed forests. We assessed instream and floodplain wood loads and logjams and evaluated the role that large wood plays in local channel complexity, pool volume, and storage of organic carbon. Preliminary results show that greatest wood and carbon storage in sediments, as well as channel complexity, occurs in streams in old-growth, unmanaged forests and the least wood and carbon storage and channel complexity occurs in younger-growth, managed forests.

  9. Reach-Scale Channel Adjustments to Channel Network Geometry in Mountain Bedrock Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plitzuweit, S. J.; Springer, G. S.

    2008-12-01

    surveys in order to analyze whether stream power and shear stress are adjusted to reflect CNG at the reach- scale. These models are compared to those with discharges calculated using drainage area and precipitation totals alone. We conclude that gradients in bedrock mountain streams may reflect basin-scale hydrology (CNG) and not simply local geological or geomorphic factors. This challenges the conclusions of others who ascribe local channel adjustments to: i) lithology and structure alone, or ii) local colluvium grain sizes.

  10. Effects of natural-channel-design restoration on habitat quality in Catskill Mountain streams, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Mulvihill, Christiane; Vian, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Stream restoration has received much attention in recent years, yet there has been little effort to evaluate its impacts on physical habitat, stability, and biota. A popular but controversial stream restoration approach is natural channel design (NCD), which cannot be adequately evaluated without a long-term, independent assessment of its effects on stream habitat. Six reaches of five Catskill Mountain streams in southeastern New York were restored during 2000–2003 following NCD techniques to decrease bed and bank degradation, decrease sediment loads, and improve water quality. Habitat surveys were conducted during summer low flows from 2001 to 2007. The effects of the NCD projects on stream condition were assessed via a before–after–control–impact study design to quantify the net changes in stream and bank habitat variables relative to those in unaltered control reaches. Analysis of variance tests of three different measures of bank stability show that on average stream stability increased at treatment sites for 2–5 years after restoration. Mean channel depth, thalweg depth, and the pool–riffle ratio generally increased, whereas mean channel width, percent streambank coverage by trees, and shade decreased. Habitat suitability indices for local salmonid species increased at four of six reaches after restoration. The changes in channel dimensions rendered them generally more characteristic of stabler stream forms in the given valley settings. Although these studies were done relatively soon after project completion, our findings demonstrate that habitat conditions can be improved in degraded Catskill Mountain streams through NCD restoration.

  11. Computer-aided mapping of stream channels beneath the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Super Fund Site

    SciTech Connect

    Sick, M.

    1994-12-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site rests upon 300-400 feet of highly heterogeneous braided stream sediments which have been contaminated by a plume of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The stream channels are filled with highly permeable coarse grained materials that provide quick avenues for contaminant transport. The plume of VOCs has migrated off site in the TFA area, making it the area of greatest concern. I mapped the paleo-stream channels in the TFA area using SLICE an LLNL Auto-CADD routine. SLICE constructed 2D cross sections and sub-horizontal views of chemical, geophysical, and lithologic data sets. I interpreted these 2D views as a braided stream environment, delineating the edges of stream channels. The interpretations were extracted from Auto-CADD and placed into Earth Vision`s 3D modeling and viewing routines. Several 3D correlations have been generated, but no model has yet been chosen as a best fit.

  12. The importance of instream habitat modifications for restoring channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Science based information on the influence of restoration practices on fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams in the Midwestern United States is currently lacking. Understanding fish-habitat relationships and fish responses to specific restoration practices will provide informatio...

  13. HOW WELL CAN YOU ESTIMATE LOW FLOW AND BANKFULL DISCHARGE FROM STREAM CHANNEL HABITAT DATA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeled estimates of stream discharge are becoming more important because of reductions in the number of gauging stations and increases in flow alteration from land development and climate change. Field measurements of channel morphology are available at thousands of streams and...

  14. The Blurred Line between Form and Process: A Comparison of Stream Channel Classification Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Kasprak, Alan; Hough-Snee, Nate

    2016-01-01

    Stream classification provides a means to understand the diversity and distribution of channels and floodplains that occur across a landscape while identifying links between geomorphic form and process. Accordingly, stream classification is frequently employed as a watershed planning, management, and restoration tool. At the same time, there has been intense debate and criticism of particular frameworks, on the grounds that these frameworks classify stream reaches based largely on their physical form, rather than direct measurements of their component hydrogeomorphic processes. Despite this debate surrounding stream classifications, and their ongoing use in watershed management, direct comparisons of channel classification frameworks are rare. Here we implement four stream classification frameworks and explore the degree to which each make inferences about hydrogeomorphic process from channel form within the Middle Fork John Day Basin, a watershed of high conservation interest within the Columbia River Basin, U.S.A. We compare the results of the River Styles Framework, Natural Channel Classification, Rosgen Classification System, and a channel form-based statistical classification at 33 field-monitored sites. We found that the four frameworks consistently classified reach types into similar groups based on each reach or segment’s dominant hydrogeomorphic elements. Where classified channel types diverged, differences could be attributed to the (a) spatial scale of input data used, (b) the requisite metrics and their order in completing a framework’s decision tree and/or, (c) whether the framework attempts to classify current or historic channel form. Divergence in framework agreement was also observed at reaches where channel planform was decoupled from valley setting. Overall, the relative agreement between frameworks indicates that criticism of individual classifications for their use of form in grouping stream channels may be overstated. These form

  15. Influence of gully erosion control on amphibian and reptile communities within riparian zones of channelized streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian zones of streams in northern Mississippi have been impacted by agriculture, channelization, channel incision, and gully erosion. Gully erosion is the most severe form of erosion and has resulted in the fragmentation of remnant riparian zones within agricultural watersheds. One widely used c...

  16. Influence of Gully Erosion Control on Amphibian and Reptile Communities Within Riparian Zones of Channelized Streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian zones of streams in northern Mississippi have been impacted by agriculture, channelization, channel incision, and gully erosion. Gully erosion is the most severe form of erosion and has resulted in the fragmentation of remnant riparian zones within agricultural watersheds. One widely used c...

  17. Quantifying stream channel sediment contributions for the Paradise Creek Watershed in northern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittenburg, R.; Squires, A.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Excess sediment from agricultural areas has been a major source of impairment for water bodies around the world, resulting in the implementation of mitigation measures across landscapes. Watershed scale reductions often target upland erosion as key non-point sources for sediment loading. Stream channel dynamics, however, also play a contributing role in sediment loading in the form of legacy sediments, channel erosion and deposition, and buffering during storm events. Little is known about in-stream contributions, a potentially important consideration for Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). The objective of this study is to identify where and when sediment is delivered to the stream and the spatial and temporal stream channel contributions to the overall watershed scale sediment load. The study area is the Paradise Creek Watershed in northern Idaho. We modeled sediment yield to the channel system using the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, and subsequent channel erosion and deposition using CONCEPTs. Field observations of cross-sections along the channel system over a 5-year period were collected to verify model simulations and to test the hypothesis that the watershed load was made up predominantly of legacy sediments. Our modeling study shows that stream channels contributed to 50% of the total annual sediment load for the basin, with a 19 year time lag between sediments entering the stream to leaving the watershed outlet. Observations from long-term data in the watershed will be presented to indicate if the main source of the sediment is from either rural and urban non-point sources or the channel system.

  18. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  19. Hydrology and Channel Head Erosion in a Semiarid Discontinuous Ephemeral Stream Network near Oracle, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delong, S. B.; Johnson, J. P.; Whipple, K. X.; Post, D. F.; Malmon, D.; Chu, D.; Hellerstein, J.; Klues, K.; Levis, P.; Rossi, M. W.; Martin, R.

    2008-12-01

    We present results from monitoring of hydrology and erosion at channel heads in a discontinuous ephemeral stream system in southeastern Arizona rangelands. At this field site, alluvial headwalls ~1 m high mark the transition from unchannelized valleys to actively incising arroyos. The headwalls are vertical to overhanging in cross-section and amphitheater-shaped in planform. The local landscape is made up of well- consolidated clay-rich soil and sediment. Possible processes involved in headwall retreat include groundwater sapping, plunge-pool erosion, and soil tension-fracturing. To evaluate the relative efficacy of such processes and to test and refine models of incision and headcut migration rate, we deployed 40+ sensors at and immediately upstream and downstream of channel headwalls. Wired sensors and a datalogger recorded precipitation, overland flow, channel discharge, and soil moisture at a one minute interval. Additionally, a custom wireless sensor network with cellular telemetry was developed and deployed to measure shallow overland flow. At our field site, overland flow can occur from less than one centimeter of precipitation. We tracked landscape erosion through a combination of time-lapse photography, repeat RTK GPS and terrestrial LiDAR surveys. Over the monitoring period, headwalls retreated 10s of cm during several flow events. When the sediment becomes saturated (e.g., from flow down headwall faces and standing water in plunge pools), it has an order-of-magnitude lower shear strength than when dry. Erosion and retreat of channel heads appear to occur by a combination of erosive flow down saturated channel headwalls, plunge-pool erosion at high flows, and mass wasting along vertical tension cracks between runoff events. The amphitheater form is largely due to plunge-pool undercutting and vertical differences in soil material properties, particularly clay content. Though shallow groundwater sapping is widely thought to lead to amphitheater

  20. Regional impacts of urbanization on stream channel geometry: A case study in semiarid southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Kristine T.; Biggs, Trent W.

    2015-11-01

    Urbanization often increases storm runoff, peak discharges and rates of stream channel erosion. Coastal California has experienced rapid urbanization over the past several decades and has the potential for stream channel degradation. Several counties in California have implemented Hydromodification Management Plans (HMPs) to protect channels from erosion, but few studies have quantified the impact of urbanization on channel geometry in diverse geological settings at the county scale. A synoptic survey of field sites (N = 56) by the California Environmental Data Exchange Network (CEDEN) and additional field surveys (N = 24) were used to develop regional hydraulic geometry curves relating bankfull cross-sectional area (Axs), width (w), mean depth (d), and discharge (Qbf) to watershed area (Aw) in San Diego County. Regional curves were compared for urban and reference sites and to other regional curves developed for southern California. Multiple regression models were used to identify dominant watershed and channel controls on geometry, including Aw, percent impervious cover (I%), mean annual precipitation, underlying geology, longitudinal slope, hydrologic soil group, and channel particle size. For the reference streams, regional curves were statistically significant for w and Axs (p < 0.05). The regional curves for urban channels (I% > 20%) had significantly larger w, d, Axs, and Qbf for a given watershed size. A majority (68%) of the urban channels and 78% of the small urban channels (Aw < 10 km2) were enlarged. Enlargement of channels in small watersheds disrupted the correlation between Aw and bankfull dimensions, and I% was the only significant predictor of channel geometry in urban watersheds. Channel response differed by channel substrate: sand-bedded channels incised and experienced extreme enlargement of up to 115 × the Axs of reference sites, while gravel-bedded channels widened and showed less enlargement (< 7 × reference Axs). Diverse channel responses

  1. Do the coarsest bed fractions and stream power record contemporary trends in steep headwater channels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galia, Tomáš; Škarpich, Václav

    2016-11-01

    Three stream channels that were devoid of evidence of past debris flows and one headwater channel that contained debris flow deposits in the flysch western Carpathians, Czech Republic were selected to test relationships between in-channel processes, bed sediments, and unit stream power calculated for bankfull and Q20 flows. Contemporary depositional or erosional trends in the examined headwaters were linked with bed sediments that were represented by the coarsest cobble and boulder fraction with a mean calculated from the five largest particles. The downstream trends of the unit stream power were derived for a bankfull discharge and a well-documented 20-year flood event. In addition, the flow competences during the discharges were calculated using indirect bedload transport measurements. Downstream fining of the cobble and boulder fraction was observed in all of the studied headwaters, and unique downstream variations of the unit stream power were calculated for the longitudinal profiles. The single-thread streams that were devoid of evidence of debris flow events exhibited direct relations between the coarsest sediment size and the unit stream power, especially as calculated for the 20-year flood event and for erosional/depositional trends of the channel. The downstream coarsening of the bed material that was accompanied by an increase in the unit stream power was usually observed in the case of deeply incised (> 0.5 m above the assumed bankfull depth) channel reaches. The calculated competence of the 20-year flow was up to twofold higher than that required to entrain the largest bed particle diameters in those channel reaches, and even the bankfull flow was potentially capable of transporting the coarsest bed particles in certain of the reaches. On the other hand, some depositional channel reaches evidently led to the disconnectivity of transport of the coarsest bed material even in the case of the 20-year flood event. The longitudinal profile of the channel that

  2. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of a filament channel and the implications for the nature of counter-streamings

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. F.; Fang, C.; Harra, L. K.

    2014-03-20

    The dynamics of a filament channel are observed with imaging and spectroscopic telescopes before and during the filament eruption on 2011 January 29. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral observations reveal that there are no EUV counterparts of the Hα counter-streamings in the filament channel, implying that the ubiquitous Hα counter-streamings found by previous research are mainly due to longitudinal oscillations of filament threads, which are not in phase between each other. However, there exist larger-scale patchy counter-streamings in EUV along the filament channel from one polarity to the other, implying that there is another component of unidirectional flow (in the range of ±10 km s{sup –1}) inside each filament thread in addition to the implied longitudinal oscillation. Our results suggest that the flow direction of the larger-scale patchy counter-streaming plasma in the EUV is related to the intensity of the plage or active network, with the upflows being located at brighter areas of the plage and downflows at the weaker areas. We propose a new method to determine the chirality of an erupting filament on the basis of the skewness of the conjugate filament drainage sites. This method suggests that the right-skewed drainage corresponds to sinistral chirality, whereas the left-skewed drainage corresponds to dextral chirality.

  3. Sources and interpretation of channel complexity in forested subalpine streams of the Southern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livers, Bridget; Wohl, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    We evaluate correlations between stream geomorphic complexity and characteristics of the adjacent riparian forest, valley geometry, and land use history in forested subalpine streams of the Colorado Front Range. Measures of geomorphic complexity focus on cross-sectional, planform, and instream wood piece and logjam variables. We categorize adjacent riparian forests as old-growth unmanaged forest (OU), younger unmanaged forest (YU), and younger managed forest (YM), and valley geometry as laterally confined, partly confined, or unconfined. Significant differences in geomorphic stream complexity between OU, YU, and YM result primarily from differences in wood pieces and logjams, and these differences correlate strongly with pool volume and organic matter storage. Significant differences in planform and cross-sectional complexity correlate more strongly with valley geometry, but do not explain as much of the observed variability in complexity between streams as do the wood variables. Unconfined OU streams have the largest wood loads and the greatest complexity, whereas legacy effects of logging, tie-drives, and channel simplification create lower complexity in YM streams, even relative to YU streams flowing through similarly aged forest. We find that management history of riparian forests exerts the strongest control on reduced functional stream channel complexity, regardless of riparian forest stand age.

  4. Supply of large woody debris in a stream channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Bryan, Bradley A.

    1993-01-01

    The amount of large woody debris that potentially could be transported to bridge sites was assessed in the basin of the West Harpeth River in Tennessee in the fall of 1992. The assessment was based on inspections of study sites at 12 bridges and examination of channel reaches between bridges. It involved estimating the amount of woody material at least 1.5 meters long, stored in the channel, and not rooted in soil. Study of multiple sites allowed estimation of the amount, characteristics, and sources of debris stored in the channel, and identification of geomorphic features of the channel associated with debris production. Woody debris is plentiful in the channel network, and much of the debris could be transported by a large flood. Tree trunks with attached root masses are the dominant large debris type. Death of these trees is primarily the result of bank erosion. Bank instability seems to be the basin characteristic most useful in identifying basins with a high potential for abundant production of debris.

  5. Geomorphic and vegetative recovery processes along modified stream channels of West Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, Andrew; Hupp, C.R. Tennessee

    1992-01-01

    Hundreds of miles of streams in West Tennessee have been channelized or otherwise modt@ed since the turn of century. After all or parts of a stream are straightened, dredged, or cleared, systematic hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecologic processes collectively begin to reduce energy conditions towards the premodified state. One hundred and five sites along 15 streams were studied in the Obion, Forked Deer, Hatchie, and Wolf River basins. All studied streams, except the Hatchie River, have had major channel modi@cation along all or parts of their courses. Bank material shear-strength properties were determined through drained borehole-shear testing (168 tests) and used to interpret present critical bank conditions and factors of safety, and to estimate future channel-bank stability. Mean values of cohesive strength and angle of internal friction were 1.26 pounds per square inch and 30.1 degrees, respectively. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were made using botanical evidence of channel-bank failures to determine rates of channel widening; buried riparian stems were analyzed to determine rates of bank accretion. Channel bed-level changes through time and space were represented by a power equation. Plant ecological analyses were ma& to infer relative bank stability, to identify indicator species of the stage of bank recovery, and to determine patterns of vegetation development through the course of channel evolution. Quantitative data on morphologic changes were used with previously developed six-stage models of channel evolution and bank-slope development to estimate trends of geomorphic and ecologic processes and forms through time. Immediately after channel modr@cations, a 10- to 1%yearperiod of channel-bed degradation ensues at and upstream from the most recent modifications (area of maximum disturbance). Channel-bed lowering by &gradation was as much as 20 feet along some stream reaches. Downstream from the area of maximum disturbance, the bed was aggraded by the

  6. Stream sediment sources in midwest agricultural basins with land retirement along channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Christensen, Victoria G.; Richardson, William B.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Gellis, Allen C.; Kieta, K. A.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting the effects of agricultural land retirement on stream-sediment sources is critical to identifying management practices that improve water quality and aquatic habitat. Particularly difficult to quantify are the effects from conservation easements that commonly are discontinuous along channelized streams and ditches throughout the agricultural midwestern United States. Our hypotheses were that sediment from cropland, retired land, stream banks, and roads would be discernible using isotopic and elemental concentrations and that source contributions would vary with land retirement distribution along tributaries of West Fork Beaver Creek in Minnesota. Channel-bed and suspended sediment were sampled at nine locations and compared with local source samples by using linear discriminant analysis and a four-source mixing model that evaluated seven tracers: In, P, total C, Be, Tl, Th, and Ti. The proportion of sediment sources differed significantly between suspended and channel-bed sediment. Retired land contributed to channel-bed sediment but was not discernible as a source of suspended sediment, suggesting that retired-land material was not mobilized during high-flow conditions. Stream banks were a large contributor to suspended sediment; however, the percentage of stream-bank sediment in the channel bed was lower in basins with more continuous retired land along the riparian corridor. Cropland sediments had the highest P concentrations; basins with the highest cropland-sediment contributions also had the highest P concentrations. Along stream reaches with retired land, there was a lower proportion of cropland material in suspended sediment relative to sites that had almost no land retirement, indicating less movement of nutrients and sediment from cropland to the channel as a result of land retirement.

  7. Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  8. Calcium Activation of Mougeotia Potassium Channels 1

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Roger R.; Serlin, Bruce S.; Schauf, Charles L.; Stockton, Marsha E.

    1990-01-01

    Phytochrome mediates chloroplast movement in the alga Mougeotia, possibly via changes in cytosolic calcium. It is known to regulate a calcium-activated potassium channel in the algal plasma membrane. As part of a characterization of the potassium channel, we examined the properties of calcium activation. The calcium ionophore A23187 activates the channel at external [Ca2+] as low as 20 micromolar. However, external [Ca2+] is not required for activation of the channel by photoactivated phytochrome. Furthermore, when an inhibitor of calcium release from internal stores, 8-(diethylamino)-octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, hydrochloride (TMB-8), is present, red light no longer stimulates channel activity. We conclude that phytochrome activates the plasma membrane potassium channel by releasing calcium from intracellular calcium vesicles; the elevated cytosolic calcium then stimulates channel activity by an unknown mechanism. In the presence of TMB-8, red light does induce chloroplast rotation; thus, potassium channel activation may not be coupled to chloroplast rotation. PMID:16667356

  9. Analysis of temperature profiles for investigating stream losses beneath ephemeral channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Stewart, A.E.; Niswonger, R.; Sarma, L.

    2002-01-01

    Continuous estimates of streamflow are challenging in ephemeral channels. The extremely transient nature of ephemeral streamflows results in shifting channel geometry and degradation in the calibration of streamflow stations. Earlier work suggests that analysis of streambed temperature profiles is a promising technique for estimating streamflow patterns in ephemeral channels. The present work provides a detailed examination of the basis for using heat as a tracer of stream/groundwater exchanges, followed by a description of an appropriate heat and water transport simulation code for ephemeral channels, as well as discussion of several types of temperature analysis techniques to determine streambed percolation rates. Temperature-based percolation rates for three ephemeral stream sites are compared with available surface water estimates of channel loss for these sites. These results are combined with published results to develop conclusions regarding the accuracy of using vertical temperature profiles in estimating channel losses. Comparisons of temperature-based streambed percolation rates with surface water-based channel losses indicate that percolation rates represented 30% to 50% of the total channel loss. The difference is reasonable since channel losses include both vertical and nonvertical component of channel loss as well as potential evapotranspiration losses. The most significant advantage of the use of sediment-temperature profiles is their robust and continuous nature, leading to a long-term record of the timing and duration of channel losses and continuous estimates of streambed percolation. The primary disadvantage is that temperature profiles represent the continuous percolation rate at a single point in an ephemeral channel rather than an average seepage loss from the entire channel.

  10. Seafloor features delineate Late Wisconsinan ice stream configurations in eastern Parry Channel, Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, B.; Blasco, S.; Bennett, R.; Lakeman, T.; Pieńkowski, A. J.; Furze, M. F. A.; Hughes Clarke, J.; Patton, E.

    2017-03-01

    Multibeam imagery and 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiles acquired from CCGS Amundsen between 2003 and 2013 by ArcticNet and the Ocean Mapping Group at the University of New Brunswick provide information on seafloor features, geology, bathymetry and morphology in eastern Parry Channel and the adjoining large channels in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Together these include Peel Sound, Barrow Strait, Lancaster Sound, Wellington Channel, Prince Regent Inlet, Admiralty Inlet and Navy Board Inlet. Those data are in part complemented by high resolution single channel seismic reflection profiles acquired by the Geological Survey of Canada in the 1970s and 1980s and by sediment cores that provide chronological and depositional information. The occurrence and pattern of streamlined mega-scale ridge and groove lineations (MSGLs) indicate that these waterways were occupied by glacial ice streams in the past. Chronological information from marine and adjoining terrestrial areas suggests a long history of glacial events ranging in time from Early Pleistocene to Late Wisconsinan. Seafloor morphology and MSGL trends together with terrestrial ice flow patterns indicate that ice streams flowed into Barrow Strait from Peel Sound and Wellington Channel, and ice streams in Prince Regent, Admiralty and Navy Board inlets flowed northward into and eastward along Lancaster Sound. Recession of the ice stream westward along Parry Channel occurred ∼16 cal ka BP to 10.8 cal ka BP. Thick ice-contact sediments deposited by a late ice advance from Prince Regent Inlet constitute the seabed across a large area of western Lancaster Sound. Timing for that late ice advance appears to be bracketed between the 11.5 cal ka BP lift-off of the eastern Parry ice stream north of Prince Leopold Island and the ∼10.0 cal ka BP deglaciation of Prince Regent Inlet. Seafloor morphology and lineation trends suggest that ice delivered by the ice stream in Peel Sound was the westernmost tributary to the ice stream

  11. Development of Relations of Stream Stage to Channel Geometry and Discharge for Stream Segments Simulated with Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), Chesapeake Bay Watershed and Adjacent Parts of Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Bennett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), Interstate Commission for the Potomac River Basin (ICPRB), Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE), Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VADCR), and University of Maryland (UMD) are collaborating to improve the resolution of the Chesapeake Bay Regional Watershed Model (CBRWM). This watershed model uses the Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) to simulate the fate and transport of nutrients and sediment throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed and extended areas of Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. Information from the CBRWM is used by the CBP and other watershed managers to assess the effectiveness of water-quality improvement efforts as well as guide future management activities. A critical step in the improvement of the CBRWM framework was the development of an HSPF function table (FTABLE) for each represented stream channel. The FTABLE is used to relate stage (water depth) in a particular stream channel to associated channel surface area, channel volume, and discharge (streamflow). The primary tool used to generate an FTABLE for each stream channel is the XSECT program, a computer program that requires nine input variables used to represent channel morphology. These input variables are reach length, upstream and downstream elevation, channel bottom width, channel bankfull width, channel bankfull stage, slope of the floodplain, and Manning's roughness coefficient for the channel and floodplain. For the purpose of this study, the nine input variables were grouped into three categories: channel geometry, Manning's roughness coefficient, and channel and floodplain slope. Values of channel geometry for every stream segment represented in CBRWM were obtained by first developing regional regression models that relate basin drainage area to observed values of bankfull width, bankfull depth, and bottom width at each of the 290 USGS

  12. A cost-effective laser scanning method for mapping stream channel geometry and roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Norris; Nathanson, Marcus; Lundgren, Niclas; Rehnström, Robin; Lyon, Steve

    2015-04-01

    In this pilot project, we combine an Arduino Uno and SICK LMS111 outdoor laser ranging camera to acquire high resolution topographic area scans for a stream channel. The microprocessor and imaging system was installed in a custom gondola and suspended from a wire cable system. To demonstrate the systems capabilities for capturing stream channel topography, a small stream (< 2m wide) in the Krycklan Catchment Study was temporarily diverted and scanned. Area scans along the stream channel resulted in a point spacing of 4mm and a point cloud density of 5600 points/m2 for the 5m by 2m area. A grain size distribution of the streambed material was extracted from the point cloud using a moving window, local maxima search algorithm. The median, 84th and 90th percentiles (common metrics to describe channel roughness) of this distribution were found to be within the range of measured values while the largest modelled element was approximately 35% smaller than its measured counterpart. The laser scanning system captured grain sizes between 30mm and 255mm (coarse gravel/pebbles and boulders based on the Wentworth (1922) scale). This demonstrates that our system was capable of resolving both large-scale geometry (e.g. bed slope and stream channel width) and small-scale channel roughness elements (e.g. coarse gravel/pebbles and boulders) for the study area. We further show that the point cloud resolution is suitable for estimating ecohydraulic parameters such as Manning's n and hydraulic radius. Although more work is needed to fine-tune our system's design, these preliminary results are encouraging, specifically for those with a limited operational budget.

  13. Active stream segregation specifically involves the left human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Deike, Susann; Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André

    2010-06-14

    An important aspect of auditory scene analysis is the sequential grouping of similar sounds into one "auditory stream" while keeping competing streams separate. In the present low-noise fMRI study we presented sequences of alternating high-pitch (A) and low-pitch (B) complex harmonic tones using acoustic parameters that allow the perception of either two separate streams or one alternating stream. However, the subjects were instructed to actively and continuously segregate the A from the B stream. This was controlled by the additional instruction to listen for rare level deviants only in the low-pitch stream. Compared to the control condition in which only one non-separable stream was presented the active segregation of the A from the B stream led to a selective increase of activation in the left auditory cortex (AC). Together with a similar finding from a previous study using a different acoustic cue for streaming, namely timbre, this suggests that the left auditory cortex plays a dominant role in active sequential stream segregation. However, we found cue differences within the left AC: Whereas in the posterior areas, including the planum temporale, activation increased for both acoustic cues, the anterior areas, including Heschl's gyrus, are only involved in stream segregation based on pitch.

  14. Thermally activated TRPV3 channels.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jialie; Hu, Hongzhen

    2014-01-01

    TRPV3 is a temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel. The TRPV3 protein functions as a Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel with six transmembrane domains forming a tetrameric complex. TRPV3 is known to be activated by warm temperatures, synthetic small-molecule chemicals, and natural compounds from plants. Its function is regulated by a variety of physiological factors including extracellular divalent cations and acidic pH, intracellular adenosine triphosphate, membrane voltage, and arachidonic acid. TRPV3 shows a broad expression pattern in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues including epidermal keratinocytes, epithelial cells in the gut, endothelial cells in blood vessels, and neurons in dorsal root ganglia and CNS. TRPV3 null mice exhibit abnormal hair morphogenesis and compromised skin barrier function. Recent advances suggest that TRPV3 may play critical roles in inflammatory skin disorders, itch, and pain sensation. Thus, identification of selective TRPV3 activators and inhibitors could potentially lead to beneficial pharmacological interventions in several diseases. The intent of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of the tissue expression, structure, function, and mechanisms of activation of TRPV3.

  15. Impacts of Woody Debris on Fluvial Processes and Channel Morphology in Stable and Unstable Streams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    resistance imparted by alternate bars actually resuled in a reduction in stream power which was compensated for by sediment deposition and net channel...editor or word processor to view the output file. 8) T .ý output for runs I to 4 should be as follows: Program nm number I 0 W(X))Y Il1,BRIS MANAGI ’,NMIN

  16. SIMULATING SUB-DECADAL CHANNEL MORPHOLOGIC CHANGE IN EPHEMERAL STREAM NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A distributed watershed model was modified to simulate cumulative channel morphologic
    change from multiple runoff events in ephemeral stream networks. The model incorporates the general design of the event-based Kinematic Runoff and" Erosion Model (KINEROS), which describes t...

  17. Do post-mining constructed channels replace functional characteristics of headwater streams?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop mining and valley fill (MTMVF) is a method of coal mining common in eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia. Over 1200 miles of stream channel have been buried by MTMVF. Permits for surface coal mining have recognized constructed drainage ditches associated with ...

  18. Variability of rock erodibility in bedrock-floored stream channels based on abrasion mill experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Eric E.; Blom, Tevis; Hancock, Gregory S.; Hynek, Brian M.; Wobus, Cameron W.

    2015-08-01

    We quantify variations in rock erodibility, Kr, within channel cross sections using laboratory abrasion mill experiments on bedrock surfaces extracted from streams with sandstone bedrock in Utah and basaltic bedrock in the Hawaiian Islands. Samples were taken from the thalweg and channel margins, the latter at a height that is inundated annually. For each sample, a sequence of abrasion mill experiments was completed to quantify variations in erosion rate with erosion depth. Erosion rate data from these experiments shows two things. First, the erosion rate from channel margin samples is greater than for thalweg samples, with the greatest difference observed for the rock surface that was exposed in the stream channel. Second, erosion rate decreases with depth beneath the original rock surface, by an order of magnitude in most cases. The erosion rate becomes steady at depths of 1-3 mm for channel margin samples and 0.1-0.4 mm for thalweg samples. Because only rock properties and microtopography vary throughout the sequence of mill experiments, these results suggest that Kr of the bedrock surface exposed in stream channels is higher at the margins than near the channel center and that Kr decreases over depths of ~1 mm. The simplest explanation for these patterns is that Kr is enhanced, at the bedrock surface and along the channel margins, due to the effects of weathering on rock strength and surface roughness. We hypothesize that a balance exists between weathering-enhanced erodibility and episodic incision to allow channel margins to lower at rates similar to the thalweg.

  19. Problems with indirect determinations of peak streamflows in steep, desert stream channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glancy, Patrick A.; Williams, Rhea P.

    1994-01-01

    Many peak streamflow values used in flood analyses for desert areas are derived using the Manning equation. Data used in the equation are collected after the flow has subsided, and peak flow is thereby determined indirectly. Most measurement problems and associated errors in peak-flow determinations result from (1) channel erosion or deposition that cannot be discerned or properly evaluated after the fact, (2) unsteady and non-uniform flow that rapidly changes in magnitude, and (3) appreciable sediment transport that has unknown effects on energy dissipation. High calculated velocities and Froude numbers are unacceptable to some investigators. Measurement results could be improved by recording flows with a video camera, installing a recording stream gage and recording rain gages, measuring channel scour with buried chains, analyzing measured data by multiple techniques, and supplementing indirect measurements with direct measurements of stream velocities in similar ephemeral streams.

  20. Biotic drivers of anastomosing channel pattern in headwater streams of the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    Most of the headwater rivers in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA occur as single channels in steep, narrow valleys. Where variations in bedrock erodibility create segments of wider, lower gradient valleys, however, anastomosing channels can occur if one of two biotic drivers is present. Where a disturbance such as a forest fire or windstorm allows pioneer woody species to colonize valley bottoms, beavers can establish colonies. Beavers build dams that enhance overbank flooding and raise the local water table, limiting the return of conifers and promoting aspen-willow (Populus-Salix) forests that provide food for the beavers. Beavers facilitate the formation of multiple channels by digging small canal-like features across the floodplain and by damming the main channel and promoting channel avulsion. In old-growth conifer forests, channel-spanning logjams can enhance overbank flows that facilitate the development of multiple (sub)parallel channels that extend for 50-300 m downstream. Enhanced overbank flows and multiple channels increase the retention of instream wood, creating a self-enhancing feedback of more jams. At least two thresholds must be crossed for anastomosing driven by logjams to develop; a valley morphology threshold and a wood load threshold. Anastomosing channels are present where stream gradient < 4% and the ratio of (channel width/valley-bottom width) < 0.2; only single channels flow through old-growth forests in valley segments that are steeper and narrower. The average wood piece diameter in old-growth anastomosing channel segments > 20 cm, whereas average piece diameter in forests that have not been disturbed in a century is 10-20 cm; channels in these younger forests do not exhibit anastomosing planforms. Wood load in old-growth anastomosing channels averages 200 m3/ha; old-growth and younger forest single channels average < 100 m3/ha.

  1. Microbial Enzyme Activity, Nutrient Uptake, and Nutrient Limitation in Forested Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured NH4 + and PO4 -3 uptake length (Sw), uptake velocity (Vf), uptake rate (U), biofilm enzyme activity (BEA), and channel geomorphology in streams draining forested catchments in the Northwestern (Northern California Coast Range and Cascade Mountains) and Southeastern (A...

  2. Measuring flood discharge in unstable stream channels using ground-penetrating radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spicer, K.R.; Costa, J.E.; Placzek, G.

    1997-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to test the ability of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to measure stream-channel cross sections at high flows without the necessity of placing instruments in the water. Experiments were conducted at four U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations in southwest Washington State. With the GPR antenna suspended above the water surface from a bridge or cableway, traverses were made across stream channels to collect radar profile plots of the streambed. Subsequent measurements of water depth were made using conventional depth-measuring equipment (weight and tape) and were used to calculate radar signal velocities. Other streamflow-parameter data were collected to examine their relation to radar signal velocity and to claritv of streambed definition. These initial tests indicate that GPR is capable of producing a reasonably accurate (??20%) stream-channel profile and discharge far more quickly than conventional stream-gaging procedures, while avoiding the problems and hazards associated with placing instruments in the water.

  3. Regionalized equations for bankfull-discharge and channel characteristics of streams in New York State: Hydrologic Region 7 in western New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.

    2006-01-01

    Computation of bankfull discharge and channel dimensions (width, depth, and cross-sectional area) at ungaged sites requires equations that relate bankfull discharge and channel dimensions to drainage-area at gaged sites. Bankfull-channel information commonly is needed for watershed assessments, stream channel classification, and the design of stream-restoration projects. Such equations are most accurate if they are derived on the basis of data from streams within a region of uniform hydrologic, climatic, and physiographic conditions and applied only within that region. New York State contains eight hydrologic regions that were previously delineated on the basis of high-flow (flood) characteristics. This report presents drainage areas and associated bankfull characteristics (discharge and channel dimensions) for surveyed streams in western New York (Region 7). Stream-survey data and discharge records from seven active and three inactive USGS streamflow-gaging stations were used in regression analyses to relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and to bankfull channel width, depth, and cross-sectional area. The resulting equations are: bankfull discharge (ft 3/s) = 37.1*(drainage area, in mi2)^0.765; bankfull channel width (ft) = 10.8*(drainage area)^0.458; bankfull channel depth (ft) = 1.47*(drainage area)^0.199; and bankfull channel cross-sectional area (ft2) = 15.9*(drainage area)^0.656. The coefficients of determination (R2) for these four equations were 0.94, 0.89, 0.52, and 0.96, respectively. The high coefficients of determination for three of these equations (discharge, width, and cross-sectional area) indicate that much of the range in the variables was explained by the drainage area. The low coefficient of determination for the equation relating bankfull depth to drainage area, however, suggests that other factors also affected water depth. Recurrence intervals for the estimated bankfull discharge of each stream ranged from 1.05 to 3.60 years; the mean

  4. Channel response in a semiarid stream to removal of tamarisk and Russian olive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.; Wohl, Ellen

    2011-02-01

    We report observed short-term (3 years) channel adjustment in an incised, semiarid stream to the removal of invasive plants, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) by (1) removing the above-ground portion of the plant (cut-stump method) and (2) removing the entire plant (whole-plant method). The stream flows through Canyon de Chelly National Monument in Arizona, USA., draining an ˜1500 km2 catchment. Average channel width is 13 m; average thalweg depth is 2-3 m, although channel banks exceed 8 m locally. Channels adjusted primarily through widening, with significantly larger changes occurring in whole-plant removal reaches; however, neither plant removal method elicited large-scale bank destabilization, and the channels remained entrenched. Particular site conditions limiting large-scale destabilization include the absence of sufficient streamflow magnitudes, the presence of clay layers at the bank toe, the remaining presence of native vegetation, and the entrenched morphology. Our findings serve as a cautionary note regarding the temporal and spatial variability in channel response to invasive plant removal and underscore the importance of considering site-specific conditions in future restoration projects that include invasive plant removal.

  5. Vegetation and Channel Morphology Responses to Ordinary High Water Discharge Events in Arid West Stream Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    from aggrading main channel Single-thread channels with adjacent floodplains – Meandering that develops to minimize amount of change at...widening with bank destabilization – Aggradation due to decrease in capacity to transport sediment ERDC/CRREL TR-09-5 6 3 Methods In an

  6. Verification of roughness coefficients for selected natural and constructed stream channels in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Jeff V.; Ingersoll, Todd L.

    1998-01-01

    Physical and hydraulic characteristics are presented for 14 river and canal reaches in Arizona for which 37 roughness coefficients have been determined. The verified roughness coefficients which ranged from 0.017 to 0.067, were computed from discharges, channel geometry, and water-surface profiles measured at each of the sites. The information given for each stream segment includes bed and bank descriptions, data tables showing hydraulic components, a plan view, cross-section plots, and color photographs that can be used as a comparison aid in determining roughness coefficients for similarly channeled streams. Relations derived from the data presented relate Manning's roughness coefficient (n) to various hydraulic components. For gravel-bed streams, verified roughness coefficients are related to median grain size of the bed material and hydraulic radius resulting in an equation that can be used to transfer results to similar dry-land channels. The equation developed for base values of n for gravel-bed channels in Arizona is significantly different from similarly derived equations for other regions of the United States and the world.

  7. Detection of regolith buried water stream channels on Mars with the help of synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzhiga, O. N.

    The major problem of Mars research is search of water on its surface Biological life is connected to water In this connection the intense interest represents detection of water stream channels which in the past flew on Mars In these areas the petrified rests of the former life on Mars may be found out Now these channels may be under regolith layer However radio waves penetrating ability allows seeing these channels under a regolith The radio wave falls on a regolith surface under some angle The part of the falling wave power is reflected by regolith Other part of it refracts under a regolith surface and reaches bottom of a channel Here there is reflection because of a difference in refraction index of regolith and bedrock of a channel bottom The part of reflected power gets back to the spacecraft Passage through regolith is accompanied by electric losses In result we receive the image of a channel which contrast depends on regolith depth difference in refraction index of regolith and bedrock of a channel bottom as well as wavelength In this work in some assumptions concerning regolith and bedrock electric properties the model of the channel image is received The optimum wavelength for detection of the water stream channels now buried by regolith is determined The analysis of the reflected signal level dependence from an angle under which SAR onboard aerial is directed to a planet surface is carried out It is shown that power of the SAR transmitter and the size of the onboard aerial will be moderate if radar survey to carry out

  8. Hydrologic Links Among Urbanization, Channel Morphology, Aquatic Habitat, and Macroinvertebrates in North Carolina Piedmont Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giddings, E. M.

    2005-12-01

    Landscape changes associated with urbanization have been shown to alter flow regimes of streams that, in turn, alter channel morphology, aquatic habitat, and biological communities. In order to mitigate the effects of urbanization on biological communities, it is important to understand the hydrologic links between these interactions. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 30 stream sites in the Piedmont of North Carolina (including the cities Raleigh, Greensboro, and Winston-Salem) having a range of watershed urbanization were sampled. To measure urbanization intensity, a multimetric index of watershed and riparian land use, infrastructure, and socioeconomic conditions was used. Population density ranged from 24 to 3,276 people per square kilometer; 75 percent of the sites had less than 2,000 people per square kilometer. At each site, continuous discharge record was estimated for 1 year using continuous stream-stage data, instantaneous discharge measurements, and one-dimensional hydraulic modeling. Hydrologic variability metrics were calculated to compare the magnitude, frequency, and duration of high and low flows among sites. These metrics then were correlated with measures of channel morphology, habitat, a richness-based macroinvertebrate index, and the urban-intensity index. As urban intensity in the watershed increased, the frequency of quickly rising flows increased (R2=0.55, p<0.0001), and the duration of high flows decreased (R2=0.47, p=0.0001). Along with these changes, channels became more incised; bankfull channel depths (normalized by drainage area) increased as the frequency of quickly rising flows increased (R2=0.28, p=0.006) and the duration of high flows decreased (R2=0.17, p =0.04). Additionally, streams with higher frequencies of quickly rising flows had greater percentages of sand as a dominant substrate (R2=0.19, p=0.03) and greater differences between bankfull depth and low-flow depth at summer flows

  9. Riparian Vegetation Influence on Stream Channel Dimensions: Key Driving Mechanisms and Their Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, M.; Hession, W.; Rizzo, D. M.; Thompson, D. M.

    2006-05-01

    Combined results from field-based investigations and flume experiments demonstrated key mechanisms driving channel widening following the reforestation of riparian zones in small streams. Riparian reforestation is a common occurrence either due to restoration efforts, intended to improve water quality, temperature regimes, and in-stream physical habitat or due to passive reforestation that is common when agricultural land uses decline. Previous studies have documented the influence of riparian vegetation on channel size, but driving mechanisms and the timescales at which they operate have not been evaluated. Field-based investigations were conducted in the Sleepers River basin in northeastern Vermont to revisit streams that were previously surveyed in the 1960s. We measured channel dimensions, large woody debris (LWD), and steam velocities in reaches with non-forested and forested riparian vegetation, in reaches currently in transition between vegetation types, and reaches with no change in riparian vegetation over the last 40 years. Flume experiments were performed with a 1:5 scale, fixed-bed model of a tributary to Sleepers River. Two types of riparian vegetation scenarios were simulated: 1) forested, with rigid, wooden dowels; and 2) non-forested, with synthetic grass carpeting. Three-dimensional velocities were measured during flume runs to determine turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) during overbank flows. Results showed that stream reaches with recently reforested vegetation have widened since the mid 1960s, but are not as wide as reaches with older riparian forests. LWD was more abundant in reaches with older riparian forests than in reaches with younger forests; however, scour around LWD did not appear to be a significant driving mechanism for channel widening. Velocity and TKE measurements from the prototype stream and the flume model indicate that TKE was significantly elevated in reforested reaches. Given that bed and bank erosion can be amplified in flows

  10. Regional bankfull-channel dimensions of non-urban wadeable streams in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    During floods, damage to properties and community infrastructure may result from inundation and the processes of erosion. The damages imparted by erosion are collectively termed the fluvial erosion hazard (FEH), and the Indiana Silver Jackets Multi-agency Hazard Mitigation Taskforce is supporting a program to build tools that will assist Indiana property owners and communities with FEH-mitigation efforts. As part of that program, regional channel-dimension relations are identified for non-urban wadeable streams in Indiana. With a site-selection process that targeted the three largest physiographic regions of the state, field work was completed to measure channel-dimension and channel-geometry characteristics across Indiana. In total, 82 sites were identified for data collection; 25 in the Northern Moraine and Lake region, 31 in the Central Till Plain region, and 26 in the Southern Hills and Lowlands region. Following well established methods, for each data-collection site, effort was applied to identify bankfull stage, determine bankfull-channel dimensions, and document channel-geometry characteristics that allowed for determinations of channel classification. In this report, regional bankfull-channel dimension results are presented as a combination of plots and regression equations that identify the relations between drainage area and the bankfull-channel dimensions of width, mean depth, and cross-sectional area. This investigation found that the channel-dimension data support independent relations for each of the three physiographic regions noted above. Furthermore, these relations show that, for any given drainage area, northern Indiana channels have the smallest predicted dimensions, southern Indiana channels have the largest predicted dimensions, and central Indiana channels are intermediate in their predicted dimensions. When considering the suite of variables that influence bankfull-channel dimensions, it appears that contrasting runoff characteristics

  11. Influence of hillslope-channel coupling on two mountain headwater streams, Swiss National Park, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Anna; Hoffmann, Thomas; Dikau, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Sediment fluxes in mountain headwater streams are strongly conditioned by sediment supply from hillslopes and thus hillslope-channel coupling, defined as linkages connecting slopes and channels through sediment transport processes. Sediment supply from hillslopes can have major influences on channel characteristics. The main goal of my research is to achieve a better understanding of these influences on mountain headwater streams in two study areas. This is conducted through the investigation of "channel-reach morphology" according to MONTGOMERY AND BUFFINGTON (1997), morphometric and sedimentological characteristics of the channels and analysis of the slope-channel coupling system. The study was conducted in two valleys in the Swiss National Park, i.e. Val dal Botsch (VdB) and Val Mueschauns (VMu). In both headwaters slopes and channel are coupled effectively due to the small spatial vicinity and frequent debris flow processes connecting the two system components. Both catchments were glaciated in the Pleistocene but show contrasting glacial imprints today. While VdB has a V-shaped morphometry that is dominated by unconsolidated sediments (mainly talus and moraine material), VMu is U-shaped in the upper valley segments and the surface is mainly covered with bedrock. Several methods for data collection and analyses were used: (1) Channel-reach morphology classification, (2) DEM-based analysis of long profiles, ksn-values, slope-area plots and measurement of cross sections in the field, (3) investigation of sedimentological characteristics with pebble counts as well as (4) mapping of recent linkages between slopes and channel and determination of connectivity (effectivity of coupling) using a heuristic approach. The results show that sediment input into both headwater streams is dominated by debris flows. The debris flow catchments, as parts of the slope system, have the highest connectivity to the channels. Channel changes are greatest where debris flows cause

  12. Agonist-activated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Colquhoun, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at ion channels as an example of the pharmacologist's stock in trade, the action of an agonist on a receptor to produce a response. Looked at in this way, ion channels have been helpful because they are still the only system which is simple enough for quantitative investigation of transduction mechanisms. A short history is given of attempts to elucidate what happens between the time when agonist first binds, and the time when the channel opens. PMID:16402101

  13. Metal-coated microfluidic channels: An approach to eliminate streaming potential effects in nano biosensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jieun; Wipf, Mathias; Mu, Luye; Adams, Chris; Hannant, Jennifer; Reed, Mark A

    2017-01-15

    We report a method to suppress streaming potential using an Ag-coated microfluidic channel on a p-type silicon nanowire (SiNW) array measured by a multiplexed electrical readout. The metal layer sets a constant electrical potential along the microfluidic channel for a given reference electrode voltage regardless of the flow velocity. Without the Ag layer, the magnitude and sign of the surface potential change on the SiNW depends on the flow velocity, width of the microfluidic channel and the device's location inside the microfluidic channel with respect to the reference electrode. Noise analysis of the SiNW array with and without the Ag coating in the fluidic channel shows that noise frequency peaks, resulting from the operation of a piezoelectric micropump, are eliminated using the Ag layer with two reference electrodes located at inlet and outlet. This strategy presents a simple platform to eliminate the streaming potential and can become a powerful tool for nanoscale potentiometric biosensors.

  14. Tracing sources of organic matter in adjacent urban streams having different degrees of channel modification.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shuiwang; Amon, Rainer M W; Brinkmeyer, Robin L

    2014-07-01

    Urbanization and stream-channel modifications affect organic matter concentrations and quality in streams, by altering allochthonous organic matter input and in-stream transformation. This study uses multiple tracers (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, C/N ratio, and chlorophyll-a) to track sources of organic matter in two highly urbanized bayous in Houston (Texas, USA). Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are located in headwaters of both bayous and contribute more than 75% to water flow. Low isotopic relatedness to natural end-members and enriched δ(15)N values suggest the influence of WWTPs on the composition of all organic matter fractions. The two bayous differ in degree of channel improvement resulting in different responses to hydrological conditions. During high flow conditions, the influence of terrestrial organic matter and sediment resuspension was much more pronounced in the Buffalo Bayou than in the concrete-lined White Oak Bayou. Particulate organic matter (POM) in White Oak Bayou had similar values of enriched δ(15)N in all subsegments, whereas in Buffalo Bayou, the degree of δ(15)N enrichment was less in the subsegments of the lower watershed. The difference in riparian zone contributions and interactions with sediments/soils was likely responsible for the compositional differences between the two bayous. Phytoplankton inputs were significantly higher in the bayous, especially in slow-flowing sections, relative to the reference sites, and elevated phytoplankton inputs accounted for the observed stable C isotope differences between FPOM and high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW DOM). Relative to POM, HMW DOM in the bayous was similar to WWTP effluents and showed minor longitudinal variability in both streams suggesting that WWTPs contribute much of the DOM in the systems. Urbanization has a major influence on organic matter sources and quality in these urban water bodies and these changes seem further enhanced by stream channel modifications.

  15. Monitoring stream stage, channel profile, and aqueous conductivity with time domain reflectometry (TDR).

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, James Robert; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coplen, Amy K.; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Coombs, Jason R.; Wright, Jerome L.; Roberts, Jesse Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) operates by propagating a radar frequency electromagnetic pulse down a transmission line while monitoring the reflected signal. As the electromagnetic pulse propagates along the transmission line, it is subject to impedance by the dielectric properties of the media along the transmission line (e.g., air, water, sediment), reflection at dielectric discontinuities (e.g., air-water or water-sediment interface), and attenuation by electrically conductive materials (e.g., salts, clays). Taken together, these characteristics provide a basis for integrated stream monitoring; specifically, concurrent measurement of stream stage, channel profile and aqueous conductivity. Here, we make novel application of TDR within the context of stream monitoring. Efforts toward this goal followed three critical phases. First, a means of extracting the desired stream parameters from measured TDR traces was required. Analysis was complicated by the fact that interface location and aqueous conductivity vary concurrently and multiple interfaces may be present at any time. For this reason a physically based multisection model employing the S11 scatter function and Cole-Cole parameters for dielectric dispersion and loss was developed to analyze acquired TDR traces. Second, we explored the capability of this multisection modeling approach for interpreting TDR data acquired from complex environments, such as encountered in stream monitoring. A series of laboratory tank experiments were performed in which the depth of water, depth of sediment, and conductivity were varied systematically. Comparisons between modeled and independently measured data indicate that TDR measurements can be made with an accuracy of {+-}3.4x10{sup -3} m for sensing the location of an air/water or water/sediment interface and {+-}7.4% of actual for the aqueous conductivity. Third, monitoring stations were sited on the Rio Grande and Paria rivers to evaluate performance of the TDR system

  16. Rapid Estimation of Recharge Potential in Ephemeral-Stream Channels Using Electromagnetic Methods, and Measurements of Channel and Vegetation Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegary, J. B.; Leenhouts, J. M.; Paretti, N. V.; Jones, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    In order to classify recharge potential (RCP) in ephemeral-stream channels, a method was developed that incorporates information about channel geometry, vegetation characteristics, and bed-sediment apparent electrical conductivity ('a). About 400 transects along two ephemeral-stream channels near Sierra Vista, Arizona were studied. Seven data types were collected at each transect: 'a at two depth intervals, channel incision height and width, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH) of the largest tree, density of woody plants, and density of grasses. Apparent electrical conductivity was measured in the channel thalweg during the month of June, the hottest, driest month of the year. As was the case in 2005, June typically follows several months of relatively dry weather. Bed-sediment water content was expected to be at an annual minimum, maximizing the contrast between high and low clay content. Because 'a is proportional to clay content and clay is the primary factor affecting permeability during saturated flow in unconsolidated media, 'a values are inversely proportional to permeability. Apparent electrical conductivity was measured by using a low-induction-number frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction (LIN FEM) instrument at two intervals bracketing 0-3 m and 0-6 m depths. Vegetation characteristics were measured in 10 by 10 meter plots on each bank. As DBH, woody plant density and grass density increase, evapotranspiration also increases. Increases in any of these three factors, therefore, should decrease RCP. Incision height and width were measured in reference to the break in slope between the channel and floodplain or first major terrace. An increase in channel width provides greater area for infiltration, and greater incision height allows for increased flow depth. Increases in these two factors increase RCP. A two-tiered system was used to classify transect RCP. In the first tier, transects were categorized by the permeability of near-surface sediments based on

  17. Estimation of roughness coefficients for natural stream channels with vegetated banks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.

    1998-01-01

    Roughness coefficients for 21 stream sites in New York state are presented. The site-specific relation between roughness coefficent and flow depth varies in a predictable manner, depending on energy gradient, relative smoothness (Rd50), and channel-vegetation density. The percentage of wetted perimeter that is vegetated is a useful indicator of when streambank vegetation can affect the roughness coefficient. To estimate the magnitude of this effect requires evaluation of the density and percent of submergence of vegetation.

  18. Analyzing Hydro-Geomorphic Responses in Post-Fire Stream Channels with Terrestrial LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourbakhshbeidokhti, S.; Kinoshita, A. M.; Chin, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires have potential to significantly alter soil properties and vegetation within watersheds. These alterations often contribute to accelerated erosion, runoff, and sediment transport in stream channels and hillslopes. This research applies repeated Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to stream reaches within the Pike National Forest in Colorado following the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire. These scans allow investigation of the relationship between sediment delivery and environmental characteristics such as precipitation, soil burn severity, and vegetation. Post-fire LiDAR images provide high resolution information of stream channel changes in eight reaches for three years (2012-2014). All images are processed with RiSCAN PRO to remove vegetation and triangulated and smoothed to create a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 0.1 m resolution. Study reaches with two or more successive DEM images are compared using a differencing method to estimate the volume of sediment erosion and deposition. Preliminary analysis of four channel reaches within Williams Canyon and Camp Creek yielded erosion estimates between 0.035 and 0.618 m3 per unit area. Deposition was estimated as 0.365 to 1.67 m3 per unit area. Reaches that experienced higher soil burn severity or larger rainfall events produced the greatest geomorphic changes. Results from LiDAR analyses can be incorporated into post-fire hydrologic models to improve estimates of runoff and sediment yield. These models will, in turn, provide guidance for water resources management and downstream hazards mitigation.

  19. An Alternative to Channel-Centered Views of the Landscape for Understanding Modern Streams in the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont Region, Eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritts, D. J.; Walter, R. C.; Rahnis, M. A.; Oberholtzer, W.

    2008-12-01

    older) alluvial fans and fan pediments at tributary confluences. Two-dimensional views along incised stream banks give the appearance of overbank sediment atop stream bed gravel, but the fine- grained bank (1-5 m) is mostly the result of slackwater sedimentation from damming, whereas the underlying gravel polygenetic in origin. The gravel is Pleistocene or older in age, and not the result of active stream channel migration and point-bar formation during the Holocene. The Holocene warm period was dominated by valley-bottom stability and widespread wetland formation, fostered by beaver activity. Modern stream channel forms are largely the result of incision and bank erosion in response to dam breaching and base- level fall, not hydraulic adjustment to prevailing (or changed) supplies of sediment and water. Rather, channel dimensions are controlled by thickness of historic sediment (i.e., dam height and distance upstream of dam) and depth of incision. Changes in slope (i.e., rapid base-level fall), rather than changes in sediment supply and runoff, are powerful determinants of modern channel forms, and there are no pre-settlement forms for comparison. At present, there is an "impedance mismatch" between those with channel-centered views and those who view the deeply weathered mid-Atlantic landscape as the result of hundreds of thousands to millions of years of slow landscape evolution.

  20. Rapid estimation of recharge potential in ephemeral-stream channels using electromagnetic methods, and measurements of channel and vegetation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, J.B.; Leenhouts, J.M.; Paretti, N.V.; Jones, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    To classify recharge potential (RCP) in ephemeral-stream channels, a method was developed that incorporates information about channel geometry, vegetation characteristics, and bed-sediment apparent electrical conductivity (??a). Recharge potential is not independently measurable, but is instead formulated as a site-specific, qualitative parameter. We used data from 259 transects across two ephemeral-stream channels near Sierra Vista, Arizona, a location with a semiarid climate. Seven data types were collected: ??a averaged over two depth intervals (0-3 m, and 0-6 m), channel incision depth and width, diameter-at-breast-height of the largest tree, woody-plant and grass density. A two-tiered system was used to classify a transect's RCP. In the first tier, transects were categorized by estimates of near-surface-sediment hydraulic permeability as low, moderate, or high using measurements of 0-3 m-depth ??a. Each of these categories was subdivided into low, medium, or high RCP classes using the remaining six data types, thus yielding a total of nine RCP designations. Six sites in the study area were used to compare RCP and ??a with previously measured surrogates for hydraulic permeability. Borehole-averaged percent fines showed a moderate correlation with both shallow and deep ??a measurements, however, correlation of point measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity, percent fines, and cylinder infiltrometer measurements with ??a and RCP was generally poor. The poor correlation was probably caused by the relatively large measurement volume and spatial averaging of ??a compared with the spatially-limited point measurements. Because of the comparatively large spatial extent of measurement transects and variety of data types collected, RCP estimates can give a more complete picture of the major factors affecting recharge at a site than is possible through point or borehole-averaged estimates of hydraulic permeability alone. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid estimation of recharge potential in ephemeral-stream channels using electromagnetic methods, and measurements of channel and vegetation characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegary, James B.; Leenhouts, James M.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2007-09-01

    SummaryTo classify recharge potential (RCP) in ephemeral-stream channels, a method was developed that incorporates information about channel geometry, vegetation characteristics, and bed-sediment apparent electrical conductivity ( σa). Recharge potential is not independently measurable, but is instead formulated as a site-specific, qualitative parameter. We used data from 259 transects across two ephemeral-stream channels near Sierra Vista, Arizona, a location with a semiarid climate. Seven data types were collected: σa averaged over two depth intervals (0-3 m, and 0-6 m), channel incision depth and width, diameter-at-breast-height of the largest tree, woody-plant and grass density. A two-tiered system was used to classify a transect's RCP. In the first tier, transects were categorized by estimates of near-surface-sediment hydraulic permeability as low, moderate, or high using measurements of 0-3 m-depth σa. Each of these categories was subdivided into low, medium, or high RCP classes using the remaining six data types, thus yielding a total of nine RCP designations. Six sites in the study area were used to compare RCP and σa with previously measured surrogates for hydraulic permeability. Borehole-averaged percent fines showed a moderate correlation with both shallow and deep σa measurements, however, correlation of point measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity, percent fines, and cylinder infiltrometer measurements with σa and RCP was generally poor. The poor correlation was probably caused by the relatively large measurement volume and spatial averaging of σa compared with the spatially-limited point measurements. Because of the comparatively large spatial extent of measurement transects and variety of data types collected, RCP estimates can give a more complete picture of the major factors affecting recharge at a site than is possible through point or borehole-averaged estimates of hydraulic permeability alone.

  2. Active Stream Length Dynamics in Headwater Catchments Spanning Physiographic Provinces in the Appalachian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, C.; McGuire, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most basic descriptions of streams is the presence of channelized flow. However, this seemingly simple query goes unanswered for the majority of headwater networks, as stream length expands and contracts with the wetness of catchments seasonally, interannually, and in response to storm events. Although streams are known to grow and shrink, a lack of information on longitudinal dynamics across different geographic regions precludes effective management. Understanding the temporal variation in temporary network length over a broad range of settings is critical for policy decisions that impact aquatic ecosystem health. This project characterizes changes in active stream length for forested headwater catchments spanning four physiographic provinces of the Appalachian Highlands: the New England at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire; Valley and Ridge at Poverty Creek and the North Fork of Big Stony Creek in Jefferson National Forest, Virginia; Blue Ridge at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina; and Appalachian Plateau at Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. Multivariate statistical analysis confirms these provinces exhibit characteristic topographies reflecting differences in climate, geology, and environmental history and, thus, merit separate consideration. The active streams of three watersheds (<45 ha) in each study area were mapped six times to capture a variety of moderate flow conditions that can be expected most of the time (i.e., exceedance probabilities between 25 to 75%). The geomorphic channel and channel heads were additionally mapped to determine how active stream length variability relates to the development of the geomorphic network. We found that drainage density can vary up to four-fold with discharge. Stream contraction primarily proceeds by increasing disconnection and disintegration into pools, while the number of flow origins remains constant except at high and low extremes of discharge. This work demonstrates

  3. Acoustic streaming produced by a cylindrical bubble undergoing volume and translational oscillations in a microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Combriat, Thomas; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model is developed for acoustic streaming generated by a cylindrical bubble confined in a fluid channel between two planar elastic walls. The bubble is assumed to undergo volume and translational oscillations. The volume oscillation is caused by an imposed acoustic pressure field and generates the bulk scattered wave in the fluid gap and Lamb-type surface waves propagating along the fluid-wall interfaces. The translational oscillation is induced by the velocity field of an external sound source such as another bubble or an oscillatory fluid flow. The acoustic streaming is assumed to result from the interaction of the volume and the translational modes of the bubble oscillations. The general solutions for the linear equations of fluid motion and the equations of acoustic streaming are calculated with no restrictions on the ratio between the viscous penetration depth and the bubble size. Approximate solutions for the limit of low viscosity are provided as well. Simulations of streamline patterns show that the geometry of the streaming resembles flows generated by a source dipole, while the vortex orientation is governed by the driving frequency, bubble size, and the distance of the bubble from the source of translational excitation. Experimental verification of the developed theory is performed using data for streaming generated by bubble pairs.

  4. Acoustic streaming produced by a cylindrical bubble undergoing volume and translational oscillations in a microfluidic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doinikov, Alexander A.; Combriat, Thomas; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model is developed for acoustic streaming generated by a cylindrical bubble confined in a fluid channel between two planar elastic walls. The bubble is assumed to undergo volume and translational oscillations. The volume oscillation is caused by an imposed acoustic pressure field and generates the bulk scattered wave in the fluid gap and Lamb-type surface waves propagating along the fluid-wall interfaces. The translational oscillation is induced by the velocity field of an external sound source such as another bubble or an oscillatory fluid flow. The acoustic streaming is assumed to result from the interaction of the volume and the translational modes of the bubble oscillations. The general solutions for the linear equations of fluid motion and the equations of acoustic streaming are calculated with no restrictions on the ratio between the viscous penetration depth and the bubble size. Approximate solutions for the limit of low viscosity are provided as well. Simulations of streamline patterns show that the geometry of the streaming resembles flows generated by a source dipole, while the vortex orientation is governed by the driving frequency, bubble size, and the distance of the bubble from the source of translational excitation. Experimental verification of the developed theory is performed using data for streaming generated by bubble pairs.

  5. Effects of an restorated stream channel on groundwater dynamics and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Christian; Lewandowski, Jörg; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2013-04-01

    The effects of the restoration of an former oxbow on the interactions of groundwater and stream water is analyzed by principal component analysis of the water table series. With this approach it is possible to quantify in a spatial discrete way the impact of processes on the ground water table (Lischeid et al. 2010). At the Freienbrink site, situated in the east of Berlin (Germany), water tables were measured during a four year period at up to 18 groundwater and 2 stream water sites along two transects across an artificial peninsula surrounded by an oxbow and the regulated stream channel. In the first two years of the monitoring period the straight, artificial stream channel was the main stream channel and the oxbow was hydrologically decoupled at the upstream end. In the second two years it was the opposite. After restoration the former shortcut is now hydrologically decoupled and the former oxbow reactivated. In a study about the first year of the monitoring period colmation of the oxbow has been identified as main hindrance for the exchange of groundwater and stream water (Lewandowski et al., 2009). Subsequently the effects of the removal of the colmation in the former oxbow during the restoration process is analyzed. The analysis of the propagation of hydrological signals in the coupled groundwater stream water system is combined with the analysis of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the dominant hydrogeochemical processes. Those are identified with a non-linear variant of the principal component analysis based on water quality data. References Lewandowski, J.; Lischeid, G. & Nützmann, G. 2009. Drivers of water level fluctuations and hydrological exchange between groundwater and surface water at the lowland River Spree (Germany): field study and statistical analyses. Hydrological Processes, 23(15), 2117-2128. doi: 10.1002/hyp.7277. Lischeid, G.; Natkhin, M.; Steidl, J.; Dietrich, O.; Dannowski, R. & Merz, C. 2010. Assessing coupling between lakes and

  6. Integration of manual channel initiation and flow path tracing in extracting stream features from lidar-derived DTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspa, M. C.; De La Cruz, R. M.; Olfindo, N. T.; Borlongan, N. J. B.; Perez, A. M. C.

    2016-10-01

    Stream network delineation based on LiDAR-derived digital terrain model (DTM) may produce stream segments that are inexistent or incomplete because of limitations imposed by extraction procedure, terrain and data. The applicability of a common threshold value in defining streams such as those implemented through the D8 algorithm also remains in question because the threshold varies depending on the geomorphology of the area. Flat areas and improper hydrologic conditioning produce erratic stream network. To counteract these limitations, this study proposes a workflow that improves the stream network produced by the D8 algorithm. It incorporates user-defined channel initiation points as inputs to a tool developed to automatically trace the flow of water into the next actual stream segment. Spurious streams along digital dams and flat areas are also manually reshaped. The proposed workflow is implemented in Iligan River Basin, Philippines using LiDARderived DTM of 1-meter resolution. The Flow Path Tracing (FPT) method counteracts the limits imposed by extraction procedure, terrain and data. It is applicable to different typologies of watersheds by eliminating the need to use site-specific threshold in determining streams. FPT is implemented as a Phyton script to automate the tracing of the streams using the flow direction raster. The FPT method is compared to the blue line digitization and the D8 method using morphometric parameters, such as stream number, stream order and stream length, to assess its performance. Results show that streams derived from the FPT method has higher stream order, number and length. An accuracy of 93.5% produced from field validation of the FPT method's streams strengthens the findings that integrating manual channel head initiation and flow path tracing can be used for nationwide extraction of streams using LiDAR-derived-DTM in the Philippines.

  7. Estimating design-flood discharges for streams in Iowa using drainage-basin and channel-geometry characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures provided for applying the drainage-basin and channel-geometry regression equations depend on whether the design-flood discharge estimate is for a site on an ungaged stream, an ungaged site on a gaged stream, or a gaged site. When both a drainage-basin and a channel-geometry regression-equation estimate are available for a stream site, a procedure is presented for determining a weighted average of the two flood estimates. The drainage-basin regression equations are applicable to unregulated rural drainage areas less than 1,060 square miles, and the channel-geometry regression equations are applicable to unregulated rural streams in Iowa with stabilized channels.

  8. Relative influence of different habitat factors on creek chub population structure within channelized agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus) are commonly found within channelized agricultural headwater streams within the Midwestern United States. Understanding the relationships of this headwater fish species with different habitat factors will provide information that can assist with developing resto...

  9. Regionalized Equations for Bankfull-Discharge and Channel Characteristics of Streams in New York State: Hydrologic Region 6 in the Southern Tier of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.

    2005-01-01

    Equations that relate bankfull discharge and channel characteristics (width, depth, and cross-sectional area) to drainage-area size at gaged sites are needed to define bankfull discharge and channel dimensions at ungaged sites and to provide information for watershed assessments, streamchannel classification, and the design of stream-restoration projects. Such equations are most accurate if derived from streams within an area of uniform hydrologic, climatic, and physiographic conditions and applied only within that region. In New York State, eight hydrologic regions were previously defined on the basis of similar high-flow (flood) characteristics. This report presents drainage areas and associated bankfull characteristics (discharge and channel dimensions) for surveyed streams in southwestern New York (Region 6). Stream-survey data and discharge records from 11 active (currently gaged) sites and 3 inactive (discontinued) sites were used in regression analyses to relate bankfull discharge and bankfull channel width, depth, and cross-sectional area to the size of the drainage area (mi2). The resulting equations are: bankfull discharge (ft3/s) = 48.0*(drainage area)0.842; bankfull channel width (ft) = 16.9*(drainage area)0.419; bankfull channel depth (ft) = 1.04*(drainage area)0.244; and bankfull channel cross-sectional area (ft2) = 17.6*(drainage area)0.662. The correlation coefficients (R2) for these four equations were 0.90, 0.79, 0.64, and 0.89, respectively. The high correlation coefficients for bankfull discharge and crosssectional area indicate that much of the variation in these variables is explained by the size of the drainage area. The smaller correlation coefficients for bankfull channel width and depth indicate that other factors also affect these relations. Recurrence intervals for the estimated bankfull discharge of each stream ranged from 1.01 to 2.35 years; the mean recurrence interval was 1.54 years. The 14 surveyed streams were classified by Rosgen

  10. BK channel activation: structural and functional insights

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Urvi S.; Cui, Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    The voltage and Ca2+ activated K+ (BK) channels are involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability. Structurally, BK channels are homologous to voltage- and ligand-gated K+ channels, having a voltage sensor and pore as the membrane-spanning domain and a cytosolic domain containing metal binding sites. Recently published electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) and X-ray crystallographic structures of the BK channel provided the first look into the assembly of these domains, corroborating the close interactions among these domains during channel gating that have been suggested by functional studies. This review discusses these latest findings and an emerging new understanding about BK channel gating and implications for diseases such as epilepsy, in which mutations in BK channel genes have been associated. PMID:20663573

  11. BK channel activators and their therapeutic perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bentzen, Bo H.; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rønn, Lars C. B.; Grunnet, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated K+ channel (KCa1.1, BK, MaxiK) is ubiquitously expressed in the body, and holds the ability to integrate changes in intracellular calcium and membrane potential. This makes the BK channel an important negative feedback system linking increases in intracellular calcium to outward hyperpolarizing potassium currents. Consequently, the channel has many important physiological roles including regulation of smooth muscle tone, neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability. Additionally, cardioprotective roles have been revealed in recent years. After a short introduction to the structure, function and regulation of BK channels, we review the small organic molecules activating BK channels and how these tool compounds have helped delineate the roles of BK channels in health and disease. PMID:25346695

  12. Channel Morphology and Hydraulics as Controls on Spatial Patterns of Invertebrate Drift in a Mountain Stream.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this research we linked spatial variability of invertebrate drift characteristics (e.g. flux, concentration, mean body size) in a mountain stream to channel morphology and hydraulic properties such as at-a-point and depth-averaged velocity and shear velocity. The study was conducted in East Creek, a small stream in British Columbia in which reach-scale morphology transitions from cobble-dominated plane-bed to gravel-bed pool-riffle. To achieve our goal, we collected vertical profiles of invertebrate drift and time-averaged velocity in various morphological units within the study reaches. The data were analyzed using linear mixed model. Our reach-scale results suggested that, generally, the study reaches had statistically similar drift characteristics despite their contrasting morphologies. At the within-reach scale, different drift characteristics displayed different trends in relation to morphological and hydraulic properties of the channel. Longitudinally, highest drift flux occurred in riffle-pool transitions. We attributed this finding primarily to higher flow velocity because there were no statistically significant differences in drift concentration between morphological units. In the vertical dimension, highest drift flux occurred near the surface owing to a combination of higher drift concentration and higher flow velocity. A different pattern was observed for mean body size of drifting invertebrates. On average, body size was smallest in riffle-pool transitions and largest near the bed. The combination of velocity, drift concentration, and drift body size structure resulted in similar biomass flux estimates in all morphological units. In the vertical dimension, biomass flux appeared to be highest near the water surface. Generally, hydraulic variables seemed to be relatively poor predictors of drift concentration and mean body size of drifting invertebrates. Our findings reveal a complex relationship between channel morphology and hydraulics and various

  13. Regionalized equations for bankfull-discharge and channel characteristics of streams in New York state: hydrologic region 5 in central New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westergard, Britt E.; Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.

    2005-01-01

    Equations that relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and channel dimensions (width, depth, and cross-sectional area) at gaged sites are needed to define bankfull discharge and channel dimensions at ungaged sites and to provide information for the design of stream-restoration projects. Such equations are most accurate if derived from streams within an area of uniform hydrologic, climatic, and physiographic conditions and applied only within that region. A study to develop equations to predict bankfull data for ungaged streams in New York established eight regions that coincided with previously defined hydrologic regions. This report presents drainage areas and bankfull characteristics (discharge and channel dimensions) for streams in central New York (Region 5) selected for this pilot study. Stream-survey data and discharge records from seven active (currently gaged) sites and nine inactive (discontinued gaged) sites were used in regression analyses to relate size of drainage area to bankfull discharge and bankfull channel width, depth, and cross-sectional area. The resulting equations are: bankfull discharge = 45.5*(drainage area)^0.840; bankfull channel width = 13.2*(drainage area)^0.459; bankfull channel depth = 0.802*(drainage area)^0.367; bankfull channel cross-sectional area = 10.6*(drainage area)^0.826. The high correlation coefficients (R2) for these four equations (0.94, 0.90, 0.91, 0.98, respectively) indicate that much of the variation in the variables is explained by the size of the drainage area. Recurrence intervals for the estimated bankfull discharge of each stream ranged from 1.11 to 6.00 years; the mean recurrence interval was 1.51 years. The 16 surveyed streams were classified by Rosgen stream type; most were mainly C-type reaches, with occasional B- and F-type reaches. The Region 5 equation was compared with equations developed for six other large areas in the Northeast. The major differences among results indicate a need to refine equations

  14. Impact of agricultural activities on anaerobic processes in stream sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, J. D.; Ludwig, S.; Nelson, L. C.; Porterfield, J.; Sather, K. L.; Songpitak, M.; Spawn, S.; Weigel, B.

    2013-12-01

    Streams draining agriculture watersheds are subject to significant anthropogenic impacts, including sedimentation from soil erosion and high nitrate input from heavy fertilizer application. Sedimentation degrades habitat and can reduce hydrologic exchange between surface and subsurface waters. Disconnecting surface and subsurface flow reduces oxygen input to hyporheic water, increasing the extent of anoxic zones in stream sediments and creating hotspots for anaerobic processes like denitrification and methanogenesis that can be important sources of nitrous oxide and methane, both powerful greenhouse gases. Increased nitrate input may influence greenhouse gas fluxes from stream sediments by stimulating rates of denitrification and potentially reducing rates of methanogenesis, either through direct inhibition or by increasing competition for organic substrates from denitrifying bacteria. We hypothesized that accumulation of fine sediments in stream channels would result in high rates of methanogenesis in stream sediments, and that increased nitrate input from agricultural runoff would stimulate denitrification and reduce rates of methane production. Our work focused on streams in northern and central Minnesota, in particular on Rice Creek, a small stream draining an agricultural watershed. We used a variety of approaches to test our hypotheses, including surveys of methane concentrations in surface waters of streams ranging in sediment type and nitrate concentration, bottle incubations of sediment from several sites in Rice Creek, and the use of functional gene probes and RNA analyses to determine if genes for these processes are present and being expressed in stream sediments. We found higher methane concentrations in surface water from streams with large deposits of fine sediments, but significantly less methane in these streams when nitrate concentrations were high. We also found high potential for both methanogenesis and denitrification in sediment incubations

  15. Types and Variability of In-Channel and Bank Storage in Beaded Arctic Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merck, M. F.; Neilson, B. T.

    2010-12-01

    The extent and variability of residence times throughout the open water season in beaded arctic streams, consisting of small pools connected by shallow chutes, are not well understood. Various data types were collected in Imnavait Creek, a beaded stream located north of the Brooks Range in Alaska, to better understand the effects of both in-channel and bank storage on mass and heat movement through these streams. Based on initial data collection efforts, it was hypothesized that during dry conditions and low flows, the residence times of the top layers of these strongly stratified pools are relatively small. Exchange with the larger bottom layers of the pools and transport of mass and heat out of the system is minimized. Conversely, during wet conditions and high flows, these pools completely mix, the residence times are short, and there is significantly less in-pool storage. Using temperatures measured at high spatial resolution within these pools and other supporting data (e.g., tracer studies, instream flows, and weather data), we found various types of storage within the pools, banks, and other marshy areas within the valley bottom, including subsurface flow paths that connect the pools. Additionally, we found that these pools will stratify during higher flow periods under certain weather conditions. Given the amount and different types of storage within these systems and the stratification patterns of the pools, this and other beaded stream watersheds will result in less or delayed export of nutrients that are limiting in most arctic systems.

  16. BK channels: multiple sensors, one activation gate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanghe; Zhang, Guohui; Cui, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport across cell membranes is essential to cell communication and signaling. Passive ion transport is mediated by ion channels, membrane proteins that create ion conducting pores across cell membrane to allow ion flux down electrochemical gradient. Under physiological conditions, majority of ion channel pores are not constitutively open. Instead, structural region(s) within these pores breaks the continuity of the aqueous ion pathway, thereby serves as activation gate(s) to control ions flow in and out. To achieve spatially and temporally regulated ion flux in cells, many ion channels have evolved sensors to detect various environmental stimuli or the metabolic states of the cell and trigger global conformational changes, thereby dynamically operate the opening and closing of their activation gate. The sensors of ion channels can be broadly categorized as chemical sensors and physical sensors to respond to chemical (such as neural transmitters, nucleotides and ions) and physical (such as voltage, mechanical force and temperature) signals, respectively. With the rapidly growing structural and functional information of different types of ion channels, it is now critical to understand how ion channel sensors dynamically control their gates at molecular and atomic level. The voltage and Ca(2+) activated BK channels, a K(+) channel with an electrical sensor and multiple chemical sensors, provide a unique model system for us to understand how physical and chemical energy synergistically operate its activation gate.

  17. Investigation of Biogeochemical Functional Proxies in Headwater Streams Across a Range of Channel and Catchment Alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, Jacob F.; Summers, Elizabeth A.; Noble, Chris V.; White, John R.; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2014-03-01

    Historically, headwater streams received limited protection and were subjected to extensive alteration from logging, farming, mining, and development activities. Despite these alterations, headwater streams provide essential ecological functions. This study examines proxy measures of biogeochemical function across a range of catchment alterations by tracking nutrient cycling (i.e., inputs, processing, and stream loading) with leaf litter fall, leaf litter decomposition, and water quality parameters. Nutrient input and processing remained highest in second growth forests (the least altered areas within the region), while recently altered locations transported higher loads of nutrients, sediments, and conductivity. Biogeochemical functional proxies of C and N input and processing significantly, positively correlated with rapid assessment results (Pearson coefficient = 0.67-0.81; P = 0.002-0.016). Additionally, stream loading equations demonstrate that N and P transport, sediment, and specific conductivity negatively correlated with rapid assessment scores (Pearson coefficient = 0.56-0.81; P = 0.002-0.048). The observed increase in stream loading with lower rapid assessment scores indicates that catchment alterations impact stream chemistry and that rapid assessments provide useful proxy measures of function in headwater ecosystems. Significant differences in nutrient processing, stream loading, water quality, and rapid assessment results were also observed between recently altered (e.g., mined) headwater streams and older forested catchments (Mann-Whitney U = 24; P = 0.01-0.024). Findings demonstrate that biogeochemical function is reduced in altered catchments, and rapid assessment scores respond to a combination of alteration type and recovery time. An analysis examining time and economic requirements of proxy measurements highlights the benefits of rapid assessment methods in evaluating biogeochemical functions.

  18. Machine-Learning Based Channel Quality and Stability Estimation for Stream-Based Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Waqas; Fischer, Stefan; Rehan, Maaz

    2016-09-12

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become more and more diversified and are today able to also support high data rate applications, such as multimedia. In this case, per-packet channel handshaking/switching may result in inducing additional overheads, such as energy consumption, delays and, therefore, data loss. One of the solutions is to perform stream-based channel allocation where channel handshaking is performed once before transmitting the whole data stream. Deciding stream-based channel allocation is more critical in case of multichannel WSNs where channels of different quality/stability are available and the wish for high performance requires sensor nodes to switch to the best among the available channels. In this work, we will focus on devising mechanisms that perform channel quality/stability estimation in order to improve the accommodation of stream-based communication in multichannel wireless sensor networks. For performing channel quality assessment, we have formulated a composite metric, which we call channel rank measurement (CRM), that can demarcate channels into good, intermediate and bad quality on the basis of the standard deviation of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the average of the link quality indicator (LQI) of the received packets. CRM is then used to generate a data set for training a supervised machine learning-based algorithm (which we call Normal Equation based Channel quality prediction (NEC) algorithm) in such a way that it may perform instantaneous channel rank estimation of any channel. Subsequently, two robust extensions of the NEC algorithm are proposed (which we call Normal Equation based Weighted Moving Average Channel quality prediction (NEWMAC) algorithm and Normal Equation based Aggregate Maturity Criteria with Beta Tracking based Channel weight prediction (NEAMCBTC) algorithm), that can perform channel quality estimation on the basis of both current and past values of channel rank estimation. In the end

  19. Machine-Learning Based Channel Quality and Stability Estimation for Stream-Based Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rehan, Waqas; Fischer, Stefan; Rehan, Maaz

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become more and more diversified and are today able to also support high data rate applications, such as multimedia. In this case, per-packet channel handshaking/switching may result in inducing additional overheads, such as energy consumption, delays and, therefore, data loss. One of the solutions is to perform stream-based channel allocation where channel handshaking is performed once before transmitting the whole data stream. Deciding stream-based channel allocation is more critical in case of multichannel WSNs where channels of different quality/stability are available and the wish for high performance requires sensor nodes to switch to the best among the available channels. In this work, we will focus on devising mechanisms that perform channel quality/stability estimation in order to improve the accommodation of stream-based communication in multichannel wireless sensor networks. For performing channel quality assessment, we have formulated a composite metric, which we call channel rank measurement (CRM), that can demarcate channels into good, intermediate and bad quality on the basis of the standard deviation of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the average of the link quality indicator (LQI) of the received packets. CRM is then used to generate a data set for training a supervised machine learning-based algorithm (which we call Normal Equation based Channel quality prediction (NEC) algorithm) in such a way that it may perform instantaneous channel rank estimation of any channel. Subsequently, two robust extensions of the NEC algorithm are proposed (which we call Normal Equation based Weighted Moving Average Channel quality prediction (NEWMAC) algorithm and Normal Equation based Aggregate Maturity Criteria with Beta Tracking based Channel weight prediction (NEAMCBTC) algorithm), that can perform channel quality estimation on the basis of both current and past values of channel rank estimation. In the end

  20. Influence of grazing and land use on stream-channel characteristics among small dairy farms in the Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Genevieve; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Rotational grazing (RG) is a livestock management practice that rotates grazing cattle on a scale of hours to days among small pastures termed paddocks. It may beneficially affect stream channels, relative to other livestock management practices. Such effects and other beneficial effects on hydrology are important to RG's potential to provide a highly multifunctional mode of livestock farming. Previous comparisons of effects of RG and confinement dairy (CD) on adjoining streams have been restricted in scale and scope. We examined 11 stream-channel characteristics on a representative sample of 37 small dairy farms that used either RG or CD production methods. Our objectives were: (1) to compare channel characteristics on RG and CD farms, as these production methods are implemented in practice, in New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, USA; and (2) to examine land use on these farms that may affect stream-channel characteristics. To help interpret channel characteristic findings, we examined on-farm land use in riparian areas 50 m in width along both sides of stream reaches and whole-farm land use. In all states, stream-channel characteristics on RG and CD farms did not differ. Whole-farm land use differed significantly between farm types; CD farms allocated more land to annual row crops, whereas RG farms allocated more land to pasture and grassland. However, land cover in 50 m riparian areas was not different between farm types within states; in particular, many RG and CD farms had continuously grazed pastures in riparian areas, typically occupied by juvenile and non-lactating cows, which may have contributed sediment and nutrients to streams. This similarity in riparian management practices may explain the observed similarity of farm types with respect to stream-channel characteristics. To realize the potential benefits of RG on streams, best management practices that affect stream-channel characteristics, such as protection of riparian areas, may improve aggregate

  1. Automated identification of stream-channel geomorphic features from high‑resolution digital elevation models in West Tennessee watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Diehl, Timothy H.

    2017-01-17

    High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) enable investigations of stream-channel geomorphology with much greater precision than previously possible. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed the DEM Geomorphology Toolbox, containing seven tools to automate the identification of sites of geomorphic instability that may represent sediment sources and sinks in stream-channel networks. These tools can be used to modify input DEMs on the basis of known locations of stormwater infrastructure, derive flow networks at user-specified resolutions, and identify possible sites of geomorphic instability including steep banks, abrupt changes in channel slope, or areas of rough terrain. Field verification of tool outputs identified several tool limitations but also demonstrated their overall usefulness in highlighting likely sediment sources and sinks within channel networks. In particular, spatial clusters of outputs from multiple tools can be used to prioritize field efforts to assess and restore eroding stream reaches.

  2. Coupling channel hydro-morphodynamics and fish spawning habitat in a forested montane stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we couple a hydrodynamic model with field data to investigate channel dynamics and spawning habitat potential for small-bodied salmonids in coarse-bed streams in British Columbia. We studied four reaches of East Creek, a small montane stream near Vancouver, BC, which display rapid (plane bed) and riffle-pool morphologies and provide habitat for a population of resident coastal cutthroat trout. Repeated channel surveys were conducted to obtain detailed information on channel topography and dynamics; net change in bed elevation between successive surveys was utilized as an index of scour and fill. Extensive bed surface sampling and low altitude vertical imagery were used in order to investigate bed surface texture and structures and to identify suitable spawning substrate patches. A 2-D hydrodynamic model, FaSTMECH (within MultiDimensional Surface Water Modeling System interface), was calibrated using field data and applied to simulate the spatial pattern of bed shear stress during a bankfull flow event. During small-to-intermediate floods significant bed scour, deeper than the estimated egg burial depth, occurred on a small proportion of bed area, in well-defined zones associated with obstacles such as large woody debris. Usually, distinct depositional zones developed just downstream of the scour locations. The spatial distribution of forcing elements and modeled bed shear stress explained well the observed pattern of scour and fill. Suitable spawning gravel was very limited in the study sites, particularly in two upstream reaches, primarily due to the coarse nature of the bed. In summary, scour disturbance risk appears to be relatively low in coarse-bed channels, except during extreme flow events, and shortage of suitable spawning substrate may be more important for small-bodied salmonids. This study demonstrates that coupling of hydro-morphodynamic and ecological data can provide a useful tool in fish habitat assessment and restoration.

  3. Arroyo channel head evolution in a flash-flood-dominated discontinuous ephemeral stream system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLong, Stephen B.; Johnson, Joel P.L.; Whipple, Kelin X.

    2014-01-01

    We study whether arroyo channel head retreat in dryland discontinuous ephemeral streams is driven by surface runoff, seepage erosion, mass wasting, or some combination of these hydrogeomorphic processes. We monitored precipitation, overland flow, soil moisture, and headcut migration over several seasonal cycles at two adjacent rangeland channel heads in southern Arizona. Erosion occurred by headward retreat of vertical to overhanging faces, driven dominantly by surface runoff. No evidence exists for erosion caused by shallow-groundwater–related processes, even though similar theater-headed morphologies are sometimes attributed to seepage erosion by emerging groundwater. At our field site, vertical variation in soil shear strength influenced the persistence of the characteristic theater-head form. The dominant processes of erosion included removal of grains and soil aggregates during even very shallow (1–3 cm) overland flow events by runoff on vertical to overhanging channel headwalls, plunge-pool erosion during higher-discharge runoff events, immediate postrunoff wet mass wasting, and minor intra-event dry mass wasting on soil tension fractures developing subparallel to the headwall. Multiple stepwise linear regression indicates that the migration rate is most strongly correlated with flow duration and total precipitation and is poorly correlated with peak flow depth or time-integrated flow depth. The studied channel heads migrated upslope with a self-similar morphologic form under a wide range of hydrological conditions, and the most powerful flash floods were not always responsible for the largest changes in landscape form in this environment. 

  4. Constitutive Activation of the Shaker Kv Channel

    PubMed Central

    Sukhareva, Manana; Hackos, David H.; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2003-01-01

    In different types of K+ channels the primary activation gate is thought to reside near the intracellular entrance to the ion conduction pore. In the Shaker Kv channel the gate is closed at negative membrane voltages, but can be opened with membrane depolarization. In a previous study of the S6 activation gate in Shaker (Hackos, D.H., T.H. Chang, and K.J. Swartz. 2002. J. Gen. Physiol. 119:521–532.), we found that mutation of Pro 475 to Asp results in a channel that displays a large macroscopic conductance at negative membrane voltages, with only small increases in conductance with membrane depolarization. In the present study we explore the mechanism underlying this constitutively conducting phenotype using both macroscopic and single-channel recordings, and probes that interact with the voltage sensors or the intracellular entrance to the ion conduction pore. Our results suggest that constitutive conduction results from a dramatic perturbation of the closed-open equilibrium, enabling opening of the activation gate without voltage-sensor activation. This mechanism is discussed in the context of allosteric models for activation of Kv channels and what is known about the structure of this critical region in K+ channels. PMID:14557403

  5. Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    An increase in the flux of nitrogen from the Mississippi river during the latter half of the twentieth century has caused eutrophication and chronic seasonal hypoxia in the shallow waters of the Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This has led to reductions in species diversity, mortality of benthic communities and stress in fishery resources. There is evidence for a predominantly anthropogenic origin of the increased nitrogen flux, but the location of the most significant sources in the Mississippi basin responsible for the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico have not been clearly identified, because the parameters influencing nitrogen-loss rates in rivers are not well known. Here we present an analysis of data from 374 US monitoring stations, including 123 along the six largest tributaries to the Mississippi, that shows a rapid decline in the average first-order rate of nitrogen loss with channel size-from 0.45 day-1 in small streams to 0.005 day-1 in the Mississippi river. Using stream depth as an explanatory variable, our estimates of nitrogen-loss rates agreed with values from earlier studies. We conclude that the proximity of sources to large streams and rivers is an important determinant of nitrogen delivery to the estuary in the Mississippi basin, and possibly also in other large river basins.

  6. Pools, channel form, and sediment storage in wood-restored streams: Potential effects on downstream reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elosegi, Arturo; Díez, José Ramón; Flores, Lorea; Molinero, Jon

    2017-02-01

    Large wood (LW, or pieces of dead wood longer than 1 m and thicker than 10 cm in diameter) is a key element in forested streams, but its abundance has decreased worldwide as a result of snagging and clearing of riparian forests. Therefore, many restoration projects introduce LW into stream channels to enhance geomorphology, biotic communities, and ecosystem functioning. Because LW enhances the retention of organic matter and sediments, its restoration can reduce siltation in receiving reservoirs, although so far little information on this subject is available. We studied the effects of restoring the natural loading of LW in four streams in the Aiako Harria Natural Park (the Basque Country, Spain) in pool abundance, channel form, and storage of organic matter and sediments. In all reaches log jams induced the formation of new geomorphic features and changes in physical habitat, especially an increase in the number and size of pools and in the formation of gravel bars and organic deposits. The storage of organic matter increased 5- to 88-fold and streambed level rose 7 ± 4 to 21 ± 4 cm on average, resulting in the storage of 35.2 ± 19.7 to 711 ± 375 m3 (733-1400 m3 ha- 1 y- 1) of sediment per reach. Extrapolation of these results to the entire drainage basin suggests that basinwide restoration of LW loading would enhance the retention potential of stream channels by 66,817 ± 27,804 m3 (1075 m3 ha- 1 y- 1) of sediment and by 361 t (5.32 T ha- 1 y- 1) of organic matter, which represents 60% of the estimated annual inputs of sediments to the downstream Añarbe Reservoir and almost twice as much as the annual input of organic matter to the entire river network. Therefore, basinwide restoration of LW loading is a potentially important tool to manage catchments that feed reservoirs, where retention of sediments and organic matter can be considered important ecosystem services as they reduce reservoir siltation.

  7. Disentangling the responses of boreal stream assemblages to low stressor levels of diffuse pollution and altered channel morphology.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Jarno; Muotka, Timo; Vuori, Kari-Matti; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Rääpysjärvi, Jaana; Sutela, Tapio; Aroviita, Jukka

    2016-02-15

    Non-point diffuse pollution from land use and alteration of hydromorphology are among the most detrimental stressors to stream ecosystems. We explored the independent and interactive effects of morphological channel alteration (channelization for water transport of timber) and diffuse pollution on species richness and community structure of four organism groups in boreal streams: diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Furthermore, the effect of these stressors on stream condition was evaluated by Ecological Quality Ratios (EQR) from the national Water Framework Directive (WFD) assessment system. We grouped 91 study sites into four groups that were impacted by either diffuse pollution or hydromorphological alteration, by both stressors, or by neither one. Macroinvertebrate richness was reduced by diffuse pollution, whereas other biological groups were unaltered. Hydromorphological modification had no effect on taxon richness of any of the assemblages. Community structure of all groups was significantly affected by diffuse pollution but not by hydromorphology. Similarly, EQRs indicated negative response by diatoms, macroinvertebrates and fish to diffuse pollution, but not to hydromorphological alteration. Agricultural diffuse pollution thus affected species identities and abundances rather than taxonomic richness. Our results suggest that channelization of boreal streams for timber transport has not altered hydromorphological conditions sufficiently to have a strong impact on stream biota, whereas even moderate nutrient enrichment may be ecologically harmful. Controlling diffuse pollution and associated land use stressors should be prioritized over restoration of in-stream habitat structure to improve the ecological condition of boreal streams.

  8. Geomorphic Assessment Approach to Evaluate Stream Channel Stability for Regions of Illinois, Case Study: Southern Illinois Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefer, L. L.

    2004-12-01

    An array of different geomorphic assessment approaches for evaluating stream-channel stability is being utilized throughout the country to meet the demands of resource managers interested in stream channel restoration and management to reduce erosion and improve stream habitat. Over the last century, most of the Illinois landscape has experienced intensive land use changes which have contributed to stream channel instability. Stream channels in Illinois have adjusted to these changes either by increasing lateral rates of migration, downstream translation of meanders, widening, or development of headward retreat of knickpoints, depending on the region of the state. Illinois can be divided into at least four regions based on prevailing physiographic features and style of channel adjustment. Also, channel response in most of these regions tend to be more subtle than the dramatic response characteristics of streams in the Coastal Plains, mountain environments, and the desert southwest for which other geomorphic approaches have been developed. The observed magnitude and type of channel response are related to topography of the bedrock surface and extent and morphology of several glacial periods, which carry local significance for stream management. Given that geomorphic assessments for stream restoration require non-trivial professional, time, and financial resources, the development of approaches for Illinois regional conditions are more beneficial. A geomorphic assessment approach is being developed by adapting methods from existing process-based approaches utilized around the United States. A case-study was performed in the Big Creek watershed of the Cache River Basin for the southern Illinois region. This region was selected first because it exhibited dramatic channel responses to disturbances and had an extensive hydrologic, sediment, and land management record. This adapted approach includes systematic data collection protocols for characterization leading to an

  9. Equations for estimating bankfull channel geometry and discharge for streams in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bent, Gardner C.; Waite, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Regression equations were developed for estimating bankfull geometry—width, mean depth, cross-sectional area—and discharge for streams in Massachusetts. The equations provide water-resource and conservation managers with methods for estimating bankfull characteristics at specific stream sites in Massachusetts. This information can be used for the adminstration of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Rivers Protection Act of 1996, which establishes a protected riverfront area extending from the mean annual high-water line corresponding to the elevation of bankfull discharge along each side of a perennial stream. Additionally, information on bankfull channel geometry and discharge are important to Federal, State, and local government agencies and private organizations involved in stream assessment and restoration projects. Regression equations are based on data from stream surveys at 33 sites (32 streamgages and 1 crest-stage gage operated by the U.S. Geological Survey) in and near Massachusetts. Drainage areas of the 33 sites ranged from 0.60 to 329 square miles (mi2). At 27 of the 33 sites, field data were collected and analyses were done to determine bankfull channel geometry and discharge as part of the present study. For 6 of the 33 sites, data on bankfull channel geometry and discharge were compiled from other studies done by the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation. Similar techniques were used for field data collection and analysis for bankfull channel geometry and discharge at all 33 sites. Recurrence intervals of the bankfull discharge, which represent the frequency with which a stream fills its channel, averaged 1.53 years (median value 1.34 years) at the 33 sites. Simple regression equations were developed for bankfull width, mean depth, cross-sectional area, and discharge using drainage area, which is the most significant explanatory

  10. Interactions among forest age, valley and channel morphology, and log jams regulate animal production in mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, D. M.; Venarsky, M. P.; Hall, R. O., Jr.; Herdrich, A.; Livers, B.; Winkelman, D.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Forest age and local valley morphometry strongly influence the form and function of mountain streams in Colorado. Streams in valleys with old growth forest (>350 years) have extensive log jam complexes that create multi-thread channel reaches with extensive pool habitat and large depositional areas. Streams in younger unmanaged forests (e.g., 120 years old) and intensively managed forests have much fewer log jams and lower wood loads. These are single-thread streams dominated by riffles and with little depositional habitat. We hypothesized that log jam streams would retain more organic matter and have higher metabolism, leading to greater production of stream macroinvertebrates and trout. Log jam reaches should also have greater emergence of adult aquatic insects, and consequently have higher densities of riparian spiders taking advantage of these prey. Surficial organic matter was 3-fold higher in old-growth streams, and these streams had much higher ecosystem respiration. Insect production (g m2 y-1) was similar among forest types, but fish density was four times higher in old-growth streams with copious log jams. However, at the valley scale, insect production (g m-1 valley-1) and trout density (number m-1 valley-1) was 2-fold and 10-fold higher, respectively, in old growth streams. This finding is because multi-thread reaches created by log jams have much greater stream area and stream length per meter of valley than single-thread channels. The more limited response of macroinvertebrates may be related to fish predation. Trout in old growth streams had similar growth rates and higher fat content than fish in other streams in spite of occurring at higher densities and higher elevation/colder temperatures. This suggests that the positive fish effect observed in old growth streams is related to greater availability of invertebrate prey, which is consistent with our original hypothesis. Preliminary analyses suggest that spider densities do not respond strongly to

  11. Nitrogen cycling in stream-groundwater exchange zones of a channeled peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, C. J.; Bedard-Haughn, A.

    2011-12-01

    The flow of stream water through riparian soils is known to influence the nitrogen (N) patterns in streams. Needed is an improved understanding of how filtration capacity, the extent to which water residence time and riparian sediment hydraulic conductivity regulates water characteristics, acts to influence the concentration of N that emerges back to the stream. Tested was the hypothesis that where filtration capacity is high, N availability is low yet production rates are high. Compared were water chemistry and gross N mineralization rates along two previously characterized riparian areas of a channeled Canadian Rocky Mountain peatland; one of which contains a beaver dam. Although average peat hydraulic conductivity was similar between sites, throughflow was 10 times higher at the site with the beaver dam. Water samples from 32 shallow riparian wells show that the biogeochemical conditions of the two sites differ, with the beaver dam site having lower conductivity, DOC, TDN, and NH4+, warmer temperatures, and higher pH. Coincident measures of gross mineralization and nitrification rates were obtained using the stable 15N isotope dilution technique. NH4+ and NO3- turnover rates were all <1 day and rates of gross N production and consumption were high (up to 75 mg/kg/d). There was net NH4+ consumption at both sites. In contrast, the beaver dam site had significantly lower rates of NO3- production and consumption, and showed net NO3- production whereas the no dam site showed net NO3- consumption. The results imply that enhanced filtration capacity near beaver dams leads to flushing of N from riparian soils. Thus, beaver dams should be considered in assessments and models of stream ecosystem function.

  12. Landform assemblages and sedimentary processes along the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottesen, Dag; Stokes, Chris R.; Bøe, Reidulv; Rise, Leif; Longva, Oddvar; Thorsnes, Terje; Olesen, Odleiv; Bugge, Tom; Lepland, Aave; Hestvik, Ole B.

    2016-06-01

    Several regional and detailed bathymetric datasets together with 2D and 3D seismic data are compiled to investigate the landform assemblages and sedimentary processes along the former path of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream (NCIS). At the broad scale, the glacial geomorphology and sedimentary architecture reveals three different zones along the ice-stream path, characterized by: (1) glacial erosion in the onset zone and inner shelf area, (2) sediment transport through the main trunk of the ice stream across the mid-shelf, and (3) a zone of deposition towards the outer continental shelf edge. Along the first 400 km of the ice stream bed (outer Oslofjord-Skagerrak-Stavanger) a major overdeepening is associated with suites of crag-and-tail features at the transition from the crystalline bedrock to the sedimentary bedrock, together with evidence of glaciotectonic thrusting in the form of hill-hole pairs. Here we interpret extensive erosion of both sedimentary rocks and Quaternary sediments. This zone is succeeded by an approximately 400 km long zone, through which most of the sediments eroded from the inner shelf were transported, rather than being deposited. We infer that sediment was transported subglacially and is likely to have been advected downstream by soft sediment deformation. The thickness of till of inferred Weichselian age generally varies from 0 and 50 m and this zone is characterized by mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGLs) which we interpret to be formed in a dynamic sedimentary system dominated by high sediment fluxes, but with some localized sediment accretion associated with lineations. Towards the shelf break, the North Sea Fan extends to the deep Norwegian Sea, and reflects massive sedimentation of glacigenic debris onto the continental slope. Numerous glacigenic debris flows accumulated and constructed a unit up to 400 m thick during the Last Glacial Maximum. The presence of these three zones (erosion, transport, deposition) is consistent with

  13. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-02-10

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] from the plasma membrane through Ca(2+)-induced phospholipase Cδ (PLCδ) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLCβ indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin.

  14. The effect of inundation frequency on ground beetle communities in a channelized mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalski, T.; Kedzior, R.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.

    2012-04-01

    Under natural conditions, river channels and floodplains are shaped by flow and sediment regime and are one of the most dynamic ecosystems. At present, European river floodplains are among the most endangered landscapes due to human modifications to river systems, including channel regulation and floodplain urbanization, and land use changes in the catchments. Situated in a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic environments, exposed riverine sediments (ERS) play a key role in the functioning of riverine ecosystems. This study aimed to verify whether the bare granular substrate is the only factor responsible for sustaining the biota associated with ERS or the inundation frequency also plays a role, modifying the potential of particular species to colonize these habitats. Ground beetles (Col. Carabidae) were selected as the investigated group of organisms and the study was carried out in Porębianka, a Polish Carpathian stream flowing through both unconstrained channel sections and sections with varied channelization schemes (rapid hydraulic structures, concrete revetments or rip-rap of various age). In each of the distinguished channel types, four replicates of 10 pitfall traps were established in three rows varying in distance to the mean water level (at three different benches). Almost 7000 individuals belonging to 102 species were collected on 60 plots. Forward selection of redundancy analysis revealed four factors significantly describing the variation in ground beetle species data: bank modification, potential bankfull discharge, frequency of inundation and plant height. Most of the biggest species were ordered at the positive site of first axis having the highest values of periods between floods. Total biomass of ground beetles and mean biomass of individuals differed significantly between sites of various frequency of inundation, whereas the variation in abundance and species richness of ground beetles was independent of the river dynamics. The body

  15. Baseline Channel Geometry and Aquatic Habitat Data for Selected Streams in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.; Rice, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Small streams in the rapidly developing Matanuska-Susitna Valley in south-central Alaska are known to support anadromous and resident fish but little is known about their hydrologic and riparian conditions, or their sensitivity to the rapid development of the area or climate variability. To help address this need, channel geometry and aquatic habitat data were collected in 2005 as a baseline of stream conditions for selected streams. Three streams were selected as representative of various stream types, and one drainage network, the Big Lake drainage basin, was selected for a systematic assessment. Streams in the Big Lake basin were drawn in a Geographic Information System (GIS), and 55 reaches along 16 miles of Meadow Creek and its primary tributary Little Meadow Creek were identified from orthoimagery and field observations on the basis of distinctive physical and habitat parameters, most commonly gradient, substrate, and vegetation. Data-collection methods for sites at the three representative reaches and the 55 systematically studied reaches consisted of a field survey of channel and flood-plain geometry and collection of 14 habitat attributes using published protocols or slight modifications. Width/depth and entrenchment ratios along the Meadow-Little Meadow Creek corridor were large and highly variable upstream of Parks Highway and lower and more consistent downstream of Parks Highway. Channel width was strongly correlated with distance, increasing downstream in a log-linear relation. Runs formed the most common habitat type, and instream vegetation dominated the habitat cover types, which collectively covered 53 percent of the channel. Gravel suitable for spawning covered isolated areas along Meadow Creek and about 29 percent of Little Meadow Creek. Broad wetlands were common along both streams. For a comprehensive assessment of small streams in the Mat-Su Valley, critical additional data needs include hydrologic, geologic and geomorphic, and biologic data

  16. Evaluating the use of drone photogrammetry for measurement of stream channel morphology and response to high flow events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Katie; Ballow, William

    2015-04-01

    Traditional high-precision survey methods for stream channel measurement are labor-intensive and require wadeability or boat access to streams. These conditions limit the number of sites researchers are able to study and generally prohibit the possibility of repeat channel surveys to evaluate short-term fluctuations in channel morphology. In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) equipped with photo and video capabilities have become widely available and affordable. Concurrently, developments in photogrammetric software offer unprecedented mapping and 3D rendering capabilities of drone-captured photography. In this study, we evaluate the potential use of drone-mounted cameras for detailed stream channel morphometric analysis. We used a relatively low-cost drone (DJI Phantom 2+ Vision) and commercially available, user friendly software (Agisoft Photscan) for photogrammetric analysis of drone-captured stream channel photography. Our test study was conducted on Proctor Creek, a highly responsive urban stream in Atlanta, Georgia, within the crystalline Piedmont region of the southeastern United States. As a baseline, we performed traditional high-precision survey methods to collect morphological measurements (e.g., bankfull and wetted width, bankfull and wetted thalweg depth) at 11 evenly-spaced transects, following USGS protocols along reaches of 20 times average channel width. We additionally used the drone to capture 200+ photos along the same reaches, concurrent with the channel survey. Using the photogrammetry software, we generated georeferenced 3D models of the stream channel, from which morphological measurements were derived from the 11 transects and compared with measurements from the traditional survey method. We additionally explored possibilities for novel morphometric characterization available from the continuous 3D surface, as an improvement on the limited number of detailed cross-sections available from standard methods. These results showed

  17. Stream channel morphology, sediment and large wood transport evolution patterns following the 2008 Chaitén volcano eruption, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iroume, A.; Andreoli, A.; Ulloa, H.; Sandoval, V.; Lara, L. E.

    2012-04-01

    The study about hydrologic and geomorphic impacts of explosive eruptions on river systems and associated patterns of stream channel morphology, sediment and large wood transport evolution is extremely important in a country like Chile which, according to the Global Volcanism Program, is ranked 5th in terms of active volcanoes among nations. To date, such effects have been little studied in the densely vegetated and steep forested watersheds of southern Chile, and the likely hydrologic and geomorphic responses to these disturbance processes are not well understood. In addition to the overall need for greater understanding, the 2008 Chaitén volcano eruption provides a rare opportunity to study post-eruption landscape adjustments Explosive eruptions have the potential to inflict large impacts in terms of scale and severity. They can damage, destroy, or bury extensive areas of forest vegetation and cover the landscape with volcanic ash, filling river valleys, obliterating watershed divides, disturbing drainage patterns and changing channel size, shape, pattern and structure, and dead trees can contribute to large log jams on valley floors. Hydrologic, sedimentologic, and geomorphic responses to major explosive eruptions can be dramatic, widespread and persistent, and present enormous challenges to those entrusted with managing disturbance response. Specific channel segments in river systems affected by the 2008 Chaiten volcano eruption are investigated since January 2010. Data acquisition methods include the use of a sequence of remote images, GIS, continuous hydrologic measurements, periodic field surveying and sampling campaigns, and radio tagging. From the first two field campaigns in January 2010 and 2011, huge amounts of large wood (LW) were observed in the severely impacted river systems. In the Chaiten river (total catchment area of ~120 km2), LW deposited parallel to stream indicates high mobilization rates and some typical wood structures (log steps, valley

  18. Regional Curves of Bankfull Channel Geometry for Non-Urban Streams in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lotspeich, R. Russell

    2009-01-01

    Natural-channel design involves constructing a stream channel with the dimensions, slope, and plan-view pattern that would be expected to transport water and sediment and yet maintain habitat and aesthetics consistent with unimpaired stream segments, or reaches. Regression relations for bankfull stream characteristics based on drainage area, referred to as 'regional curves,' are used in natural stream channel design to verify field determinations of bankfull discharge and stream channel characteristics. One-variable, ordinary least-squares regressions relating bankfull discharge, bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull width, bankfull mean depth, and bankfull slope to drainage area were developed on the basis of data collected at 17 streamflow-gaging stations in rural areas with less than 20 percent urban land cover within the basin area (non-urban areas) of the Piedmont Physiographic Province in Virginia. These regional curves can be used to estimate the bankfull discharge and bankfull channel geometry when the drainage area of a watershed is known. Data collected included bankfull cross-sectional geometry, flood-plain geometry, and longitudinal profile data. In addition, particle-size distributions of streambed material were determined, and data on basin characteristics were compiled for each reach. Field data were analyzed to determine bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull width, bankfull mean depth, bankfull discharge, bankfull channel slope, and D50 and D84 particle sizes at each site. The bankfull geometry from the 17 sites surveyed during this study represents the average of two riffle cross sections for each site. Regional curves developed for the 17 sites had coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.950 for bankfull cross-sectional area, 0.913 for bankfull width, 0.915 for bankfull mean depth, 0.949 for bankfull discharge, and 0.497 for bankfull channel slope. The regional curves represent conditions for streams with defined channels and bankfull

  19. Stage-discharge characteristics of a Weir in a sand-channel stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, Don D.; Scott, C.H.; Culbertson, James K.

    1969-01-01

    A unique relation between water-surface elevation and water discharge usually does not exist for sand-channel streams. The relation is affected by changes in bed roughness and changes in bed elevation because of scour and fill. An artificial control on a sand-channel stream must control both the resistance to flow and the bed elevation in order to stabilize the relation between water-surface elevation and water discharge. The weir (control structure) in the Rio Grande conveyance channel near Bernardo, N. Mex., was designed on the basis of a model study and field data (Harris and Richardson, 1964). About 72 percent of the measurements used to define the base relation between water-surface elevation and water discharge falls within plus or minus 5 percent of the mean relation for the prototype. The stage-discharge relation is not affected by backwater for values of submergence less than 90 percent. There is no consistent relation between the ratio of measured discharge to rated discharge and submergence for values of submergence greater than 90 percent. The control does not restrict the channel capacity to less than the stated design capacity of 2,000 cubic feet per second. When the control is drowned out, or ineffective, the relation of water-surface elevation to water discharge is virtually the same as that prior to construction of the control for discharges greater than 1,500 cubic feet per second. When the control is not drowned out--that is, free-fall conditions exist--the water-surface elevation for a discharge of 2,000 cubic feet per second is greater than the minimum elevation, but is less than the maximum elevation that occurred at that discharge prior to construction. The model study was only partially successful in predicting the operating characteristics of the prototype. Some of the differences between prototype operation and model predictions may exist because the prototype was not built exactly as recommended on the basis of the model study. In general

  20. Mapping Spatial Distributions of Stream Power and Channel Change along a Gravel-Bed River in Northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, D. M.; Legleiter, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing. This study used remotely sensed data and field measurements to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8 km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994-2012 and cross-section surveys were used to assess lateral channel mobility and develop a morphologic sediment budget for quantifying net sediment flux for a series of budget cells. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and digital elevation model (DEM) developed from LiDAR data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values, respectively, needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of channel mobility and sediment transfer. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volume of sediment eroded or deposited during each time increment. Our results indicated a lack of strong correlation between stream power gradients and sediment flux, which we attributed to the geomorphic complexity of the Soda Butte Creek watershed and the inability of our relatively simple statistical approach to link sediment dynamics expressed at a sub-budget cell scale to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Future studies should compare the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study to very-high resolution data acquired from new fluvial remote sensing technologies to better understand the amount of error associated with stream power

  1. Active dendrites, potassium channels and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Daniel; Christie, Brian R; Frick, Andreas; Gray, Richard; Hoffman, Dax A; Schexnayder, Lalania K; Watanabe, Shigeo; Yuan, Li-Lian

    2003-01-01

    The dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus express numerous types of voltage-gated ion channel, but the distributions or densities of many of these channels are very non-uniform. Sodium channels in the dendrites are responsible for action potential (AP) propagation from the axon into the dendrites (back-propagation); calcium channels are responsible for local changes in dendritic calcium concentrations following back-propagating APs and synaptic potentials; and potassium channels help regulate overall dendritic excitability. Several lines of evidence are presented here to suggest that back-propagating APs, when coincident with excitatory synaptic input, can lead to the induction of either long-term depression (LTD) or long-term potentiation (LTP). The induction of LTD or LTP is correlated with the magnitude of the rise in intracellular calcium. When brief bursts of synaptic potentials are paired with postsynaptic APs in a theta-burst pairing paradigm, the induction of LTP is dependent on the invasion of the AP into the dendritic tree. The amplitude of the AP in the dendrites is dependent, in part, on the activity of a transient, A-type potassium channel that is expressed at high density in the dendrites and correlates with the induction of the LTP. Furthermore, during the expression phase of the LTP, there are local changes in dendritic excitability that may result from modulation of the functioning of this transient potassium channel. The results support the view that the active properties of dendrites play important roles in synaptic integration and synaptic plasticity of these neurons. PMID:12740112

  2. The influence of log jam development on channel morphology in an intermediate sized coastal stream, Carnation Creek, B.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzi, D. S.; Sidle, R. C.; Hogan, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Large wood (LW) is an important functional and structural component of forest stream ecosystems, regulating sediment storage and transport, consequently determining channel morphology, and as an important foundation for aquatic habitat. LW occurs as either individual pieces or in accumulations (log jams). Where individual pieces of LW affect the stream at a small scale, several bankfull widths, jams influence the stream on a much larger scale. The spatial extent of jam related effects on channel morphology vary, dependent upon the life stage of the jam. Temporal changes in jams have received relatively little attention in the literature. The development stage of a jam is associated with upstream channel aggradation and downstream degradation; this process reverses during a jam's deterioration phase. Carnation Creek, an 11 km2 watershed located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, provided a rare opportunity to examine both the spatial and temporal impacts of log jams on channel morphology. An understanding of these relationships will be developed through the analysis of changes in channel variables, such as channel dimensions, pattern, hydraulic characteristics, and morphology. These characteristics will be extracted from annual cross sectional surveys taken during 1971 - 1998.

  3. Process-Based Restoration and the Rise of the Stage Zero Channel As a Stream Restoration Goal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The stage zero channel (sensu Cluer and Thorne 2013) is increasingly recognized as having intrinsic high value because of the multiple and synergistic ecosystem goods and services that such channels provide. Stage zero channels have well connected floodplains with elevated water tables, spatially variable hydrologic regimes and structurally complex aquatic and riparian habitat. As such, they provide incredibly valuable habitat for a suite of terrestrial and aquatic taxa, including several Pacific salmon species that are in decline. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the features and types of stage zero channels, where in the landscape they are likely to be found, how they evolve under natural conditions, and restoration techniques for converting less ecologically valuable channel types into stage zero channels. We compare the structure and function of stage zero channels to more traditional channel restoration targets. We conclude that new approaches to stream restoration are needed that take into account society's economic and ecological imperatives to create resilient, structurally complex and dynamic systems, and that the spatial scale of restorative actions should be expanded where possible to better recognize and integrate the interdependent nature of longitudinal, lateral and vertical linkages in stream systems.

  4. Mapping spatial patterns of stream power and channel change along a gravel-bed river in northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Devin M.; Legleiter, Carl J.

    2016-01-01

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing or field surveys. This study sought to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8-km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994 to 2012 and ground-based surveys were used to develop a locational probability map and morphologic sediment budget to assess lateral channel mobility and changes in net sediment flux. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and DEM developed from LiDAR data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of sediment sources and sinks. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volumetric change in each time increment. Collectively, we refer to these methods as the stream power gradient (SPG) framework. The results of this study were compromised by methodological limitations of the SPG framework and revealed some complications likely to arise when applying this framework to small, wandering, gravel-bed rivers. Correlations between stream power gradients and sediment flux were generally weak, highlighting the inability of relatively simple statistical approaches to link sub-budget cell-scale sediment dynamics to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Improving the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study and acquiring very-high resolution data from recently developed methods in fluvial remote

  5. Spreading of a ferrofluid core in three-stream micromixer channels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaomeng; Varma, V. B.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Xia, Huan Ming; Wang, Z. P.

    2015-05-15

    Spreading of a water based ferrofluid core, cladded by a diamagnetic fluid, in three-stream micromixer channels was studied. This spreading, induced by an external magnetic field, is known as magnetofluidic spreading (MFS). MFS is useful for various novel applications where control of fluid-fluid interface is desired, such as micromixers or micro-chemical reactors. However, fundamental aspects of MFS are still unclear, and a model without correction factors is lacking. Hence, in this work, both experimental and numerical analyses were undertaken to study MFS. We show that MFS increased for higher applied magnetic fields, slower flow speed of both fluids, smaller flow rate of ferrofluid relative to cladding, and higher initial magnetic particle concentration. Spreading, mainly due to connective diffusion, was observed mostly near the channel walls. Our multi-physics model, which combines magnetic and fluidic analyses, showed, for the first time, excellent agreement between theory and experiment. These results can be useful for lab-on-a-chip devices.

  6. Spreading of a ferrofluid core in three-stream micromixer channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaomeng; Varma, V. B.; Xia, Huan Ming; Wang, Z. P.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2015-05-01

    Spreading of a water based ferrofluid core, cladded by a diamagnetic fluid, in three-stream micromixer channels was studied. This spreading, induced by an external magnetic field, is known as magnetofluidic spreading (MFS). MFS is useful for various novel applications where control of fluid-fluid interface is desired, such as micromixers or micro-chemical reactors. However, fundamental aspects of MFS are still unclear, and a model without correction factors is lacking. Hence, in this work, both experimental and numerical analyses were undertaken to study MFS. We show that MFS increased for higher applied magnetic fields, slower flow speed of both fluids, smaller flow rate of ferrofluid relative to cladding, and higher initial magnetic particle concentration. Spreading, mainly due to connective diffusion, was observed mostly near the channel walls. Our multi-physics model, which combines magnetic and fluidic analyses, showed, for the first time, excellent agreement between theory and experiment. These results can be useful for lab-on-a-chip devices.

  7. The fan of influence of streams and channel feedbacks to simulated land surface water and carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chaopeng; Riley, William J.; Smithgall, Kurt R.; Melack, John M.; Fang, Kuai

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale land models assume unidirectional land-to-river hydrological interactions, without considering feedbacks between channels and land. Using a tested, physically based model with explicit multiway interactions between overland, channel, wetland, and groundwater flows, we assessed how the representation and properties of channels influence simulated land surface hydrologic, biogeochemical, and ecosystem dynamics. A zone near the channels where various fluxes and states are significantly influenced by the channels, referred to as the fan of influence (FoI) of channels, has been identified. We elucidated two mechanisms inducing the model-derived FoI: the base flow mechanism, in which incised, gaining streams lower the water table and induce more base flow, and the relatively more efficient conveyance of the channel network compared to overland flow. We systematically varied drainage density and grid resolution to quantify the size of the FoI, which is found to span a large fraction of the watershed (25-50%) for hydrologic variables including depth to water table and recharge, etc. The FoI is more pronounced with low-resolution simulations but remains noticeable in hyperresolution (25 m) subbasin simulations. The FoI and the channel influence on basin-average fluxes are also similar in simulations with alternative parameter sets. We found that high-order, entrenched streams cause larger FoI. In addition, removing the simulated channels has disproportionally large influence on modeled wetland areas and inundation duration, which has implications for coupled biogeochemical or ecological modeling. Our results suggest that explicit channel representation provides important feedbacks to land surface dynamics which should be considered in meso or large-scale simulations. Since grid refinement incurs prohibitive computational cost, subgrid channel parameterization has advantages in efficiency over grid-based representations that do not distinguish between overland

  8. Streambed and water profile response to in-channel restoration structures in a laboratory meandering stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bangshuai; Chu, Hong-Hanh; Endreny, Theodore A.

    2015-11-01

    In-channel structures are often installed in alluvial rivers during restoration to steer currents, but they also modify the streambed morphology and water surface profile, and alter hydraulic gradients driving ecologically important hyporheic exchange. Although river features before and after restoration need to be compared, few studies have collected detailed observations to facilitate this comparison. We created a laboratory mobile-bed alluvial meandering river and collected detailed measurements in the highly sinuous meander before and after installation of in-channel structures, which included one cross vane and six J-hooks situated along 1 bar unit. Measurements of streambed and water surface elevation with submillimeter vertical accuracy and horizontal resolution were obtained using close-range photogrammetry. Compared to the smooth gradually varied water surface profile for control runs without structures, the structures created rapidly varied flow with subcritical to supercritical flow transitions, as well as backwater and forced-morphology pools, which increased volumetric storage by 74% in the entire stream reach. The J-hooks, located along the outer bank of the meander bend and downstream of the cross vane, created stepwise patterns in the streambed and water surface longitudinal profiles. The pooling of water behind the cross vane increased the hydraulic gradient across the meander neck by 1% and increased local groundwater gradients by 4%, with smaller increases across other transects through the intrameander zone. Scour pools developed downstream of the cross vane and around the J-hooks situated near the meander apex. In-channel structures significantly changed meander bend hydraulic gradients, and the detailed streambed and water surface 3-D maps provide valuable data for computational modeling of changes to hyporheic exchange.

  9. Regulation of TRPM8 channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Yudin, Yevgen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2011-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a Ca2+ permeable non-selective cation channel directly activated by cold temperatures and chemical agonists such as menthol. It is a well established sensor of environmental cold temperatures, found in peripheral sensory neurons, where its activation evokes depolarization and action potentials. The activity of TRPM8 is regulated by a number of cellular signaling pathways, most notably by phosphoinositides and the activation of phospholipase C. This review will summarize current knowledge on the physiological and pathophysiological roles of TRPM8 and its regulation by various intracellular messenger molecules and signaling pathways. PMID:22061619

  10. Channel change and sediment transport in two desert streams in central Arizona, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    recurrence interval of less than 5 years. A summer flow that lasted 3 hours had a peak discharge of 173 cubic meters per second and caused some bank erosion and possibly some dissection of terraces. The magnitude of change, however, was far less than that of the winter flow. Suspended-sediment concentration on the Salt River during the winter flows was typical of those for other regulated streams in Arizona and ranged from 2 to 617 milligrams per liter at discharges from 6.7 to 343 cubic meters per second. Fine-grained sediments in the channel bottom probably were the main source of sediment transported in suspension. During periods of prolonged, steady flows, suspended-sediment concentration tended to decline, which indicated a probable depletion of sediment supply. On the Hassayampa River, suspended-sediment concentrations ranged from 12,800 to 132,000 milligrams per liter at discharges of 13 to 128 cubic meters per second. The relation of sediment concentration to discharge was poor for the entire set of samples, but a clear pattern was evident for each period of storm runoff. In two of three periods of runoff sampled, maximum suspended-sediment concentration occurred just before peak discharge and declined rapidly.

  11. The Formation of CIRs at Stream-Stream Interfaces and Resultant Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.

    2005-01-01

    Corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are regions of compressed plasma formed at the leading edges of corotating high-speed solar wind streams originating in coronal holes as they interact with the preceding slow solar wind. Although particularly prominent features of the solar wind during the declining and minimum phases of the 11-year solar cycle, they may also be present at times of higher solar activity. We describe how CIRs are formed, and their geomagnetic effects, which principally result from brief southward interplanetary magnetic field excursions associated with Alfven waves. Seasonal and long-term variations in these effects are briefly discussed.

  12. Mapping spatial patterns of stream power and channel change along a gravel-bed river in northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Devin M.

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing or field surveys. This study used remote sensing and GIS tools along with field data to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8 km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994-2012 and cross-section surveys were used to develop a locational probability map and morphologic sediment budget to assess lateral channel mobility and changes in net sediment flux. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and digital elevation model (DEM) developed from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of sediment sources and sinks. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volumetric change in each time increment. Results indicated a lack of strong correlation between stream power gradients and sediment response, highlighting the geomorphic complexity of Soda Butte Creek and the inability of relatively simple statistical approaches to link sub-budget cell-scale sediment dynamics to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Improving the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study and acquiring very-high resolution data from recently developed methods in fluvial remote sensing could help improve understanding of the spatial organization of stream power, sediment transport, and channel change in

  13. Detecting the impact of bank and channel modification on invertebrate communities in Mediterranean temporary streams (Sardinia, SW Italy).

    PubMed

    Buffagni, Andrea; Tenchini, Roberta; Cazzola, Marcello; Erba, Stefania; Balestrini, Raffaella; Belfiore, Carlo; Pagnotta, Romano

    2016-09-15

    We hypothesized that reach-scale, bank and channel modification would impact benthic communities in temporary rivers of Sardinia, when pollution and water abstraction are not relevant. A range of variables were considered, which include both artificial structures/alterations and natural features observed in a stream reach. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were used to assess the effects of the explanatory variables on invertebrate assemblages and five groups, characterized by different habitat modification and/or features, were recognized. Four node variables determined the splits in the MRT analysis: channel reinforcement, tree-related bank and channel habitats, channel modification and bank modification. Continuity of trees in the river corridor diverged among MRT groups and significant differences among groups include presence of alders, extent of channel shading and substrate diversity. Also, the percentage of in-stream organic substrates, in particular CPOM/Xylal, showed highly significant differences among groups. For practical applications, thresholds for the extent of channel reinforcement (40%) and modification (10%) and for bank alteration (≈30%) were provided, that can be used to guide the implementation of restoration measures. In moderately altered river reaches, a significant extent of tree-related habitats (≈5%) can noticeably mitigate the effects of morphological alteration on aquatic invertebrates. The outcomes highlight the importance of riparian zone management as an opportune, achievable prospect in the restoration of Mediterranean temporary streams. The impact of bank and channel modification on ecological status (sensu WFD) was investigated and the tested benthic metrics, especially those based on abundance data, showed legible differences among MRT groups. Finally, bank and channel modification appears to be a potential threat for the conservation of a few Sardo-Corsican endemic species. The introduction of management criteria that

  14. Estimating 3D variation in active-layer thickness beneath arctic streams using ground-penetrating radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brosten, T.R.; Bradford, J.H.; McNamara, J.P.; Gooseff, M.N.; Zarnetske, J.P.; Bowden, W.B.; Johnston, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    We acquired three-dimensional (3D) ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data across three stream sites on the North Slope, AK, in August 2005, to investigate the dependence of thaw depth on channel morphology. Data were migrated with mean velocities derived from multi-offset GPR profiles collected across a stream section within each of the 3D survey areas. GPR data interpretations from the alluvial-lined stream site illustrate greater thaw depths beneath riffle and gravel bar features relative to neighboring pool features. The peat-lined stream sites indicate the opposite; greater thaw depths beneath pools and shallower thaw beneath the connecting runs. Results provide detailed 3D geometry of active-layer thaw depths that can support hydrological studies seeking to quantify transport and biogeochemical processes that occur within the hyporheic zone.

  15. Effects of biologically-active chemical mixtures on fish in a wastewater-impacted urban stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Nettesheim, T.G.; Murphy, E.W.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Stream flow in urban aquatic ecosystems often is maintained by water-reclamation plant (WRP) effluents that contain mixtures of natural and anthropogenic chemicals that persist through the treatment processes. In effluent-impacted streams, aquatic organisms such as fish are continuously exposed to biologically-active chemicals throughout their life cycles. The North Shore Channel of the Chicago River (Chicago, Illinois) is part of an urban ecosystem in which > 80% of the annual flow consists of effluent from the North Side WRP. In this study, multiple samplings of the effluent and stream water were conducted and fish (largemouth bass and carp) were collected on 2 occasions from the North Shore Channel. Fish also were collected once from the Outer Chicago Harbor in Lake Michigan, a reference site not impacted by WRP discharges. Over 100 organic chemicals with differing behaviors and biological effects were measured, and 23 compounds were detected in all of the water samples analyzed. The most frequently detected and highest concentration (> 100 ??g/L) compounds were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxycarboxylic acids. Other biologically-active chemicals including bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates, 4- tert-octylphenol, and 4- tert-octylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates were detected at lower concentrations (< 5 ??g/L). The biogenic steroidal hormones 17??-estradiol, estrone, testosterone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, and cis-androsterone were detected at even lower concentrations (< 0.005 ??g/L). There were slight differences in concentrations between the North Side WRP effluent and the North Shore Channel, indicating minimal in-stream attenuation. Fish populations are continuously exposed to mixtures of biologically-active chemicals because of the relative persistency of the chemicals with respect to stream hydraulic residence time, and the lack of a fresh water source for dilution. The majority of male fish

  16. Effects of biologically-active chemical mixtures on fish in a wastewater-impacted urban stream.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Brown, Gregory K; Nettesheim, Todd G; Murphy, Elizabeth W; Bartell, Stephen E; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2011-10-15

    Stream flow in urban aquatic ecosystems often is maintained by water-reclamation plant (WRP) effluents that contain mixtures of natural and anthropogenic chemicals that persist through the treatment processes. In effluent-impacted streams, aquatic organisms such as fish are continuously exposed to biologically-active chemicals throughout their life cycles. The North Shore Channel of the Chicago River (Chicago, Illinois) is part of an urban ecosystem in which >80% of the annual flow consists of effluent from the North Side WRP. In this study, multiple samplings of the effluent and stream water were conducted and fish (largemouth bass and carp) were collected on 2 occasions from the North Shore Channel. Fish also were collected once from the Outer Chicago Harbor in Lake Michigan, a reference site not impacted by WRP discharges. Over 100 organic chemicals with differing behaviors and biological effects were measured, and 23 compounds were detected in all of the water samples analyzed. The most frequently detected and highest concentration (>100μg/L) compounds were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxycarboxylic acids. Other biologically-active chemicals including bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates, 4-tert-octylphenol, and 4-tert-octylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates were detected at lower concentrations (<5μg/L). The biogenic steroidal hormones 17β-estradiol, estrone, testosterone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, and cis-androsterone were detected at even lower concentrations (<0.005μg/L). There were slight differences in concentrations between the North Side WRP effluent and the North Shore Channel, indicating minimal in-stream attenuation. Fish populations are continuously exposed to mixtures of biologically-active chemicals because of the relative persistency of the chemicals with respect to stream hydraulic residence time, and the lack of a fresh water source for dilution. The majority of male fish exhibited

  17. Analysis of Stream Channel Geometry Temporal and Spatial Evolution after Historic Dam Removal - two French case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawson, Deborah; Manière, Louis; Marchandeau, Florent

    2014-05-01

    IRSTEA, in partnership with the French Office national de l'eau et des milieux aquatiques (ONEMA), has begun a study of channel geomorphology in small streams where dams have been removed or breached between two and 200 years ago, without any subsequent restoration of the channel in the legacy sediments. A preliminary analysis of two sites in the Morvan, Burgundy, will be presented; a dam breached at the beginning of the 20th century and another in the last decade. Using ergodic reasoning, historical and recent upstream and downstream channel geometry is being used to predict the future temporal and spatial scales of channel physical habitat restoration. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), dam removal has become a more frequently used method for restoring stream ecological continuity. In France, these obstacles are ubiquitous in medium and small streams and considerably reduce lateral and longitudinal connectivity. Improvement in the hydromorphologically controlled, physical habitat, particularly flow and sediment transport regimes, is often essential to improvement in stream biology. However, dam removal may cause long-term disturbances in flow and sediment transport regimes. In the absence of channel restoration measures in addition to dam removal, these disturbances may result in long-term negative impacts on fish, macroinvertebrate, and riparian plant physical habitat. These negative impacts may include channel incision and lowering of the water table, disconnection from floodplains, increased stream power and bed scouring, and increased sediment load from headcutting and bank erosion. Over time, these negative impacts may resolve themselves. However, the time frame necessary for reestablishing adequate physical habitat is not well-known. Some studies have indicated that many decades or longer may be required, depending on a variety of factors. Under the WFD, the REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management (REFORM

  18. Effects of variation in streamflow and channel structure on smallmouth bass habitat in an alluvial stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jason, Remshardt W.; Fisher, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of streamflow-related changes in channel shape and morphology on the quality, quantity, availability and spatial distribution of young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu habitat in an alluvial stream, the Baron Fork of the Illinois River, Oklahoma. We developed Habitat Suitability Criteria (HSC) for young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass to assess changes in available smallmouth bass habitat between years, and compare predicted smallmouth bass Weighted Usable Area (WUA) with observed WUA measured the following year. Following flood events between 1999 and 2000, including a record flood, changes in transect cross-sectional area ranged from 62.5% to 93.5% and channel mesohabitat overlap ranged from 29.5% to 67.0% in study three study reaches. Using Physical HABitat SIMulation (PHABSIM) system analysis, we found that both young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass habitat were differentially affected by intra- and inter-annual streamflow fluctuations. Maximum WUA for young-of-year and adults occurred at streamflows of 1.8 and 2.3m3 s-1, respectively, and WUA declined sharply for both groups at lower streamflows. For most microhabitat variables, habitat availability was similar between years. Habitat suitability criteria developed in 1999 corresponded well with observed fish locations in 2000 for adult smallmouth bass but not for young-of-year fish. Our findings suggest that annual variation in habitat availability affects the predictive ability of habitat models for young-of-year smallmouth bass more than for adult smallmouth bass. Furthermore, our results showed that despite the dynamic nature of the gravel-dominated, alluvial Baron Fork, HSC for smallmouth bass were consistent and transferable between years.

  19. Channel Incision and Water-Table Decline Along a Recently Formed Proglacial Stream, Mendenhall Valley, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Edward G.

    2009-01-01

    Retreat of the Mendenhall Glacier, in southeastern Alaska, resulted in the formation of Mendenhall Lake, which has reduced the supply of coarse sediment to the proglacial Mendenhall River. Channel geometry surveys conducted in 1969 and 1998 over a 5.3 km reach of the Mendenhall River revealed reductions in mean bed elevations ranging from 0.4 to 1.5 meters based on cross sections replicated at 7 locations. Channel incision in the Mendenhall River is believed to be the result of a combination of factors resulting from localized and region-wide glacial retreat. In addition to a reduction of river stage due to channel incision, a decline in water-table elevations of about 0.6 m during a 17-year period from 1984 to 2001 was identified in an observation well located 250 m from the incising stream channel. Water-table elevations 600 m from the incising channel in the adjacent alluvial outwash aquifer respond in phase to changes in river stage, indicating water-levels in the adjacent aquifer are declining in response to river-channel incision. This study suggests channel incision can rapidly lower water-table elevations for large distances in the adjacent aquifer, potentially modifying the hydrology to a degree capable of influencing adjacent surface-water features, such as off-channel wetlands and flood-plain side channels.

  20. Channel and perennial flow initiation in headwater streams: management implications of variability in source-area size.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Kristin L; Montgomery, David R; Bolton, Susan M

    2007-11-01

    Despite increasing attention to management of headwater streams as sources of water, sediment, and wood to downstream rivers, the extent of headwater channels and perennial flow remain poorly known and inaccurately depicted on topographic maps and in digital hydrographic data. This study reports field mapping of channel head and perennial flow initiation locations in forested landscapes underlain by sandstone and basalt lithologies in Washington State, USA. Contributing source areas were delineated for each feature using a digital elevation model (DEM) as well as a Global Positioning System device in the field. Systematic source area-slope relationships described in other landscapes were not evident for channel heads in either lithology. In addition, substantial variability in DEM-derived source area sizes relative to field-delineated source areas indicates that in this area, identification of an area-slope relationship, should one even exist, would be difficult. However, channel heads and stream heads, here defined as the start of perennial flow, appear to be co-located within both of the lithologies, which together with lateral expansion and contraction of surface water around channel heads on a seasonal cycle in the basalt lithology, suggest a controlling influence of bedrock springs for that location. While management strategies for determining locations of channel heads and perennial flow initiation in comparable areas could assign standard source area sizes based on limited field data collection within that landscape, field-mapped source areas that support perennial flow are much smaller than recognized by current Washington State regulations.

  1. Stream channel cross sections for a reach of the Boise River in Ada County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hortness, Jon E.; Werner, Douglas C.

    1999-01-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency produces maps of areas that are likely to be inundated during major floods, usually the 100-year, or 1-percent probability, flood. The maps, called Flood Insurance Rate Maps, are used to determine flood insurance rates for homes, businesses, or other structures located in flood-prone areas. State and local governments also use these maps for help with, among other things, development planning and disaster mitigation. During the period October 1997 through December 1998, the initial phase of a hydraulic analysis project of the Boise River from Barber Dam to the Ada/Canyon County boundary, the U.S. Geological Survey collected stream channel cross-section data at 238 locations along the river and documented 108 elevation reference marks established for horizontal and vertical control. In the final phase of the project, the Survey will use these data to determine water-surface elevations for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods and to define floodway limits. The Federal Emergency Management Agency will use the results of this hydraulic analysis to update the 100- and 500-year flood boundaries and the floodway limits on their Flood Insurance Rate Maps.

  2. Larval salamanders and channel geomorphology are indicators of hydrologic permanence in forested headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory agencies need rapid indicators of hydrologic permanence for jurisdictional determinations of headwater streams. Our study objective was to assess the utility of larval salamander presence and assemblage structure and habitat variables for determining stream permanence ...

  3. Ca2+-activated K channels in parotid acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Victor G; Thompson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Fluid secretion relies on a close interplay between Ca2+-activated Cl and K channels. Salivary acinar cells contain both large conductance, BK, and intermediate conductance, IK1, K channels. Physiological fluid secretion occurs with only modest (<500 nM) increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels but BK channels in many cell types and in heterologous expression systems require very high concentrations for significant activation. We report here our efforts to understand this apparent contradiction. We determined the Ca2+ dependence of IK1 and BK channels in mouse parotid acinar cells. IK1 channels activated with an apparent Ca2+ affinity of about 350 nM and a hill coefficient near 3. Native parotid BK channels activated at similar Ca2+ levels unlike the BK channels in other cell types. Since the parotid BK channel is encoded by an uncommon splice variant, we examined this clone in a heterologous expression system. In contrast to the native parotid channel, activation of this expressed “parslo” channel required very high levels of Ca2+. In order to understand the functional basis for the special properties of the native channels, we analyzed the parotid BK channel in the context of the horrigan-Aldrich model of BK channel gating. We found that the shifted activation of parotid BK channels resulted from a hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage dependence of voltage sensor activation and channel opening and included a large change in the coupling of these two processes. PMID:20519930

  4. Human-induced stream channel abandonment/capture and filling of floodplain channels within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroes, Daniel E.; Kraemer, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The Atchafalaya River Basin is a distributary system of the Mississippi River containing the largest riparian area in the lower Mississippi River Valley and the largest remaining forested bottomland in North America. Reductions in the area of open water in the Atchafalaya have been occurring over the last 100 years, and many historical waterways are increasingly filled by sediment. This study examines two cases of swamp channels (3/s) that are filling and becoming unnavigable as a result of high sediment loads and slow water velocities. The water velocities in natural bayous are further reduced because of flow capture by channels constructed for access. Bathymetry, flow, suspended sediment, deposited bottom-material, isotopes, and photointerpretation were used to characterize the channel fill. On average, water flowing through these two channels lost 23% of the suspended sediment load in the studied reaches. Along one of the studied reaches, two constructed access channels diverted significant flow out of the primary channel and into the adjacent swamp. Immediately downstream of each of the two access channels, the cross-sectional area of the studied channel was reduced. Isotopic analyses of bottom-material cores indicate that bed filling has been rapid and occurred after detectable levels of Cesium-137 were no longer being deposited. Interpretation of aerial photography indicates that water is bypassing the primary channels in favor of the more hydraulically efficient access channels, resulting in low or no-velocity flow conditions in the primary channel. These swamp channel conditions are typical in the Atchafalaya River Basin where relict large channel dimensions result in flow velocities that are normally too low to carry fine-grained sediment. Constructed channels increase the rate of natural channel avulsion and abandonment as a result of flow capture.

  5. Human-induced stream channel abandonment/capture and filling of floodplain channels within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroes, Daniel E.; Kraemer, Thomas F.

    2013-11-01

    The Atchafalaya River Basin is a distributary system of the Mississippi River containing the largest riparian area in the lower Mississippi River Valley and the largest remaining forested bottomland in North America. Reductions in the area of open water in the Atchafalaya have been occurring over the last 100 years, and many historical waterways are increasingly filled by sediment. This study examines two cases of swamp channels (< 85 m3/s) that are filling and becoming unnavigable as a result of high sediment loads and slow water velocities. The water velocities in natural bayous are further reduced because of flow capture by channels constructed for access. Bathymetry, flow, suspended sediment, deposited bottom-material, isotopes, and photointerpretation were used to characterize the channel fill. On average, water flowing through these two channels lost 23% of the suspended sediment load in the studied reaches. Along one of the studied reaches, two constructed access channels diverted significant flow out of the primary channel and into the adjacent swamp. Immediately downstream of each of the two access channels, the cross-sectional area of the studied channel was reduced. Isotopic analyses of bottom-material cores indicate that bed filling has been rapid and occurred after detectable levels of Cesium-137 were no longer being deposited. Interpretation of aerial photography indicates that water is bypassing the primary channels in favor of the more hydraulically efficient access channels, resulting in low or no-velocity flow conditions in the primary channel. These swamp channel conditions are typical in the Atchafalaya River Basin where relict large channel dimensions result in flow velocities that are normally too low to carry fine-grained sediment. Constructed channels increase the rate of natural channel avulsion and abandonment as a result of flow capture.

  6. Removal of Dental Biofilms with an Ultrasonically Activated Water Stream.

    PubMed

    Howlin, R P; Fabbri, S; Offin, D G; Symonds, N; Kiang, K S; Knee, R J; Yoganantham, D C; Webb, J S; Birkin, P R; Leighton, T G; Stoodley, P

    2015-09-01

    Acidogenic bacteria within dental plaque biofilms are the causative agents of caries. Consequently, maintenance of a healthy oral environment with efficient biofilm removal strategies is important to limit caries, as well as halt progression to gingivitis and periodontitis. Recently, a novel cleaning device has been described using an ultrasonically activated stream (UAS) to generate a cavitation cloud of bubbles in a freely flowing water stream that has demonstrated the capacity to be effective at biofilm removal. In this study, UAS was evaluated for its ability to remove biofilms of the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159, as well as Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811, grown on machine-etched glass slides to generate a reproducible complex surface and artificial teeth from a typodont training model. Biofilm removal was assessed both visually and microscopically using high-speed videography, confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis by CSLM demonstrated a statistically significant 99.9% removal of S. mutans biofilms exposed to the UAS for 10 s, relative to both untreated control biofilms and biofilms exposed to the water stream alone without ultrasonic activation (P < 0.05). The water stream alone showed no statistically significant difference in removal compared with the untreated control (P = 0.24). High-speed videography demonstrated a rapid rate (151 mm(2) in 1 s) of biofilm removal. The UAS was also highly effective at S. mutans, A. naeslundii, and S. oralis biofilm removal from machine-etched glass and S. mutans from typodont surfaces with complex topography. Consequently, UAS technology represents a potentially effective method for biofilm removal and improved oral hygiene.

  7. Ephemeral-Stream Channel and Basin-Floor Infiltration and Recharge in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coes, A.L.; Pool, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    The timing and location of streamflow in the San Pedro River are partially dependent on the aerial distribution of recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Previous investigators have assumed that recharge in the subwatershed occurs only along the mountain fronts by way of stream-channel infiltration near the contact between low-permeability rocks of the mountains and the basin fill. Recent studies in other alluvial basins of the Southwestern United States, however, have shown that significant recharge can occur through the sediments of ephemeral stream channels at locations several kilometers distant from the mountains. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of infiltration and subsequent recharge through the ephemeral channels in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Infiltration fluxes in ephemeral channels and through the basin floor of the subwatershed were estimated by using several methods. Data collected during the drilling and coring of 16 boreholes included physical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of sediments; chloride concentrations of sediments; and pore-water stable-isotope values and tritium activity. Surface and subsurface sediment temperatures were continuously measured at each borehole. Twelve boreholes were drilled in five ephemeral stream channels to estimate infiltration within ephemeral channels. Active infiltration was verified to at least 20 meters at 11 of the 12 borehole sites on the basis of low sediment-chloride concentrations, high soil-water contents, and pore-water tritium activity similar to present-day precipitation. Consolidated sediments at the twelfth site prevented core recovery and estimation of infiltration. Analytical and numerical methods were applied to determine the surface infiltration flux required to produce the observed sediment-temperature fluctuations at six sites. Infiltration fluxes were determined for summer ephemeral flow events only because no winter flows were recorded at the sites

  8. Diel changes in stream periphyton extracellular enzyme activity throughout community development on inert and organic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rier, S. T.; Francoeur, S. N.; Kuehn, K. A.

    2005-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that algal photosynthesis in stream periphyton communities would influence the activities of extracellular enzymes produced by associated heterotrophic bacteria and fungi to acquire organic compounds and inorganic nutrients. We approached this question by looking for diurnal variation in activities of four extracellular enzymes in periphyton communities that were grown on either inert (glass fiber filters) or organic (leaves) substrata that there were incubated in stream-side channels that were either open to full sun or shaded. Substrata were subsampled for β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphotase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phenol oxidase activities at 3-5 hr. intervals over two consecutive diurnal cycles that were repeated at an early and later stage of periphyton community development. Activities of all enzymes displayed diurnal periodicity but the strength of the diurnal effects depended largely on the substrate type and stage of community development. The most consistent diurnal change was observed with phenol oxidase activity with significantly greater (p<0.05) activities being observed in during the day for both stages of community development and for both substrate types. It is likely that oxygen produced by algal photosynthesis is driving the activity of this oxidative enzyme and that algae might indirectly influence the decomposition of phenolic compounds.

  9. Impact of Volcanic Activity on AMC Channel Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    IMPACT OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY ON AMC CHANNEL OPERATIONS GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Matthew D... VOLCANIC ACTIVITY ON AMC CHANNEL OPERATIONS GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences...AFIT-ENS-GRP-14-J-11 IMPACT OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY ON AMC CHANNEL OPERATIONS Matthew D. Meshanko, BS, MA Major, USAF

  10. Channel-reach morphology controls of headwater streams based in flysch geologic structures: An example from the Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galia, Tomáš; Hradecký, Jan

    2014-07-01

    A detailed measurement of 93 channel reaches that were classified with an adjusted Montgomery-Buffington (1997) reach-scale system provided comprehensive information of approximately 9 at-a-reach parameters: the channel gradient, the bankfull width, the bankfull depth, d90, the percentage of resistant rocks in the bed sediment, the number of pieces of large woody debris, valley confinement, direct sediment inputs and the presence of fluvial accumulations in the stream channel. In addition, the quantified intensity of sediment transport (i.e. ratio between sediment supply and transport capacity in longitudinal stream profiles) during flood events has been estimated by the one-dimensional bedload transport model (TOMSED), which was validated in two local streams. The principal component analysis of the at-a-reach parameters did not reveal significant groups of channel-reach morphologies; thus, the selected parameters that exclude sediment transport dynamics within stream longitudinal profile cannot reliably distinguish or predict individual channel reach morphologies. Nevertheless, the channel gradient represented the most significant single explanatory variable for stepped-bed morphologies. The addition of bedload transport parameters demonstrated that limited sediment supply streams and streams with limited transport capacities featured different successions of the channel reach morphologies in terms of the channel gradient and, subsequently, the fluvial continuity. The bedrock-cascades and step-pools were significant for the first case, whereas cascade and step-rapid morphology often occurred in higher sediment supply conditions.

  11. Beaver Activity, Holocene Climate and Riparian Landscape Change Across Stream Scales in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, R.; Meyer, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Beaver (Castor canadensis) have been part of the fluvial and riparian landscape across much of North America since the Pleistocene, increasing channel habitat complexity and expanding riparian landscapes. The fur trade, however, decimated beaver populations by the 1840s, and other human activities have limited beaver in many areas, including parts of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Understanding fluctuations in beaver occupation through the Holocene will aid in understanding the natural range of variability in beaver activity as well as climatic and anthropogenic impacts to fluvial systems. We are developing a detailed chronology of beaver-assisted sedimentation and overall fluvial activity for Odell and Red Rock Creeks (basin areas 83 and 99 km2) in Centennial Valley (CV), Montana, to augment related studies on the long-term effects of beaver on smaller GYE fluvial systems (basin areas 0.1-50 km2). In developing the CV chronology, we use the presence of concentrations of beaver-chewed sticks as a proxy for beaver occupancy. Beaver-stick deposits are found in paleochannel and fluvial terrace exposures. The relative ages of exposures were determined by elevation data from airborne LiDAR and ground surveys. Numerical ages were obtained from 36 14C ages (~30 more are pending) of beaver-stick wood collected during investigation of the stratigraphy. Most beaver-stick deposits are associated with ~ 1 meter of fine-grained sediment, interpreted as overbank deposits, commonly overlying gravelly sand or pebble gravel channel deposits which is consistent with enhanced overbank sedimentation associated with active beaver dams in CV streams. The CV deposits differ from those on smaller GYE streams where beaver-stick deposits are associated with abandoned dams (berms), infilled ponds and laminated sediments. The lack of pond-related deposition associated with CV beaver-stick deposits is consistent with frequent dam breaching (≤ 5 years) in the modern channel of Odell

  12. Influences of high-flow events on a stream channel altered by construction of a highway bridge: a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of highway construction on streams in the central Appalachians are a growing concern as new roads are created to promote tourism and economic development in the area. Alterations to the streambed of a first-order stream, Sauerkraut Run, Hardy County, WV, during construction of a highway overpass included placement and removal of a temporary culvert, straightening and regrading of a section of stream channel, and armourment of a bank with a reinforced gravel berm. We surveyed longitudinal profiles and cross sections in a reference reach and the altered reach of Sauerkraut Run from 2003 through 2007 to measure physical changes in the streambed. During the four-year period, three high-flow events changed the streambed downstream of construction including channel widening and aggradation and then degradation of the streambed. Upstream of construction, at a reinforced gravel berm, bank erosion was documented. The reference section remained relatively unchanged. Knowledge gained by documenting channel changes in response to natural and anthropogenic variables can be useful for managers and engineers involved in highway construction projects.

  13. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope/channel

  14. Channel morphology and patterns of bedload transport in fluvial, formerly-glaciated, forested headwater streams of the Columbia Mountains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Kim; Brardinoni, Francesco; Alila, Younes

    2013-04-01

    This study examines channel-reach morphology and bedload transport dynamics in relation to landscape structure and snowmelt hydrology in Cotton and Elk Creek, two headwater streams of the southern Columbia Mountains, Canada. Data collection is based on field surveys and GIS analysis in conjunction with a nested monitoring network of water discharge and bed load transfer. The nested monitoring network is designed to examine the effects of channel bed texture, and the influence of free-formed (i.e., boulder cascades, step pools, and riffle pools) and forced-alluvial morphologies (i.e., forced step pools) on bedload entrainment and transport. The landscape is characterized by subdued glaciated topography in which sediment is primarily supplied by bank failures and fluvial transfer dominates the channelized sediment cascade. The spatial distribution of channel types is mainly controlled by glacially imposed local slope together with availability of wood and glacigenic materials. Interestingly, downstream hydraulic geometry as well as downstream patterns of the coarse channel bed fraction and stream power are all insensitive to systematic changes of local slope along the typically stepped longitudinal profiles. An indication that the study alluvial systems are adjusted to the contemporary hydrologic and sedimentary regimes, and as such through post-LGM times have been able to compensate for the glacially-imposed boundary conditions. Stepwise multiple regression indicates that annual bedload yield is chiefly controlled by the number of peak events over threshold discharge. During such high flows, repeated destabilization of channel bed armouring and re-mobilization of sediment stored behind logjams can ensure sediment supply for bedload transport across the entire snowmelt season. In particular, channel morphology affects distinctively the variability of bed load response to hydrologic forcing. The observed spatial variability in annual bedload yield appears to correlate

  15. Metal interactions with voltage- and receptor-activated ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Vijverberg, H P; Oortgiesen, M; Leinders, T; van Kleef, R G

    1994-01-01

    Effects of Pb and several other metal ions on various distinct types of voltage-, receptor- and Ca-activated ion channels have been investigated in cultured N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells. Experiments were performed using the whole-cell voltage clamp and single-channel patch clamp techniques. External superfusion of nanomolar to submillimolar concentrations of Pb causes multiple effects on ion channels. Barium current through voltage-activated Ca channels is blocked by micromolar concentrations of Pb, whereas voltage-activated Na current appears insensitive. Neuronal type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-activated ion current is blocked by nanomolar concentrations of Pb and this block is reversed at micromolar concentrations. Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor-activated ion current is much less sensitive to Pb. In addition, external superfusion with micromolar concentrations of Pb as well as of Cd and aluminum induces inward current, associated with the direct activation of nonselective cation channels by these metal ions. In excised inside-out membrane patches of neuroblastoma cells, micromolar concentrations of Ca activate small (SK) and big (BK) Ca-activated K channels. Internally applied Pb activates SK and BK channels more potently than Ca, whereas Cd is approximately equipotent to Pb with respect to SK channel activation, but fails to activate BK channels. The results show that metal ions cause distinct, selective effects on the various types of ion channels and that metal ion interaction sites of ion channels may be highly selective for particular metal ions. PMID:7531139

  16. Epilepsy-Related Slack Channel Mutants Lead to Channel Over-Activity by Two Different Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiong-Yao; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Xu, Jie; Wang, Ran; Chen, Jian; Logothetis, Diomedes E; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-05

    Twelve sodium-activated potassium channel (KCNT1, Slack) genetic mutants have been identified from severe early-onset epilepsy patients. The changes in biophysical properties of these mutants and the underlying mechanisms causing disease remain elusive. Here, we report that seven of the 12 mutations increase, whereas one mutation decreases, the channel's sodium sensitivity. Two of the mutants exhibit channel over-activity only when the intracellular Na(+) ([Na(+)]i) concentration is ∼80 mM. In contrast, single-channel data reveal that all 12 mutants increase the maximal open probability (Po). We conclude that these mutant channels lead to channel over-activity predominantly by increasing the ability of sodium binding to activate the channel, which is indicated by its maximal Po. The sodium sensitivity of these epilepsy causing mutants probably determines the [Na(+)]i concentration at which these mutants exert their pathological effects.

  17. Annual and seasonal differences in pesticide mixtures within channelized agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a limited amount of information on pesticide mixtures within agricultural headwater streams is available. A greater understanding of the characteristics of pesticide mixtures and their spatial and temporal trends within agricultural headwater streams is needed to evaluate the risks of pesticid...

  18. Complex channel responses to changes in stream flow and sediment supply on the lower Duchesne River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Schmidt, J.C.; Wilcock, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Channel responses to flow depletions in the lower Duchesne River over the past 100 years have been highly complex and variable in space and time. In general, sand-bed reaches adjusted to all perturbations with bed-level changes, whereas the gravel-bed reaches adjusted primarily through width changes. Gravel-bed reaches aggraded only when gravel was supplied to the channel through local bank erosion and degraded only during extreme flood events. A 50% reduction in stream flow and an increase in fine sediment supply to the study area occurred in the first third of the 20th century. The gravel-bed reach responded primarily with channel narrowing, whereas bed aggradation and four large-scale avulsions occurred in the sand-bed reaches. These avulsions almost completely replaced a section of sinuous channel about 14 km long with a straighter section about 7 km long. The most upstream avulsion, located near a break in valley slope and the transition from a gravel bed upstream and a sand bed downstream, transformed a sinuous sand-bed reach into a braided gravel-bed reach and eventually into a meandering gravel-bed reach over a 30-year period. Later, an increase in flood magnitudes and durations caused widening and secondary bed aggradation in the gravel-bed reaches, whereas the sand-bed reaches incised and narrowed. Water diversions since the 1950s have progressively eliminated moderate flood events, whereas larger floods have been less affected. The loss of frequent flooding has increased the duration and severity of drought periods during which riparian vegetation can establish along the channel margins. As a result, the channel has gradually narrowed throughout the study area since the late 1960s, despite the occasional occurrence of large floods. No tributaries enter the Duchesne River within the study area, so all reaches have experienced identical changes in stream flow and upstream sediment supply. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bisandrographolide from Andrographis paniculata activates TRPV4 channels.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paula L; Maloney, Katherine N; Pothen, Randy G; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E

    2006-10-06

    Many transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated or blocked by various compounds found in plants; two prominent examples include the activation of TRPV1 channels by capsaicin and the activation of TRPM8 channels by menthol. We sought to identify additional plant compounds that are active on other types of TRP channels. We screened a library of extracts from 50 Chinese herbal plants using a calcium-imaging assay to find compounds active on TRPV3 and TRPV4 channels. An extract from the plant Andrographis paniculata potently activated TRPV4 channels. The extract was fractionated further, and the active compound was identified as bisandrographolide A (BAA). We used purified compound to characterize the activity of BAA on certain TRPV channel subtypes. Although BAA activated TRPV4 channels with an EC(50) of 790-950 nm, it did not activate or block activation of TRPV1, TRPV2, or TRPV3 channels. BAA activated a large TRPV4-like current in immortalized mouse keratinocytes (308 cells) that have been shown to express TRPV4 protein endogenously. This compound also activated TRPV4 currents in cell-free outside-out patches from HEK293T cells overexpressing TRPV4 cDNA, suggesting that BAA can activate the channel in a membrane-delimited manner. Another related compound, andrographolide, found in abundance in the plant Andrographis was unable to activate or block activation of TRPV4 channels. These experiments show that BAA activates TRPV4 channels, and we discuss the possibility that activation of TRPV4 by BAA could play a role in some of the effects of Andrographis extract described in traditional medicine.

  20. Quantifying the sensitivity of ephemeral streams to land disturbance activities in arid ecosystems at the watershed scale.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Ben L; Hamada, Yuki; Bowen, Esther E; Grippo, Mark A; Hartmann, Heidi M; Patton, Terri L; Van Lonkhuyzen, Robert A; Carr, Adrianne E

    2014-11-01

    Large areas of public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management and located in arid regions of the southwestern United States are being considered for the development of utility-scale solar energy facilities. Land-disturbing activities in these desert, alluvium-filled valleys have the potential to adversely affect the hydrologic and ecologic functions of ephemeral streams. Regulation and management of ephemeral streams typically falls under a spectrum of federal, state, and local programs, but scientifically based guidelines for protecting ephemeral streams with respect to land-development activities are largely nonexistent. This study developed an assessment approach for quantifying the sensitivity to land disturbance of ephemeral stream reaches located in proposed solar energy zones (SEZs). The ephemeral stream assessment approach used publicly-available geospatial data on hydrology, topography, surficial geology, and soil characteristics, as well as high-resolution aerial imagery. These datasets were used to inform a professional judgment-based score index of potential land disturbance impacts on selected critical functions of ephemeral streams, including flow and sediment conveyance, ecological habitat value, and groundwater recharge. The total sensitivity scores (sum of scores for the critical stream functions of flow and sediment conveyance, ecological habitats, and groundwater recharge) were used to identify highly sensitive stream reaches to inform decisions on developable areas in SEZs. Total sensitivity scores typically reflected the scores of the individual stream functions; some exceptions pertain to groundwater recharge and ecological habitats. The primary limitations of this assessment approach were the lack of high-resolution identification of ephemeral stream channels in the existing National Hydrography Dataset, and the lack of mechanistic processes describing potential impacts on ephemeral stream functions at the watershed scale. The

  1. A quantized mechanism for activation of pannexin channels

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Jin, Xueyao; Medina, Christopher B.; Leonhardt, Susan A.; Kiessling, Volker; Bennett, Brad C.; Shu, Shaofang; Tamm, Lukas K.; Yeager, Mark; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    Pannexin 1 (PANX1) subunits form oligomeric plasma membrane channels that mediate nucleotide release for purinergic signalling, which is involved in diverse physiological processes such as apoptosis, inflammation, blood pressure regulation, and cancer progression and metastasis. Here we explore the mechanistic basis for PANX1 activation by using wild type and engineered concatemeric channels. We find that PANX1 activation involves sequential stepwise sojourns through multiple discrete open states, each with unique channel gating and conductance properties that reflect contributions of the individual subunits of the hexamer. Progressive PANX1 channel opening is directly linked to permeation of ions and large molecules (ATP and fluorescent dyes) and occurs during both irreversible (caspase cleavage-mediated) and reversible (α1 adrenoceptor-mediated) forms of channel activation. This unique, quantized activation process enables fine tuning of PANX1 channel activity and may be a generalized regulatory mechanism for other related multimeric channels. PMID:28134257

  2. Metal contamination of active stream sediments in upper Weardale, northern Pennine Orefield, UK.

    PubMed

    Lord, R A; Morgan, P A

    2003-03-01

    In the Upper Weardale area the headwaters of the River Wear bisect the Northern Pennine Orefield, where Pb-Zn-F-Ba vein-type mineralisation has been exploited since the Roman Conquest. The area contains evidence of open pit, underground and hydraulic mining of base metal ores, associated mineral processing and smelting, exploitation of ironstones during the industrial revolution, recent extraction of fluorite and active quarrying. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of modern sediment contamination arising from these past activities. Samples of active stream sediments were collected from all major drainage channels at 1 km intervals. The sediments were analysed for Pb, Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Cr, As, Sb, Ag and compared to data from earlier regional geochemical surveys of low order drainage samples using ArcView software. The significance of contamination levels was assessed using the Ontario aquatic sediment quality guidelines. Our results indicate widespread contamination of some major drainages by Pb, Mn, Zn and As at concentration levels anticipated to significantly affect use of the sediments by benthic organisms. Furthermore, Pb contamination shows persistence in stream sediments downstream towards agricultural areas of the floodplain and drinking water abstraction points, above which interaction with colliery mine water discharges may occur.

  3. Jovian dust streams: A monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruger, H.; Geissler, P.; Horanyi, M.; Graps, A.L.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Moissl, R.; Johnson, T.V.; Grun, E.

    2003-01-01

    Streams of high speed dust particles originate from Jupiter's moon Io. After release from Io, the particles collect electric charges in the Io plasma torus, gain energy from the co-rotating electric field of Jupiter's magnetosphere, and leave the Jovian system into interplanetary space with escape speeds over 200 km s-1. The Galileo spacecraft has continuously monitored the dust streams during 34 revolutions about Jupiter between 1996 and 2002. The observed dust fluxes exhibit large orbit-to-orbit variability due to systematic and stochastic changes. After removal of the systematic variations, the total dust emission rate of Io has been calculated. It varies between 10-3 and 10 kg s-1, and is typically in the range of 0.1 to 1 kg s-1. We compare the dust emission rate with other markers of volcanic activity on Io like large-area surface changes caused by volcanic deposits and sightings of volcanic plumes. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Copper and protons directly activate the zinc-activated channel.

    PubMed

    Trattnig, Sarah M; Gasiorek, Agnes; Deeb, Tarek Z; Ortiz, Eydith J Comenencia; Moss, Stephen J; Jensen, Anders A; Davies, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    The zinc-activated channel (ZAC) is a cationic ion channel belonging to the superfamily of Cys-loop receptors, which consists of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. ZAC is the least understood member of this family so in the present study we sought to characterize the properties of this channel further. We demonstrate that not only zinc (Zn(2+)) but also copper (Cu(2+)) and protons (H(+)) are agonists of ZAC, displaying potencies and efficacies in the rank orders of H(+)>Cu(2+)>Zn(2+) and H(+)>Zn(2+)>Cu(2+), respectively. The responses elicited by Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and H(+) through ZAC are all characterized by low degrees of desensitization. In contrast, currents evoked by high concentrations of the three agonists comprise distinctly different activation and decay components, with transitions to and from an open state being significantly faster for H(+) than for the two metal ions. The permeabilities of ZAC for Na(+) and K(+) relative to Cs(+) are indistinguishable, whereas replacing all of extracellular Na(+) and K(+) with the divalent cations Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) results in complete elimination of Zn(2+)-activated currents at both negative and positive holding potentials. This indicates that ZAC is non-selectively permeable to monovalent cations, whereas Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) inhibit the channel. In conclusion, this is the first report of a Cys-loop receptor being gated by Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and H(+). ZAC could be an important mediator of some of the wide range of physiological functions regulated by or involving Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and H(+).

  5. Groundwater-derived contaminant fluxes along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    SciTech Connect

    LaSage, Danita m; Fryar, Alan E; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Sturchio, Neil C; Heraty, Linnea J

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies in various settings across eastern North America have examined the movement of volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes from groundwater to streams, but few studies have addressed focused discharge of such plumes in unlithified sediments. From 1999 through 2002, we monitored concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) and the non-volatile co-contaminant technetium-99 along Little Bayou Creek, a first -order perennial stream in the Coastal Plain of western Kentucky. Spring flow contributed TCE and technetium-99 to the creek, and TCE concentrations tended to vary with technetium-99 in springs. Contaminant concentrations in stream water fluctuated seasonally, but not always synchronously with stream flow. However, contaminant influxes varied seasonally with stream flow and were dominated by a few springs. Concentrations of O2, NO3⁻, and SO2-4, values of δ37CL in groundwater, and the lack of less-chlorinated ethenes in groundwater and stream water indicated that aerobic biodegradation of TCE was unlikely. Losses of TCE along Little Bayou Creek resulted mainly from volatilization, in contrast to streams receiving diffuse contaminated discharge, where intrinsic bioremediation of VOCs appears to be prevalent.

  6. Effects of stream discharge, alluvial depth and bar amplitude on hyporheic flow in pool-riffle channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonina, Daniele; Buffington, John M.

    2011-08-01

    Hyporheic flow results from the interaction between streamflow and channel morphology and is an important component of stream ecosystems because it enhances water and solute exchange between the river and its bed. Hyporheic flow in pool-riffle channels is particularly complex because of three-dimensional topography that spans a range of partially to fully submerged conditions, inducing both static and dynamic head variations. Hence, these channels exhibit transitional conditions of streambed pressure and hyporheic flow compared to previous studies of fully submerged, two-dimensional bed forms. Here, we conduct a series of three-dimensional simulations to investigate the effects of bed topography, depth of alluvium, and stream discharge on hyporheic flow in pool-riffle reaches with variable bed form submergence, and we propose three empirical formulae to predict the mean depth of hyporheic exchange and characteristic values of the residence time distribution (mean and standard deviation). Hyporheic exchange is predicted with a three-dimensional pumping model, and hyporheic flow is modeled as a Darcy flow. We find that the hyporheic residence time is well approximated by a lognormal distribution for both partially and entirely submerged pool-riffle topography, with the parameters of the distribution defined by the mean and variance of the log-transformed residence time. Depth of alluvium has a substantial effect on hyporheic flow when alluvial depth is less than a third of the bed form wavelength for the conditions examined.

  7. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  8. Measurement of Channel Morphology in a Headwater Stream using Low-Altitude Photography and a 3D Model Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidaira, K.; Hiraoka, M.; Gomi, T.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a method for measuring detail channel morphology using a low elevation photographic scanning. This study was conducted in a 36-m step-pool channel segment in a headwater stream of Ooborazawa watershed located in 20 km south of Tokyo. The channels were covered by Boenninghausenia japonica and Oplismenus undulatifolius var. undulatifolius. Therefore, topographic measurement in high altitude (up to 5 m) using a drone is not applicable. D50 and D90 of channel substrates were 4 cm and 21 cm, respectively. A plastic case that equipped with two digital cameras (RICOH CX5) is mounted at the top of 2.2 m of a glass fiber pole. Photos were taken every 5 seconds from 1.8 m above ground surface. Eleven ground control points (GCP) were installed and measured coordinates. We developed digital 3D topographic model using PhotoScan Pro edition version 1.0.0 and the developed 1 cm contour map using ArcGIS version 10.2. Furthermore, we measured the number, height, and length of steps for examining the accuracy of data. Resolution of obtained topographic model was from 9 to 11 mm per pixel. 1 cm of particle was identified using photo was 1 cm. Estimated step height was agreed to the measured step height in the field. We detected maximum channel scour from October to December, 2014 with (146.5 mm/day for maximum daily rain) occurred at pools with 13cm changes , while 5 to 10 cm of changes in sediment deposition occurred from Mya to June, 2015 with 78.5 mm/day of maximum daily rain. Disposition of sediment was concentration within the sequences of step structures. Our method allows us for understanding detail sediment movement and resultant localized channel changes in steep channels.

  9. Using Multiple Watershed-scale Dye Tracing Tests to Study Water and Solute Transport in Naturally Obstructed Stream Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Meeks, J. L.; Hubbard, K. A.; Kurian, L. M.; Siegel, D. I.; Lautz, L. K.; Otz, M. H.

    2007-12-01

    Temporary storage of surface water at channel sides and pools significantly affects water and solute transport downstream in watersheds. Beavers, natural "stream channel engineers", build dams which obstruct stream flow and temporarily store water in small to large ponds within stream channels. These ponds substantially delay water movement and increase the water residence time in the system. To study how water and solutes move through these obstructed stream channels, we did multiple dye tracing tests at Cherry Creek, a main tributary to Red Canyon Creek (Wind River Range, Wyoming). First we surveyed beaver dam distributions in detail within the study reaches. We then introduced dyes four times from July 2nd to 6th, 2007 using a scale-up approach. The observation site was fixed at the mouth of Cherry Creek, and 1.5 grams of Rhodamine WT (RWT) dye was injected sequentially at upstream sites with increasing test reach length. The reach lengths scaled up from 500m to 2.5 km. A field fluorometer recorded RWT concentrations every 15 seconds. The results show non-linear decreases of the peak concentration of the dye tracing cloud as the reach scaled up. Also, the times to 1.) the arrivals of the leading edges (Tl), 2.) the peak concentrations (Tp) and 3.) the tailing edges (Tt) and 4) the durations of the tracer cloud (Td) behaved non-linearly as function of length scale. For example, plots of arrivals of leading edges and tailing edges with scale distance appear to define curves of the form; Tl=27.665e1.07× Distance (r2=0.99) and Tt=162.62e0.8551× Distance (r2=0.99), respectively. The greatest non-linearity occurred for the time of tailing and the least for the time of leading edge. These observations are consistent with what would be expected with greater density of dams and/or storage volumes as the reach length increased upgradient. To come to a first approximation, we are currently modeling the breakthrough curves with the solute transport code OTIS to address

  10. Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and loss of stream ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Bernard W.; Bott, Thomas L.; Jackson, John K.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Newbold, J. Denis; Standley, Laurel J.; Hession, W. Cully; Horwitz, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    A study of 16 streams in eastern North America shows that riparian deforestation causes channel narrowing, which reduces the total amount of stream habitat and ecosystem per unit channel length and compromises in-stream processing of pollutants. Wide forest reaches had more macroinvertebrates, total ecosystem processing of organic matter, and nitrogen uptake per unit channel length than contiguous narrow deforested reaches. Stream narrowing nullified any potential advantages of deforestation regarding abundance of fish, quality of dissolved organic matter, and pesticide degradation. These findings show that forested stream channels have a wider and more natural configuration, which significantly affects the total in-stream amount and activity of the ecosystem, including the processing of pollutants. The results reinforce both current policy of the United States that endorses riparian forest buffers as best management practice and federal and state programs that subsidize riparian reforestation for stream restoration and water quality. Not only do forest buffers prevent nonpoint source pollutants from entering small streams, they also enhance the in-stream processing of both nonpoint and point source pollutants, thereby reducing their impact on downstream rivers and estuaries. PMID:15381768

  11. Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and loss of stream ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Bernard W; Bott, Thomas L; Jackson, John K; Kaplan, Louis A; Newbold, J Denis; Standley, Laurel J; Hession, W Cully; Horwitz, Richard J

    2004-09-28

    A study of 16 streams in eastern North America shows that riparian deforestation causes channel narrowing, which reduces the total amount of stream habitat and ecosystem per unit channel length and compromises in-stream processing of pollutants. Wide forest reaches had more macroinvertebrates, total ecosystem processing of organic matter, and nitrogen uptake per unit channel length than contiguous narrow deforested reaches. Stream narrowing nullified any potential advantages of deforestation regarding abundance of fish, quality of dissolved organic matter, and pesticide degradation. These findings show that forested stream channels have a wider and more natural configuration, which significantly affects the total in-stream amount and activity of the ecosystem, including the processing of pollutants. The results reinforce both current policy of the United States that endorses riparian forest buffers as best management practice and federal and state programs that subsidize riparian reforestation for stream restoration and water quality. Not only do forest buffers prevent nonpoint source pollutants from entering small streams, they also enhance the in-stream processing of both nonpoint and point source pollutants, thereby reducing their impact on downstream rivers and estuaries.

  12. Single Na+ channels activated by veratridine and batrachotoxin

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Voltage-sensitive Na+ channels from rat skeletal muscle plasma membrane vesicles were inserted into planar lipid bilayers in the presence of either of the alkaloid toxins veratridine (VT) or batrachotoxin (BTX). Both of these toxins are known to cause persistent activation of Na+ channels. With BTX as the channel activator, single channels remain open nearly all the time. Channels activated with VT open and close on a time scale of 1-10 s. Increasing the VT concentration enhances the probability of channel opening, primarily by increasing the rate constant of opening. The kinetics and voltage dependence of channel block by 21-sulfo-11-alpha-hydroxysaxitoxin are identical for VT and BTX, as is the ionic selectivity sequence determined by bi-ionic reversal potential (Na+ approximately Li+ greater than K+ greater than Rb+ greater than Cs+). However, there are striking quantitative differences in open channel conduction for channels in the presence of the two activators. Under symmetrical solution conditions, the single channel conductance for Na+ is about twice as high with BTX as with VT. Furthermore, the symmetrical solution single channel conductances show a different selectivity for BTX (Na+ greater than Li+ greater than K+) than for VT (Na+ greater than K+ greater than Li+). Open channel current-voltage curves in symmetrical Na+ and Li+ are roughly linear, while those in symmetrical K+ are inwardly rectifying. Na+ currents are blocked asymmetrically by K+ with both BTX and VT, but the voltage dependence of K+ block is stronger with BTX than with VT. The results show that the alkaloid neurotoxins not only alter the gating process of the Na+ channel, but also affect the structure of the open channel. We further conclude that the rate-determining step for conduction by Na+ does not occur at the channel's "selectivity filter," where poorly permeating ions like K+ are excluded. PMID:2435846

  13. Coronal electron stream and Langmuir wave detection inside a propagation channel at 4.3 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttighoffer, A.; Pick, M.; Roelof, E. C.; Hoang, S.; Mangeney, A.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Phillips, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Observations of an energetic interplanetary electron event associated with the production of Langmuir waves, both of which are identified at 4.3 AU by instruments on the Ulysses spacecraft, are presented in this paper. This electron event propagates inside a well-defined magnetic structure. The existence of this structure is firmly established by joint particle and plasma observations made by Ulysses instruments. Its local estimated radial width is of the order of 2.3 x 10(exp 7) km (0.15 AU). The electron beam is associated with a type III burst observed from Earth at high frequencies and at low frequencies from Ulysses in association with Langmuir waves detected inside the structure. The consistency of local (Ulysses) and remote (Earth) observations in terms of temporal and geometrical considerations establishes that the structure is anchored in the solar corona near the solar active region responisble for the observed type III emission and gives an accurate determination of the injection time for the observed electron beam. Propagation analysis of the electron event is presented. In order to quantify the magnetic field properties, a variance analysis has been performed and is presented in this paper. The analysis establishes that inside the structure the amount of magnetic energy involved in the fluctuations is less than 4% of the total magnetic energy; the minimal variance direction is well defined and in coincidence with the direction of the mean magnetic field. This configuration may produce conditions favorable for scatter free streaming of energetic electrons and/or Langmuir wave production. The results presented show that the magnetic field might play a role in stabilizing the coronal-origin plasma structures and then preserving them to large, approximately 4 AU, distances in the heliosphere.

  14. Factors controlling the size and shape of stream channels in coarse noncohesive sands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolman, M. Gordon; Brush, Lucien M.

    1961-01-01

    The size and shape of equilibrium channels in uniform, noncohesive sands, 0.67 mm and 2.0 mm in diameter, were studied experimentally in a laboratory flume 52 feet long in which discharge, slope, sediment load, and bed and bank material could be varied independently. For each run a straight trapezoidal channel was molded in the sand and the flume set at a predetermined slope. Introduction of the discharge was accompanied by widening and aggradation until a stable channel was established. By definition a stable equilibrium existed when channel width, water surface slope, and rate of transport became constant. The duration of individual runs ranged from 2 to 52 hours depending upon the time required for establishing equilibrium. Stability of the banks determined channel shape. In the 2.0 mm sand at a given slope and discharge, only one depth was stable. At this depth the flow was just competent to move particles along the bed of the channel. An increase in discharge produced a wider channel of the same depth and thus transport per unit width remained at a minimum. Channels in the 0.67 mm sand were somewhat more stable and permitted a 1.5 fold increase in depth above that required to start movement of the bed material. An increased transport was associated with the increase in depth. The rate of transport is adequately described in terms of the total shear or in terms of the difference between the total shear and the critical shear required to begin movement. In these experiments the finer, or 0.67 mm, sand, began to move along the bed of the channel at a constant shear stress. Incipient movement of the coarser, or 2.0 mm, sand, varied with the shear stress as well as the mean velocity. At the initiation of movement a lower shear was associated with a higher velocity and vice versa. Anabranches of braided rivers and some natural river channels formed in relatively noncohesive materials resemble the essential characteristics of the flume channels. For a given slope and

  15. The influence of stream channels on distributions of Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa in the Mojave Desert, CA, USA: Patterns, mechanisms and effects of stream redistribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwinning, S.; Sandquist, D.R.; Miller, D.M.; Bedford, D.R.; Phillips, S.L.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Drainage channels are among the most conspicuous surficial features of deserts, but little quantitative analysis of their influence on plant distributions is available. We analysed the effects of desert stream channels ('washes') on Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa density and cover on an alluvial piedmont in the Mojave Desert, based on a spatial analysis of transect data encompassing a total length of 2775 m surveyed in 5 cm increments. Significant deviations from average transect properties were identified by bootstrapping. Predictably, shrub cover and density were much reduced inside washes, and elevated above average levels adjacent to washes. Average Larrea and Ambrosia cover and density peaked 1??2-1??6 m and 0??5-1??0 m from wash edges, respectively. We compared wash effects in runon-depleted (-R) sections, where washes had been cut off from runon and were presumably inactive, with those in runon-supplemented (+R) sections downslope from railroad culverts to help identify mechanisms responsible for the facilitative effect of washes on adjacent shrubs. Shrub cover and density near washes peaked in both + R and - R sections, suggesting that improved water infiltration and storage alone can cause a facilitative effect on adjacent shrubs. However, washes of < 2 m width in + R sections had larger than average effects on peak cover, suggesting that plants also benefit from occasional resource supplementation. The data suggest that channel networks significantly contribute to structuring plant communities in the Mojave Desert and their disruption has notable effects on geomorphic and ecological processes far beyond the original disturbance sites. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The effects of stream bank vegetation on the flow characteristics and turbulent flow field of the main channel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, M.; Yagci, O.; McGann, N. J.; Turker, U.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two decades, the role of vegetation in the environmental and ecological restoration of surface water bodies has received much attention. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of vegetation on flow velocity at various locations ranging from the floodplain, river-bank and main channel. There is a general agreement amongst such studies, that the presence of vegetation may cause a decrease in flow velocity locally, followed by increased flows laterally, in non-vegetated regions. This experimental study attempts to present the findings of an elaborate set of flow measurements that aim at quantifying changes to the flow field at the main channel, at the bank inside the vegetated region and at their interface, for increasing vegetation density. To this goal an inclined section is constructed with acrylic panels sloping at, in a 1.8m wide re-circulating flume, to simulate the stream-bank. The main-channel bed comprises of coarse sand of 1.5mm nominal diameter, while 6mm diameter acrylic rods are used to simulate the vegetated river-bank. Ten velocity and turbulent intensity profiles are developed across the test cross-section, for each vegetation density, via acoustic Doppler velocimetry along a fine measurement grid. The experiments are run under uniform flow and stable bed conditions, for a range of six different vegetation densities changed by adding more vegetation elements in a staggered arrangement along the stream-bank. These detailed observations are further analyzed, with emphasis on the effects on the main channel. Measurements near the bed with implications for sediment transport are further discussed.

  17. Decoding the attended speech stream with multi-channel EEG: implications for online, daily-life applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Debener, Stefan; Jaeger, Manuela; De Vos, Maarten

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recent studies have provided evidence that temporal envelope driven speech decoding from high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography recordings can identify the attended speech stream in a multi-speaker scenario. The present work replicated the previous high density EEG study and investigated the necessary technical requirements for practical attended speech decoding with EEG. Approach. Twelve normal hearing participants attended to one out of two simultaneously presented audiobook stories, while high density EEG was recorded. An offline iterative procedure eliminating those channels contributing the least to decoding provided insight into the necessary channel number and optimal cross-subject channel configuration. Aiming towards the future goal of near real-time classification with an individually trained decoder, the minimum duration of training data necessary for successful classification was determined by using a chronological cross-validation approach. Main results. Close replication of the previously reported results confirmed the method robustness. Decoder performance remained stable from 96 channels down to 25. Furthermore, for less than 15 min of training data, the subject-independent (pre-trained) decoder performed better than an individually trained decoder did. Significance. Our study complements previous research and provides information suggesting that efficient low-density EEG online decoding is within reach.

  18. Distinct contributions of small and large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels to rat Purkinje neuron function

    PubMed Central

    Edgerton, Jeremy R; Reinhart, Peter H

    2003-01-01

    The cerebellum is important for many aspects of behaviour, from posture maintenance and goal-oriented reaching movements to timing tasks and certain forms of learning. In every case, information flowing through the cerebellum passes through Purkinje neurons, which receive input from the two primary cerebellar afferents and generate continuous streams of action potentials that constitute the sole output from the cerebellar cortex to the deep nuclei. The tonic firing behaviour observed in Purkinje neurons in vivo is maintained in brain slices even when synaptic inputs are blocked, suggesting that Purkinje neuron activity relies to a significant extent on intrinsic conductances. Previous research has suggested that the interplay between Ca2+ currents and Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa channels) is important for Purkinje cell activity, but how many different KCa channel types are present and what each channel type contributes to cell behaviour remains unclear. In order to better understand the ionic mechanisms that control the behaviour of these neurons, we investigated the effects of different Ca2+ channel and KCa channel antagonists on Purkinje neurons in acute slices of rat cerebellum. Our data show that Ca2+ entering through P-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels activates both small-conductance (SK) and large-conductance (BK) KCa channels. SK channels play a role in setting the intrinsic firing frequency, while BK channels regulate action potential shape and may contribute to the unique climbing fibre response. PMID:12576503

  19. Regulation of Sodium Channel Activity by Capping of Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Shumilina, Ekaterina V.; Negulyaev, Yuri A.; Morachevskaya, Elena A.; Hinssen, Horst; Khaitlina, Sofia Yu

    2003-01-01

    Ion transport in various tissues can be regulated by the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, involvement of actin dynamics in the regulation of nonvoltage-gated sodium channels has been shown. Herein, inside-out patch clamp experiments were performed to study the effect of the heterodimeric actin capping protein CapZ on sodium channel regulation in leukemia K562 cells. The channels were activated by cytochalasin-induced disruption of actin filaments and inactivated by G-actin under ionic conditions promoting rapid actin polymerization. CapZ had no direct effect on channel activity. However, being added together with G-actin, CapZ prevented actin-induced channel inactivation, and this effect occurred at CapZ/actin molar ratios from 1:5 to 1:100. When actin was allowed to polymerize at the plasma membrane to induce partial channel inactivation, subsequent addition of CapZ restored the channel activity. These results can be explained by CapZ-induced inhibition of further assembly of actin filaments at the plasma membrane due to the modification of actin dynamics by CapZ. No effect on the channel activity was observed in response to F-actin, confirming that the mechanism of channel inactivation does not involve interaction of the channel with preformed filaments. Our data show that actin-capping protein can participate in the cytoskeleton-associated regulation of sodium transport in nonexcitable cells. PMID:12686620

  20. Influences of wildfire and channel reorganization on spatial and temporal variation in stream temperature and the distribution of fish and amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, J.B.; Rosenberger, A.E.; Luce, C.H.; Rieman, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Wildfire can influence a variety of stream ecosystem properties. We studied stream temperatures in relation to wildfire in small streams in the Boise River Basin, located in central Idaho, USA. To examine the spatio-temporal aspects of temperature in relation to wildfire, we employed three approaches: a pre-post fire comparison of temperatures between two sites (one from a burned stream and one unburned) over 13 years, a short-term (3 year) pre-post fire comparison of a burned and unburned stream with spatially extensive data, and a short-term (1 year) comparative study of spatial variability in temperatures using a "space for time" substitutive design across 90 sites in nine streams (retrospective comparative study). The latter design included streams with a history of stand-replacing wildfire and streams with severe post-fire reorganization of channels due to debris flows and flooding. Results from these three studies indicated that summer maximum water temperatures can remain significantly elevated for at least a decade following wildfire, particularly in streams with severe channel reorganization. In the retrospective comparative study we investigated occurrence of native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and tailed frog larvae (Ascaphus montanus) in relation to maximum stream temperatures during summer. Both occurred in nearly every site sampled, but tailed frog larvae were found in much warmer water than previously reported in the field (26.6??C maximum summer temperature). Our results show that physical stream habitats can remain altered (for example, increased temperature) for many years following wildfire, but that native aquatic vertebrates can be resilient. In a management context, this suggests wildfire may be less of a threat to native species than human influences that alter the capacity of stream-living vertebrates to persist in the face of natural disturbance. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Influence of instream habitat and water quality on aggressive behavior in crayfish of channelized headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agricultural drainage ditches that border farm fields of the Midwestern United States are degraded headwater streams that possess communities of crayfish. We hypothesized that crayfish communities at sites with low instream habitat diversity and poor water quality would show greater evidence of...

  2. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE IMPACTS ON STREAM CHANNEL HABITAT IN THE MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many human land uses and land cover modifications (e.g., logging, grazing, roads) tend to increase erosion, leading to an increase in fine sediment supplied to streams and potentially degrading aquatic habitat for benthic organisms. This study evaluated potential human impacts o...

  3. Mechanisms of Activation of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Grizel, A. V.; Glukhov, G. S.; Sokolova, O. S.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium ion channels (Kv) play an important role in a variety of cellular processes, including the functioning of excitable cells, regulation of apoptosis, cell growth and differentiation, the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, maintenance of cardiac activity, etc. Failure in the functioning of Kv channels leads to severe genetic disorders and the development of tumors, including malignant ones. Understanding the mechanisms underlying Kv channels functioning is a key factor in determining the cause of the diseases associated with mutations in the channels, and in the search for new drugs. The mechanism of activation of the channels is a topic of ongoing debate, and a consensus on the issue has not yet been reached. This review discusses the key stages in studying the mechanisms of functioning of Kv channels and describes the basic models of their activation known to date. PMID:25558391

  4. Fast activation of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels of skeletal muscle. Multiple pathways of channel gating

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) receptors of the transverse tubule membrane play two roles in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle: (a) they function as the voltage sensor which undergoes fast transition to control release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum, and (b) they provide the conducting unit of a slowly activating L-type calcium channel. To understand this dual function of the DHP receptor, we studied the effect of depolarizing conditioning pulse on the activation kinetics of the skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive calcium channels reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes. Activation of the incorporated calcium channel was imposed by depolarizing test pulses from a holding potential of -80 mV. The gating kinetics of the channel was studied with ensemble averages of repeated episodes. Based on a first latency analysis, two distinct classes of channel openings occurred after depolarization: most had delayed latencies, distributed with a mode of 70 ms (slow gating); a small number of openings had short first latencies, < 12 ms (fast gating). A depolarizing conditioning pulse to +20 mV placed 200 ms before the test pulse (-10 mV), led to a significant increase in the activation rate of the ensemble averaged-current; the time constant of activation went from tau m = 110 ms (reference) to tau m = 45 ms after conditioning. This enhanced activation by the conditioning pulse was due to the increase in frequency of fast open events, which was a steep function of the intermediate voltage and the interval between the conditioning pulse and the test pulse. Additional analysis demonstrated that fast gating is the property of the same individual channels that normally gate slowly and that the channels adopt this property after a sojourn in the open state. The rapid secondary activation seen after depolarizing prepulses is not compatible with a linear activation model for the calcium channel, but is highly consistent with a cyclical model. A six- state cyclical model is

  5. Variable responses of fish assemblages, habitat, and stability to natural-channel-design restoration in Catskill Mountain streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Ernst, Anne G.; Warren, Dana R.; Miller, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Natural-channel-design (NCD) restorations were recently implemented within large segments of five first- and second-order streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York in an attempt to increase channel stability, reduce bed and bank erosion, and sustain water quality. In conjunction with these efforts, 54 fish and habitat surveys were done from 1999 to 2007 at six restored reaches and five stable control reaches to evaluate the effects of NCD restoration on fish assemblages, habitat, and bank stability. A before–after–control–impact study design and two-factor analysis of variance were used to quantify the net changes in habitat and fish population and community indices at treatment reaches relative to those at unaltered control reaches. The density and biomass of fish communities were often dominated by one or two small prey species and no or few predator species before restoration and by one or more trout (Salmonidae) species after restoration. Significant increases in community richness (30%), diversity (40%), species or biomass equitability (32%), and total biomass (up to 52%) in at least four of the six restored reaches demonstrate that NCD restorations can improve the health and sustainability of fish communities in geomorphically unstable Catskill Mountain streams over the short to marginally long term. Bank stability, stream habitat, and trout habitat suitability indices (HSIs) generally improved significantly at the restored reaches, but key habitat features and trout HSIs did not change or decreased at two of them. Fish communities and trout populations at these two reaches were not positively affected by NCD restorations. Though NCD restorations often had a positive effect on habitat and fish communities, our results show that the initial habitat conditions limit the relative improvements than can be achieved, habitat quality and stability do not necessarily respond in unison, and biotic and abiotic responses cannot always be generalized.

  6. Immediate changes in stream channel geomorphology, aquatic habitat, and fish assemblages following dam removal in a small upland catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Nislow, K. H.; Kynard, B. E.; Hackman, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal is becoming an increasingly important component of river restoration, with > 1100 dams having been removed nationwide over the past three decades. Despite this recent progression of removals, the lack of pre- to post-removal monitoring and assessment limits our understanding of the magnitude, rate, and sequence of geomorphic and/or ecological recovery to dam removal. Taking advantage of the November 2012 removal of an old ( 190 year-old) 6-m high, run-of-river industrial dam on Amethyst Brook (26 km2) in central Massachusetts, we identify the immediate eco-geomorphic responses to removal. To capture the geomorphic responses to dam removal, we collected baseline data at multiple scales, both upstream ( 300 m) and downstream (> 750 m) of the dam, including monumented cross sections, detailed channel-bed longitudinal profiles, embeddedness surveys, and channel-bed grain size measurements, which were repeated during the summer of 2013. These geomorphic assessments were combined with detailed quantitative electrofishing surveys of stream fish richness and abundance above and below the dam site and throughout the watershed and visual surveys of native anadromous sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) nest sites. Post-removal assessments were complicated by two events: (1) upstream knickpoint migration exhumed an older (ca. late eighteenth century) intact wooden crib dam 120 m upstream of the former stone dam, and (2) the occurrence of a 10-20 year RI flood 6 months after removal that caused further upstream incision and downstream aggradation. Now that the downstream reach has been reconnected to upstream sediment supply, the predominant geomorphic response was bed aggradation and associated fining (30-60% reduction). At dam proximal locations, aggradation ranged from 0.3 to > 1 m where a large woody debris jam enhanced aggradation. Although less pronounced, distal locations still showed aggradation with a mean depth of deposition of 0.20 m over the 750-m

  7. Molecular mechanism of pharmacological activation of BK channels

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Guido; Cui, Yong-Mei; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko; Soom, Malle; Hoshi, Toshinori; Heinemann, Stefan H.

    2012-01-01

    Large-conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (Slo1 BK) channels serve numerous cellular functions, and their dysregulation is implicated in various diseases. Drugs activating BK channels therefore bear substantial therapeutic potential, but their deployment has been hindered in part because the mode of action remains obscure. Here we provide mechanistic insight into how the dehydroabietic acid derivative Cym04 activates BK channels. As a representative of NS1619-like BK openers, Cym04 reversibly left-shifts the half-activation voltage of Slo1 BK channels. Using an established allosteric BK gating model, the Cym04 effect can be simulated by a shift of the voltage sensor and the ion conduction gate equilibria toward the activated and open state, respectively. BK activation by Cym04 occurs in a splice variant-specific manner; it does not occur in such Slo1 BK channels using an alternative neuronal exon 9, which codes for the linker connecting the transmembrane segment S6 and the cytosolic RCK1 domain—the S6/RCK linker. In addition, Cym04 does not affect Slo1 BK channels with a two-residue deletion within this linker. Mutagenesis and model-based gating analysis revealed that BK openers, such as Cym04 and NS1619 but not mallotoxin, activate BK channels by functionally interacting with the S6/RCK linker, mimicking site-specific shortening of this purported passive spring, which transmits force from the cytosolic gating ring structure to open the channel's gate. PMID:22331907

  8. Average characteristics and activity dependence of the subauroral polarization stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. C.; Vo, H. B.

    2002-12-01

    Data from the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar taken over two solar cycles (1979-2000) are examined to determine the average characteristics of the disturbance convection electric field in the midlatitude ionosphere. Radar azimuth scans provide a regular database of ionospheric plasma convection observations spanning auroral and subauroral latitudes, and these scans have been examined for all local times and activity conditions.We examine the occurrence and characteristics of a persistent secondary westward convection peak which lies equatorward of the auroral two-cell convection. Individual scans and average patterns of plasma flow identify and characterize this latitudinally broad and persistent subauroral polarization stream (SAPS), which spans the nightside from dusk to the early morning sector for all Kp greater than 4. Premidnight, the SAPS westward convection lies equatorward of L = 4 (60° invariant latitude, Λ), spans 3°-5° of latitude, and has an average peak amplitude of >900 m/s. In the predawn sector, SAPS is seen as a region of antisunward convection equatorward of L = 3 (55° Λ), spanning ˜3° of latitude, with an average peak amplitude of 400 m/s.

  9. Sediment Mobilization and Storage Dynamics of a Debris Flow Impacted Stream Channel using Multi-Temporal Structure from Motion Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, T. L.; Sutherland-Montoya, D.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution topographic analysis methods have become important tools in geomorphology. Structure from Motion photogrammetry offers a compelling vehicle for geomorphic change detection in fluvial environments. This process can produce arbitrarily high resolution, geographically registered spectral and topographic coverages from a collection of overlapping digital imagery from consumer cameras. Cuneo Creek has had three historically observed episodes of rapid aggradation (1955, 1964, and 1997). The debris flow deposits continue to be major sources of sediment sixty years after the initial slope failure. Previous studies have monitored the sediment storage volume and particle size since 1976 (in 1976, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1998, 2003). We reoccupied 3 previously surveyed stream cross sections on Sept 30, 2014 and March 30, 2015, and produced photogrammetric point clouds using a pole mounted camera with a remote view finder to take nadir view images from 4.3 meters above the channel bed. Ground control points were registered using survey grade GPS and typical cross sections used over 100 images to build the structure model. This process simultaneously collects channel geometry and we used it to also generate surface texture metrics, and produced DEMs with point cloud densities above 5000 points / m2. In the period between the surveys, a five year recurrence interval discharge of 20 m3/s scoured the channel. Surface particle size distribution has been determined for each observation period using image segmentation algorithms based on spectral distance and compactness. Topographic differencing between the point clouds shows substantial channel bed mobilization and reorganization. The net decline in sediment storage is in excess of 4 x 10^5 cubic meters since the 1964 aggradation peak, with associated coarsening of surface particle sizes. These new methods provide a promising rapid assessment tool for measurement of channel responses to sediment inputs.

  10. Natural carbon-14 activity of organic substances in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, A.A.; Rubin, M.

    1964-01-01

    Carbon-14 measurements made on organic contaminants extracted from streams show percentages of industrial waste and domestic sewage. The method, used previously for studies of the atmosphere, can be used in studies of pollution sources.

  11. Allosterism and Structure in Thermally Activated Transient Receptor Potential Channels.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Poblete, Horacio; Miño-Galaz, Germán; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramón

    2016-07-05

    The molecular sensors that mediate temperature changes in living organisms are a large family of proteins known as thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. These membrane proteins are polymodal receptors that can be activated by cold or hot temperatures, depending on the channel subtype, voltage, and ligands. The stimuli sensors are allosterically coupled to a pore domain, increasing the probability of finding the channel in its ion conductive conformation. In this review we first discuss the allosteric coupling between the temperature and voltage sensor modules and the pore domain, and then discuss the thermodynamic foundations of thermo-TRP channel activation. We provide a structural overview of the molecular determinants of temperature sensing. We also posit an anisotropic thermal diffusion model that may explain the large temperature sensitivity of TRP channels. Additionally, we examine the effect of several ligands on TRP channel function and the evidence regarding their mechanisms of action.

  12. The role of water exchange between a stream channel and its hyporheic zone in nitrogen cycling at the terrestrial-aquatic interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Triska, F.J.; Duff, J.H.; Avanzino, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The subsurface riparian zone was examined as an ecotone with two interfaces. Inland is a terrestrial boundary, where transport of water and dissolved solutes is toward the channel and controlled by watershed hydrology. Streamside is an aquatic boundary, where exchange of surface water and dissolved solutes is bi-directional and flux is strongly influenced by channel hydraulics. Streamside, bi-directional exchange of water was qualitatively defined using biologically conservative tracers in a third order stream. In several experiments, penetration of surface water extended 18 m inland. Travel time of water from the channel to bankside sediments was highly variable. Subsurface chemical gradients were indirectly related to the travel time. Sites with long travel times tended to be low in nitrate and DO (dissolved oxygen) but high in ammonium and DOC (dissolved organic carbon). Sites with short travel times tended to be high in nitrate and DO but low in ammonium and DOC. Ammonium concentration of interstitial water also was influenced by sorption-desorption processes that involved clay minerals in hyporheic sediments. Denitrification potential in subsurface sediments increased with distance from the channel, and was limited by nitrate at inland sites and by DO in the channel sediments. Conversely, nitrification potential decreased with distance from the channel, and was limited by DO at inland sites and by ammonium at channel locations. Advection of water and dissolved oxygen away from the channel resulted in an oxidized subsurface habitat equivalent to that previously defined as the hyporheic zone. The hyporheic zone is viewed as stream habitat because of its high proportion of surface water and the occurrence of channel organisms. Beyond the channel's hydrologic exchange zone, interstitial water is often chemically reduced. Interstitial water that has not previously entered the channel, groundwater, is viewed as a terrestrial component of the riparian ecotone. Thus

  13. Hypoglycemia-activated K+ channels in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Tromba, C; Salvaggio, A; Racagni, G; Volterra, A

    1992-08-31

    Channels linking the electrical and metabolic activities of cells (KATP channels) have been described in various tissues, including some brain areas (hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and substantia nigra). Here we report the existence in hippocampal neurons of K+ permeant channels whose activity is regulated by extracellular glucose. They are open at the cell resting potential and respond to transient hypoglycemia with a reversible increase in activity. The one type so far characterized has a conductance of approximately 100 pS in isotonic K+, is inhibited by the sulphonylurea glibenclamide (1 microM), and is activated by the potassium channel opener lemakalim (0.1-1 microM). These data provide a direct demonstration of the presence, in hippocampal neurons, of glucose-sensitive channels that could belong to the KATP family.

  14. Exploring geomorphic controls on fish bioenergetics in mountain streams: linkages between channel morphology and rearing habitat for cutthroat trout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Landscape heterogeneity constitutes an important control on spatial distribution of habitat for living organisms, at a range of spatial scales. For example, spatial variation in geomorphic processes can spatially structure populations as well as entire communities, and affect various ecosystem processes. We have coupled a 2D hydrodynamic model with a bioenergetic model to study the effects of various channel morphologies and bed textures on rearing habitat for coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) in four reaches of a mountain stream. The bioenergetic model uses energy conservation principle to calculate energy budget for fish at any point of the study domain, given a set of relevant local conditions. Specifically, the energy intake is a function of food availability (invertebrate drift) while the energy expenditure occurs through, for example, basal metabolism and swimming to hold position against the flow. Channel morphology and bed texture, through their influence on channel hydraulics, can exert strong control on the spatial pattern of both food flux and swimming cost for drift-feeding fish. Therefore, the coupled hydrodynamic and bioenergetic models, parameterized using an extensive field data set, enabled us to explore mechanistic linkages between geomorphic properties of the study reaches, food resource availability, and the energetic profitability of rearing habitat for different age-classes at both between- and within-reach spatial scales.

  15. Are host-parasite interactions influenced by adaptation to predators? A test with guppies and Gyrodactylus in experimental stream channels.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jvostov, Felipe; Hendry, Andrew P; Fussmann, Gregor F; Scott, Marilyn E

    2012-09-01

    Natural populations often face multiple mortality sources. Adaptive responses to one mortality source might also be beneficial with respect to other sources of mortality, resulting in "reinforcing adaptations"; or they might be detrimental with respect to other sources of mortality, resulting in "conflicting adaptations". We explored these possibilities by testing experimentally if the responses of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to the monogenean ectoparasitic worm Gyrodactylus differed between populations adapted to different predation regimes. In experimental stream channels designed to replicate the natural environment, we exposed eight guppy populations (high-predation and low-predation populations from each of four separate rivers) either to their local Gyrodactylus parasites (infection treatment) or to the absence of those parasites (control). We found that infection dynamics varied dramatically among populations in a repeatable fashion, but that this variation was not related to the predation regime of origin. Consistent with previous work, high-predation guppy females gained more mass, had lower reproductive investment, and had more but smaller embryos than did low-predation females. Relative to control (no parasite) channels, guppies from treatment (infected) channels gained less mass but produced similar numbers and sizes of embryos-and thus had a higher reproductive effort. However, no interaction was evident between infection treatment and predation regime. We conclude that parasitism by Gyrodactylus and predation are both likely selective forces for guppies, but that adaptation to predation does not have an obvious deterministic effect on host-parasite dynamics or on life-history traits of female guppies.

  16. Impacts of Woody Debris on Fluvial Processes and Channel Morphology in Stable and Unstable Streams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    the scheme developed by Gregory et at, (1985), according to their potential to block the downstream movement of water and sediment. The...indication of the jam’s potential to induce backwater sedimentation or downstream bars. Debris jam types arc classified using a scheme modified from...channel morphology in a different type of channel environment to that * 0 •; •i•:’..- •,.,mii•iiii i• u-l• •ljJJijilI .[- illi i•lJl ,ii .dill I i llL, il

  17. Ice in Channels and Ice-Rock Mixtures in Valleys on Mars: Did They Slide on Deformable Rubble Like Antarctic Ice Streams?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies of ice streams in Antarctica reveal a mechanism of basal motion that may apply to channels and valleys on Mars. The mechanism is sliding of the ice on deformable water-saturated till under high pore pressures. It has been suggested by Lucchitta that ice was present in outflow channels on Mars and gave them their distinctive morphology. This ice may have slid like Antarctic ice streams but on rubbly weathering products rather than till. However, to generate water under high pore pressures, elevated heatflow is needed to melt the base of the ice. Either volcanism or higher heatflow more than 2 b.y. ago could have raised the basal temperature. Regarding valley networks, higher heatflow 3 b.y. ago could have allowed sliding of ice-saturated overburden at a few hundred meters depth. If the original, pristine valleys were somewhat deeper than they are now, they could have formed by the same mechanism. Recent sounding of the seafloor in front of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica reveals large persistent patterns of longitudinal megaflutes and drumlinoid forms, which bear remarkable resemblance to longitudinal grooves and highly elongated streamlined islands found on the floors of martian outflow channels. The flutes are interpreted to have formed at the base of ice streams during the last glacial advance. Additional similarities of Antarctic ice streams with martian outflow channels are apparent. Antarctic ice streams are 30 to 80 km wide and hundreds of kilometers long. Martian outflow channels have similar dimensions. Ice stream beds are below sea level. Carr determined that most common floor elevations of martian outflow channels lie below martian datum, which may have been close to or below past martian sea levels. The Antarctic ice stream bed gradient is flat and locally may go uphill, and surface slopes are exceptionally. Martian channels also have floor gradients that are shallow or go uphill locally and have low surface gradients. The depth to the

  18. Erosion, sediment discharge, and channel morphology in the upper Chattahoochee River basin, Georgia, with a discussion of the contribution of suspended sediment to stream quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faye, Robert E.; Carey, W.P.; Stamer, J.K.; Kleckner, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The 3,550 square miles of the Upper Chattahoochee River basin is an area of diverse physiographic and land-use characteristics. The headwater areas are mountainous with steep, relatively narrow channels. Land in the headwater areas is heavily forested, but small towns and farms are common in the valleys of large streams. Downstream, the basin is characterized by low hills and wider stream channels. Land in this part of the basin is also predominantly forested; however, large agricultural and urban areas are common. Urban land use is particularly intensive within the Atlanta Metropolitan Area.

  19. Flow-activated ion channels in vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Mamta; Gojova, Andrea; Barakat, Abdul I

    2006-01-01

    The ability of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to respond to fluid mechanical forces associated with blood flow is essential for flow-mediated vasoregulation and arterial wall remodeling. Abnormalities in endothelial responses to flow also play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. Although our understanding of the endothelial signaling pathways stimulated by flow has greatly increased over the past two decades, the mechanisms by which ECs sense flow remain largely unknown. Activation of flow-sensitive ion channels is among the fastest known endothelial responses to flow; therefore, these ion channels have been proposed as candidate flow sensors. This review focuses on: 1) describing the various types of flow-sensitive ion channels that have been reported in ECs, 2) discussing the implications of activation of these ion channels for endothelial function, and 3) proposing candidate mechanisms for activation of flow-sensitive ion channels.

  20. Slack, Slick, and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    The Slack and Slick genes encode potassium channels that are very widely expressed in the central nervous system. These channels are activated by elevations in intracellular sodium, such as those that occur during trains of one or more action potentials, or following activation of nonselective cationic neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA receptors. This review covers the cellular and molecular properties of Slack and Slick channels and compares them with findings on the properties of sodium-activated potassium currents (termed KNa currents) in native neurons. Human mutations in Slack channels produce extremely severe defects in learning and development, suggesting that KNa channels play a central role in neuronal plasticity and intellectual function. PMID:24319675

  1. Mapping Episodic Stream Activity for the Ridgecrest Solar Power Project, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibodeaux-Yost, S. N.; Brady, R. H., III; Vyverberg, K.; Weinman, B.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale renewable energy projects are being developed in the California desert region on large tracts of predominantly undeveloped land (total area of developed land for individual project sites vary from 327 acres to 8,230 acres). The absence of a standard method of identifying and accounting for episodic streams in arid and semi-arid (dryland) regions is an area of conflict between project developers and the government agencies responsible for protecting natural resources and permitting renewable energy projects. There is a need for an accurate dryland stream delineation protocol that is consistent, efficient, accessible, and accurately reflects the extent and distribution of streams on a site. Dryland stream delineation protocol based on a scientific, geomorphic and ecological understanding of dryland stream processes will help ensure dryland streams are accurately identified for the purposes of environmental impact assessments and project permitting. Such a method is currently being developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). This thesis work critically evaluates the stream delineation and stream impact assessment previously completed by the developer for the proposed renewable energy project in El Paso Fan, El Paso Mountains, Ridgecrest, Kern County, California. This evaluation is then compared and contrasted with the results achieved in the field using the MESA (Mapping Episodic Stream Activity) stream delineation methods and protocols and mobile GIS mapping technology.

  2. Channel response to tectonic forcing: field analysis of stream morphology and hydrology in the Mendocino triple junction region, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Noah P.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Merritts, Dorothy J.

    2003-07-01

    An empirical calibration of the shear stress model for bedrock incision is presented, using field and hydrologic data from a series of small, coastal drainage basins near the Mendocino triple junction in northern California. Previous work comparing basins from the high uplift zone (HUZ, uplift rates around 4 mm/year) to ones in the low uplift zone (LUZ, ˜0.5 mm/year) indicates that the HUZ channels are about twice as steep for a given drainage area. This observation suggests that incision processes are more effective in the HUZ. It motivates a detailed field study of channel morphology in the differing tectonic settings to test whether various factors that are hypothesized to influence incision rates (discharge, channel width, lithology, sediment load) change in response to uplift or otherwise differ between the HUZ and LUZ. Analysis of regional stream gaging data for mean annual discharge and individual floods yields a linear relationship between discharge and drainage area. Increased orographic precipitation in the HUZ accounts for about a twofold increase in discharge in this area, corresponding to an assumed increase in the erosional efficiency of the streams. Field measurements of channel width indicate a power-law relationship between width and drainage area with an exponent of ˜0.4 and no significant change in width between the uplift rate zones, although interpretation is hampered by a difference in land use between the zones. The HUZ channel width dataset reveals a scaling break interpreted to be the transition between colluvial- and fluvial-dominated incision processes. Assessments of lithologic resistance using a Schmidt hammer and joint surveys show that the rocks of the study area should be fairly similar in their susceptibility to erosion. The HUZ channels generally have more exposed bedrock than those in the LUZ, which is consistent with protection by sediment cover inhibiting incision in the LUZ. However, this difference is likely the result of a

  3. Small Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2015-01-01

    Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK, KCa2) channels are unique in that they are gated solely by changes in intracellular Ca2+ and hence, function to integrate intracellular Ca2+ and membrane potentials on a beat-to-beat basis. Recent studies have provided evidence for the existence and functional significance of SK channels in the heart. Indeed, our knowledge of cardiac SK channels has been greatly expanded over the past decade. Interests in cardiac SK channels are further driven by recent studies suggesting the critical roles of SK channels in human atrial fibrillation, SK channel as a possible novel therapeutic target in atrial arrhythmias and up-regulation of SK channels in heart failure (HF) in animal models and human HF. However, there remain critical gaps in our knowledge. Specifically, blockade of SK channels in cardiac arrhythmias has been shown to be both anti-arrhythmic and proarrhythmic. This contemporary review will provide an overview of the literature on the role of cardiac SK channels in cardiac arrhythmias and to serve as a discussion platform for the current clinical perspectives. At the translational level, development of SK channel blockers as a new therapeutic target in the treatment of atrial fibrillation and the possible pro-arrhythmic effects merit further considerations and investigations. PMID:25956967

  4. SLO2 Channels Are Inhibited by All Divalent Cations That Activate SLO1 K+ Channels.

    PubMed

    Budelli, Gonzalo; Sun, Qi; Ferreira, Juan; Butler, Alice; Santi, Celia M; Salkoff, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Two members of the family of high conductance K(+)channels SLO1 and SLO2 are both activated by intracellular cations. However, SLO1 is activated by Ca(2+)and other divalent cations, while SLO2 (Slack or SLO2.2 from rat) is activated by Na(+) Curiously though, we found that SLO2.2 is inhibited by all divalent cations that activate SLO1, with Zn(2+)being the most effective inhibitor with an IC50of ∼8 μmin contrast to Mg(2+), the least effective, with an IC50of ∼ 1.5 mm Our results suggest that divalent cations are not SLO2 pore blockers, but rather inhibit channel activity by an allosteric modification of channel gating. By site-directed mutagenesis we show that a histidine residue (His-347) downstream of S6 reduces inhibition by divalent cations. An analogous His residue present in some CNG channels is an inhibitory cation binding site. To investigate whether inhibition by divalent cations is conserved in an invertebrate SLO2 channel we cloned the SLO2 channel fromDrosophila(dSLO2) and compared its properties to those of rat SLO2.2. We found that, like rat SLO2.2, dSLO2 was also activated by Na(+)and inhibited by divalent cations. Inhibition of SLO2 channels in mammals andDrosophilaby divalent cations that have second messenger functions may reflect the physiological regulation of these channels by one or more of these ions.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Maxi Calcium-Activated Potassium (BK) Channels

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F.; Weiger, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    All cells contain ion channels in their outer (plasma) and inner (organelle) membranes. Ion channels, similar to other proteins, are targets of oxidative impact, which modulates ion fluxes across membranes. Subsequently, these ion currents affect electrical excitability, such as action potential discharge (in neurons, muscle, and receptor cells), alteration of the membrane resting potential, synaptic transmission, hormone secretion, muscle contraction or coordination of the cell cycle. In this chapter we summarize effects of oxidative stress and redox mechanisms on some ion channels, in particular on maxi calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels which play an outstanding role in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological functions in almost all cells and tissues. We first elaborate on some general features of ion channel structure and function and then summarize effects of oxidative alterations of ion channels and their functional consequences. PMID:26287261

  6. Oxidative Stress and Maxi Calcium-Activated Potassium (BK) Channels.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F; Weiger, Thomas M

    2015-08-17

    All cells contain ion channels in their outer (plasma) and inner (organelle) membranes. Ion channels, similar to other proteins, are targets of oxidative impact, which modulates ion fluxes across membranes. Subsequently, these ion currents affect electrical excitability, such as action potential discharge (in neurons, muscle, and receptor cells), alteration of the membrane resting potential, synaptic transmission, hormone secretion, muscle contraction or coordination of the cell cycle. In this chapter we summarize effects of oxidative stress and redox mechanisms on some ion channels, in particular on maxi calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels which play an outstanding role in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological functions in almost all cells and tissues. We first elaborate on some general features of ion channel structure and function and then summarize effects of oxidative alterations of ion channels and their functional consequences.

  7. Response of fish populations to natural channel design restoration in streams of the Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Warren, D.R.; Ernst, A.G.; Mulvihill, C.I.

    2008-01-01

    Many streams and rivers throughout North America have been extensively straightened, widened, and hardened since the middle 1800s, but related effects on aquatic ecosystems have seldom been monitored, described, or published. Beginning in the early 1990s, reach-level restoration efforts began to base projects on natural channel design (NCD) techniques and Rosgen's (1994b, 1996) river classification system in an effort to duplicate or mimic stable reference reach geomorphology. Four reaches in three streams of the Catskill Mountains, New York, were restored from 2000 to 2002 using NCD techniques to decrease bed and bank erosion rates, decrease sediment loads, and improve water quality. The effects of restoration on the health of fish assemblages were assessed through a before-after, control-impact (BACI) study design to quantify the net changes in population and community indices at treatment reaches relative to index changes at unaltered reference reaches from 1999 to 2004. After restoration, community richness and biomass at treatment reaches increased by more than one-third. Changes in fish communities were caused mainly by shifts in dominant species populations; fish community biomass and total fish abundance were generally dominated by daces or daces and sculpins before restoration and by one or more salmonid species after restoration. Density and biomass of eastern blacknose dace Rhinichthys atratulus, longnose dace R. cataractae, and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus did not change appreciably, whereas net salmonid density and biomass increased substantially after restoration. These changes were driven primarily by large increases in populations of brown trout Salmo trutta. The findings demonstrate that the structure, function, and ultimately the health of resident fish populations and communities can be improved, at least over the short term, through NCD restoration in perturbed streams of the Catskill Mountains. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society

  8. Key stream/sediment exchanges of water and heat near stream mouths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J. E.; Naranjo, R. C.; Niswonger, R. G.; Neilson, B. T.; Allander, K.; Zamora, C.; Smith, D. W.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The section of stream discharging to a lake or other surface-water body is referred to as the stream mouth, a stream reach with rapidly changing hydrologic conditions, leading to unique aquatic and benthic ecology, as well as a visibly active fishery habitat. Of environmental significance, bridges, control structures, channelization and foot traffic are common near stream mouths, warranting comparisons of natural and channelized stream mouths. The present work completes the first investigation focusing specifically on the hydrology of surface-water/sediment exchanges at stream-mouth reaches discharging to lakes and compares these exchanges to those measured along the nearby shoreline in both a qualitative and quantitative manner. Heat and water exchanges for two common types of stream mouths (a natural stream with a summer barrier bar and a channelized stream mouth) are compared with comparable exchanges along the nearby shoreline on the north shore of Lake Tahoe located in the Central Sierra Nevada Mountain Range (CA/NV, US). The study site was selected partially due the abundance of streams discharging into the lake of both a natural and channelized nature (~30 small streams with a large number of both types of stream mouths). Heat and water exchanges were both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct for the three types of hydrologic settings, with (1) cool, low velocity, longitudinal (hyporheic) flowpaths observed below the channelized stream mouth, discharging beneath the warmer, more buoyant lakeshore water, (2) the nearby shoreline receiving relatively warm, higher velocity discharge and (3) for the natural stream mouth, there was strong diurnal temperature pattern in groundwater discharging through the seasonal barrier beach to the lake. Impacts of strong 2013 wave action on exchanges were also distinct for the three settings, with (1) channelization allowing waves to extend well upstream, (2) a lesser invasive impact in the shoreline swash zone exchanges

  9. Chlorpromazine confers neuroprotection against brain ischemia by activating BKCa channel.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Zhou, Li; Han, Feng; Wang, Ming-Yan; Xue, Mao-Qiang; Qi, Zhi

    2014-07-15

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is a well-known antipsychotic drug, still widely being used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia, psychotic depression and organic psychoses. We have previously reported that CPZ activates the BKCa (KCa1.1) channel at whole cell level. In the present study, we demonstrated that CPZ increased the single channel open probability of the BKCa channels without changing its single channel amplitude. As BKCa channel is one of the molecular targets of brain ischemia, we explored a possible new use of this old drug on ischemic brain injury. In middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) focal cerebral ischemia, a single intraperitoneal injection of CPZ at several dosages (5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg) could exert a significant neuroprotective effect on the brain damage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, blockade of BKCa channels abolished the neuroprotective effect of CPZ on MCAO, suggesting that the effect of CPZ is mediated by activation of the BKCa channel. These results demonstrate that CPZ could reduce focal cerebral ischemic damage through activating BKCa channels and merits exploration as a potential therapeutic agent for treating ischemic stroke.

  10. [Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus retention in two different channel forms in a typical headwater stream in the suburb of Hefei City, China ].

    PubMed

    Li, Ru-zhong; Yang, Ji-wei; Qian, Jing; Dong, Yu-hong; Tang, Wen-kun

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of ammonium and phosphorus retention in two typical channel forms, deep pool and winding ditch in headwater stream, four field tracer experiments were conducted in a first-order stream of Ershibu River in Hefei suburban, in which a solution of biologically active (NH4Cl and KH2PO4) and conservative (NaCl) tracers was released to the head of each reach at a constant rate. According to the data sets of tracer experiments, mechanisms of ammonium and phosphorus retention were interpreted by using OTIS model code, transient storage metrics and nutrient spiraling theory. Study results showed that: (1) The value of As in deep pool was larger than that in winding ditch, whereas its value of hydrological parameter α was lower by an order of magnitude than that of winding ditch; (2) The value of NH(4)+ -λ in main channel was higher by two to three orders of magnitude than that of NH(4)+ -λs,in transient storage zone in deep pool, but in winding ditch the two parameters were closer in terms of numerical size; (3) In deep pool, the value of NH+(4) -Vf was higher by an order of magnitude than that of SRP-Vf, in winding ditch, however, not only the two values of NH(4)+ -Vf and SRP-Vf were close to each other, but NH(4)+ -Sw was nearly equal to SRP-Sw in numerical size as well; (4) The value of NH(4)+ -U was larger by two to three orders of magnitude than that of SRP-U in deep pool, whereas in winding ditch NH(4)+ -U was just larger by one to two orders of magnitude than SRP-U in size; (5) In general, significant difference existed between deep pool and winding ditch in the effect on ammonium and phosphorus retention, and marked retention efficiency was observed for ammonium rather than SRP in deep pool.

  11. Simulation of the Migration, Fate, and Effects of Diazinon in Two Monticello Stream Channels,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    roaming fish, three cages with a total of 200 minnows per channel were placed in the first pool within the study area. About 10% of the free- swimming fish...of eggs has been shown in much lower concentrations for fathad minnows. Spinal scoliosis has been diagnosed by Allison and Hermanutz (1977) at a...at 90 pg/l Pimephales promelas Reduced hatching and increase in Allison and (fathead minnow) incidence of scoliosis at 3.2 wg/l Hermanutz 1977

  12. Human activities impact on mountain river channels (case study of Kamchatka peninsula rivers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Aleksandra S.

    2010-05-01

    Human-induced driving factors along with natural environmental changes greatly impact on fluvial regime of rivers. On mountain and semi-mountain territories these processes are developed in the most complicated manner due to man-made activities diversity throughout river basins. Besides these processes are significantly enhanced because of the disastrous natural processes (like volcanic and mud-flow activity) frequent occurrences in mountainous regions. On of the most striking example on the matter is Kamchatka peninsula which is located at the North-West part of Russian Federation. This paper contributes to the study of human activities impact on fluvial systems in this volcanic mountain region. Human effects on rivers directly alter channel morphology and deformations, dynamics of water and sediment movement, aquatic communities or indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water and sediment into the channel. In case study of Kamchatka peninsula human activities affect fluvial systems through engineering works including construction of bridges, dams and channel diversions and placer mining. These processes are characterized by spatial heterogeneity because of irregular population distribution. Due to specific natural conditions of the peninsula the most populated areas are the valleys of big rivers (rivers Kamchatka, Avacha, Bistraya (Bolshaya), etc) within piedmont and plain regions. These rivers are characterized by very unstable channels. Both with man-made activities this determines wide range of fluvial system changes. Firstly bridges construction leads to island and logjam formation directly near their piers and intensification of channels patterns shifts. Furthermore rivers of the peninsula are distinguished for high water flow velocities and water rate. Incorrect bridge constructions both with significant channel deformations lead to the destructions of the bridges themselves due to intensive bank erosion. Secondly, intensive water flow

  13. Flow-induced activation of TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels stimulates Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel causing membrane hyperpolarization.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seung-Kuy; Kim, Ji-Hee; Huang, Chou-Long

    2013-12-01

    TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels are expressed in distal renal tubules and play important roles in the transcellular Ca(2+) reabsorption in kidney. They are regulated by multiple intracellular factors including protein kinases A and C, membrane phospholipid PIP2, protons, and divalent ions Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Here, we report that fluid flow that generates shear force within the physiological range of distal tubular fluid flow activated TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels expressed in HEK cells. Flow-induced activation of channel activity was reversible and did not desensitize over 2min. Fluid flow stimulated TRPV5 and 6-mediated Ca(2+) entry and increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. N-glycosylation-deficient TRPV5 channel was relatively insensitive to fluid flow. In cells coexpressing TRPV5 (or TRPV6) and Slo1-encoded maxi-K channels, fluid flow induced membrane hyperpolarization, which could be prevented by the maxi-K blocker iberiotoxin or TRPV5 and 6 blocker La(3+). In contrast, fluid flow did not cause membrane hyperpolarization in cells coexpressing ROMK1 and TRPV5 or 6 channel. These results reveal a new mechanism for the regulation of TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels. Activation of TRPV5 and TRPV6 by fluid flow may play a role in the regulation of flow-stimulated K(+) secretion via maxi-K channels in distal renal tubules and in the mechanism of pathogenesis of thiazide-induced hypocalciuria.

  14. Flow-Induced Activation of TRPV5 and TRPV6 Channel Stimulates Ca2+-Activated K+ Channel Causing Membrane Hyperpolarization

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seung-Kuy; Kim, Ji-Hee; Huang, Chou-Long

    2014-01-01

    TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels are expressed in distal renal tubules and play important roles in the transcellular Ca2+ reabsorption in kidney. They are regulated by multiple intracellular factors including protein kinase A and C, membrane phospholipid PIP2, protons, and divalent ions Ca2+ and Mg2+. Here, we report that fluid flow that generates shear force within the physiological range of distal tubular fluid flow activated TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels expressed in HEK cells. Flow-induced activation of channel activity was reversible and did not desensitize over 2 minutes. Fluid flow stimulated TRPV5 and 6-mediated Ca2+ entry and increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. N-glycosylation-deficient TRPV5 channel was relatively insensitive to fluid flow. In cells coexpressing TRPV5 (or TRPV6) and Slo1-encoded maxi-K channels, fluid flow induced membrane hyperpolarization, which could be prevented by the maxi-K blocker iberiotoxin or TRPV5 and 6 blocker La3+. In contrast, fluid flow did not cause membrane hyperpolarization in cells coexpressing ROMK1 and TRPV5 or 6 channels. These results reveal a new mechanism for regulation of TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels. Activation of TRPV5 and TRPV6 by fluid flow may play a role in the regulation of flow-stimulated K+ secretion via maxi-K channels in distal renal tubules and in the mechanism of pathogenesis of thiazide-induced hypocalciuria. PMID:24001793

  15. Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates

    PubMed Central

    Pusch, Michael; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Stein, Valentin; Jentsch, Thomas J

    1999-01-01

    ClC proteins are a class of voltage-dependent Cl− channels with several members mutated in human diseases. The prototype ClC-0 Torpedo channel is a dimeric protein; each subunit forms a pore that can gate independently from the other one. A common slower gating mechanism acts on both pores simultaneously; slow gating activates ClC-0 at hyperpolarized voltages. The ClC-2 Cl− channel is also activated by hyperpolarization, as are some ClC-1 mutants (e.g. D136G) and wild-type (WT) ClC-1 at certain pH values.We studied the dependence on internal Cl− ([Cl−]i) of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of several ClC channels (WT ClC-0, ClC-0 mutant P522G, ClC-1 mutant D136G and an N-terminal deletion mutant of ClC-2), by patch clamping channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes.With all these channels, reducing [Cl−]i shifted activation to more negative voltages and reduced the maximal activation at most negative voltages.We also investigated the external halide dependence of WT ClC-2 using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Reducing external Cl− ([Cl−]o) activated ClC-2 currents. Replacing [Cl−]o by the less permeant Br− reduced channel activity and accelerated deactivation.Gating of the ClC-2 mutant K566Q in normal [Cl−]o resembled that of WT ClC-2 in low [Cl−]o, i.e. channels had a considerable open probability (Po) at resting membrane potential. Substituting external Cl− by Br− or I− led to a decrease in Po.The [Cl−]i dependence of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of various ClC channels suggests a similar gating mechanism, and raises the possibility that the gating charge for the hyperpolarization-activated gate is provided by Cl−.The external halide dependence of hyperpolarization-activated gating of ClC-2 suggests that it is mediated or modulated by anions as in other ClC channels. In contrast to the depolarization-activated fast gates of ClC-0 and ClC-1, the absence of Cl− favours channel opening. Lysine 556 may be important

  16. Object Recognition in Williams Syndrome: Uneven Ventral Stream Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Roth, Jennifer K.; Courtney, Susan M.; Luna, Beatriz; Street, Whitney; Terwillinger, Robert; Landau, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder associated with severe visuospatial deficits, relatively strong language skills, heightened social interest, and increased attention to faces. On the basis of the visuospatial deficits, this disorder has been characterized primarily as a deficit of the dorsal stream, the occipitoparietal brain regions…

  17. Oxidative Regulation of Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiang D.; Daggett, Heather; Hanner, Markus; Garcia, Maria L.; McManus, Owen B.; Brot, Nathan; Weissbach, Herbert; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2001-01-01

    Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species are readily generated in vivo, playing roles in many physiological and pathological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, by oxidatively modifying various proteins. Previous studies indicate that large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa or Slo) are subject to redox regulation. However, conflicting results exist whether oxidation increases or decreases the channel activity. We used chloramine-T, which preferentially oxidizes methionine, to examine the functional consequences of methionine oxidation in the cloned human Slo (hSlo) channel expressed in mammalian cells. In the virtual absence of Ca2+, the oxidant shifted the steady-state macroscopic conductance to a more negative direction and slowed deactivation. The results obtained suggest that oxidation enhances specific voltage-dependent opening transitions and slows the rate-limiting closing transition. Enhancement of the hSlo activity was partially reversed by the enzyme peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, suggesting that the upregulation is mediated by methionine oxidation. In contrast, hydrogen peroxide and cysteine-specific reagents, DTNB, MTSEA, and PCMB, decreased the channel activity. Chloramine-T was much less effective when concurrently applied with the K+ channel blocker TEA, which is consistent with the possibility that the target methionine lies within the channel pore. Regulation of the Slo channel by methionine oxidation may represent an important link between cellular electrical excitability and metabolism. PMID:11222629

  18. Toward a unifying model of malaria-induced channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Bouyer, Guillaume; Egée, Stéphane; Thomas, Serge L. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Infection of RBC by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum activates, at the trophozoite stage, a membrane current 100- to 150-fold larger than in uninfected RBC. This current is carried by small anion channels initially described in supraphysiological ion concentrations (1.115 M Cl−) and named plasmodial surface anion channels (PSAC), suggesting their plasmodial origin. Our results obtained with physiological ion concentrations (0.145 M Cl−) support the notion that the parasite-induced channels represent enhanced activity versions of anion channels already present in uninfected RBCs. Among them, an 18-pS inwardly rectifying anion channel (IRC) and a 4- to 5-pS small conductance anion channel (SCC) were present in most single-channel recordings of infected membranes. The aim of this study was to clarify disparities in the reported electrophysiological data and to investigate possible technical reasons why these discrepancies have arisen. We demonstrate that PSAC is the supraphysiological correlate of the SCC and is inhibited by Zn2+, suggesting that it is a ClC-2 channel. We show that in physiological solutions 80% of the membrane conductance in infected cells can be accounted for by IRC and 20% can be accounted for by SCC whereas in supraphysiological conditions the membrane conductance is almost exclusively carried by SCC (PSAC) because the IRC is functionally turned off. PMID:17576926

  19. Contrasts between debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows and stream flows at a channel of Mount Semeru, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Franck; Suwa, Hiroshi

    2004-07-01

    In order to differentiate between different types of sediment-laden-flows in volcanic channels, we carried out observation of debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows, and stream flows in the Curah Lengkong river on the southeast slope of Mount Semeru in East Java, Indonesia. The aims of this study are: (1) to provide quantitative data for these flows in motion; (2) to compare the data for different types of flow that occur in the same river; (3) to assess the influence of rainfall on debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows, and streamflow generation. The Curah Lengkong river transports large volumes of sediment, in the range of 1×10 5 to 5×10 5 m 3 per debris flow, and 10 3 to 10 5 m 3 per hyperconcentrated flow and stream flow. Large sediment discharges result from the following factors: continuous and voluminous sediment supply of fine juvenile material by daily explosions of the Semeru volcano, pyroclastic source material emplaced on steep slopes, strong erosion of weathered river banks, and strong rainfall intensities. The occurrence of the flows focuses in the period from November through April, and the daily timing of it is the mid to late afternoon. Nearly all debris flows are triggered by stationary rainfall confined to the upper slopes of Mount Semeru, whereas hyperconcentrated flows and stream flows are mainly generated by migratory or regional rains driven upwards on the eastern slope. This slope receives its maximum of annual rainfall (3800 mm) at 800 m asl. The peak surface velocity of debris flows is always greater than the peak frontal velocity. The peak discharge of debris flows occurs several minutes after the passage of the flow front. Volumetric concentrations of sediment are high (48% to 69%) between the debris flow front and the point of peak discharge; after the peak discharge it usually decreases gradually. Contrary to the case of debris flows, high concentration of sediment appears in various portion of hyperconcentrated flows and stream flows

  20. Effective contractile response to voltage-gated Na+ channels revealed by a channel activator.

    PubMed

    Ho, W-S Vanessa; Davis, Alison J; Chadha, Preet S; Greenwood, Iain A

    2013-04-15

    This study investigated the molecular identity and impact of enhancing voltage-gated Na(+) (Na(V)) channels in the control of vascular tone. In rat isolated mesenteric and femoral arteries mounted for isometric tension recording, the vascular actions of the Na(V) channel activator veratridine were examined. Na(V) channel expression was probed by molecular techniques and immunocytochemistry. In mesenteric arteries, veratridine induced potent contractions (pEC(50) = 5.19 ± 0.20, E(max) = 12.0 ± 2.7 mN), which were inhibited by 1 μM TTX (a blocker of all Na(V) channel isoforms, except Na(V)1.5, Na(V)1.8, and Na(V)1.9), but not by selective blockers of Na(V)1.7 (ProTx-II, 10 nM) or Na(V)1.8 (A-80347, 1 μM) channels. The responses were insensitive to endothelium removal but were partly (~60%) reduced by chemical destruction of sympathetic nerves by 6-hydroxydopamine (2 mM) or antagonism at the α1-adrenoceptor by prazosin (1 μM). KB-R7943, a blocker of the reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (3 μM), inhibited veratridine contractions in the absence or presence of prazosin. T16A(inh)-A01, a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel blocker (10 μM), also inhibited the prazosin-resistant contraction to veratridine. Na(V) channel immunoreactivity was detected in freshly isolated mesenteric myocytes, with apparent colocalization with the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Veratridine induced similar contractile effects in the femoral artery, and mRNA transcripts for Na(V)1.2 and Na(V)1.3 channels were evident in both vessel types. We conclude that, in addition to sympathetic nerves, NaV channels are expressed in vascular myocytes, where they are functionally coupled to the reverse mode of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and subsequent activation of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, causing contraction. The TTX-sensitive Na(V)1.2 and Na(V)1.3 channels are likely involved in vascular control.

  1. Regional Relations in Bankfull Channel Characteristics determined from flow measurements at selected stream-gaging stations in West Virginia, 1911-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Messinger, Terence; Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    Three bankfull channel characteristics?cross-sectional area, width, and depth?were significantly correlated with drainage area in regression equations developed for two regions in West Virginia. Channel characteristics were determined from analysis of flow measurements made at 74 U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations at flows between 0.5 and 5.0 times bankfull flow between 1911 and 2002. Graphical and regression analysis were used to delineate an 'Eastern Region' and a 'Western Region,' which were separated by the boundary between the Appalachian Plateaus and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces. Streams that drained parts of both provinces had channel characteristics typical of the Eastern Region, and were grouped with it. Standard error for the six regression equations, three for each region, ranged between 8.7 and 16 percent. Cross-sectional area and depth were greater relative to drainage area for the Western Region than they were for the Eastern Region. Regression equations were defined for streams draining between 46.5 and 1,619 square miles for the Eastern Region, and between 2.78 and 1,354 square miles for the Western Region. Stream-gaging stations with two or more cross sections where flow had been measured at flows between 0.5 and 5.0 times the 1.5-year flow showed poor replication of channel characteristics compared to the 95-percent confidence intervals of the regression, suggesting that within-reach variability for the stream-gaging stations may be substantial. A disproportionate number of the selected stream-gaging stations were on large (drainage area greater than 100 square miles) streams in the central highlands of West Virginia, and only one stream-gaging station that met data-quality criteria was available to represent the region within about 50 miles of the Ohio River north of Parkersburg, West Virginia. Many of the cross sections were at bridges, which can change channel shape. Although the data discussed in this report may not be

  2. Channel properties of the splicing isoforms of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 2.

    PubMed

    Ponissery Saidu, Samsudeen; Stephan, Aaron B; Talaga, Anna K; Zhao, Haiqing; Reisert, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    Anoctamin (ANO)2 (or TMEM16B) forms a cell membrane Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel that is present in cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, vomeronasal microvilli, and photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Alternative splicing of Ano2 transcripts generates multiple variants with the olfactory variants skipping exon 14 and having alternative splicing of exon 4. In the present study, 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis was conducted to characterize the 5' end of olfactory Ano2 transcripts, which showed that the most abundant Ano2 transcripts in the olfactory epithelium contain a novel starting exon that encodes a translation initiation site, whereas transcripts of the publically available sequence variant, which has an alternative and longer 5' end, were present in lower abundance. With two alternative starting exons and alternative splicing of exon 4, four olfactory ANO2 isoforms are thus possible. Patch-clamp experiments in transfected HEK293T cells expressing these isoforms showed that N-terminal sequences affect Ca(2+) sensitivity and that the exon 4-encoded sequence is required to form functional channels. Coexpression of the two predominant isoforms, one with and one without the exon 4 sequence, as well as coexpression of the two rarer isoforms showed alterations in channel properties, indicating that different isoforms interact with each other. Furthermore, channel properties observed from the coexpression of the predominant isoforms better recapitulated the native channel properties, suggesting that the native channel may be composed of two or more splicing isoforms acting as subunits that together shape the channel properties.

  3. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, M. H.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition.

  4. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, M H; Spalding, E P

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition. PMID:8755616

  5. Collateral response to activation of potassium channels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lamping, K G

    1998-04-01

    Activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels is involved in the coronary vascular response to decreases in perfusion pressure and ischemia. Since activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in collateral vessels may be important in determining flow to collateral-dependent myocardium, the ability of collaterals to respond to activation of the channel was tested. In the beating heart of dogs, we compared responses of non-collaterals less than 100 microns in diameter to collaterals of similar size using computer-controlled stroboscopic epi-illumination of the left ventricle coupled to a microscope-video system. Aprikalim, a selective activator of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (0.1-10 microM) produced similar dose-dependent dilation of non-collaterals and collaterals. Relaxation was decreased by inhibition of ATP-sensitive K+ channels with glibenclamide, but not by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with nitro-L-arginine. Bradykinin (10-100 microM) produced similar dilation of non-collaterals and collaterals which was decreased by nitro-L-arginine but not glibenclamide. Thus, in microvascular collaterals, relaxation to both nitric oxide and activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels is similar to non-collaterals.

  6. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed Central

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epithelial cells. We report that the alkaline phosphatase inhibitors bromotetramisole, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, and vanadate slow the rundown of CFTR channel activity in excised membrane patches and reduce dephosphorylation of CFTR protein in isolated membranes. It was also found that in unstimulated cells, CFTR channels can be activated by exposure to phosphatase inhibitors alone. Most importantly, exposure of mammalian cells to phosphatase inhibitors alone activates CFTR channels that have disease-causing mutations, provided the mutant channels are present in the plasma membrane (R117H, G551D, and delta F508 after cooling). These results suggest that CFTR dephosphorylation is dynamic and that membrane-associated phosphatase activity may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7522329

  7. Recharge of shallow aquifers through two ephemeral-stream channels in northeastern Wyoming, 1982-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenfest, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Quantifying the recharge from ephemeral streams to alluvial and bedrock aquifers will help evaluate the effects of surface mining on alluvial valley floors in Wyoming. Two stream reaches were chosen for study in the Powder River basin. One reach was located along the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River near Glenrock, Wyoming, and the other reach was located along Black Thunder Creek near Hampshire, Wyoming. The reach along the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River was instrumented with 3 gaging stations to measure streamflow and with 6 observation wells to measure groundwater level fluctuations in alluvial and bedrock aquifers in response to streamflow. The 3 streamflow gaging stations were located within the 2.5-mi study reach to measure the approximate gain or loss of discharge along the reach. Computed streamflow losses ranged from 0.43 acre-ft/mi on July 9 , 1982, to 1.44 acre-ft/mi on August 9, 1982. The observation wells completed only in the alluvial aquifer were dry during flow in the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River, whereas water levels in half of the observation wells completed in the bedrock aquifers or the alluvial and bedrock aquifers rose in response to flow in the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River. Groundwater recharge on August 9, 1982, was calculated using a convolution technique using groundwater levels at the upstream site and was estimated to be 26.5 acre-ft/mi. The reach along Black Thunder Creek was instrumented with one gaging station to measure streamflow and with 4 observation wells to measure water level response in alluvial and bedrock aquifers to streamflow. Recharge to the alluvial aquifer from flow in Black Thunder Creek ranged from 3.56 to 12.4 acre-ft/mi. The recharge was estimated using the convolution technique using water level measurements in the observation wells completed in the alluvial aquifer. Water level measurements in the observation wells indicated water level rises in the alluvial and bedrock aquifers in response to

  8. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in perennial or intermittent streams only where those activities would not cause or contribute to the... and provisions have been made for sound future maintenance by the permittee or the landowner...

  9. Channel adjustment of an unstable coarse-grained stream: Opposing trends of boundary and critical shear stress, and the applicability of extremal hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, Andrew; Thorne, Colin R.

    1996-01-01

    Channel adjustments in the North Fork Toutle River and the Toutle River main stem were initiated by deposition of a 2.5km3 debris avalanche and associated lahars that accompanied the catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington on 18 May 1980. Channel widening was the dominant process. In combination, adjustments caused average boundary shear stress to decrease non-linearly with time and critical shear stress to increase non-linearly with time. At the discharge that is equalled or exceeded 1 per cent of the time, these trends converged by 1991-1992 so that excess shear stress approached minimum values. Extremal hypotheses, such as minimization of unit stream power and minimization of the rate of energy dissipation (minimum stream power), are shown to be applicable to dynamic adjustments of the Toutle River system. Maximization of the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor did not occur, but increases in relative bed roughness, caused by the concomitant reduction in hydraulic depths and bed-material coarsening, were documented. Predictions of stable channel geometries using the minimum stream power approach were unsuccessful when compared to the 1991-1992 geometries and bed-material characteristics measured in the field. It is concluded that the predictions are not applicable because the study reaches are not truly stable and cannot become so until a new floodplain has been formed by renewed channel incision, retreat of stream-side hummocks, and establishment of riparian vegetation to limit the destabilizing effects of large floods. Further, prediction of energy slope (and consequently stream power) by the sediment transport equations is inaccurate because of the inability of the equations to account for significant contributions of finer grained (sand and gravel) bank materials (relative to the coarsened channel bed) from bank retreat and from upstream terrace erosion.

  10. Fine scale patterns in microbial extracellular enzyme activity during leaf litter decomposition in a stream and its floodplain.

    PubMed

    Smart, Kurt A; Jackson, Colin R

    2009-10-01

    Microorganisms mediate the decomposition of leaf-litter through the release of extracellular enzymes. The surfaces of decomposing leaves are both chemically and physically heterogeneous, and spatial patterns in microbial enzyme activity on the litter surface should provide insights into fine-scale patterns of leaf-litter decomposition. Platanus occidentalis leaves were collected from the floodplain of a third-order stream in northern Mississippi, enclosed in individual litter bags, and placed in the stream channel and in the floodplain. Replicate leaves were collected approximately monthly over a 9-month period and assayed for spatial variation in microbial extracellular enzyme activity and rates of organic matter (OM) decomposition. Spatial variation in enzyme activity was measured by sampling 96 small discs (5-mm diameter) cut from each leaf. Discs were assayed for the activity of enzymes involved in lignin (oxidative enzymes) and cellulose (beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase) degradation. Rates of OM loss were greater in the stream than the floodplain. Activities of all enzymes displayed high variability in both environments, with severalfold differences across individual leaves, and replicate leaves varied greatly in their distribution of activities. Geostatistical analysis revealed no clear patterns in spatial distribution of activity over time or among replicates, and replicate leaves were highly variable. These results show that fine-scale spatial heterogeneity occurs on decomposing leaves, but the level of spatial variability varies among individual leaves at the measured spatial scales. This study is the first to use geostatistical analyses to analyze landscape patterns of microbial activity on decomposing leaf litter and in conjunction with studies of the microbial community composition and/or substrate characteristics, should provide key insights into the function of these processes.

  11. Active integrated filters for RF-photonic channelizers.

    PubMed

    El Nagdi, Amr; Liu, Ke; LaFave, Tim P; Hunt, Louis R; Ramakrishna, Viswanath; Dabkowski, Mieczyslaw; MacFarlane, Duncan L; Christensen, Marc P

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical study of RF-photonic channelizers using four architectures formed by active integrated filters with tunable gains is presented. The integrated filters are enabled by two- and four-port nano-photonic couplers (NPCs). Lossless and three individual manufacturing cases with high transmission, high reflection, and symmetric couplers are assumed in the work. NPCs behavior is dependent upon the phenomenon of frustrated total internal reflection. Experimentally, photonic channelizers are fabricated in one single semiconductor chip on multi-quantum well epitaxial InP wafers using conventional microelectronics processing techniques. A state space modeling approach is used to derive the transfer functions and analyze the stability of these filters. The ability of adapting using the gains is demonstrated. Our simulation results indicate that the characteristic bandpass and notch filter responses of each structure are the basis of channelizer architectures, and optical gain may be used to adjust filter parameters to obtain a desired frequency magnitude response, especially in the range of 1-5 GHz for the chip with a coupler separation of ∼9 mm. Preliminarily, the measurement of spectral response shows enhancement of quality factor by using higher optical gains. The present compact active filters on an InP-based integrated photonic circuit hold the potential for a variety of channelizer applications. Compared to a pure RF channelizer, photonic channelizers may perform both channelization and down-conversion in an optical domain.

  12. Multi-channel fiber photometry for population neuronal activity recording.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingchun; Zhou, Jingfeng; Feng, Qiru; Lin, Rui; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Minmin; Fu, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Fiber photometry has become increasingly popular among neuroscientists as a convenient tool for the recording of genetically defined neuronal population in behaving animals. Here, we report the development of the multi-channel fiber photometry system to simultaneously monitor neural activities in several brain areas of an animal or in different animals. In this system, a galvano-mirror modulates and cyclically couples the excitation light to individual multimode optical fiber bundles. A single photodetector collects excited light and the configuration of fiber bundle assembly and the scanner determines the total channel number. We demonstrated that the system exhibited negligible crosstalk between channels and optical signals could be sampled simultaneously with a sample rate of at least 100 Hz for each channel, which is sufficient for recording calcium signals. Using this system, we successfully recorded GCaMP6 fluorescent signals from the bilateral barrel cortices of a head-restrained mouse in a dual-channel mode, and the orbitofrontal cortices of multiple freely moving mice in a triple-channel mode. The multi-channel fiber photometry system would be a valuable tool for simultaneous recordings of population activities in different brain areas of a given animal and different interacting individuals.

  13. Active Integrated Filters for RF-Photonic Channelizers

    PubMed Central

    Nagdi, Amr El; Liu, Ke; LaFave, Tim P.; Hunt, Louis R.; Ramakrishna, Viswanath; Dabkowski, Mieczyslaw; MacFarlane, Duncan L.; Christensen, Marc P.

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical study of RF-photonic channelizers using four architectures formed by active integrated filters with tunable gains is presented. The integrated filters are enabled by two- and four-port nano-photonic couplers (NPCs). Lossless and three individual manufacturing cases with high transmission, high reflection, and symmetric couplers are assumed in the work. NPCs behavior is dependent upon the phenomenon of frustrated total internal reflection. Experimentally, photonic channelizers are fabricated in one single semiconductor chip on multi-quantum well epitaxial InP wafers using conventional microelectronics processing techniques. A state space modeling approach is used to derive the transfer functions and analyze the stability of these filters. The ability of adapting using the gains is demonstrated. Our simulation results indicate that the characteristic bandpass and notch filter responses of each structure are the basis of channelizer architectures, and optical gain may be used to adjust filter parameters to obtain a desired frequency magnitude response, especially in the range of 1–5 GHz for the chip with a coupler separation of ∼9 mm. Preliminarily, the measurement of spectral response shows enhancement of quality factor by using higher optical gains. The present compact active filters on an InP-based integrated photonic circuit hold the potential for a variety of channelizer applications. Compared to a pure RF channelizer, photonic channelizers may perform both channelization and down-conversion in an optical domain. PMID:22319352

  14. Biogeochemistry and Hydrology in Streams Impacted by Legacy Sediments and Urbanization: Implications for Stream Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The groundwater–surface water interface, consisting of shallow groundwater adjacent to stream channels, is a hot spot for nitrogen removal processes, a storage zone for other solutes, and a target for restoration activities. Characterizing groundwater-surface water interac...

  15. Detecting channel riparian vegetation response to best-management-practices implementation in ephemeral streams with the use of spot high-resolution visible imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamp, Kendall Vande; Rigge, Matthew B.; Troelstrup, Nels H.; Smart, Alexander J.; Wylie, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Heavily grazed riparian areas are commonly subject to channel incision, a lower water table, and reduced vegetation, resulting in sediment delivery above normal regimes. Riparian and in-channel vegetation functions as a roughness element and dissipates flow energy, maintaining stable channel geometry. Ash Creek, a tributary of the Bad River in western South Dakota contains a high proportion of incised channels, remnants of historically high grazing pressure. Best management practices (BMP), including off-stream watering sources and cross fencing, were implemented throughout the Bad River watershed during an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 319 effort to address high sediment loads. We monitored prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) establishment within stream channels for 16 yr following BMP implementation. Photos were used to group stream reaches (n = 103) subjectively into three classes; absent (estimated  40% cover; n = 16) based on the relative amount of prairie cordgrass during 2010 assessments of ephemeral channels. Reaches containing drainage areas of 0.54 to 692 ha were delineated with the use of 2010 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were extracted from 5 to 39 sample points proportional to reach length using a series of Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite imagery. Normalized NDVI (nNDVI) of 2 152 sample points were determined from pre- and post-BMP images. Mean nNDVI values for each reach ranged from 0.33 to 1.77. ANOVA revealed significant increase in nNDVI in locations classified as present prairie cordgrass cover following BMP implementation. Establishment of prairie cordgrass following BMP implementation was successfully detected remotely. Riparian vegetation such as prairie cordgrass adds channel roughness that reduces the flow energy responsible for channel degradation.

  16. Effect of Cytoskeletal Reagents on Stretch Activated Ion Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-12

    transduction. Biophys J59: 1143-1145, 1991. 23. SACHS, F., W. SIGURDSON, A. RUKNUDIN, AND C. BOWMAN. Single- channel mechanosensitive currents. Science 253: 800... mechanosensitive ion channels . In: Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology, v0C, edited by F. Ito. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1992, p. 55-77. Report of Inventions: None 4 ...EFFECT OF CYTOSKELETAL REAGENTS ON STRETCH ACTIVATED ION CHANNELS b lfli..3-f-I’- o0*’t 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr.-Frederick Sachs DI 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME

  17. Post-Eruption Changes in Channel Geometry of Streams in the Toutle River Drainage Basin, 1980-82, Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, D.F.; Nolan, K. Michael; Dodge, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, generated a debris avalanche, lateral blast, lahars, and tephra deposits that altered mainstem and tributary channels within the Toutle River drainage basin. Channel cross sections were monumented and surveyed on North Fork Toutle River and its tributaries, on South Fork Toutle River, on Green River, and on Toutle River in 1980 and 1981. These streams drain the north and west flanks of the volcano. The network of channel cross sections was surveyed more frequently following periods of higher flow. The repetitive cross-section surveys provide measurements of bank erosion or accretion and of channel erosion or aggradation. These data can be used to determine erosion rates, and to identify sources and storage sites of sediment in sediment budget computations. This report presents channel cross-section profiles constructed from the survey data collected during water years 1980 through 1982.

  18. ROMK1 channel activity is regulated by monoubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dao-Hong; Sterling, Hyacinth; Wang, Zhijian; Babilonia, Elisa; Yang, Baofeng; Dong, Ke; Hebert, Steven C; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2005-03-22

    The ubiquitination of proteins can signal their degradation, modify their activity or target them to specific membranes or cellular organelles. Here, we show that monoubiquitination regulates the plasma membrane abundance and function of the potassium channel, ROMK. Immunoprecipitation of proteins obtained from renal cortex and outer medulla with ROMK antibody revealed that this channel was monoubiquitinated. To determine the ubiquitin binding site on ROMK1, all intracellular lysine (Lys) residues of ROMK1 were individually mutated to arginine (Arg), and a two-electrode voltage clamp was used to measure the ROMK1 channel activity in Xenopus oocytes. ROMK1 channel activity increased from 8.1 to 27.2 microA only when Lys-22 was mutated to Arg. Furthermore, Western blotting failed to detect the ubiquitinated ROMK1 in oocytes injected with R1K22R. Patch-clamp experiments showed that biophysical properties of R1K22R were identical to those of wild-type ROMK1. Although total protein expression levels of GFP-ROMK1 and GFP-R1K22R in oocytes were similar, confocal microscopy showed that the surface fluorescence intensity in oocytes injected with GFP-R1K22R was higher than that of GFP-ROMK1. In addition, biotin labeling of ROMK1 and R1K22R proteins expressed in HEK293 cells showed increased surface expression of the Lys-22 mutant channel. Finally, expression of R1K22R in COS7 cells significantly stimulated the surface expression of ROMK1. We conclude that ROMK1 can be monoubiquitinated and that Lys-22 is an ubiquitin-binding site. Thus, monoubiquitination of ROMK1 regulates channel activity by reducing the surface expression of channel protein. This finding implicates the linking of a single ubiquitin molecule to channels as an important posttranslational regulatory signal.

  19. ROMK1 channel activity is regulated by monoubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dao-Hong; Sterling, Hyacinth; Wang, Zhijian; Babilonia, Elisa; Yang, Baofeng; Dong, Ke; Hebert, Steven C.; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2005-01-01

    The ubiquitination of proteins can signal their degradation, modify their activity or target them to specific membranes or cellular organelles. Here, we show that monoubiquitination regulates the plasma membrane abundance and function of the potassium channel, ROMK. Immunoprecipitation of proteins obtained from renal cortex and outer medulla with ROMK antibody revealed that this channel was monoubiquitinated. To determine the ubiquitin binding site on ROMK1, all intracellular lysine (Lys) residues of ROMK1 were individually mutated to arginine (Arg), and a two-electrode voltage clamp was used to measure the ROMK1 channel activity in Xenopus oocytes. ROMK1 channel activity increased from 8.1 to 27.2 μA only when Lys-22 was mutated to Arg. Furthermore, Western blotting failed to detect the ubiquitinated ROMK1 in oocytes injected with R1K22R. Patch-clamp experiments showed that biophysical properties of R1K22R were identical to those of wild-type ROMK1. Although total protein expression levels of GFP-ROMK1 and GFP-R1K22R in oocytes were similar, confocal microscopy showed that the surface fluorescence intensity in oocytes injected with GFP-R1K22R was higher than that of GFP-ROMK1. In addition, biotin labeling of ROMK1 and R1K22R proteins expressed in HEK293 cells showed increased surface expression of the Lys-22 mutant channel. Finally, expression of R1K22R in COS7 cells significantly stimulated the surface expression of ROMK1. We conclude that ROMK1 can be monoubiquitinated and that Lys-22 is an ubiquitin-binding site. Thus, monoubiquitination of ROMK1 regulates channel activity by reducing the surface expression of channel protein. This finding implicates the linking of a single ubiquitin molecule to channels as an important posttranslational regulatory signal. PMID:15767585

  20. Is in-stream macrophyte growth predictable and what are its impacts on channel-averaged flow characteristics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, David N.; Thomas, Robert E.; Keevil, Gareth M.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Hardy, Richard J.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding how the growth of aquatic vegetation impacts stage-discharge coupling is vital for river management planning. This study presents an annual record of monthly spatial distribution surveys of the in-stream macrophyte Ranunculus penicillatus coupled with channel form and flow velocity measurements, within a 50 m-long reach of a gravel-bed river. Whereas stage has varied by up to 0.4 m, there has been little change in channel form over the monitoring period (ongoing since 23/07/2014). Macrophyte growth continued from the start of the monitoring period until October 2014 when mean patch area was 6.74 m2, and then decreased throughout a decay phase until January 2015 when mean patch area was 1.12 m2. There was a 75.2% loss of macrophyte surface area between October 2014 and January 2015. The largest patches that remained in January 2015 continued to decay until February. Conversely, new macrophyte patches also began to recolonize the channel during this time. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of a transition period during which aquatic vegetation is in both decay and recolonization phases simultaneously. In total 69% of patches present in January exhibited regrowth without further decay to form a base for recolonization. Therefore, the spatial distribution of macrophyte patches could be determined to be somewhat persistent. Despite this, due to several different growth factors, there are recognisable differences in both macrophyte patch shape and distribution when comparing data from July 2014 and July 2015, emphasising the unpredictability of macrophyte growth. The decay period of the Ranunculus p. coincided with seasonal high discharges in this catchment. Discharge remained high from January until March 2015, but then began to decrease, reflecting annual peaks in historical records for the study area. Large discharge variations were not matched by a large stage range. Displacement of water by vegetation growth maintained the stage height when

  1. Activation of purified calcium channels by stoichiometric protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Nunoki, K.; Florio, V.; Catterall, W.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Purified dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels from rabbit skeletal muscle were reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine vesicles to evaluate the effect of phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) on their function. Both the rate and extent of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into vesicles containing reconstituted calcium channels were increased severalfold after incubation with ATP and PK-A. The degree of stimulation of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake was linearly proportional to the extent of phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the calcium channel up to a stoichiometry of approximately 1 mol of phosphate incorporated into each subunit. The calcium channels activated by phosphorylation were determined to be incorporated into the reconstituted vesicles in the inside-out orientation and were completely inhibited by low concentrations of dihydropyridines, phenylalkylamines, Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}. The results demonstrate a direct relationship between PK-A-catalyzed phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the purified calcium channel and activation of the ion conductance activity of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels.

  2. Performance of an open limestone channel for treating a stream affected by acid rock drainage (León, Spain).

    PubMed

    Santofimia, Esther; López-Pamo, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    The generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) was observed after the oxidation dissolution of pyrite-rich black shales, which were excavated during the construction of a highway in León (Spain). ARDs are characterized by the presence of high concentrations of sulfate and metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Th, and U) that affect the La Silva stream. Dissolved element concentrations showed values between one and four orders of magnitude higher than those of natural waters of this area. A passive treatment system was constructed; the aim of which was to improve the quality of the water of the stream. This work provides a hydrochemical characterization of the La Silva stream after its transit through the different elements that constitute the passive treatment system (open limestone channel (OLC), small ponds, and a wetland), during its first year of operation. The passive treatment system has two sections separated by a tunnel 230 m long. The first section, which stretches between the highway and the tunnel entrance, is an OLC 350 m long with a slope of 16 %. The second section, which stretches from the tunnel exit to the end wetland, has a length of 700 m and a slope of 6 %; it is in this section where six small ponds are located. In the first section of this passive treatment system, the OLC was effectively increasing the pH from 3 to 4-4.5 and eliminating all of the dissolved Fe and the partially dissolved Al. These elements, after hydrolysis at a pH 3-3.5 and 4-4.5, respectively, had precipitated as schwertmannite and hydrobasaluminite, while other dissolved metals were removed totally or partially for adsorption by the precipitates and/or by coprecipitation. The second section receives different inputs of water such as ARDs and natural waters. After exiting the treatment system, the stream is buffered by Al at a pH of 4-4.3, showing high Al concentrations (19-101 mg/L) but with a complete removal of dissolved Fe. Unfortunately, the outflow shows similar or

  3. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes varies with kinesin activity and correlates with the microtubule cytoskeleton architecture.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Sujoy; Williams, Lucy S; Palacios, Isabel M; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2012-09-18

    Cells can localize molecules asymmetrically through the combined action of cytoplasmic streaming, which circulates their fluid contents, and specific anchoring mechanisms. Streaming also contributes to the distribution of nutrients and organelles such as chloroplasts in plants, the asymmetric position of the meiotic spindle in mammalian embryos, and the developmental potential of the zygote, yet little is known quantitatively about the relationship between streaming and the motor activity which drives it. Here we use Particle Image Velocimetry to quantify the statistical properties of Kinesin-dependent streaming during mid-oogenesis in Drosophila. We find that streaming can be used to detect subtle changes in Kinesin activity and that the flows reflect the architecture of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Furthermore, based on characterization of the rheology of the cytoplasm in vivo, we establish estimates of the number of Kinesins required to drive the observed streaming. Using this in vivo data as the basis of a model for transport, we suggest that the disordered character of transport at mid-oogenesis, as revealed by streaming, is an important component of the localization dynamics of the body plan determinant oskar mRNA.

  4. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin

    PubMed Central

    Hillyard, Stanley D.; Willumsen, Niels J.; Marrero, Mario B.

    2010-01-01

    Cell-attached patches from isolated epithelial cells from larval bullfrog skin revealed a cation channel that was activated by applying suction (−1 kPa to −4.5 kPa) to the pipette. Activation was characterized by an initial large current spike that rapidly attenuated to a stable value and showed a variable pattern of opening and closing with continuing suction. Current–voltage plots demonstrated linear or inward rectification and single channel conductances of 44–56 pS with NaCl or KCl Ringer's solution as the pipette solution, and a reversal potential (−Vp) of 20–40 mV. The conductance was markedly reduced with N-methyl-D-glucamide (NMDG)-Cl Ringer's solution in the pipette. Neither amiloride nor ATP, which are known to stimulate an apical cation channel in Ussing chamber preparations of larval frog skin, produced channel activation nor did these compounds affect the response to suction. Stretch activation was not affected by varying the pipette concentrations of Ca2+ between 0 mmol l−1 and 4 mmol l−1 or by varying pH between 6.8 and 8.0. However, conductance was reduced with 4 mmol l−1 Ca2+. Western blot analysis of membrane homogenates from larval bullfrog and larval toad skin identified proteins that were immunoreactive with mammalian TRPC1 and TRPC5 (TRPC, canonical transient receptor potential channel) antibodies while homogenates of skin from newly metamorphosed bullfrogs were positive for TRPC1 and TRPC3/6/7 antibodies. The electrophysiological response of larval bullfrog skin resembles that of a stretch-activated cation channel characterized in Xenopus oocytes and proposed to be TRPC1. These results indicate this channel persists in all life stages of anurans and that TRP isoforms may be important for sensory functions of their skin. PMID:20435829

  5. Block of a Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel by cocaine.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, L S

    2005-04-01

    The primary target for cocaine is believed to be monoamine transporters because of cocaine's high-affinity binding that prevents re-uptake of released neurotransmitter. However, direct interaction with ion channels has been shown to be important for certain pharmacological/toxicological effects of cocaine. Here I show that cocaine selectively blocks a calcium-dependent K(+) channel in hippocampal neurons grown in culture (IC(50)=approximately 30 microM). Single-channel recordings show that in the presence of cocaine, the channel openings are interrupted with brief closures (flicker block). As the concentration of cocaine is increased the open-time is reduced, whereas the duration of brief closures is independent of concentration. The association and dissociation rate constants of cocaine for the neuronal Ca(2+)-activated K(+ )channels are 261+/-37 microM: (-1)s(-1) and 11451+/-1467 s(-1). The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(B)) for cocaine, determined from single-channel parameters, is 43 microM. The lack of voltage dependence of block suggests that cocaine probably binds to a site at the mouth of the pore. Block of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels by cocaine may be involved in functions that include broadening of the action potential, which would facilitate transmitter release, enhancement of smooth muscle contraction particularly in blood vessels, and modulation of repetitive neuronal firing by altering the repolarization and afterhyperpolarization phases of the action potential.

  6. Activation of peripheral KCNQ channels relieves gout pain

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yueming; Xu, Haiyan; Zhan, Li; Zhou, Xindi; Chen, Xueqin; Gao, Zhaobing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intense inflammatory pain caused by urate crystals in joints and other tissues is a major symptom of gout. Among therapy drugs that lower urate, benzbromarone (BBR), an inhibitor of urate transporters, is widely used because it is well tolerated and highly effective. We demonstrate that BBR is also an activator of voltage-gated KCNQ potassium channels. In cultured recombinant cells, BBR exhibited significant potentiation effects on KCNQ channels comparable to previously reported classical activators. In native dorsal root ganglion neurons, BBR effectively overcame the suppression of KCNQ currents, and the resultant neuronal hyperexcitability caused by inflammatory mediators, such as bradykinin (BK). Benzbromarone consistently attenuates BK-, formalin-, or monosodium urate–induced inflammatory pain in rat and mouse models. Notably, the analgesic effects of BBR are largely mediated through peripheral and not through central KCNQ channels, an observation supported both by pharmacokinetic studies and in vivo experiments. Moreover, multiple residues in the superficial part of the voltage sensing domain of KCNQ channels were identified critical for the potentiation activity of BBR by a molecular determinant investigation. Our data indicate that activation of peripheral KCNQ channels mediates the pain relief effects of BBR, potentially providing a new strategy for the development of more effective therapies for gout. PMID:25735002

  7. Intracellular calcium strongly potentiates agonist-activated TRPC5 channels

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Nathaniel T.; Kaczmarek, J. Stefan

    2009-01-01

    TRPC5 is a calcium (Ca2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel expressed in several brain regions, including the hippocampus, cerebellum, and amygdala. Although TRPC5 is activated by receptors coupled to phospholipase C, the precise signaling pathway and modulatory signals remain poorly defined. We find that during continuous agonist activation, heterologously expressed TRPC5 currents are potentiated in a voltage-dependent manner (∼5-fold at positive potentials and ∼25-fold at negative potentials). The reversal potential, doubly rectifying current–voltage relation, and permeability to large cations such as N-methyl-d-glucamine remain unchanged during this potentiation. The TRPC5 current potentiation depends on extracellular Ca2+: replacement by Ba2+ or Mg2+ abolishes it, whereas the addition of 10 mM Ca2+ accelerates it. The site of action for Ca2+ is intracellular, as simultaneous fura-2 imaging and patch clamp recordings indicate that potentiation is triggered at ∼1 µM [Ca2+]. This potentiation is prevented when intracellular Ca2+ is tightly buffered, but it is promoted when recording with internal solutions containing elevated [Ca2+]. In cell-attached and excised inside-out single-channel recordings, increases in internal [Ca2+] led to an ∼10–20-fold increase in channel open probability, whereas single-channel conductance was unchanged. Ca2+-dependent potentiation should result in TRPC5 channel activation preferentially during periods of repetitive firing or coincident neurotransmitter receptor activation. PMID:19398778

  8. Use of Small Fluorescent Molecules to Monitor Channel Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sharon; Stringer, Sarah; Naik, Rajesh; Stone, Morley

    2001-03-01

    The Mechanosensitive channel of Large conductance (MscL) allows bacteria to rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions such as osmolarity. The MscL channel opens in response to increases in membrane tension, which allows for the efflux of cytoplasmic constituents. Here we describe the cloning and expression of Salmonella typhimurium MscL (St-MscL). Using a fluorescence efflux assay, we demonstrate that efflux through the MscL channel during hypoosmotic shock can be monitored using endogenously produced fluorophores. In addition, we observe that thermal stimulation, i.e., heat shock, can also induce efflux through MscL. We present the first evidence of thermal activation of MscL efflux by heat shocking cells expressing the S. typhimurium protein variant. This finding has significant biosensor implications, especially for investigators exploring the use of channel proteins in biosensor applications. Thermal biosensors are relatively unexplored, but would have considerable commercial and military utility.

  9. Caffeine activates mouse TRPA1 channels but suppresses human TRPA1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Nagatomo, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine has various well-characterized pharmacological effects, but in mammals there are no known plasma membrane receptors or ion channels activated by caffeine. We observed that caffeine activates mouse transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) in heterologous expression systems by Cai2+ imaging and electrophysiological analyses. These responses to caffeine were confirmed in acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons from WT mice, which are known to express TRPA1, but were not seen in neurons from TRPA1 KO mice. Expression of TRPA1 was detected immunohistochemically in nerve fibers and bundles in the mouse tongue. Moreover, WT mice, but not KO mice, showed a remarkable aversion to caffeine-containing water. These results demonstrate that mouse TRPA1 channels expressed in sensory neurons cause an aversion to drinking caffeine-containing water, suggesting they mediate the perception of caffeine. Finally, we observed that caffeine does not activate human TRPA1; instead, it suppresses its activity. PMID:18988737

  10. Effects of nutrient enrichment on the decomposition of wood and associated microbial activity in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulis, V.; Rosemond, A.D.; Suberkropp, K.; Weyers, H.S.; Benstead, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    1. We determined the effects of nutrient enrichment on wood decomposition rates and microbial activity during a 3-year study in two headwater streams at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, NC, U.S.A. After a 1-year pretreatment period, one of the streams was continuously enriched with inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) for 2 years while the other stream served as a reference. We determined the effects of enrichment on both wood veneers and sticks, which have similar carbon quality but differ in physical characteristics (e.g. surface area to volume ratios, presence of bark) that potentially affect microbial colonisation and activity. 2. Oak wood veneers (0.5 mm thick) were placed in streams monthly and allowed to decompose for approximately 90 days. Nutrient addition stimulated ash-free dry mass loss and increased mean nitrogen content, fungal biomass and microbial respiration on veneers in the treatment stream compared with the reference. The magnitude of the response to enrichment was great, with mass loss 6.1 times, and per cent N, fungal biomass and microbial respiration approximately four times greater in the treatment versus reference stream. 3. Decomposition rate and nitrogen content of maple sticks (ca. 1-2 cm diameter) also increased; however, the effect was less pronounced than for veneers. Wood response overall was greater than that determined for leaves in a comparable study, supporting the hypothesis that response to enrichment may be greater for lower quality organic matter (high C:N) than for higher quality (low C:N) substrates. 4. Our results show that moderate nutrient enrichment can profoundly affect decomposition rate and microbial activity on wood in streams. Thus, the timing and availability of wood that provides retention, structure, attachment sites and food in stream ecosystems may be affected by nutrient concentrations raised by human activities.

  11. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  12. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  13. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  14. Activation of Slo2.1 channels by niflumic acid

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li; Garg, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Slo2.1 channels conduct an outwardly rectifying K+ current when activated by high [Na+]i. Here, we show that gating of these channels can also be activated by fenamates such as niflumic acid (NFA), even in the absence of intracellular Na+. In Xenopus oocytes injected with <10 ng cRNA, heterologously expressed human Slo2.1 current was negligible, but rapidly activated by extracellular application of NFA (EC50 = 2.1 mM) or flufenamic acid (EC50 = 1.4 mM). Slo2.1 channels activated by 1 mM NFA exhibited weak voltage dependence. In high [K+]e, the conductance–voltage (G-V) relationship had a V1/2 of +95 mV and an effective valence, z, of 0.48 e. Higher concentrations of NFA shifted V1/2 to more negative potentials (EC50 = 2.1 mM) and increased the minimum value of G/Gmax (EC50 = 2.4 mM); at 6 mM NFA, Slo2.1 channel activation was voltage independent. In contrast, V1/2 of the G-V relationship was shifted to more positive potentials when [K+]e was elevated from 1 to 300 mM (EC50 = 21.2 mM). The slope conductance measured at the reversal potential exhibited the same [K+]e dependency (EC50 = 23.5 mM). Conductance was also [Na+]e dependent. Outward currents were reduced when Na+ was replaced with choline or mannitol, but unaffected by substitution with Rb+ or Li+. Neutralization of charged residues in the S1–S4 domains did not appreciably alter the voltage dependence of Slo2.1 activation. Thus, the weak voltage dependence of Slo2.1 channel activation is independent of charged residues in the S1–S4 segments. In contrast, mutation of R190 located in the adjacent S4–S5 linker to a neutral (Ala or Gln) or acidic (Glu) residue induced constitutive channel activity that was reduced by high [K+]e. Collectively, these findings indicate that Slo2.1 channel gating is modulated by [K+]e and [Na+]e, and that NFA uncouples channel activation from its modulation by transmembrane voltage and intracellular Na+. PMID:20176855

  15. Activation of Slo2.1 channels by niflumic acid.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li; Garg, Vivek; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2010-03-01

    Slo2.1 channels conduct an outwardly rectifying K(+) current when activated by high [Na(+)](i). Here, we show that gating of these channels can also be activated by fenamates such as niflumic acid (NFA), even in the absence of intracellular Na(+). In Xenopus oocytes injected with <10 ng cRNA, heterologously expressed human Slo2.1 current was negligible, but rapidly activated by extracellular application of NFA (EC(50) = 2.1 mM) or flufenamic acid (EC(50) = 1.4 mM). Slo2.1 channels activated by 1 mM NFA exhibited weak voltage dependence. In high [K(+)](e), the conductance-voltage (G-V) relationship had a V(1/2) of +95 mV and an effective valence, z, of 0.48 e. Higher concentrations of NFA shifted V(1/2) to more negative potentials (EC(50) = 2.1 mM) and increased the minimum value of G/G(max) (EC(50) = 2.4 mM); at 6 mM NFA, Slo2.1 channel activation was voltage independent. In contrast, V(1/2) of the G-V relationship was shifted to more positive potentials when [K(+)](e) was elevated from 1 to 300 mM (EC(50) = 21.2 mM). The slope conductance measured at the reversal potential exhibited the same [K(+)](e) dependency (EC(50) = 23.5 mM). Conductance was also [Na(+)](e) dependent. Outward currents were reduced when Na(+) was replaced with choline or mannitol, but unaffected by substitution with Rb(+) or Li(+). Neutralization of charged residues in the S1-S4 domains did not appreciably alter the voltage dependence of Slo2.1 activation. Thus, the weak voltage dependence of Slo2.1 channel activation is independent of charged residues in the S1-S4 segments. In contrast, mutation of R190 located in the adjacent S4-S5 linker to a neutral (Ala or Gln) or acidic (Glu) residue induced constitutive channel activity that was reduced by high [K(+)](e). Collectively, these findings indicate that Slo2.1 channel gating is modulated by [K(+)](e) and [Na(+)](e), and that NFA uncouples channel activation from its modulation by transmembrane voltage and intracellular Na(+).

  16. Single-channel 40 Gbit/s digital coherent QAM quantum noise stream cipher transmission over 480 km.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Kasai, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2016-01-11

    We demonstrate the first 40 Gbit/s single-channel polarization-multiplexed, 5 Gsymbol/s, 16 QAM quantum noise stream cipher (QNSC) transmission over 480 km by incorporating ASE quantum noise from EDFAs as well as the quantum shot noise of the coherent state with multiple photons for the random masking of data. By using a multi-bit encoded scheme and digital coherent transmission techniques, secure optical communication with a record data capacity and transmission distance has been successfully realized. In this system, the signal level received by Eve is hidden by both the amplitude and the phase noise. The highest number of masked signals, 7.5 x 10(4), was achieved by using a QAM scheme with FEC, which makes it possible to reduce the output power from the transmitter while maintaining an error free condition for Bob. We have newly measured the noise distribution around I and Q encrypted data and shown experimentally with a data size of as large as 2(25) that the noise has a Gaussian distribution with no correlations. This distribution is suitable for the random masking of data.

  17. MWSA's physical habitat approach - combining knowledge of habitat requirements with mechanisms of geomorphic and anthropogenic influence on stream channel form

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective environmental policy decisions benefit from stream habitat information that is accurate, precise, and relevant. The recent National Wadeable Streams Assessment (NWSA) carried out by the U.S. EPA required physical habitat information sufficiently comprehensive to facilit...

  18. Characterization of three novel mechanosensitive channel activities in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Michelle D; Black, Susan; Rasmussen, Tim; Rasmussen, Akiko; Stokes, Neil R; Stephen, Terri-Leigh; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    Mechanosensitive channels sense elevated membrane tension that arises from rapid water influx occurring when cells move from high to low osmolarity environments (hypoosmotic shock). These non-specific channels in the cytoplasmic membrane release osmotically-active solutes and ions. The two major mechanosensitive channels in Escherichia coli are MscL and MscS. Deletion of both proteins severely compromises survival of hypoosmotic shock. However, like many bacteria, E. coli cells possess other MscS-type genes (kefA, ybdG, ybiO, yjeP and ynaI). Two homologs, MscK (kefA) and YbdG, have been characterized as mechanosensitive channels that play minor roles in maintaining cell integrity. Additional channel openings are occasionally observed in patches derived from mutants lacking MscS, MscK and MscL. Due to their rare occurrence, little is known about these extra pressure-induced currents or their genetic origins. Here we complete the identification of the remaining E. coli mechanosensitive channels YnaI, YbiO and YjeP. The latter is the major component of the previously described MscM activity (~300 pS), while YnaI (~100 pS) and YbiO (~1000 pS) were previously unknown. Expression of native YbiO is NaCl-specific and RpoS-dependent. A Δ7 strain was created with all seven E. coli mechanosensitive channel genes deleted. High level expression of YnaI, YbiO or YjeP proteins from a multicopy plasmid in the Δ7 strain (MJFGH) leads to substantial protection against hypoosmotic shock. Purified homologs exhibit high molecular masses that are consistent with heptameric assemblies. This work reveals novel mechanosensitive channels and discusses the regulation of their expression in the context of possible additional functions.

  19. Channel properties of the splicing isoforms of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 2

    PubMed Central

    Ponissery Saidu, Samsudeen; Stephan, Aaron B.; Talaga, Anna K.

    2013-01-01

    Anoctamin (ANO)2 (or TMEM16B) forms a cell membrane Ca2+-activated Cl− channel that is present in cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, vomeronasal microvilli, and photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Alternative splicing of Ano2 transcripts generates multiple variants with the olfactory variants skipping exon 14 and having alternative splicing of exon 4. In the present study, 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis was conducted to characterize the 5′ end of olfactory Ano2 transcripts, which showed that the most abundant Ano2 transcripts in the olfactory epithelium contain a novel starting exon that encodes a translation initiation site, whereas transcripts of the publically available sequence variant, which has an alternative and longer 5′ end, were present in lower abundance. With two alternative starting exons and alternative splicing of exon 4, four olfactory ANO2 isoforms are thus possible. Patch-clamp experiments in transfected HEK293T cells expressing these isoforms showed that N-terminal sequences affect Ca2+ sensitivity and that the exon 4–encoded sequence is required to form functional channels. Coexpression of the two predominant isoforms, one with and one without the exon 4 sequence, as well as coexpression of the two rarer isoforms showed alterations in channel properties, indicating that different isoforms interact with each other. Furthermore, channel properties observed from the coexpression of the predominant isoforms better recapitulated the native channel properties, suggesting that the native channel may be composed of two or more splicing isoforms acting as subunits that together shape the channel properties. PMID:23669718

  20. Effects of biologically-active chemical mixtures on fish in a wastewater-impacted urban stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Nettesheim, Todd G.; Murphy, Elizabeth W.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2011-01-01

    Stream flow in urban aquatic ecosystems often is maintained by water-reclamation plant (WRP) effluents that contain mixtures of natural and anthropogenic chemicals that persist through the treatment processes. In effluent-impactedstreams, aquatic organisms such as fish are continuously exposed to biologically-activechemicals throughout their life cycles. The North Shore Channel of the Chicago River (Chicago, Illinois) is part of an urban ecosystem in which > 80% of the annual flow consists of effluent from the North Side WRP. In this study, multiple samplings of the effluent and stream water were conducted and fish (largemouth bass and carp) were collected on 2 occasions from the North Shore Channel. Fish also were collected once from the Outer Chicago Harbor in Lake Michigan, a reference site not impacted by WRP discharges. Over 100 organic chemicals with differing behaviors and biological effects were measured, and 23 compounds were detected in all of the water samples analyzed. The most frequently detected and highest concentration (> 100 μg/L) compounds were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxycarboxylic acids. Other biologically-activechemicals including bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates, 4-tert-octylphenol, and 4-tert-octylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates were detected at lower concentrations (cis-androsterone were detected at even lower concentrations (< 0.005 μg/L). There were slight differences in concentrations between the North Side WRP effluent and the North Shore Channel, indicating minimal in-stream attenuation. Fish populations are continuously exposed to mixtures of biologically-activechemicals because of the relative persistency of the chemicals with respect to stream hydraulic residence time, and the lack of a fresh water source for dilution. The majority of male fish exhibited vitellogenin induction, a physiological response consistent with exposure to estrogenic compounds. Tissue

  1. Active Brownian particles escaping a channel in single file.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Emanuele; Baldovin, Fulvio; Orlandini, Enzo; Pierno, Matteo

    2015-02-01

    Active particles may happen to be confined in channels so narrow that they cannot overtake each other (single-file conditions). This interesting situation reveals nontrivial physical features as a consequence of the strong interparticle correlations developed in collective rearrangements. We consider a minimal two-dimensional model for active Brownian particles with the aim of studying the modifications introduced by activity with respect to the classical (passive) single-file picture. Depending on whether their motion is dominated by translational or rotational diffusion, we find that active Brownian particles in single file may arrange into clusters that are continuously merging and splitting (active clusters) or merely reproduce passive-motion paradigms, respectively. We show that activity conveys to self-propelled particles a strategic advantage for trespassing narrow channels against external biases (e.g., the gravitational field).

  2. Bacteria-Based Analysis of HIV-1 Vpu Channel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Robert; Alhadeff, Raphael; Assa, Dror; Krugliak, Miriam; Arkin, Isaiah T.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Vpu is a small, single-span membrane protein with two attributed functions that increase the virus' pathogenicity: degradation of CD4 and inactivation of BST-2. Vpu has also been shown to posses ion channel activity, yet no correlation has been found between this attribute and Vpu's role in viral release. In order to gain further insight into the channel activity of Vpu we devised two bacteria-based assays that can examine this function in detail. In the first assay Vpu was over-expressed, such that it was deleterious to bacterial growth due to membrane permeabilization. In the second and more sensitive assay, the channel was expressed at low levels in K+ transport deficient bacteria. Consequently, Vpu expression enabled the bacteria to grow at otherwise non permissive low K+ concentrations. Hence, Vpu had the opposite impact on bacterial growth in the two assays: detrimental in the former and beneficial in the latter. Furthermore, we show that channel blockers also behave reciprocally in the two assays, promoting growth in the first assay and hindering it in the second assay. Taken together, we investigated Vpu's channel activity in a rapid and quantitative approach that is amenable to high-throughput screening, in search of novel blockers. PMID:25272035

  3. Sodium channel activation mechanisms. Insights from deuterium oxide substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Alicata, D.A.; Rayner, M.D.; Starkus, J.G. )

    1990-04-01

    Schauf and Bullock, using Myxicola giant axons, demonstrated that solvent substitution with deuterium oxide (D2O) significantly affects both sodium channel activation and inactivation kinetics without corresponding changes in gating current or tail current rates. They concluded that (a) no significant component of gating current derives from the final channel opening step, and (b) channels must deactivate (during tail currents) by a different pathway from that used in channel opening. By contrast, Oxford found in squid axons that when a depolarizing pulse is interrupted by a brief (approximately 100 microseconds) return to holding potential, subsequent reactivation (secondary activation) is very rapid and shows almost monoexponential kinetics. Increasing the interpulse interval resulted in secondary activation rate returning towards control, sigmoid (primary activation) kinetics. He concluded that channels open and close (deactivate) via the same pathway. We have repeated both sets of observations in crayfish axons, confirming the results obtained in both previous studies, despite the apparently contradictory conclusions reached by these authors. On the other hand, we find that secondary activation after a brief interpulse interval (50 microseconds) is insensitive to D2O, although reactivation after longer interpulse intervals (approximately 400 microseconds) returns towards a D2O sensitivity similar to that of primary activation. We conclude that D2O-sensitive primary activation and D2O-insensitive tail current deactivation involve separate pathways. However, D2O-insensitive secondary activation involves reversal of the D2O-insensitive deactivation step. These conclusions are consistent with parallel gate models, provided that one gating particle has a substantially reduced effective valence.

  4. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross

  5. Detection of single ion channel activity with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weiwei; Wang, Yung Yu; Lim, Tae-Sun; Pham, Ted; Jain, Dheeraj; Burke, Peter J.

    2015-03-01

    Many processes in life are based on ion currents and membrane voltages controlled by a sophisticated and diverse family of membrane proteins (ion channels), which are comparable in size to the most advanced nanoelectronic components currently under development. Here we demonstrate an electrical assay of individual ion channel activity by measuring the dynamic opening and closing of the ion channel nanopores using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Two canonical dynamic ion channels (gramicidin A (gA) and alamethicin) and one static biological nanopore (α-hemolysin (α-HL)) were successfully incorporated into supported lipid bilayers (SLBs, an artificial cell membrane), which in turn were interfaced to the carbon nanotubes through a variety of polymer-cushion surface functionalization schemes. The ion channel current directly charges the quantum capacitance of a single nanotube in a network of purified semiconducting nanotubes. This work forms the foundation for a scalable, massively parallel architecture of 1d nanoelectronic devices interrogating electrophysiology at the single ion channel level.

  6. Ion channel activity in lobster skeletal muscle membrane.

    PubMed

    Worden, M K; Rahamimoff, R; Kravitz, E A

    1993-09-01

    Ion channel activity in the sarcolemmal membrane of muscle fibers is critical for regulating the excitability, and therefore the contractility, of muscle. To begin the characterization of the biophysical properties of the sarcolemmal membrane of lobster exoskeletal muscle fibers, recordings were made from excised patches of membrane from enzymatically induced muscle fiber blebs. Blebs formed as evaginations of the muscle sarcolemmal membrane and were sufficiently free of extracellular debris to allow the formation of gigaohm seals. Under simple experimental conditions using bi-ionic symmetrical recording solutions and maintained holding potentials, a variety of single channel types with conductances in the range 32-380 pS were detected. Two of these ion channel species are described in detail, both are cation channels selective for potassium. They can be distinguished from each other on the basis of their single-channel conductance and gating properties. The results suggest that current flows through a large number of ion channels that open spontaneously in bleb membranes in the absence of exogenous metabolites or hormones.

  7. Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: Permeation and Activation1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Joseph W.; Barry, Peter H.

    Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) are fast-responding channels in which the receptor, which binds the activating molecule (the ligand), and the ion channel are part of the same nanomolecular protein complex. This chapter will describe the properties and functions of the nicotinic acetylcholine LGIC superfamily, which play a critical role in the fast chemical transmission of electrical signals between nerve cells at synapses and between nerve and muscle cells at endplates. All the processing functions of the brain and the resulting behavioral output depend on chemical transmission across such neuronal interconnections. To describe the properties of the channels of this LGIC superfamily,we will mainly use two examples of this family of channels: the excitatory nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) channels. In the chemical transmission of electrical signals, the arrival of an electrical signal at the synaptic terminal of a nerve causes the release of a chemical signal—a neurotransmitter molecule (the ligand, also referred to as the agonist). The neurotransmitter rapidly diffuses across the very narrow 20-40 nm synaptic gap between the cells and binds to the LGIC receptors in the membrane of the target (postsynaptic) cell and generates a new electrical signal in that cell (e.g., Kandel et al., 2000). How this chemical signal is converted into an electrical one depends on the fundamental properties of LGICs and the ionic composition of the postsynaptic cell and its external solution.

  8. Direct activation of cardiac pacemaker channels by intracellular cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    DiFrancesco, D; Tortora, P

    1991-05-09

    Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger in the modulation of several ion channels that are typically controlled by a phosphorylation process. In cardiac pacemaker cells, adrenaline and acetylcholine regulate the hyperpolarization-activated current (if), but in opposite ways; this current is involved in the generation and modulation of pacemaker activity. These actions are mediated by cAMP and underlie control of spontaneous rate by neurotransmitters. Whether the cAMP modulation of if is mediated by channel phosphorylation is, however, still unknown. Here we investigate the action of cAMP on if in excised patches of cardiac pacemaker cells and find that cAMP activates if by a mechanism independent of phosphorylation, involving a direct interaction with the channels at their cytoplasmic side. Cyclic AMP activates if by shifting its activation curve to more positive voltages, in agreement with whole-cell results. This is the first evidence of an ion channel whose gating is dually regulated by voltage and direct cAMP binding.

  9. Understand spiciness: mechanism of TRPV1 channel activation by capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zheng, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Capsaicin in chili peppers bestows the sensation of spiciness. Since the discovery of its receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel, how capsaicin activates this channel has been under extensive investigation using a variety of experimental techniques including mutagenesis, patch-clamp recording, crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy, computational docking and molecular dynamic simulation. A framework of how capsaicin binds and activates TRPV1 has started to merge: capsaicin binds to a pocket formed by the channel's transmembrane segments, where it takes a "tail-up, head-down" configuration. Binding is mediated by both hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. Upon binding, capsaicin stabilizes the open state of TRPV1 by "pull-and-contact" with the S4-S5 linker. Understanding the ligand-host interaction will greatly facilitate pharmaceutical efforts to develop novel analgesics targeting TRPV1.

  10. Mode couplings in a two-stream free-electron laser with a helical wiggler and an ion-channel guiding

    SciTech Connect

    Mohsenpour, Taghi Alirezaee, Hajar

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the method of perturbation has been applied to obtain the dispersion relation (DR) of a two-stream free-electron laser (FEL) with a helical wiggler and an ion-channel with all relativistic effects on waves. This DR has been solved numerically to find the unstable modes and their growth rate. Numerical solutions of DR show that the growth rate is considerably enhanced in comparison with single-stream free-electron laser. In group II orbits, with relatively large wiggler induced velocities, new couplings are found. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams on the instabilities has also been investigated in this study. Moreover, the effect of the ion-channel density on the maximum growth rate of FEL resonance has been analyzed.

  11. Development of regional curves of bankfull-channel geometry and discharge for streams in the non-urban, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    Stream-restoration projects utilizing natural stream designs frequently are based on the bankfull-channel characteristics of stream reaches that can accommodate streamflow and sediment transport without excessive erosion or deposition and lie within a watershed that has similar runoff characteristics. The bankfull channel at an ungaged impaired site or reference reach is identified by use of field indicators and is confirmed with tools such as regional curves. Channel dimensions were surveyed at 14 streamflow-measurement stations operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the Gettysburg-Newark Lowland Section, Piedmont Lowland Section, and the Piedmont Upland Section of the Piedmont Physiographic Province1 in Pennsylvania and Maryland. From the surveyed channel dimensions, regional curves were developed from regression analyses of the relations between drainage area and the cross-sectional area, mean depth, width, and streamflow of the bankfull channel at these sites. Bankfull cross-sectional area and bankfull discharge have the strongest relation to drainage area as evidenced by R2 values of 0.94 and 0.93, respectively. The relation between bankfull crosssectional area and drainage area has a p-value of less than 0.001; no p-value is presented for the relation between bankfull discharge and drainage area because of a non-normal residual distribution. The relation between bankfull width and drainage area has an R2 value of 0.80 and a p-value of less than 0.001 indicating a moderate linear relation between all stations. The relation between bankfull mean depth and drainage area, with an R2 value of 0.72 and a p-value of less than 0.001, also indicates a moderate linear relation between all stations. The concept of regional curves can be a valuable tool to support efforts in stream restoration. Practitioners of stream restoration need to recognize it as such and realize the limitations. The small number of USGS streamflow-measurement stations available for

  12. Nav channel mechanosensitivity: activation and inactivation accelerate reversibly with stretch.

    PubMed

    Morris, Catherine E; Juranka, Peter F

    2007-08-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) are modulated by many bilayer mechanical amphiphiles, but whether, like other voltage-gated channels (Kv, HCN, Cav), they respond to physical bilayer deformations is unknown. We expressed human heart Nav1.5 pore alpha-subunit in oocytes (where, unlike alphaNav1.4, alphaNav1.5 exhibits normal kinetics) and measured small macroscopic currents in cell-attached patches. Pipette pressure was used to reversibly stretch the membrane for comparison of I(Na)(t) before, during, and after stretch. At all voltages, and in a dose-dependent fashion, stretch accelerated the I(Na)(t) time course. The sign of membrane curvature was not relevant. Typical stretch stimuli reversibly accelerated both activation and inactivation by approximately 1.4-fold; normalization of peak I(Na)(t) followed by temporal scaling ( approximately 1.30- to 1.85-fold) resulted in full overlap of the stretch/no-stretch traces. Evidently the rate-limiting outward voltage sensor motion in the Nav1.5 activation path (as in Kv1) accelerated with stretch. Stretch-accelerated inactivation occurred even with activation saturated, so an independently stretch-modulated inactivation transition is also a possibility. Since Nav1.5 channel-stretch modulation was both reliable and reversible, and required stretch stimuli no more intense than what typically activates putative mechanotransducer channels (e.g., stretch-activated TRPC1-based currents), Nav channels join the ranks of putative mechanotransducers. It is noteworthy that at voltages near the activation threshold, moderate stretch increased the peak I(Na) amplitude approximately 1.5-fold. It will be important to determine whether stretch-modulated Nav current contributes to cardiac arrhythmias, to mechanosensory responses in interstitial cells of Cajal, to touch receptor responses, and to neuropathic (i.e., hypermechanosensitive) and/or normal pain reception.

  13. The Antibacterial Activity of Human Neutrophils and Eosinophils Requires Proton Channels but Not BK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Femling, Jon K.; Cherny, Vladimir V.; Morgan, Deri; Rada, Balázs; Davis, A. Paige; Czirják, Gabor; Enyedi, Peter; England, Sarah K.; Moreland, Jessica G.; Ligeti, Erzsébet; Nauseef, William M.; DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Electrophysiological events are of central importance during the phagocyte respiratory burst, because NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and voltage sensitive. We investigated the recent suggestion that large-conductance, calcium-activated K+ (BK) channels, rather than proton channels, play an essential role in innate immunity (Ahluwalia, J., A. Tinker, L.H. Clapp, M.R. Duchen, A.Y. Abramov, S. Page, M. Nobles, and A.W. Segal. 2004. Nature. 427:853–858). In PMA-stimulated human neutrophils or eosinophils, we did not detect BK currents, and neither of the BK channel inhibitors iberiotoxin or paxilline nor DPI inhibited any component of outward current. BK inhibitors did not inhibit the killing of bacteria, nor did they affect NADPH oxidase-dependent degradation of bacterial phospholipids by extracellular gIIA-PLA2 or the production of superoxide anion (\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2^{.}}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}). Moreover, an antibody against the BK channel did not detect immunoreactive protein in human neutrophils. A required role for voltage-gated proton channels is demonstrated by Zn2+ inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity assessed by H2O2 production, thus validating previous studies showing that Zn2+ inhibited \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2^{.}}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} production when assessed by cytochrome c reduction. In conclusion, BK channels were not detected in human neutrophils or eosinophils, and

  14. Light-Activated Ion Channels for Remote Control of Neural Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, James J.; Kramer, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Light-activated ion channels provide a new opportunity to precisely and remotely control neuronal activity for experimental applications in neurobiology. In the past few years, several strategies have arisen that allow light to control ion channels and therefore neuronal function. Light-based triggers for ion channel control include caged compounds, which release active neurotransmitters when photolyzed with light, and natural photoreceptive proteins, which can be expressed exogenously in neurons. More recently, a third type of light trigger has been introduced: a photoisomerizable tethered ligand that directly controls ion channel activity in a light-dependent manner. Beyond the experimental applications for light-gated ion channels, there may be clinical applications in which these light-sensitive ion channels could prove advantageous over traditional methods. Electrodes for neural stimulation to control disease symptoms are invasive and often difficult to reposition between cells in tissue. Stimulation by chemical agents is difficult to constrain to individual cells and has limited temporal accuracy in tissue due to diffusional limitations. In contrast, ion channels that can be directly activated with light allow control with unparalleled spatial and temporal precision. The goal of this chapter is to describe light-regulated ion channels and how they have been tailored to control different aspects of neural activity, and how to use these channels to manipulate and better understand development, function, and plasticity of neurons and neural circuits. PMID:19195553

  15. Rare but active taxa contribute to community dynamics of benthic biofilms in glacier-fed streams.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Linda; Besemer, Katharina; Fasching, Christina; Urich, Tim; Singer, Gabriel A; Quince, Christopher; Battin, Tom J

    2014-08-01

    Glaciers harbour diverse microorganisms, which upon ice melt can be released downstream. In glacier-fed streams microorganisms can attach to stones or sediments to form benthic biofilms. We used 454-pyrosequencing to explore the bulk (16S rDNA) and putatively active (16S rRNA) microbial communities of stone and sediment biofilms across 26 glacier-fed streams. We found differences in community composition between bulk and active communities among streams and a stronger congruence between biofilm types. Relative abundances of rRNA and rDNA were positively correlated across different taxa and taxonomic levels, but at lower taxonomic levels, the higher abundance in either the active or the bulk communities became more apparent. Here, environmental variables played a minor role in structuring active communities. However, we found a large number of rare taxa with higher relative abundances in rRNA compared with rDNA. This suggests that rare taxa contribute disproportionately to microbial community dynamics in glacier-fed streams. Our findings propose that high community turnover, where taxa repeatedly enter and leave the 'seed bank', contributes to the maintenance of microbial biodiversity in harsh ecosystems with continuous environmental perturbations, such as glacier-fed streams.

  16. 30 CFR 784.28 - Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... itself, and those activities would occur on the surface of land subject to the buffer requirement of... buffer that you propose to implement instead of maintaining a 100-foot undisturbed buffer between surface activities and the perennial or intermittent stream; and (3) Explain how the lesser buffer, together with...

  17. Active Learning Framework Combining Semi-Supervised Approach for Data Stream Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Keyvanpour, Mohammadreza

    In a real stream environment, labeled data may be very scarce and labeling all data is very difficult and expensive. Our goal is to derive a model to predict future instances' label as accurately as possible. Active learning selectively labels instances and can tackle the challenges raised by highly dynamic nature of data stream, but it ignores the effect of unlabeled instances utilization that can help to strength supervised learning. In this paper, we propose a framework that combines active and semi-supervised learning to get advantage of both methods, to boost the performance of learning algorithm. This framework solves the active learning problem in addition to the challenges of evolving data streams. Experimental results on real data sets prove the effectiveness of our proposed framework.

  18. Amphetamine activates calcium channels through dopamine transporter-mediated depolarization.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Krasnodara N; Solis, Ernesto; Ruchala, Iwona; De Felice, Louis J; Eltit, Jose M

    2015-11-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) and its more potent enantiomer S(+)AMPH are psychostimulants used therapeutically to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and have significant abuse liability. AMPH is a dopamine transporter (DAT) substrate that inhibits dopamine (DA) uptake and is implicated in DA release. Furthermore, AMPH activates ionic currents through DAT that modify cell excitability presumably by modulating voltage-gated channel activity. Indeed, several studies suggest that monoamine transporter-induced depolarization opens voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (CaV), which would constitute an additional AMPH mechanism of action. In this study we co-express human DAT (hDAT) with Ca(2+) channels that have decreasing sensitivity to membrane depolarization (CaV1.3, CaV1.2 or CaV2.2). Although S(+)AMPH is more potent than DA in transport-competition assays and inward-current generation, at saturating concentrations both substrates indirectly activate voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (CaV1.3 and CaV1.2) but not the N-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV2.2). Furthermore, the potency to achieve hDAT-CaV electrical coupling is dominated by the substrate affinity on hDAT, with negligible influence of L-type channel voltage sensitivity. In contrast, the maximal coupling-strength (defined as Ca(2+) signal change per unit hDAT current) is influenced by CaV voltage sensitivity, which is greater in CaV1.3- than in CaV1.2-expressing cells. Moreover, relative to DA, S(+)AMPH showed greater coupling-strength at concentrations that induced relatively small hDAT-mediated currents. Therefore S(+)AMPH is not only more potent than DA at inducing hDAT-mediated L-type Ca(2+) channel currents but is a better depolarizing agent since it produces tighter electrical coupling between hDAT-mediated depolarization and L-type Ca(2+) channel activation.

  19. Water quality, sediment quality, and stream-channel classification of Rock Creek, Washington, D.C., 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Anita L.; Miller, Cherie V.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Doheny, Edward J.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Rock Creek Park is within the National Capital Region in Washington, D.C., and is maintained by the National Park Service. Part of Montgomery County, Maryland, and part of the District of Columbia drain into Rock Creek, which is a tributary of the Potomac River. Water quality in Rock Creek is important to biotic life in and near the creek, and in the Potomac River Basin and the Chesapeake Bay. The water quality of the Rock Creek Basin has been affected by continued urban and agricultural growth and development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, investigated water quality and sediment quality in Rock Creek over a 2-year period (1998?2000), and performed a stream-channel classification to determine the distribution of bottom sediment in Rock Creek. This report presents and evaluates water quality and bottom sediment in Rock Creek for water years 1999 (October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999) and 2000 (October 1, 1999 to September 30, 2000). A synoptic surface-water assessment was conducted at five stations from June 23 to June 25, 1999, a temporal surface-water assessment was conducted at one station from February 18, 1999 to September 26, 2000, and bed-sediment samples were collected and assessed from three stations from August 17 to August 19, 1999. The synoptic surface-water assessment included pesticides (parent compounds and selected transformation products), field parameters, nutrients, and major ions. The temporal surface-water assessment included pesticides (parent compounds and selected transformation products) and field parameters. The bed-sediment assessment included trace elements and organic compounds (including low- and high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, poly-chlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and phthalates). Some, but not all, of the pesticides known to be used in the area were included in the synoptic water-quality assessment, the temporal water-quality assessment, and the bed

  20. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, C R; Margold, M; Clark, C D; Tarasov, L

    2016-02-18

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but--at the ice-sheet scale--their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  1. Ecosystem function in Appalachian headwater streams during an active invasion by the hemlock woolly adelgid.

    PubMed

    Northington, Robert M; Webster, Jackson R; Benfield, Ernest F; Cheever, Beth M; Niederlehner, Barbara R

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems in the southeastern United States are currently undergoing an invasion by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). Previous studies in this area have shown changes to forest structure, decreases in canopy cover, increases in organic matter, and changes to nutrient cycling on the forest floor and soil. Here, we were interested in how the effects of canopy loss and nutrient leakage from terrestrial areas would translate into functional changes in streams draining affected watersheds. We addressed these questions in HWA-infested watersheds at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina. Specifically, we measured stream metabolism (gross primary production and ecosystem respiration) and nitrogen uptake from 2008 to 2011 in five streams across the Coweeta basin. Over the course of our study, we found no change to in-stream nutrient concentrations. While canopy cover decreased annually in these watersheds, this change in light penetration did not translate to higher rates of in-stream primary production during the summer months of our study. We found a trend towards greater heterotrophy within our watersheds, where in-stream respiration accounted for a much larger component of net ecosystem production than GPP. Additionally, increases in rhododendron cover may counteract changes in light and nutrient availability that occurred with hemlock loss. The variability in our metabolic and uptake parameters suggests an actively-infested ecosystem in transition between steady states.

  2. Active Learning in Context-Driven Stream Mining With an Application to Image Mining.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Cem; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2015-11-01

    We propose an image stream mining method in which images arrive with contexts (metadata) and need to be processed in real time by the image mining system (IMS), which needs to make predictions and derive actionable intelligence from these streams. After extracting the features of the image by preprocessing, IMS determines online the classifier to use on the extracted features to make a prediction using the context of the image. A key challenge associated with stream mining is that the prediction accuracy of the classifiers is unknown, since the image source is unknown; thus, these accuracies need to be learned online. Another key challenge of stream mining is that learning can only be done by observing the true label, but this is costly to obtain. To address these challenges, we model the image stream mining problem as an active, online contextual experts problem, where the context of the image is used to guide the classifier selection decision. We develop an active learning algorithm and show that it achieves regret sublinear in the number of images that have been observed so far. To further illustrate and assess the performance of our proposed methods, we apply them to diagnose breast cancer from the images of cellular samples obtained from the fine needle aspirate of breast mass. Our findings show that very high diagnosis accuracy can be achieved by actively obtaining only a small fraction of true labels through surgical biopsies. Other applications include video surveillance and video traffic monitoring.

  3. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  4. A cyclic AMP-activated K+ channel in Drosophila larval muscle is persistently activated in dunce.

    PubMed

    Delgado, R; Hidalgo, P; Diaz, F; Latorre, R; Labarca, P

    1991-01-15

    Single-channel recording from longitudinal ventrolateral Drosophila larval muscle reveals the presence of a potassium-selective channel that is directly and reversibly activated by cAMP in a dose-dependent fashion. Activation is specific and it cannot be mimicked by a series of agents that include AMP, cGMP, ATP, inositol trisphosphate, and Ca2+. Channel current records obtained from larval muscle in different dunce mutants possessing abnormally high levels of cAMP show that, in the mutants, the channel displays an increased probability of opening.

  5. A cyclic AMP-activated K+ channel in Drosophila larval muscle is persistently activated in dunce.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, R; Hidalgo, P; Diaz, F; Latorre, R; Labarca, P

    1991-01-01

    Single-channel recording from longitudinal ventrolateral Drosophila larval muscle reveals the presence of a potassium-selective channel that is directly and reversibly activated by cAMP in a dose-dependent fashion. Activation is specific and it cannot be mimicked by a series of agents that include AMP, cGMP, ATP, inositol trisphosphate, and Ca2+. Channel current records obtained from larval muscle in different dunce mutants possessing abnormally high levels of cAMP show that, in the mutants, the channel displays an increased probability of opening. PMID:1846445

  6. Combined single channel and single molecule detection identifies subunit composition of STIM1-activated transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels.

    PubMed

    Asanov, Alexander; Sampieri, Alicia; Moreno, Claudia; Pacheco, Jonathan; Salgado, Alfonso; Sherry, Ryan; Vaca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Depletion of intracellular calcium ion stores initiates a rapid cascade of events culminating with the activation of the so-called Store-Operated Channels (SOC) at the plasma membrane. Calcium influx via SOC is essential in the initiation of calcium-dependent intracellular signaling and for the refilling of internal calcium stores, ensuring the regeneration of the signaling cascade. In spite of the significance of this evolutionary conserved mechanism, the molecular identity of SOC has been the center of a heated controversy spanning over the last 20 years. Initial studies positioned some members of the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel superfamily of channels (with the more robust evidence pointing to TRPC1) as a putative SOC. Recent evidence indicates that Stromal Interacting Molecule 1 (STIM1) activates some members from the TRPC family of channels. However, the exact subunit composition of TRPC channels remains undetermined to this date. To identify the subunit composition of STIM1-activated TRPC channels, we developed novel method, which combines single channel electrophysiological measurements based on the patch clamp technique with single molecule fluorescence imaging. We termed this method Single ion Channel Single Molecule Detection technique (SC-SMD). Using SC-SMD method, we have obtained direct evidence of the subunit composition of TRPC channels activated by STIM1. Furthermore, our electrophysiological-imaging SC-SMD method provides evidence at the molecular level of the mechanism by which STIM1 and calmodulin antagonize to modulate TRPC channel activity.

  7. Activation and inhibition of TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yu-Li; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16) have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca(2+)-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1) by Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+), and discovered that Mg(2+) competes with Ca(2+) in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore-as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions-appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA). On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1.

  8. Activation and Inhibition of TMEM16A Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yu-Li; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16) have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca2+-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1) by Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+, and discovered that Mg2+ competes with Ca2+ in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore–as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions–appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA). On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1. PMID:24489780

  9. Zinc activates damage-sensing TRPA1 ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongzhen; Bandell, Michael; Petrus, Matt J.; Zhu, Michael X.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2009-01-01

    Zinc is an essential biological trace element. It is required for the structure or function of over 300 proteins, and is increasingly recognized for its role in cell signaling. However, high concentrations of zinc have cytotoxic effects, and overexposure to zinc can cause pain and inflammation through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that zinc excites nociceptive somatosensory neurons and causes nociception in mice through TRPA1, a cation channel previously shown to mediate the pungency of wasabi and cinnamon through cysteine-modification. Zinc activates TRPA1 through a novel mechanism that requires zinc influx through TRPA1 channels and subsequent activation via specific intracellular cysteine and histidine residues. TRPA1 is highly sensitive to intracellular zinc, as low nanomolar concentrations activate TRPA1 and modulate its sensitivity. These findings identify TRPA1 as a major target for the sensory effects of zinc, and support an emerging role for zinc as a signaling molecule that can modulate sensory transmission. PMID:19202543

  10. Crevasse-squeeze ridge corridors: Diagnostic features of late-stage palaeo-ice stream activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Storrar, Robert D.; Rea, Brice R.

    2016-04-01

    A 200-km-long and 10-km-wide linear assemblage of till-filled geometrical ridges on the bed of the Maskwa palaeo-ice stream of the late Wisconsinan southwest Laurentide Ice Sheet are interpreted as crevasse-squeeze ridges (CSR) developed during internal flow unit reorganization, immediately prior to ice stream shutdown. Ridge orientations are predominantly orientated WNW-ESE, with a subordinate WSW-ENE alignment, both indicative of ice fracture development transverse to former ice stream flow, as indicated by NNE-SSW aligned MSGL. Subglacial till injection into basal and/or full depth, mode I and II crevasses occurred at the approximate centreline of the ice stream, in response to extension and fracturing. Landform preservation indicates that this took place during the final stages of ice streaming, immediately prior to ice stream shutdown. This linear zone of ice fracturing therefore likely represents the narrowing of the fast-flowing trunk, similar to the plug flow identified in some surging valley glaciers. Lateral drag between the final active flow unit and the slower moving ice on either side is likely recorded by the up-ice bending of the CSR limbs. The resulting CSR corridor, here related to an individual ice stream flow unit, constitutes a previously unreported style of crevasse infilling and contrasts with two existing CSR patterns: (1) wide arcuate zones of CSRs related to widespread fracturing within glacier surge lobes; and (2) narrow concentric arcs of CSRs and recessional push moraines related to submarginal till deformation at active temperate glacier lobes.

  11. TRP channels activated by extracellular hypo-osmoticity in epithelia.

    PubMed

    Harteneck, C; Reiter, B

    2007-02-01

    TRP (transient receptor potential) channels comprise a superfamily of non-selective cation channels with at least seven subfamilies. The variety of subfamilies corresponds to the differences in the activation mechanisms and functions. TRPM3 (TRP melastatin 3) and TRPV4 (TRP vanilloid 3) have been characterized as cation channels activated by extracellular hypo-osmoticity. In addition, TRPV4 is activated by metabolites of arachidonic acid as well as alpha-isomers of phorbol esters known to be ineffective in stimulating proteins of the protein kinase C family. TRPM3 is responsive to sphingosine derivatives. The detection of splice variants with probably different activation mechanisms supports the idea that TRPM3 may have diverse cellular functions depending on the expression of a particular variant. The expression of TRPV4 in many epithelial cell types raised the question of the role of TRPV4 in epithelial physiology. Single-cell experiments as well as approaches using epithelial layers show that multiple cellular responses are triggered by TRPV4 activation and subsequent elevation of intracellular calcium. The TRPV4-induced responses increasing transcellular ion flux as well as paracellular permeability may allow the cells to adjust to changes in extracellular osmolarity. In summary, TRPV4 plays a central role in epithelial homoeostasis by modulating epithelial barrier function.

  12. Atomic basis for therapeutic activation of neuronal potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Robin Y.; Yau, Michael C.; Galpin, Jason D.; Seebohm, Guiscard; Ahern, Christopher A.; Pless, Stephan A.; Kurata, Harley T.

    2015-01-01

    Retigabine is a recently approved anticonvulsant that acts by potentiating neuronal M-current generated by KCNQ2–5 channels, interacting with a conserved Trp residue in the channel pore domain. Using unnatural amino-acid mutagenesis, we subtly altered the properties of this Trp to reveal specific chemical interactions required for retigabine action. Introduction of a non-natural isosteric H-bond-deficient Trp analogue abolishes channel potentiation, indicating that retigabine effects rely strongly on formation of a H-bond with the conserved pore Trp. Supporting this model, substitution with fluorinated Trp analogues, with increased H-bonding propensity, strengthens retigabine potency. In addition, potency of numerous retigabine analogues correlates with the negative electrostatic surface potential of a carbonyl/carbamate oxygen atom present in most KCNQ activators. These findings functionally pinpoint an atomic-scale interaction essential for effects of retigabine and provide stringent constraints that may guide rational improvement of the emerging drug class of KCNQ channel activators. PMID:26333338

  13. In-stream attenuation of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their metabolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, Jeffrey; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Ferrar, Imma; Ryan, Joseph N.; Thurman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In-stream attenuation was determined for 14 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites. Lagrangian sampling, which follows a parcel of water as it moves downstream, was used to link hydrological and chemical transformation processes. Wastewater loading of neuro-active compounds varied considerably over a span of several hours, and thus a sampling regime was used to verify that the Lagrangian parcel was being sampled and a mechanism was developed to correct measured concentrations if it was not. In-stream attenuation over the 5.4-km evaluated reach could be modeled as pseudo-first-order decay for 11 of the 14 evaluated neuro-active pharmaceutical compounds, illustrating the capacity of streams to reduce conveyance of neuro-active compounds downstream. Fluoxetine and N-desmethyl citalopram were the most rapidly attenuated compounds (t1/2 = 3.6 ± 0.3 h, 4.0 ± 0.2 h, respectively). Lamotrigine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxy-carbamazepine, and carbamazepine were the most persistent (t1/2 = 12 ± 2.0 h, 12 ± 2.6 h, 21 ± 4.5 h, respectively). Parent compounds (e.g., buproprion, carbamazepine, lamotrigine) generally were more persistent relative to their metabolites. Several compounds (citalopram, venlafaxine, O-desmethyl-venlafaxine) were not attenuated. It was postulated that the primary mechanism of removal for these compounds was interaction with bed sediments and stream biofilms, based on measured concentrations in stream biofilms and a column experiment using stream sediments.

  14. In-stream attenuation of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Antweiler, Ronald C; Ferrer, Imma; Ryan, Joseph N; Thurman, E Michael

    2013-09-03

    In-stream attenuation was determined for 14 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites. Lagrangian sampling, which follows a parcel of water as it moves downstream, was used to link hydrological and chemical transformation processes. Wastewater loading of neuro-active compounds varied considerably over a span of several hours, and thus a sampling regime was used to verify that the Lagrangian parcel was being sampled and a mechanism was developed to correct measured concentrations if it was not. In-stream attenuation over the 5.4-km evaluated reach could be modeled as pseudo-first-order decay for 11 of the 14 evaluated neuro-active pharmaceutical compounds, illustrating the capacity of streams to reduce conveyance of neuro-active compounds downstream. Fluoxetine and N-desmethyl citalopram were the most rapidly attenuated compounds (t1/2 = 3.6 ± 0.3 h, 4.0 ± 0.2 h, respectively). Lamotrigine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxy-carbamazepine, and carbamazepine were the most persistent (t1/2 = 12 ± 2.0 h, 12 ± 2.6 h, 21 ± 4.5 h, respectively). Parent compounds (e.g., buproprion, carbamazepine, lamotrigine) generally were more persistent relative to their metabolites. Several compounds (citalopram, venlafaxine, O-desmethyl-venlafaxine) were not attenuated. It was postulated that the primary mechanism of removal for these compounds was interaction with bed sediments and stream biofilms, based on measured concentrations in stream biofilms and a column experiment using stream sediments.

  15. Design of a specific activator for skeletal muscle sodium channels uncovers channel architecture.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lior; Ilan, Nitza; Gur, Maya; Stühmer, Walter; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2007-10-05

    Gating modifiers of voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)s) are important tools in neuroscience research and may have therapeutic potential in medicinal disorders. Analysis of the bioactive surface of the scorpion beta-toxin Css4 (from Centruroides suffusus suffusus) toward rat brain (rNa(v)1.2a) and skeletal muscle (rNa(v)1.4) channels using binding studies revealed commonality but also substantial differences, which were used to design a specific activator, Css4(F14A/E15A/E28R), of rNa(v)1.4 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The therapeutic potential of Css4(F14A/E15A/E28R) was tested using an rNa(v)1.4 mutant carrying the same mutation present in the genetic disorder hypokalemic periodic paralysis. The activator restored the impaired gating properties of the mutant channel expressed in oocytes, thus offering a tentative new means for treatment of neuromuscular disorders with reduced muscle excitability. Mutant double cycle analysis employing toxin residues involved in the construction of Css4(F14A/E15A/E28R) and residues whose equivalents in the rat brain channel rNa(v)1.2a were shown to affect Css4 binding revealed significant coupling energy (>1.3 kcal/mol) between F14A and E592A at Domain-2/voltage sensor segments 1-2 (D2/S1-S2), R27Q and E1251N at D3/SS2-S6, and E28R with both E650A at D2/S3-S4 and E1251N at D3/SS2-S6. These results show that despite the differences in interactions with the rat brain and skeletal muscle Na(v)s, Css4 recognizes a similar region on both channel subtypes. Moreover, our data indicate that the S3-S4 loop of the voltage sensor module in Domain-2 is in very close proximity to the SS2-S6 segment of the pore module of Domain-3 in rNa(v)1.4. This is the first experimental evidence that the inter-domain spatial organization of mammalian Na(v)s resembles that of voltage-gated potassium channels.

  16. Comparison of self-fields effects in two-stream electromagnetically pumped FEL with ion-channel guiding and axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saviz, S.; Mehdian, H.; Aghamir, Farzin M.; Ghorannevis, M.; Ashkarran, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    A theory of two-stream free-electron laser in a combined electromagnetic wiggler and an ion-channel guiding is developed. In the analysis, the electron trajectories and the small signal gain are derived by considering the effects of self-fields. Numerical calculations show that there are seven group's trajectories rather than nine groups reported in Mehdian and Saviz (2010 Chin. Phys. B 19(1), 014214). The comparison of the normalized gains and their corresponding normalized frequencies by employing the axial magnetic field and ion-channel guiding, with and without self-fields, in FEL has been studied numerically. The results show that the normalized maximum gain in FEL with axial magnetic is larger than that for using ion-channel guiding except in small region, but the results for their corresponding normalized frequencies are opposite.

  17. Diel fluctuations in summer streamflow depend on stream channel sediment storage and valley-floor vegetation in the forested western Cascades of Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, E. J.; Gustafson, N.; Nelson, M. B.; Ramirez, J. M.; Rodriguez-Cardona, B. M.; Shughrue, C. M.; Jones, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    During summer lowflow conditions, the zone of influence of evapotranspiration (ET) on streamflow is expected to be restricted to a small portion of a watershed, but the nature of the effective contributing area during lowflows is debated. We tested alternative hypotheses about the effective contributing area of ET-induced diel fluctuations in stream discharge based on high-resolution streamflow records since 2000 from eight small, forested watersheds at the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest in the Western Cascades of Oregon. Using field observations, satellite data, and a mathematical model, we tested the hypothesis that valley floor sediment storage influences the magnitude of diel fluctuations by controlling the area of potential connectivity between shallow groundwater (hyporheic flow) and surface flow. Correlations between minimum stream discharge and maximum air temperature were highest during early summer and wet years in WS1, which has a wide valley floor and high sediment storage. Field surveys and capacitance rod data in WS1 (young forest, alluvial reaches) and WS2 (old growth forest, bedrock reaches) revealed that diel fluctuations in local water tables were synchronized throughout the watersheds, and fluctuations were larger in vegetated alluvial reaches (1 to 2 cm) than in bedrock reaches, which lacked trees (<0.5 cm). Stream channels and tree heights delineated on LiDAR data were combined with published allometric relationships and sapflow data to estimate total transpiration from trees growing only in alluvial reaches; this could account for daily ET estimated from whole-watershed discharge records. Analytical solutions of a simple mathematical model describing the outflow from stream banks as a function of sapflow and hydraulic conductivity indicated that daily maximum and minimum sapflow could produce the fluctuations observed in water table heights in alluvial reaches of the stream channel.

  18. Cilostazol induces vasodilation through the activation of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in aortic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Hong, Da Hye; Son, Youn Kyoung; Na, Sung Hun; Jung, Won-Kyo; Bae, Young Min; Seo, Eun Young; Kim, Sung Joon; Choi, Il-Whan; Park, Won Sun

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the vasorelaxant effect of cilostazol and related signaling pathways in phenylephrine (Phe)-induced pre-contracted aortic rings. Cilostazol induced vasorelaxation in a concentration-dependent manner when aortic rings were pre-contracted with Phe. Application of the voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channel inhibitor 4-AP, the ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor glibenclamide, and the inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel inhibitor Ba(2+) did not alter the vasorelaxant effect of cilostazol; however, pre- and post-treatment with the big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel inhibitor paxilline inhibited the vasorelaxant effect of cilostazol. This vasorelaxant effect of cilostazol was reduced in the presence of an adenylyl cyclase or a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, but not a protein kinase G inhibitor. Inside-out single channel recordings revealed that cilostazol induced the activation of BK(Ca) channel activity. The vasorelaxant effect of cilostazol was not affected by removal of the endothelium. In addition, application of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and a small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK(Ca)) channel inhibitor did not affect cilostazol-induced vasorelaxation. We conclude that cilostazol induced vasorelaxation of the aorta through activation of BK(Ca) channel via a PKA-dependent signaling mechanism independent of endothelium.

  19. Influence of Herbaceous Riparian Buffers on Fish and Amphibian Communities Within Channelized Headwater Streams in Central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbaceous riparian buffers are a widely used conservation practice in the United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment loadings in agricultural streams. The importance of forested riparian zones for headwater streams has been documented, but the ecological impacts of herbaceous ripa...

  20. Acoustic signal propagation and measurement in natural stream channels for application to surrogate bed load measurements: Halfmoon Creek, Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring sediment-generated noise using submerged hydrophones is a surrogate method for measuring bed load transport in streams with the potential for improving estimates of bed load transport through widespread, inexpensive monitoring. Understanding acoustic signal propagation in natural stream e...

  1. Differential effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Joon-Hee; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a representative flavonoid, is a compound of low molecular weight found in various colored plants and vegetables. Quercetin shows a wide range of neuropharmacological activities. In fact, quercetin naturally exists as monomer-(quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) (Rham1), dimer-(Rutin), or trimer-glycosides [quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside)] (Rham2) at carbon-3 in fruits and vegetables. The carbohydrate components are removed after ingestion into gastrointestinal systems. The role of the glycosides attached to quercetin in the regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid class C (GABAC) receptor channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity by expressing human GABAC alone in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique and also compared the effects of quercetin glycosides with quercetin. We found that GABA-induced inward current (I GABA ) was inhibited by quercetin or quercetin glycosides. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were concentration-dependent and reversible in the order of Rutin ≈ quercetin ≈ Rham 1 > Rham 2. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were noncompetitive and membrane voltage-insensitive. These results indicate that quercetin and its glycosides regulate GABAC receptor channel activity through interaction with a different site from that of GABA, and that the number of carbohydrate attached to quercetin might play an important role in the regulation of GABAC receptor channel activity.

  2. The complete structure of an activated open sodium channel

    PubMed Central

    Sula, Altin; Booker, Jennifer; Ng, Leo C. T.; Naylor, Claire E.; DeCaen, Paul G.; Wallace, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play essential roles in excitable tissues, with their activation and opening resulting in the initial phase of the action potential. The cycling of Navs through open, closed and inactivated states, and their closely choreographed relationships with the activities of other ion channels lead to exquisite control of intracellular ion concentrations in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here we present the 2.45 Å resolution crystal structure of the complete NavMs prokaryotic sodium channel in a fully open conformation. A canonical activated conformation of the voltage sensor S4 helix, an open selectivity filter leading to an open activation gate at the intracellular membrane surface and the intracellular C-terminal domain are visible in the structure. It includes a heretofore unseen interaction motif between W77 of S3, the S4–S5 interdomain linker, and the C-terminus, which is associated with regulation of opening and closing of the intracellular gate. PMID:28205548

  3. Stream mesocosm response sensitivities to simulated ion stress in produced waters from resource extraction activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    To increase the ecological relevance of laboratory exposures intent on determining species sensitivity to ion stress from resource extraction activities we have conducted several stream mesocosm dosing studies that pair single-species and community-level responses in-situ and all...

  4. Strategies for Developing Third Stream Activity in New University Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--Developing third stream activity is becoming increasingly important for business schools as they come under increasing financial pressure. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the strategies adopted by new university business schools and highlight the resources, capabilities and constraints under which they are operating. …

  5. Fish as Indicators of Disturbance in Streams Used for Snorkeling Activities in a Tourist Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teresa, Fabricio Barreto; Romero, Renato De Mei; Casatti, Lilian; Sabino, José

    2011-05-01

    A set of metrics that reflect various aspects of population and fish community structure in streams used for snorkeling was evaluated in the tourist region of Bodoquena Plateau, Brazil, with the purpose of biomonitoring the impacts of such activities. Observations were made while snorkeling in two sites (active = with tourism; inactive = without tourism) and along the gradient of daily tourist activity (before, during and after the passage of tourists) in two streams. Five metrics discriminated active from inactive sites: (i) the abundance of Crenicichla lepidota and (ii) the incidence of reproductive activity in Crenicichla lepidota which were greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iii) the feeding pattern of Prochilodus lineatus, which differed among sites and along the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iv) the abundance of Moenkhausia bonita, which was higher in the active sites and significantly increased along the gradient of daily tourist activity in one stream but decrease along the gradient in other stream; (v) the abundance of Hyphessobrycon eques, which was greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity. With the exception of metric "iv", the metrics were mediated by the reduction in habitat structural complexity due to snorkeling disturbance. The definition of these metrics is relevant because the degradation of ecosystem structural elements is one of the main impacts of recreational activities on aquatic environments. The easy recognition of target species and high water transparency throughout the year ensures the feasibility of these metrics in monitoring programs and may be applied by technicians after quick guides and training.

  6. Fish as indicators of disturbance in streams used for snorkeling activities in a tourist region.

    PubMed

    Teresa, Fabricio Barreto; Romero, Renato de Mei; Casatti, Lilian; Sabino, José

    2011-05-01

    A set of metrics that reflect various aspects of population and fish community structure in streams used for snorkeling was evaluated in the tourist region of Bodoquena Plateau, Brazil, with the purpose of biomonitoring the impacts of such activities. Observations were made while snorkeling in two sites (active = with tourism; inactive = without tourism) and along the gradient of daily tourist activity (before, during and after the passage of tourists) in two streams. Five metrics discriminated active from inactive sites: (i) the abundance of Crenicichla lepidota and (ii) the incidence of reproductive activity in Crenicichla lepidota which were greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iii) the feeding pattern of Prochilodus lineatus, which differed among sites and along the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iv) the abundance of Moenkhausia bonita, which was higher in the active sites and significantly increased along the gradient of daily tourist activity in one stream but decrease along the gradient in other stream; (v) the abundance of Hyphessobrycon eques, which was greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity. With the exception of metric "iv", the metrics were mediated by the reduction in habitat structural complexity due to snorkeling disturbance. The definition of these metrics is relevant because the degradation of ecosystem structural elements is one of the main impacts of recreational activities on aquatic environments. The easy recognition of target species and high water transparency throughout the year ensures the feasibility of these metrics in monitoring programs and may be applied by technicians after quick guides and training.

  7. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, Michael D.; Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  8. Fluctuation driven active molecular transport in passive channel proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosztin, Ioan

    2006-03-01

    Living cells interact with their extracellular environment through the cell membrane, which acts as a protective permeability barrier for preserving the internal integrity of the cell. However, cell metabolism requires controlled molecular transport across the cell membrane, a function that is fulfilled by a wide variety of transmembrane proteins, acting as either passive or active transporters. In this talk it is argued that, contrary to the general belief, in active cell membranes passive and spatially asymmetric channel proteins can act as active transporters by consuming energy from nonequilibrium fluctuations fueled by cell metabolism. This assertion is demonstrated in the case of the E. coli aquaglyceroporin GlpF channel protein, whose high resolution crystal structure is manifestly asymmetric. By calculating the glycerol flux through GlpF within the framework of a stochastic model, it is found that, as a result of channel asymmetry, glycerol uptake driven by a concentration gradient is enhanced significantly in the presence of non-equilibrium fluctuations. Furthermore, the enhancement caused by a ratchet-like mechanism is larger for the outward, i.e., from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, flux than for the inward one, suggesting that the same non-equilibrium fluctuations also play an important role in protecting the interior of the cell against poisoning by excess uptake of glycerol. Preliminary data on water and sugar transport through aquaporin and maltoporin channels, respectively, are indicative of the universality of the proposed nonequilibrium-fluctuation-driven active transport mechanism. This work was supported by grants from the Univ. of Missouri Research Board, the Institute for Theoretical Sciences and the Department of Energy (DOE Contract W-7405-ENG-36), and the National Science Foundation (FIBR-0526854).

  9. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits calcium-activated potassium channels in rat pituitary tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shipston, M J; Armstrong, D L

    1996-01-01

    1. The regulation of large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-dependent potassium (BK) channels by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in clonal rat anterior pituitary cells (GH4C1), which were voltage clamped at -40 mV in a physiological potassium gradient through amphotericin-perforated patches. 2. Maximal activation of PKC by 100 nM phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PdBu) almost completely inhibited the voltage-activated outward current through BK channels. In contrast PdBu had no significant effect on the residual outward current after block of BK channels with 2 mM TEA or 30 nM charybdotoxin. In single-channel recordings from cell-attached patches, PdBu reduced the open probability of BK channels more than eightfold with no significant effect on mean open lifetime or unitary conductance. 3. The effects of PdBu on BK channels were not mimicked by the 4 alpha-isomer, which does not activate PKC, and were blocked almost completely by 25 microM chelerythrine, a specific, noncompetitive PKC inhibitor. 4. PdBu had no significant effect on the amplitude of the pharmacologically isolated, high voltage-activated calcium current. 5. Inhibition of BK channel activity by PKC provides the first molecular mechanism linking hormonal activation of phospholipase C to sustained excitability in pituitary cells. PMID:8799890

  10. Increasing SK2 channel activity impairs associative learning

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Bridget M.; Oh, M. Matthew; Galvez, Roberto; Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Kroes, Roger A.; Weiss, Craig; Adelman, John P.; Moskal, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons via reductions in the postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) has been hypothesized to be a biomarker of successful learning. This is supported by considerable evidence that pharmacologic enhancement of neuronal excitability facilitates learning. However, it has yet to be demonstrated that pharmacologic reduction of neuronal excitability restricted to the hippocampus can retard acquisition of a hippocampus-dependent task. Thus, the present study was designed to address this latter point using a small conductance potassium (SK) channel activator NS309 focally applied to the dorsal hippocampus. SK channels are important contributors to intrinsic excitability, as measured by the medium postburst AHP. NS309 increased the medium AHP and reduced excitatory postsynaptic potential width of CA1 neurons in vitro. In vivo, NS309 reduced the spontaneous firing rate of CA1 pyramidal neurons and impaired trace eyeblink conditioning in rats. Conversely, trace eyeblink conditioning reduced levels of SK2 channel mRNA and protein in the hippocampus. Therefore, the present findings indicate that modulation of SK channels is an important cellular mechanism for associative learning and further support postburst AHP reductions in hippocampal pyramidal neurons as a biomarker of successful learning. PMID:22552186

  11. Modulation of bone remodeling via mechanically activated ion channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Randall L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A critical factor in the maintenance of bone mass is the physical forces imposed upon the skeleton. Removal of these forces, such as in a weightless environment, results in a rapid loss of bone, whereas application of exogenous mechanical strain has been shown to increase bone formation. Numerous flight and ground-based experiments indicate that the osteoblast is the key bone cell influenced by mechanical stimulation. Aside from early transient fluctuations in response to unloading, osteoclast number and activity seem unaffected by removal of strain. However, bone formation is drastically reduced in weightlessness and osteoblasts respond to mechanical strain with an increase in the activity of a number of second messenger pathways resulting in increased anabolic activity. Unfortunately, the mechanism by which the osteoblast converts physical stimuli into a biochemical message, a process we have termed biochemical coupling, remains elusive. Prior to the application of this grant, we had characterized a mechanosensitive, cation nonselective channel (SA-cat) in osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells that we proposed is the initial signalling mechanism for mechanotransduction. During the execution of this grant, we have made considerable progress to further characterize this channel as well as to determine its role in the osteoblastic response to mechanical strain. To achieve these goals, we combined electrophysiologic techniques with cellular and molecular biology methods to examine the role of these channels in the normal function of the osteoblast in vitro.

  12. Impact of anthropogenic activities on urban stream water quality: a case study in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Song; Guo, Ling-Chuan; Luo, Xian-Lin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are increasingly impacting the quality of urban surface water, particularly in regions undergoing intensive urbanization, such as Guangzhou of South China with a large urban stream network. To examine such impacts, we conducted field sampling on December 24, 2010, May 24, 2011, and August 28, 2011, representative of the low-, normal-, and high-flow periods, respectively. The first sampling was timed immediately after the closing of the 16th Asian Games (November 12-27, 2010) and the 10th Asian Para Games (December 12-19, 2010) held in Guangzhou. Assessments based on a pollution index method showed that the urban streams under investigation were extremely polluted, with direct discharge of untreated domestic sewage identified as the main pollution contributor. In addition, stream water quality around urban villages with high population densities was worse than that within business districts away from the urban villages. Pollution control measures implemented in preparation for the Asian Games were effective for urban streams within the business districts, but less effective for those adjacent to the urban villages. However, short-term efforts may not be able to achieve sustainable urban water quality improvements. In the case of Guangzhou, minimizing or even eliminating direct point-source inputs to the urban streams is perhaps the best option.

  13. Cold water cleaning of brain proteins, biofilm and bone - harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream.

    PubMed

    Birkin, P R; Offin, D G; Vian, C J B; Howlin, R P; Dawson, J I; Secker, T J; Hervé, R C; Stoodley, P; Oreffo, R O C; Keevil, C W; Leighton, T G

    2015-08-28

    In the absence of sufficient cleaning of medical instruments, contamination and infection can result in serious consequences for the health sector and remains a significant unmet challenge. In this paper we describe a novel cleaning system reliant on cavitation action created in a free flowing fluid stream where ultrasonic transmission to a surface, through the stream, is achieved using careful design and control of the device architecture, sound field and the materials employed. Cleaning was achieved with purified water at room temperature, moderate fluid flow rates and without the need for chemical additives or the high power consumption associated with conventional strategies. This study illustrates the potential in harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream to remove biological contamination including brain tissue from surgical stainless steel substrates, S. epidermidis biofilms from glass, and fat/soft tissue matter from bone structures with considerable basic and clinical applications.

  14. Aquatic plant nutrients, moss phosphatase activities and tissue composition in four upland streams in northern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, N. T. W.; Haile, S. M.; Whitton, B. A.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryA study was made of the water chemistry, tissue nutrients and surface phosphatase activities of the 2-cm apices of three mosses in four upland streams in northern England, UK. This was part of a project to optimize methods for assessing nutrient fractions in environments with highly variable water chemistry. Aqueous N and P fractions showed the greatest variability followed by moss phosphatase activities, with nutrient composition of the shoot apices the least variable. There was no consistent pattern as to which aqueous N or P fraction was the most variable. The ratio between total inorganic N and total filtrable P ranged over three orders of magnitude in some streams. The interrelations between tissue N and P concentrations, tissue N:P ratio, phosphatase activities and aqueous variables showed: Significant +ve relationship between tissue N and aqueous NO 3-N in some populations, but not between tissue P and aqueous P concentration; Significant +ve relationships between phosphatase activities and aqueous organic N, but none with aqueous organic P; Significant +ve relationships between phosphodiesterase:phosphomonoesterase activities and aqueous organic N; Significant -ve relationships between phosphatase activities and tissue P concentration; Significant +ve relationships between phosphatase activities and tissue N:P. Both types of biological measurement are valuable for monitoring ambient nutrients in upland streams. Neither is clearly better than the other, so both should be included in surveys.

  15. Leptin excites POMC neurons via activation of TRPC channels

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jian; Fang, Yuan; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    Leptin can exert its potent appetite-suppressing effects via activation of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. It depolarizes POMC neurons via activation of a yet unidentified non-selective cation current. Therefore, we sought to identify the conductance activated by leptin using whole cell recording in EGFP-POMC neurons from transgenic mice. The TRPC channel blockers SKF96365, FFA and 2-APB potently inhibited the leptin-induced current. Also, lanthanum (La3+) and intracellular Ca2+ potentiated the effects of leptin. Moreover, the DAG permeable analog OAG failed to activate any TRPC current. Using a Cs+-gluconate-based internal solution, leptin-activated current reversed near -20 mV. After replacement of external Na+ and K+ with Cs+, the reversal shifted to near 0 mV, and the I/V curve exhibited a negative slope conductance at voltages more negative than –40 mV. Based on scRT-PCR, TRPC1 and TRPC4-7 mRNA were expressed in POMC neurons with TRPC5 being the most prevalent. The leptin-induced current was blocked by Jak2 inhibitor AG490, the PI3 Kinase inhibitor wortmannin and the phospholipase C inhibitors, U73122 and ET-18-OCH3. Notably, we identified PLCγ1 transcripts in the majority of POMC neurons. Therefore, leptin through a Jak2-PI3 kinase-PLCγ pathway activates TRPC channels, and TRPC1, 4 and 5 appear to be the key channels mediating the depolarizing effects of leptin in POMC neurons. PMID:20107083

  16. Meta-Analysis of Lost Ecosystem Attributes in Urban Streams and the Effectiveness of Out-of-Channel Management Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed development is a leading cause of stream impairment, and it increasingly threatens the availability, quality, and sustainability of freshwater resources as human populations continue to grow and migrate. Most efforts have focused on trying to improve ecological conditio...

  17. Location of Release Sites and Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels Relative to Calcium Channels at the Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, A. J.; Rabl, K.; Riccardi, G. E.; Brecha, N. C.; Stella, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Vesicle release from photoreceptor ribbon synapses is regulated by L-type Ca2+ channels, which are in turn regulated by Cl− moving through calcium-activated chloride [Cl(Ca)] channels. We assessed the proximity of Ca2+ channels to release sites and Cl(Ca) channels in synaptic terminals of salamander photoreceptors by comparing fast (BAPTA) and slow (EGTA) intracellular Ca2+ buffers. BAPTA did not fully block synaptic release, indicating some release sites are <100 nm from Ca2+ channels. Comparing Cl(Ca) currents with predicted Ca2+ diffusion profiles suggested that Cl(Ca) and Ca2+ channels average a few hundred nanometers apart, but the inability of BAPTA to block Cl(Ca) currents completely suggested some channels are much closer together. Diffuse immunolabeling of terminals with an antibody to the putative Cl(Ca) channel TMEM16A supports the idea that Cl(Ca) channels are dispersed throughout the presynaptic terminal, in contrast with clustering of Ca2+ channels near ribbons. Cl(Ca) currents evoked by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation through flash photolysis of DM-nitrophen exhibited EC50 values of 556 and 377 nM with Hill slopes of 1.8 and 2.4 in rods and cones, respectively. These relationships were used to estimate average submembrane [Ca2+]i in photoreceptor terminals. Consistent with control of exocytosis by [Ca2+] nanodomains near Ca2+ channels, average submembrane [Ca2+]i remained below the vesicle release threshold (∼400 nM) over much of the physiological voltage range for cones. Positioning Ca2+ channels near release sites may improve fidelity in converting voltage changes to synaptic release. A diffuse distribution of Cl(Ca) channels may allow Ca2+ influx at one site to influence relatively distant Ca2+ channels. PMID:21084687

  18. Suspended-sediment yields and stream-channel processes on Judy's Branch watershed in the St. Louis Metro East region in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary P.; Roseboom, Donald P.; Sierra, Carlos R.

    2006-01-01

    Judy's Branch watershed, a small basin (8.64 square miles) in the St. Louis Metro East region in Illinois, was selected as a pilot site to determine suspended-sediment yields and stream-channel processes in the bluffs and American Bottoms (expansive low-lying valley floor in the region). Suspended-sediment and stream-chan-nel data collected and analyzed for Judy's Branch watershed are presented in this report to establish a baseline of data for water-resource managers to evaluate future stream rehabilitation and manage-ment alternatives. The sediment yield analysis determines the amount of sediment being delivered from the watershed and two subwatersheds: an urban tributary and an undeveloped headwater (pri-marily agricultural). The analysis of the subwater-sheds is used to compare the effects of urbanization on sediment yield to the river. The stream-channel contribution to sediment yield was determined by evaluation of the stream-channel processes operat-ing on the streambed and banks of Judy's Branch watershed. Bank stability was related to hydrologic events, bank stratigraphy, and channel geometry through model development and simulation. The average suspended-sediment yield from two upland subwatersheds (drainage areas of 0.23 and 0.40 sq.mi. was 1,163 tons per square mile per year (tons/sq.mi.-year) between July 2000 and June 2004. The suspended-sediment yield at the Route 157 station was 2,523 tons/sq.mi.-year, near the outlet of Judy's Branch watershed (drainage area = 8.33 sq.mi.). This is approximately 1,360 tons/sq.mi.-year greater than the average at the upland stations for the same time period. This result is unexpected in that, generally, the suspended-sediment yield decreases as the watershed area increases because of sediment stored in the channel and flood plain. The difference indicates a possible increase in yield from a source, such as bank retreat, and supports the concept that land-use changes increase stream-flows that may in turn result in

  19. A highly polarized excitable cell separates sodium channels from sodium-activated potassium channels by more than a millimeter

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Benjamin E.; Markham, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The bioelectrical properties and resulting metabolic demands of electrogenic cells are determined by their morphology and the subcellular localization of ion channels. The electric organ cells (electrocytes) of the electric fish Eigenmannia virescens generate action potentials (APs) with Na+ currents >10 μA and repolarize the AP with Na+-activated K+ (KNa) channels. To better understand the role of morphology and ion channel localization in determining the metabolic cost of electrocyte APs, we used two-photon three-dimensional imaging to determine the fine cellular morphology and immunohistochemistry to localize the electrocytes' ion channels, ionotropic receptors, and Na+-K+-ATPases. We found that electrocytes are highly polarized cells ∼1.5 mm in anterior-posterior length and ∼0.6 mm in diameter, containing ∼30,000 nuclei along the cell periphery. The cell's innervated posterior region is deeply invaginated and vascularized with complex ultrastructural features, whereas the anterior region is relatively smooth. Cholinergic receptors and Na+ channels are restricted to the innervated posterior region, whereas inward rectifier K+ channels and the KNa channels that terminate the electrocyte AP are localized to the anterior region, separated by >1 mm from the only sources of Na+ influx. In other systems, submicrometer spatial coupling of Na+ and KNa channels is necessary for KNa channel activation. However, our computational simulations showed that KNa channels at a great distance from Na+ influx can still terminate the AP, suggesting that KNa channels can be activated by distant sources of Na+ influx and overturning a long-standing assumption that AP-generating ion channels are restricted to the electrocyte's posterior face. PMID:25925327

  20. Low intravascular pressure activates endothelial cell TRPV4 channels, local Ca2+ events, and IKCa channels, reducing arteriolar tone

    PubMed Central

    Bagher, Pooneh; Beleznai, Timea; Kansui, Yasuo; Mitchell, Ray; Garland, Christopher J.; Dora, Kim A.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) Ca2+-activated K channels (SKCa and IKCa channels) generate hyperpolarization that passes to the adjacent smooth muscle cells causing vasodilation. IKCa channels focused within EC projections toward the smooth muscle cells are activated by spontaneous Ca2+ events (Ca2+ puffs/pulsars). We now show that transient receptor potential, vanilloid 4 channels (TRPV4 channels) also cluster within this microdomain and are selectively activated at low intravascular pressure. In arterioles pressurized to 80 mmHg, ECs generated low-frequency (∼2 min−1) inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-based Ca2+ events. Decreasing intraluminal pressure below 50 mmHg increased the frequency of EC Ca2+ events twofold to threefold, an effect blocked with the TRPV4 antagonist RN1734. These discrete events represent both TRPV4-sparklet- and nonsparklet-evoked Ca2+ increases, which on occasion led to intracellular Ca2+ waves. The concurrent vasodilation associated with increases in Ca2+ event frequency was inhibited, and basal myogenic tone was increased, by either RN1734 or TRAM-34 (IKCa channel blocker), but not by apamin (SKCa channel blocker). These data show that intraluminal pressure influences an endothelial microdomain inversely to alter Ca2+ event frequency; at low pressures the consequence is activation of EC IKCa channels and vasodilation, reducing the myogenic tone that underpins tissue blood-flow autoregulation. PMID:23071308

  1. Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels as therapeutic targets for myocardial and vascular protection.

    PubMed

    Clements, Richard T; Terentyev, Dmitry; Sellke, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Small- and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)channels (SKCa and BKCa, respectively) may be important targets for therapeutic interventions in a variety of cardiac conditions. In cardiomyocytes, BKCa channels are localized to mitochondria where they beneficially modulate reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial Ca(2+), and respiration. In vascular smooth muscle cells, BKCa channels regulate vascular tone and promote vasodilation. Activation of BKCa channels has demonstrated significant cardioprotection following ischemic injury, including improved function and reduced infarct size. SKCa channels are expressed in both the membrane and mitochondria of cardiomyocytes. Modulation of cardiomyocyte SKCa channels may be beneficial for arrhythmia, heart failure, and ischemia. Mitochondrial SKCa channels may provide similar benefit to BKCa channels. In addition, activation of SKCa channels on the endothelium promotes vasodilation. This mini-review focuses on the modulation of cardiomyocyte BKCa and SKCa channels for cardioprotection and briefly address associated potential therapeutic benefits in the coronary circulation.

  2. Mechanism of allosteric activation of TMEM16A/ANO1 channels by a commonly used chloride channel blocker

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Chau M; Adomaviciene, Aiste; Rorsman, Nils J G; Garnett, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Calcium‐activated chloride channels (CaCCs) play varied physiological roles and constitute potential therapeutic targets for conditions such as asthma and hypertension. TMEM16A encodes a CaCC. CaCC pharmacology is restricted to compounds with relatively low potency and poorly defined selectivity. Anthracene‐9‐carboxylic acid (A9C), an inhibitor of various chloride channel types, exhibits complex effects on native CaCCs and cloned TMEM16A channels providing both activation and inhibition. The mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully defined. Experimental Approach Patch‐clamp electrophysiology in conjunction with concentration jump experiments was employed to define the mode of interaction of A9C with TMEM16A channels. Key Results In the presence of high intracellular Ca2+, A9C inhibited TMEM16A currents in a voltage‐dependent manner by entering the channel from the outside. A9C activation, revealed in the presence of submaximal intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, was also voltage‐dependent. The electric distance of A9C inhibiting and activating binding site was ~0.6 in each case. Inhibition occurred according to an open‐channel block mechanism. Activation was due to a dramatic leftward shift in the steady‐state activation curve and slowed deactivation kinetics. Extracellular A9C competed with extracellular Cl−, suggesting that A9C binds deep in the channel's pore to exert both inhibiting and activating effects. Conclusions and Implications A9C is an open TMEM16A channel blocker and gating modifier. These effects require A9C to bind to a region within the pore that is accessible from the extracellular side of the membrane. These data will aid the future drug design of compounds that selectively activate or inhibit TMEM16A channels. PMID:26562072

  3. Phosphoinositide interacting regulator of TRP (Pirt) enhances TRPM8 channel activity in vitro via increasing channel conductance

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Min; Wu, Guang-yi; Dong, Xin-zhong; Tang, Zong-xiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Pirt is a two-transmembrane domain protein that regulates the function of a variety of ion channels. Our previous study indicated that Pirt acts as a positive endogenous regulator of the TRPM8 channel. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the regulation of TRPM8 channel by Pirt. Methods: HEK293 cells were transfected with TRPM8+Pirt or TRPM8 alone. Menthol (1 mmol/L) was applied through perfusion to induce TRPM8-mediated voltage-dependent currents, which were recorded using a whole-cell recording technique. PIP2 (10 μmol/L) was added into the electrode pipettes (PI was taken as a control). Additionally, cell-attached single-channel recordings were conducted in CHO cells transfected with TRPM8+Pirt or TRPM8 alone, and menthol (1 mmol/L) was added into the pipette solution. Results: Either co-transfection with Pirt or intracellular application of PIP2 (but not PI) significantly enhanced menthol-induced TRPM8 currents. Furthermore, Pirt and PIP2 synergistically modulated menthol-induced TRPM8 currents. Single-channel recordings revealed that co-transfection with Pirt significantly increased the single channel conductance. Conclusion: Pirt and PIP2 synergistically enhance TRPM8 channel activity, and Pirt regulates TRPM8 channel activity by increasing the single channel conductance. PMID:26657057

  4. Video streaming technologies using ActiveX and LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panoiu, M.; Rat, C. L.; Panoiu, C.

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the possibilities of remote image processing through data exchange between two programming technologies: LabVIEW and ActiveX. ActiveX refers to the process of controlling one program from another via ActiveX component; where one program acts as the client and the other as the server. LabVIEW can be either client or server. Both programs (client and server) exist independent of each other but are able to share information. The client communicates with the ActiveX objects that the server opens to allow the sharing of information [7]. In the case of video streaming [1] [2], most ActiveX controls can only display the data, being incapable of transforming it into a data type that LabVIEW can process. This becomes problematic when the system is used for remote image processing. The LabVIEW environment itself provides little if any possibilities for video streaming, and the methods it does offer are usually not high performance, but it possesses high performance toolkits and modules specialized in image processing, making it ideal for processing the captured data. Therefore, we chose to use existing software, specialized in video streaming along with LabVIEW and to capture the data provided by them, for further use, within LabVIEW. The software we studied (the ActiveX controls of a series of media players that utilize streaming technology) provide high quality data and a very small transmission delay, ensuring the reliability of the results of the image processing.

  5. Tissue kallikrein activation of the epithelial Na channel

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ankit B.; Chao, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial Na Channels (ENaC) are responsible for the apical entry of Na+ in a number of different epithelia including the renal connecting tubule and cortical collecting duct. Proteolytic cleavage of γ-ENaC by serine proteases, including trypsin, furin, elastase, and prostasin, has been shown to increase channel activity. Here, we investigate the ability of another serine protease, tissue kallikrein, to regulate ENaC. We show that excretion of tissue kallikrein, which is secreted into the lumen of the connecting tubule, is stimulated following 5 days of a high-K+ or low-Na+ diet in rats. Urinary proteins reconstituted in a low-Na buffer activated amiloride-sensitive currents (INa) in ENaC-expressing oocytes, suggesting an endogenous urinary protease can activate ENaC. We next tested whether tissue kallikrein can directly cleave and activate ENaC. When rat ENaC-expressing oocytes were exposed to purified tissue kallikrein from rat urine (RTK), ENaC currents increased threefold in both the presence and absence of a soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). RTK and trypsin both decreased the apparent molecular mass of cleaved cell-surface γ-ENaC, while immunodepleted RTK produced no shift in apparent molecular mass, demonstrating the specificity of the tissue kallikrein. A decreased effect of RTK on Xenopus ENaC, which has variations in the putative prostasin cleavage sites in γ-ENaC, suggests these sites are important in RTK activation of ENaC. Mutating the prostasin site in mouse γ-ENaC (γRKRK186QQQQ) abolished ENaC activation and cleavage by RTK while wild-type mouse ENaC was activated and cleaved similar to that of the rat. We conclude that tissue kallikrein can be a physiologically relevant regulator of ENaC activity. PMID:22622459

  6. Running out of time: the decline of channel activity and nucleotide activation in adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K-channels

    PubMed Central

    Proks, Peter; Puljung, Michael C.; Vedovato, Natascia; Sachse, Gregor; Mulvaney, Rachel; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    KATP channels act as key regulators of electrical excitability by coupling metabolic cues—mainly intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations—to cellular potassium ion efflux. However, their study has been hindered by their rapid loss of activity in excised membrane patches (rundown), and by a second phenomenon, the decline of activation by Mg-nucleotides (DAMN). Degradation of PI(4,5)P2 and other phosphoinositides is the strongest candidate for the molecular cause of rundown. Broad evidence indicates that most other determinants of rundown (e.g. phosphorylation, intracellular calcium, channel mutations that affect rundown) also act by influencing KATP channel regulation by phosphoinositides. Unfortunately, experimental conditions that reproducibly prevent rundown have remained elusive, necessitating post hoc data compensation. Rundown is clearly distinct from DAMN. While the former is associated with pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits, DAMN is generally a slower process involving the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. We speculate that it arises when SUR subunits enter non-physiological conformational states associated with the loss of SUR nucleotide-binding domain dimerization following prolonged exposure to nucleotide-free conditions. This review presents new information on both rundown and DAMN, summarizes our current understanding of these processes and considers their physiological roles. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377720

  7. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, E.; Barritt, G.J.; Rychkov, G.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca2+ entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5 µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca2+]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50 nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels. PMID:26609559

  8. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kheradpezhouh, E; Barritt, G J; Rychkov, G Y

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca(2+) entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca(2+)]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels.

  9. BAX channel activity mediates lysosomal disruption linked to Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Bové, Jordi; Martínez-Vicente, Marta; Dehay, Benjamin; Perier, Celine; Recasens, Ariadna; Bombrun, Agnes; Antonsson, Bruno; Vila, Miquel

    2014-05-01

    Lysosomal disruption is increasingly regarded as a major pathogenic event in Parkinson disease (PD). A reduced number of intraneuronal lysosomes, decreased levels of lysosomal-associated proteins and accumulation of undegraded autophagosomes (AP) are observed in PD-derived samples, including fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons, and post-mortem brain tissue. Mechanistic studies in toxic and genetic rodent PD models attribute PD-related lysosomal breakdown to abnormal lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PD-linked LMP and subsequent lysosomal defects remain virtually unknown, thereby precluding their potential therapeutic targeting. Here we show that the pro-apoptotic protein BAX (BCL2-associated X protein), which permeabilizes mitochondrial membranes in PD models and is activated in PD patients, translocates and internalizes into lysosomal membranes early following treatment with the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo, within a time-frame correlating with LMP, lysosomal disruption, and autophagosome accumulation and preceding mitochondrial permeabilization and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Supporting a direct permeabilizing effect of BAX on lysosomal membranes, recombinant BAX is able to induce LMP in purified mouse brain lysosomes and the latter can be prevented by pharmacological blockade of BAX channel activity. Furthermore, pharmacological BAX channel inhibition is able to prevent LMP, restore lysosomal levels, reverse AP accumulation, and attenuate mitochondrial permeabilization and overall nigrostriatal degeneration caused by MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our results reveal that PD-linked lysosomal impairment relies on BAX-induced LMP, and point to small molecules able to block BAX channel activity as potentially beneficial to attenuate both lysosomal defects and neurodegeneration occurring in PD.

  10. Near-Channel Sources and Sinks along a Mountainous Stream: Establishing the Controls and Time Scales of the Lateral Transfer of Sediment and Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, J. D.; Renshaw, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    River channels exchange sediment, carbon, and other matter with hillslopes and floodplains. An ongoing challenge is to quantify the time and length scales of these lateral interactions, and to establish physical controls on direction of transfer. Here we investigate whether downstream changes in stream power (Ω) can predict near-channel sources or sinks of matter on decadal time scales in a case study of Mink Brook, a 50 km2 watershed in New Hampshire, USA. Building on the Exner equation, we hypothesize that reaches with downstream increases in stream power (Ω↑) exhibit near-channel deposition and accumulation of organic matter, and reaches of downstream decreases in stream power (Ω↓) exhibit near-channel erosion and stripping of organic matter. We measured 210Pbex inventory (an indicator of erosion versus deposition), organic matter inventory, grain size, and depth of alluvium/colluvium in 29 soil pits at 6 cross sections along the brook. Sites had equivalent total Ω for a given storm event. However, 3 cross sections exhibited Ω↑, and 3 exhibited Ω↓. All cross sections showed a general trend of stripping of organic matter and fine sediment particles in the channel, paired with loading of matter at the ~2-year flood elevation. From the ~2- to ~25-year flood elevation, a marked difference appeared between sites. The Ω↑ cross sections exhibited several locations of erosion and stripping of organic matter, as evidenced by low 210Pbex inventories (70 to 1,000 bq m-2), low organic matter inventories (17 to 219 kg m-2), and thin alluvial cover (average 23 cm). The low 210Pbex inventories, below the characteristic 6,000 bq m-2 of stable soil profiles in this region, suggest no areas had consistent deposition over the last century. In contrast, the Ω↓ cross sections exhibited deposition of fine particles and organic matter from the ~2- to ~25-year flood elevation, as evidenced by elevated 210Pbex inventories (up to 9,100 bq m-2), elevated organic matter

  11. Continuous auroral activity related to high speed streams with interplaneraty ALFV&N wave trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarnieri, Fernando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Kamide, Yosuke; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a type of intense magnetospheric/auroral activity that is not always substorms: High-Intensity, Long-Duration, Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAA) events, which occur during high speed solar wind streams. The high speed streams contain large-amplitude, nonlinear Alfvtn waves. Analyses of POLAR UV images, demonstrate that the AE increases/AL decreases in HILDCAAs are not always substorm expansion phases (although some substorms may occur). The associated auroral W energy deposition is throughout a continuous (360') auroral oval. During some image intervals, the dayside aurora is the most remarkable feature. Our hypothesis is that solar wind energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily directly driven due to the finite wavelength Alfv6n waves and the rapid dBz/dt variability.

  12. Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, B.L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, D.; LaPara, T.M.; Finlay, J.A.; Brezonik, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distributibn), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed.-1 A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantifies among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. The Effect of Catchment Urbanization on Nutrient Uptake and Biofilm Enzyme Activity in Lake Superior (USA) Tributary Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used landscape, habitat, and chemistry variables, along with nutrient spiraling metrics and biofilm extracellular enzyme activity (EEA), to assess the response of streams to the level of urbanization within their catchments. For this study nine streams of similar catchment are...

  14. Single-channel properties of BK-type calcium-activated potassium channels at a cholinergic presynaptic nerve terminal

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Ping; Schlichter, Lyanne C; Stanley, Elis F

    1999-01-01

    A high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK KCa) was characterized at a cholinergic presynaptic nerve terminal using the calyx synapse isolated from the chick ciliary ganglion.The channel had a conductance of 210 pS in a 150 mM:150 mM K+ gradient, was highly selective for K+ over Na+, and was sensitive to block by external charybdotoxin or tetraethylammonium (TEA) and by internal Ba2+. At +60 mV it was activated by cytoplasmic calcium [Ca2+]i with a Kd of ≈0.5 μM and a Hill coefficient of ≈2.0. At 10 μM [Ca2+]i the channel was 50 % activated (V½) at -8.0 mV with a voltage dependence (Boltzmann slope-factor) of 32.7 mV. The V½ values hyperpolarized with an increase in [Ca2+]i while the slope factors decreased. There were no overt differences in conductance or [Ca2+]i sensitivity between BK channels from the transmitter release face and the non-release face.Open and closed times were fitted by two and three exponentials, respectively. The slow time constants were strongly affected by both [Ca2+]i and membrane potential changes.In cell-attached patch recordings BK channel opening was enhanced by a prepulse permissive for calcium influx through the patch, suggesting that the channel can be activated by calcium ion influx through neighbouring calcium channels.The properties of the presynaptic BK channel are well suited for rapid activation during the presynaptic depolarization and Ca2+ influx that are associated with transmitter release. This channel may play an important role in terminating release by rapid repolarization of the action potential. PMID:10420003

  15. An activated fluid stream--New techniques for cold water cleaning.

    PubMed

    Birkin, Peter R; Offin, Douglas G; Leighton, Timothy G

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical, acoustic and imaging techniques are used to characterise surface cleaning with particular emphasis on the understanding of the key phenomena relevant to surface cleaning. A range of novel techniques designed to enhance and monitor the effective cleaning of a solid/liquid interface is presented. Among the techniques presented, mass transfer of material to a sensor embedded in a surface is demonstrated to be useful in the further exploration of ultrasonic cleaning of high aspect ratio micropores. In addition the effect of micropore size on the cleaning efficacy is demonstrated. The design and performance of a new cleaning system reliant on the activation of bubbles within a free flowing stream is presented. This device utilised acoustic activation of bubbles within the stream and at a variety of substrates. Finally, a controlled bubble swarm is generated in the stream using electrolysis, and its effect on both acoustic output and cleaning performance are compared to the case when no bubbles are added. This will demonstrate the active role that the electrochemically generated bubble swarm can have in extending the spatial zone over which cleaning is achieved.

  16. CHNTRN: a CHaNnel TRaNsport model for simulating sediment and chemical distribution in a stream/river network

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, G.T.

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the development of a CHaNnel TRaNsport model for simulating sediment and chemical distribution in a stream/river network. A particular feature of the model is its capability to deal with the network system that may consist of any number of joined and branched streams/rivers of comparable size. The model employs a numerical method - an integrated compartment method (ICM) - which greatly facilitates the setup of the matrix equation for the discrete field approximating the corresponding continuous field. Most of the possible boundary conditions that may be anticipated in real-world problems are considered. These include junctions, prescribed concentration, prescribed dispersive flux, and prescribed total flux. The model is applied to two case studies: (1) a single river and (2) a five-segment river in a watershed. Results indicate that the model can realistically simulate the behavior of the sediment and chemical variations in a stream/river network. 11 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Synchronization of active atomic clocks via quantum and classical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Alexander; Hammerer, Klemens

    2016-10-01

    Superradiant lasers based on atomic ensembles exhibiting ultranarrow optical transitions can emit light of unprecedented spectral purity and may serve as active atomic clocks. We consider two frequency-detuned active atomic clocks, which are coupled in a cascaded setup, i.e., as master and slave lasers, and study the synchronization of the slave to the master clock. In a setup where both atomic ensembles are coupled to a common cavity mode, such synchronization phenomena have been predicted by Xu et al. [M. Xu, D. A. Tieri, E. C. Fine, J. K. Thompson, and M. J. Holland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 154101 (2014)., 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.154101] and experimentally observed by Weiner et al. (J. M. Weiner et al., arXiv:1503.06464). Here we demonstrate that synchronization still occurs in cascaded setups but exhibits distinctly different phase diagrams. We study the characteristics of synchronization in comparison to the case of coupling through a common cavity. We also consider synchronization through a classical channel where light of the master laser is measured phase sensitively and the slave laser is injection locked by feedback and compare to the results achievable by coupling through quantum channels.

  18. Nicotine activates the chemosensory cation channel TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Karel; Gees, Maarten; Karashima, Yuji; Meseguer, Víctor M; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen A J; Damann, Nils; Everaerts, Wouter; Benoit, Melissa; Janssens, Annelies; Vennekens, Rudi; Viana, Félix; Nemery, Benoit; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Topical application of nicotine, as used in nicotine replacement therapies, causes irritation of the mucosa and skin. This reaction has been attributed to activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in chemosensory neurons. In contrast with this view, we found that the chemosensory cation channel transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is crucially involved in nicotine-induced irritation. We found that micromolar concentrations of nicotine activated heterologously expressed mouse and human TRPA1. Nicotine acted in a membrane-delimited manner, stabilizing the open state(s) and destabilizing the closed state(s) of the channel. In the presence of the general nAChR blocker hexamethonium, nociceptive neurons showed nicotine-induced responses that were strongly reduced in TRPA1-deficient mice. Finally, TRPA1 mediated the mouse airway constriction reflex to nasal instillation of nicotine. The identification of TRPA1 as a nicotine target suggests that existing models of nicotine-induced irritation should be revised and may facilitate the development of smoking cessation therapies with less adverse effects.

  19. Influence of adding small instream wood on fishes and hydrology within channelized agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large instream wood is well known for its importance in headwater streams because it promotes the development of pool habitat for fishes and provides them with cover from predators during the summer. However, little is known about the influence of small instream wood (diameter < 10 cm, length < 1 m...

  20. Ice keel seabed features in marine channels of the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago: evidence for former ice streams and iceberg scouring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, B.; Blasco, S.; Bennett, R.; England, J.; Rainey, W.; Hughes-Clarke, J.; Beaudoin, J.

    2010-08-01

    The study area lies within the central part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; a region that was covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the Late Wisconsinan glaciation and earlier. Multibeam imagery from widely spaced transects indicates the presence of linear groove and ridge features on the seabed at several localities in Peel Sound, Franklin Strait, northern Larsen Sound, and within M'Clintock Channel. These lineations resemble features in Antarctica and in several formerly glaciated regions that have been interpreted to be sole marks emplaced beneath fast-flowing ice streams. Based on these analogies, a similar origin is inferred for the lineations on the channel floors within the study area The lineations are oriented parallel to the channel axes and margins. They occur on all transects within the bathymetrically deeper area at the junction of Franklin Strait and Peel Sound. Northward in Peel Sound they occur extensively on the western and central transects, and more locally on the eastern transect. Their north-south orientation is normal to that of glacial flow features on Somerset Island and most of eastern Prince of Wales Island, which border Peel Sound to the east and west, respectively. The trend of the lineations is northeasterly (parallel to the channel axis) in Franklin Strait and mainly northerly in Larsen Sound and M'Clintock Channel. Elsewhere, the seabed imagery commonly displays scours of various sizes and orientations created by the keels of icebergs. Seabed sediments revealed by 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiles are interpreted to consist primarily of ice-contact sediments, that in part are thinly mantled by draped water lain sediments. The age of the lineations has not been established. Possibly their formation was coincident with an ice stream in the M'Clintock Channel - eastern Victoria Island region, which formed an ice shelf in Viscount Melville Sound that grounded on southern Melville and Byam Martin islands at ca. 10.4-9.6 14C ka BP

  1. Salmon carcasses increase stream productivity more than inorganic fertilizer pellets: A test on multiple trophic levels in streamside experimental channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.; Caouette, John P.; Mitchell, N.L.; Lessard, Joanna L.; Heintz, Ron A.; Chaloner, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic nutrient amendments to streams are viewed as possible restoration strategies for re-establishing nutrients and stream productivity throughout the western coast of North America, where salmon runs and associated marine-derived nutrient subsidies have declined. In a mesocosm experiment, we examined the short-term (6 weeks) comparative effects of artificial nutrient pellets and salmon carcasses, alone (low and high amounts) and in combination, on stream food webs. Response variables included dissolved nutrient concentrations, biofilm ash-free dry mass (AFDM) and chlorophyll-alevels, macroinvertebrate density, growth and body condition of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and whole-body lipid content of invertebrates and juvenile coho salmon. Most of the response variables were significantly influenced by carcass treatment; the only response variable significantly influenced by fertilizer pellet treatment was soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration. Ammonium-nitrogen concentration was the only response variable affected by both (low and high) levels of carcass treatment; all others showed no significant response to the two carcass treatment levels. Significant treatment × time interactions were observed for all responses except nitrate; for most responses, significant treatment effects were detected at certain time periods and not others. For example, significantly higher SRP concentrations were recorded earlier in the experiment, whereas significant fish responses were observed later. These results provide evidence that inorganic nutrient additions do not have the same ecological effects in streams as do salmon carcasses, potentially because inorganic nutrient additions lack carbon-based biochemicals and macromolecules that are sequestered directly or indirectly by consumers. Salmon carcasses, preferably deposited naturally during spawning migrations, appear to be far superior to inorganic nutrient amendments for sustaining and restoring

  2. Litter Supply as a Driver of Microbial Activity and Community Structure on Decomposing Leaves: a Test in Experimental Streams

    PubMed Central

    Gerull, Linda; Mutz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Succession of newly created landscapes induces profound changes in plant litter supplied to streams. Grasses dominate inputs into open-land streams, whereas tree litter is predominant in forested streams. We set out to elucidate whether the activity and structure of microbial communities on decomposing leaves are determined by litter quality (i.e., grass or tree leaves colonized) or whether changes during riparian succession affecting litter standing stocks on the stream bed play an overriding role. We used 15 outdoor experimental streams to simulate changes in litter supplies reflecting five stages of riparian succession: (i) a biofilm stage with no litter, (ii) an open-land stage characterized by grass litter inputs, (iii) a transitional stage with a mix of grass and tree litter, (iv) an early forested stage with tree litter, and (v) an advanced forested stage with 2.5 times the amount of tree litter. Microbial activities on tree (Betula pendula) and grass (Calamagrostis epigejos) litter were unaffected by either the quantity or type of litter supplied to the experimental streams (i.e., litter standing stock) but differed between the two litter types. This was in stark contrast with bacterial and fungal community structure, which markedly differed on grass and tree litter and, to a lesser extent, also among streams receiving different litter inputs. These patterns reveal distinct responses of microbial community structure and activity to the bulk litter available in streams but consistent responses to the litter type colonized. PMID:23770903

  3. Litter supply as a driver of microbial activity and community structure on decomposing leaves: a test in experimental streams.

    PubMed

    Frossard, Aline; Gerull, Linda; Mutz, Michael; Gessner, Mark O

    2013-08-01

    Succession of newly created landscapes induces profound changes in plant litter supplied to streams. Grasses dominate inputs into open-land streams, whereas tree litter is predominant in forested streams. We set out to elucidate whether the activity and structure of microbial communities on decomposing leaves are determined by litter quality (i.e., grass or tree leaves colonized) or whether changes during riparian succession affecting litter standing stocks on the stream bed play an overriding role. We used 15 outdoor experimental streams to simulate changes in litter supplies reflecting five stages of riparian succession: (i) a biofilm stage with no litter, (ii) an open-land stage characterized by grass litter inputs, (iii) a transitional stage with a mix of grass and tree litter, (iv) an early forested stage with tree litter, and (v) an advanced forested stage with 2.5 times the amount of tree litter. Microbial activities on tree (Betula pendula) and grass (Calamagrostis epigejos) litter were unaffected by either the quantity or type of litter supplied to the experimental streams (i.e., litter standing stock) but differed between the two litter types. This was in stark contrast with bacterial and fungal community structure, which markedly differed on grass and tree litter and, to a lesser extent, also among streams receiving different litter inputs. These patterns reveal distinct responses of microbial community structure and activity to the bulk litter available in streams but consistent responses to the litter type colonized.

  4. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition of a swelling-activated cation channel in osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. L.; Kizer, N.; Barry, E. L.; Friedman, P. A.; Hruska, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    By patch-clamp analysis, we have shown that chronic, intermittent mechanical strain (CMS) increases the activity of stretch-activated cation channels of osteoblast-like UMR-106.01 cells. CMS also produces a swelling-activated whole-cell conductance (Gm) regulated by varying strain levels. We questioned whether the swelling-activated conductance was produced by stretch-activated cation channel activity. We have identified a gene involved in the increase in conductance by using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) derived from the alpha 1-subunit genes of calcium channels found in UMR-106.01 cells (alpha1S, alpha1C, and alpha1D). We demonstrate that alpha 1C antisense ODNs abolish the increase in Gm in response to hypotonic swelling following CMS. Antisense ODNs to alpha1S and alpha1D, sense ODNs to alpha1C, and sham permeabilization had no effect on the conductance increase. In addition, during cell-attached patch-clamp studies, antisense ODNs to alpha1c completely blocked the swelling-activated and stretch-activated nonselective cation channel response to strain. Antisense ODNs to alpha1S treatment produced no effect on either swelling-activated or stretch-activated cation channel activity. There were differences in the stretch-activated and swelling-activated cation channel activity, but whether they represent different channels could not be determined from our data. Our data indicate that the alpha1C gene product is involved in the Gm and the activation of the swelling-activated cation channels induced by CMS. The possibility that swelling-activated cation channel genes are members of the calcium channel superfamily exists, but if alpha1c is not the swelling-activated cation channel itself, then its expression is required for induction of swelling-activated cation channel activity by CMS.

  5. Src Tyrosine Kinase Alters Gating of Hyperpolarization-Activated HCN4 Pacemaker Channel through Tyr531

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-Hong; Zhang, Qi; Teng, Bunyen; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Huang, Jian-Ying; Yu, Han-Gang

    2009-01-01

    We recently discovered that the constitutively active Src tyrosine kinase can enhance the HCN4 channel activity by binding to the channel protein. To investigate the mechanism of modulation by Src of HCN channels, we studied the effects of a selective inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase, PP2, on HCN4 and its mutant channels ex pressed in HEK293 cells using whole-cell patch clamp technique. We found that PP2 can inhibit HCN4 currents by negatively shifting the voltage dependence of channel activation, decreasing the whole-cell channel conductance, and slowing activation and deactivation kinetics. Screening putative tyrosine residues subject to phosphorylation yielded two candidates: Tyr531 and Tyr554. Substituting HCN4-Tyr531 with phenylalanine largely abolished the effects of PP2 on HCN4 channels. Replacing HCN4-Tyr554 by phenylalanine did not abolish the effects of PP2 on voltage-dependent activation, but did eliminate PP2-induced slowing of channel kinetics. The inhibitory effects of HCN channels associated with reduced Src tyrosine activity is confirmed in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Finally, we found that PP2 can decrease the heart rate in a mouse model. These results demonstrate that Src tyrosine kinase enhances HCN4 currents by shifting their activation to more positive potentials and increasing the whole-cell channel conductance as well as speeding the channel kinetics. The tyrosine residue that mediates most of Src actions on HCN4 channels is Tyr531. PMID:17977941

  6. Activation and Regulation of Purinergic P2X Receptor Channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Yan, Zonghe; Obsil, Tomas; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian ATP-gated nonselective cation channels (P2XRs) can be composed of seven possible subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7. Each subunit contains a large ectodomain, two transmembrane domains, and intracellular N and C termini. Functional P2XRs are organized as homomeric and heteromeric trimers. This review focuses on the binding sites involved in the activation (orthosteric) and regulation (allosteric) of P2XRs. The ectodomains contain three ATP binding sites, presumably located between neighboring subunits and formed by highly conserved residues. The detection and coordination of three ATP phosphate residues by positively charged amino acids are likely to play a dominant role in determining agonist potency, whereas an AsnPheArg motif may contribute to binding by coordinating the adenine ring. Nonconserved ectodomain histidines provide the binding sites for trace metals, divalent cations, and protons. The transmembrane domains account not only for the formation of the channel pore but also for the binding of ivermectin (a specific P2X4R allosteric regulator) and alcohols. The N- and C- domains provide the structures that determine the kinetics of receptor desensitization and/or pore dilation and are critical for the regulation of receptor functions by intracellular messengers, kinases, reactive oxygen species and mercury. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in a closed state provides a major advance in the understanding of this family of receptor channels. We will discuss data obtained from numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments accumulated during the last 15 years with reference to the crystal structure, allowing a structural interpretation of the molecular basis of orthosteric and allosteric ligand actions. PMID:21737531

  7. Linking spatial patterns of bed surface texture, bed mobility, and channel hydraulics in a mountain stream to potential spawning substrate for small resident trout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienciala, Piotr; Hassan, Marwan A.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we examined spatial patterns of bed texture, bed mobility, and channel hydraulics in four reaches of a mountain stream with moderate gradient (< 0.02) and linked them to availability and disturbance of potential spawning substrate for small resident cutthroat trout (body size 200 mm). Within-reach spatial distribution and extent of potential substrate and disturbance risk enabled us to identify between-reach differences, which pointed to existence of two distinct domains within the study area. In two cobble-gravel reaches bed was generally too coarse for spawning and potential substrate appeared to be limited to small areas protected by flow obstructions. These hydraulically sheltered sites promoted accumulation of large quantities of fine sediment that seemed to pose high disturbance risk to the associated substrate patches. In contrast, general bed fining resulted in development of extensive areas of spawning substrate, unaffected by excess fine sediment deposition, in the unobstructed portions of gravel-dominated reaches. In all study reaches bed mobility and risk of scour disturbance was generally limited, even though its significance was sensitive to the adopted value of eggs burial depth. Abrupt transition between the two contrasting domains in response to relatively modest changes in channel texture led us to hypothesize that small-bodied salmonids in similar mountain streams may be vulnerable to habitat fragmentation that prevent fish movement between reaches but also to climate and land use changes that alter inputs of water and sediment into the channels. Overall, our within-reach analyses illustrated that between-reach differences in potential substrate availability and disturbance risk may be strongly dependent on small-scale hydro-geomorphic processes and their configuration in space relative to one another.

  8. Effects of microgravity on liposome-reconstituted cardiac gap junction channeling activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claassen, D. E.; Spooner, B. S.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of microgravity on cardiac gap junction channeling activity were investigated aboard NASA zero-gravity aircraft. Liposome-reconstituted gap junctions were assayed for channel function during free-fall, and the data were compared with channeling at 1 g. Control experiments tested for 0 g effects on the structural stability of liposomes, and on the enzyme-substrate signalling system of the assay. The results demonstrate that short periods of microgravity do not perturb reconstituted cardiac gap junction channeling activity.

  9. Impact of calcium-activated potassium channels on NMDA spikes in cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Active electrical events play an important role in shaping signal processing in dendrites. As these events are usually associated with an increase in intracellular calcium, they are likely to be under the control of calcium-activated potassium channels. Here, we investigate the impact of calcium-activated potassium channels on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent spikes, or NMDA spikes, evoked by glutamate iontophoresis onto basal dendrites of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons. We found that small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK channels) act to reduce NMDA spike amplitude but at the same time, also decrease the iontophoretic current required for their generation. This SK-mediated decrease in NMDA spike threshold was dependent on R-type voltage-gated calcium channels and indicates a counterintuitive, excitatory effect of SK channels on NMDA spike generation, whereas the capacity of SK channels to suppress NMDA spike amplitude is in line with the expected inhibitory action of potassium channels on dendritic excitability. Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels had no significant impact on NMDA spikes, indicating that these channels are either absent from basal dendrites or not activated by NMDA spikes. These experiments reveal complex and opposing interactions among NMDA receptors, SK channels, and voltage-gated calcium channels in basal dendrites of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons during NMDA spike generation, which are likely to play an important role in regulating the way these neurons integrate the thousands of synaptic inputs they receive. PMID:26936985

  10. Observations of the Behavior and Distribution of Fish in Relation to the Columbia River Navigation Channel and Channel Maintenance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, R. L.; Mueller, Robert P.; Weiland, Mark A.; Johnson, P. N.

    2001-10-19

    This report is a compilation of 7 studies conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1995 and 1998 which used hydroacoustic methods to study the behavior of migrating salmon in response to navigation channel maintenance activities in the lower Columbia River near river mile 45. Differences between daytime and nighttime behavior and fish densities were noted. Comparisons were made of fish distribution across the river (in the channel, channel margin or near shore) and fish depth upstream and downstream of dikes, dredges, and pile driving areas.

  11. 30 CFR 817.57 - Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in perennial or intermittent streams only where those activities would not cause or contribute to the... and provisions have been made for sound future maintenance by the permittee or the landowner...

  12. Calcium ions open a selectivity filter gate during activation of the MthK potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Posson, David J; Rusinova, Radda; Andersen, Olaf S; Nimigean, Crina M

    2015-09-23

    Ion channel opening and closing are fundamental to cellular signalling and homeostasis. Gates that control K(+) channel activity were found both at an intracellular pore constriction and within the selectivity filter near the extracellular side but the specific location of the gate that opens Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels has remained elusive. Using the Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum homologue (MthK) and a stopped-flow fluorometric assay for fast channel activation, we show that intracellular quaternary ammonium blockers bind to closed MthK channels. Since the blockers are known to bind inside a central channel cavity, past the intracellular entryway, the gate must be within the selectivity filter. Furthermore, the blockers access the closed channel slower than the open channel, suggesting that the intracellular entryway narrows upon pore closure, without preventing access of either the blockers or the smaller K(+). Thus, Ca(2+)-dependent gating in MthK occurs at the selectivity filter with coupled movement of the intracellular helices.

  13. Calcium ions open a selectivity filter gate during activation of the MthK potassium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posson, David J.; Rusinova, Radda; Andersen, Olaf S.; Nimigean, Crina M.

    2015-09-01

    Ion channel opening and closing are fundamental to cellular signalling and homeostasis. Gates that control K+ channel activity were found both at an intracellular pore constriction and within the selectivity filter near the extracellular side but the specific location of the gate that opens Ca2+-activated K+ channels has remained elusive. Using the Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum homologue (MthK) and a stopped-flow fluorometric assay for fast channel activation, we show that intracellular quaternary ammonium blockers bind to closed MthK channels. Since the blockers are known to bind inside a central channel cavity, past the intracellular entryway, the gate must be within the selectivity filter. Furthermore, the blockers access the closed channel slower than the open channel, suggesting that the intracellular entryway narrows upon pore closure, without preventing access of either the blockers or the smaller K+. Thus, Ca2+-dependent gating in MthK occurs at the selectivity filter with coupled movement of the intracellular helices.

  14. Hippocampal hypoglycaemia-activated K+ channels: single-channel analysis of glucose and voltage dependence.

    PubMed

    Tromba, C; Salvaggio, A; Racagni, G; Volterra, A

    1994-11-01

    The effect of glucose on kinetics and the voltage-dependent characteristics of glucose-sensitive channels in hippocampal neurons were examined with the cell-attached mode of the patch-clamp technique. Recordings of a 100-pS K+ channel in the presence or absence of glucose demonstrate that the increase in channel open state probability (Po) induced by glucose deprivation (40- to 400-times the control in high-glucose medium) was largely due to a decrease in the global amount of time spent by the channel in a long-lived closed state. The Po value of the same 100-pS channel was also found to increase (by approx. 80-times) following a depolarization of 40 mV from rest, the main factor responsible for this being a dramatic shortening of the long closed-times on depolarization. Another glucose-sensitive channel of smaller conductance (approx. 10 pS) showed a similar dependence of Po on glucose, but different dependence on voltage, with long openings at the same hyperpolarized potentials where the 100-pS channel was almost always closed. Our results indicate that the action of glucose on the kinetics of hippocampal channels closely resembles that of ATP-sensitive channels in pancreatic beta-cells. Furthermore, they indicate that the two types of glucose-sensitive channels found in hippocampal neurons, differing not only in their single-channel conductance but also in the dependence on voltage, could play different roles in the responses of these cells to modified energetic supply.

  15. Modeling Tidal Stream Energy Extraction and its Effects on Transport Processes in a Tidal Channel and Bay System Using a Three-dimensional Coastal Ocean Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-02-28

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study for simulating in-stream tidal energy extraction and assessing its effects on the hydrodynamics and transport processes in a tidal channel and bay system connecting to coastal ocean. A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) module was implemented in a three-dimensional (3-D) coastal ocean model using the momentum sink approach. The MHK model was validated with the analytical solutions for tidal channels under one-dimensional (1-D) conditions. Model simulations were further carried out to compare the momentum sink approach with the quadratic bottom friction approach. The effects of 3-D simulations on the vertical velocity profile, maximum extractable energy, and volume flux reduction across the channel were investigated through a series of numerical experiments. 3-D model results indicate that the volume flux reduction at the maximum extractable power predicted by the 1-D analytical model or two-dimensional (2-D) depth-averaged numerical model may be overestimated. Maximum extractable energy strongly depends on the turbine hub height in the water column, and which reaches a maximum when turbine hub height is located at mid-water depth. Far-field effects of tidal turbines on the flushing time of the tidal bay were also investigated. Model results demonstrate that tidal energy extraction has a greater effect on the flushing time than volume flux reduction, which could negatively affect the biogeochemical processes in estuarine and coastal waters that support primary productivity and higher forms of marine life.

  16. Development of regional curves relating bankfull-channel geometry and discharge to drainage area for streams in Pennsylvania and selected areas of Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Natural-stream designs are commonly based on the dimensions of the bankfull channel, which is capable of conveying discharges that transport sediment without excessive erosion or deposition. Regional curves relate bankfull-channel geometry and discharge to drainage area in watersheds with similar runoff characteristics and commonly are utilized by practitioners of natural-stream design to confirm or refute selection of the field-identified bankfull channel. Data collected from 66 streamflow-gaging stations and associated stream reaches between December 1999 and December 2003 were used in one-variable ordinary least-squares regression analyses to develop regional curves relating drainage area to cross-sectional area, discharge, width, and mean depth of the bankfull channel. Watersheds draining to these stations are predominantly within the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Provinces of Pennsylvania and northern Maryland. Statistical analyses of physiography, percentage of watershed area underlain by carbonate bedrock, and percentage of watershed area that is glaciated indicate that carbonate bedrock, not physiography or glaciation, has a controlling influence on the slope of regional curves. Regional curves developed from stations in watersheds underlain by 30 percent or less carbonate bedrock generally had steeper slopes than the corresponding relations developed from watersheds underlain by greater than 30 percent carbonate bedrock. In contrast, there is little evidence to suggest that regional curves developed from stations in the Piedmont or Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province are different from the corresponding relations developed from stations in the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province. On the basis of these findings, regional curves are presented to represent two settings that are independent of physiography: (1) noncarbonate settings characterized by watersheds with carbonate bedrock underlying 30 percent or less

  17. Activation by divalent cations of a Ca2+-activated K+ channel from skeletal muscle membrane

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Several divalent cations were studied as agonists of a Ca2+-activated K+ channel obtained from rat muscle membranes and incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. The effect of these agonists on single-channel currents was tested in the absence and in the presence of Ca2+. Among the divalent cations that activate the channel, Ca2+ is the most effective, followed by Cd2+, Sr2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, and Co2+. Mg2+, Ni2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Hg2+, and Sn2+ are ineffective. The voltage dependence of channel activation is the same for all the divalent cations. The time-averaged probability of the open state is a sigmoidal function of the divalent cation concentration. The sigmoidal curves are described by a dissociation constant K and a Hill coefficient N. The values of these parameters, measured at 80 mV are: N = 2.1, K = 4 X 10(- 7) mMN for Ca2+; N = 3.0, K = 0.02 mMN for Cd2+; N = 1.45, K = 0.63 mMN for Sr2+; N = 1.7, K = 0.94 mMN for Mn2+; N = 1.1, K = 3.0 mMN for Fe2+; and N = 1.1 K = 4.35 mMN for Co2+. In the presence of Ca2+, the divalent cations Cd2+, Co2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, and Mg2+ are able to increase the apparent affinity of the channel for Ca2+ and they increase the Hill coefficient in a concentration-dependent fashion. These divalent cations are only effective when added to the cytoplasmic side of the channel. We suggest that these divalent cations can bind to the channel, unmasking new Ca2+ sites. PMID:3171535

  18. Removal of VOCs from humidified gas streams using activated carbon cloth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cal, M.P.; Rood, M.J.; Larson, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of relative humidity (RH) on the adsorption of soluble (acetone) and insoluble (benzene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with activated carbon cloths (ACC). A gravimetric balance was used in conjunction with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrophotometer to determine the individual amounts of water and VOC adsorbed on an ACC sample. RH values from 0 to 90% and organic concentrations from 350 to 1000 ppmv were examined. The presence of water vapor in the gas-stream along with acetone (350 and 500 ppmv) had little effect on the adsorption capacity of acetone even at 90% RH. Water vapor in the gas stream had little effect on the adsorption capacity of benzene (500 ppmv) until about 65% RH, when a rapid decrease resulted in the adsorption capacity of benzene with increasing RH. This RH was also about where capillary condensation of water vapor occurs within ACC pores. Water vapor condenses within the ACC pores, making them unavailable for benzene adsorption. Increasing benzene concentration can have a significant effect on the amount of water vapor adsorbed. At 86% RH and 500 ppmv, 284 mg/g water was adsorbed, while at 86% RH and 1000 ppmv, only 165 mg/g water was adsorbed. Water vapor was more inhibitory for benzene adsorption as benzene concentration in the gas stream decreased. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Resting state activity and the "stream of consciousness" in schizophrenia--neurophenomenal hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifaceted disorder with various symptoms including auditory hallucinations, egodisturbances, passivity phenomena, and delusions. Recent neurobiological approaches have focused on, especially, the abnormal contents of consciousness, the "substantive parts" as James said, to associate them with the neural mechanisms related to sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, and the brain's underlying stimulus-induced or task-evoked activity. This leaves open, however, the neural mechanisms that provide the temporal linkage or glue between the various contents, the transitive parts that makes possible the "stream of consciousness." Interestingly, schizophrenic patients seem to suffer from abnormalities specifically in the "transitive parts" when they experience contents as temporally disconnected or fragmented which in phenomenological psychiatry has been described as "temporal fragmentation." The aim of this article is to develop so-called neurophenomenal hypothesis about the direct relationship between phenomenal features of the "stream of consciousness," the "transitive parts," and the specific neuronal mechanisms in schizophrenia as based on healthy subjects. Rather than emphasizing stimulus-induced and task-evoked activity and sensory and lateral prefrontal cortical regions as in neurocognitive approaches with their focus on the "substantive parts," the focus shifts here to the brain's intrinsic activity, its resting state activity, which may account for the temporal linkage or glue between the contents of consciousness, the transitive parts.

  20. Active versus passive listening to auditory streaming stimuli: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Remijn, Gerard B; Kojima, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    We use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess listeners' cortical responses to a 10-s series of pure tones separated in frequency. Listeners are instructed to either judge the rhythm of these "streaming" stimuli (active-response listening) or to listen to the stimuli passively. Experiment 1 shows that active-response listening causes increases in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) in response to all stimuli, generally over the (pre)motor cortices. The oxy-Hb increases are significantly larger over the right hemisphere than over the left for the final 5 s of the stimulus. Hemodynamic levels do not vary with changes in the frequency separation between the tones and corresponding changes in perceived rhythm ("gallop," "streaming," or "ambiguous"). Experiment 2 shows that hemodynamic levels are strongly influenced by listening mode. For the majority of time windows, active-response listening causes significantly larger oxy-Hb increases than passive listening, significantly over the left hemisphere during the stimulus and over both hemispheres after the stimulus. This difference cannot be attributed to physical motor activity and preparation related to button pressing after stimulus end, because this is required in both listening modes.

  1. Active versus passive listening to auditory streaming stimuli: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remijn, Gerard B.; Kojima, Haruyuki

    2010-05-01

    We use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess listeners' cortical responses to a 10-s series of pure tones separated in frequency. Listeners are instructed to either judge the rhythm of these ``streaming'' stimuli (active-response listening) or to listen to the stimuli passively. Experiment 1 shows that active-response listening causes increases in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) in response to all stimuli, generally over the (pre)motor cortices. The oxy-Hb increases are significantly larger over the right hemisphere than over the left for the final 5 s of the stimulus. Hemodynamic levels do not vary with changes in the frequency separation between the tones and corresponding changes in perceived rhythm (``gallop,'' ``streaming,'' or ``ambiguous''). Experiment 2 shows that hemodynamic levels are strongly influenced by listening mode. For the majority of time windows, active-response listening causes significantly larger oxy-Hb increases than passive listening, significantly over the left hemisphere during the stimulus and over both hemispheres after the stimulus. This difference cannot be attributed to physical motor activity and preparation related to button pressing after stimulus end, because this is required in both listening modes.

  2. Diacylglycerols Activate Mitochondrial Cationic Channel(s) and Release Sequestered Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Chinopoulos, Christos; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Grigoriev, Sergey; Dejean, Laurent M.; Kinnally, Kathleen W.; Liu, Xibao; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Fiskum, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria contribute to cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis through several uptake and release pathways. Here we report that 1,2-sn-diacylglycerols (DAGs) induce Ca2+ release from Ca2+-loaded mammalian mitochondria. Release is not mediated by the uniporter or the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, nor is it attributed to putative catabolites. DAGs-induced Ca2+ efflux is biphasic. Initial release is rapid and transient, insensitive to permeability transition inhibitors, and not accompanied by mitochondrial swelling. Following initial rapid release of Ca2+ and relatively slowreuptake, a secondary progressive release of Ca2+ occurs, associated with swelling, and mitigated by permeability transition inhibitors. The initial peak of DAGs-induced Ca2+ efflux is abolished by La3+ (1mM) and potentiated by protein kinase C inhibitors. Phorbol esters, 1,3-diacylglycerols and 1-monoacylglycerols do not induce mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux. Ca2+-loaded mitoplasts devoid of outer mitochondrial membrane also exhibit DAGsinduced Ca2+ release, indicating that this mechanism resides at the inner mitochondrial membrane. Patch clamping brainmitoplasts reveal DAGs-induced slightly cation-selective channel activity that is insensitive to bongkrekic acid and abolished by La3+. The presence of a second messenger-sensitive Ca2+ release mechanism in mitochondria could have an important impact on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. PMID:16167179

  3. Flow resistance dynamics in step-pool stream channels: 1. Large woody debris and controls on total resistance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, A.C.; Wohl, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    Flow resistance dynamics in step-pool channels were investigated through physical modeling using a laboratory flume. Variables contributing to flow resistance in step-pool channels were manipulated in order to measure the effects of various large woody debris (LWD) configurations, steps, grains, discharge, and slope on total flow resistance. This entailed nearly 400 flume runs, organized into a series of factorial experiments. Factorial analyses of variance indicated significant two-way and three-way interaction effects between steps, grains, and LWD, illustrating the complexity of flow resistance in these channels. Interactions between steps and LWD resulted in substantially greater flow resistance for steps with LWD than for steps lacking LWD. LWD position contributed to these interactions, whereby LWD pieces located near the lip of steps, analogous to step-forming debris in natural channels, increased the effective height of steps and created substantially higher flow resistance than pieces located farther upstream on step treads. Step geometry and LWD density and orientation also had highly significant effects on flow resistance. Flow resistance dynamics and the resistance effect of bed roughness configurations were strongly discharge-dependent; discharge had both highly significant main effects on resistance and highly significant interactions with all other variables. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. The Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack Is Required for Optimal Cognitive Flexibility in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausch, Anne E.; Dieter, Rebekka; Nann, Yvette; Hausmann, Mario; Meyerdierks, Nora; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Ruth, Peter; Lukowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    "Kcnt1" encoded sodium-activated potassium channels (Slack channels) are highly expressed throughout the brain where they modulate the firing patterns and general excitability of many types of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that Slack channels may be important for higher brain functions such as cognition and normal intellectual…

  5. Requirement of calcium-activated chloride channels in the activation of mouse vomeronasal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SangSeong; Ma, Limei; Yu, C. Ron

    2011-01-01

    In terrestrial vertebrates, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects and transduces pheromone signals. VNO activation is thought to be mediated by the transient receptor potential C2 (TRPC2) channel. The aberrant behavioural phenotypes observed in TRPC2−/− mice are generally attributed to the lost VNO function. Recently, calcium-activated chloride channels have been shown to contribute to VNO activation. Here we show that CACCs can be activated in VNO slice preparations from the TRPC2−/− mice and this activation is blocked by pharmacological agents that inhibit intracellular Ca2+ release. Urine-evoked Cl− current is sufficient to drive spiking changes in VNO neurons from both wild-type (WT) and TRPC2−/− mice. Moreover, blocking Cl− conductance essentially abolishes VNO activation in WT neurons. These results suggest a TRPC2-independent signalling pathway in the VNO and the requirement of calcium-activated chloride channels currents to mediate pheromone activation. Our data further suggest that TRPC2−/− mice retain partial VNO function. PMID:21694713

  6. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sorak-Pokrajac, M.; Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extremely important. As one of the volatile elements it can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis.

  7. Purinergic regulation of CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels and K(+) channels in human pancreatic duct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Haanes, Kristian A; Novak, Ivana

    2013-04-01

    Purinergic agonists have been considered for the treatment of respiratory epithelia in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The pancreas, one of the most seriously affected organs in CF, expresses various purinergic receptors. Studies on the rodent pancreas show that purinergic signaling regulates pancreatic secretion. In the present study we aim to identify Cl(-) and K(+) channels in human pancreatic ducts and their regulation by purinergic receptors. Human pancreatic duct epithelia formed by Capan-1 or CFPAC-1 cells were studied in open-circuit Ussing chambers. In Capan-1 cells, ATP/UTP effects were dependent on intracellular Ca(2+). Apically applied ATP/UTP stimulated CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (CaCC) channels, which were inhibited by CFTRinh-172 and niflumic acid, respectively. The basolaterally applied ATP stimulated CFTR. In CFPAC-1 cells, which have mutated CFTR, basolateral ATP and UTP had negligible effects. In addition to Cl(-) transport in Capan-1 cells, the effects of 5,6-dichloro-1-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (DC-EBIO) and clotrimazole indicated functional expression of the intermediate conductance K(+) channels (IK, KCa3.1). The apical effects of ATP/UTP were greatly potentiated by the IK channel opener DC-EBIO. Determination of RNA and protein levels revealed that Capan-1 cells have high expression of TMEM16A (ANO1), a likely CaCC candidate. We conclude that in human pancreatic duct cells ATP/UTP regulates via purinergic receptors both Cl(-) channels (TMEM16A/ANO1 and CFTR) and K(+) channels (IK). The K(+) channels provide the driving force for Cl(-)-channel-dependent secretion, and luminal ATP provided locally or secreted from acini may potentiate secretory processes. Future strategies in augmenting pancreatic duct function should consider sidedness of purinergic signaling and the essential role of K(+) channels.

  8. Quantifying N2 and N2O production in agricultural streams using open channel methods: a tool for finding missing watershed nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. R.; Jordan, T. E.; Knee, K.; Fisher, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs are altering biogeochemical cycles, impairing aquatic ecosystems, and contributing to climate change. Agricultural watersheds, such as those in our study area on the eastern shore of Maryland, play a significant role as one of the greatest sources of N to coastal waters and N2O to the atmosphere. Denitrification can permanently remove N from the landscape through conversion to N2 and N2O gases, and gaseous N loss from streams and rivers is thought to be an important loss term in watershed N budgets. However, denitrification and fluxes of biogenic gases in streams are poorly understood, especially at ecologically relevant scales. In this study, we applied open channel methods to quantify in-situ N2 and N2O production at the reach scale. We accounted for both in-stream N2 production and watershed-derived N2 delivered to the stream via groundwater influx, and used two naturally present gases, 222Rn and Ar, as tracers for gas transfer velocity (k). We conducted eleven studies, each lasting six hours and repeated approximately quarterly in three different stream branches within a small watershed. Ultimately, these data will be part of a watershed nitrogen budget to assess the role of streams in the fate of Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI). Gas transfer velocity using 222Rn was 9-98% greater than k derived from Ar. However, k 222Rn agreed better with previous estimates; thus, the presented rates were estimated using k 222Rn. Biogenic N2 production rates ranged from 0.5 to 63.0 mmol N2-N m-2hr-1 with an average of 12.8. Biogenic N2O production ranged from 1.8 to 484.4 μmol N2O-N m-2hr-1 with an average of 98.0. N2O emissions to the atmosphere varied from 1.2 to 464.9 μmol N2O-N m-2 hr-1. Rates generally increased with temperature and spatial variation was fairly consistent across seasons. N2O will not contribute significantly to the watershed N budget (<2% of NANI); however, N2O was always supersaturated (344-3110%) and

  9. Activation of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channel ANO1 by localized Ca(2+) signals.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Shah, Sihab; Du, Xiaona; Zhang, Hailin; Gamper, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) regulate numerous physiological processes including epithelial transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory processing. Anoctamin-1 (ANO1, TMEM16A) is a principal CaCC subunit in many cell types, yet our understanding of the mechanisms of ANO1 activation and regulation are only beginning to emerge. Ca(2+) sensitivity of ANO1 is rather low and at negative membrane potentials the channel requires several micromoles of intracellular Ca(2+) for activation. However, global Ca(2+) levels in cells rarely reach such levels and, therefore, there must be mechanisms that focus intracellular Ca(2+) transients towards the ANO1 channels. Recent findings indeed indicate that ANO1 channels often co-localize with sources of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. Interestingly, it appears that in many cell types ANO1 is particularly tightly coupled to the Ca(2+) release sites of the intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Such preferential coupling may represent a general mechanism of ANO1 activation in native tissues.

  10. Disconnect of microbial structure and function: enzyme activities and bacterial communities in nascent stream corridors

    PubMed Central

    Frossard, Aline; Gerull, Linda; Mutz, Michael; Gessner, Mark O

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental issue in microbial and general ecology is the question to what extent environmental conditions dictate the structure of communities and the linkages with functional properties of ecosystems (that is, ecosystem function). We approached this question by taking advantage of environmental gradients established in soil and sediments of small stream corridors in a recently created, early successional catchment. Specifically, we determined spatial and temporal patterns of bacterial community structure and their linkages with potential microbial enzyme activities along the hydrological flow paths of the catchment. Soil and sediments were sampled in a total of 15 sites on four occasions spread throughout a year. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to characterize bacterial communities, and substrate analogs linked to fluorescent molecules served to track 10 different enzymes as specific measures of ecosystem function. Potential enzyme activities varied little among sites, despite contrasting environmental conditions, especially in terms of water availability. Temporal changes, in contrast, were pronounced and remarkably variable among the enzymes tested. This suggests much greater importance of temporal dynamics than spatial heterogeneity in affecting specific ecosystem functions. Most strikingly, bacterial community structure revealed neither temporal nor spatial patterns. The resulting disconnect between bacterial community structure and potential enzyme activities indicates high functional redundancy within microbial communities even in the physically and biologically simplified stream corridors of early successional landscapes. PMID:22030674

  11. A novel BK channel-targeted peptide suppresses sound evoked activity in the mouse inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Scott, L. L.; Brecht, E. J.; Philpo, A.; Iyer, S.; Wu, N. S.; Mihic, S. J.; Aldrich, R. W.; Pierce, J.; Walton, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated (BK) channels are broadly expressed in neurons and muscle where they modulate cellular activity. Decades of research support an interest in pharmaceutical applications for modulating BK channel function. Here we report a novel BK channel-targeted peptide with functional activity in vitro and in vivo. This 9-amino acid peptide, LS3, has a unique action, suppressing channel gating rather than blocking the pore of heterologously expressed human BK channels. With an IC50 in the high picomolar range, the apparent affinity is higher than known high affinity BK channel toxins. LS3 suppresses locomotor activity via a BK channel-specific mechanism in wild-type or BK channel-humanized Caenorhabditis elegans. Topical application on the dural surface of the auditory midbrain in mouse suppresses sound evoked neural activity, similar to a well-characterized pore blocker of the BK channel. Moreover, this novel ion channel-targeted peptide rapidly crosses the BBB after systemic delivery to modulate auditory processing. Thus, a potent BK channel peptide modulator is open to neurological applications, such as preventing audiogenic seizures that originate in the auditory midbrain. PMID:28195225

  12. Use of the Continuous Slope-Area Method to Estimate Runoff Through Ephemeral Stream Channels in SE Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, A. M.; Callegary, J. B.; Smith, C. F.; Wiele, S. M.; Cordova, J. T.; Fritzinger, R. A.; Gupta, H. V.

    2008-12-01

    Quantifying discharge and associated ground-water recharge from ephemeral flow events in the desert southwest USA is of increasing importance because of mandates to achieve sustainability of water resources; however, low-cost techniques for accurate and continuous monitoring of ephemeral flows are not established. The continuous-slope area (CSA) method extends the well-known slope area method (used to develop peak-flow hydrographs) to permit complete-event discharge hydrographs to be developed. The method was tested by installing 11 CSA gaging sites within three sand-bedded ephemeral tributaries to the San Pedro River near Sierra Vista and Fort Huachuca, Arizona. CSA gages were located in reaches with 1) slowly varying flow paths, 2) total channel length at least nine times the channel width, 3) nearly constant cross-widths along the reach, and, 4) accessibility. A single CSA gage required three pressure transducers to be installed along the selected reach, separated by flow-path lengths about five times the channel width. Perforated pipes were driven 1 to 1.5 meters into bed sediments at a downstream angle of 45 degrees. Transducers were set in pipes with sensors located five to 10 centimeters below the channel bed. Channel cross-sections, cutting through each transducer location, were surveyed after installation and after significant flow events. For an independent check of stage/discharge, one gage was installed upstream of a broad-crested weir; this gage was fitted with a staff-plate to allow confirmatory observations. The USGS slope-area-computation program was modified to compute continuous discharge hydrographs, using survey data, stage time series, and estimates of channel roughness. The highest stage measured was 1.3 meters above the bed with an associated peak discharge of 34 cubic meters per second, and with a sustained flow of 28 cubic meters per second for 10 minutes. Runoff and ground-water recharge from flow events will be estimated using

  13. Functional Reconstitution and Channel Activity Measurements of Purified Wildtype and Mutant CFTR Protein

    PubMed Central

    Eckford, Paul D. W.; Li, Canhui; Bear, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a unique channel-forming member of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. The phosphorylation and nucleotide dependent chloride channel activity of CFTR has been frequently studied in whole cell systems and as single channels in excised membrane patches. Many Cystic Fibrosis-causing mutations have been shown to alter this activity. While a small number of purification protocols have been published, a fast reconstitution method that retains channel activity and a suitable method for studying population channel activity in a purified system have been lacking. Here rapid methods are described for purification and functional reconstitution of the full-length CFTR protein into proteoliposomes of defined lipid composition that retains activity as a regulated halide channel. This reconstitution method together with a novel flux-based assay of channel activity is a suitable system for studying the population channel properties of wild type CFTR and the disease-causing mutants F508del- and G551D-CFTR. Specifically, the method has utility in studying the direct effects of phosphorylation, nucleotides and small molecules such as potentiators and inhibitors on CFTR channel activity. The methods are also amenable to the study of other membrane channels/transporters for anionic substrates. PMID:25867140

  14. A Modeling Study of In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts in a Tidal Channel and Bay System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Yang, Z.; Copping, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing in-stream tidal energy in response to concerns of increasing energy demand and to mitigate climate change impacts. While efforts have been made to assess and map available tidal energy resources using numerical models, little attention has been paid directly quantifying the associated potential environmental impacts as part of tidal energy generation. This paper presents the development of a tidal turbine module within a three-dimensional (3-D) unstructured grid coastal ocean model. The model is used to investigate in-stream tidal energy extraction and associated impacts on estuarine hydrodynamic and biological processes in a stratified estuarine system. A series of numerical experiments with varying numbers and configurations of turbines were carried out to assess the changes in the hydrodynamics and biological processes in the tidal channel and bay system due to tidal energy extraction. Model results show the maximum extractable energy depends strongly on the turbine hub height, and that the effects of energy extraction on the flow fields vary vertically. Preliminary model results also indicate that extraction of tidal energy increases vertical mixing and decreases flushing rate in the estuary. As one of the early modeling efforts aimed directly at examining the impacts of tidal energy extraction on estuarine circulation and biological processes, this study demonstrates that numerical models can serve as a very useful tool for this purpose. However, careful efforts are warranted to address system-specific environmental issues in real world, complex estuarine systems.

  15. Voltage-dependent potassium channels in activated rat microglia.

    PubMed Central

    Nörenberg, W; Gebicke-Haerter, P J; Illes, P

    1994-01-01

    equimolar concentration of Cs+, and the extracellular application of tetraethylammonium and quinine inhibited both currents. 7. An increase of extracellular Ca2+ from 2 to 20 mM resulted in outwardly rectifying K+ channels activating at more positive potentials. Omission of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium had the opposite effect. When the intracellular free Ca2+ was increased from 0.01 to 1 microM, the outward current amplitudes were depressed. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 had a similar effect. 8. LPS-treated microglial cells possess inwardly and outwardly rectifying K+ channels. The physiological and pharmacological characteristics of these two channel populations are markedly different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7514664

  16. Glycosylation-dependent activation of epithelial sodium channel by solnatide.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Waheed; Tzotzos, Susan; Bedak, Minela; Aufy, Mohammad; Willam, Anita; Kraihammer, Martin; Holzner, Alexander; Czikora, Istvan; Scherbaum-Hazemi, Parastoo; Fischer, Hendrik; Pietschmann, Helmut; Fischer, Bernhard; Lucas, Rudolf; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    Dysfunction of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), which regulates salt and water homeostasis in epithelia, causes several human pathological conditions, including pulmonary oedema. This is a potentially lethal complication of acute lung injury at least partially caused by dysfunctional alveolar liquid clearance, which in turn impairs alveolar gas exchange. Solnatide (named TIP-peptide, AP301), a 17 residue peptide mimicking the lectin-like domain of TNF has been shown to activate ENaC in several experimental animal models of acute lung injury and is being evaluated as a potential therapy for pulmonary oedema. The peptide has recently completed phase 1 and 2a clinical trials. In this study, we identify a glycosylation-dependent mechanism that preserves ENaC function and expression. Since our previous data suggested that the pore-forming subunits of ENaC are essential for maximal current activation by solnatide, we performed single- and multi-N-glycosylation site mutations in αN232,293,312,397,511Q- and δN166,211,384Q-subunits, in order to identify crucial residues for interaction with solnatide within the extracellular loop of the channel. Additionally, we generated αL576X and αN232,293,312,397,511Q,L576X deletion mutants of ENaC-α, since we have previously demonstrated that the carboxy terminal domain of this subunit is also involved in its interaction with solnatide. In cells expressing αN232,293,312,397,511Q,L576Xβγ-hENaC or δN166,311,384Q,D552Xβγ-hENaC activation by solnatide, as measured in whole cell patch clamp mode, was completely abolished, whereas it was attenuated in αL576Xβγ-hENaC- and δD552Xβγ-hENaC-expressing cells. Taken together, our findings delineate an N-glycan dependent interaction between the TIP-peptide and ENaC leading to normalization of both sodium and fluid absorption in oedematous alveoli to non-oedematous levels.

  17. Effects of N-glycosylation on hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Tonggu, Lige; Tang, Lan; Wang, Liguo

    2015-02-15

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are activated by membrane hyperpolarization and conduct an inward cation current, which contributes to rhythmic electrical activity of neural and cardiac pacemaker cells. HCN channels have been shown to undergo N-linked glycosylation, and the N-glycosylation has been shown to be required for membrane trafficking and possibly function. In this study, recombinant wild-type (WT) and glycosylation-defective N380Q HCN2 channels were individually or co-expressed in HEK-293 cells. We demonstrate that glycosylation is required for trafficking to the plasma membrane and for the stability of HCN channels in the cell. Interestingly, the heteromeric HCN2 channels of WT and glycosylation-defective N380Q have been observed on cell membranes, indicating that not all four subunits of a tetrameric HCN2 channel need to be glycosylated for HCN2 channels to traffic to plasma membranes. Subsequently, we investigate the effect of N-glycosylation on the function of HCN2 channels. We developed a fluorescence-based flux assay, which makes it possible to establish a negative potential inside liposomes to open HCN2 channels. Using this flux assay, we demonstrate that glycosylation-defective N380Q HCN2 channels reconstituted into liposomes function similarly to WT HCN2 channels. This suggests that N-glycosylation is not required for HCN2 channels to function.

  18. A Leucine Zipper Motif Essential for Gating of Hyperpolarization-activated Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Wemhöner, Konstantin; Silbernagel, Nicole; Marzian, Stefanie; Netter, Michael F.; Rinné, Susanne; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Decher, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are pacemakers in cardiac myocytes and neurons. Although their membrane topology closely resembles that of voltage-gated K+ channels, the mechanism of their unique gating behavior in response to hyperpolarization is still poorly understood. We have identified a highly conserved leucine zipper motif in the S5 segment of HCN family members. In order to study the role of this motif for channel function, the leucine residues of the zipper were individually mutated to alanine, arginine, or glutamine residues. Leucine zipper mutants traffic to the plasma membrane, but the channels lose their sensitivity to open upon hyperpolarization. Thus, our data indicate that the leucine zipper is an important molecular determinant for hyperpolarization-activated channel gating. Residues of the leucine zipper interact with the adjacent S6 segment of the channel. This interaction is essential for voltage-dependent gating of the channel. The lower part of the leucine zipper, at the intracellular mouth of the channel, is important for stabilizing the closed state. Mutations at these sites increase current amplitudes or result in channels with deficient closing and increased min-Po. Our data are further supported by homology models of the open and closed state of the HCN2 channel pore. Thus, we conclude that the leucine zipper of HCN channels is a major determinant for hyperpolarization-activated channel gating. PMID:23048023

  19. Activation and deactivation of vibronic channels in intact phycocyanin rods.

    PubMed

    Nganou, C; David, L; Meinke, R; Adir, N; Maultzsch, J; Mkandawire, M; Pouhè, D; Thomsen, C

    2014-02-28

    We investigated the excitation modes of the light-harvesting protein phycocyanin (PC) from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus in the crystalline state using UV and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the absence of a hydrogen out-of-plane wagging (HOOP) mode in the PC trimer, which suggests that the HOOP mode is activated in the intact PC rod, while it is not active in the PC trimer. Furthermore, in the PC trimer an intense mode at 984 cm(-1) is assigned to the C-C stretching vibration while the mode at 454 cm(-1) is likely due to ethyl group torsion. In contrast, in the similar chromophore phytochromobilin the C5,10,15-D wag mode at 622 cm(-1) does not come from a downshift of the HOOP. Additionally, the absence of modes between 1200 and 1300 cm(-1) rules out functional monomerization. A correlation between phycocyanobilin (PCB) and phycoerythrobilin (PEB) suggests that the PCB cofactors of the PC trimer appear in a conformation similar to that of PEB. The conformation of the PC rod is consistent with that of the allophycocyanin (APC) trimer, and thus excitonic flow is facilitated between these two independent light-harvesting compounds. This excitonic flow from the PC rod to APC appears to be modulated by the vibration channels during HOOP wagging, C = C stretching, and the N-H rocking in-plan vibration.

  20. Activation and deactivation of vibronic channels in intact phycocyanin rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nganou, C.; David, L.; Meinke, R.; Adir, N.; Maultzsch, J.; Mkandawire, M.; Pouhè, D.; Thomsen, C.

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the excitation modes of the light-harvesting protein phycocyanin (PC) from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus in the crystalline state using UV and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the absence of a hydrogen out-of-plane wagging (HOOP) mode in the PC trimer, which suggests that the HOOP mode is activated in the intact PC rod, while it is not active in the PC trimer. Furthermore, in the PC trimer an intense mode at 984 cm-1 is assigned to the C-C stretching vibration while the mode at 454 cm-1 is likely due to ethyl group torsion. In contrast, in the similar chromophore phytochromobilin the C5,10,15-D wag mode at 622 cm-1 does not come from a downshift of the HOOP. Additionally, the absence of modes between 1200 and 1300 cm-1 rules out functional monomerization. A correlation between phycocyanobilin (PCB) and phycoerythrobilin (PEB) suggests that the PCB cofactors of the PC trimer appear in a conformation similar to that of PEB. The conformation of the PC rod is consistent with that of the allophycocyanin (APC) trimer, and thus excitonic flow is facilitated between these two independent light-harvesting compounds. This excitonic flow from the PC rod to APC appears to be modulated by the vibration channels during HOOP wagging, C = C stretching, and the N-H rocking in-plan vibration.

  1. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neuronal Activity via Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lei Ray; Estes, Stephen; Artinian, Liana; Rehder, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an unconventional membrane-permeable messenger molecule that has been shown to play various roles in the nervous system. How NO modulates ion channels to affect neuronal functions is not well understood. In gastropods, NO has been implicated in regulating the feeding motor program. The buccal motoneuron, B19, of the freshwater pond snail Helisoma trivolvis is active during the hyper-retraction phase of the feeding motor program and is located in the vicinity of NO-producing neurons in the buccal ganglion. Here, we asked whether B19 neurons might serve as direct targets of NO signaling. Previous work established NO as a key regulator of growth cone motility and neuronal excitability in another buccal neuron involved in feeding, the B5 neuron. This raised the question whether NO might modulate the electrical activity and neuronal excitability of B19 neurons as well, and if so whether NO acted on the same or a different set of ion channels in both neurons. To study specific responses of NO on B19 neurons and to eliminate indirect effects contributed by other cells, the majority of experiments were performed on single cultured B19 neurons. Addition of NO donors caused a prolonged depolarization of the membrane potential and an increase in neuronal excitability. The effects of NO could mainly be attributed to the inhibition of two types of calcium-activated potassium channels, apamin-sensitive and iberiotoxin-sensitive potassium channels. NO was found to also cause a depolarization in B19 neurons in situ, but only after NO synthase activity in buccal ganglia had been blocked. The results suggest that NO acts as a critical modulator of neuronal excitability in B19 neurons, and that calcium-activated potassium channels may serve as a common target of NO in neurons. PMID:24236040

  2. Temperature and substrate chemistry as major drivers of interregional variability of leaf microbial decomposition and cellulolytic activity in headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Encarnación; Casas, J Jesús; Díaz-López, Manuel; Rubio, Juan; Guil-Guerrero, J Luís; Moyano-López, Francisco J

    2016-11-01

    Abiotic factors, substrate chemistry and decomposers community composition are primary drivers of leaf litter decomposition. In soil, much of the variation in litter decomposition is explained by climate and substrate chemistry, but with a significant contribution of the specialisation of decomposer communities to degrade specific substrates (home-field advantage, HFA). In streams, however, HFA effects on litter decomposition have not been explicitly tested. We evaluated responses of microbial decomposition and β-glucosidase activity to abiotic factors, substrate and decomposer assemblages, using a reciprocal litter transplant experiment: 'ecosystem type' (mountain vs lowland streams) × 'litter chemistry' (alder vs reed). Temperature, pH and ionic concentration were higher in lowland streams. Decomposition for both species was faster in lowland streams. Decomposition of reed was more accelerated in lowland compared with mountain streams than that of alder, suggesting higher temperature sensitivity of decomposition in reed. Q10 (5°C-15°C) values of β-glucosidase activity were over 2. The alkaline pH and high ionic concentration of lowland streams depleted enzyme activity. We found similar relationships of decomposition or enzyme activity with abiotic factors for both species, suggesting limited support to the HFA hypothesis. Overall, our results suggest a prime role of temperature interacting with substrate chemistry on litter decomposition.

  3. Coupling of activation and inactivation gate in a K+-channel: potassium and ligand sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ader, Christian; Schneider, Robert; Hornig, Sönke; Velisetty, Phanindra; Vardanyan, Vitya; Giller, Karin; Ohmert, Iris; Becker, Stefan; Pongs, Olaf; Baldus, Marc

    2009-09-16

    Potassium (K(+))-channel gating is choreographed by a complex interplay between external stimuli, K(+) concentration and lipidic environment. We combined solid-state NMR and electrophysiological experiments on a chimeric KcsA-Kv1.3 channel to delineate K(+), pH and blocker effects on channel structure and function in a membrane setting. Our data show that pH-induced activation is correlated with protonation of glutamate residues at or near the activation gate. Moreover, K(+) and channel blockers distinctly affect the open probability of both the inactivation gate comprising the selectivity filter of the channel and the activation gate. The results indicate that the two gates are coupled and that effects of the permeant K(+) ion on the inactivation gate modulate activation-gate opening. Our data suggest a mechanism for controlling coordinated and sequential opening and closing of activation and inactivation gates in the K(+)-channel pore.

  4. GlialCAM, a CLC-2 Cl(-) channel subunit, activates the slow gate of CLC chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Jeworutzki, Elena; Lagostena, Laura; Elorza-Vidal, Xabier; López-Hernández, Tania; Estévez, Raúl; Pusch, Michael

    2014-09-02

    GlialCAM, a glial cell adhesion molecule mutated in megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts, targets the CLC-2 Cl(-) channel to cell contacts in glia and activates CLC-2 currents in vitro and in vivo. We found that GlialCAM clusters all CLC channels at cell contacts in vitro and thus studied GlialCAM interaction with CLC channels to investigate the mechanism of functional activation. GlialCAM slowed deactivation kinetics of CLC-Ka/barttin channels and increased CLC-0 currents opening the common gate and slowing its deactivation. No functional effect was seen for common gate deficient CLC-0 mutants. Similarly, GlialCAM targets the common gate deficient CLC-2 mutant E211V/H816A to cell contacts, without altering its function. Thus, GlialCAM is able to interact with all CLC channels tested, targeting them to cell junctions and activating them by stabilizing the open configuration of the common gate. These results are important to better understand the physiological role of GlialCAM/CLC-2 interaction.

  5. Effects of streamflows on stream-channel morphology in the eastern Niobrara National Scenic River, Nebraska, 1988–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Alexander, Jason S.; Folz-Donahue, Kiernan

    2016-03-09

    Changes in channel metrics generally corresponded to changes in streamflow conditions, but other than changes in incipient flood-plain area, these changes were small and were not measured in all three segments simultaneously. Increases in total channel width (except in segment 1) and incipient flood-plain area between 1993 and 1999 corresponded to increases in streamflow. Channel narrowing (except in segment 1) between 1999 and 2003 corresponded to lower summer streamflows and extended durations of very low summer streamflow. Although the pattern of low summer streamflow and extended durations of very low summer streamflow continued during the 2004–6 period and at the beginning of the 2007–10 period, no further narrowing was measured. Consistent tributary summer inflows help to explain the resistance of segments 2 and 3 to further narrowing. Because segment 1 is already much narrower than segments 2 and 3, its average current velocity is likely to be swifter and, therefore, competent to offset further effects of the processes that led to its narrowness.

  6. Rock riprap design for protection of stream channels near highway structures; Volume 2, Evaluation of Riprap design procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    In volume 2, seven procedures now being used for design of rock riprap installations were evaluated using data from 26 field sites. Four basic types of riprap failures were identified: Particle erosion, translational slide, modified slump, and slump. Factors associated with riprap failure include stone size , bank side slope, size gradation, thickness, insufficient toe or endwall, failure of the bank material, overtopping during floods, and geomorphic changes in the channel. A review of field data and the design procedures suggests that estimates of hydraulic forces acting on the boundary based on flow velocity rather than shear stress are more reliable. Several adjustments for local conditions, such as channel curvature, superelevation, or boundary roughness, may be unwarranted in view of the difficulty in estimating critical hydraulic forces for which the riprap is to be designed. Success of the riprap is related not only to the appropriate procedure for selecting stone size, but also to the reliability of estimated hydraulic and channel factors applicable to the site. (See also W89-04910) (Author 's abstract)

  7. Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels and transient receptor potential channels activate pathological hypertrophy signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Wang, Fang; Wang, Wei; Makarewich, Catherine A.; Zhang, Hongyu; Kubo, Hajime; Berretta, Remus M.; Barr, Larry A.; Molkentin, Jeffrey D.; Houser, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Common cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and myocardial infarction require that myocytes develop greater than normal force to maintain cardiac pump function. This requires increases in [Ca2+]. These diseases induce cardiac hypertrophy and increases in [Ca2+] are known to be an essential proximal signal for activation of hypertrophic genes. However, the source of “hypertrophic” [Ca2+] is not known and is the topic of this study. The role of Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCC), T-type Ca2+ channels (TTCC) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels on the activation of Calcineurin (Cn) – Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) signaling and myocyte hypertrophy was studied. Neonatal rat (NRVMs) and adult feline (AFVM) ventricular myocytes were infected with an adenovirus containing NFAT-GFP, to determine factors that could induce NFAT nuclear translocation. Four millimolar Ca2+ or pacing induced NFAT nuclear translocation. This effect was blocked by Cn inhibitors. In NRVMs Nifedipine (Nif, LTCC antagonist) blocked high Ca2+-induced NFAT nuclear translocation while SKF-96365 (TRP channel antagonist) and Nickel (Ni, TTCC antagonist) were less effective. The relative potency of these antagonists against Ca2+ induced NFAT nuclear translocation (Nif>SKF-96365>Ni) was similar to their effects on Ca2+ transients and the LTCC current. Infection of NRVM with viruses containing TRP channels also activated NFAT-GFP nuclear translocation and caused myocyte hypertrophy. TRP effects were reduced by SKF-96365, but were more effectively antagonized by Nif. These experiments suggest that Ca2+ influx through LTCCs is the primary source of Ca2+ to activate Cn-NFAT signaling in NRVMs and AFVMs. While TRP channels cause hypertrophy, they appear to do so through a mechanism involving Ca2+ entry via LTCCs. PMID:22921230

  8. Chloride Channel 3 Channels in the Activation and Migration of Human Blood Eosinophils in Allergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is responsible for respiratory burst in immune cells. Chloride channel 3 (CLC3) has been linked to the respiratory burst in eosinophils and neutrophils. The effect of cytokines and the involvement of CLC3 in the regulation of NADPH-dependent oxidative stress and on cytokine-mediated migration of eosinophils are not known. Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated from healthy individuals and from individuals with asthma by negative selection. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of NADPH oxidases in eosinophils. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement was done with flow cytometry. Superoxide generation was measured with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, eotaxin, and CLC3 blockers. CLC3 dependence of eosinophils in TGF-β- and eotaxin-induced migration was also examined. The messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, dual oxidase (DUOX) 1, and DUOX2 were detected in blood eosinophils, with very low expression of NOX1, NOX3, and NOX5 and no NOX4 mRNA. The level of NOX2 mRNA transcripts increased with disease severity in the eosinophils of subjects with asthma compared with healthy nonatopic volunteers. Change in granularity and size in eosinophils, but no change in intracellular ROS, was observed with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). PMA, TGF-β, and eotaxin used the CLC3-dependent pathway to increase superoxide radicals. TGF-β and eotaxin induced CLC3-dependent chemotaxis of eosinophils. These findings support the requirement of CLC3 in the activation and migration of human blood eosinophils and may provide a potential novel therapeutic target to regulate eosinophil hyperactivity in allergic airway inflammation in asthma.

  9. Storms, channel changes, and a sediment budget for an urban-suburban stream, Difficult Run, Virginia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellis, A. C.; Myers, M. K.; Noe, G. B.; Hupp, C. R.; Schenk, E. R.; Myers, L.

    2017-02-01

    Determining erosion and deposition rates in urban-suburban settings and how these processes are affected by large storms is important to understanding geomorphic processes in these landscapes. Sediment yields in the suburban and urban Upper Difficult Run are among the highest ever recorded in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, ranging from 161 to 376 Mg/km2/y. Erosion and deposition of streambanks, channel bed, and bars and deposition of floodplains were monitored between 1 March 2010 and 18 January 2013 in Upper Difficult Run, Virginia, USA. We documented the effects of two large storms, Tropical Storm Lee (September 2011), a 100-year event, and Super Storm Sandy (October 2012) a 5-year event, on channel erosion and deposition. Variability in erosion and deposition rates for all geomorphic features, temporally and spatially, are important conclusions of this study. Tropical Storm Lee was an erosive event, where erosion occurred on 82% of all streambanks and where 88% of streambanks that were aggrading before Tropical Storm Lee became erosional. Statistical analysis indicated that drainage area explains linear changes (cm/y) in eroding streambanks and that channel top width explains cross-sectional area changes (cm2/y) in eroding streambanks and floodplain deposition (mm/y). A quasi-sediment budget constructed for the study period using the streambanks, channel bed, channel bars, and floodplain measurements underestimated the measured suspended-sediment load by 61% (2130 Mg/y). Underestimation of the sediment load may be caused by measurement errors and to contributions from upland sediment sources, which were not measured but estimated at 36% of the gross input of sediment. Eroding streambanks contributed 42% of the gross input of sediment and accounted for 70% of the measured suspended-sediment load. Similar to other urban watersheds, the large percentage of impervious area in Difficult Run and direct runoff of precipitation leads to increased streamflow and

  10. Storms, channel changes, and a sediment budget for an urban-suburban stream, Difficult Run, Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, Allen; Myers, Michael; Noe, Gregory; Hupp, Cliff R.; Shenk, Edward; Myers, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Determining erosion and deposition rates in urban-suburban settings and how these processes are affected by large storms is important to understanding geomorphic processes in these landscapes. Sediment yields in the suburban and urban Upper Difficult Run are among the highest ever recorded in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, ranging from 161 to 376 Mg/km2/y. Erosion and deposition of streambanks, channel bed, and bars and deposition of floodplains were monitored between 1 March 2010 and 18 January 2013 in Upper Difficult Run, Virginia, USA. We documented the effects of two large storms, Tropical Storm Lee (September 2011), a 100-year event, and Super Storm Sandy (October 2012) a 5-year event, on channel erosion and deposition. Variability in erosion and deposition rates for all geomorphic features, temporally and spatially, are important conclusions of this study. Tropical Storm Lee was an erosive event, where erosion occurred on 82% of all streambanks and where 88% of streambanks that were aggrading before Tropical Storm Lee became erosional. Statistical analysis indicated that drainage area explains linear changes (cm/y) in eroding streambanks and that channel top width explains cross-sectional area changes (cm2/y) in eroding streambanks and floodplain deposition (mm/y). A quasi-sediment budget constructed for the study period using the streambanks, channel bed, channel bars, and floodplain measurements underestimated the measured suspended-sediment load by 61% (2130 Mg/y). Underestimation of the sediment load may be caused by measurement errors and to contributions from upland sediment sources, which were not measured but estimated at 36% of the gross input of sediment. Eroding streambanks contributed 42% of the gross input of sediment and accounted for 70% of the measured suspended-sediment load. Similar to other urban watersheds, the large percentage of impervious area in Difficult Run and direct runoff of precipitation leads to increased streamflow and

  11. Mutating three residues in the bovine rod cyclic nucleotide-activated channel can switch a nucleotide from inactive to active.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, S P; Cummings, J; Joe, J C; Tanaka, J C

    2000-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, which were initially studied in retina and olfactory neurons, are activated by cytoplasmic cGMP or cAMP. Detailed comparisons of nucleotide-activated currents using nucleotide analogs and mutagenesis revealed channel-specific residues in the nucleotide-binding domain that regulate the binding and channel-activation properties. Of particular interest are N(1)-oxide cAMP, which does not activate bovine rod channels, and Rp-cGMPS, which activates bovine rod, but not catfish, olfactory channels. Previously, we showed that four residues coordinate the purine interactions in the binding domain and that three of these residues vary in the alpha subunits of the bovine rod, catfish, and rat olfactory channels. Here we show that both N(1)-oxide cAMP and Rp-cGMPS activate rat olfactory channels. A mutant of the bovine rod alpha subunit, substituted with residues from the rat olfactory channel at the three variable positions, was weakly activated by N(1)-oxide cAMP, and a catfish olfactory-like bovine rod mutant lost activation by Rp-cGMPS. These experiments underscore the functional importance of purine contacts with three residues in the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. Molecular models of nucleotide analogs in the binding domains, constructed with AMMP, showed differences in the purine contacts among the channels that might account for activation differences. PMID:10777730

  12. Selectivity filter gating in large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jill; Begenisich, Ted

    2012-03-01

    Membrane voltage controls the passage of ions through voltage-gated K (K(v)) channels, and many studies have demonstrated that this is accomplished by a physical gate located at the cytoplasmic end of the pore. Critical to this determination were the findings that quaternary ammonium ions and certain peptides have access to their internal pore-blocking sites only when the channel gates are open, and that large blocking ions interfere with channel closing. Although an intracellular location for the physical gate of K(v) channels is well established, it is not clear if such a cytoplasmic gate exists in all K(+) channels. Some studies on large-conductance, voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels suggest a cytoplasmic location for the gate, but other findings question this conclusion and, instead, support the concept that BK channels are gated by the pore selectivity filter. If the BK channel is gated by the selectivity filter, the interactions between the blocking ions and channel gating should be influenced by the permeant ion. Thus, we tested tetrabutyl ammonium (TBA) and the Shaker "ball" peptide (BP) on BK channels with either K(+) or Rb(+) as the permeant ion. When tested in K(+) solutions, both TBA and the BP acted as open-channel blockers of BK channels, and the BP interfered with channel closing. In contrast, when Rb(+) replaced K(+) as the permeant ion, TBA and the BP blocked both closed and open BK channels, and the BP no longer interfered with channel closing. We also tested the cytoplasmically gated Shaker K channels and found the opposite behavior: the interactions of TBA and the BP with these K(v) channels were independent of the permeant ion. Our results add significantly to the evidence against a cytoplasmic gate in BK channels and represent a positive test for selectivity filter gating.

  13. Selectivity filter gating in large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Membrane voltage controls the passage of ions through voltage-gated K (Kv) channels, and many studies have demonstrated that this is accomplished by a physical gate located at the cytoplasmic end of the pore. Critical to this determination were the findings that quaternary ammonium ions and certain peptides have access to their internal pore-blocking sites only when the channel gates are open, and that large blocking ions interfere with channel closing. Although an intracellular location for the physical gate of Kv channels is well established, it is not clear if such a cytoplasmic gate exists in all K+ channels. Some studies on large-conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels suggest a cytoplasmic location for the gate, but other findings question this conclusion and, instead, support the concept that BK channels are gated by the pore selectivity filter. If the BK channel is gated by the selectivity filter, the interactions between the blocking ions and channel gating should be influenced by the permeant ion. Thus, we tested tetrabutyl ammonium (TBA) and the Shaker “ball” peptide (BP) on BK channels with either K+ or Rb+ as the permeant ion. When tested in K+ solutions, both TBA and the BP acted as open-channel blockers of BK channels, and the BP interfered with channel closing. In contrast, when Rb+ replaced K+ as the permeant ion, TBA and the BP blocked both closed and open BK channels, and the BP no longer interfered with channel closing. We also tested the cytoplasmically gated Shaker K channels and found the opposite behavior: the interactions of TBA and the BP with these Kv channels were independent of the permeant ion. Our results add significantly to the evidence against a cytoplasmic gate in BK channels and represent a positive test for selectivity filter gating. PMID:22371364

  14. Urban Stream Ecology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban watersheds characteristically have high impervious surface cover, resulting in high surface runoff and low infiltration following storms. In response, urban streams experience “flashy” stormflows, reduced baseflows, bank erosion, channel widening, and sedimentation. Urban ...

  15. Spatial analysis of Budovar stream catchment (Srem Loess Plateau, Serbia) in a tectonically active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Mladjen; Rvovic, Ivan; Sorak, Rada; Petrovic, Milos

    2016-04-01

    Budovar is the far longest stream on Srem Loess Plateau, with a length of a 52 km, and catchment area of 245 km2. Budovar stream drains a quite complex landscape in terms of generally flat loess plateau, with elevations decreasing gradually southeastward - from 213 m at slopes of Fru\\vska Gora Mountain to 70,9 m at the confluence with Danube river. The youngest (Pleistocene/Holocene) sedimentary formations in the catchment vary from slope loess on Fru\\vska Gora Mtn. in upper part, through typical plateau loess in middle part, and the finest bog-sediments in tectonic depressions in lower part. These deposits lie over the bog-lake-terrestrial sediments with thickness over 100 m. According the geodetic measurements, uplift of Fru\\vska Gora Mtn., which has been the strongest during the Middle Pleistocene, is still present, with rates of up to 1 mm/y in contrast of general uplift of the area, subsidence is recorded in two distinct parts of the catchment. Spatial analysis is done using a DEM, generated in ArcGIS 10.0 from the elevation points, 10 m contours and stream coverage available in 1:25.000 topographical maps. Both longitudinal and cross-section profiles of the valley reflect the influence of tectonic distortions and climatic fluctuations. Valleys in Budovar catchment have composite character - the valleys cross-sections vary from deep incised V-shape, reversed trapezoid shape and completely flat valleys in tectonic depressions. Moreover, there is almost no correlation between the shape of cross-sectional profiles and the direction of curvature of the main valley's long axis (left/right or straight), suggesting that the tectonic activity has the key role in shaping. The width of valleys in Budovar catchment area is in sharp contrast with present stream discharge, which suggests strong climate fluctuations since Upper Pleistocene. The longitudinal profiles also shows signs of kickpoints and some short reaches with increasing elevation in the flow direction. Key

  16. Effects of Active Subsidence Vs. Existing Basin Geometry on Fluviodeltaic Channels and Stratal Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, M.; Kim, W.; Passalacqua, P.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence and basin topography, both determining the accommodation, are fundamental controls on the basin filling processes. Their effects on the fluvial organization and the resultant subsurface patterns remain difficult to predict due to the lack of understanding about interaction between internal dynamics and external controls. Despite the intensive studies on tectonic steering effects on alluvial architecture, how the self-organization of deltaic channels, especially the distributary channel network, respond to tectonics and basin geometry is mostly unknown. Recently physical experiments and field studies have hinted dramatic differences in fluviodeltaic evolution between ones associated with active differential subsidence and existing basin depth. In this work we designed a series of numerical experiments using a reduced-complexity channel-resolving model for delta formation, and tested over a range of localized subsidence rates and topographic depression in basin geometry. We also used a set of robust delta metrics to analyze: i) shoreline planform asymmetry, ii) channel and lobe geometry, iii) channel network pattern, iv) autogenic timescales, and v) subsurface structure. The modeling results show that given a similar final thickness, active subsidence enhances channel branching with smaller channel sand bodies that are both laterally and vertically connected, whereas existing topographic depression causes more large-scale channel avulsions with larger channel sand bodies. In general, both subsidence and existing basin geometry could steer channels and/or lock channels in place but develop distinct channel patterns and thus stratal architecture.

  17. Glacially-megalineated limestone terrain of Anticosti Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada; onset zone of the Laurentian Channel Ice Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nick; Putkinen, Niko

    2014-03-01

    postulated Laurentian Channel Ice Stream (LCIS) within the Gulf of St. Lawrence sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  18. Voltage-induced slow activation and deactivation of mechanosensitive channels in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Silberberg, S D; Magleby, K L

    1997-01-01

    1. The relationship between stretch and voltage activation of mechanosensitive (MS) channels from Xenopus oocytes was studied in excised patches of membrane using the patch clamp technique. 2. As is characteristic of MS channels to oocytes, stretching the membrane by applying negative pressure to the patch pipette at -50 mV activated the MS channels rapidly. The channels then deactivated rapidly when the stretch was removed. The stretch-activated MS channels entered a main conductance level (45 pS) and one or more subconductance levels in the range of about 75-90% of the main conductance level. 3. In the absence of stretch, a depolarizing step from -50 to +50 mV activated apparent MS channels after long delays of typically 1-20 s (range, 100 ms to 6 min). Upon repolarization, the channels deactivated slowly with a single exponential (mean time constant of 4 s) or double exponential (mean time constants of 0.8 and 3 s) time course. 4. Delayed activation with depolarization and slow deactivation upon repolarization were also observed for apparent MS channels in on-cell patches. 5. The voltage-activated channels were cation selective and had the same selectivity and conductance levels as the stretch activated MS channels. Applying stretch during voltage-induced channel activity did not activate any additional channels, and the same maximal number of channels were typically activated by either stretch or by voltage. These observations suggest that voltage activates the same MS channels that are activated by stretch. 6. The opening of MS channels following steps to +50 mV occurred in an apparently co-operative manner in 70% of the excised patches containing multiple MS channels. 7. In the absence of stretch, the opening frequency and open probability of MS channels increased with depolarization in the examined voltage range of -60 to -20 mV. 8. Applying a brief stretch during the delay to activation at +50 mV activated the MS channels rapidly, which then remained active

  19. Function and regulation of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Lubo

    2012-09-01

    Large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels are abundantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. Activation of BK(Ca) channels leads to hyperpolarization of cell membrane, which in turn counteracts vasoconstriction. Therefore, BK(Ca) channels have an important role in regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. The activity of BK(Ca) channels is subject to modulation by various factors. Furthermore, the function of BK(Ca) channels are altered in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as pregnancy, hypertension and diabetes, which has dramatic impacts on vascular tone and hemodynamics. Consequently, compounds and genetic manipulation that alter activity and expression of the channel might be of therapeutic interest.

  20. Relationship Between Watershed Land Use and Denitrification Enzyme Activity in Headwater Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams are the dominant land-water interface across much of the landscape. Denitrification is an important ecological service provided by headwater streams. Anthropogenic inputs of N to terrestrial ecosystems largely result from agricultural practices. Animal agricultu...

  1. HOW MUCH OF STREAM HABITAT IS PREDETERMINED BY NATURAL GEOMORPHIC CONTROLS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed pre- and post-disturbance research has demonstrated the ability of human activities to alter stream channel characteristics, including the amounts of deep pool habitat and fine substrate. However, it is often difficult to demonstrate consistent associations between the...

  2. Effects of Land-Cover Change, Floods, and Stream Position on Geomorphic Processes - Implications for Restoration Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, F.A.; ,

    2001-01-01

    A geomorphic study for North Fish Creek, a northern Wisconsin tributary to Lake Superior was analyzed to determine the hydrologic and geomorphic changes caused by clear-cut logging and agricultural activity. Discharge magnitude estimated with HEC-2 for full-channel capacities indicate that modern full-channel discharges are about twice as large as pre-1946 full-channel discharges. Flood-plain deposition rates were high along the transitional main stem after European settlement. Restoration and protection activities would be most effective if focused on watershed practices to reduce runoff and on channel restoration that reduce buff and bank erosion in the upper and transitional main stems.

  3. Src tyrosine kinase alters gating of hyperpolarization-activated HCN4 pacemaker channel through Tyr531.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Hong; Zhang, Qi; Teng, Bunyen; Mustafa, S Jamal; Huang, Jian-Ying; Yu, Han-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We recently discovered that the constitutively active Src tyrosine kinase can enhance hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) 4 channel activity by binding to the channel protein. To investigate the mechanism of modulation by Src of HCN channels, we studied the effects of a selective inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2), on HCN4 and its mutant channels expressed in HEK 293 cells by using a whole cell patch-clamp technique. We found that PP2 can inhibit HCN4 currents by negatively shifting the voltage dependence of channel activation, decreasing the whole cell channel conductance, and slowing activation and deactivation kinetics. Screening putative tyrosine residues subject to phosphorylation yielded two candidates: Tyr(531) and Tyr(554). Substituting HCN4-Tyr(531) with phenylalanine largely abolished the effects of PP2 on HCN4 channels. Replacing HCN4-Tyr(554) with phenylalanine did not abolish the effects of PP2 on voltage-dependent activation but did eliminate PP2-induced slowing of channel kinetics. The inhibitory effects of HCN channels associated with reduced Src tyrosine activity is confirmed in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Finally, we found that PP2 can decrease the heart rate in a mouse model. These results demonstrate that Src tyrosine kinase enhances HCN4 currents by shifting their activation to more positive potentials and increasing the whole cell channel conductance as well as speeding the channel kinetics. The tyrosine residue that mediates most of Src's actions on HCN4 channels is Tyr(531).

  4. Comparison of Stream Restoration and Vegetation Restoration on Stream Temperature in the Middle Fork John Day River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diabat, M.; Wondzell, S. M.; Haggerty, R.

    2013-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important component of aquatic ecosystems. During the past century, various anthropogenic activities (such as timber harvest, mining, and agriculture) reduced riparian vegetation and channel complexity along many streams around the world. As a result, stream temperature increased and suitable habitat for cool- and cold-water organisms declined. Stream temperatures are expected to increase even more under future climate. The effects of warmer climate and anthropogenic activities are proposed to be mitigated by restoration projects aimed to reduce stream temperatures. Common restoration practices are replanting natural vegetation along stream banks and restoring channel complexity. The Middle Fork John Day River, in northeastern Oregon, USA is an example of such a process. We modeled stream temperature along a 37-km section of the Middle Fork John Day River for current and projected conditions of climate, restored riparian vegetation along 6.6-km, and restored channel meanders along 1.5 km. Preliminary simulations suggest that if current riparian vegetation remains unchanged, an average summertime air warming of 4°C increased the 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) by about 1.3°C. However, restored riparian vegetation reduced the 7DADM by about 0.7°C relative to the current temperature. Restored channel meanders reduced the 7DADM by less than 0.05°C relative to the current temperature. These preliminary simulations assume no hyporheic exchange and riparian vegetation that is 10 m tall and has 30% canopy density.

  5. Hysteresis of KcsA potassium channel's activation- deactivation gating is caused by structural changes at the channel's selectivity filter.

    PubMed

    Tilegenova, Cholpon; Cortes, D Marien; Cuello, Luis G

    2017-03-21

    Mode-shift or hysteresis has been reported in ion channels. Voltage-shift for gating currents is well documented for voltage-gated cation channels (VGCC), and it is considered a voltage-sensing domain's (VSD) intrinsic property. However, uncoupling the Shaker K(+) channel's pore domain (PD) from the VSD prevented the mode-shift of the gating currents. Consequently, it was proposed that an open-state stabilization of the PD imposes a mechanical load on the VSD, which causes its mode-shift. Furthermore, the mode-shift displayed by hyperpolarization-gated cation channels is likely caused by structural changes at the channel's PD similar to those underlying C-type inactivation. To demonstrate that the PD of VGCC undergoes hysteresis, it is imperative to study its gating process in the absence of the VSD. A back-door strategy is to use KcsA (a K(+) channel from the bacteria Streptomyces lividans) as a surrogate because it lacks a VSD and exhibits an activation coupled to C-type inactivation. By directly measuring KcsA's activation gate opening and closing in conditions that promote or halt C-type inactivation, we have found (i) that KcsA undergoes mode-shift of gating when having K(+) as the permeant ion; (ii) that Cs(+) or Rb(+), known to halt C-inactivation, prevented mode-shift of gating; and (iii) that, in the total absence of C-type inactivation, KcsA's mode-shift was prevented. Finally, our results demonstrate that an allosteric communication causes KcsA's activation gate to "remember" the conformation of the selectivity filter, and hence KcsA requires a different amount of energy for opening than for closing.

  6. A large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Koszela-Piotrowska, Izabela; Matkovic, Karolina; Szewczyk, Adam; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2009-11-11

    In the present study, we describe the existence of a novel potassium channel in the plant [potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber] mitochondrial inner membrane. We found that substances known to modulate large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity influenced the bioenergetics of potato tuber mitochondria. In isolated mitochondria, Ca2+ and NS1619 {1,3-dihydro-1-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-ben-zimidazole-2-one; a potassium channel opener} were found to depolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential and to stimulate resting respiration. These effects were blocked by iberiotoxin (a potassium channel inhibitor) in a potassium-dependent manner. Additionally, the electrophysiological properties of the large-conductance potassium channel present in the potato tuber inner mitochondrial membrane are described in a reconstituted system, using planar lipid bilayers. After incorporation in 50/450 mM KCl gradient solutions, we recorded large-conductance potassium channel activity with conductance from 502+/-15 to 615+/-12 pS. The probability of channel opening was increased by Ca2+ and reduced by iberiotoxin. Immunological analysis with antibodies raised against the mammalian plasma-membrane large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channel identified a pore-forming alpha subunit and an auxiliary beta2 subunit of the channel in potato tuber mitochondrial inner membrane. These results suggest that a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel similar to that of mammalian mitochondria is present in potato tuber mitochondria.

  7. Activation of olfactory-type cyclic nucleotide-gated channels is highly cooperative

    PubMed Central

    Nache, Vasilica; Schulz, Eckhard; Zimmer, Thomas; Kusch, Jana; Biskup, Christoph; Koopmann, Rolf; Hagen, Volker; Benndorf, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels play a key role in the sensory transduction of vision and olfaction. The channels are opened by the binding of cyclic nucleotides. Native olfactory CNG channels are heterotetramers of CNGA2, CNGA4, and CNGB1b subunits. Upon heterologous expression, only CNGA2 subunits can form functional homotetrameric channels. It is presently not known how the binding of the ligands to the four subunits is translated to channel opening. We studied activation of olfactory CNG channels by photolysis-induced jumps of cGMP or cAMP, two cyclic nucleotides with markedly different apparent affinity. It is shown that at equal degree of activation, the activation time course of homotetrameric channels is similar with cGMP and cAMP and it is also similar in homo- and heterotetrameric channels with the same cyclic nucleotide. Kinetic models were globally fitted to activation time courses of homotetrameric channels. While all models containing equivalent binding sites failed, a model containing three binding sites with a ligand affinity high–low–high described the data adequately. Only the second binding step switches from a very low to a very high open probability. We propose a unique gating mechanism for homotetrameric and heterotetrameric channels that involves only three highly cooperative binding steps. PMID:16081488

  8. Cell membrane stretch activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hayabuchi, Yasunobu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Inoue, Miki; Sakata, Miho; Kagami, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the signal transduction of membrane stretch on intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (IKca) channels in rat aorta smooth muscle cells using the patch-clamp technique. To stretch the cell membrane, both suction to the rear end of patch pipette and hypotonic shock were used. In cell-attached and inside-out patch configurations, the open probability of IKca channels increased when 20- to 45-mmHg suction was applied. Hyposmotic swelling efficiently increased IKca channel current. When the Ca(2+)-free solution was superfused, the activation of IKca current by the hyposmotic swelling was reduced. Furthermore, gadolinium (Gd(3+)) attenuated the activation of IKca channels induced by hyposmotic swelling, whereas nicardipine did not. In the experiments with Ca(2+)-free bath solution, pretreatment with GF109203X, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, completely abolished the stretch-induced activation of IKca currents. The stretch-induced activation of IKca channels was strongly inhibited by cytochalasin D, indicating a role for the F-actin in modulation of IKca channels by changes in cell stretching. These data suggest that cell membrane stretch activates IKca channels. In addition, the activation is associated with extracellular Ca(2+) influx through stretch-activated nonselective cation channels, and is also modulated by the F-actin cytoskeleton and the activation of PKC.

  9. Discontinuous ephemeral streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, William B.

    1997-07-01

    Many ephemeral streams in western North America flowed over smooth valley floors before transformation from shallow discontinuous channels into deep arroyos. These inherently unstable streams of semiarid regions are sensitive to short-term climatic changes, and to human impacts, because hillslopes supply abundant sediment to infrequent large streamflow events. Discontinuous ephemeral streams ap