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Sample records for active strip mines

  1. GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN COAL STRIP MINING: PRELIMINARY DESIGNS FOR ACTIVE MINE SOURCES OF POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three potential pollution source categories have been identified for Western coal strip mines. These sources include mine stockpiles, mine waters, and miscellaneous active mine sources. TEMPO's stepwise monitoring methodology (Todd et al., 1976) is used to develop groundwater qua...

  2. Applicability of satellite remote sensing for detection and monitoring of coal strip mining activities. [Kentucky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L. (Principal Investigator); Parra, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large areas covered by orbital photography allows the user to estimate the acreage of strip mining activity from a few frames. Infrared photography both in color and in black and white transparencies was found to be the best suited for this purpose.

  3. Interactions between properties of amended strip mine spoils and microbial activities

    SciTech Connect

    Utsalo, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of strip mine spoils before and after amendment with varying levels of carbon and nitrogen sources are characterized and compared with properties of similarly amended garden soil samples. Changes in spoils as reflected in the stimulation of microbial populations, rate of nitrate formation, the turnover of microbial biomass and the growth yields of white clover and rye grass are evaluated. Limed spoils and garden soils were fertilized and incubated at 25/sup 0/C following amendments with organic substrates. Changes in parameters related to soil fertility status were analyzed on a weekly basis. The possible identity and the toxic effects on white clover and a Rhizobium of acidity factors present in strip mine spoils were evaluated using soil experiments and pure culture studies in artificial culture media. The results indicate that acid spoils contain low numbers of viable microorganisms which readily respond to soil amendment with substrates. No nitrification occurs in acid spoils but liming and inoculation with compost infusion stimulate active nitrification. Aluminum, manganese and acidity appear to be important factors which inhibit the survival of plants and microbes in spoils. Adequate liming improves rhizobial survival and growth and nodulation of white clover in spoils. Acidity factors have greater impact on Rhizobium than on the white clover host under nutritionally independent conditions. Increase in inoculum size enhances nodulation and growth of clover at low aluminum levels. Reducing the time of exposure of rhizobia to acidity factors outside the symbiotic host does not appear to enhance the growth yield of clover under symbiotic conditions. Molds appear to contribute more to the increased aggregate stability observed in amended soils than bacteria and actinomycetes.

  4. STRIP MINE DRAINAGE--AQUATIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this research program is to demonstrate methodologies for predicting, on the basis of characteristics of the site to be mined, the impact of strip mining on downstream biotic communities. To accomplish this objective and provide data for model verificatio...

  5. ERTS-1 data applied to strip mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two coal basins within the western region of the Potomac River Basin contain the largest strip-mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia. The disturbed strip-mine areas were delineated along with the surrounding geological and vegetation features by using ERTS-1 data in both analog and digital form. The two digital systems employed were (1) the ERTS analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values and (2) the LARS automatic data processing system. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground-verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and to indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  6. Significant applications of ERTS-1 data to resource management activities at the state level in Ohio. [strip mining and land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, D. C.; Pincura, P. G.; Meier, C. J.; Garrett, G. B.; Herd, L.; Wukelic, G. E.; Stephan, J. G.; Smail, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Described are techniques utilized and the progress made in applying ERTS-1 data to (1) detecting, inventorying, and monitoring surface mining activities, particularly in relation to recently passed strip mine legislation in Ohio; (2) updating current land use maps at various scales for multiagency usage, and (3) solving other real-time problems existing throughout the various Ohio governmental agencies. General conclusions regarding current user views as to the opportunities and limitations of operationally using ERTS-1 data at the state level are also noted.

  7. Algal and Bacterial Activities in Acidic (pH 3) Strip Mine Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Gyure, Ruth A.; Konopka, Allan; Brooks, Austin; Doemel, William

    1987-01-01

    Reservoir 29 and Lake B are extremely acid lakes (epilimnion pHs of 2.7 and 3.2, respectively), because they receive acidic discharges from coal refuse piles. They differ in that the pH of profundal sediments in Reservoir 29 increased from 2.7 to 3.8 during the period of thermal stratification, whereas permanently anoxic sediments in Lake B had a pH of 6.2. The pH rise in Reservoir 29 sediments was correlated with a temporal increase in H2S concentration in the anaerobic hypolimnion from 0 to >1 mM. The chlorophyll a levels in the epilimnion of Reservoir 29 were low, and the rate of primary production was typical of an oligotrophic system. However, there was a dense 10-cm layer of algal biomass at the bottom of the metalimnion. Production by this layer was low owing to light limitation and possibly H2S toxicity. The specific photosynthetic rates of epilimnetic algae were low, which suggests that nutrient availability is more important than pH in limiting production. The highest photosynthetic rates were obtained in water samples incubated at pH 2.7 to 4. Heterotrophic bacterial activity (measured by [14C]glucose metabolism) was greatest at the sediment/water interface. Bacterial production (assayed by thymidine incorporation) was as high in Reservoir 29 as in a nonacid mesotrophic Indiana lake. PMID:16347430

  8. COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

  9. Automated strip mine and reclamation mapping from ERTS. [Ohio coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettyjohn, W. A.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    In response to the urgent need for a faster and more economical means of generating strip mine and reclamation maps, a study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of using ERTS computer compatible tape for automatic mapping. The procedure uses computer target spectral recognition techniques as a basis for classification. The area encompassed by this investigation includes five counties in eastern Ohio that comprise nearly 7,500 square kilometers (3,000 square miles). The counties have been disrupted by coal mining since the early 1800's, and strip mining has been practiced in all of them. The environmental effects of strip mining are also discussed.

  10. Hydrologic modeling of reclaimed strip mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, K.B.; Stoertz, M.W.; Turney, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    A numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) of a surface coal mine in southeast Ohio was calibrated under steady state conditions to match measured heads by varying hydraulic conductivity (K) and recharge (R). Sensitivity studies indicated that K was not largely dependent on the poorly quantified underclay elevation or on the lake boundary condition. The baseflow recharge was determined to be between 8 and 60 mm/yr (1 to 6% of annual rainfall) and K between 0.004 and 0.01 cm/s for the spoil aquifer.

  11. ERTS-1 investigation of ecological effects of strip mining in eastern Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, P. E.; Pettyjohn, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Evidence is presented of ERTS capability to detect, map and monitor the effects of strip mining. Both enlarge ERTS imagery and statistically processed outline maps and imagery of stripped earth and standing water are compared to aerial photos of a strip mine near Coshocton, Ohio. The outline maps and decision imagery are at present limited to forming a disruption map of recently mined and unreclaimed earth and the resultant standing water within the mined area. It is planned to prepare a map of the reclaimed areas (reclamation map) within the stripped area and to detect and identify ecological effects such as vegetation kills and stream sedimentation external to the stripped areas.

  12. Performance potential of the coal strip mining in the east of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Cheskidov, V.I.

    2007-07-15

    The potentialities of the leading mining districts in Russia to improve coal production by strip mining are analyzed. The operational issues of the Erunakovskiy (Kuzbass), Kansko-Achinskiy and South Yakutia territorial production complexes are considered.

  13. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  14. Monitoring of environmental effects of coal strip mining from satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Parra, C. G.

    1976-01-01

    This paper evaluates satellite imagery as a means of monitoring coal strip mines and their environmental effects. The satellite imagery employed is Skylab EREP S-190A and S-190B from SL-2, SL-3 and SL-4 missions; a large variety of camera/film/filter combinations has been reviewed. The investigation includes determining the applicability of satellite imagery for detection of disturbed acreage in areas of coal surface mining as well as the much more detailed monitoring of specific surface-mining operations, including: active mines, inactive mines, highwalls, ramp roads, pits, water impoundments and their associated acidity, graded areas and types of grading, and reclamed areas. Techniques have been developed to enable mining personnel to utilize this imagery in a practical and economic manner, requiring no previous photo-interpretation background and no purchases of expensive viewing or data-analysis equipment. To corroborate the photo-interpretation results, on-site observations were made in the very active mining area near Madisonville, Kentucky.

  15. A procedure for predicting concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate ion in streams draining areas strip mined for coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevans, H.E.

    1980-01-01

    Current trends in increased coal production necessitate the development of techniques to appraise the environmental degradation resulting from strip mining. A procedure is introduced for the prediction of dissolved-solids and sulfate-ion concentrations in streams draining strip-mined areas. Concentrations are a function of the percentage of the drainage area that has been strip mined. These relationships are expressed by regression equations computed from data collected in streams draining strip-mined areas of Cherokee and Crawford Counties in southeast Kansas. High correlation coefficients indicate that the relationships may be useful in the evaluation of present or future strip-mining operations. (USGS)

  16. The application of LANDSAT-1 imagery for monitoring strip mines in the new river watershed in northeast Tennessee, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahrokhi, F. (Principal Investigator); Sharber, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT imagery and supplementary aircraft photography of the New River drainage basin were subjected to a multilevel analysis using conventional photointerpretation methods, densitometric techniques, multispectral analysis, and statistical tests to determine the accuracy of LANDSAT-1 imagery for measuring strip mines of common size. The LANDSAT areas were compared with low altitude measurements. The average accuracy over all the mined land sample areas mapped from LANDSAT-1 was 90%. The discrimination of strip mine subcategories is somewhat limited on LANDSAT imagery. A mine site, whether active or inactive, can be inferred by lack of vegetation, by shape, or image texture. Mine ponds are difficult or impossible to detect because of their small size and turbidity. Unless bordered and contrasted with vegetation, haulage roads are impossible to delineate. Preparation plants and refuge areas are not detectable. Density slicing of LANDSAT band 7 proved most useful in the detection of reclamation progress within the mined areas. For most state requirements for year-round monitoring of surface mined land, LANDSAT is of limited value. However, for periodic updating of regional surface maps, LANDSAT may provide sufficient accuracies for some users.

  17. Assessment of practicality of remote sensing techniques for a study of the effects of strip mining in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H.; Dillion, A. C., III; White, J. R., Jr.; Drummond, S. E., Jr.; Hooks, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of the volume of coal produced by strip mining, the proximity of mining operations, and the diversity of mining methods (e.g. contour stripping, area stripping, multiple seam stripping, and augering, as well as underground mining), the Warrior Coal Basin seemed best suited for initial studies on the physical impact of strip mining in Alabama. Two test sites, (Cordova and Searles) representative of the various strip mining techniques and environmental problems, were chosen for intensive studies of the correlation between remote sensing and ground truth data. Efforts were eventually concentrated in the Searles Area, since it is more accessible and offers a better opportunity for study of erosional and depositional processes than the Cordova Area.

  18. Determine utility of ERTS-1 to detect and monitor area strip mining and reclamation. [southeastern Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Pettyjohn, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Computer techniques were applied to process ERTS tapes acquired over coal mining operations in southeastern Ohio on 21 August 1972 and 3 September 1973. ERTS products obtained included geometrically correct map overlays showing stripped earth, partially reclaimed earth, water, and natural vegetation. Computer-generated tables listing the area covered by each land-water category in square kilometers and acres were produced. By comparing these mapping products, the study demonstrates the capability of ERTS to monitor changes in the extent of stripping, success of reclamation, and the secondary effects of mining on the environment.

  19. PRODUCTION OF ARTHROPOD PESTS AND VECTORS IN COAL STRIP MINE PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine what species of medically important arthropods, particularly mosquitoes, are breeding in coal strip mine ponds, to what extent, and whether these breeding sites will serve as a focus of annoyance or a potential outbreak center of arthr...

  20. OVERBURDEN MINERALOGY AS RELATED TO GROUND-WATER CHEMICAL CHANGES IN COAL STRIP MINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research program was initiated to define and develop an inclusive, effective, and economical method for predicting potential ground-water quality changes resulting from the strip mining of coal in the Western United States. To utilize the predictive method, it is necessary to s...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF VEGETATION AND DRAINAGE IN STRIP MINED LAND UTILIZING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research conducted during this project has utilized remote sensing images and data to study surface vegetation identification, vegetation biomass and drainage patterns on coal strip mined land. Study sites were located in Boone, Randolph and Macon counties in central Missouri. Th...

  2. Monitoring strip mining and reclamation with LANDSAT data in Belmont County, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, R. G.; Schaal, G. M.; Bly, B. G.

    1983-01-01

    The utility of LANDSAT digital data for mapping and monitoring surface mines in Belmont County, Ohio was investigated. Two data sets from 1976 and 1979 were processed to classify level 1 land covers and three strip mine categories in order to examine change over time and assess reclamation efforts. The two classifications were compared with aerial photographs. Results of the accuracy assessment show that both classifications are approximately 86 per cent correct, and that surface mine change detection (date-to-date comparison) is facilitated by the digital format of LANDSAT data.

  3. Succession of insects on unreclaimed coal strip mine spoil banks in Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Selected sites at a western Indiana unreclaimed coal strip mine and adjacent undisturbed area sampled by Munsee in 1964 were restudied in 1981. Slope and exposure, soil pH and texture, vegetation and tree tallies, on-site rainfall and local weather records were used to characterize 18 spoilbanks and two unmined sites. Surface-active arthropods were sampled by replicated pitfall taps the summer of 1981 at the same locations and dates trapped by Munsee in 1964. Plant cover was sampled by a modified point-contact method. Trees over one inch dbh were tallied and measured for basal area. Clustering by similarity based on chi-square differences was performed for plants, trees, ants, springtails and ground beetles, using the undisturbed forest and a highly acid un-revegetated mined site as the extremes. Soil pH and texture changed rapidly on one moist spoilbank. Soil moisture levels generally decreased between 1964 and 1981 and depth of water penetration generally increased. Ant, springtail and carabid populations changed on revegetating sites. Myrmica spatulata and Smithistruma clypeata were major new ants on the sites in 1981. Iridomyrmex pruinosus analis and Pheidole bicarinata characteristic of barren spoilbanks in 1964 survived on only one remaining barren site in 1981. The collembolan Entomobrya quadrilineata decreased while Hypogastrura denticulata increased on the revegetating sites. Known habitat preference of some of these insects matched their occurrence on the spoilbanks.

  4. The use of ERTS-1 MSS data for mapping strip mines and acid mine drainage in Pennsyvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Dein, J. L.; Gold, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Digital processing of ERTS-I MSS data for areas around the west branch of the Susquehanna River permits identification of stripped areas including ones that are not discernible from visual analysis of ERTS imagery. Underflight data and ground-based observations are used for ground-truth and as a basis for designing more refined operators to make sub-classifications of stripped areas, particularly with regard to manifestations of acid mine drainage; because of associated diagnostic effects on vegetation, seasonal changes in classifiction criteria are being documented as repeated, cloud-free ERTS-I coverage of the same area becomes available. Preliminary results indicate that ERTS data can be used to moniter not only the total extent of stripping in given areas but also the effectiveness of reclamation and pollution abatement procedures.

  5. Production of arthropod pests and vectors in coal-strip-mine ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, E.

    1982-01-01

    The objective was to determine the species of aquatic arthropod pests, mainly mosquitoes, that were breeding in abandoned coal strip mine ponds, their population densities, and whether these breeding sites would serve as foci for annoyance to surrounding human populations. Nine study ponds were selected in Marion County, Alabama, on the basis of age since formation, with a total of three test ponds in each of three age categories: 1 year old, 5 years old, and 10 years old. These ponds were observed for five successive years; thus, data obtained from surveys depict successional changes in aquatic insect and plant species composition over a period of 14 successive years. Mosquito larvae of four genera including eight species were collected from the strip ponds. Mosquito production was not detected until ponds were at least two years old, and ponds five years old and older were the most productive for mosquitoes. Mosquito production in all ponds was sparse and restricted to narrow vegetated areas along shallow marginal shelves, and the level of mosquito activity was not sufficient to cause severe annoyance to surrounding communities. There was a paucity of insects of medical importance in benthic samples in the nine study ponds; only three genera of public health importance were collected, which consisted of Palpomyia, Chrysops, and Tabanus. Water chemistry of all ponds studied provided very favorable conditions for supporting various fauna and flora. Data obtained during the 5-year study showed no significant change in the pH of the water in the nine study ponds as they increased in age. The dissolved oxygen content of the water in the ponds varied widely with pond age and seasonal changes, ranging from 9.1 to 14.1 ppM.

  6. Arthropod community structure on strip-mined lands in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanek, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978-79, biomass, density, diversity, and taxonomic composition of above-ground, non-acarine arthropods were studied on newly reclaimed areas planted to grass-legumes (1-4 years after reclamation), older mined lands planted to crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) and unmined old field habitat in Harrison County, Ohio. The reclaimed areas were rapidly colonized and productive. In the herbaceous layer, newly reclaimed areas had highest annual arthropod densities (1062.5 individuals/m/sup 2/) and biomass (553.6 mg/m/sup 2/). Larvae of alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica Gyllenhal) were major contributors to arthropod density in the herbaceous layer during spring 1978, accounting for 47.4% and 18.8% of individuals on the areas examined 1 and 3 years after reclamation, respectively. During September, grasshoppers (Acrididae) accounted for up to 70% of arthropod biomass in the herbaceous layer on newly reclaimed areas. A significant decline in arthropod biomass from 1 to 2 years after reclamation was due to a large decrease in weevil and spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius L.) populations, associated with a decline in yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). The crown vetch area supported low numbers and biomass of arthropods in the herbaceous layer but moderate to high numbers and biomass in the litter layer. Nematoceran larvae (Cecidomyiidae, Chironomidae) were abundant during May on the area examined 2 years after reclamation and comprised 73.5% of litter arthropod individuals. The unmined old field was generally richer (48.0% more morphotypes, 32.2% more families per sampling period) than the mined sites. On newly reclaimed areas richness in the herbaceous layer was positively related to biomass of clovers.

  7. Western energy related overhead monitoring project. Phase 2: Summary. [Campbell County, Wyoming and coal strip mines in Montana and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Assistance by NASA to EPA in the establishment and maintenance of a fully operational energy-related monitoring system included: (1) regional analysis applications based on LANDSAT and auxiliary data; (2) development of techniques for using aircraft MSS data to rapidly monitor site specific surface coal mine activities; and (3) registration of aircraft MSS data to a map base. The coal strip mines used in the site specific task were in Campbell County, Wyoming; Big Horn County, Montana; and the Navajo mine in San Juan County, New Mexico. The procedures and software used to accomplish these tasks are described.

  8. Lost Mountain: a year in the vanishing wilderness; radical strip mining and the devastation of Appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, E.

    2007-02-15

    The mountains of Appalachia are home to one of the great forests of the world - they predate the Ice Age and scientists refer to them as the 'rainforests' of North America for their remarkable density and species diversity. These mountains also hold the mother lode of American coal, and the coal mining industry has long been the economic backbone for families in a region hard-pressed for other job opportunities. But recently, a new type of mining has been introduced -'radical strip mining', aka 'mountaintop removal'- in which a team employing no more than ten men and some heavy machinery literally blast off the top of a mountain, dump it in the valley below, and scoop out the coal. Erik Reece chronicles the year he spent witnessing the systematic decimation of a single mountain, aptly named 'Lost Mountain'. A native Kentuckian and the son of a coal worker, Reece makes it clear that strip mining is neither a local concern nor a radical contention, but a mainstream crisis that encompasses every hot-button issue - from corporate hubris and government neglect, to class conflict and poisoned groundwater, to irrevocable species extinction and landscape destruction. Published excerpts of Lost Mountain are already driving headlines and legislative action in Kentucky.

  9. Hydrologic effects of storing liquified sewage sludge on strip-mined land, Fulton County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water table near four sewage storage basins in a strip-mined area of western Illinois, has risen about 10 feet since the basins were constructed in 1971. Two dimensional modeling of ground-water flow in the mine spoil indicates that the rise is caused by leakage from one storage basin. The hydrologic-parameter values producing the best fit between computed and observed head values are 0.000007 feet per second for the hydraulic conductivity of the mine spoil, 0.0000000004 feet per second for recharge from the leaking basin. The model indicates the volume of water leaking from the basin is 91,600 cubic yards per year. The principal components of the sewage sludge after the solids have been removed are alkalinity, nitrogen, phosphorous, and chloride. Components in higher concentrations near the basins were sodium, alkalinity, and chloride. Because the sodium and chloride concentrations in the sludge were too low to cause the higher concentrations in the ground water, the strip-mine spoil used in constructing the basins was considered to be the major source of these constituents. This spoil has been moved from its original location and unweathered surfaces exposed, which allowed dissolution of carbonate and chloride and release of sodium through cation exchange. (USGS)

  10. Wildlife food habits and habitat use on revegetated strip mine land in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Food habits and habitat utilization of wildlife species on revegetated strip mine spoils in interior Alaska were studied from 1980 through 1982. Current reclamation techniques were beneficial for tundra voles, short-eared owls and marsh hawks. Caribou, Dall sheep, red fox, coyote, wolf, arctic ground squirrel, waterfoul, and various raptorial birds derived partial benefit from the reclaimed areas. The seeded grasses functioned as minor items in the diets of herbivores while reclaimed sites served as hunting areas for the various carnivores and raptors. Moose, showshoe hare, red-backed voles, willow ptarmigan and most nongame birds were adversely impacted by the reclaimed areas. Woody vegetation and its associated attributes such as cover and food were the essential habitat component missing from the reclaimed areas. Strip mining and reclamation procedures currently practiced in interior Alaska result in grassland interspersed throughout the natural habitat. The availability of undisturbed habitat adjacent to small sized, seeded areas, has made it possible for wildlife to take advantage of the reclaimed sites and still have sufficient amount of natural food and cover available with which to meet the nutritional and habitat needs of the animal. The detrimental effects of current reclamation procedures increase as the amounts of land disturbed by mining become very large.

  11. Trace elements in Northern Great Plains strip mine and livestock impoundment water

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Hawkes, C.L.

    1984-04-01

    The water from 32 strip mine water impoundments and mine livestock watering ponds in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming were analyzed for trace elements. Because of the high concentrations of trace elements in coal and bentonite clay, the possibility exists for these elements to dissolve or be suspended in the water. Strip mine ponds were not significantly higher in trace element concentrations compared to livestock ponds. All but one of the 41 ponds sampled contained elemental concentrations that would be detrimental for livestock use or aquatic life use. Cadmium and lead were the elements most frequently in excess of water quality criteria. Lead was found in the study ponds about 35 times the median concentration of North American rivers. Manganese concentrations were found to exceed iron in many ponds, which is unusual in natural waters. The potential for detrimental concentrations of trace elements in pond water must be evaluated when designing land use management plans for ponds intended to be used by livestock or aquatic life.

  12. Production of arthropod pests and vectors in coal strip mine ponds. Program report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, E.

    1981-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine what species of medically important arthropods, particularly mosquitoes, are breeding in coal strip mine ponds, to what extent, and whether these breeding sites will serve as a focus of annoyance or a potential outbreak center of arthropod-borne diseases to surrounding communities. Pond age was compared with physical and chemical characteristics of the water and associated vegetation communities. Various sampling techniques were used to determine the composition and density of all life stages of the aquatic insect fauna.

  13. A demonstration of ERTS-1 analog and digital techniques applied to strip mining in Maryland and West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1974-01-01

    The largest contour strip mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia are located within the Georges Creek and the Upper Potomac Basins. These two coal basins lie within the Georges Creek (Wellersburg) syncline. The disturbed strip mine areas were delineated with the surrounding geological and vegetation features using ERTS-1 data in both analog (imagery) and digital form. The two digital systems used were: (1) the ERTS-Analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values, and (2) the LARS Automatic Data Processing System. The digital techniques being developed will later be incorporated into a data base for land use planning. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  14. Hydrologic effects of storing liquified sewage sludge on strip-mined land, Fulton County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, G.L.

    1982-12-01

    The water table near four sewage sludge storage basins in a strip-minned area of western Illinois, has risen about 10 feet since the basins were constructed in 1971. Two-dimensional modeling of groundwater flow in the mine spoil indicates that the rise is caused by leakage from storage basin 1. The principal components of the sewage sludge after the solids have been removed are alkalinity, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chloride. In ground water away from the storage basins, the principal cation was magnesium, whereas in that near the basins, the principal cation was sodium. Components in higher concentrations near the basins were sodium, alkalinity, and chloride. Sulfate was the principal anion in both areas. Because the sodium and chloride concentrations in the sludge were too low to cause the higher concentrations in the ground water, the strip-mine spoil used in constructing the basins was considered to be the major source of these constituents. This spoil had been removed from its original location and unweathered surfaces exposed, which allowed dissolution of carbonate and chloride and release of sodium through cation exchange. 5 references, 11 figures, 10 tables.

  15. Investigation of Japanese fleeceflower (Polygonum cuspidatum) planted on strip mines in Clarion and Venango Counties, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.G.; Sitler, T.R.; Balogh, R.A.; Aharrah, E.C.

    1982-12-01

    Japanese fleeceflower (Polygonum cuspidatum), because of its rapid growth, extensive fibrous root system, and spreading deciduous branches, coupled with its ability to grow vigorously in rocky soils of low pH, is well suited for pioneer revegetation of strip-mine spoil. It has, however, been classified as an undesirable species by the USDA Soil Conservation Service because of its rapidly-spreading nature. During the last decade at Clarion State College, Clarion, Pennsylvania, several areas of study concerning Polygonum cuspidatum have been conducted. The remainder of this paper will elaborate on the following observations: 1) herbaceous grass cover of 5%, and greater, completely-prevented fleeceflower invasion, 2) fleeceflower was successfully underplanted with seedlings of sugar maple, white and gray birch, and 3) fleeceflower cover is shown to provide the best microhabitat for its own seedlings. The fleeceflower in these studies has been overtopped by birch and aspen. Preliminary observations indicate that there is a definite response, possibly adverse, in the growth habits of fleeceflower, due to the increasing shade. It may be possible to demonstrate that fleeceflower can be crowded out, or at least stultified, by overtopping. If this is true, then fleeceflower may be useful as a seral stage, leading to the reforestation of unreproductive, abandoned strip-mine lands.

  16. Low-cost method of reclaiming strip-mined land in Iowa to agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, L.D.; Ririe, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    The paper reports on a loess terrace method for returning Iowa strip mines to crop land as mining progresses. During the 1970s, corn growth and yields were monitored on various thicknesses of loess over leveled acid spoils in Mahaska County, Iowa. The cost of reclaiming mined land to acceptable levels of productivity have been evaluated. When saturated loess was emplaced, the resulting compaction seriously reduced corn yields during the initial years of reclamation. This problem was substantially reduced at an adjacent site by emplacement during a dry season. After compaction had been partially alleviated by growth of sweet-clover, chisle plowing, freeze-thaw, and increase in organic matter, yields were clearly proportional to loess thickness. During years of normal rainfall, yields of approximatley 100 bushels per acre were produced from about 3 1/2 feet of loess cover. Four feet of loess cover produced yields equivalent to the counter average in 1978 (114 bushels/acre) and 1979 (119 bushels/acre). Although the underlying spoils were toxic (pH 3-4), upward migration of acids into the loess was minor, even during drought years. The cost of loess terrace reclamation was evaluatd for 3 to 5 feet of loess cover. Refs.

  17. Remediation of acid mine drainage within strip mine spoil by sulfate reduction using waste organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, J.; Rose, A.W.; Michaud, L.H.

    1996-12-31

    Many treatment options for AMD, like wetlands and anoxic limestone drains, are limited by acidity, metal loadings, flow rate or areal requirements so as to be inapplicable at many sites. In-situ bacterial sulfate reduction is proposed as a solution for certain settings. Requirements for successful in-situ bacterial sulfate reduction include dissolved sulfate, an organic substrate, permanent anaerobic conditions, a mixed culture of bacteria, appropriate nutrients, and a sufficient AMD contact time. These requirements can be provided within mine spoil by injection of waste organic matter into an extensive zone of saturated spoil. Laboratory experiments on cheese whey, lactate, non-degraded sawdust, partially degraded sawdust, pulped newspaper and mushroom compost have all yielded sulfate reduction, increased alkalinity and iron sulfide precipitate in AMD with pH < 4.0. The addition of a small amount of dolomite to the organic matter creates alkaline microenvironments that facilitate the initiation of sulfate reduction. The rates of sulfate reduction using cellulose materials are slow but the rate for milk products is much more rapid. A field test utilizing partially degraded sawdust is underway. A total of 11.3 tons of sawdust mixed with 5% dolomite, 5% sewage sludge and a mixed bacterial culture was successfully injected into 4 drill holes in mine spoil as 13% w/v suspension, The spoil had enough coarse porosity for injection into the saturated subsurface at about 300 L/min, Data on in-situ SO{sub 4} reduction rates and water quality are being collected in preparation for a full remediation program at the site, which has an extensive zone of saturated spoil 10-20 m thick.

  18. A low-cost method of reclaiming strip-mined land in Iowa to agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Lon D.; Ririe, G. Todd

    1981-09-01

    Strippable coal in Iowa is overlain by sulfidebearing black shales capped with glacial till and loess. Weathering of these shales produces acid levels toxic to most plants, which necessitates rapid burial of the spoils. We have designed and tested a loess terrace method for returning Iowa strip mines to crop land as mining progresses. During the 1970s, corn growth and yields were monitored on various thicknesses of bess over leveled acid spoils in Mahaska County, Iowa. We evaluated the costs of reclaiming mined land to acceptable levels of productivity. When saturated loess was emplaced, the resulting compaction seriously reduced corn yields during the initial years of reclamation. This problem was substantially reduced at an adjacent site by emplacement during a dry season. After compaction had been partially alleviated by growth of sweet-clover, chisle plowing, freeze-thaw, and increase in organic matter, yields were clearly proportional to loess thickness. During years of normal rainfall, yields of approximately 100 bushels per acre were produced from about 3 1/2 feet of loess cover. Four feet of loess cover produced yields equivalent to the county average in 1978 (114 bushels/acre) and 1979 (119 bushels/acre). Although the underlying spoils were toxic (pH 3-4), upward migration of acids into the loess was minor, even during drought years. The cost of loess terrace reclamation was evaluated for 3 to 5 feet of loess cover. Assuming an average strippable coal seam thickness of 3 1/2 feet, the reclamation cost would have averaged 6.8% of the FOB price of coal during the 1970s. If the coal were trucked 50 miles to an electric utility, reclamation costs would have averaged 4.9% of the delivered price. Loess terrace reclamation would have increased the price of residential electricity by about 1%.

  19. 36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining activities. 292.47... RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.47 Mining activities. (a) Other Lands. The standards and guidelines of this section apply to mining activities in the Other...

  20. Digital analysis of Potomac River Basin ERTS imagery: Sedimentation levels at the Potomac-Anacostia confluence and strip mining in Allegheny County, Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, J. S.; Macleod, N. H.

    1973-01-01

    Two simple algorithms for classification of sedimentation levels in water and for delineation of active strip mines are in use as part of the development of a more general resource management information system. ERTS MSS CCT's are processed so that each pixel in each channel is geographically referenced and can be accessed individually during whole frame, multi-channel analysis or partial frame analysis. The sedimentation analysis clearly separates classes representing the turbid Anacostia water, the less disturbed Potomac (really), and mud flats resulting from effluent of a major sewage treatment plant. Mud flats of organic or mineral origin are easily distinguished.

  1. Determination of the algal growth-limiting nutrients in strip mine ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Bucknavage, M.J.; Aharrah, E.C.

    1984-12-01

    Using both a test organism, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, and natural phytoplankton, the Printz Algal Assay Bottle Test was used to determine the algal growth limiting nutrients in two strip mine ponds. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron were investigated, singly and in combination, as possible limiting nutrients. A synthetic chelator, Na/sub 2/EDTA, was also used in the assay to test for the presence of metal toxicants and/or trace metal limitation. Because bacteria have a major influence on water chemistry, a separate assay incorporating the natural bacteria population was performed. In both ponds, assay results using test alga indicate phosphorus to be the primary limiting nutrient and nitrogen as a secondary factor. The presence of EDTA in combination with phosphate containing treatment promoted a higher algal concentration in both ponds. Iron was determined to be a secondary limiting nutrient in only one of the ponds. Natural phytoplankton of the two ponds responded in a similar manner to nutrient increases. Only one pond had the same results produced by both assays. Nutrient availability was influenced by the presence of bacteria in one pond but not in the other.

  2. Politics and economics of Senate voting on coal strip-mining policy: inadequacies in the economic theory of regulation. [USA

    SciTech Connect

    Kalt, J.P.; Zupan, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study assesses the nature and relative significance of public=interested objectives in a particular instance of federal economic policy making: US Senate voting on coal strip mining regulations. The existence of such objectives is, of course, no contradiction of the economic view of human behavior. Generally, however, economists have placed little emphasis on individuals' altruistic, publicly-interested goals. This reflects either an implicit judgment that such goals are so empirically unimportant as to allow the use of Occam's razor in positive economic models, or a well-founded apprehension that these goals are exceedingly difficult to identify, measure, and analyze. Notwithstanding the latter problem, we find that approaches which confine themselves to a view of political actors as narrowly egocentric maximizers explain and predict legislative outcomes poorly. The tracking and dissecting of the determinants of voting on coal strip mining policy suggest that the economic theory of politics has been prematurely closed to a broader conception of political behavior. The burden of the evidence we have been able to piece together thus far suggests the need for some broadening in the economic theory of politics. At least in the case of federal coal strip mining policy, however, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that individuals' preferences for altruistic, publicly-interested behavior (dubbed here as ideology) have played a highly significant, if not dominant, causal role.

  3. 36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mining activities. 292.47 Section 292.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.47 Mining activities. (a)...

  4. 36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mining activities. 292.47 Section 292.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.47 Mining activities. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mining activities. 292.47 Section 292.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.47 Mining activities. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mining activities. 292.47 Section 292.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.47 Mining activities. (a)...

  7. RECLAMATION AND WATER RELATIONS OF STRIP MINE SPOILS IN NORTHERN ARIZONA, 1976-1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives and approach of this research project were: (1) to evaluate the properties of coal mine soil, (2) to study the germination of selected plant species in coal mine soil in the greenhouse, (3) to study the growth of selected plant species in coal mine soil on the Blac...

  8. Simplified modeling of phosphorus removal by vegetative filter strips to control runoff pollution from phosphate mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y.-M.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.

    2009-11-01

    SummaryRunoff non-point source pollution from phosphate mining areas poses a potential risk to ecosystems in many parts of the world. Mining sand tailings in Central Florida, which still contain apatite (phosphate rock), have shaped the landscape in reclaimed lands at the upper Peace River basin. The objective of this study is to model the efficiency of vegetative filter strips for controlling surface runoff pollution from phosphate mining sand tailings. The numerical model VFSMOD-W is used to predict overland flow and sediment trapping within the filter and is linked to a simplified phosphorous (P) transport algorithm based on experimental data to predict total P (TP), particulate P (PP) and dissolved P (DP) fractions in the filter outflow. An advanced global inverse optimization technique is used for the model calibration process, and the uncertainty of the measured data is considered in goodness-of-fit indicators. The VFSMOD-W can predict hydrology and sediment transport well (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency >0.6) for calibration and validation events with peak outflow rate from VFS greater than 0.0004 m 3/s. The good prediction in runoff and sediment resulted also in good predictions of PP and TP transport since apatite is a main component of sediment. A good prediction of DP was found by considering the rainfall impact on DP dissolved from apatite in surface soil. The uncertainty of measured data included in the goodness-of-fit indicators is a more realistic method to evaluate model performance and data sets. VFSMOD-W combined with the simplified P modeling approach successfully predicted runoff, sediment, and P transport in phosphate mining sand tailings, which provides management agencies a design tool for controlling runoff and P transport using vegetative filter strips.

  9. Strip mine reclamation: criteria and methods for measurement of revegetation success. Progress report, April 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Carrel, J.E.; Kucera, C.L.; Johannsen, C.J.; Blanchar, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    During this contract period research was continued at finding suitable methods and criteria for determining the success of revegetation in Midwestern prime ag lands strip mined for coal. Particularly important to the experimental design was the concept of reference areas, which were nearby fields from which the performance standards for reclaimed areas were derived. Direct and remote sensing techniques for measuring plant ground cover, production, and species composition were tested. 15 mine sites were worked in which were permitted under interim permanent surface mine regulations and in 4 adjoining reference sites. Studies at 9 prelaw sites were continued. All sites were either in Missouri or Illinois. Data gathered in the 1980 growing season showed that 13 unmanaged or young mineland pastures generally had lower average ground cover and production than 2 reference pastures. In contrast, yields at approximately 40% of 11 recently reclaimed mine sites planted with winter wheat, soybeans, or milo were statistically similar to 3 reference values. Digital computer image analysis of color infrared aerial photographs, when compared to ground level measurements, was a fast, accurate, and inexpensive way to determine plant ground cover and areas. But the remote sensing approach was inferior to standard surface methods for detailing plant species abundance and composition.

  10. HYDROLOGIC IMPACTS FROM POTENTIAL COAL STRIP MINING - NORTHERN CHEYENNE RESERVATION. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a large scale hydrologic study performed on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation. Data from surface water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and geologic profiles is combined to estimate potential disruptions from future coal mine development on ...

  11. The Effects of Power Production and Strip Mining on Local Navajo Populations. Lake Powell Research Project Bulletin Number 22, June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, Donald G.; And Others

    In an effort to evaluate the impact of the 1972-73 Navajo Generating Station at Page, Arizona and the strip mine at Black Mesa on the Navajo Reservation, areas adjacent to each of these operations were surveyed (N=134 and 60 respectively) and compared with two control populations (N=60 from the rural area of Red Lake and 58 from the wagework area…

  12. ASSESSING AND MANAGING MERCURY FROM HISTORIC AND CURRENT MINING ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce between one and two billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination o...

  13. The Necessity of Public Relations for Sustainable Mining Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunbock; Ji, Sangwoo

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports research about the necessity of image making for sustainable mine developments in the Republic of Korea. One of the big risks in mining activities is mining area residents opposing mine developments and operations. Analysis of the media reports on disputes between mining companies and residents can determine causes of opposing mine developments, dispute process, and influences of disputes on processes of mining projects. To do this, civil complaints from 2009 to 2012 and 24 media reports since 2000 on opposing mining activities are analyzed. And, to analyze difficulties of mining companies, the survey is conducted to target to mining companies. 57 representatives of mining companies are participated in the survey. The result of analysis cited that the major reasons of anti-mining activities are environmental degradation and reduced agricultural productivity. And specifically because of water pollution (50%), crop damages (33%), and mining dust pollution (21%), communities of mining area are against mine developments and operations. However, 25% of residents have experience of the damage caused by mining activities and the remaining 75% of residents opposing mining activities simply have anxiety about mining pollution. In the past, construction-oriented, environment-unfriendly mining projects had lasted. And while mine reclamation had been postponed in abandoned mines, mining area residents had suffered from mining pollution. So, mining area residents are highly influenced by the prejudice that mining activities are harmful to mining area communities. Current mining projects in South Korea, unlike the past mining activity, focus on minimizing environmental damage and contributing to mining area communities financially. But, in many case of disputes between mining companies and mining area residents, the both cannot reach an agreements because of the negative prejudice. Moreover, some communities categorically refuse any mining activity. On the

  14. Fracture mapping and strip mine inventory in the Midwest by using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. W.; Wobber, F. J.; Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of the ERTS-1 imagery and high-altitude infrared photography indicates that useful fracture data can be obtained in Indiana and Illinois despite a glacial till cover. ERTS MSS bands 5 and 7 have proven most useful for fracture mapping in coal-bearing rocks in this region. Preliminary results suggest a reasonable correlation between image-detected fractures and mine roof-fall accidents. Information related to surface mined land, such as disturbed area, water bodies, and kind of reclamation, has been derived from the analysis of ERTS imagery.

  15. Reinvasion of small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects on a reclaimed coal strip-mine

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, T.T.; Schemnitz, S.D.; Wolters, G.L.

    1990-12-31

    We conducted wildlife and vegetation sampling on sites reclaimed in 1979, 1982, and 1986, as well as unmined sites, on The Pittsburgh & Midway (P&M) Coal Mining Co.`s McKinley Mine in McKinley County, New Mexico. In June, July, and August 1988 and 1989 we samples small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects. Soil and vegetation sampling was conducted in July and September 1988, respectively. We found several significant differences (P < 0.05) among plant and animal data that may have suggested differences between study sites. Recent reclamation procedures conducted or proposed by P&M promise increased wildlife value of reclaimed sites.

  16. Assessment of satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data for strip-mine monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.; Dooley, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    The application of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data to describe the mining and reclamation changes of a hilltop surface coal mine in the rugged, mountainous area of eastern Kentucky is presented. Original single band satellite imagery, computer enhanced single band imagery, and computer classified imagery are presented for four different data sets in order to demonstrate the land cover changes that can be detected. Data obtained with an 11 band multispectral scanner on board a C-47 aircraft at an altitude of 3000 meters are also presented. Comparing the satellite data with color, infrared aerial photography, and ground survey data shows that significant changes in the disrupted area can be detected from LANDSAT band 5 satellite imagery for mines with more than 100 acres of disturbed area. However, band-ratio (bands 5/6) imagery provides greater contrast than single band imagery and can provide a qualitative level 1 classification of the land cover that may be useful for monitoring either the disturbed mining area or the revegetation progress. However, if a quantitative, accurate classification of the barren or revegetated classes is required, it is necessary to perform a detailed, four band computer classification of the data.

  17. Analysis of alternative modifications for reducing backwater flooding at the Honey Creek coal strip-mine reclamation site in Henry County, Missouri. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Studies to determine the hydrologic conditions in mined and reclaimed mine areas, as well as areas of proposed mining, have become necessary with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Honey Creek in Henry County, Missouri, has been re-routed to flow through a series of former strip mining pits which lie within the Honey Creek coal strip mine reclamation site. During intense or long duration rainfalls within the Honey Creek basin, surface runoff has caused flooding on agricultural land near the upstream boundary of the reclamation site. The calculated existing design discharge (3,050 cubic feet per second) water-surface profile is compared to the expected water-surface profiles from three assumed alternative channel modifcations within the Honey Creek study area. The alternative channel modifications used in these analyses include (1) improvement of channel bottom slope, (2) relocation of spoil material, and (3) improved by-pass channel flow conditions. The alternative 1, 2, and 3 design discharge increase will reduce the agricultural field current (1990) frequency of backwater flooding from a 3-year to a 6.5-year event.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  3. Suitability of ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, Renee S.

    1994-01-01

    A study of coal ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma included 25 ponds formed by strip mining from the Croweburg, McAlester, and Iron Post coal seams and 6 noncoal-mine ponds in the coal-mining area. Water-quality samples were collected in the spring and summer of 1985 to determine the suitability of the ponds for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation. The rationale for water-quality criteria and the criteria used for each proposed use are discussed. The ponds were grouped by the coal seam mined or as noncoal-mine ponds, and the number of ponds from each group containing water that exceeded a given criterion is noted. Water in many of the ponds can be used for public water supplies if other sources are not available. Water in most of these ponds exceeds one or more secondary standards, but meets all primary standards. Water samples from the epilimnion (shallow strata as determined by temperature) of six ponds exceeded one or more primary standards, which are criteria protective of human health. Water samples from five of eight Iron Post ponds exceeded the selenium criterion. Water samples from all 31 ponds exceeded one or more secondary standards, which are for the protection of human welfare. The criteria most often exceeded were iron, manganese, dissolved solids, and sulfate, which are secondary standards. The criteria for iron and manganese were exceeded more frequently in the noncoal-mine ponds, whereas ponds formed by strip mining were more likely to exceed the criteria for dissolved solids and sulfate. The ponds are marginally suited for aquatic life. Water samples from the epilimnion of 18 ponds exceeded criteria protective of aquatic life. The criteria for mercury and iron were exceeded most often. Little difference was detected between mine ponds and noncoal-mine ponds. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion (deepest strata) of all the ponds were less than the minimum

  4. Quality-of-water data and statistical summary for selected coal-mined strip pits in Crawford and Cherokee counties, southeastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Diaz, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Quality-of-water data, collected October 21-23, 1980, and a statistical summary are presented for 42 coal-mined strip pits in Crawford and Cherokee Counties, Southeastern Kansas. The statistical summary includes minimum and maximum observed values , mean, and standard deviation. Simple linear regression equations relating specific conductance, dissolved solids, and acidity to concentrations of dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, and magnesium, potassium, aluminum, and iron are also presented. (USGS)

  5. Leaf Associated Microbial Activities in a Stream Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlief, Jeanette

    2004-11-01

    Microbial activity was assessed on birch leaves and plastic strips during 140 days of exposure at three sites in an acidic stream of the Lusatian post-mining landscape, Germany. The sites differed in their degrees of ochre deposition and acidification. The aim of the study was (1) to follow the microbial activities during leaf colonization, (2) to compare the effect of different environmental conditions on leaf associated microbial activities, and (3) to test the microbial availability of leaf litter in acidic mining waters. The activity peaked after 49 days and subsequently decreased gradually at all sites. A formation of iron plaques on leaf surfaces influenced associated microbial activity. It seemed that these plaques inhibit the microbial availability of leaf litter and serve as a microbial habitat by itself. (

  6. An evaluation of woodland reclamation on strip-mined lands in east Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsira, Bryan; Risenhoover, Ken L.

    1994-09-01

    We compared the composition and structural characteristics of reclaimed and native woody plant communities near Fairfield, Texas, to evaluate the effectiveness of woodland reclamation 3 11 years since establishment. Species composition, foliage density, canopy cover, and woody plant densities were recorded in plots randomly placed along transects bisecting blocks of reclaimed and native woodlands. During summer, vertical foliage densities at heights ≤2 m were similar among native and reclaimed areas. Foliage density and canopy cover declined in reclaimed blocks during winter, but remained relatively constant in native woodlands, where evergreens and vines were more common. Canopy cover was absent in reclaimed woodlands <6 years old but increased with age in 6 to 11-year-old blocks. These data indicated that approximately 27 years will be needed before trees in reclaimed blocks will achieve the stature of canopy trees in native woodlands. Reclaimed woodlands contained different woody plant species and had lower woody stem densities compared to native woodlands. On average, stem densities in reclaimed blocks were six times lower than densities in native woodlands. Comparisons with planting records indicate that survival of most commonly planted woody species was low. Only green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Russian oliver (Elaeagnus commutata), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), and redbud (Cercis canadensis) had estimated survival rates >50%. Reclamation procedures used at Big Brown Mine (BBM) during 1981 1988 have not produced woodland habitats with vegetative characteristics comparable to premined woodlands and may not be providing the cover needed to encourage use by certain wildlife species. Procedures for improving woodland reclamation are recommended.

  7. Radiological characterization of a uranium mine with no mining activity

    PubMed

    Lozano; Vera Tome F; Gomez Escobar V; Blanco Rodriguez P

    2000-07-01

    We report a radiological study of a uranium mine located in Extremadura, in the south-west of Spain, in which mining work had ceased. One interest in the work is that the results can be used as a reference for the future evaluation of the effects produced by the restoration program. The radiological parameters selected to estimate the impact of the inactive mine were: 222Rn in air and water, 222Rn exhalation, effective 226Ra in soils and sediments, and natural uranium and 226Ra in water. Chemical analyses of water samples and measurements of meteorological variables were also made. Average values of these radiological parameters are presented. We characterize the zone radiologically and estimate the influence of the mine on the basis of some of these parameters, while others are used to reflect the status of the installation, information which could be very useful in the near future when restoration is complete. PMID:10879882

  8. CBM in the vicinity of active mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    In areas close to operating mines, optional CBM operations meet several advantages. Any consideration about CBM operations close to active or ex-mining areas can rely on a lot of existing knowledge from the nearby mine regarding Geological data: seam thickness and structure, rock structure and composition, overburden setup Structural data: fault system, fault style, Stratigraphic informations: seam and adjacent rock stratigraphic identification Petrographic data: coal composition data Coal quality data: heating values, volatile matter, maturity, gas contents which approximately correspond to the respective data sets of the adjacent mine. As well and of importance for drilling issues the knowledge from former exploration measure can be adapted. Permeability is not transferable between mined and un-mined areas due to higher stream for gaseous and liquid matter in mining areas as a result of mining induced rock disaggregation. However, the vicinity permits the option of drilling operations for CBM purposes from the open subsurface architecture. Experiences in the USA and in India document the application of CBM projects for coal mine degassing: in mining fields adjacent to future coal mining, the gas content is severely reduced by CBM measures prior to mining. As a result of that, subsequent to CBM operations a mine can be run at reduced gas content to be emitted which means higher mine safety. At least the production potential will be increased as e.g. the gas alert driven power interruptions will be reduced.

  9. Improving Settling Characteristics of Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge by Stripping of Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kundral, Somshekhar; Mudragada, Ratnaji; Coro, Ernesto; Moncholi, Manny; Mora, Nelson; Laha, Shonali; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-06-01

    Increased microbial activity at high ambient temperatures can be problematic for secondary clarifiers and gravity concentrators due to carbon dioxide (CO2) production. Production of CO2 in gravity concentrators leads to septic conditions and poor solids separation. The CO2 production can also be corrosive for the concrete surfaces. Effectiveness of CO2 stripping to improve solids settling was investigated using the sludge volume index (SVI) as the indicator parameter. Carbon dioxide was stripped by aeration from the sludge samples. Results from the study show that aeration also increased the pH values in the mixed liquor while removing CO2 and improving sludge settling. After 10 minutes of aeration at a rate of 0.37 m3 air/m3 water/min, 90% CO2 stripping was achieved. Based on the 30 min settling tests, the SVI increased by 26±1% after CO2 stripping while the pH increased by 0.8±0.1 pH units. PMID:26459818

  10. Applying persistent scatterer interferometry for surface displacement mapping in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Amazon region) with TerraSAR-X StripMap data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athayde Pinto, Carolina de; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Mura, José Claudio; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Ribeiro dos Santos, Athos; Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Azul mining complex, located in the Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company operates three simultaneous open pit excavations (mines 1, 2, and 3) in the area, which are conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (A-DInSAR) approach based on persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied, and the results showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the synthetic aperture radar acquisitions. However, persistent scatterers (PS) with high deformation rates were mapped over a waste pile, probably related to settlements, and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of geological structures with PS was observed for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures, and folds related to the Carajás fault system. Though only ground-based radar measurements for wall benches of mine 1 were available for a short time period of the TSX-1 coverage, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that satellite-based A-DInSAR can play for deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining area.

  11. Effect of Imperatorin on the Spontaneous Motor Activity of Rat Isolated Jejunum Strips

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Marta; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Chłopecka, Magdalena; Dziekan, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Imperatorin, a psoralen-type furanocoumarin, is a potent myorelaxant agent acting as a calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscle. Its effects on other types of smooth muscle remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesized myorelaxant effect of imperatorin on gut motor activity and, possibly, to define the underlying mechanism of action. Imperatorin was made available for pharmacological studies from the fruits of the widely available Angelica officinalis through the application of high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC). Imperatorin generated reversible relaxation of jejunum strips dose-dependently (1–100 μM). At 25 and 50 μM, imperatorin caused relaxation comparable to the strength of the reaction induced by isoproterenol (Isop) at 0.1 μM. The observed response resulted neither from the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, nor from β-adrenoreceptor involvement, nor from Ca2+-activated potassium channels. Imperatorin relaxed intestine strips precontracted with high potassium concentration, attenuated the force and duration of K+-induced contractions, and modulated the response of jejunum strips to acetylcholine. The results suggest that imperatorin probably interacts with various Ca2+ influx pathways in intestine smooth muscle. The types of some calcium channels involved in the activity of imperatorin will be examined in a subsequent study. PMID:26236380

  12. Plane constrained shear of single crystal strip with two active slip systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, K. C.; Sembiring, P.

    Within continuum dislocation theory the plane constrained shear of a single crystal strip with two active slip systems is considered. An analytical solution is found for symmetric double slip which exhibits the energetic and dissipative thresholds for dislocation nucleation, the Bauschinger translational work hardening, and the size effects. Comparison with discrete dislocation simulations shows good agreement between the discrete and continuum approaches. Numerical procedures in the general case of non-symmetric double slip are proposed.

  13. Population differentiation in Andropogon virginicus L. between abandoned coal strip mine spoil and old field habitats in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nellessen, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of Andropogon virginicus L. from abandoned coal mine spoils and old fields in southeastern Ohio were studied to determine whether ecotypic differentiation had occurred. Three mine spoil and three old field populations were paired for reciprocal transplant studies. A uniform garden was also established. Mine spoil and old field populations were compared for differences in demographic patterns, vegetative growth and phenology, reproductive output, and physiology. There were a greater number of seedlings and smaller individuals in the mine spoils, but seed production was similar between habitats. Seeds disperse farther in mine spoils and there was no or very little seedling establishment in 8 to 35 year old fields. Plants attained greater height in mine spoils. Population differentiation between one of the mine sites and one of the old fields was evident for seed weight, numbers of seeds per plant, and plant biomass. The three old field populations also differed from each other in reproductive characteristics. Mine spoil plants contained significantly more nitrogen within seeds despite the fact that mine soils had only half the available nitrogen as old field soils. Old field plants had a higher magnesium content in leaves. Chlorophyll content of leaves was higher for plants in old fields than for plants in mines. Undisturbed plants from both habitats had significantly higher photosynthetic rates than transplants. Old field plants had significantly greater photosynthetic rates than mine plants when grown in the uniform garden even though transpiration rates were similar. Differentiation between some coal mine spoil and old field populations of A. virginicus was evident for height growth, seed weight, photosynthesis, seed nitrogen content, magnesium content, and seed germination. Local population differentiation in plant height, seed weight, and in the timing of plant maturation was also observed.

  14. Comparison of methods for measuring soil microbial activity using cotton strips and a respirometer.

    PubMed

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; King, Kathleen; Kristiansen, Paul; Lockwood, Peter; Guppy, Chris

    2007-05-01

    In order to develop a method of measuring the level of microbial activity in soil that is suitable for use by farmers, land managers, and other non-scientists, a simple method for determining soil microbial activity was evaluated and compared with two standard techniques. Soils sampled from vegetable farms in south east Queensland were incubated in the laboratory under controlled moisture and temperature conditions. Three methods were used to measure soil microbial activity, a respirometry method and two methods using the cotton strip assay (CSA) technique (image analysis and tensometer). The standard CSA method measured loss of tensile strength over a 35 day incubation period of buried cotton strips using a tensometer. The new CSA technique measured the intensity of staining by microbes using a flatbed scanner to create an image of the cotton strip whose staining percentage was determined using Photoshop software. The respirometry method used the substrate induced respiration rate (SIR) to determine microbial biomass in the soil at day 12 of incubation. The strong correlation between the image analysis method and the tensometer method (r(2)=0.81), a technique used by scientific researchers, suggests that the image analysis method could be used to monitor aspects of soil biological health by general community land-care groups and farmers. The image analysis method uses equipment which is readily available and, while not strongly correlated with more precise measurements of soil biological activity such as microbial biomass (r(2)=0.26), it can detect gross trends in biological health in a soil monitoring program. The CSA method using image analysis was the cheapest technique to measure soil microbial activity. CSA using image analysis can be a valuable tool in conjunction with other simple indicators of soil physical and chemical health such as slaking and pH to monitor soil amelioration or rehabilitation programs. PMID:17376552

  15. A Predictive Model of Daily Seismic Activity Induced by Mining, Developed with Data Mining Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the development and evaluation of a predictive classification model of daily seismic energy emissions induced by longwall mining in sector XVI of the Piast coal mine in Poland. The model uses data on tremor energy, basic characteristics of the longwall face and mined output in this sector over the period from July 1987 to March 2011. The predicted binary variable is the occurrence of a daily sum of tremor seismic energies in a longwall that is greater than or equal to the threshold value of 105 J. Three data mining analytical methods were applied: logistic regression,neural networks, and stochastic gradient boosted trees. The boosted trees model was chosen as the best for the purposes of the prediction. The validation sample results showed its good predictive capability, taking the complex nature of the phenomenon into account. This may indicate the applied model's suitability for a sequential, short-term prediction of mining induced seismic activity.

  16. Seismic activity in the Sunnyside mining district, Utah, during 1967

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Barton K.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Hernandez, Jerome

    1969-01-01

    A seismic monitoring network near Sunnyside, Utah, consisting of a triangular array of seismometer stations that encompasses most of the mine workings in the district, recorded over 50,000 local earth tremors during 1967. About 540 of the tremors were of sufficient magnitude to be accurately located. Most of these were located within 2-3 miles of mine workings and were also near known or suspected faults. The district-wide seismic activity generally consisted of two different patterns--a periodic increase in the daily number of tremors at weekly intervals, and also a less regular and longer term increase and decrease of seismic activity that occurred over a period of weeks or even months. The shorter and more regular pattern can be correlated with the mine work week and seems to result from mining. The longer term activity, however, does not correlate with known mining causes sad therefore seems to be .caused by natural stresses.

  17. Stripping Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  18. The impact of mining activities on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghatelyan, A.; Sahakyan, L.

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess environmental status of the territory of the city of Kapan and neighboring agricultural farms with an emphasis on the impact of the tailing repository and operation of the Kapan copper plant on soil, water and plant pollution. The region has long been known for its abundant copper and polymetallic deposits with vein- and stockwork-type mineralization. Moreover, historically Kapan was the miners' city and a powerful copper mining and dressing plant has been operating there since 1846. The performed geochemical survey and a sanitary-hygienic assessment of pollution of the Kapan's soils have indicated high contents of Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo and As vs. the background and Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MAC). The assessment of pollution levels of surface water, including natural and industrial streams, has indicated that unlike natural stream waters, mining waters from the adit and industrial stream waters were high in a number of toxic (Cd, As, Hg) and ore (Cu, Zn) elements. Activation of most chemical elements and particularly of heavy metals in water environment rapidly brings to pollution of environmental components (soils, plants, etc.), and as a result heavy metals enter the human organism via trophic chains. So, in the frame of the research eco-toxicological studies were performed on accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Sn, Mo), including high toxic elements (As, Hg, Pb, Cd) in agricultural soils and in the basic assortment of agricultural crops. The research covered agricultural lands within the bounds of the city and private plots in neighboring villages. Wholly, 24 vegetable, melon field, cereal (corn), oil-bearing (sunflower) species adding spicy herbs and fruits were studied. It should be stressed that agricultural crops growing on the study sites are used provide food products not only by the population of this particular city and neighboring villages, but of other cities, too. It means that the average number of

  19. The uses of ERTS-1 imagery in the analysis of landscape change. [agriculture, strip mining forests, urban-suburban growth, and flooding in Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The analysis of strip mining from ERTS-1 data has resulted in the mapping of landscape changes for the Cumberland Plateau Test Site. Several mapping experiments utilizing ERTS-1 data have been established for the mapping of state-wide land use regions. The first incorporates 12 frames of ERTS-1 imagery for the generalized thematic mapping of forest cover for the state of Tennessee. In another mapping effort, 14 ERTS-1 images have been analyzed for plowed ground signatures to produce a map of agricultural regions for Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern portions of Mississippi and Alabama. Generalized urban land use categories and transportation networks have been determined from ERTS-1 imagery for the Knoxville Test Site. Finally, through the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery, short-lived phenomena such as the 1973 spring floods on the Mississippi River in western Tennessee, have been detected, monitored, and mapped.

  20. Interaction of mining activities and aquatic environment: A review from Greek mine sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Greece a significant amount of mineral and ore deposits have been recorded accompanied by large industrial interest and a long mining history. Today many active and/or abandoned mine sites are scattered within the country; while mining activities take place in different sites for exploiting various deposits (clay, limestone, slate, gypsum, kaolin, mixed sulphide ores (lead, zinc, olivine, pozzolan, quartz lignite, nickel, magnesite, aluminum, bauxite, gold, marbles etc). The most prominent recent ones are: (i) the lignite exploitation that is extended in the area of Ptolemais (Western Macedonia) and Megalopolis (Central Peloponnese); and (ii) the major bauxite deposits located in central Greece within the Parnassos-Ghiona geotectonic zone and on Euboea Island. In the latter area, significant ores of magnesite were exploited and mixed sulphide ores. Centuries of intensive mining exploitation and metallurgical treatment of lead-silver deposits in Greece, have also resulted in significant abandoned sites, such as the one in Lavrion. Mining activities in Lavrio, were initiated in ancient times and continued until the 1980s, resulting in the production of significant waste stockpiles deposited in the area, crucial for the local water resources. Ιn many mining sites, environmental pressures are also recorded after the mine closure to the aquatic environment, as the surface waters flow through waste dump areas and contaminated soils. This paper aims to the geospatial visualization of the mining activities in Greece, in connection to their negative (surface- and/or ground-water pollution; overpumping due to extensive dewatering practices) or positive (enhanced groundwater recharge; pit lakes, improvement of water budget in the catchment scale) impacts on local water resources.

  1. A standardized procedure for using human corpus cavernosum strips to evaluate drug activity.

    PubMed

    Mirone, V; Sorrentino, R; di Villa Bianca, R; Imbimbo, C; Palmieri, A; Fusco, F; Tajana, G; Cirino, G

    2000-01-01

    The main problem of using human corpus cavernosum (HCC) tissue to perform bioassay is linked to its limited availability further complicated by the heterogeneous source of the tissues used. Here, we show that gender reassignment is a reliable source of human tissue without major ethical problems. Indeed, the entire corpus cavernosum is obtained from the surgery procedure, which allows creating a standardized procedure to prepare HCC strip. In addition, human tissue, if kept in the fridge in the condition described, does not loose its ability to contract to phenylephrine (PE; alpha agonist), angiotensin II (AG II) and KCl up to 4 days. Furthermore, once contracted with PE, HCC relaxes to acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent mechanism); sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent mechanism); cromakalim (CRK), a K(ATP) channel opener; or alprostadil, a synthetic PGE2 (ALPR). In conclusion, we have standardized a procedure that allows the use of HCC strips to evaluate drug activity and/or to study pathophysiological mechanisms with an intact functional human tissue up to 4 days from the surgery procedure. PMID:11395325

  2. THE AQUATIC INSECTS, WITH EMPHASIS ON TRICHOPTERA, OF A COLORADO STREAM AFFECTED BY COAL STRIP-MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic sampling was conducted year-round over a 2 year period (July 1975-June 1977) on Trout Creek, a mountain stream in northwestern Colorado, to assess the effects of coal mine drainage on the stream insect community. Samples were taken monthly from rubble riffles above and be...

  3. Early successional patterns of arthropod recolonization on reclaimed strip mines in southwestern Wyoming: ground-dwelling beetle fauna (coleoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Parmenter, R.R.; MacMahon, J.A.

    1987-02-01

    The ground-dwelling beetle assemblages of seven reclaimed surface coal mines and an undisturbed area of sagebrush steppe vegetation near Kemmerer, Wyo., were sampled in 1983 using 25 pitfall traps per site. The three oldest sites (1977-79) received no topsoil during reclamation; the other four sites (1980-83) had stored topsoil respread on them before revegetation. The beetle assemblages were characterized by means of data on species richness and diversity, species dominance curves, and trophic-group structure. The authors found that initial recolonization and dominance was achieved by species that were either rare in the adjacent native vegetation, or had immigrated from other disturbed sites. Species richness and diversity showed an increase during the first 3 yr following revegetation, but then declined over the next 3 yr. The magnitude of the observed species richness and diversity trends may have been influenced by the presence or absence of topsoil on the sites. The number of herbivorous beetle species was positively correlated with the number of plant species present on the sites. The trophic structure on reclaimed mine sites was dominated by omnivores, insect-carrion feeders, predators, and fungivores, whereas the undisturbed site's beetle fauna was dominated by omnivores, predators, and herbivores. It seemed that the most successful colonists were omnivores and scavenging species (that used seeds, weedy vegetation, and living and dead insects), and fungivores (that took advantage of fungi growing on dead organic matter in the respread topsoils). In view of the great dissimilarities that exist between undisturbed and reclaimed mine sites, even after 6 yr, the authors conclude that recovery of the mine lands will require a considerable length of time, and, due to the severity of the mining disturbance, may not ever yield a fauna and flora similar to those of the premining era.

  4. Circulating antigen tests and urine reagent strips for diagnosis of active schistosomiasis in endemic areas

    PubMed Central

    Ochodo, Eleanor A; Gopalakrishna, Gowri; Spek, Bea; Reitsma, Johannes B; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polman, Katja; Lamberton, Poppy; Bossuyt, Patrick Mm; Leeflang, Mariska Mg

    2015-01-01

    Background Point-of-care (POC) tests for diagnosing schistosomiasis include tests based on circulating antigen detection and urine reagent strip tests. If they had sufficient diagnostic accuracy they could replace conventional microscopy as they provide a quicker answer and are easier to use. Objectives To summarise the diagnostic accuracy of: a) urine reagent strip tests in detecting active Schistosoma haematobium infection, with microscopy as the reference standard; and b) circulating antigen tests for detecting active Schistosoma infection in geographical regions endemic for Schistosoma mansoni or S. haematobium or both, with microscopy as the reference standard. Search methods We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, MEDION, and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) without language restriction up to 30 June 2014. Selection criteria We included studies that used microscopy as the reference standard: for S. haematobium, microscopy of urine prepared by filtration, centrifugation, or sedimentation methods; and for S. mansoni, microscopy of stool by Kato-Katz thick smear. We included studies on participants residing in endemic areas only. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed quality of the data using QUADAS-2, and performed meta-analysis where appropriate. Using the variability of test thresholds, we used the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model for all eligible tests (except the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) POC for S. mansoni, where the bivariate random-effects model was more appropriate). We investigated heterogeneity, and carried out indirect comparisons where data were sufficient. Results for sensitivity and specificity are presented as percentages with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main results We included 90 studies; 88 from field settings in Africa. The median S. haematobium infection prevalence was 41% (range 1% to 89%) and 36% for S. mansoni (range 8

  5. Stress monitoring versus microseismic ruptures in an active deep mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnellier, Alice; Bouffier, Christian; Bigarré, Pascal; Nyström, Anders; Österberg, Anders; Fjellström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    monitoring data coming from the mine in quasi-real time and facilitates information exchanges and decision making for experts and stakeholders. On the basis of these data acquisition and sharing, preliminary analysis has been started to highlight whether stress variations and seismic sources behaviour might be directly bound with mine working evolution and could improve the knowledge on the equilibrium states inside the mine. Knowing such parameters indeed will be a potential solution to understand better the response of deep mining activities to the exploitation solicitations and to develop, if possible, methods to prevent from major hazards such as rock bursts and other ground failure phenomena.

  6. Active Learning in Context-Driven Stream Mining With an Application to Image Mining.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Cem; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2015-11-01

    We propose an image stream mining method in which images arrive with contexts (metadata) and need to be processed in real time by the image mining system (IMS), which needs to make predictions and derive actionable intelligence from these streams. After extracting the features of the image by preprocessing, IMS determines online the classifier to use on the extracted features to make a prediction using the context of the image. A key challenge associated with stream mining is that the prediction accuracy of the classifiers is unknown, since the image source is unknown; thus, these accuracies need to be learned online. Another key challenge of stream mining is that learning can only be done by observing the true label, but this is costly to obtain. To address these challenges, we model the image stream mining problem as an active, online contextual experts problem, where the context of the image is used to guide the classifier selection decision. We develop an active learning algorithm and show that it achieves regret sublinear in the number of images that have been observed so far. To further illustrate and assess the performance of our proposed methods, we apply them to diagnose breast cancer from the images of cellular samples obtained from the fine needle aspirate of breast mass. Our findings show that very high diagnosis accuracy can be achieved by actively obtaining only a small fraction of true labels through surgical biopsies. Other applications include video surveillance and video traffic monitoring. PMID:26087490

  7. Habitat use and food habits of snowshoe hares associated with a reclaimed strip mine in interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.L.

    1998-12-31

    The value of reclaimed coal stripmine spoils as snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) habitat in interior Alaska was examined. Hare density in 3 cover types (tall shrub, conifer forest, revegetated lands) was determined using the pellet plot method. Hare food habits were determined via microhistological examination of fecal material. Snowshoe hares used the tall shrub cover type more than any other habitat examined. Hare density in the shrub zone was 10/ha in winter and 18/ha in summer. Shrubs (mainly willow species) comprised the major portion of the summer diet (69%), while spruce made up 51% of the winter diet. Based on dietary data and habitat use, the long-term loss of coniferous forests and tall shrubs due to mining, and the lack of emphasis on the re-establishment of woody vegetation in present reclamation procedures; will greatly reduce and possibly eliminate snowshoe hare populations on large-scale surface coal mines in the northern boreal regions.

  8. 30 CFR 77.1001 - Stripping; loose material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stripping; loose material. 77.1001 Section 77.1001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Ground Control § 77.1001 Stripping; loose material. Loose hazardous material shall be stripped for a...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1001 - Stripping; loose material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stripping; loose material. 77.1001 Section 77.1001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Ground Control § 77.1001 Stripping; loose material. Loose hazardous material shall be stripped for a...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1001 - Stripping; loose material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stripping; loose material. 77.1001 Section 77.1001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Ground Control § 77.1001 Stripping; loose material. Loose hazardous material shall be stripped for a...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1001 - Stripping; loose material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stripping; loose material. 77.1001 Section 77.1001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Ground Control § 77.1001 Stripping; loose material. Loose hazardous material shall be stripped for a...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1001 - Stripping; loose material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stripping; loose material. 77.1001 Section 77.1001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Ground Control § 77.1001 Stripping; loose material. Loose hazardous material shall be stripped for a...

  13. Mining Claim Activity on Federal Land in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Several statistical compilations of mining claim activity on Federal land derived from the Bureau of Land Management's LR2000 database have previously been published by the U.S Geological Survey (USGS). The work in the 1990s did not include Arkansas or Florida. None of the previous reports included Alaska because it is stored in a separate database (Alaska Land Information System) and is in a different format. This report includes data for all states for which there are Federal mining claim records, beginning in 1976 and continuing to the present. The intent is to update the spatial and statistical data associated with this report on an annual basis, beginning with 2005 data. The statistics compiled from the databases are counts of the number of active mining claims in a section of land each year from 1976 to the present for all states within the United States. Claim statistics are subset by lode and placer types, as well as a dataset summarizing all claims including mill site and tunnel site claims. One table presents data by case type, case status, and number of claims in a section. This report includes a spatial database for each state in which mining claims were recorded, except North Dakota, which only has had two claims. A field is present that allows the statistical data to be joined to the spatial databases so that spatial displays and analysis can be done by using appropriate geographic information system (GIS) software. The data show how mining claim activity has changed in intensity, space, and time. Variations can be examined on a state, as well as a national level. The data are tied to a section of land, approximately 640 acres, which allows it to be used at regional, as well as local scale. The data only pertain to Federal land and mineral estate that was open to mining claim location at the time the claims were staked.

  14. Activity recognition using correlated pattern mining for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kelvin; Phua, Clifton; Yap, Ghim-Eng; Biswas, Jit; Mokhtari, Mounir

    2011-01-01

    Due to the rapidly aging population around the world, senile dementia is growing into a prominent problem in many societies. To monitor the elderly dementia patients so as to assist them in carrying out their basic Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) independently, sensors are deployed in their homes. The sensors generate a stream of context information, i.e., snippets of the patient's current happenings, and pattern mining techniques can be applied to recognize the patient's activities based on these micro contexts. Most mining techniques aim to discover frequent patterns that correspond to certain activities. However, frequent patterns can be poor representations of activities. In this paper, instead of using frequent patterns, we propose using correlated patterns to represent activities. Using simulation data collected in a smart home testbed, our experimental results show that using correlated patterns rather than frequent ones improves the recognition performance by 35.5% on average. PMID:22256096

  15. Direct analysis of palladium in active pharmaceutical ingredients by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Rosolina, Samuel M; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2016-03-31

    Anodic stripping voltammetry, a classical electroanalytical method has been optimized to analyze trace Pd(II) in active pharmaceutical ingredient matrices. The electroanalytical approach with an unmodified glassy carbon electrode was performed in both aqueous and 95% DMSO/5% water (95/5 DMSO/H2O) solutions, without pretreatment such as acid digestion or dry ashing to remove the organics. Limits of detection (LODs) in the presence of caffeine and ketoprofen were determined to be 11 and 9.6 μg g(-1), with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.7% and 2.3%, respectively. This method is simple, highly reproducible, sensitive, and robust. The instrumentation has the potential to be portable and the obviation of sample pretreatment makes it an ideal approach for determining lost catalytic metals in pharmaceutical-related industries. Furthermore, the simultaneous detection of Pd(II) with Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the low μg L(-1) range indicates that this system is capable of simultaneous multi-analyte analysis in a variety of matrices. PMID:26965326

  16. Mining bacterial genomes for novel arylesterase activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Mavisakalyan, Valentina; Tillier, Elisabeth R. M.; Clark, Greg W.; Savchenko, Alexei V.; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Master, Emma R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary One hundred and seventy‐one genes encoding potential esterases from 11 bacterial genomes were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli; 74 of the clones produced soluble proteins. All 74 soluble proteins were purified and screened for esterase activity; 36 proteins showed carboxyl esterase activity on short‐chain esters, 17 demonstrated arylesterase activity, while 38 proteins did not exhibit any activity towards the test substrates. Esterases from Rhodopseudomonas palustris (RpEST‐1, RpEST‐2 and RpEST‐3), Pseudomonas putida (PpEST‐1, PpEST‐2 and PpEST‐3), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaEST‐1) and Streptomyces avermitilis (SavEST‐1) were selected for detailed biochemical characterization. All of the enzymes showed optimal activity at neutral or alkaline pH, and the half‐life of each enzyme at 50°C ranged from < 5 min to over 5 h. PpEST‐3, RpEST‐1 and RpEST‐2 demonstrated the highest specific activity with pNP‐esters; these enzymes were also among the most stable at 50°C and in the presence of detergents, polar and non‐polar organic solvents, and imidazolium ionic liquids. Accordingly, these enzymes are particularly interesting targets for subsequent application trials. Finally, biochemical and bioinformatic analyses were compared to reveal sequence features that could be correlated to enzymes with arylesterase activity, facilitating subsequent searches for new esterases in microbial genome sequences. PMID:21255363

  17. Ammonia stripping, activated carbon adsorption and anaerobic biological oxidation as process combination for the treatment of oil shale wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Verônica M F; do Nascimento, Felipe V; Cammarota, Magali C

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic biodegradability of oil shale wastewater was investigated after the following pretreatment sequence: ammonia stripping and activated carbon adsorption. Anaerobic biological treatment of oil shale wastewater is technically feasible after stripping at pH 11 for reducing the N-NH3 concentration, adsorption with 5 g/L of activated carbon in order to reduce recalcitrance and pH adjustment with CO2 so that the sulphate concentration in the medium remains low. After this pretreatment sequence, it was possible to submit the wastewater without dilution to an anaerobic treatment with 62.7% soluble chemical oxygen demand removal and specific methane production of 233.2 mL CH4STP/g CODremoved. PMID:27003628

  18. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  19. Safe mine waste disposal, Appalachian coal province (1984)

    SciTech Connect

    Maberry, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    Listed are maps developed under the Safe Mine-Waste Disposal program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps show recent or old landslides, rockfalls and other areas susceptible to sliding. Other features include strip mines classified as to type and degree of reclamation, gravel pits, quarries and other man-made features that affect slope stability in vicinity of coal-mining activities.

  20. EROSION OF STRIP MINE LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The plot studies were carried out at Karthaus and Klingerstown to verify the accuracy of the erosion pin method of soil loss evaluation compared to soil loss measured in runoff samples. Subsequently, field studies at Kylertown and Kittaning were used to apply these methods. Kyler...

  1. Thermal neutron activation system for confirmatory nonmetallic land mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Cousins, Thomas; Jones, Trevor; Brisson, Jean R.; Jamieson, Terry; Waller, Ed; LeMay, Francois; Ing, Harry; Clifford, Edward T. H.; Selkirk, Barkley

    1998-09-01

    To detect and locate buried landmines, the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) is developing a teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, multisensor system called ILDP. In operation, a suite of 4 detectors scan ahead of the vehicle. Their outputs are combined through data fusion to indicate the possibility of a mine at a particular location, within a 30 cm radius. A thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensor, mounted behind the vehicle, is used to confirm the presence of explosives via detection of the 10.83 MeV gamma-ray associated with neutron capture on 14N. The TNA system developed for this uses a 100 microgram 252Cf neutron source surrounded by four 7.62 cm X 7.62 cm NaI(Tl) detectors. A combination of the use of state-of-the art radiation transport codes for design, judicious choice of specialized shielding materials and development of high-rate, fast pulse processing electronics has led to a system which can; (1) confirm the presence of all surface-laid or shallowly-buried anti-tank mines in a few seconds to a minute (depending on mass of explosive) (2) confirm the presence of anti-tank mines down to 20 cm depth in less than 5 minutes. (3) confirm the presence of large (greater than 100 g Nitrogen) anti-personnel mines in less than five minutes (4) operate in adverse climatic conditions. These results have been verified in field trials using the prototype sensor. Work is now ongoing to miniaturize the electronics, make the system robust and easy to use and investigate the use of an electronic neutron generator expected to enter service by the year 2000.

  2. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  3. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  4. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  8. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  12. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  4. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  8. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  14. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  17. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  6. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  16. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.816 Performance...

  3. 30 CFR 905.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 905.817 Section 905.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.817...

  4. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.816 Performance...

  5. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.817...

  6. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.816 Performance...

  7. 30 CFR 942.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 942.817 Section 942.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.817...

  8. 30 CFR 942.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 942.817 Section 942.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.817...

  9. Mercury pollution by mining activities in Rayo Rojo mining district, Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran-Mita, T.; Faz Cano, A.; Muñoz, M.; Millán, R.; Salvador, F.

    2009-04-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important causes of the environmental degradation. This is the case of the Natural Integrated Management Area of Apolobamba (Department of La Paz, Bolivia), where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to present days, with very little gold extraction and very scarce mineral processing technology. In Apolobamba mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes and this might conduct to high Hg contents. Inhabitants of this area consume fish from lakes and rivers, and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate mercury impact into the soil-plant-water system. The Technical University of Cartagena, Spain, through the Research Group "Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and Water", carried out a research, in the most intense affected gold extraction zones in Apolobamba, among them Rayo Rojo, where mining activity is mainly gold extraction, although the extracted mineral volume and technology used is low. Rayo Rojo is located in the central part of ANMI - Apolobamba (in the andean region), inside of Pelechuco municipality; the area belongs biogeographically to the Altoandina and Puna. This district, located in Apolobamba mountain-range, where altitudes above 5.000 m.a.s.l are reached. Water, soil, sediment and plant samples were taken around the operations mining sites and total mercury analysed. Mercury content was determined by AMA-254 model, based on the thermal decomposition of the sample and collection of the Hg vapour on a gold amalgamator. The analysis is performed from solid samples without any further preparation. Samples are initially dried at 125°C and then thermally decomposed at the temperature of 550°C. Mercury vapour is then trapped on the gold amalgamator. AMA-254 method certificated standards were BCR 62-BCR 281. Preliminary results show high Hg concentrations

  10. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  11. Light Stable Isotopes in Aquifers Affected by Mining Activities in a Brazilian Mining Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, R. M.; de Carvalho, J. B.

    2013-05-01

    Iron ore is presently a main item in the Brazilian commercial agenda. Large reserves have converted this utility into an important source of export earnings and, secondarily, of raw materials for the domestic industry. Parallel to a boom in mining activities in the last years environmental impacts and a stress on natural resources have soared. A region exhibiting pronouncedly intensive mining activities lies in the central part of the State of Minas Gerais, the third economy of the federation. Mines are sited right beside the capital and neighbor towns amounting to nearly five million inhabitants and a pronounced dependence on groundwater resources. Besides, this region is a water divide enclosing the sources of main contributors to the most strategic fluvial basins in the country. Iron ore is by large the main mineral but other metals (including gold and uranium), as well as non-metals such as limestone, quartz and granite, also occur. Given the significance of this commodity in the country's trade balance and the demand of water resources with acceptable quality for human consumption, the scale of ensuing water use conflicts caused by its exploration is wide ranging and has to be coped with well grounded environmental assessment approaches. Tracer hydrology techniques might be a valuable tool in this context. The characteristics of the area being impacted have been surveyed, including climate and pluviometry, stratigraphic litology, geological structure, use of soil, mineral resources and their exploration, surface and ground water hydrology and their sundry uses. Data to be processed have been procured at local public agencies but as regard local hydrological features, particularly isotopic compositions, ad hoc surveys and methodologies were required. One instance concerns pluviometric isotopy due to the alpine character of the surveyed region altitude and temperature effects might take place. Hence different sites were monitored; cumulative pluviometer samples

  12. Metabolically Active Eukaryotic Communities in Extremely Acidic Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brett J.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Dawson, Scott C.; Bond, Philip L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2004-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities contain microbial eukaryotes (both fungi and protists) that confer a biofilm structure and impact the abundance of bacteria and archaea and the community composition via grazing and other mechanisms. Since prokaryotes impact iron oxidation rates and thus regulate AMD generation rates, it is important to analyze the fungal and protistan populations. We utilized 18S rRNA and beta-tubulin gene phylogenies and fluorescent rRNA-specific probes to characterize the eukaryotic diversity and distribution in extremely acidic (pHs 0.8 to 1.38), warm (30 to 50°C), metal-rich (up to 269 mM Fe2+, 16.8 mM Zn, 8.5 mM As, and 4.1 mM Cu) AMD solutions from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, Calif. A Rhodophyta (red algae) lineage and organisms from the Vahlkampfiidae family were identified. The fungal 18S rRNA and tubulin gene sequences formed two distinct phylogenetic groups associated with the classes Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Three fungal isolates that were closely related to the Dothideomycetes clones were obtained. We suggest the name “Acidomyces richmondensis” for these isolates. Since these ascomycete fungi were morphologically indistinguishable, rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes were designed to target the Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes via fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH analyses indicated that Eurotiomycetes are generally more abundant than Dothideomycetes in all of the seven locations studied within the Richmond Mine system. This is the first study to combine the culture-independent detection of fungi with in situ detection and a demonstration of activity in an acidic environment. The results expand our understanding of the subsurface AMD microbial community structure. PMID:15466574

  13. Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-12-31

    Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

  14. Seismic activity in the Sunnyside mining district, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, during 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunrud, C. Richard; Maberry, John O.; Hernandez, Jerome H.

    1970-01-01

    More than 20,000 local earth tremors were recorded by the seismic monitoring network in the Sunnyside mining district during 1968. This is about 40 percent of the number of tremors recorded by the network in 1967. In 1968 a total of 281 tremors were of sufficient magnitude to be located accurately--about 50 percent of the number of tremors in 1967 that were located accurately. As in previous years, nearly all the earth tremors originated near, or within a few thousand feet of, the mine workings. This distribution indicates that mine-induced stress changes caused most of the seismic activity. However, over periods of weeks and months there were significant changes in the distribution of seismic activity caused by tremors that were not directly related to mining but probably were caused by adjustment of natural stresses 6r by a complex combination of both natural and mine-induced stress changes. In 1968 the distribution of tremor hypocenters varied considerably with time, relative to active mining areas and to faults present in the mine workings. During the first 6 months, most tremors originated along or near faults that trend close to or through the active mine workings. However, in the last 6 months, the tremor hypocenters tended to concentrate in the rock mass closer to, or around, the active mining areas. This shift in concentration of seismic activity with time has been noted throughout the district many times since recording began in 1963, and is apparently caused by spontaneous releases of stored strain energy resulting from mine-induced stress changes. These spontaneous releases of strain energy, together with rock creep, apparently are the mechanism of adjustment within the rock mass toward equilibrium conditions, which are continually disrupted by mining. Although potentially hazardous bumps were rare in the Sunnyside mining district during 1968, smaller bumps and rock falls were more common in a given active mining area whenever hypocenters of larger

  15. Inhibition of bacterial activity in acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Bhatnagar, Miss Mridula

    1988-12-01

    Acid mine drainage water give rise to rapid growth and activity of an iron- and sulphur- oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidians which greatly accelerate acid producing reactions by oxidation of pyrite material associated with coal and adjoining strata. The role of this bacterium in production of acid mine drainage is described. This study presents the data which demonstrate the inhibitory effect of certain organic acids, sodium benzoate, sodium lauryl sulphate, quarternary ammonium compounds on the growth of the acidophilic aerobic autotroph Thiobacillus ferrooxidians. In each experiment, 10 milli-litres of laboratory developed culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidians was added to 250 milli-litres Erlenmeyer flask containing 90 milli-litres of 9-k media supplemented with FeSO4 7H2O and organic compounds at various concentrations. Control experiments were also carried out. The treated and untreated (control) samples analysed at various time intervals for Ferrous Iron and pH levels. Results from this investigation showed that some organic acids, sodium benzoate, sodium lauryl sulphate and quarternary ammonium compounds at low concentration (10-2 M, 10-50 ppm concentration levels) are effective bactericides and able to inhibit and reduce the Ferrous Iron oxidation and acidity formation by inhibiting the growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidians is also discussed and presented

  16. Heavy metals content in acid mine drainage at abandoned and active mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatar, Hazirah; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Razi, Wan Mohd; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at former Barite Mine, Tasik Chini and former iron mine Sungai Lembing in Pahang, and also active gold mine at Lubuk Mandi, Terengganu. This study was conducted to determine heavy metals content in acid mine drainage (AMD) at the study areas. Fourteen water sampling stations within the study area were chosen for this purpose. In situ water characteristic determinations were carried out for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP) and total dissolved solid (TDS) using multi parameter YSI 556. Water samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for sulfate, total acidity and heavy metals which follow the standard methods of APHA (1999) and HACH (2003). Heavy metals in the water samples were determined directly using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data obtained showed a highly acidic mean of pH values with pH ranged from 2.6 ± 0.3 to 3.2 ± 0.2. Mean of electrical conductivity ranged from 0.57 ± 0.25 to 1.01 ± 0.70 mS/cm. Redox potential mean ranged from 487.40 ± 13.68 to 579.9 ± 80.46 mV. Mean of total dissolved solids (TDS) in AMD ranged from 306.50 ± 125.16 to 608.14 ± 411.64 mg/L. Mean of sulfate concentration in AMD ranged from 32.33 ± 1.41 to 207.08 ± 85.06 mg/L, whereas the mean of total acidity ranged from 69.17 ± 5.89 to 205.12 ± 170.83 mgCaCO3/L. Heavy metals content in AMD is dominated by Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn with mean concentrations range from 2.16 ± 1.61 to 36.31 ± 41.02 mg/L, 0.17 ± 0.13 to 11.06 ± 2.85 mg/L, 1.12 ± 0.65 to 7.17 ± 6.05 mg/L and 0.62 ± 0.21 to 6.56 ± 4.11 mg/L, respectively. Mean concentrations of Ni, Co, As, Cd and Pb were less than 0.21, 0.51, 0.24, 0.05 and 0.45 mg/L, respectively. Significant correlation occurred between Fe and Mn, Cu, Zn, Co and Cd. Water pH correlated negatively with all the heavy metals, whereas total acidity, sulfate, total dissolved solid, and redox potential correlated positively. The concentration of heavy metals in the AMD

  17. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2B. Alabama. Water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Alabama study site

    SciTech Connect

    Henricks, J D; Bogner, J E; Olsen, R D; Schubert, J P; Sobek, A A; Johnson, D O

    1980-05-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water, coal, and overburden chemistry was conducted at a surface coal mine in Alabama from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites included the pit sump, a stream downgrade from the mine, the discharge from the water treatment facility, and a small stream outside the mine drainage. Water samples were collected every two weeks by Argonne subcontractors at the Alabama Geological Survey and analysed for the following parameters: specific conductance, pH, temperature, acidity, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, sulfate, and 20 metals. Analysis of the coal and overburden shows that no potential acid problem exists at this mine. Water quality is good in both streams sampled, and high levels of dissolved elements are found only in water collected from the pit sump. The mine effluent is in compliance with Office of Surface Mining water quality standards.

  18. Biomining active cellulases from a mining bioremediation system.

    PubMed

    Mewis, Keith; Armstrong, Zachary; Song, Young C; Baldwin, Susan A; Withers, Stephen G; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-09-20

    Functional metagenomics has emerged as a powerful method for gene model validation and enzyme discovery from natural and human engineered ecosystems. Here we report development of a high-throughput functional metagenomic screen incorporating bioinformatic and biochemical analyses features. A fosmid library containing 6144 clones sourced from a mining bioremediation system was screened for cellulase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenyl β-cellobioside, a previously proven cellulose model substrate. Fifteen active clones were recovered and fully sequenced revealing 9 unique clones with the ability to hydrolyse 1,4-β-D-glucosidic linkages. Transposon mutagenesis identified genes belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH) 1, 3, or 5 as necessary for mediating this activity. Reference trees for GH 1, 3, and 5 families were generated from sequences in the CAZy database for automated phylogenetic analysis of fosmid end and active clone sequences revealing known and novel cellulase encoding genes. Active cellulase genes recovered in functional screens were subcloned into inducible high copy plasmids, expressed and purified to determine enzymatic properties including thermostability, pH optima, and substrate specificity. The workflow described here provides a general paradigm for recovery and characterization of microbially derived genes and gene products based on genetic logic and contemporary screening technologies developed for model organismal systems. PMID:23906845

  19. Online Nonparametric Bayesian Activity Mining and Analysis From Surveillance Video.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Vahid; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S

    2016-05-01

    A method for online incremental mining of activity patterns from the surveillance video stream is presented in this paper. The framework consists of a learning block in which Dirichlet process mixture model is employed for the incremental clustering of trajectories. Stochastic trajectory pattern models are formed using the Gaussian process regression of the corresponding flow functions. Moreover, a sequential Monte Carlo method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for tracking and online classification as well as the detection of abnormality during the observation of an object. Experimental results on real surveillance video data are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in different tasks of trajectory clustering, classification, and abnormality detection. PMID:26978823

  20. Acotiamide Hydrochloride, a Therapeutic Agent for Functional Dyspepsia, Enhances Acetylcholine-induced Contraction via Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Circular Muscle Strips of Guinea Pig Stomach.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Kawachi, M; Matsunaga, Y; Hori, Y; Ozaki, T; Nagahama, K; Hirayama, M; Kawabata, Y; Shiraishi, Y; Takei, M; Tanaka, T

    2016-04-01

    Acotiamide is a first-in-class prokinetic drug approved in Japan for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Given that acotiamide enhances gastric motility in conscious dogs and rats, we assessed the in vitro effects of this drug on the contraction of guinea pig stomach strips and on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in stomach homogenate following fundus removal. We also investigated the serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist mosapride, dopamine D2 receptor and AChE inhibitor itopride, and representative AChE inhibitor neostigmine. Acotiamide (0.3 and 1 μM) and itopride (1 and 3 μM) significantly enhanced the contraction of gastric body strips induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), but mosapride (1 and 10 μM) did not. Acotiamide and itopride significantly enhanced the contraction of gastric body and antrum strips induced by acetylcholine (ACh), but not that induced by carbachol (CCh). Neostigmine also significantly enhanced the contraction of gastric body strips induced by ACh, but not that by CCh. In contrast, mosapride failed to enhance contractions induced by either ACh or CCh in gastric antrum strips. Acotiamide exerted mixed inhibition of AChE, and the percentage inhibition of acotiamide (100 μM) against AChE activity was markedly reduced after the reaction mixture was dialyzed. In contrast, itopride exerted noncompetitive inhibition on AChE activity. These results indicate that acotiamide enhances ACh-dependent contraction in gastric strips of guinea pigs via the inhibition of AChE activity, and that it exerts mixed and reversible inhibition of AChE derived from guinea pig stomach. PMID:26418413

  1. Microseismic activity after blasting at Zinkgruvan Mine (Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erguncu Güçlü, İrem; Dineva, Savka; Hansen-Haug, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Local seismic system consisting of 18 sensors 4.5 Hz was installed in Zinkgruvan Mine (Sweden) in 2015 at depth ˜1140 m. The system is concentrated in a small area of 40 x 50 m and is able to record very small seismic events (magnitude -4 or lower) induced by the mining activity. This study is related to two larger seismic events with moment magnitudes 0.6 and 1.2 that occurred in two consecutive days and their aftershock series on July 1 and 2, 2015. The first seismic events occurred seconds after a blast and the second one during blasting. The latter one caused a rockburst and extensive damage in the mine. More than 3000 seismic events were recorded at distances up to 100 m from the local seismic system during these two days. Manual data processing was done only for the events recorded by more than 15 sensors following the larger events and 3 hours before them. In total approximately 240 events have been analyzed. Seismic event locations and other source parameters were obtained by IMS Trace software. The aftershock areas of the two seismic events formed two separate aftershock areas, The first series (Mw -3 to -1) lasted about one hour but the second one (Mw -3 to 0) was more complicated with two larger aftershocks (Mw 0.3 and 0.7) with their own aftershock series within 90 minutes. Based on the Es/Ep energy ratio the main events were classified as shear seismic events (Es/Ep ˜10). The other events were approximately equally divided between shear and not-shear (tensile) events. No apparent correlation was found between the type of the events and the magnitude. The apparent stress of both series varied within four orders (from 6.7*103 to 2.4*107 Pa) with a weak trend of increase with the magnitude. The configuration and source parameters of the aftershock series were related to the observed damage due to the rockburst on July 2, 2015. The results were used to obtain a possible mechanism of the main events.

  2. The WISE Gamma-Ray Strip Parametrization: The Nature of the Gamma-Ray Active Galactic Nuclei of Uncertain Type

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, D.; Grindlay, J.E.; Smith, Howard A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2012-04-02

    Despite the large number of discoveries made recently by Fermi, the origins of the so called unidentified {gamma}-ray sources remain unknown. The large number of these sources suggests that among them there could be a population that significantly contributes to the isotropic gamma-ray background and is therefore crucial to understand their nature. The first step toward a complete comprehension of the unidentified {gamma}-ray source population is to identify those that can be associated with blazars, the most numerous class of extragalactic sources in the {gamma}-ray sky. Recently, we discovered that blazars can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources using the infrared (IR) WISE satellite colors. The blazar population delineates a remarkable and distinctive region of the IR color-color space, the WISE blazar strip. In particular, the subregion delineated by the {gamma}-ray emitting blazars is even narrower and we named it as the WISE Gamma-ray Strip (WGS). In this paper we parametrize the WGS on the basis of a single parameter s that we then use to determine if {gamma}-ray Active Galactic Nuclei of the uncertain type (AGUs) detected by Fermi are consistent with the WGS and so can be considered blazar candidates. We find that 54 AGUs out of a set 60 analyzed have IR colors consistent with the WGS; only 6 AGUs are outliers. This result implies that a very high percentage (i.e., in this sample about 90%) of the AGUs detected by Fermi are indeed blazar candidates.

  3. The WISE Gamma-Ray Strip Parameterization: The Nature of the Gamma-Ray Active Galactic Nuclei of Uncertain Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, D.; Grindlay, J. E.; Smith, Howard A.

    2012-05-01

    Despite the large number of discoveries made recently by Fermi, the origins of the so-called unidentified γ-ray sources remain unknown. The large number of these sources suggests that there could be a population among them that significantly contributes to the isotropic gamma-ray background and it is therefore crucial to understand their nature. The first step toward a complete comprehension of the unidentified γ-ray source population is to identify those that can be associated with blazars, the most numerous class of extragalactic sources in the γ-ray sky. Recently, we discovered that blazars can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources using the infrared (IR) WISE satellite colors. The blazar population delineates a remarkable and distinctive region of the IR color-color space, the WISE blazar strip. In particular, the subregion delineated by the γ-ray emitting blazars is even narrower and we named it the WISE Gamma-ray Strip (WGS). In this paper, we parameterize the WGS on the basis of a single parameter s that we then use to determine if γ-ray active galactic nuclei of the uncertain type (AGUs) detected by Fermi are consistent with the WGS and can be considered blazar candidates. We find that 54 AGUs out of a set of 60 analyzed have IR colors consistent with the WGS; only 6 AGUs are outliers. This result implies that a very high percentage (i.e., in this sample about 90%) of the AGUs detected by Fermi are indeed blazar candidates.

  4. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  5. ORD Technical Outreach and Support Activities on Sustainable Mining Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hardrock mining has played a significant role in the development of economies, consumer products and defense in the United States from the start of industrialization. Currently, the industry continues to lay a critical role in the development of our country. Mining waste which ...

  6. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  7. Calcium-activated tenderization of strip loin, top sirloin, and top round steaks in diverse genotypes of cattle.

    PubMed

    Pringle, T D; Harrelson, J M; West, R L; Williams, S E; Johnson, D D

    1999-12-01

    Steers of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding (100% A, n = 6; F1 B x A, n = 6; and 100% B, n = 6) were used to determine the effect of calcium chloride injection on the calpain proteinase system and meat tenderness. The steers were slaughtered in six replications (at either 9 or 14 mm of backfat, determined ultrasonically), with each breed type represented. Calpains and calpastatin activities were measured on fresh, prerigor longissimus muscle samples. Carcass data were collected after a 24-h chill, and the short loin (IMPS #180), top sirloin (IMPS #184), and top round (IMPS #168) were removed from both sides of each carcass. The cuts from the right side were then injected at 5% (wt/wt) with CaCl2 solution (2.2%). Longissimus muscle calpain and calpastatin activities were also measured at 48 h postmortem from the injected and control sides of each carcass. Warner-Bratzler shear force was measured on steaks from the three subprimals aged 1, 2, 5, 15, or 31 d. Marbling scores and USDA quality grades were higher (P<.05) in A than in F1 B x A and B carcasses. Calpastatin activity was higher (P<.05) in muscle from B than in muscle from A and F1 B x A steers, and postmortem storage (O vs 48 h) and CaCl2 injection reduced (P<.05) the activity of the calpains and calpastatin. Strip loin and top sirloin steaks from A and F1 B x A steers were more tender (P<.05) than steaks from B steers; however, top round steak tenderness did not differ (P>.05) across breed type. Calcium injection improved strip loin and top sirloin steak tenderness, but it did not affect top round steak tenderness. Collectively, these data show that CaC12 injection can be used to improve meat tenderness, with similar responses shown in cattle containing 0, 50, and 100% B inheritance. However, even with CaCl2 injection, B steaks are less tender than their A and F1 B x A counterparts. PMID:10641869

  8. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory



    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  9. The characteristics of intrinsic complex micro-contractile activity in isolated strips of the rat bladder.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J I; Rouget, C; Palea, S; Granato, C; Birder, L; Korstanje, C

    2015-07-01

    In the resting and un-stimulated state, the bladder wall is not quiescent and discrete contractile events, microcontractions, can be recorded in almost all species. This activity contributes to the active element of compliance and to the basal resting tension. This intrinsic activity underpins the more complex phasic activity, non-voiding activity (NVA) that can be seen to increase progressively as the bladder is filled. The NVA represents the motor component of a motor sensory system that relays information to the CNS on bladder volume. Despite the importance of this intrinsic motor activity, little is known about the mechanisms involved in its generation and modulation. The present experiments were done on isolated hemi-bladders from normal rats and measurements made of the intrinsic motor activity. Detailed analysis of the resting state reveals the presence of discrete phasic contractile events, micro-contractions that range in amplitude from 0.1-0.6 mN. These events seem to occur randomly and the basal activity has the appearance of ‘noise’. An analysis of the frequency amplitude distribution of the contractile events, reveals that the total activity appears to be the sum of a number of discrete contractile units, each generating a phasic contraction about a specific mean value and with characteristic frequency. In a hemi-bladder, there are between 20-30 units generating the activity at rest. Using the timed integral of the activity (product of amplitude and frequency), it was noted that the activity was increased by the muscarinic agonist carbachol, but it was decreased by the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. Stretching the preparations also increased the activity. Using these observations, a simple model of the structural and functional organisation of the isolated rat bladder is proposed: the wall appears to be arranged into a number of discrete motor units acting independently. However, the activity can be stimulated or inhibited by pharmacological

  10. Chemical properties and toxicity of soils contaminated by mining activity.

    PubMed

    Agnieszka, Baran; Tomasz, Czech; Jerzy, Wieczorek

    2014-09-01

    This research is aimed at assessing the total content and soluble forms of metals (zinc, lead and cadmium) and toxicity of soils subjected to strong human pressure associated with mining of zinc and lead ores. The research area lay in the neighbourhood of the Bolesław Mine and Metallurgical Plant in Bukowno (Poland). The study obtained total cadmium concentration between 0.29 and 51.91 mg, zinc between 7.90 and 3,614 mg, and that of lead between 28.4 and 6844 mg kg(-1) of soil d.m. The solubility of the heavy metals in 1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 was 1-49% for zinc, 5-45% for cadmium, and <1-10% for lead. In 1 mol HCl dm(-3), the solubility of the studied metals was much higher and obtained values depending on the collection site, from 45 to 92% for zinc, from 74 to 99%, and from 79 to 99% for lead. The lower solubility of the heavy metals in 1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 than 1 mol HCl dm(-3) is connected with that, the ammonium nitrate has low extraction power, and it is used in determining the bioavailable (active) form of heavy metals. Toxicity assessment of the soil samples was performed using two tests, Phytotoxkit and Microtox(®). Germination index values were between 22 and 75% for Sinapis alba, between 28 and 100% for Lepidium sativum, and between 10 and 28% for Sorghum saccharatum. Depending on the studied soil sample, Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition was 20-96%. The sensitivity of the test organisms formed the following series: S. saccharatum > S. alba = V. fischeri > L. sativum. Significant positive correlations (p ≤ 0.05) of the total and soluble contents of the metals with luminescence inhibition in V. fischeri and root growth inhibition in S. saccharatum were found. The general trend observed was an increase in metal toxicity measured by the biotest with increasing available metal contents in soils. All the soil samples were classified into toxicity class III, which means that they are toxic and present severe danger. Biotest are a good complement to

  11. Development of a tree classifier for discrimination of surface mine activity from Landsat digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. L.; Miller, W. F.; Quattrochi, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    In a cooperative project with the Geological Survey of Alabama, the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Applications Program has developed a single purpose, decision-tree classifier using band-ratioing techniques to discriminate various stages of surface mining activity. The tree classifier has four levels and employs only two channels in classification at each level. An accurate computation of the amount of disturbed land resulting from the mining activity can be made as a product of the classification output. The utilization of Landsat data provides a cost-efficient, rapid, and accurate means of monitoring surface mining activities.

  12. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  13. [The "Mining Rescue System and Mine Fires" Working Group. Tasks, results, future activities].

    PubMed

    Coenders, A

    1983-01-01

    The president of the working party presents details of its principal tasks in the past and in the present time. These can be summed up in a study of the problems mentioned below and the subsequent elaboration of recommendations for the benefit of the governments, guidelines, information reports and research proposals. The principal problems that were or are still under study are: --prevention of fires: shaft equipment, hydraulic fluids, belt conveyors, . . .; --detection of mine fires and spontaneous combustion; --fighting of mine fires: shaft fires, construction of stoppings, openings and recovering of fire zones, . . .; --coordination and rescue equipment: escape and rescue breathing apparatus, flameproof clothing, rescue of trapped miners; --stabilization of ventilation in the event of fire, . . . The speaker stresses the importance of the information exchange and the atmosphere of fellowship and solidarity that prevails in the working party. PMID:6622911

  14. The relative activities of some tryptamine analogues on the isolated rat stomach strip preparation

    PubMed Central

    Vane, J. R.

    1959-01-01

    The relative potencies of analogues of tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine have been determined on the rat fundus preparation. This tissue had an amine oxidase activity, which, in the homogenate, was able to inactivate both tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine to about the same degree. Amine oxidase inhibitors potentiated the action of tryptamine and many analogues on the isolated rat fundus preparation, but not the action of 5-hydroxytryptamine or of other hydroxytryptamines. This suggested that, in the isolated organ, the amine oxidase was unable to inactivate 5-hydroxytryptamine, but could inactivate tryptamine, 5-methoxytryptamine and many others. These results may be explained if it is supposed that tryptamine entered the cell, but because of the polar hydroxyl group 5-hydroxytryptamine did not. This hypothesis is supported by the oil/water partition coefficients. The structure/activity of the various tryptamine derivatives is discussed in the light of this assumption. PMID:13651584

  15. Digital database of mining-related features at selected historic and active phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas; Moyle, Phillip R.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a description of data and processes used to produce a spatial database that delineates mining-related features in areas of historic and active phosphate mining in the core of the southeastern Idaho phosphate resource area. The data have varying degrees of accuracy and attribution detail. Classification of areas by type of mining-related activity at active mines is generally detailed; however, the spatial coverage does not differentiate mining-related surface disturbance features at many of the closed or inactive mines. Nineteen phosphate mine sites are included in the study. A total of 5,728 hc (14,154 ac), or more than 57 km2 (22 mi2), of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance are documented in the spatial coverage of the core of the southeast Idaho phosphate resource area. The study includes 4 active phosphate mines—Dry Valley, Enoch Valley, Rasmussen Ridge, and Smoky Canyon—and 15 historic phosphate mines—Ballard, Champ, Conda, Diamond Gulch, Gay, Georgetown Canyon, Henry, Home Canyon, Lanes Creek, Maybe Canyon, Mountain Fuel, Trail Canyon, Rattlesnake Canyon, Waterloo, and Wooley Valley. Spatial data on the inactive historic mines is relatively up-to-date; however, spatially described areas for active mines are based on digital maps prepared in early 1999. The inactive Gay mine has the largest total area of disturbance: 1,917 hc (4,736 ac) or about 19 km2 (7.4 mi2). It encompasses over three times the disturbance area of the next largest mine, the Conda mine with 607 hc (1,504 ac), and it is nearly four times the area of the Smoky Canyon mine, the largest of the active mines with 497 hc (1,228 ac). The wide range of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance features (approximately 80) were reduced to 13 types or features used in this study—adit and pit, backfilled mine pit, facilities, mine pit, ore stockpile, railroad, road, sediment catchment, tailings or tailings pond, topsoil stockpile, water reservoir, and disturbed

  16. Active oil seep at Nevada gold mine holds intrigue for more exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnell, M.L.; Blake, J.G. ); Hulen, J.B. )

    1991-07-15

    This paper reports on an active oil seep has been discovered in one of Nevada's famous Carlin-type low grade disseminated gold deposits. This unique seep, at the Yankee gold mine in White Pine County, may have important implications for both oil and gas and gold exploration in the Basin and Range province of the western U.S. The open pit Yankee mine, near the western margin of Long Valley, exploits one of numerous Carlin-type gold ore bodies in the alligator Ridge mining district; all are currently owned and operated by USMX Corp.

  17. NASA Lunar Mining and Construction Activities and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    the need to implement efforts that are sustainable and affordable. One area NASA is developing that can significantly change how systems required for sustained human presence are designed and integrated, as well as potentially break our reliance on Earth supplied logistics, is In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU, also known living off the land, involves the extraction and processing of local resources into useful products. In particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, fuel cell reagents, and radiation shielding can significantly reduce the cost, mass, and risk of sustained human activities beyond Earth. Also, the ability to modify the lunar landscape for safer landing, transfer of payloads from the lander an outpost, dust generation mitigation, and infrastructure placement and buildup are also extremely important for long-term lunar operations. While extra-terrestrial excavation, material handling and processing, and site preparation and construction may be new to NASA and other space agencies, there is extensive terrestrial hardware and commercial experience that can be leveraged. This paper will provide an overview of current NASA activities in lunar ISRU mining and construction and how terrestrial experience in these areas are important to achieving the goal of affordable and sustainable human exploration.

  18. Arizona strip breccia pipe program: exploration, development, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Mathisen, I.W. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    As part of the long-range plans for the Energy Fuels Corporation, they have embarked on one of the most active and aggressive uranium exploration programs in the US. These exploration efforts are located in the northwestern part of Arizona in an area referred to as the Arizona Strip. At a time when the domestic uranium industry is staggering to recover from its worst economic slump, Energy Fuels is spending millions of dollars a year on exploration, development, production, and milling. The reason for Energy Fuels' commitment to uranium exploration and production lies in the ground of Arizona in unique geologic formations called breccia pipes. Some of these structures, generally no more than 300 to 350 ft in diameter, contain uranium that is, on the average, five to ten times richer than ore found elsewhere in the US. The richness of this Arizona ore makes it the only conventionally mined uranium in the US that can compete in today's market of cheaper, high-grade foreign sources. Between January 1980 and December 1986, Energy Fuels has mined more than 10 billion lb of uranium from breccia pipe deposits at an average grade of 0.65% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Currently, Energy Fuels is operating six breccia pipe mines, and a plan of operations on a seventh mine has been submitted to the appropriate government agencies for the necessary mining permits.

  19. Biomarker monitoring of a population residing near uranium mining activities.

    PubMed Central

    Au, W W; Lane, R G; Legator, M S; Whorton, E B; Wilkinson, G S; Gabehart, G J

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether residents residing near uranium mining operations (target population), who are potentially exposed to toxicants from mining waste, have increased genotoxic effects compared with people residing elsewhere (reference population). Population surveys were conducted, and 24 target and 24 reference residents were selected. The selected subjects and controls were matched on age and gender and they were nonsmokers. Blood samples were collected for laboratory studies. The standard cytogenetic assay was used to determine chromosome aberration frequencies, and the challenge assay was used to investigate DNA repair responses. We found that individuals who resided near uranium mining operations had a higher mean frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and higher deletion frequency but lower dicentric frequency than the reference group, although the difference was not statistically significant. After cells were challenged by exposure to gamma-rays, the target population had a significantly higher frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and deletion frequency than the reference group. The latter observation is indicative of abnormal DNA repair response in the target population. PMID:7656876

  20. Data Mining Approaches for Modeling Complex Electronic Circuit Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Yongjin; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Wang, Gi-Nam

    2008-01-01

    A printed circuit board (PCB) is an essential part of modern electronic circuits. It is made of a flat panel of insulating materials with patterned copper foils that act as electric pathways for various components such as ICs, diodes, capacitors, resistors, and coils. The size of PCBs has been shrinking over the years, while the number of components mounted on these boards has increased considerably. This trend makes the design and fabrication of PCBs ever more difficult. At the beginning of design cycles, it is important to estimate the time to complete the steps required accurately, based on many factors such as the required parts, approximate board size and shape, and a rough sketch of schematics. Current approach uses multiple linear regression (MLR) technique for time and cost estimations. However, the need for accurate predictive models continues to grow as the technology becomes more advanced. In this paper, we analyze a large volume of historical PCB design data, extract some important variables, and develop predictive models based on the extracted variables using a data mining approach. The data mining approach uses an adaptive support vector regression (ASVR) technique; the benchmark model used is the MLR technique currently being used in the industry. The strengths of SVR for this data include its ability to represent data in high-dimensional space through kernel functions. The computational results show that a data mining approach is a better prediction technique for this data. Our approach reduces computation time and enhances the practical applications of the SVR technique.

  1. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues. PMID:23124167

  2. Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M.; Abreu, M. M.

    2007-07-01

    The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

  3. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002952.htm Varicose vein stripping To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Vein stripping is surgery to remove varicose veins in the legs. Description Varicose veins are swollen, ...

  4. Mining Claim Activity on Federal Land for the Period 1976 through 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Previous reports on mining claim records provided information and statistics (number of claims) using data from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Mining Claim Recordation System. Since that time, BLM converted their mining claim data to the Legacy Repost 2000 system (LR2000). This report describes a process to extract similar statistical data about mining claims from LR2000 data using different software and procedures than were used in the earlier work. A major difference between this process and the previous work is that every section that has a mining claim record is assigned a value. This is done by proportioning a claim between each section in which it is recorded. Also, the mining claim data in this report includes all BLM records, not just the western states. LR2000 mining claim database tables for the United States were provided by BLM in text format and imported into a Microsoft? Access2000 database in January, 2004. Data from two tables in the BLM LR2000 database were summarized through a series of database queries to determine a number that represents active mining claims in each Public Land Survey (PLS) section for each of the years from 1976 to 2002. For most of the area, spatial databases are also provided. The spatial databases are only configured to work with the statistics provided in the non-spatial data files. They are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller (for example, 1:250,000).

  5. Measurement of surface mercury fluxes at active industrial gold mines in Nevada (USA).

    PubMed

    Eckley, C S; Gustin, M; Marsik, F; Miller, M B

    2011-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) may be naturally associated with the rock units hosting precious and base metal deposits. Active gold mines are known to have point source releases of Hg associated with ore processing facilities. The nonpoint source release of Hg to the air from the large area (hundreds to thousands of hectares) of disturbed and processed material at industrial open pit gold mines has not been quantified. This paper describes the field data collected as part of a project focused on estimating nonpoint source emissions of Hg from two active mines in Nevada, USA. In situ Hg flux data were collected on diel and seasonal time steps using a dynamic flux chamber from representative mine surfaces. Hg fluxes ranged from <1500 ng m(-2) day(-1) for waste rock piles (0.6-3.5 μg g(-1)) to 684,000 ng m(-2) day(-1) for tailings (2.8-58 μg g(-1)). Releases were positively correlated with material Hg concentrations, surface grain size, and moisture content. Highest Hg releases occurred from materials under active cyanide leaching and from tailings impoundments containing processed high-grade ore. Data collected indicate that as mine sites are reclaimed and material disturbance ceases, emissions will decline. Additionally local cycling of atmospheric Hg (deposition and re-emission) was found to occur. PMID:21078520

  6. Effect of Mining Activities in Biotic Communities of Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; González-Mille, Donaji J.; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César A.; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Cilia-López, V. Gabriela; Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities worldwide. During its different stages numerous impacts are generated to the environment. The activities in the region have generated a great amount of mining residues, which have caused severe pollution and health effects in both human population and biotic components. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of mining activities on biotic communities within the district of Villa de la Paz. The results showed that the concentrations of As and Pb in soil were higher than the national regulations for urban or agricultural areas. The bioavailability of these metals was certified by the presence of them in the roots of species of plants and in kidneys and livers of wild rodents. In regard to the community analysis, the sites that were located close to the mining district of Villa de la Paz registered a lower biological diversity, in both plants and wild rodents, aside from showing a change in the species composition of plant communities. The results of this study are evidence of the impact of mining on biotic communities, and the need to take into account the wildlife in the assessment of contaminated sites. PMID:24592381

  7. Ground-water movement and effects of coal strip mining on water quality of high-wall lakes and aquifers in the Macon-Huntsville area, north- central Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.C.; Davis, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Glacial drift and Pennsylvanian bedrock were mixed together forming spoil during pre-reclamation strip mining for coal in north-central Missouri. This restructuring of the land increases the porosity of the material, and increases aqueous concentrations of many dissolved constituents. Median sodium and bicarbonate concentrations were slightly greater, calcium 5 times greater, magnesium 6 times greater, manganese 15 times greater, iron 19 times greater, and sulfate 24 times greater in water from spoil than in water from glacial drift. Median potassium concentrations were slightly greater, and chloride concentrations were two times greater in water from glacial drift than in water from spoil. Water types in glacial drift and bedrock were mostly sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate; in spoil and lakes in the spoil, the water types were mostly calcium sulfate. Median pH values in water from spoil were 6.6, as compared to 7.4 in water from glacial drift and 9.0 in water from bedrock. Neutralization of acid by carbonate rocks causes the moderate pH values in water from spoil; a carbonate system closed to the atmosphere may result in alkaline pH values in bedrock. Transmissivities generally are greatest for spoil, and decrease in the following order: alluvium, glacial drift, and bedrock. Recharge to spoil is from precipitation, lateral flow from glacial drift, and lateral and vertical flow from bedrock. The rate of recharge to the aquifers is unknown, but probably is small. Groundwater discharge from the glacial drift, bedrock, and spoil is to alluvium. The direction of flow generally was from high-wall lakes in the spoil toward East Fork Little Chariton River or South Fork Claybank Creek. Significant differences (95% confidence level) in values and concentrations of aqueous constituents between spoil areas mined at different times (1940, 1952, and 1968) were obtained for pH, calcium, magnesium, manganese, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids, but not for iron

  8. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  9. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bister, S; Birkhan, J; Lüllau, T; Bunka, M; Solle, A; Stieghorst, C; Riebe, B; Michel, R; Walther, C

    2015-06-01

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland. PMID:25791900

  10. 78 FR 16863 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... FR 57111) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for approval and soliciting comments. The....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  11. 78 FR 37404 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... was clarified to read: ``Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining.'' 77 FR 72766... initially announced in the Fall 2012 Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions, 78 FR... adjustment to size standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237)....

  12. Mining claim activity on federal land in the contiguous United States, 1976 through 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas; Frank, David G.

    2006-01-01

    The data show how mining claim activity has changed in intensity, space, and time. Variations can be examined on a state, as well as a national level. The data are tied to a section of land, approximately 640 acres, which allows it to be used at regional, as well as local scale. It is restricted in that it only encompasses Federal land.

  13. A Data Mining Approach for Examining Predictors of Physical Activity among Older Urban Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    This study applied innovative data mining techniques to a community survey dataset to develop prediction models for two aspects of physical activity (active transport and screen time) in sample of older, primarily Hispanic, urban adults (N=2, 514). Main predictors for active transport (accuracy=69.29%, precision .67, recall .69) were immigrant status, high level of anxiety, having a place for physical activity, and willingness to make time for physical activity. The main predictors for screen time (accuracy=63.13%, precision .60, recall .63) were willingness to make time for exercise, having a place for exercise, age, and availability of family support to look up health information on the Internet. Data mining methods were useful to identify intervention targets and inform design of customized interventions. PMID:25941800

  14. A Data Mining Approach for Examining Predictors of Physical Activity Among Urban Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    The current study applied innovative data mining techniques to a community survey dataset to develop prediction models for two aspects of physical activity (i.e., active transport and screen time) in a sample of urban, primarily Hispanic, older adults (N=2,514). Main predictors for active transport (accuracy=69.29%, precision=0.67, recall=0.69) were immigrant status, high level of anxiety, having a place for physical activity, and willingness to make time for physical activity. The main predictors for screen time (accuracy=63.13%, precision=0.60, recall=0.63) were willingness to make time for exercise, having a place for exercise, age, and availability of family support to access health information on the Internet. Data mining methods were useful to identify intervention targets and inform design of customized interventions. PMID:25941800

  15. Ground fissures in the area of Mavropigi Village (N. Greece): Seismotectonics or mining activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogirou, Eleni; Tsapanos, Theodoros; Karakostas, Vassilios; Marinos, Vassilios; Chatzipetros, Alexandros

    2014-12-01

    In the beginning of July 2010, a ground fissure was observed in the field near the village of Mavropigi (Northern Greece) and specifically in its NW side. Later on (early September), a second ground fissure was perceived, close and almost parallel to the first one and very close to the limits of the lignite exploitation mine (by the Public Power Corporation, PPC). It was observed that the village of Mavropigi slides away slowly towards the PPC lignite mine. Geological, seismological, as well as geotechnical survey in the field indicated that the phenomenon is related to the coal mining exploitation in the near vicinity of the village rather than to any seismotectonic activity in the surrounding area.

  16. Evaluating amphibian responses in wetlands impacted by mining activities in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, G.; Wyant, J.; Meganck, R.; Williams, B.

    1991-01-01

    An increasing awareness of declining amphibian populations in the United States requires that the authors develop strategies for evaluating anthropogenic impacts on wetlands and the biota dependent upon these habitats. For example, in the western United States, mining activities may impact a wetland and its biota directly through habitat destruction or run-off of sediments and contaminants generated during mining operations. Amphibians which frequent these transition zones between terrestrial and aquatic habitats may be key biological indicators of a wetland's status. Through a demonstration project located in the mining regions of western Montana, the authors are currently using laboratory and field methods for a wetland evaluation required within a Superfund ecological risk assessment.

  17. Scaling non-point-source mercury emissions from two active industrial gold mines: influential variables and annual emission estimates.

    PubMed

    Eckley, C S; Gustin, M; Miller, M B; Marsik, F

    2011-01-15

    Open-pit gold mines encompass thousands of hectares of disturbed materials that are often naturally enriched in mercury (Hg). The objective of this study was to estimate annual non-point-source Hg emissions from two active gold mines in Nevada. This was achieved by measuring diel and seasonally representative Hg fluxes from mesocosms of materials collected from each mine. These measurements provided a framework for scaling emissions over space and time at each mine by identifying the important variables correlated with Hg flux. The validity of these correlations was tested by comparisons with measurements conducted in situ at the mines. Of the average diel fluxes obtained in situ (92 daily flux measurements), 81% were within the 95% prediction limits of the regressions developed from the laboratory-derived data. Some surfaces at the mines could not be simulated in the laboratory setting (e.g., material actively leached by cyanide solution and tailings saturated with cyanide solution), and as such in situ data were applied for scaling. Based on the surface areas of the materials and environmental conditions at the mines during the year of study, non-point-source Hg releases were estimated to be 19 and 109 kg·year(-1). These account for 56% and 14%, respectively, of the overall emissions from each mine (point + nonpoint sources). Material being heap-leached and active tailings impoundments were the major contributors to the releases (>60% combined) suggesting that as mining operations cease, releases will decline. PMID:21142061

  18. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  19. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  20. Mercury speciation in the Mt. Amiata mining district (Italy): interplay between urban activities and mercury contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rimondi, Valentina; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilario; Gray, John E.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental step to evaluate the biogeochemical and eco-toxicological significance of Hg dispersion in the environment is to determine speciation of Hg in solid matrices. In this study, several analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), sequential chemical extractions (SCEs), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) were used to identify Hg compounds and Hg speciation in samples collected from the Mt. Amiata Hg mining district, southern Tuscany, Italy. Different geological materials, such as mine waste calcine (retorted ore), soil, stream sediment, and stream water suspended particulate matter were analyzed. Results show that the samples were generally composed of highly insoluble Hg compounds such as sulphides (HgS, cinnabar and metacinnabar), and more soluble Hg halides such as those associated with the mosesite group. Other moderately soluble Hg compounds, HgCl2, HgO and Hg0, were also identified in stream sediments draining the mining area. The presence of these minerals suggests active and continuous runoff of soluble Hg compounds from calcines, where such Hg compounds form during retorting, or later in secondary processes. Specifically, we suggest that, due to the proximity of Hg mines to the urban center of Abbadia San Salvatore, the influence of other anthropogenic activities was a key factor for Hg speciation, resulting in the formation of unusual Hg-minerals such as mosesite.

  1. Palaeo-pollution from mining activities in the Vosges Mountains: 1000 years and still bioavailable.

    PubMed

    Mariet, Anne-Lise; de Vaufleury, Annette; Bégeot, Carole; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Gimbert, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Mining and smelting activities have contaminated the environment with trace metals (TMs) at a worldwide scale for at least two millennia. A combination of chemical approaches and active biomonitoring was performed to analyse the environmental availability and bioavailability of TM palaeo-pollution in a former PbAg mining district in the Vosges Mountains, France. Along a soil TM contamination gradient that covered eight stations, including two archaeological mining sites, the toxicokinetics of six TMs (Pb, Cd, As, Ag, Co, Sb) in the snail Cantareus aspersus revealed that palaeo-pollution from the studied sites remains bioavailable. This study provides the first data on the accumulation kinetics of Ag and Co for C. aspersus. The environmental availability of the TMs was estimated with three chemical extraction methods (aqua regia, EDTA 50 mM, CaCl2 10 mM). Univariate regression analyses showed that EDTA extraction is the best method for estimating the bioavailability of Pb, As, Ag, Co and Sb to snails. None of the three extractants was efficient for Cd. A multivariate analysis of bioaccumulation data revealed that TM bioavailability and transfer were modulated by exposure sources (soil, humus and vegetation) rather than by soil physico-chemical characteristics. Hence, although the deposition of mining wastes dates back several centuries, these wastes still represent a source of contamination that must be considered to develop relevant site management and environmental risk assessment. PMID:27131817

  2. Site-specific characterization of Castromil Brownfield area related to gold mining activities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Serrano Pinto, Luís; Patinha, Carla; Cardoso Fonseca, Edmundo

    2004-03-01

    Castromil is one of the gold mining areas in Portugal that has been abandoned since 1940. This area, which was first mined in Roman times, is located within a Hercynian granite body near the contact with Silurian metasediments. Gold is essentially disseminated along veins in the silicified granite, running NW-SE, related with a shear zone and frequently associated with sulphides (arsenopyrite and basically pyrite). In paragenetic terms, three stages of mineralization are considered: ferro-arseniferous (quartz + arsenopyrite I + pyrite I + pyrrhotite + bismuth), zinciferous (sphalerite + chalcopyrite), and remobilization (arsenopyrite II + galena + gold). Due to the lack of laws and environmental education, Castromil is today a gold mining heritage site where we can detect the consequences of an incautious exploration (tailings, wells and adits located in the old explored zone) and where a residential area is located. In order to characterize the actual state of the old mining area the trace metal contamination of soils and waters by mining activities was investigated. In the studied area 106 soil samples, 15 waters and 20 plants were sampled and analysed. The soil samples were analysed for 32 elements by ICP-AES. Waters were analysed by ionic chromatography and ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Plants were analysed for As, Fe and Pb by AAS. The results are discussed taking into account the risk-based standards for soils and groundwater's (target and intervention values) proposed by Swartjes (1999). The results show elevated concentration of As and Pb which were found in soils collected from agricultural areas. Foodstuff plants species collected in the Castromil agricultural area show high concentrations of As in the leaves (cabbage and lettuce) and in the tubers (potatoes). Groundwaters in the mining area contain high concentrations of As that exceeds the intervention values. The area must to be subject to a remediation process, considering the actual risks to

  3. STRIP MINE RECLAMATION WITH MUNICIPAL SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stabilized municipal sludge was used on three 4-ha demonstration plots of acidic stripmined land. Liquid digested, dewatered, and sludges were used at variable rates to supply and maintain nutrients for vegetating the plots with a grass-legume mixture. All rates resulted in a lus...

  4. REMOTE MONITORING OF COAL STRIP MINE REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses the accomplishments of the Phase I Operations of the EPA/NASA joint project and also compares the results of manual photo-interpretation and automated data analysis conducted during this phase. Also included in this report are the results of a feasibility st...

  5. [Effects of Different Reclaimed Scenarios on Soil Microbe and Enzyme Activities in Mining Areas].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-jian; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Xiao-mei

    2015-05-01

    Abstract: Ecological degradation in the mining areas is greatly aggravated in recent several decades, and ecological restoration has become the primary measure for the sustainable development. Soil microbe and enzyme activity are sensitive indices to evaluate soil quality. Ecological reconstruction was initiated in Antaibao mining area, and we tested soil physicochemical properties, microbial populations of azotobacteria, nitrifying-bacteria and denitrifying-bacteria, and enzyme activities (including sucrose, polyphenol oxidase, dehydrogenase and urease) under different regeneration scenarios. Regeneration scenarios had significant effects on soil physicochemical properties, microbial population and enzyme activities. Total nitrogen was strongly correlated with azotobacteria and nitrifying-bacteria, however, total nitrogen was not correlated with denitrifying-bacteria. Phenol oxidase activity was negatively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, but other enzyme activities were positively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Principal Component Analysis ( PCA) was applied to analyze the integrated fertility index (IFI). The highest and lowest IFIs were in Robinia pseudoacacia-Pinus tabuliformis mixed forests and un-reclaimed area, respectively. R. pseudoacacia-P. tabuliformis mixed forests were feasible for reclaimed mining areas in semi-arid region Northwest Shanxi. PMID:26314137

  6. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare. PMID:26658480

  7. Database mining applied to central nervous system (CNS) activity.

    PubMed

    Pintore, M; Taboureau, O; Ros, F; Chrétien, J R

    2001-04-01

    A data set of 389 compounds, active in the central nervous system (CNS) and divided into eight classes according to the receptor type, was extracted from the RBI database and analyzed by Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), also known as Kohonen Artificial Neural Networks. This method gives a 2D representation of the distribution of the compounds in the hyperspace derived from their molecular descriptors. As SOM belongs to the category of unsupervised techniques, it has to be combined with another method in order to generate classification models with predictive ability. The fuzzy clustering (FC) approach seems to be particularly suitable to delineate clusters in a rational way from SOM and to get an automatic objective map interpretation. Maps derived by SOM showed specific regions associated with a unique receptor type and zones in which two or more activity classes are nested. Then, the modeling ability of the proposed SOM/FC Hybrid System tools applied simultaneously to eight activity classes was validated after dividing the 389 compounds into a training set and a test set, including 259 and 130 molecules, respectively. The proper experimental activity class, among the eight possible ones, was predicted simultaneously and correctly for 81% of the test set compounds. PMID:11461760

  8. Retractable spiked barrier strip for law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has designed an laboratory tested a prototype retractable spiked barrier strip for law enforcement. The proposed system, which is ready for controlled field testing, expands the functionality of existing spiked barrier strips. A retractable barrier strip, one that can place the spikes in either the active (vertical) or passive (horizontal) position, would allow law enforcement personnel to lay the unobtrusive strip across a road far in advance of a fleeing vehicle. No damage occurs to passing vehicles until the spikes are activated, and that can be done from a safe distance and at a strategic location when the offending vehicle is close to the strip. The concept also allows the strips to be place safely across several roadways that are potential paths of a fleeing vehicle. Since they are not activated until needed, they are harmless to nonoffending vehicles. The laboratory tests conducted on the system indicate that it will puncture tires only when the spikes are rotated to the active position and is safe to travel over when the spikes are in the down position. The strip itself will not cause instability to a vehicle driving over it, nor is the strip disturbed or adversely affected by vehicles driving over it. The spikes can be quickly rotated between the active (vertical) and passive (horizontal) position. However, the laboratory tests have only demonstrated that the retractable spiked barrier strip can perform its intended function in a laboratory environment. Field tests are needed to finalize the design and develop the system into a functional law enforcement tool.

  9. Mining continuous activity patterns from animal trajectory data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Baoping, Yan; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of animal tracking data brings us opportunities and challenges to intuitively understand the mechanisms of animal activities. In this paper, we aim to discover animal movement patterns from animal trajectory data. In particular, we propose a notion of continuous activity pattern as the concise representation of underlying similar spatio-temporal movements, and develop an extension and refinement framework to discover the patterns. We first preprocess the trajectories into significant semantic locations with time property. Then, we apply a projection-based approach to generate candidate patterns and refine them to generate true patterns. A sequence graph structure and a simple and effective processing strategy is further developed to reduce the computational overhead. The proposed approaches are extensively validated on both real GPS datasets and large synthetic datasets.

  10. Antimony isotopic composition in river waters affected by ancient mining activity.

    PubMed

    Resongles, Eléonore; Freydier, Rémi; Casiot, Corinne; Viers, Jérôme; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise

    2015-11-01

    In this study, antimony (Sb) isotopic composition was determined in natural water samples collected along two hydrosystems impacted by historical mining activities: the upper Orb River and the Gardon River watershed (SE, France). Antimony isotope ratio was measured by HG-MC-ICP-MS (Hydride Generation Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) after a preconcentration and purification step using a new thiol-cellulose powder (TCP) procedure. The external reproducibility obtained for δ(123)Sb measurements of our in-house Sb isotopic standard solution and a certified reference freshwater was 0.06‰ (2σ). Significant isotopic variations were evident in surface waters from the upper Orb River (-0.06‰≤δ(123)Sb≤+0.11‰) and from the Gardon River watershed (+0.27‰≤δ(123)Sb≤+0.83‰). In particular, streams that drained different former mining sites exploited for Sb or Pb-Zn exhibited contrasted Sb isotopic signature, that may be related to various biogeochemical processes occurring during Sb transfer from rocks, mine wastes and sediments to the water compartment. Nevertheless, Sb isotopic composition appeared to be stable along the Gardon River, which might be attributed to the conservative transport of Sb at distance from mine-impacted streams, due to the relative mobile behavior of Sb(V) in natural oxic waters. This study suggests that Sb isotopic composition could be a useful tool to track pollution sources and/or biogeochemical processes in hydrologic systems. PMID:26452900

  11. Assessment of Trace Metals in Soil, Vegetation and Rodents in Relation to Metal Mining Activities in an Arid Environment.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Rodríguez, Lia C; Alvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul

    2016-07-01

    Areas where abandoned metal-extraction mines are located contain large quantities of mineral wastes derived from environmentally unsafe mining practices. These wastes contain many pollutants, such as heavy metals, which could be released to the environment through weathering and leaching, hence becoming an important source of environmental metal pollution. This study evaluates differences in the levels of lead, iron, nickel, manganese, copper and cadmium in rodents sharing the same type of diet under different microhabitat use in arid areas with past mining activities. Samples of soil, roots, branches and seeds of Palo Adán (Fouquieria diguetii) and specimens of two rodent species (Chaetodipus arenarius and C. spinatus) were collected in areas with impact from past metal mining activities as well as from areas with no mining impact. Both rodent species mirrored nickel and iron levels in soil and seeds, as well as lead levels in soil; however, C. arenarius accumulated higher levels of manganese, copper and cadmium. PMID:27207229

  12. A novel pattern mining approach for identifying cognitive activity in EEG based functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Thilaga, M; Vijayalakshmi, R; Nadarajan, R; Nandagopal, D

    2016-06-01

    The complex nature of neuronal interactions of the human brain has posed many challenges to the research community. To explore the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activity of cohesive brain regions during different cognitive activities, many innovative mathematical and computational models are required. This paper presents a novel Common Functional Pattern Mining approach to demonstrate the similar patterns of interactions due to common behavior of certain brain regions. The electrode sites of EEG-based functional brain network are modeled as a set of transactions and node-based complex network measures as itemsets. These itemsets are transformed into a graph data structure called Functional Pattern Graph. By mining this Functional Pattern Graph, the common functional patterns due to specific brain functioning can be identified. The empirical analyses show the efficiency of the proposed approach in identifying the extent to which the electrode sites (transactions) are similar during various cognitive load states. PMID:27401999

  13. Genetic Algorithm Calibration of Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Modeling Mining Permit Activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate a spatially and temporally resolved cellular automata to model mining activity on public land in Idaho and western Montana. The genetic algorithm searches through a space of transition rule parameters of a two dimensional cellular automata model to find rule parameters that fit observed mining activity data. Previous work by one of the authors in calibrating the cellular automaton took weeks - the genetic algorithm takes a day and produces rules leading to about the same (or better) fit to observed data. These preliminary results indicate that genetic algorithms are a viable tool in calibrating cellular automata for this application. Experience gained during the calibration of this cellular automata suggests that mineral resource information is a critical factor in the quality of the results. With automated calibration, further refinements of how the mineral-resource information is provided to the cellular automaton will probably improve our model.

  14. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  15. Prefix Stripping Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes three experiments on prefix stripping. Results show that pseudoprefixed words are indiscriminately treated as prefixed words and concludes that prefix stripping does occur in word recognition and that prefixed words are accessed through a representation of their stem. (Author/BK)

  16. Science Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  17. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines. PMID:23229279

  18. Excimer laser photoresist stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genut, Menachem; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Iskevitch, Eli; Livshits, Boris

    1996-06-01

    A new method for stripping the most challenging photoresists on deep sub-micron technology semiconductor wafers has been developed. The method uses a combination of UV excimer laser ablation and reactive chemistry to strip the photoresist in a single dry process, eliminating the wet acids or solvents often used following ashing of high dose implantation (HDI) and reactive ion etching (RIE). The stripping process combines new removal mechanisms: chemical assisted UV excimer laser ablation/etching, laser induced chemical etching of side walls and residues, and enhanced combustion. During the laser pulses photolysis of the process gas occurs, UV laser radiation breaks the photoresist polymer chain bonds, and the photoresist (including foreign materials imbedded in it) is ablated. The combustion is ignited by the ablative impact of laser radiation and enhanced by the radicals formed during photo-thermal decomposition of the process gases. Following this process, the volatilized products and gases are evacuated. The optimum laser stripping conditions were developed to provide a wide process window for the most challenging stripping conditions, such as after HDI and RIE (metal, polysilicon), without causing damage to the wafer devices. A photoresist stripping system based on the described technology was designed and built. The system has been designated as the L-StripperTM and provides stripping time of 0.15 s/(micrometer cm2).

  19. Installation of a digital, wireless, strong-motion network for monitoring seismic activity in a western Colorado coal mining region

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Swanson; Collin Stewart; Wendell Koontz

    2007-01-15

    A seismic monitoring network has recently been installed in the North Fork Valley coal mining region of western Colorado as part of a NIOSH mine safety technology transfer project with two longwall coal mine operators. Data recorded with this network will be used to characterize mining related and natural seismic activity in the vicinity of the mines and examine potential hazards due to ground shaking near critical structures such as impoundment dams, reservoirs, and steep slopes. Ten triaxial strong-motion accelerometers have been installed on the surface to form the core of a network that covers approximately 250 square kilometers (100 sq. miles) of rugged canyon-mesa terrain. Spread-spectrum radio networks are used to telemeter continuous streams of seismic waveform data to a central location where they are converted to IP data streams and ported to the Internet for processing, archiving, and analysis. 4 refs.

  20. Environmental impact of mining activities on the surface water quality in Tibet: Gyama valley.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang; Sillanpää, Mika; Gjessing, Egil T; Peräniemi, Sirpa; Vogt, Rolf D

    2010-09-01

    Nearly 20years of industrial scale metal mining operations in Tibet have caused an impact on the region's surface water quality. However, no information with respect to the pollution has been provided to the public. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical quality of the stream water and to assess the present and future potential risks of acid mine drainage to the regional and downstream environments. This study, based on data collected in 2006, 2007 and 2008 in the Gyama valley, using the Environmental Risk Index (I(ER)) documents that elevated concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe and Al in the surface water and streambed at the upper/middle part of the valley pose a considerably high risk to the local environment. In contrast, the risk level at the stream source area is zero and only minor risk at the lower reaches. The iron and copper contamination of the upper/middle part of the river appears to be both natural and accelerated by the mining activities. The level of dissolved contaminants in the water decreases within short distance downstream due to precipitation and sorption to the streambed and strong dilution by a tributary stream and eventually by the Lhasa River. A high content of heavy metals in the stream sediments as well as in a number of tailings with gangue and material from the ore processing, poses a great potential threat to the downstream water users. Environmental changes such as global warming or increased mining activity may increase the mobility of these pools of heavy metals. PMID:20542540

  1. Current Activities of the Ministry of Mines, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, M.

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in late 2001, the Afghanistan government started developing plans for the revitalization of the Natural Resources sector. This revitalization included the rebuilding and reorganization of the capabilities of the Ministry of Mines and Industries (now the Ministry of Mines) and the Afghan Geological Survey and several other Afghan ministries. The initial focus was on the development of new mining and hydrocarbon laws, which were supported by the World Bank. Concurrent with these activities was the recognized need to identify, organize and compile existing data and information on the natural resources of the country. This has been followed by the use of these data and information to provide preliminary assessments of the oil and gas resources, mineral resources, water resources, coal resources, and earthquake hazards, all based on existing data. A large part of these assessment efforts required the development of a geospatial infrastructure through the use of satellite imagery and other remote sensing technologies. Institutional and capacity building were integral parts of all efforts. With the assessment and law activities ongoing, the Ministry of Mine has now turned to the development of a leasing framework, which address the critical need of transparency of leasing, lease management, and royalty collection. This new leasing system was implemented in spring 2008 with the leasing of the Aynak Copper Deposit, which is located about 25 miles south of Kabul. At the moment, a second world class mineral deposit is being considered for leasing within the next year. Oil and gas lease tracts are also under development in the northern oil and gas basins of Afghanistan. With the support of the Afghan government, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently completed the gathering of new data and information in support of the Natural Resources Sector. These data gathering missions include gravity, magnetics, radar, and hyperspectral data, which were gathered through

  2. Near-line Archive Data Mining at the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L.; Mack, R.; Eng, E.; Lynnes, C.

    2002-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is generating immense volumes of data, in some cases too much to provide to users with data-intensive needs. As an alternative to moving the data to the user and his/her research algorithms, we are providing a means to move the algorithms to the data. The Near-line Archive Data Mining (NADM) system is the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center's (GES DAAC) web data mining portal to the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data pool, a 50-TB online disk cache. The NADM web portal enables registered users to submit and execute data mining algorithm codes on the data in the EOSDIS data pool. A web interface allows the user to access the NADM system. The users first develops personalized data mining code on their home platform and then uploads them to the NADM system. The C, FORTRAN and IDL languages are currently supported. The user developed code is automatically audited for any potential security problems before it is installed within the NADM system and made available to the user. Once the code has been installed the user is provided a test environment where he/she can test the execution of the software against data sets of the user's choosing. When the user is satisfied with the results, he/she can promote their code to the "operational" environment. From here the user can interactively run his/her code on the data available in the EOSDIS data pool. The user can also set up a processing subscription. The subscription will automatically process new data as it becomes available in the EOSDIS data pool. The generated mined data products are then made available for FTP pickup. The NADM system uses the GES DAAC-developed Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor (S4P) to automate tasks and perform the actual data processing. Users will also have the option of selecting a DAAC-provided data mining algorithm and using it to process the data of their choice.

  3. Noise-based body-wave seismic tomography in an active underground mine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, G.; Brenguier, F.; Campillo, M.; Lynch, R.; Roux, P.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, ambient noise tomography has become increasingly popular to image the earth's upper crust. The seismic noise recorded in the earth's crust is dominated by surface waves emanating from the interaction of the ocean with the solid earth. These surface waves are low frequency in nature ( < 1 Hz) and not usable for imaging smaller structures associated with mining or oil and gas applications. The seismic noise recorded at higher frequencies are typically from anthropogenic sources, which are short lived, spatially unstable and not well suited for constructing seismic Green's functions between sensors with conventional cross-correlation methods. To examine the use of ambient noise tomography for smaller scale applications, continuous data were recorded for 5 months in an active underground mine in Sweden located more than 1km below surface with 18 high frequency seismic sensors. A wide variety of broadband (10 - 3000 Hz) seismic noise sources are present in an active underground mine ranging from drilling, scraping, trucks, ore crushers and ventilation fans. Some of these sources generate favorable seismic noise, while others are peaked in frequency and not usable. In this presentation, I will show that the noise generated by mining activity can be useful if periods of seismic noise are carefully selected. Although noise sources are not temporally stable and not evenly distributed around the sensor array, good estimates of the seismic Green's functions between sensors can be retrieved for a broad frequency range (20 - 400 Hz) when a selective stacking scheme is used. For frequencies below 100 Hz, the reconstructed Green's functions show clear body-wave arrivals for almost all of the 153 sensor pairs. The arrival times of these body-waves are picked and used to image the local velocity structure. The resulting 3-dimensional image shows a high velocity structure that overlaps with a known ore-body. The material properties of the ore-body differ from

  4. Summary of seismic activity and its relation to geology and mining in the Sunnyside mining district, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, during 1967-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunrud, C. Richard; Osterwald, Frank W.; Hernandez, Jerome

    1973-01-01

    In the Sunnyside mining district, Utah, coal is mined under thick and variable overburden which is locally weakened by faults and other structural discontinuities. Stress changes and local stress concentrations produced by mining under these conditions often cause sudden and violent ruptures in the coal and surrounding rock mass. The strain energy released by this type of failure, which can produce shock waves and may discharge coal and rock with explosive force, is often a serious threat to life and property. These releases of strain energy are called bumps or bounces by miners if they occur in the coal, and rock bursts if they occur in the surrounding rock mass. Many of these releases are so violent that they generate seismic waves that can be felt, or at least detected by seismic instruments, miles from the site of the rupture, whereas others are smaller and can be detected only by those sensitive seismic instruments within a few thousand feet of the site of the rupture. In 1969 and 1970, about 27,000 and about 15,000 earth tremors, respectively, were recorded by the five-station seismic monitoring network that is located at the surface and encompasses most of the mine workings in the district. Of these totals, 512 and 524 earth tremors, respectively, were of sufficient magnitude (greater than 1. 5 on the Richter scale) so that the hypocenters could be accurately located. In 1968 about 20,000 tremors were recorded, with 281 large enough to plot, but in 1967 over 50,000 were recorded, of which 540 were plotted. In this report we discuss the way in which seismic activity, geology, and mining are related or seem to be related for the period 1967 through 1970, with emphasis on the period 1969-70. We also suggest certain mining procedures which, based on studies during the period, might increase the safety and efficiency of mining operations in the Sunnyside district. A complete tabulation of the larger magnitude earth tremors which occurred during 1969-70 and

  5. Impact of uranium mining activity on cave deposit (stalagmite) and pine trees (S-Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siklosy, Z.; Kern, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Szeles, E.

    2009-04-01

    Speleothems are well known paleoclimate archives but their potential for monitoring environmental pollution has not been fully explored. This study deals with an actively growing stalagmite whose trace-element concentration suggests anthropogenic contamination, rather then natural forcing. Paralell, as a potential independent chemo-enviromental archive, living pine (Pinus sylvestis) trees were also involved into investigation. U production in S-Hungary started in 1957 and was expanded closer to the cave site in 1965, covering a mining plot area of ca. 65 km2. The deep-level ore production ended in 1997 and remediation of the mine site has since been completed. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of the four-decade-long uranium (U) ore mining activity on the environment, as recorded by a cave deposit and the pine trees. The Trio Cave is located in the Mecsek Mts (S-Hungary), ca. 1.5-3 km east from the nearest air-shaft and entrance of the uranium mine. A stalagmite located about 150 m away from the cave entrance was drilled and the core investigated for stable isotope and trace element compositions. Pine trees were sampled by increment borer. Continuous flow mass spectrometry was applied on carbonate samples and laser ablation ICP-MS was applied for trace element analysis of both stalagmite (Siklosy et al., 2009) and pine samples. The youngest 1 cm of the drill core was selected for this study that may represent the last cca. 100 years (based on MC-ICP-MS age dating of older parts of the core) that covers the uranium mining period. The pre-mining period is characterized by systematic co-variations of trace elements (U, P, Si, Al, Ba, Mg, etc.) that can be related to soil activity and precipitation amount. The youngest 1.3 mm, however, records a sudden change in U content uncorrelated with any other variables. Starting from a background value of 0.2-0.3 ppm, the concentration gradually increases to about 2 ppm (within about 1 mm), remains constant for

  6. Impact of millennial mining activities on sediments and microfauna of the Tinto River estuary (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F; Borrego, J; González-Regalado, M L; López González, N; Carro, B; Abad, M

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze two short cores collected in the Tinto estuary (SW Spain), and describe the palaeoenvironmental evolution of this area during the last two millennia, along with the influence of historical mining activities and recent industrial pollution on sediments and microfauna (foraminifera and ostracoda). Although there were no significant changes in the distribution of microorganisms, a first pollution period (0-150 AD) was recorded in high sediment pollution by Cu in the shallow palaeochannels of the middle estuary. During this period and the following 1700 years, tolerant pioneer species of both foraminifera and ostracoda were found predominantly in the inner, protected areas of the estuary, while the bottom sediments were subjected to high hydrodynamic gradients, and consequently showed lower density and diversity of organisms. In the last 150 years, acid mine drainage processes, introduction of a new mining period, and the polluted inputs derived from two industrial processes resulted in increased heavy metal contamination of the bottom sediments, and corresponding extirpation of ostracodes and restriction of foraminifers to the inner zones of the estuary. PMID:18538354

  7. Mercury speciation and dispersion from an active gold mine at the West Wits area, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lusilao-Makiese, J G; Tessier, E; Amouroux, D; Tutu, H; Chimuka, L; Weiersbye, I; Cukrowska, E M

    2016-01-01

    Total mercury (HgTOT), inorganic mercury (IHg), and methylmercury (MHg) were determined in dry season waters, sediments, and tailings from an active mine which has long history of gold exploitation. Although HgTOT in waters was generally low (0.03 to 19.60 ng L(-1)), the majority of the samples had proportions of MHg of at least 90 % of HgTOT which denotes a substantial methylation potential of the mine watersheds. Mercury was relatively high in tailing materials (up to 867 μg kg(-1)) and also in the mine sediments (up to 837 μg kg(-1)) especially in samples collected near tailing storage facilities and within a receiving water dam. Sediment profiles revealed mercury enrichment and enhanced methylation rate at deeper layers. The presence of IHg and decaying plants (organic matter) in the watersheds as well as the anoxic conditions of bulk sediments are believed to be some of the key factors favoring the mercury methylation at the site. PMID:26687090

  8. Mobility of heavy metals from tailings to stream waters in a mining activity contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Concas, A; Ardau, C; Cristini, A; Zuddas, P; Cao, G

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the results of a recent characterization of Rio Piscinas (SW of Sardinia, Italy) hydrological basin are reported. In such area (about 50 km2), previous mining activities caused a serious heavy metal contamination of surface waters, groundwater, soils and biota. Acid mine drainage phenomena were observed in the area. The main sources of contamination are the tailings stored in mine tunnels and abandoned along fluvial banks. A methodological approach was adopted in order to identify relations between tailings and water contamination. Representative samples of tailings and stream sediments samples were collected. XRD analyses were performed for mineralogical characterization, while acid digestion was carried out for determining metal contents. Batch sequential leaching tests were performed in order to assess metal mobility. Also groundwater and stream water were sampled in specific locations and suitably characterized. All information collected allowed the understanding of the effect of tailings on water contamination, thus contributing to the qualitative prediction of pollution evolution on the basis of metal mobility. Finally, a potential remediation strategy of stream water is proposed. PMID:16216301

  9. Use of bioassays for testing soils and/or sediments contaminated by mining activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, M. J.; García-Lorenzo, M. L.; Molina, J.

    2009-04-01

    Ecotoxicity tests measure the bioavailability of the contaminants and the effects of the chemically not measured toxic compounds on the members of the soil community. Therefore, ecotoxicological testing may be a useful approach for assessing the toxicity as a complement to chemical analysis. They are solid phase tests based on terrestrial methods and tests performed on water extracts using aquatic test protocols. The extent and degree of heavy metal contamination around mines may vary depending on geochemical characteristics, the mineralization of tailings, physico-chemical conditions and the processes used to extract metals. Portman Bay was subject to mining from the time of the Roman Empire to 1991 when the activity ceased. Since 1957, the wastes from mining operations were discharged directly into the sea. These wastes mainly consisted of clay, quartz, siderite, magnetite, remains of sphalerite, pyrite and galena and residues of the chemical reagents used in floatation. In our study two methods of environmental toxicological tests were compared and applied to sediments of the Portman Bay (SE, Spain): the standardized toxicological test based on inhibition of luminescence employing Microtox

  10. Geometrical deuteron stripping revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Neoh, Y. S.; Yap, S. L.

    2014-03-05

    We investigate the reality of the idea of geometrical deuteron stripping originally envisioned by Serber. By taking into account of realistic deuteron wavefunction, nuclear density, and nucleon stopping mean free path, we are able to estimate inclusive deuteron stripping cross section for deuteron energy up to before pion production. Our semiclassical model contains only one global parameter constant for all nuclei which can be approximated by Woods-Saxon or any other spherically symmetric density distribution.

  11. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  12. A method for detecting dewatering effects of underground mining activities on surface wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden-Wing, L.D.; Baldwin, J.R.; Webber, K.; Winstead, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996 US Energy/Kennecott Uranium Company initiated a large-scale, long-term monitoring program to document whether or not proposed uranium mining activities under Green Mountain in Central Wyoming would cause a groundwater draw-down resulting in changes in the existing riparian/wetland habitats. The monitoring program consisted of establishing 12 study drainages on Green Mountain and six control drainages on an adjacent but hydrologically isolated mountain not scheduled for mining. Baseline data were collected in 1996 and 1997 prior to the commencement of mining. For each drainage, breeding bird densities (birds/km) and richness (species/km), winter wild ungulate fecal pellet group densities (groups/km), small mammal densities (captures/trap night), and density and species composition of aquatic macro invertebrates were measured along permanent, marked transects within each riparian zone. In order to characterize the baseline vegetation and isolate the effects of livestock grazing, species composition, percent cover, production, and type boundary delineation of riparian vegetation were quantified within adjacent fenced and unfenced half-acre sample sites within each drainage. Baseline photographs were taken at permanent marked points from fixed angles at each of the sample sites. Piezometer holes were drilled at each monitoring site for measuring potential changes in ground water levels over time. If, during mining, water levels are found to drop significantly from baseline, a new study of wildlife and vegetative parameters would be conducted to determine whether or not significant decreases in wetland function or changes from baseline characteristics have occurred.

  13. Integrated approach to assess the environmental impact of mining activities: estimation of the spatial distribution of soil contamination (Panasqueira mining area, Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula F; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2015-03-01

    Through the years, mining and beneficiation processes in Panasqueira Sn-W mine (Central Portugal) produced large amounts of As-rich mine wastes laid up in huge tailings and open-air impoundments (Barroca Grande and Rio tailings) that are the main source of pollution in the surrounding area once they are exposed to the weathering conditions leading to the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) and consequently to the contamination of the surrounding environments, particularly soils. The active mine started the exploration during the nineteenth century. This study aims to look at the extension of the soil pollution due to mining activities and tailing erosion by combining data on the degree of soil contamination that allows a better understanding of the dynamics inherent to leaching, transport, and accumulation of some potential toxic elements in soil and their environmental relevance. Soil samples were collected in the surrounding soils of the mine, were digested in aqua regia, and were analyzed for 36 elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Selected results are that (a) an association of elements like Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, W, and Zn strongly correlated and controlled by the local sulfide mineralization geochemical signature was revealed; (b) the global area discloses significant concentrations of As, Bi, Cd, and W linked to the exchangeable and acid-soluble bearing phases; and (c) wind promotes the mechanical dispersion of the rejected materials, from the milled waste rocks and the mineral processing plant, with subsequent deposition on soils and waters. Arsenic- and sulfide-related heavy metals (such as Cu and Cd) are associated to the fine materials that are transported in suspension by surface waters or associated to the acidic waters, draining these sites and contaminating the local soils. Part of this fraction, especially for As, Cd, and Cu, is temporally retained in solid phases by precipitation of soluble secondary minerals (through

  14. PRB mines mature

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-08-15

    Already seeing the results of reclamation efforts, America's largest surface mines advance as engineers prepare for the future. 30 years after the signing of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act by Jimmy Carter, western strip mines in the USA, especially in the Powder River Basin, are producing more coal than ever. The article describes the construction and installation of a $38.5 million near-pit crusher and overland belt conveyor system at Foundation Coal West's (FCW) Belle Ayr surface mine in Wyoming, one of the earliest PRB mines. It goes on to describe the development by Rio Tinto of an elk conservatory, the Rochelle Hill Conservation Easement, on reclaimed land at Jacobs Ranch, adjacent to the Rochelle Hills. 4 photos.

  15. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARD DRAGLINE WHICH IS STRIPPING OVERBURDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARD DRAGLINE WHICH IS STRIPPING OVERBURDEN AND RELOCATING IT TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE PIT. IN LEDGE BELOW THIS OPERATION A FRONT END LOADER SCOOPS COAL INTO TRUCKS. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  16. A history of mining activity in Celtic Aeduan territory, and its environmental impact (Morvan, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monna, F.; Petit, C.; Guillaumet, J.-P.; Jouffroy, I.; Blanchot, C.; Dominik, J.; Losno, R.; Richard, H.; Lévêque, J.

    2003-04-01

    Described by Caesar in "de Bello Gallico" in 58 BC as one of the greatest and richest oppida of Gaul, Bibracte was the capital of the vast Aeduan territory. It was strategically located at the top of Mount Beuvray, which is also one of the highest points of the granitic Morvan. Geomorphological anomalies, such as wide trenches and gullies, have recently been discovered and interpreted as mining excavations. On this basis, some archaeologists have assumed that early settlers were attracted by the abundance of mineral resources. However, this assumption is not yet an established fact, because of the lack of clear field evidence. Proof of early local mining exploitation may have been destroyed, buried or masked when the city of Bibracte was built. As a consequence, we searched for indirect evidence, such as any impact of these metallurgical activities on the surrounding environment. Elemental and lead isotopic compositions were therefore measured in a 2m peat core sampled around Mount Beuvray (Glux, Port-des-Lamberts) recording the last four millennia of atmospheric deposition. Pollen analysis was also performed to verify the impact of local mining on nearby vegetation, if any. Pb isotopic and concentration profiles show anthropogenic inputs starting from ca 1300 BC, and intensifying during Aeduan occupation (ca 200 BC - 20 BC). After a long phase of recession, inputs start again during the 11th century, and finally increase exponentially from the Industrial Revolution to present times. Compared to Zn, Cu and Sb, which do not present clear trends, the integrity of the lead signal is demonstrated by frequent and spectacular changes in the isotopic feature of the anthropogenic component, so that the isotopic profile cannot be explained by post-deposition migration processes. The origin of the pollution is local. Each phase of activity comes with a drastic fall of fagus taxa, interpreted as a selective deforestation consequent to the increase in energy demands

  17. Biogeochemical cyclic activity of bacterial arsB in arsenic-contaminated mines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin-Soo; Ren, Xianghao; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2008-01-01

    Biogeochemical cyclic activity of the ars (arsenic resistance system) operon is arsB influx/efflux encoded by the ecological of Pseudomonas putida. This suggests that studying arsenite-oxidizing bacteria may lead to a better understanding of molecular geomicrobiology, which can be applied to the bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated mines. This is the first report in which multiple arsB-binding mechanisms have been used on indigenous bacteria. In ArsB (strains OS-5; ABB83931; OS-19; ABB04282 and RW-28; ABB88574), there are ten putative enzyme, Histidine (His) 131, His 133, His 137, Arginine (Arg) 135, Arg 137, Arg 161, Trptohan (Trp) 142, Trp 164, Trp 166, and Trp 171, which are each located in different regions of the partial sequence. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transports, binding affinities and associating ratable constants show that As-binding is comparatively insensitive to the location of the residues within the moderately stable alpha-helical structure. The alpha-helical structures in ArsB-permease and anion permease arsB have been shown to import/export arsenic in P. putida. We proposed that arsB residues, His 131, His 133, His 137, Arg 135, Arg 137, Arg 161, Trp 142, Trp 164, Trp 166, and Trp 171 are required for arsenic binding and activation of arsA/arsB or arsAB. This arsB influx/efflux pum-ping is important, and the effect in arsenic species change and mobility in mine soil has got a significantly ecological role because it allows arsenic oxidizing/reducing bacteria to control biogeochemical cycle of abandoned mines. PMID:19202875

  18. Oxidative stress in the mollusk Echinolittorina peruviana (Gasteropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822) and trace metals in coastal sectors with mining activity.

    PubMed

    Jara, C; Gaete, H; Lobos, G; Hidalgo, M E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coastal waters of sites with mining activity in Echinolittorina peruviana, through oxidative stress biomarkers and heavy metals determination both in water and in tissue. Organisms were collected in the intertidal zone in areas with and without mining activity. Metal concentrations in the water and tissues, and also, the following biomarkers of oxidative stress: antioxidant enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase and catalase, non-enzymatic oxidative capacity (TRAP), oxidative damage to proteins (carbonyls) and TBARS, were measured The concentrations of accumulated metals had the following order Fe > Cu > Cd > Zn > Cr > Mo > As; the highest concentrations of metals in water and tissues were found in Caleta Palito and Chañaral. Results suggest that the coastal waters with mining activity and greatest concentrations of copper and iron induced the greater antioxidant response and oxidative damage to lipids in E. peruviana. PMID:24829115

  19. Data-mining of potential antitubercular activities from molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Salma

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a well established alternate system of medicine based on a broad range of herbal formulations and is practiced extensively in the region for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In recent years, several reports describe in depth studies of the molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines on the biological activities including anti-bacterial activities. The availability of a well-curated dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and accurate in-silico cheminformatics models for data mining for antitubercular agents and computational filters to prioritize molecules has prompted us to search for potential hits from these datasets. Results. We used a consensus approach to predict molecules with potential antitubercular activities from a large dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines available in the public domain. We further prioritized 160 molecules based on five computational filters (SMARTSfilter) so as to avoid potentially undesirable molecules. We further examined the molecules for permeability across Mycobacterial cell wall and for potential activities against non-replicating and drug tolerant Mycobacteria. Additional in-depth literature surveys for the reported antitubercular activities of the molecular ingredients and their sources were considered for drawing support to prioritization. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that datasets of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines offer a new opportunity to mine for potential biological activities. In this report, we suggest a proof-of-concept methodology to prioritize molecules for further experimental assays using a variety of computational tools. We also additionally suggest that a subset of prioritized molecules could be used for evaluation for tuberculosis due to their additional effect against non-replicating tuberculosis as well as the additional hepato-protection offered by

  20. Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii) as a biological monitor of changes in soil metal loading related to past mining activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witte, K.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) is the dominant tree species in many abandoned mine areas of the Rocky Mountains. It is long-lived, and therefore, may act as a long term biological monitor of changes in soil chemistry caused by past mining activity. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) was used to analyze individual tree rings of Engelmann spruce for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Sr concentrations. Cores were obtained from trees growing in tailings-impacted and control (non-tailings impacted) sites near the Waldorf mine (Waldorf, CO, USA). Zinc, Cu, Fe, Cd, Pb and Sr concentrations remained low and consistent over time in the control tree rings. However, in the tailings impacted cores, concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Cd increase significantly in post-mining rings. In addition, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Cd concentrations in pre-mining rings of both the control and tailings impacted cores are similar, indicating that present day soil concentrations of these elements in the control area are a reasonable estimation of background for this area. Lead and Sr concentrations in control and tailings-impacted rings remained similar and relatively constant through time and are not useful in determining changes in soil chemistry due to past mining activity. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using Comic Strips as a Book Report Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are great to share with parents, younger students, and peers. This article presents an activity where students use a six-paneled comic strip to summarize a story. This activity allows for multiple interpretations and enhances comprehension by drawing attention to story elements.

  2. Visualization of local electrochemical activity and local nickel ion release on laser-welded NiTi/steel joints using combined alternating current mode and stripping mode SECM.

    PubMed

    Ruhlig, D; Gugel, H; Schulte, A; Theisen, W; Schuhmann, W

    2008-12-01

    Smoothly polished cross-sections of laser-fabricated welds between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel (SS) microwires of approximately the same diameter and, for comparison, between identical stainless steel or NiTi wires have been subjected to local chemical activity and nickel release measurements using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). In the alternating current mode (AC-SECM), the measurements detected clear differences in the local interfacial chemical activity of the passivated weld and the base metals only for the heterogeneous joints of the type NiTi-SS. In this case the local electrochemical acvtivity was lower above the weld material. Subjecting cross-sections of NiTi-SS to stripping mode SECM (SM-SECM), higher Ni(2+) concentrations were measured above the regions of the parental NiTi wire, which correlates well with the results from AC-SECM imaging which showed this region as being less passivated. An energy-dispersive elemental analysis of the specimen in a scanning electron microscope revealed the coexistence of Ti and Cr in the weld mass. Possibly, a joint action of these two metals in terms of protective oxide formation is better for passivation of the weld region than the individual action of one or the other element for passivating the original wires. Better passivation of course led to decreased electrochemical activity of the weld surface. Apparently, AC- and SM-mode SECM imaging were sufficiently sensitive to detect and visualize the impact of the changed surface passivation upon laser welding. PMID:19082072

  3. Mercury and other metal(oid)s from mining activities in sediments from the Almadén district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ordiales, Efrén; Esbrí, José M.; Higueras, Pablo; Loredo, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Almadén (South Central Spain) is worldwide famous because of mercury mining. But besides, the area has also been the site of other types of mining, in particular exploitation of Pb-Zn sulphides, with variable contents of other economic metals such as Ag, as well as others with high pollution potential such as As, Cd, Sb, etc. These exploitations were in activity in different historic periods, since Romans times to the 20th Century, and most of them were abandoned with no reclamation measures at all, acting as important sources of contamination in surrounding soils. In this work, we present a preliminary assessment of the affection of sediments for the streams of Almadén mine district, considering other potential pollutants in addition to mercury. Sampling was carried out during the period 2010-2013, and involved the collection of 65 samples of stream sediments in the main river of the district (Valdeazogues River) and main subsidiaries. Samples were air-dried, sieved to <2mm to discard gravel fraction, milled to <63μm and analysed in certified laboratory (ACME Labs Canada) by ICP-AES and ICP-MS after hot acid digestion. Results showed that sediments suffer a significant metal accumulation within the district, being specially concern at the areas close to mines. Most studied samples exceed the heavy metals and metalloids reference values for uncontaminated sites as well as those fitted to protect the aquatic life. Element by element, mercury contents are widely disperse in the district because of mining activities and it can be considered as the main pollutant of the district. Concentrations of other potentially harmful elements such as Pb, Zn and As show also important concentrations, which may be attributed to anthropogenic sources, specially to decommissioned mines. Comparing concentrations from the different surveyed areas, two different zones were identified: One located in the upper part of the district, where the intense mining activities related with four

  4. Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. Arizona Strip Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, T.C.

    1993-05-01

    Founded in 1975 by uranium pioneer, Robert W. Adams, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. (EFNI) emerged as the largest US uranium mining company by the mid-1980s. Confronting the challenges of declining uranium market prices and the development of high-grade ore bodies in Australia and Canada, EFNI aggressively pursued exploration and development of breccia-pipe ore bodies in Northwestern Arizona. As a result, EFNI's production for the Arizona Strip of 18.9 million pounds U[sub 3]O[sub 8] over the period 1980 through 1991, maintained the company's status as a leading US uranium producer.

  5. 76 FR 27355 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Register on January 5, 2011 (76 FR 589). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the OMB...; Mine Accident, Injury & Illness Report and Quarterly Mine Employment and Coal Production Report ACTION... Administration (MSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Mine Accident, Injury &...

  6. Air stripping, oxidation, and activated-carbon adsorption studies for removal of taste and odor organics from water

    SciTech Connect

    Lalezary-Craig, S.

    1987-01-01

    A major class of water-consumer complaints are attributed to naturally occurring causatives of tastes and odors, among which a subgroup - the earthy-musty taste and odor compounds, documented to be spread worldwide - provides a special challenge to the scientific community and water utilities. The study was designed and executed to develop a firm basis for an understanding of the problem, as well as for optimization of process parameters for different-treatment techniques. The investigation began with determination of the physicochemical properties of a group of five earthy-musty taste and odor compounds including geosmin, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxy pyrazine (IBMP), 2-isopropyl-3-methoxy pyrazine (IPMP), 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), and 2, 3, 6-trichloroanisole (TCA). The second phase of the study investigated aeration, the application of oxidants such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and potassium permanganate, and several absorbents including manganese dioxide, kaolinite, and bentonite, for the mitigation of taste-and-odor problem. Other treatment processes investigated were ozonation and activated carbon adsorption. To investigate the efficiency of powdered activated carbon and closely simulate full-scale treatment operations, pilot-plant studies were conducted at one of the several plants operated by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California.

  7. Coal mining methods in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Continuous miner methods dominate underground while dragline stripping is today's and tomorrow's favored method on surface. Poor roof conditions in Australian underground mines and the need to operate more efficient surface mines in view of rising fuel costs are key factors in determining the mining methods for the country's premier cash commodity - coal. These and other new developments in underground and surface mining in Australia were discussed in detail at the Australian Coal Association's 1980 coal conference which was held last April in Surfers Paradise, Queensland. Two papers presented at the conference form the basis of this article; H.L. Pearce, general superintendent of the Steel Division Collieries of the Broken Hill Proprietary Company, described underground mining and K.J. Foots, manager of the Utah Development Company's Blackwater mine, talked about surface mining.

  8. Effects of controlled overburden placement on mine-spoil properties, revegetation, and the growth of Pitch X loblolly pine hybrid seedlings as demonstrated on an abandoned strip bench. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, W.L.; Burger, J.; Roberts, J.; Moss, S.

    1986-08-15

    Surface coal-mine reclamation efforts depend on a knowledge of soil development and nutrient cycling. Gaining an understanding of soil genesis in various parent materials and in different cultural amendments will aid the success of revegetation and reclamation. Studies in soil genesis are needed to determine if rock-mine spoils are suitable as a topsoil substitute. A knowledge of mechanisms of nutrient cycling in these materials will aid the development of management strategies for successful reclamation. The report summarizes findings from Phase II of the Controlled Overburden Placement Experiment, funded by OSM. The data reported pertain primarily to the second and third growing seasons, 1983 and 1984. The experiment is composed of two parts, a rock-mix experiment and a surface-treatment experiment. Second-year results confirm topsoil substitutes can outperform topsoiled plots in these particular mine soils.

  9. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  10. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; McQueen, Miles A.

    1996-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

  11. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  12. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  13. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  14. Environmental impact assessment of the mining and concentration activities in the Kola Peninsula, Russia by multidate remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Rigina, Olga

    2002-04-01

    On the Kola Peninsula, the mining and concentration industry exerts anthropogenic impact on the environment. Tailing dumps cause airborne pollution through dusting, and waterborne pollution due to direct dumping and accidental releases. The objectives were: (1) to analyse multidate satellite images for 1964-1996 to assess the environmental pollution from the mining and concentration activity in the Kola in temporal perspective; (2) to evaluate remote sensing methods for integrated environmental impact assessment. The area of mining and industrial sites steadily expands and amounted to 94 km2 in 1996. The polluted water surface amounted to at least 150 km2 through dumping in 1978 and to 106 km2 in 1986 due to dusting. Thus, the impact from the mining and concentration activity should be reconsidered as more significant than it was officially anticipated. In the past the main mechanism of pollution was direct dumping into the lakes. Currently and in future, airborne pollution after dusting storms will dominate. The effective recultivation of the tailing dumps will be a long-term process. For effective assessment of impacts from the mining and concentration industry, remote sensing methods should be complemented by in-situ measurements, fieldwork, and mathematical modelling. PMID:15900663

  15. H. R. 4804: A bill to amend titles I, II, IV and V of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, and to add a new title X, to encourage the remining and reclamation of abandoned mined lands by active mining operations, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, June 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Surface coal mining operations can be effective in the reclamation of abandoned mined lands and are being encouraged by the amendments to the existing Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The new section X - Remining spells out the authority of the Secretary of the Interior to enter into agreements with mining companies to use excess spoil from an active surface mine to reclaim an abandoned site, to develop a bond guarantee program whereby the operators may be compensated with reclamation bond credits for up to 80% of the reclamation costs incurred, and to make funds available on a matching basis to states or tribes to collect certain geologic and hydrologic data for watersheds or regions adversely affected by past coal mining abuses for the use of regulatory authorities to assist applicants for surface mining permits within such areas.

  16. Activated sludge as substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria in acid mine drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ani, W.A.G.; Henry, J.G.; Prasad, D.

    1996-11-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), characterized by high concentrations of sulfates and heavy metals and low pH, presents a potential hazard to the environment.Several treatment processes (chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and electrolytic recovery) are available, but these are often too expensive. Biological treatment of AMD, mediated by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), seems promising. The objective of this study was to use activated sludge as a carbon source for the SRB and determine the most effective COD/sulfate ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT) for reducing sulfate. Such information would be useful for the application of the proposed two-stage system to AMD treatment. Since the aim of this study was to obtain sulfate reduction and to avoid methane production, it was decided to operate the digesters initially at low COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ratios of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0.

  17. Is carbon sequestration on post mining sites driven by earthworm activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouz, J.; Pizl, V.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon storage was measured in seven types of forest (alder, oak, lime, willow-birch, pine, spruce and larch) about 30 years old developed in on e large post mining site as split plot design. The carbon storage in soil wary substantial and represent 10-100% of carbon storage in aboveground wood biomass. Carbon storage in soil do not show any correlation with litter input but correlate significantly and positively with earthworm abundance, and micromorphological traces of earthworm activity. Field and laboratory microcosm experiment showed that earthworm mediated soil mixing support carbon storage in soil. Detailed study of soil aggregates created by worms and other forces indicated that worm aggregates contain much larger content of POC. This indicate that soil bioturbation by earthworms may significantly increase carbon storage in soil.

  18. The potential of imaging spectrometry (DAIS 7915) for the monitoring of recultivation activities in mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A.; Lehmann, F.; Rothfuss, H.

    1996-08-01

    DLR`s airborne Daedalus-ATM scanner and the new Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (DAIS 7915) were used to map the area of a former uranium mining site in Eastern Germany. The spectral reflectance and temperature images derived after the calibration and atmospheric correction of the data are very helpful in assessing potential environmental risks related to this site. Mapping of temperature anomalies, differentiation of surface materials - relevant for the recultivation of the site and the assessment of the hydrological situation - are activities that are addressed in this study. Preliminary results show that the radiometric quality of the DAIS in combination with its spectral coverage allows a better discrimination of surface materials and an improved understanding of effects in the thermal wavelength range.

  19. Plant material as bioaccumulator of arsenic in soils affected by mining activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-López, Salvadora; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination is an important environmental problem, since the metals are harmful to humans, animals and tend to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine the total concentration of As, As (III) and As(V) in soil samples, leaves and roots of plant material, growing in a mining area in Spain (Murcia). Ditichia viscosa was used as the plant of reference. The concentrations of bioavailable As in plant samples were calculated by different soil chemical extraction methods; deionized water, 0.5N NaHCO3 (Olsen extraction), oxidizable medium, 0.5 HCl, 0.05M (NH4)2SO4, 0.005M DTPA and Mehra-Jackson extraction. For this study, fourteen samples were collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera and Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain). Samples were air dried and sieved to < 2mm for general analytical determinations. To determine the As content, soil samples were first ground to a fine powder using an agate ball mill. Fresh vegetable samples were separated into root and aboveground biomass and then lyophilized. Arsenic levels were obtained by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation (HG-AFS) spectrometer. Samples showed pH average values close to neutrality. Most samples showed a very low organic matter percentage. Electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate content were considerably low in most samples. The mineralogical analysis showed that the main minerals were quartz, muscovite, kaolinite and illite, while the minority minerals were alteration products derived of mining activities (iron oxides and hydroxides, siderite, jarosite and gypsum), calcite and feldspars. Although the plants do not absorb arsenic in the same proportion, the results suggest that a good relationship exists between the total content of As in soil and the total content in plant. The results showed that the arsenic content in roots was positively correlated with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides

  20. Amendments and mulches improve the biological quality of soils degraded by mining activities in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Mining and quarrying activities generate negative visual impacts in the landscape and a loss of environmental quality. Substrate properties at the end of mining are in general not suitable for plant growth, even native ones. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, the effect of organic amendment (sewage sludge, compost from the organic fraction of domestic waste or non-amendment) combined or not with two different kind of mulches (fine gravel, chopped forest residue) was tested by triplicate in 5 x 5 m plots with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Stipa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Effects of adding organic amendments and mulches on some soil microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and different enzymatic activities, such as dehydrogenase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease) were analyzed 5 years after the start of the experiment. Vegetation growth was also monitored. The two-way ANOVA, using as factors amendment and mulch, showed a significant positive influence of organic amendments on microbial biomass (Cmic), basal respiration and some enzymatic activities related to the cycles of C and N. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with compost. The influence of the mulch factor and its interactions with the amendment factor on the measured variables did not follow a clear trend with respect the measured parameters. Mulching did not improved significantly (p<0.05) the positive effect of organic amendments on Cmic although Cmic values increased with the incorporation of "forest chopped residue" and decreased with gravel incorporation. In general, both type of mulch decreased or have no effect on the microbial activity detected in the amended soils, with the only exception of the forest chopped residue

  1. Characterizing Ground-Water Flow Paths in High-Altitude Fractured Rock Settings Impacted by Mining Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wireman, M.; Williams, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Rocky Mountains of the western USA have tens of thousands of abandoned, inactive and active precious-metal(gold,silver,copper)mine sites. Most of these sites occur in fractured rock hydrogeologic settings. Mining activities often resulted in mobilization and transport of associated heavy metals (zinc,cadmium,lead) which pose a significant threat to aquatic communities in mountain streams.Transport of heavy metals from mine related sources (waste rock piles,tailings impoudments,underground workings, mine pits)can occur along numerous hydrological pathways including complex fracture controlled ground-water pathways. Since 1991, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology and the University of Colorado (INSTAAR)have been conducting applied hydrologic research at the Mary Murphy underground mine. The mine is in the Chalk Creek mining district which is located on the southwestern flanks of the Mount Princeton Batholith, a Tertiary age intrusive comprised primarily of quartz monzonite.The Mount Princeton batholith comprises a large portion of the southern part of the Collegiate Range west of Buena Vista in Chaffee County, CO. Chalk Creek and its 14 tributaries drain about 24,900 hectares of the eastern slopes of the Range including the mining district. Within the mining district, ground-water flow is controlled by the distribution, orientation and permeability of discontinuities within the bedrock. Important discontinuities include faults, joints and weathered zones. Local and intermediate flow systems are perturbed by extensive underground excavations associated with mining (adits, shafts, stopes, drifts,, etc.). During the past 12 years numerous hydrological investigations have been completed. The investigations have been focused on developing tools for characterizing ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the vicinity of hard-rock mines in fractured-rock settings. In addition, the results from these

  2. Mining the metagenome of activated biomass of an industrial wastewater treatment plant by a novel method.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nandita; Tanksale, Himgouri; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2012-12-01

    Metagenomic libraries herald the era of magnifying the microbial world, tapping into the vast metabolic potential of uncultivated microbes, and enhancing the rate of discovery of novel genes and pathways. In this paper, we describe a method that facilitates the extraction of metagenomic DNA from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant and its use in mining the metagenome via library construction. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated by the large representation of the bacterial genome in the constructed metagenomic libraries and by the functional clones obtained. The BAC library represented 95.6 times the bacterial genome, while, the pUC library represented 41.7 times the bacterial genome. Twelve clones in the BAC library demonstrated lipolytic activity, while four clones demonstrated dioxygenase activity. Four clones in pUC library tested positive for cellulase activity. This method, using FTA cards, not only can be used for library construction, but can also store the metagenome at room temperature. PMID:24293707

  3. Assessment oxidative stress biomarkers and metal bioaccumulation in macroalgae from coastal areas with mining activities in Chile.

    PubMed

    Gaete Olivares, Hernán; Moyano Lagos, Natalia; Jara Gutierrez, Carlos; Carrasco Kittelsen, Romina; Lobos Valenzuela, Gabriela; Hidalgo Lillo, María Eliana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on seaweeds Scytosiphon lomentaria and Ulva rigida of coastal waters of sites with mining activity, using oxidative stress biomarkers and heavy metal determination both in water and in tissue. The greatest bioaccumulation factors in S. lomentaria and U. rigida were founded for iron and arsenic in Quintay. Bioaccumulation factor in S. lomentaria in descending order was Fe> Cu> Zn> Cd> Cr> As> Mo and in U. rigida, in descending order, was Fe> Cu> Cd> Zn> Cr> Mo> As. Both species had higher antioxidant activity levels in areas with high mining activities. The concentration of metals in waters such as copper and arsenic in S. lomentaria, and iron, arsenic, and cadmium in U. rigida were related with oxidative stress biomarkers measured in both species. The use of both species is proposed to monitor the bioavailability and oxidative damage in coastal areas with mining activity. This work will generate a significant knowledge about the impact of mining wastes on macroalgal community in the area of north-central Chile. PMID:26661961

  4. TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE: I. EQUILIBRIUM BIOSORPTION OF ZINC AND COPPER ON NON-VIABLE ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosorption is potentially attractive technology for treament of acid mine drainage for separation/recovery of metal ions and mitigation of their toxicity to sulfate reducing bacteria. This study describes the equilibrium biosorptio of Zn(II) and CU(II) by nonviable activated slu...

  5. Hair follicle targeting, penetration enhancement and Langerhans cell activation make cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping a promising delivery technique for transcutaneous immunization with large molecules and particle-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Annika; Hadam, Sabrina; Deckert, Iliane; Schmidt, Julia; Stroux, Andrea; Afraz, Zahra; Rancan, Fiorenza; Lademann, Jürgen; Combadiere, Behazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) requires targeting of a maximum number of skin antigen-presenting cells as non-invasive as possible on small skin areas. In two clinical trials, we introduced cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) as a safe method for TCI. Here, using ex vivo human skin, we demonstrate that one CSSS procedure removed only 30% of stratum corneum, but significantly increased the penetration of 200 nm polystyrene particles deep into vellus and intermediate hair follicles from where they could not been retrieved by conventional tape stripping. Two subsequent CSSS had no striking additional effect. CSSS increased particle penetration in superficial stratum corneum and induced Langerhans cell activation. Formulation in amphiphilic ointment or massage did not substantially influences the interfollicular penetration profiles. Hair follicle (HF) targeting by CSSS could become a highly effective tool for TCI when combined with carrier-based delivery and is gaining new attention as our understanding on the HF immune system increases. PMID:25382068

  6. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1987-01-01

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  7. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1985-02-19

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  8. A novel meta-analytic approach: Mining frequent co-activation patterns in neuroimaging databases

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Julian; Zilles, Karl; Beierle, Christoph; Rottschy, Claudia; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, coordinate-based meta-analyses have become a powerful and widely used tool to study coactivity across neuroimaging experiments, a development that was supported by the emergence of large-scale neuroimaging databases like BrainMap. However, the evaluation of co-activation patterns is constrained by the fact that previous coordinate-based meta-analysis techniques like Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) and Multilevel Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) reveal all brain regions that show convergent activity within a dataset without taking into account actual within-experiment co-occurrence patterns. To overcome this issue we here propose a novel meta-analytic approach named PaMiNI that utilizes a combination of two well-established data-mining techniques, Gaussian mixture modeling and the Apriori algorithm. By this, PaMiNI enables a data-driven detection of frequent co-activation patterns within neuroimaging datasets. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by means of several analyses on simulated data as well as a real application. The analyses of the simulated data show that PaMiNI identifies the brain regions underlying the simulated activation foci and perfectly separates the co-activation patterns of the experiments in the simulations. Furthermore, PaMiNI still yields good results when activation foci of distinct brain regions become closer together or if they are non-Gaussian distributed. For the further evaluation, a real dataset on working memory experiments is used, which was previously examined in an ALE meta-analysis and hence allows a cross-validation of both methods. In this latter analysis, PaMiNI revealed a fronto-parietal “core” network of working memory and furthermore indicates a left-lateralization in this network. Finally, to encourage a widespread usage of this new method, the PaMiNI approach was implemented into a publicly available software system. PMID:24365675

  9. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    PubMed

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge. PMID:19244711

  10. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  11. Effects of biosolids and compost amendment on chemistry of soils contaminated with copper from mining activities.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Virinder; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2016-03-01

    Several million metric tons of mining wastes, called stamp sands, were generated in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during extensive copper (Cu) mining activities in the past. These materials, containing large amounts of Cu, were discharged into various offshoots of Lake Superior. Due to evidences of Cu toxicity on aquatic organisms, in due course, the materials were dredged and dumped on lake shores, thus converting these areas into vast, fallow lands. Erosion of these Cu-contaminated stamp sands back to the lakes is severely affecting aquatic life. A lack of uniform vegetation cover on stamp sands is facilitating this erosion. Understanding the fact that unless the stamp sands are fertilized to the point of sustaining vegetation growth, the problem with erosion and water quality degradation will continue, amending the stamp sands with locally available biosolids and composts, was considered. The purpose of the reported study was to assess potential effects of such organic fertilizer amendments on soil quality. As the first step of a combined laboratory and greenhouse study, a 2-month-long incubation experiment was performed to investigate the effects of biosolids and compost addition on the soil nutrient profile of stamp sands and organic matter content. Results showed that both biosolids and compost amendments resulted in significant increase in nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and organic matter contents of stamp sands. Sequential extraction data demonstrated that Cu was mostly present as bound forms in stamp sands, and there was no significant increase in the plant available fraction of Cu because of fertilizer application. PMID:26894907

  12. Levels of toxic arsenic species in native terrestrial plants from soils polluted by former mining activities.

    PubMed

    García-Salgado, Sara; Quijano, M Ángeles

    2014-03-01

    Ten native terrestrial plants from soils polluted by former mining activities (Mónica mine, NW Madrid, Spain), with high total arsenic concentration levels (up to 3500 μg g(-1)), have been studied to determine the fraction of arsenic present as toxic forms (inorganic and methylated species), which present a higher mobility and therefore the potential risk associated with their reintegration into the environment is high. Roots and aboveground parts were analyzed separately to assess possible transformations from translocation processes. Extractions were carried out with deionized water by microwave-assisted extraction at a temperature of 90 °C and three extraction steps of 7.5 min each. Total extracted arsenic concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, showing extraction percentages from 9 to 39% (calculated as the ratio between total extracted arsenic (Asext) and total arsenic (AsT) concentrations in plants). Speciation studies, performed by high performance liquid chromatography-photo-oxidation-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry, showed the main presence of arsenate (As(v)) (up to 350 μg g(-1)), followed by arsenite (As(iii)), in both plant parts. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were also found only in some plants. On the other hand, the use of 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid as an extractant led to higher extraction percentages (33-87%), but lower column recoveries, probably due to the extraction of arsenic compounds different to the toxic free ions studied, which may come from biotransformation mechanisms carried out by plants to reduce arsenic toxicity. However, As(v) concentrations increased up to 800 μg g(-1) in acid medium, indicating the probable release of As(v) from organoarsenic compounds and therefore a higher potential risk for the environment. PMID:24513726

  13. Extended self: spontaneous activation of medial prefrontal cortex by objects that are 'mine'.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2014-07-01

    The concept of extended self refers to the idea that people incorporate self-relevant others or objects into one's sense of self. Initial neural support for the notion of extended self was provided by fMRI evidence that medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) showed greater activation while people imagined objects belonging to them compared with someone else (Kim & Johnson, 2012). This study investigated whether self-associated objects (i.e. 'mine') subsequently engage MPFC spontaneously when a task does not require explicit self-referential judgments. During fMRI scanning, participants detected 'oddballs' (objects with a specific frame color) intermixed with objects participants had previously imagined belonging to them or to someone else and previously unseen non-oddball objects. There was greater activity in MPFC and posterior cingulate cortex for those 'self-owned' objects that participants were more successful at imagining owning compared with 'other-owned' objects. In addition, change in object preference following the ownership manipulation (a mere ownership effect) was predicted by activity in MPFC. Overall, these results provide neural evidence for the idea that personally relevant external stimuli may be incorporated into one's sense of self. PMID:23696692

  14. Diversity and activity of methanotrophs in alkaline soil from a Chinese coal mine.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Chen, Yin; Abell, Guy; Jiang, Hao; Bodrossy, Levente; Zhao, Jiangang; Murrell, J Colin; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2009-11-01

    Culture-independent molecular biological techniques, including 16S rRNA gene and functional gene clone libraries and microarray analyses using pmoA (encoding a key subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase), were applied to investigate the methanotroph community structure in alkaline soil from a Chinese coal mine. This environment contained a high diversity of methanotrophs, including the type II methanotrophs Methylosinus/Methylocystis, type I methanotrophs related to Methylobacter/Methylosoma and Methylococcus, and a number of as yet uncultivated methanotrophs. In order to identify the metabolically active methane-oxidizing bacteria from this alkaline environment, DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) experiments using (13)CH(4) were carried out. This showed that both type I and type II methanotrophs were active, together with methanotrophs related to Methylocella, which had previously been found only in acidic environments. Methylotrophs, including Methylopila and Hyphomicrobium, were also detected in soil DNA and after DNA-SIP experiments. DNA sequence information on the most abundant, active methanotrophs in this alkaline soil will facilitate the design of oligonucleotide probes to monitor enrichment cultures when isolating key alkaliphilic methanotrophs from such environments. PMID:19515201

  15. Space photography - A valuable tool for surface mine planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumbaugh, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    Some plausible advantages of remote sensing from orbit in inventorying of strip-mined land areas are noted, but heavy emphasis is placed on the limitations of such information at the present state of the art, in this application, and on the different types of information extracted from high-resolution imagery by experts of differing backgrounds. Skylab multispectral sensors are described and land use categories encountered in strip mining are catalogued. While oversell of remote sensing applied to strip mining land use inventory is deprecated, planning ahead for effective use of Space Shuttle in this area in the coming years is encouraged.

  16. Hydrologic responses of streams to mining of the Mulberry coal reserves in eastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevans, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the hydrologic responses of streams with respect to coal-mining activities in the Mulberry coal reserves of Miami, Linn, and Bourbon Counties, eastern Kansas. Results of a low-flow water-quality reconnaissance showed that small streams draining previously coal-mined areas generally have relatively large concentrations of sulfate. Large streams in the study area have been relatively unaffected by coal mining. A comparison of two small drainage basins showed that the basin affected by an active strip mine had less high flow and more low flow because of the regulating effects of sediment ponds. Effluent pumped from the strip mine increased the load of sulfate by 244 percent, the load of dissolved solids by 41 percent, and occasionally transported relatively large concentrations of iron, lead, manganese, and zinc to the receiving stream. Accelerated erosion caused by the exposure and disturbance of soil during clearing and excavation increased the sediment load of the receiving stream by 25 percent even though sediment ponds were installed. (USGS)

  17. Geological survey of Maryland using EREP flight data. [mining, mapping, Chesapeake Bay islands, coastal water features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Underflight photography has been used in the Baltimore County mined land inventory to determine areas of disturbed land where surface mining of sand and ground clay, or stone has taken place. Both active and abandoned pits and quarries were located. Aircraft data has been used to update cultural features of Calvert, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties. Islands have been located and catalogued for comparison with older film and map data for erosion data. Strip mined areas are being mapped to obtain total area disturbed to aid in future mining and reclamation problems. Coastal estuarine and Atlantic Coast features are being studied to determine nearshore bedforms, sedimentary, and erosional patterns, and manmade influence on natural systems.

  18. Identification of promiscuous ene-reductase activity by mining structural databases using active site constellations

    PubMed Central

    Steinkellner, Georg; Gruber, Christian C.; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Binter, Alexandra; Steiner, Kerstin; Winkler, Christoph; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Schwamberger, Orsolya; Oberer, Monika; Schwab, Helmut; Faber, Kurt; Macheroux, Peter; Gruber, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of catalytic promiscuity and the application of de novo design have recently opened the access to novel, non-natural enzymatic activities. Here we describe a structural bioinformatic method for predicting catalytic activities of enzymes based on three-dimensional constellations of functional groups in active sites (‘catalophores’). As a proof-of-concept we identify two enzymes with predicted promiscuous ene-reductase activity (reduction of activated C–C double bonds) and compare them with known ene-reductases, that is, members of the Old Yellow Enzyme family. Despite completely different amino acid sequences, overall structures and protein folds, high-resolution crystal structures reveal equivalent binding modes of typical Old Yellow Enzyme substrates and ligands. Biochemical and biocatalytic data show that the two enzymes indeed possess ene-reductase activity and reveal an inverted stereopreference compared with Old Yellow Enzymes for some substrates. This method could thus be a tool for the identification of viable starting points for the development and engineering of novel biocatalysts. PMID:24954722

  19. High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

    2014-06-01

    Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife

  20. Arsenic mobility in the amended mine tailings and its impact on soil enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Koo, Namin; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the effects of soil amendments [Ferrous sulfate (Fe(II)), red mud, Fe(II) with calcium carbonate (Fe(II)/L) or red mud (RM/F), zero-valent iron (ZVI), furnace slag, spent mushroom waste and by-product fertilizer] on arsenic (As) stabilization and to establish relationships between soil properties, As fractions and soil enzyme activities in amended As-rich gold mine tailings (Kangwon and Keumkey). Following the application of amendments, a sequential extraction test and evaluation of the soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase) were conducted. Weak and negative relationships were observed between water-soluble As fractions (As(WS)) and oxalate extractable iron, while As(WS) was mainly affected by dissolved organic carbon in alkaline tailings sample (Kangwon) and by soil pH in acidic tailings sample (Keumkey). The soil enzyme activities in both tailings were mainly associated with As(WS). Principal component and multiple regression analyses confirmed that As(WS) was the most important factor to soil enzyme activities. However, with some of the treatments in Keumkey, contrary results were observed due to increased water-soluble heavy metals and carbon sources. In conclusion, our results suggest that to simultaneously achieve decreased As(WS) and increased soil enzyme activities, Kangwon tailings should be amended with Fe(II), Fe(II)/L or ZVI, while only ZVI or RM/F would be suitable for Keumkey tailings. Despite the limitations of specific soil samples, this result can be expected to provide useful information on developing a successful remediation strategy of As-contaminated soils. PMID:21850414

  1. NRMRL EVALUATES ACTIVE AND SEMI-PASSIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two-page article describing three SITE demonstration projects underway on the Leviathan mine site in California. BiPhasic lime treatment, lime treatment lagoons and compost free BioReactors are being evaluated as innovative technologies for treating acid mine drainage.

  2. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  3. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  4. Data Mining for CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  5. Identification and Changes of Subsidence Basins Caused by Coal Mining Activity in Upper Silesia Using Satellite Interferometeric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przylucka, Maria; Graniczny, Marek; Kowalski, Zbigniew

    2015-05-01

    The mining exploitation of hard coal in Upper Silesia Coal Basin, USCB, (Southern Poland) has been conducted since XIX century and continues to the present days. The most common operating system in USCB is longwall coal mining. Subsidence can reach up to 70% of the excavated coal layer, which represents a 0.75-2.0 m displacement for typical 2.5 m layer. In this study DInSAR technology was used to identification and monitoring subsidence basins caused by underground coal mining activities. Two sets of differential interferograms were used for comparison and analysis: ALOS - PALSAR, period 22/02/2007 -27/05/2008 and TerraSAR-X, period 05/07/2011-21/06/2012. The analysis of the ALOS - PALSAR data enabled identification of 51 subsidence basins, whereas newer TSX satellite data allowed the identification of 31 active sites. In several cases it was also possible to determine direction and development of subsidence movement which correlated most probably with movement of underground mining fronts.

  6. Binding intensity and metal partitioning in soils affected by mining and smelting activities in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Costa, E T S; Penido, E S; Sparks, D L; Guilherme, L R G

    2015-09-01

    Mining and smelting activities are potential sources of heavy metal contamination, which pose a threat to human health and ecological systems. This study investigated single and sequential extractions of Zn, Pb, and Cd in Brazilian soils affected by mining and smelting activities. Soils from a Zn mining area (soils A, B, C, D, E, and the control soil) and a tailing from a smelting area were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The samples were subjected to single (using Mehlich I solution) and sequential extractions. The risk assessment code (RAC), the redistribution index (U ts ), and the reduced partition index (I R ) have been applied to the sequential extraction data. Zinc and Cd, in soil samples from the mining area, were found mainly associated with carbonate forms. This same pattern did not occur for Pb. Moreover, the Fe-Mn oxides and residual fractions had important contributions for Zn and Pb in those soils. For the tailing, more than 70 % of Zn and Cd were released in the exchangeable fraction, showing a much higher mobility and availability of these metals at this site, which was also supported by results of RAC and I R . These differences in terms of mobility might be due to different chemical forms of the metals in the two sites, which are attributable to natural occurrence as well as ore processing. PMID:25940493

  7. Geochemical study of stream waters affected by mining activities in the SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bech, Jaime

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. According to transport process, three types of pollution could be established: a) Primary contamination, formed by residues placed close to the contamination sources; b) Secondary contamination, produced as a result of transport out of its production areas; c) Tertiary contamination. The aim of this work was to study trace element in water samples affected by mining activities and to apply the MINTEQ model for calculating aqueous geochemical equilibria. The studied area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. As a result, a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues are present. For this study, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode in 4 different areas. In these samples, the trace element content was determined by by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Fe and Zn), electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (Pb and Cd), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (As) and ICP-MS for Al. MINTEQA2 is a geochemical equilibrium speciation model capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting and was applied to collected waters. Zone A: A5 is strongly influenced by tailing dumps and showed high trace element content. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH. The MINTEQ model application suggested that Zn and Cd could precipitate as carbonate (hidrocincite, smithsonite and otavite). A9 also showed acid pH and high trace element content; is

  8. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  9. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston counties, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mory, Peter C.; Behum, Paul T.; Ross, Robert B., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    No mining activities are being conducted in the study area at present.  Previous mining has been limited to small-scale production of limestone and coal.  Two oil and gas test holes have been drilled inside the study area.

  10. About NICADD extruded scintillating strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J.G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, v.; Baldina, E.; Bross, A.; Deering, P.; Nebel, T.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Schellpfeffer, J.; Serritella, C.; Zimmerman, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    The results of control measurements of extruded scintillating strip responses to a radioactive source Sr-90 are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. About four hundred one meter long extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. These results were essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  11. Integrated Surface Mining and Reclamation Techniques: A Curriculum for Training Surface Mining Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Dept. of Mineral Engineering.

    The result of a project effort, this 45-unit curriculum was designed for use in training bituminous coal surface mine personnel in conducting strip mining operations more economically, with good health and safety practices, for environmental control. Containing 1-hour instructional units, the courses can be taught either three hours a night one…

  12. Indications for different types of brittle failure due to active coal mining using waveform similarities of induced seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling-Benatelli, S.; Becker, D.; Bischoff, M.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2013-05-01

    Longwall mining activity in the Ruhr-coal mining district leads to mining-induced seismicity. For detailed studies seismicity of a single longwall panel beneath the town of Hamm-Herringen in the eastern Ruhr area was monitored between June 2006 and July 2007 with a dense temporary array of 15 seismic stations. More than 7000 seismic events with magnitudes between -1.7 ≤ ML ≤ 2.0 were detected and localized in this period. Most of the events occurred in the vicinity of the moving longwall face. In order to find possible differences in the brittle failure types of these events an association of the events to distinct clusters based on their waveform characteristics is performed. This task is carried out using a new clustering algorithm utilizing a network similarity matrix which is created by combining all available 3-component single station similarity matrices. The resultant network matrix is then sorted with respect to the similarity of its rows leading to a sorted matrix immediately indicating the clustering of the event catalogue. Finally, clusters of similar events are extracted by visual inspection. This approach results in the identification of several large clusters which are distinct with respect to their spatial and temporal characteristics as well as their frequency magnitude distributions. Comparable clusters are also found with a conventional single linkage approach, however, the new routine seems to be able to associate more events to specific clusters without merging the clusters. The nine largest observed clusters can be tentatively divided into three different groups that indicate different types of brittle failure. The first group consists of the two largest clusters which constitute more than half of all recorded events. Results of a relative relocation using cross correlation data suggest that these events are confined to the extent of the mined out longwall and cluster close to the edges of the active longwall at the depth of active

  13. Indications for different types of brittle failure due to active coal mining using waveform similarities of induced seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling-Benatelli, S.; Becker, D.; Bischoff, M.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2013-10-01

    Longwall mining activity in the Ruhr coal mining district leads to mining-induced seismicity. For detailed studies the seismicity of a single longwall panel beneath the town of Hamm-Herringen in the eastern Ruhr area was monitored between June 2006 and July 2007 with a dense temporary network of 15 seismic stations. More than 7000 seismic events with magnitudes between -1.7 ≤ ML ≤ 2.0 were detected and localized in this period. Most of the events occurred in the vicinity of the moving longwall face. In order to find possible differences in the brittle failure types of these events an association of the events to distinct clusters is performed based on their waveform characteristics. This task is carried out using a new clustering algorithm utilizing a network similarity matrix which is created by combining all available 3-component single station similarity matrices. The resultant network matrix is then sorted with respect to the similarity of its rows leading to a sorted matrix immediately indicating the clustering of the event catalogue. Finally, clusters of similar events are extracted by visual inspection. This approach results in the identification of several large clusters which are distinct with respect to their spatial and temporal characteristics as well as their frequency magnitude distributions. Comparable clusters are also found with a conventional single linkage approach, however, the new routine seems to be able to associate more events to specific clusters without merging the clusters. The nine largest observed clusters can be tentatively divided into three different groups that indicate different types of brittle failure. The first group consists of the two largest clusters which constitute more than half of all recorded events. Results of a relative relocation using cross-correlation data suggest that these events are confined to the extent of the mined out longwall and cluster close to the edges of the active longwall at the depth of active

  14. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  15. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Baker, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  16. Hydrochemistry and coal mining activity induced karst water quality degradation in the Niangziguan karst water system, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Xue; Gao, Xubo

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogeochemical analysis, statistical analysis, and geochemical modeling were employed to evaluate the impacts of coal mining activities on karst water chemistry in Niangziguan spring catchment, one of the largest karst springs in Northern China. Significant water quality deterioration was observed along the flow path, evidenced from the increasing sulfate, nitrate, and TDS content in karst water. Karst water samples are Ca-Mg-HCO3 type in the recharge areas, Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 type in the coal mining areas, and Ca-Mg-SO4-HCO3/HCO3-SO4 type in the rural areas and discharge areas. A four-factor principal component analysis (PCA) model is conducted which explains over 82.9% of the total variation. Factor 1, which explained the largest portion (45.33%) of the total variance, reveals that coal mining activities and natural water-rock interaction as the primary factors controlling karst water quality. Anthropogenic effects were recognized as the secondary factor with high positive loadings for NO3 (-) and Cl(-) in the model. The other two factors are co-precipitation removal of trace elements and silicate mineral dissolution, which explained 20.96% of the total variance. A two-end mixing modeling was proposed to estimate the percentage of coal wastewater giving on karst water chemistry, based on the groundwater sulfate chemistry constrains rather than sulfur isotopes. Uncertainty of sulfur isotope sources led to an overestimation of coal mining water contribution. According to the results of the modeling, the contribution of coal mining waste on karst water chemistry was quantified to be from 27.05 to 1.11% which is ca. three times lower than the values suggested using a sulfur isotope method. PMID:26614450

  17. Mercury pollution on district of Dimembe river system North Sulawesi, Indonesia, due to traditional gold mining activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhuan, D.; Atteng, O.; Dondokambey, A.; Randuk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small scale gold mining is a environmental problem. Small-scale gold mining (SSGM) is common in mineral endowed developing countries. It offers an important means of livehood and has served as a safety net in times of natural calamities or economic distress. In north Sulawesi Province alone, approximately 22,000 small-scale gold miners were active in 1998, and produced an estimated 10 tonnes of gold bullion. Activities of traditional / illegal gold mining (PETI) in Dimembe of district, which is located in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi Province. The major environmental concern associated with PETI in mercury pollution from processing of gold-bearing ore. In both the inorganic and organic forms, mercury is one of the most toxic substances to humans. One of the environmental pollution is water pollution on district of Dimembe river system that is probably caused by the use of mercury (Hg) in processing mine ore. This mercury is used in an iron rolling vessel, wllich is called tromol. Mercury concentration at employed in this operation reaches 1 kg out of 30 kg ore. Sampling stage was conducted at Warat river, downstream Taiawaan river, Merut river and Kadumut river on late April 2002 by BAPEDALDA team together with Health Laboratory staff. Material which were sampled was water. Sampling methods carried out were bottle sample immersed about 10 cm below the water surface. The analysis method used was mercury analyzer. The analysis result show that total concentration of mercury range from 1. 69 to 25. 54 ppb. This concentration is closed to Water Quality Standard IV Class that is 0.005 mg/L (Regulation Government No. 82/2001). The result of this research indicate that the district of Dimembe river system in the gold mining area have been contaminated by mercury.

  18. Variation in diel activity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a soybean field and coal mine remnant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willand, J.E.; McCravy, K.W.

    2006-01-01

    Diel activities of carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a coal mine remnant and surrounding soybean field were studied in west-central Illinois from June through October 2002. A total of 1,402 carabids, representing 29 species and 17 genera, were collected using pitfall traps. Poecilus chalcites (Say) demonstrated roughly equal diurnal and nocturnal activity in June, but greater diurnal activity thereafter. Pterostichus permundus (Say), Cyclotrachelus seximpressus (LeConte), Amara obesa (Say), and Scarites quadriceps Chaudoir showed significant nocturnal activity. Associations between habitat and diel activity were found for three species: P. chalcites associated with the remnant and edge habitats showed greater diurnal activity than those associated with the soybean field; C. seximpressus was most active diurnally in the remnant, and Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) showed the greatest nocturnal activity in the remnant and edge habitats. We found significant temporal and habitat-related variation in diel activity among carabid species inhabiting agricultural areas in west-central Illinois.

  19. Human mining activity across the ages determines the genetic structure of modern brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Josephine R; King, R Andrew; Stevens, Jamie R

    2015-01-01

    Humans have exploited the earth's metal resources for thousands of years leaving behind a legacy of toxic metal contamination and poor water quality. The southwest of England provides a well-defined example, with a rich history of metal mining dating to the Bronze Age. Mine water washout continues to negatively impact water quality across the region where brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations exist in both metal-impacted and relatively clean rivers. We used microsatellites to assess the genetic impact of mining practices on trout populations in this region. Our analyses demonstrated that metal-impacted trout populations have low genetic diversity and have experienced severe population declines. Metal-river trout populations are genetically distinct from clean-river populations, and also from one another, despite being geographically proximate. Using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), we dated the origins of these genetic patterns to periods of intensive mining activity. The historical split of contemporary metal-impacted populations from clean-river fish dated to the Medieval period. Moreover, we observed two distinct genetic populations of trout within a single catchment and dated their divergence to the Industrial Revolution. Our investigation thus provides an evaluation of contemporary population genetics in showing how human-altered landscapes can change the genetic makeup of a species. PMID:26136823

  20. Human mining activity across the ages determines the genetic structure of modern brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations.

    PubMed

    Paris, Josephine R; King, R Andrew; Stevens, Jamie R

    2015-07-01

    Humans have exploited the earth's metal resources for thousands of years leaving behind a legacy of toxic metal contamination and poor water quality. The southwest of England provides a well-defined example, with a rich history of metal mining dating to the Bronze Age. Mine water washout continues to negatively impact water quality across the region where brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations exist in both metal-impacted and relatively clean rivers. We used microsatellites to assess the genetic impact of mining practices on trout populations in this region. Our analyses demonstrated that metal-impacted trout populations have low genetic diversity and have experienced severe population declines. Metal-river trout populations are genetically distinct from clean-river populations, and also from one another, despite being geographically proximate. Using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), we dated the origins of these genetic patterns to periods of intensive mining activity. The historical split of contemporary metal-impacted populations from clean-river fish dated to the Medieval period. Moreover, we observed two distinct genetic populations of trout within a single catchment and dated their divergence to the Industrial Revolution. Our investigation thus provides an evaluation of contemporary population genetics in showing how human-altered landscapes can change the genetic makeup of a species. PMID:26136823

  1. Bureau of mines cost estimating system handbook (in two parts). 1. Surface and underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The handbook provides a convenient costing procedure based on the summation of the costs for unit processes required in any particular mining or mineral processing operation. The costing handbook consists of a series of costing sections, each corresponding to a specific mining unit process. Contained within each section is the methodology to estimate either the capital or operating cost for that unit process. The unit process sections may be used to generate, in January 1984 dollars, costs through the use of either costing curves or formulae representing the prevailing technology. Coverage for surface mining includes dredging, quarrying, strip mining, and open pit mining. The underground mining includes individual development sections for drifting, raising, shaft sinking, stope development, various mining methods, underground mine haulage, general plant, and underground mine administrative cost.

  2. Effects of coal mine wastewater on locomotor and non-locomotor activities of empire gudgeons (Hypseleotris compressa).

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Melvin, S D; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Wilson, S P

    2016-05-01

    Coal mining represents an important industry in many countries, but concerns exist about the possible adverse effects of minewater releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems. Coal mining generates large volumes of complex wastewater, which often contains high concentrations of dissolved solids, suspended solids, metals, hydrocarbons, salts and other compounds. Traditional toxicological testing has generally involved the assessment of acute toxicity or chronic toxicity with longer-term tests, and while such tests provide useful information, they are poorly suited to ongoing monitoring or rapid assessment following accidental discharge events. As such, there is considerable interest in developing rapid and sensitive approaches to environmental monitoring, and particularly involving the assessment of sub-lethal behavioural responses in locally relevant aquatic species. We therefore investigated behavioural responses of a native Australian fish to coal mine wastewater, to evaluate its potential use for evaluating sub-lethal effects associated with wastewater releases on freshwater ecosystems. Empire gudgeons (Hypseleotris compressa) were exposed to wastewater from two dams located at an open cut coal mine in Central Queensland, Australia and activity levels were monitored using the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor® (LimCo International GmbH). A general decrease in locomotor activity (i.e., low frequency movement) and increase in non-locomotor activity (i.e., high frequency movement including ventilation and small fin movement) was observed in exposed fish compared to those in control water. Altered activity levels were observable within the first hour of exposure and persisted throughout the 15-d experiment. Results demonstrate the potential for using behavioural endpoints as tools for monitoring wastewater discharges using native fish species, but more research is necessary to identify responsible compounds and response thresholds, and to understand the relevance

  3. Analysis on Underground Coal Mining Subsidence Using Small Baseline InSAR in Yunjialing Mining Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dapeng; Yang, Jin; Zeng, Qiming

    2013-01-01

    66.6 percent of China's energy production come from underground coal mining (fig. 1.) Hundreds of mining cities were affected by mining subsidence. Long-term underground mining activities ,which results in large areas of mined areas, are threatening the local ecological environment and people property.Coal mining development has become a major factor of restricting local economic and threatening the safety of future mine production. The research on mining subsidence takes a important practical significance.

  4. Histopathology investigation on the Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) populations captured from the rivers impacted by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Ivanova, Lozenka; Kostov, Vasil; Valić, Damir; Krasnići, Nesrete; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Kapetanović, Damir

    2016-07-01

    Many natural freshwater ecosystems, especially in the north eastern Macedonia, are polluted with heavy metals, which are released by active mines. Long-term exposure to high levels of dissolved metals might result in increased metal bioaccumulation in organs of aquatic organisms, and consequently might cause various sub-toxic and toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the health of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) inhabiting mining impacted rivers Zletovska and Kriva, in comparison with chub from the reference Bregalnica River. It was done by use of indicators of tissue damage (histopathology of liver and gonads) and general indicators of exposure to environmental stressors (condition factor, organo-somatic indices and external/internal macroscopic lesions). Histological assessment of gonads revealed good reproductive health in all three rivers, indicating high tolerance of gonads to contaminant exposure. Contrary, several external/internal lesions were more pronounced in chub from severely metal contaminated Zletovska River. Prevalence of hepatic lesions was also higher in mining impacted rivers (in Kriva, 70%; in Zletovska, 59%) compared to Bregalnica River (38%). The spectrum of histological lesions observed in chub liver varied from non-specific minor degenerative conditions, such as lymphocyte infiltration, fibrosis, parasites, granulomas and lipidosis, to extensive and/or more severe changes such as bile duct proliferation, necrosis, megalocytosis, light-dark hepatocytes and hepatocytes regeneration. The results of histopathological investigation for all three rivers showed clear signs of water contamination, especially prominent in mining influenced rivers. More research efforts should be devoted to study of environmental conditions and metal contamination in the mining impacted rivers worldwide, especially of their effects on health of local ichthyofauna. PMID:26986024

  5. Microtube Strip Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1990-12-27

    Doty Scientific (DSI) believes their Microtube-Strip Heat Exchanger will contribute significantly to (a) the closed Brayton cycles being pursued at MIT, NASA, and elsewhere; (b) reverse Brayton cycle cryocoolers, currently being investigated by NASA for space missions, being applied to MRI superconducting magnets; and (c) high-efficiency cryogenic gas separation schemes for CO{sub 2} removal from exhaust stacks. The goal of this current study is to show the potential for substantial progress in high-effectiveness, low-cost, gas-to-gas heat exchangers for diverse applications at temperatures from below 100 K to above 1000 K. To date, the highest effectiveness measured is about 98%, and relative pressure drops below 0.1% with a specific conductance of about 45 W/kgK are reported. During the pre-award period DSI built and tested a 3-module heat exchanger bank using 103-tube microtube strip (MTS) modules. To add to their analytical capabilities, DSI has acquired computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This report describes the pre-award work and the status of the ten tasks of the current project, which are: analyze flow distribution and thermal stresses within individual modules; design a heat exchanger bank of ten modules with 400 microtube per module; obtain production quality tubestrip die and AISI 304 tubestrips; obtain production quality microtubing; construct revised MTS heat exchanger; construct dies and fixtures for prototype heat exchanger; construct 100 MTS modules; assemble 8-10 prototype MTS heat exchangers; test prototype MTS heat exchanger; and verify test through independent means. 7 refs., 9 figs. 1 tab. (CK)

  6. LANDSAT inventory of surface-mined areas using extendible digital techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schultz, D. T.; Buchman, N.

    1975-01-01

    Multispectral LANDSAT imagery was analyzed to provide a rapid and accurate means of identification, classification, and measurement of strip-mined surfaces in Western Maryland. Four band analysis allows distinction of a variety of strip-mine associated classes, but has limited extendibility. A method for surface area measurements of strip mines, which is both geographically and temporally extendible, has been developed using band-ratioed LANDSAT reflectance data. The accuracy of area measurement by this method, averaged over three LANDSAT scenes taken between September 1972 and July 1974, is greater than 93%. Total affected acreage of large (50 hectare/124 acre) mines can be measured to within 1.0%.

  7. LANDSAT inventory of surface-mined areas using extendible digital techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schultz, D. T.; Buchman, N.

    1975-01-01

    Multispectral analysis of LANDSAT imagery provides a rapid and accurate means of identification, classification, and measurement of strip-mined surfaces in Western Maryland. Four band analysis allows distinction of a variety of strip-mine associated classes, but has limited extendibility. A method for surface area measurement of strip mines, which is both geographically and temporally extendible, was developed using band-ratioed LANDSAT reflectance data. The accuracy of area measurement by this method, averaged over three LANDSAT scenes taken between September 1972 and July 1974, is greater than 93%. Total affected acreage of large (50 hectare/120 acre) mines can be measured to within 1.0%.

  8. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  9. Sediment and epilithon metabolism and hydrolytic activity in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Despite regulations requiring that potential mpacts to stream function be considered in determining compensatory mitigation associated with permitted fill activities, asse...

  10. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    PubMed

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  11. Prediction of sea water intrusion for mining activity in close precincts of sea shore.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awanindra Pratap; Gupta, Prem Kumar; Khandelwal, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The mining lease area of Surka [District Bhavnagar, Gujarat (India)] is located within 6-12 km horizontal distance of sea shore of Gulf of Cambay. Whenever, there will be onset of lignite extraction, there will be always a threat of sea water intrusion into the mining lease area due to its close proximity to seashore. This article describes the prediction of sea water intrusion into the lease area of whole mining block using Ghyben-Herzberg relation between fresh and saline water, Remote Sensing, Ground Truth verification, Electrical Resistivity Survey and groundwater table monitored during the year 2004. As per the Ghyben-Herzberg relation, results show that there will not be sea water intrusion. If there is excess pumping of water then also the basement rock below the lignite seam will put hindrance to any possible upconing of saline water interface. PMID:24083098

  12. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  13. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  14. Fuzzy-logic assessment of failure hazard in pipelines due to mining activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowska, A. A.; Hejmanowski, R.

    2015-11-01

    The present research is aimed at a critical analysis of a method presently used for evaluating failure hazard in linear objects in mining areas. A fuzzy model of failure hazard of a linear object was created on the basis of the experience gathered so far. The rules of Mamdani fuzzy model have been used in the analyses. Finally the scaled model was integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS), which was used to evaluate failure hazard in a water pipeline in a mining area.

  15. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites /strip hybrids/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are described which were obtained by applying advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends. This was done in order to illustrate the use of these methods for the apriori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-Glass/Random Composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle, and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  16. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites (strip hybrids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics were applied to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends to illustrate the use of these methods for the a priori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-glass random composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  17. ASSESSING AND MANAGING MERCURY FROM HISTORIC AND CURRENT MINING ACTIVITIES (PROGRAM FLYER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conference is designed to achieve three primary goals:

    Convey public, non-profit and priva sector perspectives on the assessment and management of mercury associated with mining processes, residuals and environmental impacters

    Identify data gaps and information ...

  18. "Sticking Together!" Policy Activism from within a UK Coal-Mining Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, N. Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some aspects of a doctoral ethnographic study of young people disaffected from schooling in a post-industrial space of ruin in a former coal-mining community in England. It considers how their experiences of resistance and refusal of schooling can, in the relational ethos of non-school support settings, come to speak back…

  19. 77 FR 57111 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ..., Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior... data for nonfuel mineral commodities. This information will be published as an Annual Report for use by... Number: 9-4000-A. Title: Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement. Type of...

  20. 75 FR 3753 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the USGS Mine, Development, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    .... Request for Comments On May 27, 2009, we published a Federal Register notice (74 FR 25273) announcing that..., Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION... paperwork requirements for the USGS Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement. This...

  1. 77 FR 37440 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Register on March 22, 2012 (77 FR 16863). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the OMB... Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) sponsored... this request to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Attn: OMB Desk Officer for...

  2. Mining the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Substances extracted from the earth - stone, iron, bronze - have been so critical to human development that historians name the ages of our past after them. But while scholars have carefully tracked human use of minerals, they have never accounted for the vast environmental damage incurred in mineral production. Few people would guess that a copper mining operation has removed a piece of Utah seven times the weight of all the material dug for the Panama Canal. Few would dream that mines and smelters take up to a tenth of all the energy used each year, or that the waste left by mining measures in the billions of tons - dwarfing the world's total accumulation of more familiar kinds of waste, such as municipal garbage. Indeed, more material is now stripped from the earth by mining than by all the natural erosion of the earth's rivers. The effects of mining operations on the environment are discussed under the following topics: minerals in the global economy, laying waste, at what cost cleaning up, and dipping out. It is concluded that in the long run, the most effective strategy for minimizing new damage is not merely to make mineral extraction cleaner, but to reduce the rich nations needs for virgin (non-recycled) minerals.

  3. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  4. The Dark Side of the Moebius Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Gideon E.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are various models proposed for the Moebius strip. Included are a discussion of a smooth flat model and two smooth flat algebraic models, some results concerning the shortest Moebius strip, the Moebius strip of least elastic energy, and some observations on real-world Moebius strips. (KR)

  5. Underground at Black Diamond Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1989-10-01

    Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

  6. 3D Modelling of Seismically Active Parts of Underground Faults via Seismic Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzeskakis, Theofanis; Konstantaras, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    During the last few years rapid steps have been taken towards drilling for oil in the western Mediterranean sea. Since most of the countries in the region benefit mainly from tourism and considering that the Mediterranean is a closed sea only replenishing its water once every ninety years careful measures are being taken to ensure safe drilling. In that concept this research work attempts to derive a three dimensional model of the seismically active parts of the underlying underground faults in areas of petroleum interest. For that purpose seismic spatio-temporal clustering has been applied to seismic data to identify potential distinct seismic regions in the area of interest. Results have been coalesced with two dimensional maps of underground faults from past surveys and seismic epicentres, having followed careful reallocation processing, have been used to provide information regarding the vertical extent of multiple underground faults in the region of interest. The end product is a three dimensional map of the possible underground location and extent of the seismically active parts of underground faults. Indexing terms: underground faults modelling, seismic data mining, 3D visualisation, active seismic source mapping, seismic hazard evaluation, dangerous phenomena modelling Acknowledgment This research work is supported by the ESPA Operational Programme, Education and Life Long Learning, Students Practical Placement Initiative. References [1] Alves, T.M., Kokinou, E. and Zodiatis, G.: 'A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: The South Aegean (Crete) as an analogue for confined marine basins', Marine Pollution Bulletin, In Press, 2014 [2] Ciappa, A., Costabile, S.: 'Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea)', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 84 (1-2), pp. 44-55, 2014 [3] Ganas, A., Karastathis, V., Moshou, A., Valkaniotis, S., Mouzakiotis

  7. Effects of mine wastewater irrigation on activities of soil enzymes and physiological properties, heavy metal uptake and grain yield in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shou-Chen; Zhang, He-Bing; Ma, Shou-Tian; Wang, Rui; Wang, Gui-Xian; Shao, Yun; Li, Chun-Xi

    2015-03-01

    In China, coal-mining industries are mainly located in the water shortage areas including arid or semiarid areas. Mine wastewater is used for irrigation of agricultural land in these areas. However, few studies have been conducted to address ecological and food safety risks caused by mine wastewater irrigation. In this research, a pot experiment was performed to examine the effects of mine wastewater irrigation on soil enzymes, physiological properties of wheat and potential risks of heavy metal contamination to wheat crop. Plants were subjected to three mine wastewater irrigation treatments: leacheate of coal gangue (T1), coal-washing wastewater (T2) and precipitated coal-washing wastewater (T3). Plants irrigated with well water were taken as the control (CK). The results showed that mine wastewater irrigation caused adverse effects on soil enzymes, physiological properties and grain yield of winter wheat. At anthesis, T1, T2 and T3 treatments significantly reduced the activities of soil enzymes (urease, sucrase and catalase), root activity and net photosynthetic rate of wheat compared to CK. At maturity, grain yield was decreased by 17.8%, 15.4% and 9.8% by T1, T2 and T3, respectively, as compared to that of CK. Importantly, mine wastewater irrigation resulted in accumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn) in wheat grain. Contents of these heavy metals in grains of winter wheat subjected to mine wastewater irrigation were significantly higher than those in CK. The comprehensive contamination indexes of wheat grain in T1, T2 and T3 all reached high pollution level. Our results showed that mine wastewater irrigation significantly increased the pollution risk of heavy metals, thus unsuitable for crop irrigation. PMID:25562177

  8. Sex and stripping

    PubMed Central

    Pellecchia, Marco; Grève, Pierre; Daffonchio, Daniele; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is known to infect only arthropods and nematodes (mainly filarial worms). A unique feature shared by the two Phyla is the ability to replace the exoskeleton, a process known as ecdysis. This shared characteristic is thought to reflect a common ancestry. Arthropod moulting is induced by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and a role for ecdysteroids in nematode ecdysis has also been suggested. Removing Wolbachia from filarial worms impairs the host’s development. From analyses of the genome of Wolbachia harbored by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi and that of its host, the bacterium may provide a source of heme, an essential component of cytochrome P450’s that are necessary for steroid hormone biosynthetic pathways. In arthropods, Wolbachia is a reproductive manipulator, inducing various phenotypic effects that may be due to differences in host physiology, in particular, endocrine-related processes governing development and reproduction. Insect steroids have well-defined roles in the coordination of multiple developmental processes, and in adults they control important aspects of reproduction, including ovarian development, oogenesis, sexual behavior, and in some taxa vitellogenin biosynthesis. According to some authors ecdysteroids may also act as sex hormones. In insects sex differentiation is generally thought to be a strictly genetic process, in which each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution, but, surprisingly, recent data demonstrate that in Drosophila sex determination is not cell-autonomous, as it happens in mammals. Thus the presence of signals coordinating the development of a gender-specific phenotype cannot be excluded. This could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect reproduction; and also could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect development. Thus, is “sex (=reproduction) and stripping (=ecdysis)” the key to the intimate relationship between Wolbachia and its

  9. Heavy metal levels in marine mollusks from areas with, or without, mining activities along the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cadena-Cárdenas, Lázaro; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Acosta-Vargas, Baudilio

    2009-07-01

    To assess the safety for human consumption of commercially important bivalves harvested from areas with or without mining activities, we compared the levels of heavy metals in mollusks collected from different coastal environments along the Gulf of California. We sampled the mussel Mytilus edulis and the clams Laevicardium elatum and Megapitaria squalida (June 2004) and the clam Chione californiensis (November 2006). Concentrations of cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, iron, copper, and manganese in the soft tissue of the mollusks were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on dry weight, the highest average concentrations of iron, copper, and cadmium were found in clams from Loreto (572, 181, and 4.66 mg/kg, respectively); that of nickel, in mussels from San Luquitas (12.2 mg/kg); that of zinc, both in mussels from San Luquitas and in clams from Golfo de Santa Clara (94.3 and 91.8 mg/kg, respectively); and those of lead and manganese in clams from the Golfo de Santa Clara (9.2 and 3.68 mg/kg, respectively). Although mollusks were taken from coastal areas of the Gulf of California, which are considered to be contaminated by mining activities, the heavy metals in the sediments apparently were in a chemical form that had low bioavailability for the bivalves feeding in those areas. The interplay of oceanographic conditions and the chemical composition of anthropogenic inputs into the environment is not well understood. Thus, these factors or their interaction could potentially result in increased concentration and bioavailability of such metals in areas without effluent generated by mining activities. PMID:18825444

  10. Deep-Subterranean Microbial Habitats in the Hishikari Epithermal Gold Mine: Active Thermophilic Microbial Communities and Endolithic Ancient Microbial Relicts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, H.; Takai, K.; Inagaki, F.; Horikoshi, K.

    2001-12-01

    Deep subterranean microbial community structures in an epithermal gold-silver deposit, Hishikari gold mine, southern part of Kyusyu Japan, were evaluated through the combined use of enrichment culture methods and culture-independent molecular surveys. The geologic setting of the Hishikari deposit is composed of three lithologies; basement oceanic sediments of the Cretaceous Shimanto Supergroup, Quaternary andesites, and auriferous quartz vein. We studied the drilled core rock of these, and the geothermal hot waters from the basement aquifers collected by means of the dewatering system located at the deepest level in the mining sites. Culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses of PCR-amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) recovered from drilled cores suggested that the deep-sea oceanic microbial communities were present as ancient indigenous relicts confined in the Shimanto basement. On the other hand, genetic signals of active thermophilic microbial communities, mainly consisting of thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizer within Aquificales, thermophilic methanotroph within g-Proteobacteria and yet-uncultivated bacterium OPB37 within b-Proteobacteria, were detected with these of oceanic relicts from the subterranean geothermal hot aquifers (temp. 70-100ºC). Successful cultivation and FISH analyses strongly supported that these thermophilic lithotrophic microorganisms could be exactly active and they grew using geochemically produced hydrogen and methane gasses as nutrients. Based on these results, the deep-subsurface biosphere occurring in the Hishikari epithermal gold mine was delineated as endolithic ancient microbial relicts and modern habitats raising active lithotrophic thermophiles associated with the geological and geochemical features of the epithermal gold deposit.

  11. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Garcia-Guinea, J; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. PMID:26218566

  12. Activity-based process mining for clinical pathways computer aided design.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Meneu, Teresa; Benedi, Jose Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Current trends in health management improvement demand the standardization of care protocols to achieve better quality and efficiency. The use of Clinical Pathways is an emerging solution for that problem. However, current Clinical Pathways are big manuals written in natural language and highly affected by human subjectivity. These problems make the deployment and dissemination of them extremely difficult in real practice environments. In this work, a complete computer based architecture to help the representation and execution of Clinical Pathways is suggested. Furthermore, the difficulties inherent to the design of formal Clinical Pathways in this way requires new specific design tools to help making the system useful. Process Mining techniques can help to automatically infer processes definition from execution samples. Yet, the classical Process Mining paradigm is not totally compatible with the Clinical Pathways paradigm. In this paper, a pattern recognition algorithm based in an evolution of the Process Mining classical paradigm is presented and evaluated as a solution to this situation. The proposed algorithm is able to infer Clinical Pathways from execution logs to support the design of Clinical Pathways. PMID:21097153

  13. Coal mine subsidence and fires in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area

    SciTech Connect

    Dunrud, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Subsidence and fire studies in the Sheridan, Wyo., area are discussed. Construction of a strip mine firebreak or isolation trench is proposed as the best method to control large underground fires such as those burning in the New Monarch and Acme mines in the Sheridan area. 10 refs.

  14. Dehydrogenase activity and quality of leachates in Technosols with gossan and sulfide materials from the São Domingos mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarílis

    2014-05-01

    Wastes produced by mining activity in São Domingos (Portuguese Iberian Pyrite Belt) were disposed over a large area. To speed up the ecological rehabilitation in this mine, an integrative strategy using different amendments+mine wastes was used to produce Technosols with enhanced soil functions. To evaluate the efficiency of these Technosols the dehydrogenase activity and chemical quality of leachates were monitored. Technosols were composed of different mine wastes (gossan and sulfide materials), collected at the São Domingos mine, and mixtures of amendments applied at 30 and 75 Mg/ha (rockwool+agriculture wastes+wastes from liquors distillation of strawberry tree fruits (Arbutus unedo L.) and/or carobs (Ceratonia siliqua L. fruits)). Three assays, under controlled conditions, were carried out: (1 and 2) Sulfide or gossan materials with/without amendments; (3) Sulfide wastes, with/without amendments, incubated during four months and then with application of an overlayer of gossan (~3 cm thick) with/without the same amendments. Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and chemical characteristics of leachates (multielemental concentration, pH, and electric conductivity) were determined after four/seven/thirteen months of incubation. Sulfide wastes had more hazardous characteristics (pH~2 and total concentrations (g/kg) of Al (58.1), As (1.1), Cu (2.1), Fe (107.3), Pb (11.7), S (65.3) and Zn (1.1) than the gossan materials (pH=4.3; g/kg, Al: 24.8, As: 3.0, Cu: 0.2, Fe: 129, Pb: 9.2, S: 13.7, Zn: 0.04). Amendments application to gossan (assay 2) enhanced DHA in both sampling periods (µg TPF g dry weight 16 h-1, Control: 0,72-1,78; Amended treatments: 2.49-16.36 depending on mixture/application rate/sampling period). Greater application rates stimulated DHA (more than 1.5-fold with 75 Mg/ha). No differences were observed in DHA in the gossan layer with/without amendments (assay 3) suggesting a negative impact on gossan microrganisms from sulfide materials located below. In

  15. Drosophila Strip serves as a platform for early endosome organization during axon elongation

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Chisako; Kawauchi, Takeshi; Haraguchi, Shuka; Shikanai, Mima; Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi; Gelfand, Vladimir I.; Luo, Liqun; Miura, Masayuki; Chihara, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Early endosomes are essential for regulating cell signalling and controlling the amount of cell surface molecules during neuronal morphogenesis. Early endosomes undergo retrograde transport (clustering) before their homotypic fusion. Small GTPase Rab5 is known to promote early endosomal fusion, but the mechanism linking the transport/clustering with Rab5 activity is unclear. Here we show that Drosophila Strip is a key regulator for neuronal morphogenesis. strip knockdown disturbs the early endosome clustering and Rab5-positive early endosomes become smaller and scattered. Strip genetically and biochemically interacts with both Glued (the regulator of dynein-dependent transport) and Sprint (the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab5), suggesting that Strip is a molecular linker between retrograde transport and Rab5 activation. Overexpression of an active form of Rab5 in strip mutant neurons suppresses the axon elongation defects. Thus, Strip acts as a molecular platform for the early endosome organization that plays important roles in neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:25312435

  16. Active and legacy mining in an arid urban environment: challenges and perspectives for Copiapó, Northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Carkovic, Athena B; Calcagni, Magdalena S; Vega, Alejandra S; Coquery, Marina; Moya, Pablo M; Bonilla, Carlos A; Pastén, Pablo A

    2016-08-01

    Urban expansion in areas of active and legacy mining imposes a sustainability challenge, especially in arid environments where cities compete for resources with agriculture and industry. The city of Copiapó, with 150,000 inhabitants in the Atacama Desert, reflects this challenge. More than 30 abandoned tailings from legacy mining are scattered throughout its urban and peri-urban area, which include an active copper smelter. Despite the public concern generated by the mining-related pollution, no geochemical information is currently available for Copiapó, particularly for metal concentration in environmental solid phases. A geochemical screening of soils (n = 42), street dusts (n = 71) and tailings (n = 68) was conducted in November 2014 and April 2015. Organic matter, pH and elemental composition measurements were taken. Notably, copper in soils (60-2120 mg/kg) and street dusts (110-10,200 mg/kg) consistently exceeded international guidelines for residential and industrial use, while a lower proportion of samples exceeded international guidelines for arsenic, zinc and lead. Metal enrichment occurred in residential, industrial and agricultural areas near tailings and the copper smelter. This first screening of metal contamination sets the basis for future risk assessments toward defining knowledge-based policies and urban planning. Challenges include developing: (1) adequate intervention guideline values; (2) appropriate geochemical background levels for key metals; (3) urban planning that considers contaminated areas; (4) cost-effective control strategies for abandoned tailings in water-scarce areas; and (5) scenarios and technologies for tailings reprocessing. Assessing urban geochemical risks is a critical endeavor for areas where extreme events triggered by climate change are likely, as the mud flooding that impacted Copiapó in late March 2015. PMID:26758741

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF WESTERN COAL SURFACE MINING. PART I. THE LIMNOLOGY AND BIOTA OF MINE SPOILS PONDS IN NORTHWEST COLORADO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physico-chemical conditions, zooplankton, and benthos were investigated in coal strip-mine ponds in northwesten Colorado. There were no discernible effects of mine drainage on a variety of physico-chemical parameters. In stark contrast to spoils ponds in the eastern and midwester...

  18. COMPARATIVE LIMNOLOGY AND BIOTA OF MINE SPOILS PONDS IN COLORADO (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physico-chemical and biotic parameters were investigated from June 1977 to May 1978 in coal strip-mine ponds in Colorado which differed in age and in the proportion of drainage derived from the mine. There were no discernible effects of mine drainage on temperature, dissolved oxy...

  19. Enzyme activity and morphological change in the spleens of crucian carp in the Yongcheng coal mine subsidence area, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y F; Yang, J Y; Lin, J Y

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of pollution on aquatic organisms in the Yongcheng coal mine subsidence area. Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were collected from Yongcheng natural fishpond (experimental group) and Tianmu Lake (control group), and the spleens were isolated for analysis. Subsequently, histological changes, DNA damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity were assessed. The result showed that there were more vacuoles, widened blood sinus cavities, increased partial dot necrosis, and a larger number of brown-yellow nodules in splenic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin in the experimental group than in the control group. Additionally, it was not easy to distinguish red pulp from white pulp in the experimental group. The antioxidant enzyme activity in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.01). Comet assay results showed varying degrees of tailing and DNA chain breaks in the experimental group, and further analysis demonstrated that the tail length and tail moment were significantly increased compared to those in the control group (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the spleen antioxidant defense system was severely damaged in crucian carp from the Yongcheng coal mine subsidence area. PMID:27173263

  20. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  1. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  2. Application of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) in detecting and quantifying forest loss caused by artisanal gold mining activities in Upper Mazaruni River Basin, Guyana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengisteab, B. S.; Blesius, L.; Hennessy, L.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal gold mining in Guyana is mostly done in forest covered areas, causing forest loss and land degradation. Data from the Guyana Geology and Mining commission show there has been an increase of 2074% between 1986 and 2009. Our analysis of Landsat data between 1986 and 2013 for a part of the Upper Mazaruni area shows an increase from 34.2 to 278.4 hectares, which amounts to more than 800%. While the frequent coverage of Landsat data is useful for multitemporal studies, the lower resolution may not be adequate for accurate detection of mining sites. Therefore, RapidEye imagery from 2011 at a resolution of 5m was used to detect gold mining activity and to compare the results with the Landsat study. Processing was conducted in eCognition, an object-based image analysis (OBIA) software. OBIA is an image processing technique that has proven to be advantageous over traditional pixel based image processing techniques, with the primary advantage being the ability of the approach in combining both the spatial and spectral information. The satellite image was subjected to segmentation at multiple scales and classified using fuzzy sets of membership functions. Classification explicitly incorporated the different scales in order to accommodate different sizes of real-world objects and spatial relationships were utilized to establish connections between related objects. For example the presence or absence of water in pits, or the existence of sediments in the river may serve as additional indicators of mining sites besides the spectral components. Preliminary results show that OBIA approach was able to successfully detect and quantify small scale mining activities in the basin, and that the Landsat data were giving an acceptable estimate of mining sites over time. Keywords:Object Based Image Analysis, Gold Mining, Remote Sensing, Guyana

  3. Longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  4. Environmental noise from surface mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Staiano, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A sample of five mines were observed as part of a study to determine the magnitude and sources of environmental noise from surface mining operations and to identify noise abatement methods. These mining operations consisted of: a Minnesota iron ore mine, Midwestern and Appalachian coal mines, a Missouri clay pit operation, and a Texas limestone quarry. These operations are typical of Eastern and Midwestern mining activities. This paper highlights the findings of the noise measurement portion of that study.

  5. Remediation of former uranium mining and milling activities in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Waggitt, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Several of the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union were involved in the uranium mining and milling industry from about 1945 for varying periods until the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991 and beyond. Some facilities are still producing in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. However, before the break up, many facilities had been abandoned and in only a few cases had any remediation been undertaken. Since 1991 the newly independent states of the region have been seeking assistance for the remediation of the multitude of tailings piles, waste rock stockpiles and abandoned, and often semi dismantled, production facilities that may be found throughout the region. Many of these sites are close to settlements that were established as service towns for the mines. Most towns still have populations, although the mining industry has departed. In some instances there are cases of pollution and contamination and in many locations there is a significant level of public concern. The IAEA has been undertaking a number of Technical Cooperation (TC) projects throughout the region for some time to strengthen the institutions in the relevant states and assist them to establish monitoring and surveillance programs as an integral part of the long term remediation process. The IAEA is liaising with other agencies and donors who are also working on these problems to optimise the remediation effort. The paper describes the objectives and operation of the main TC regional program, liaison efforts with other agencies, the achievements so far and the long term issues for remediation of these legacies of the 'cold war' era. (authors)

  6. Effect of heavy metals on soil enzyme activity at different field conditions in Middle Spis mining area (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Angelovičová, Lenka; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Fazekašová, Danica

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals concentrations were measured in the former mining area located in Hornad river valley (Slovakia). Soil samples were taken in 2012 from 20 sites at two field types (grasslands, heaps of waste material) and two different areas. Total content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg), urease (URE), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), soil reaction (pH) were changing depending on the field/area type. The tailing pond and processing plants have been found as the biggest sources of pollution. URE, ACP and ALP activities significantly decreased while the heavy metal contents increased. Significant differences were found among area types in the heavy metal contents and activity of URE. No statistical differences in the content of heavy metals but significant statistical differences for soil pH were found for field types (grassland and heaps). Significant negative correlation was found for URE-Pb, URE-Zn and also between soil reaction and ACP and ALP. PMID:25293393

  7. Evaluation of data mining techniques for suspicious network activity classification using honeypots data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégio, André; Santos, Rafael; Montes, Antonio

    2007-04-01

    As the amount and types of remote network services increase, the analysis of their logs has become a very difficult and time consuming task. There are several ways to filter relevant information and provide a reduced log set for analysis, such as whitelisting and intrusion detection tools, but all of them require too much fine- tuning work and human expertise. Nowadays, researchers are evaluating data mining approaches for intrusion detection in network logs, using techniques such as genetic algorithms, neural networks, clustering algorithms, etc. Some of those techniques yield good results, yet requiring a very large number of attributes gathered by network traffic to detect useful information. In this work we apply and evaluate some data mining techniques (K-Nearest Neighbors, Artificial Neural Networks and Decision Trees) in a reduced number of attributes on some log data sets acquired from a real network and a honeypot, in order to classify traffic logs as normal or suspicious. The results obtained allow us to identify unlabeled logs and to describe which attributes were used for the decision. This approach provides a very reduced amount of logs to the network administrator, improving the analysis task and aiding in discovering new kinds of attacks against their networks.

  8. Review of South American mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    A general overview is presented of the mining activity and plans for South America. The countries which are presented are Columbia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The products of the mines include coal, bauxite, gold, iron, uranium, copper and numerous other minor materials. A discussion of current production, support and processing facilities, and mining strategies is also given.

  9. Intrabeam stripping in H- Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.; Solyak, N.; Ostigy, J.-F.; Alexandrov, A.; Shishlo, A.; /Oak Ridge

    2010-09-01

    A beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS linac has been observed during its commissioning and operation. Although the loss does not prevent the SNS high power operation, it results in an almost uniform irradiation of linac components and increased radiation levels in the tunnel. Multi-particle tracking could neither account for the magnitude of the observed loss nor its dependence on machine parameters. It was recently found that the loss is consistent with the intrabeam particle collisions resulting in stripping of H{sup -} ions. The paper describes experimental observations and corresponding analytical estimates of the intrabeam stripping.

  10. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Goering, J. C.; Alper, J. M.; Gause, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  11. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.T.; Goering, J.C.; Alper, J.M.; Gause, L.W.

    1992-09-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  12. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Six spectacular spiral galaxies are seen in a clear new light in images from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The pictures were taken in infrared light, using the impressive power of the HAWK-I camera, and will help astronomers understand how the remarkable spiral patterns in galaxies form and evolve. HAWK-I [1] is one of the newest and most powerful cameras on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is sensitive to infrared light, which means that much of the obscuring dust in the galaxies' spiral arms becomes transparent to its detectors. Compared to the earlier, and still much-used, VLT infrared camera ISAAC, HAWK-I has sixteen times as many pixels to cover a much larger area of sky in one shot and, by using newer technology than ISAAC, it has a greater sensitivity to faint infrared radiation [2]. Because HAWK-I can study galaxies stripped bare of the confusing effects of dust and glowing gas it is ideal for studying the vast numbers of stars that make up spiral arms. The six galaxies are part of a study of spiral structure led by Preben Grosbøl at ESO. These data were acquired to help understand the complex and subtle ways in which the stars in these systems form into such perfect spiral patterns. The first image shows NGC 5247, a spiral galaxy dominated by two huge arms, located 60-70 million light-years away. The galaxy lies face-on towards Earth, thus providing an excellent view of its pinwheel structure. It lies in the zodiacal constellation of Virgo (the Maiden). The galaxy in the second image is Messier 100, also known as NGC 4321, which was discovered in the 18th century. It is a fine example of a "grand design" spiral galaxy - a class of galaxies with very prominent and well-defined spiral arms. About 55 million light-years from Earth, Messier 100 is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and lies in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair, named after the ancient Egyptian queen Berenice II). The third

  13. Reduction of spatial distribution of risk factors for transportation of contaminants released by coal mining activities.

    PubMed

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2016-09-15

    It is reported that water-energy nexus composes two of the biggest development and human health challenges. In the present study we presented a Risk Potential Index (RPI) model which encapsulates Source, Vector (Transport), and Target risks for forecasting surface water contamination. The main aim of the model is to identify critical surface water risk zones for an open cast mining environment, taking Jharia Coalfield, India as the study area. The model also helps in feasible sampling design. Based on spatial analysis various risk zones were successfully delineated. Monthly RPI distribution revealed that the risk of surface water contamination was highest during the monsoon months. Surface water samples were analysed to validate the model. A GIS based alternative management option was proposed to reduce surface water contamination risk and observed 96% and 86% decrease in the spatial distribution of very high risk areas for the months June and July respectively. PMID:27240204

  14. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  15. The Perils of Strip Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Every year, a few administrators mishandle school searches and create spectacles similar to the New Castle, Pennsylvania, incident involving six illegally strip-searched students. Principals using "cops-and-robber" techniques to unearth contraband may not realize the potential for infringing on students' constitutional privacy rights. Strip…

  16. MINISITE PREPARATION FOR REFORESTATION OF STRIP-MINED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis that site preparation of a minisite (20x60 cm cylinder) would be effective in promoting seedling survival and growth and still save considerable cost compared to area-wide site preparation. Spoil within the cylinder was mixed wi...

  17. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF GROUNDWATER STRIPPING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the applicability of catalytic oxidation to control ground-water air stripping gaseous effluents, with special attention to system designs and case histories. The variety of contaminants and catalyst poisons encountered in stripping operations are also reviewed....

  18. Bimaterial Thermal Strip With Increased Flexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Andrew D.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed bimaterial thermal strip, one layer has negative coefficient of thermal expansion, thereby increasing difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of two outer layers and consequently increasing flexing caused by change in temperature. Proposed bimaterial strips used in thermostats.

  19. Statistical methods of estimating mining costs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Until it was defunded in 1995, the U.S. Bureau of Mines maintained a Cost Estimating System (CES) for prefeasibility-type economic evaluations of mineral deposits and estimating costs at producing and non-producing mines. This system had a significant role in mineral resource assessments to estimate costs of developing and operating known mineral deposits and predicted undiscovered deposits. For legal reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey cannot update and maintain CES. Instead, statistical tools are under development to estimate mining costs from basic properties of mineral deposits such as tonnage, grade, mineralogy, depth, strip ratio, distance from infrastructure, rock strength, and work index. The first step was to reestimate "Taylor's Rule" which relates operating rate to available ore tonnage. The second step was to estimate statistical models of capital and operating costs for open pit porphyry copper mines with flotation concentrators. For a sample of 27 proposed porphyry copper projects, capital costs can be estimated from three variables: mineral processing rate, strip ratio, and distance from nearest railroad before mine construction began. Of all the variables tested, operating costs were found to be significantly correlated only with strip ratio.

  20. Assessment of public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials from mining and mineral processing activities of Tarkwa Goldmine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Faanu, Augustine; Ephraim, James H; Darko, Emmanuel O

    2011-09-01

    Studies have been carried out in a Goldmine in Ghana to determine the exposure of the public to naturally occurring radioactive materials from processing of gold ore. Direct gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis techniques were used to analyse soil, rock, water and dust samples from the mining environment. The mean activity concentrations measured for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil/rock samples were 15.2, 26.9 and 157.1 Bq kg( - 1), respectively. For the water samples, the mean activity concentrations were 0.54 and 0.41 Bq l( - 1)) and 7.76 Bq l( - 1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The mean activity concentrations measured in the dust samples were 4.90 and 2.75 μBq m( - 3) for (238)U and (232)Th, respectively. The total annual effective dose to the public was estimated to be 0.69 mSv. The results in this study compared well with typical world average values. The results indicate an insignificant exposure of the public from the activities of the Goldmine. PMID:21072583

  1. Noise determination in silicon micro strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dubbs, T.; Kashigin, S.; Kratzer, M.

    1996-06-01

    The authors report the study of amplifier noise on silicon micro strip detectors. They have used a fast, low noise amplifier-comparator VLSI chip with 22ns shaping time developed for the LHC to determine the noise at the pre-amp as a function of strip length and strip geometry, i.e., interstrip capacitance and ohmic strip resistance. In addition, they have tested the noise in irradiated detectors. They have compared the results with simulations using SPICE.

  2. Assessing genotoxic effects in fish from a marine protected area influenced by former mining activities and other stressors.

    PubMed

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Santos, Gustavo Souza; de Araújo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Stremel, Tatiana; de Campos, Sandro Xavier; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira; de Sousa Abessa, Denis Moledo

    2016-03-15

    The goal of the current study was to evaluate different genotoxicity tools in order to assess a marine protected area (MPA) affected by former mining activities and urban settlements. A catfish (Cathorops spixii) was analyzed for genotoxic effects at the (i) molecular and at the (ii) chromosomal levels. Through factor analysis, genotoxicity was found to be linked to levels of metals bioaccumulated and PAH metabolites in the bile. Micronucleus and nuclear alteration were less vulnerable to the effects of confounding factors in mildly contaminated areas since they were more frequently associated with bioaccumulated metals than the DNA analysis. The different genotoxicity responses allowed for the identification of sources of pollution in the MPA. This approach was important for detecting environmental risks related to genotoxic contaminants in a mildly contaminated MPA. PMID:26822909

  3. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  4. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stripped bond or stripped coupon is less than the amount computed under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of...)) shall be considered to be zero. For purposes of this computation, the number of complete years to maturity is measured from the date the stripped bond or stripped coupon is purchased. (b) Treatment...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  9. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  10. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  11. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  12. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  13. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  14. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  15. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  16. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  17. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  18. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  19. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  2. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  3. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  4. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  6. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  7. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  8. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  9. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  10. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  11. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  12. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  13. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  14. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  15. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  17. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  19. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  20. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  1. Biomonitoring of cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic in general population living near mining and active industrial areas in Southern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Hammami, Bouthaina; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2014-02-01

    The human health impact of the historic and current mining and industrial activities in Tunisia is not known. This study assessed the exposure to metals in the population of Southern Tunisia, using biomonitoring. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate metal exposure on 350 participants living near mining and active industrial areas in the South of Tunisia. Blood specimens were analyzed for metals (Cd, Cr, As, and Ni) by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer equipped with Zeeman background correction and AS-800 auto sampler by graphite furnace and graphite tubes with integrated L'vov platform. The sample population was classified according to different age groups, sex, smoking habit, sea food and water drinking consumption, occupational exposure, amalgam fillings and place of residence. The blood As, Cd, Cr and Ni values expressed as mean ± SD were 1.56 ± 2.49, 0.74 ± 1.15, 35.04 ± 26.02 and 30.56 ± 29.96 μg/l, respectively. Blood Cd and Ni levels in smokers were 2 and 1.2 times, respectively, higher than in non-smokers. Blood Cd levels increase significantly with age (p = 0.002). As, Cd and Ni were significantly correlated with gender and age (p < 0.05). Cd level in blood samples of subjects occupationally exposed was 1.3 times higher than that of non-exposed. Blood metals were not significantly affected by amalgam fillings, place of living and sea food and drinking water consumption. This first biomonitoring study of metal exposure in the South of Tunisia reveals a substantial exposure to several metals. The pathways of exposure and health significance of these findings need to be further investigated. PMID:24078049

  2. Thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    PubMed

    Verdejo, José; Ginocchio, Rosanna; Sauvé, Sébastien; Salgado, Eduardo; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    It has been argued that the identification of the phytotoxic metal thresholds in soil should be based on field-collected soil rather than on artificially-contaminated soils. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation because of mixed contamination and unavoidable covariance of metal contamination with other soil properties that affect plant growth. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in topsoils of 27 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed emergence and early growth (21 days) tests (OECD 208 and ISO 11269-2) with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The total Cu content in soils was the best predictor of plant growth and shoot Cu concentrations, while soluble Cu and pCu(2+) did not well correlate with these biological responses. The effects of Pb, Zn, and As on plant responses were not significant, suggesting that Cu is a metal of prime concern for plant growth in soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile. The effects of soil nutrient availability and shoot nutrient concentrations on ryegrass response were not significant. It was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 of total Cu in the soil of 327 mg kg(-1), 735 mg kg(-1) and 1144 mg kg(-1), respectively, using the shoot length as a response variable. However, the derived 95% confidence intervals for EC10, EC25 and EC50 values of total soil Cu were wide, and thus not allowing a robust assessment of metal toxicity for agricultural crops, based on total soil Cu concentrations. Thus, plant tests might need to be performed for metal toxicity assessment. This study suggests shoot length of ryegrass as a robust response variable for metal toxicity assessment in contaminated soils with different nutrient availability. PMID:26233921

  3. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM: A SUCCESS STORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining Waste generated by active and inactive mining operations is a growing problem for the mining industry, local governments, and Native American communities because of its impact on human health and the environment. In the US, the reported volume of mine waste is immense: 2 b...

  4. 30 CFR 282.24 - Mining Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining Plan. 282.24 Section 282.24 Mineral... § 282.24 Mining Plan. All OCS mineral development and production activities shall be conducted in accordance with a Mining Plan submitted by the lessee and approved by the Director. A Mining Plan...

  5. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  6. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources in Texas and Other Mining Activities: the Water Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicot, J.

    2011-12-01

    A recent study, sponsored by the Texas Water Development Board, considered current and projected water use in the mining industry. It looked at the upstream segment of the oil and gas industry (that is, water used to extract the commodity until it leaves the wellhead), the aggregate, and coal industry, and other substances (industrial sand, lime, etc.). We obtained data through state databases, data collection from private vendors, and direct surveys of the various sectors of the industry. Overall, in 2008, we estimated that the state consumed ~160 thousand acre-feet (AF) in the mining industry, including 35.8 thousand AF for fracing wells (mostly in the Barnett Shale/Fort Worth area) and ~21.0 thousand AF for other purposes in the oil and gas industry, although more spread out across the state, with a higher demand in the Permian Basin area in West Texas. The coal industry used 20.0 thousand AF along the lignite belt from Central to East Texas. The 71.6 thousand AF used by the aggregate industry is distributed over most of the state, but with a clear concentration around major metropolitan areas. The remainder amounts to 11.0 thousand AF and is dominated by industrial sand production (~80% of total). Water is used mostly for drilling wells, stimulating/fracing wells, and secondary and tertiary recovery processes (oil and gas industry); for dewatering and depressurizing pits, with a small amount used for dust control (coal industry); and for dust control and washing (aggregate industry and industrial sand). Reuse/recycling has already been accounted for in water-use values, as well as opportunity usages, such as stormwater collection (aggregates). The split between surface water and groundwater is difficult to assess but it is estimated at ~56% groundwater in 2008. Projections for future use were done by extrapolating current trends, mainly for coal (same energy mix) and aggregates (following population growth). Projections for the oil and gas industry (Barnett

  7. Web Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to Web data and documents. This chapter provides a brief overview of web mining techniques and research areas, most notably hypertext classification, wrapper induction, recommender systems and web usage mining.

  8. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  9. Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

  10. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mory, P.C.; Behum, P.T.; Ross, R.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, William B. Bankhead National Forest, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama. The survey includes: limestone quarrying, coal mining, and oil and gas activity. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. First, the problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. Then, the singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied in some detail. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. A number of numerical examples are worked out in order to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Finally, some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  12. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  13. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  14. Decoding Metal Associations in an Arid Urban Environment with Active and Legacy Mining: the Case of Copiapó, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasten, P.; Moya, P.; Coquery, M.; Bonilla, C. A.; Vega, A.; Carkovic, A.; Calcagni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The urban and periurban area of Copiapó in the arid Atacama desert has more than 30 abandoned mine tailings, one active copper smelter, and 150,000 inhabitants. Fast development of the mining industry during the 19th century and unplanned growth has led to public concern about the presence of metals in soils and street dust. Recent floods and mud currents in the Copiapó watershed have introduced new solid material in about 40% of the urban area. We conducted a geochemical screening before and after the disaster in March 2015. We found concentrations as high as 1000 mg/kg of copper and 180 mg/kg of arsenic in urban soils. Since effective control measures require connecting sites of metal enrichment with the possible sources, we have performed a statistical analysis of metal association and complemented it with other analyses like x-ray diffraction. Cluster analyses of elemental compositions suggest that mud and tailing have different origins from the rest of the matrices, while soils and street dust have a similar one. Some clusters have a mix of matrices that suggest anthropogenic enrichment of some areas of Copiapó. Our initial results indicate that a correlation between observed enrichment and the copper smelter can be hypothesized for Cu, Pb, and Zn. Further spatial, statistical, and chemical analyses are needed to further confirm such findings, complemented with a thorough analysis of the baseline values that could be considered representative of the area. Future work include Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive matrix factorization (PMF) to test the link contaminant sources and metal occurrence, while scanning electron microscopy can be used to identify the presence of smelter-related particles. The information generated by this research will be a necessary input for defining urban planning strategies and land use guidelines, defining health risk assessment studies, and for future evaluation of intervention priorities. Acknowledgements: Proyecto

  15. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H.; Haga, T.; Watari, H.; Kumai, S.

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connected when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.

  16. Riparian strip efficiency assessment in agricultural landscapes using stereoscopic very high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokmani, Karem; Novoa, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Riparian strips are used worldwide to protect riverbanks and water quality in agricultural zones because of their several environmental benefits. A metric called the Riparian Strip Quality Index, which is based on the percentage area of riverine vegetation found on the riparian strip, is used to evaluate their ecological condition. This index could be considered an indicator of the potential capacity of riparian strips to filter sediments, retain pollutants, and provide shelter to terrestrial and aquatic species. Thus, in order to know if a riparian strip is truly efficient in agricultural lands, which means that it is fulfilling those ecological functions, it is necessary to understand their ability to intercept surface runoff. The latter is the major cause of water pollution and erosion in these productive areas. Besides vegetation coverage, topographic and hydrologic parameters must be included to model the intensity and spatial distribution of runoff streamflow at local scales. The geospatial information used to assess the ecological efficiency of riparian strips was extracted from very-high-spatial-resolution WorldView-2 satellite imagery. This information was then processed using current geospatial techniques such as object-based image analysis and was used to develop a Riparian Strip Efficiency Index. The results show that this index might be used to assess the efficiency of riparian strips, which will enable land managers to monitor changes occurring over time, identify priority areas for restoration activities. This, in turn, might ensure optimal allocation of private or public funds towards the most inefficient and threatened riparian strips.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Mouthrinse, Herbal Mouthrinse and Oil Pulling on the Caries Activity and Streptococcus mutans Count using Oratest and Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Kit

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Rana, Vivek; Chandna, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: As the technological level of healthcare increases, it is important not to lose sight of the basics of patient care. No matter how sophisticated dental techniques have become, preventive dentistry still remains the foundation for oral health. Therefore, antimicrobial mouthrinses are developed to provide an effective means of preventing colonization by micro-organisms. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of oil pulling, herbal mouthrinses and fluoride mouthwash on the caries activity and S. mutans counts in the saliva of children, using Oratest and Dentocult SM kit. Design: Fifty-two healthy children between the age group of 6 to 12 years were selected for the study and divided into four groups based on the mouthrinse used as group 1: fluoride, group 2: herbal, group 3: oil pulling and group 4: control. The estimation of caries activity and S. mutans was done prior to and after the subjects were instructed to use the mouthrinse twice daily for a period of 2 weeks. Statistical analysis: The comparisons were made by applying paired ‘t’ test with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Difference between more than two mean values was done by using ANOVA and Post hoc Bonferroni test was used for multiple comparisons. Results and conclusion: The efficacy of fluoride and herbal mouthrinses was found to be comparable while oil pulling did not provide any additional benefit to be used as an effective antimicrobial agent in reducing the bacterial colonization of an individual. How to cite this article: Jauhari D, Srivastava N, Rana V, Chandna P. Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Mouthrinse, Herbal Mouthrinse and Oil Pulling on the Caries Activity and Streptococcus mutans Count using Oratest and Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Kit. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):114-118. PMID:26379378

  18. Exposure and toxic effects of elemental mercury in gold-mining activities in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Harari, Raúl; Harari, Florencia; Gerhardsson, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Skerfving, Staffan; Strömberg, Ulf; Broberg, Karin

    2012-08-13

    Traditional gold mining, using metallic mercury (Hg(0)) to form gold amalgam, followed by burning to remove the Hg(0), is widely used in South America, Africa and Asia. The gold is sold to merchants who burn it again to eliminate remaining Hg(0). In Ecuador, 200 gold miners, 37 gold merchants and 72 referents were studied. The median Hg concentrations in urine (U-Hg) were 3.3 (range 0.23-170), 37 (3.2-420), and 1.6 (0.2-13)μg/g creatinine, respectively, and in whole blood (B-Hg) were 5.2, 30, and 5.0 μg/L, respectively. Biomarker concentrations among merchants were statistically significantly higher than among miners and referents; also the miners differed from the referents. Burning of gold amalgam among miners was intermittent; U-Hg decreased in the burning-free period. In computerized neuromotor examinations, B-Hg and U-Hg concentrations were associated with increases in the centre frequency of the tremor, as well as in reaction time and postural stability.Retention of Hg (B-Hg), and the elimination rate (U-Hg) appears to be modified by polymorphism in a gene of an enzyme in the glutathione synthesis (GCLM), but there were no significant genetic modifications for the associations between exposure and neurotoxicity.Thus, the gold merchants have a much higher exposure and risk than the miners, in whom the exposure varies over time. The metabolism of Hg is modified by genetic traits. The present exposure to Hg had limited neurotoxic effects. PMID:21925580

  19. Geochemical anomalies of toxic elements and arsenic speciation in airborne particles from Cu mining and smelting activities: influence on air quality.

    PubMed

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; González Castanedo, Yolanda; de la Rosa, Jesús D

    2015-06-30

    A characterization of chemical composition and source contribution of PM10 in three representative environments of southwest Spain related to mining activities (mineral extraction, mining waste and Cu-smelting) has been performed. A study of geochemical anomalies was conducted in the samples collected at the three stations between July 2012 and October 2013. The influence of Cu-smelting processes was compared to other mining activities, where common tracers were identified. The Cu and As concentrations in the study area are higher than in other rural and urban stations of Spain, in which geochemical anomalies of As, Se, Bi, Cd, and Pb have been reported. The results of source contribution showed similar geochemical signatures in the industrial and mining factors. However, the contribution to PM10 is different according to the type of industrial activity. These results have been confirmed performing an arsenic speciation analysis of the PM10 samples, in which the mean extraction efficiency of arsenic depended on the origin of the samples. These finding indicate that the atmospheric particulate matter emitted from Cu-smelting has a high residence time in the atmosphere. This indicates that the Cu-smelter can impact areas of high ecological interest and considered as clean air. PMID:25748998

  20. Hydrologic analysis for ecological risk assessment of watersheds with abandoned mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.; Babendreier, J.; Cherry, D.

    1999-07-01

    As part of on-going study of acid mine drainage (AMD), a comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted in the Leading Creek Watershed in southeast Ohio. The watershed is influenced by agriculture and active and abandoned coal-mining operations. This work presents a broad overview of several quantitative measures of hydrology and hydraulic watershed properties available for in risk assessment and evaluates their relation to metrics of ecology. Data analysis included statistical comparisons of metrics of ecology, ecotoxicology, water quality, and physically based parameters describing land use, geomorphology, flow, velocity, and particle size. A multiple regression analysis indicated that abandoned mining operations dominated impacts upon aquatic ecology. It also indicated low flow velocity measurements and a ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity at low flow where helpful in describing variation in macroinvertebrate Total Taxa scores. Other key parameters also identified strong impact relationships with biodiversity trends and included pH, simple knowledge of any mining upstream, calculated % of the subshed covered by strip mines, and the measured depth of streambed sediments from site to site.

  1. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features. PMID:25766420

  2. Measuring total mercury due to small-scale gold mining activities to determine community vulnerability in Cihonje, Central Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sari, Mega M; Inoue, Takanobu; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yokota, Kuriko

    2016-01-01

    This research is comparative study of gold mining and non-gold mining areas, using four community vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability indicators are exposure degree, contamination rate, chronic, and acute toxicity. Each indicator used different samples, such as wastewater from gold mining process, river water from Tajum river, human hair samples, and health questionnaire. This research used cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry to determine total mercury concentration. The result showed that concentration of total mercury was 2,420 times than the maximum content of mercury permitted in wastewater based on the Indonesian regulation. Moreover, the mercury concentration in river water reached 685 ng/l, exceeding the quality threshold standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). The mercury concentration in hair samples obtained from the people living in the research location was considered to identify the health quality level of the people or as a chronic toxicity indicator. The highest mercury concentration--i.e. 17 ng/mg, was found in the gold mining respondents. Therefore, based on the total mercury concentration in the four indicators, the community in the gold mining area were more vulnerable to mercury than communities in non-gold mining areas. It was concluded that the community in gold mining area was more vulnerable to mercury contamination than the community in non-gold mining area. PMID:26819400

  3. A Fragment of the LG3 Peptide of Endorepellin Is Present in the Urine of Physically Active Mining Workers: A Potential Marker of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Tony J.; Sampson, Dayle L.; Broszczak, Daniel; Chng, Yee L.; Carter, Shea L.; Leavesley, David I.; Parker, Anthony W.; Upton, Zee

    2012-01-01

    Biomarker analysis has been implemented in sports research in an attempt to monitor the effects of exertion and fatigue in athletes. This study proposed that while such biomarkers may be useful for monitoring injury risk in workers, proteomic approaches might also be utilised to identify novel exertion or injury markers. We found that urinary urea and cortisol levels were significantly elevated in mining workers following a 12 hour overnight shift. These levels failed to return to baseline over 24 h in the more active maintenance crew compared to truck drivers (operators) suggesting a lack of recovery between shifts. Use of a SELDI-TOF MS approach to detect novel exertion or injury markers revealed a spectral feature which was associated with workers in both work categories who were engaged in higher levels of physical activity. This feature was identified as the LG3 peptide, a C-terminal fragment of the anti-angiogenic/anti-tumourigenic protein endorepellin. This finding suggests that urinary LG3 peptide may be a biomarker of physical activity. It is also possible that the activity mediated release of LG3/endorepellin into the circulation may represent a biological mechanism for the known inverse association between physical activity and cancer risk/survival. PMID:22457785

  4. Exposure histories derived from selenium in otoliths of three cold-water fish species captured downstream from coal mining activity.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Lisa A; Orr, Patricia L; Halden, Norman M; Yang, Panseok; Palace, Vince P

    2011-10-01

    Establishing exposure to contaminants within a given environment is often difficult for fish species with large home ranges. Chemical analyses of muscle or visceral tissue are useful indicators of recent exposure, but depuration, metabolic transformation, and tissue redistributions can alter temporal resolution. Otoliths are metabolically stable and thus provide complete chemical records within their calcified tissues that, when coupled to the annular structure, can provide temporal resolution for exposure to trace metals. Otoliths from bull trout, cutthroat trout, and mountain whitefish from an area rich in seleniferous soils and with active coal mining activity were analyzed for selenium to determine any history of exposure to elevated levels of selenium. Selenium concentrations in otolith primordia tended to be low, indicating that these fish emerged in low selenium areas. Later life stages showed peaks of high Se concentrations, suggesting that individuals moved into areas of increased selenium later in life. Individuals captured from the same area had a wide variety of selenium exposure profiles, indicating that these fish do not move en masse into and out of high-selenium areas. Year-to-year variability of selenium exposure patterns within an otolith suggests inconsistent utilization of high- and low-selenium areas by the individual. The inconsistent exposure profiles for these fish, in addition to their home range of tens of kilometres, indicate that soft tissue concentrations, while useful indicators of recent exposure, cannot be relied upon to provide a life history recording of exposure. PMID:21899824

  5. Profiling microbial community in a watershed heavily contaminated by an active antimony (Sb) mine in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Dong, Yiran; Tang, Song; Krumins, Valdis; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-04-15

    Located in Southwest China, the Chahe watershed has been severely contaminated by upstream active antimony (Sb) mines. The extremely high concentrations of Sb make the Chahe watershed an excellent model to elucidate the response of indigenous microbial activities within a severe Sb-contaminated environment. In this study, water and surface sediments from six locations in the Chahe watershed with different levels of Sb contamination were analyzed. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed more than 40 phyla from the domain Bacteria and 2 phyla from the domain Archaea. Sequences assigned to the genera Flavobacterium, Sulfuricurvum, Halomonas, Shewanella, Lactobacillus, Acinetobacter, and Geobacter demonstrated high relative abundances in all sequencing libraries. Spearman's rank correlations indicated that a number of microbial phylotypes were positively correlated with different speciation of Sb, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in microbial Sb cycling. Canonical correspondence analysis further demonstrated that geochemical parameters, including water temperature, pH, total Fe, sulfate, aqueous Sb, and Eh, significantly structured the overall microbial community in Chahe watershed samples. Our findings offer a direct and reliable reference to the diversity of microbial communities in the presence of extremely high Sb concentrations, and may have potential implications for in situ bioremediation strategies of Sb contaminated sites. PMID:26820933

  6. Shiftable belt conveyor systems in open pit mining

    SciTech Connect

    Weissflog, J.

    1983-10-01

    During recent years the open-cast mining scene in the USA has altered and the first steps towards continuous haulage have been made. The authors are of the opinion that this development will continue in the future due to the fact that governments, not only the American Government, have introduced environmental laws and regulations which require very high standards of reclamation of mined-out areas. To improve the strip mining system and to improve and to meet reclamation standards, many mining companies now start to operate with cross pit conveying or round the pit conveying systems.

  7. 78 FR 64537 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coal Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... information about this ICR, see the related notice published in the Federal Register on June 14, 2013 (78 FR.../public/do/PRAViewICR?ref_nbr=201304-1219-002 (this link will only become active on the day...

  8. Interaction of acid mine drainage with Ordinary Portland Cement blended solid residues generated from active treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Gitari, Wilson M; Petrik, Leslie F; Key, David L; Okujeni, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) has been investigated as a possible treatment agent for Acid mine drainage (AMD) and established to be an alternative, cheap and economically viable agent compared to the conventional alkaline agents. However, this treatment option also leads to generation of solid residues (SR) that require disposal and one of the proposed disposal method is a backfill in coal mine voids. In this study, the interaction of the SR with AMD that is likely to be present in such backfill scenario was simulated by draining columns packed with SR and SR + 6% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) unsaturated with simulated AMD over a 6 month period. The evolving geochemistry of the liquid/solid (L/S) system was evaluated in-terms of the mineral phases likely or controlling contaminants attenuation at the different pH regimes generated. Stepwise acidification of the percolates was observed as the drainage progressed. Two pH buffer zones were observed (7.5-9 and 3-4) for SR and (11.2-11.3 and 3.5-4) for SR + 6% OPC. The solid residue cores (SR) appeared to have a significant buffering capacity, maintaining a neutral to slightly alkaline pH in the leachates for an extended period of time (97 days: L/S 4.3) while SR + 6% OPC reduced this neutralization capacity to 22 days (L/S 1.9). Interaction of AMD with SR or SR + 6% OPC generated alkaline conditions that favored precipitation of Fe, Al, Mn-(oxy) hydroxides, Fe and Ca-Al hydroxysulphates that greatly contributed to the contaminants removal. However, precipitation of these phases was restricted to the pH of the leachates remaining at neutral to circum-neutral levels. Backfill of mine voids with SR promises to be a feasible technology for the disposal of the SR but its success will greatly depend on the disposal scenario, AMD generated and the alkalinity generating potential of the SR. A disadvantage would be the possible re-dissolution of the precipitated phases at pH < 4 that would release the contaminants back to the water column

  9. Thresholds of arsenic toxicity to Eisenia fetida in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Víctor; Mondaca, Pedro; Verdejo, José; Sauvé, Sébastien; Gaete, Hernán; Celis-Diez, Juan L; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Several previous studies highlighted the importance of using field-collected soils-and not artificially-contaminated soils-for ecotoxicity tests. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation of results, due to the presence of various contaminants and unavoidable differences in the physicochemical properties of the tested soils. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of metal toxicity in topsoils of 24 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed standardized earthworm reproduction tests (OECD 222 and ISO 11268-2) with Eisenia fetida. Total soil concentrations of Cu, As, Zn, and Pb were in the ranges of 82-1295 mg kg(-1), 7-41 mg kg(-1), 86-345 mg kg(-1), and 25-97 mg kg(-1), respectively. In order to differentiate between the effects of different metals, we used regression analysis between soil metal concentrations and earthworm responses, as well as between metal concentrations in earthworm tissues and earthworm responses. Based on regression analysis, we concluded that As was a metal of prime concern for Eisenia fetida in soils affected by Cu mining activities, while Cu exhibited a secondary effect. In contrast, the effects of Zn and Pb were not significant. Soil electrical conductivity was another significant contributor to reproduction toxicity in the studied soils, forcing its integration in the interpretation of the results. By using soils with electrical conductivity ≤ 0.29 dS m(-1) (which corresponds to EC50 of salt toxicity to Eisenia fetida), it was possible to isolate the effect of soil salinity on earthworm reproduction. Despite the confounding effects of Cu, it was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 values for total soil As at 8 mg kg(-1), 14 mg kg(-1) and 22 mg kg(-1), respectively, for the response of the cocoon production. However, it was not possible to determine these threshold values for juvenile production. Likewise, we were able to

  10. Personal pack display and active smoking at outdoor café strips: assessing the impact of plain packaging 1 year postimplementation

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Meghan; Bayly, Megan; Brennan, Emily; Dono, Joanne; Miller, Caroline; Durkin, Sarah; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Aims We observed tobacco pack display and smoking at outdoor venues over three summers to assess changes in their prevalence following Australia's introduction of plain tobacco packaging with larger pictorial health warnings. Methods Between January and April 2012 (preplain packaging (PP)), 2013 (early post-PP) and 2014 (1 year post-PP), we counted patrons, smokers and tobacco packs at cafés, restaurants and bars with outdoor seating. Pack type (branded, plain or unknown) and orientation were noted. Rates of active smoking, pack display and pack orientation were analysed using multilevel Poisson regression. Results Prevalence of pack display among patrons declined from pre-PP (1 pack per 8.7 patrons) to early post-PP (1 pack per 10.4), and remained low 1 year post-PP (1 pack per 10.3). This appeared to be driven by a sustained decline in active smoking post-PP (pre-PP: 8.4% of patrons were smoking; early post-PP: 6.4%; 1 year post-PP: 6.8%). Notably, active smoking declined more in venues with children present than in those without. While early post-PP, plain packs were less often displayed face-up (74.0%) and more often concealed (8.9%) than branded packs pre-PP (face-up: 85.2%; concealed: 4.0%), this was not sustained 1 year post-PP (face-up: 85.7%; concealed: 4.4%). Also, external case use increased from pre-PP (1.2%) to early post-PP (3.5%), but returned to pre-PP levels 1 year post-PP (1.9%). Conclusions This study demonstrated a sustained reduction in visibility of tobacco products and smoking in public, particularly in the presence of children, from pre-PP to 1 year post-PP. This effect is likely to reduce smoking-related social norms, thereby weakening an important influence on smoking uptake and better supporting quit attempts.

  11. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining... against any hazard to underground workings located at or near such auger operations and all auger holes... underground mine; (b) Inundation hazards from surface water entering any active underground mine; (c)...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining... against any hazard to underground workings located at or near such auger operations and all auger holes... underground mine; (b) Inundation hazards from surface water entering any active underground mine; (c)...

  13. THE EPA/DOE MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce between 1-2B tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heav...

  14. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  15. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  16. Quantitative-spatial assessment of soil contamination in S. Francisco de Assis due to mining activity of the Panasqueira mine (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Freire Ávila, Paula; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Candeias, Carla; Garcia Pereira, Henrique

    2013-11-01

    Through the years, mining and beneficiation processes produces large amounts of As-rich mine wastes laid up in huge tailings and open-air impoundments (Barroca Grande and Rio tailings) that are the main source of pollution in the surrounding area once they are exposed to the weathering conditions leading to the formation of AMD and consequently to the contamination of the surrounding environments, in particularly soils. In order to investigate the environmental contamination impact on S. Francisco de Assis (village located between the two major impoundments and tailings) agricultural soils, a geochemical survey was undertaken to assess toxic metals associations, related levels and their spatial distribution, and to identify the possible contamination sources. According to the calculated contamination factor, As and Zn have a very high contamination factor giving rise to 65.4% of samples with a moderate to high pollution degree; 34.6% have been classified as nil to very low pollution degree. The contamination factor spatial distribution put in evidence the fact that As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn soils contents, downstream Barroca Grande tailing, are increased when compared with the local Bk soils. The mechanical dispersion, due to erosion, is the main contamination source. The chemical extraction demonstrates that the trace metals distribution and accumulation in S. Francisco de Assis soils is related to sulfides, but also to amorphous or poorly crystalline iron oxide phases. The partitioning study allowed understanding the local chemical elements mobility and precipitation processes, giving rise to the contamination dispersion model of the study area. The wind and hydrological factors are responsible for the chemical elements transport mechanisms, the water being the main transporter medium and soils as one of the possible retention media. PMID:23370848

  17. Mine system

    SciTech Connect

    Stoppani, B.R.

    1983-10-04

    A mine system comprises at least one mining machine adapted to haul itself, in a reciprocating manner, along a mineral face, and a control box housing means to control the various electrical elements of the machine(s), the box being located in a mine roadway at one end of the mineral face along which the machine(s) is reciprocating, and the box being electrically connected to a terminal box housed in a body of the machine(s).

  18. Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

  19. In Silico Mining for Antimalarial Structure-Activity Knowledge and Discovery of Novel Antimalarial Curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Viira, Birgit; Gendron, Thibault; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Cojean, Sandrine; Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre; Maes, Louis; Maran, Uko; Loiseau, Philippe M; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic tropical disease that kills around 600,000 patients every year. The emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) represents a significant public health threat, indicating the urgent need for new effective compounds to reverse ACT resistance and cure the disease. For this, extensive curation and homogenization of experimental anti-Plasmodium screening data from both in-house and ChEMBL sources were conducted. As a result, a coherent strategy was established that allowed compiling coherent training sets that associate compound structures to the respective antimalarial activity measurements. Seventeen of these training sets led to the successful generation of classification models discriminating whether a compound has a significant probability to be active under the specific conditions of the antimalarial test associated with each set. These models were used in consensus prediction of the most likely active from a series of curcuminoids available in-house. Positive predictions together with a few predicted as inactive were then submitted to experimental in vitro antimalarial testing. A large majority from predicted compounds showed antimalarial activity, but not those predicted as inactive, thus experimentally validating the in silico screening approach. The herein proposed consensus machine learning approach showed its potential to reduce the cost and duration of antimalarial drug discovery. PMID:27367660

  20. 78 FR 45051 - Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... June 20, 2013 (78 FR 37404). The document amended SBA's Small Business Size Regulations by increasing.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-14712 appearing on page 37404 in the June 20, 2013 Federal Register... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG44 Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for...